WorldWideScience

Sample records for alternative feedstocks program

  1. Alternative Feedstocks Program Technical and Economic Assessment: Thermal/Chemical and Bioprocessing Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozell, J. J.; Landucci, R.

    1993-07-01

    This resource document on biomass to chemicals opportunities describes the development of a technical and market rationale for incorporating renewable feedstocks into the chemical industry in both a qualitative and quantitative sense. The term "renewable feedstock?s" can be defined to include a huge number of materials such as agricultural crops rich in starch, lignocellulosic materials (biomass), or biomass material recovered from a variety of processing wastes.

  2. Survey of alternative feedstocks for biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summarized will be results obtained from the production of biodiesel from several alternative feedstocks with promising agronomic characteristics. Such feedstocks include camelina (Camelina sativa L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.), and meadowfoam (Limnanth...

  3. Mixed Culture PHA Production With Alternating Feedstocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, C.S.S.; Duque, A.F.; Carvalho, Gilda

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are a sustainable alternative to conventional plastics that can be obtained from industrial wastes/by-products using mixed microbial cultures (MMC). MMC PHA production is commonly carried out in a 3-stage process consisting of an acidogenic stage, a PHA producing culture...... selection stage, and a PHA production phase. This work investigated the performance robustness and microbial population dynamics of a PHA producing MMC when subjected to a feedstock shift, mimicking a seasonal feedstock scenario, from cheese whey to sugar cane molasses. Research was focused...... on the possibility of tailoring PHA through the selection of feedstock: either using feedstocks with different compositions or mixing two or more fermented substrates with different organic acid profiles. This knowledge is expected to contribute to the extended application of this promising process for resource...

  4. Alternative, Renewable and Novel Feedstocks for Producing Chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2007-07-01

    Vision2020 and ITP directed the Alternative, Renewable and Novel Feedstocks project to identify industrial options and to determine the work required to make alternative, renewable and novel feedstock options attractive to the U.S. chemicals industry. This report presents the Alternative, Renewable and Novel Feedstocks project findings which were based on a technology review and industry workshop.

  5. Survey of Alternative Feedstocks for Commodity Chemical Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL; Robinson, Sharon M [ORNL

    2008-02-01

    The current high prices for petroleum and natural gas have spurred the chemical industry to examine alternative feedstocks for the production of commodity chemicals. High feedstock prices have driven methanol and ammonia production offshore. The U.S. Chemical Industry is the largest user of natural gas in the country. Over the last 30 years, alternatives to conventional petroleum and natural gas feedstocks have been developed, but have limited, if any, commercial implementation in the United States. Alternative feedstocks under consideration include coal from unconventional processing technologies, such as gasification and liquefaction, novel resources such as biomass, stranded natural gas from unconventional reserves, and heavy oil from tar sands or oil shale. These feedstock sources have been evaluated with respect to the feasibility and readiness for production of the highest volume commodity chemicals in the United States. Sources of organic compounds, such as ethanol from sugar fermentation and bitumen-derived heavy crude are now being primarily exploited for fuels, rather than for chemical feedstocks. Overall, government-sponsored research into the use of alternatives to petroleum feedstocks focuses on use for power and transportation fuels rather than for chemical feedstocks. Research is needed to reduce cost and technical risk. Use of alternative feedstocks is more common outside the United States R&D efforts are needed to make these processes more efficient and less risky before becoming more common domestically. The status of alternative feedstock technology is summarized.

  6. Biodiesel from non-food alternative feed-stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a potential feedstock for biodiesel (BD) production, Jojoba oil was extracted from Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis L.) plant seeds that contained around 50-60 wt.%, which were explored as non-food alternative feedstocks. Interestingly, Jojoba oil has long-chain wax esters and is not a typical trigly...

  7. Biodiesel From Alternative Oilseed Feedstocks: Production and Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared and evaluated as potential biodiesel fuels from several alternative oilseed feedstocks, which included camelina (Camelina sativa L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), field mustard (Brassica juncea L.), field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.), and meadowfoam (L...

  8. Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A.

    2001-02-09

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program (BFDP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a mission-oriented program of research and analysis whose goal is to develop and demonstrate cropping systems for producing large quantities of low-cost, high-quality biomass feedstocks for use as liquid biofuels, biomass electric power, and/or bioproducts. The program specifically supports the missions and goals of DOE's Office of Fuels Development and DOE's Office of Power Technologies. ORNL has provided technical leadership and field management for the BFDP since DOE began energy crop research in 1978. The major components of the BFDP include energy crop selection and breeding; crop management research; environmental assessment and monitoring; crop production and supply logistics operational research; integrated resource analysis and assessment; and communications and outreach. Research into feedstock supply logistics has recently been added and will become an integral component of the program.

  9. Fatty acid profile of 25 alternative lipid feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study reports the fatty acid profiles of 25 alternative lipid feedstocks for the production of bio-based fuels and chemicals. Lipids were extracted using hexane from oil-bearing seeds using a standard Soxhlet apparatus. Fatty acid profiles were measured using gas chromatography-flame ionization...

  10. Biomass Program 2007 Program Peer Review - Feedstock Platform Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-10-27

    This document discloses the comments provided by a review panel at the U.S. Department of Energy Office of the Biomass Program Peer Review held on November 15-16, 2007 in Baltimore, MD and the Feedstock Platform Portfolio Peer Review held on August 21st through 23rd in Washington D.C.

  11. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCann, Laura [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2011 U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Feedstock Platform Review meeting.

  12. Biofuels Feedstock Development Program annual progress report for 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, L.L.; Cushman, J.H.; Ehrenshaft, A.R.; McLaughlin, S.B.; McNabb, W.A.; Ranney, J.W.; Tuskan, G.A.; Turhollow, A.F.

    1992-12-01

    This report provides an overview of the ongoing research funded in 1991 by the Department of Energy's Biofuels Feedstock Development Program (BFDP). The BFDP is managed by the Environmental Sciences Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and encompasses the work formerly funded by the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program and the Herbaceous Energy Crops Program. The combined program includes crop development research on both woody and herbaceous energy crop species, cross-cutting energy and environmental analysis and integration, and information management activities. Brief summaries of 26 different program activities are included in the report.

  13. Biofuels Feedstock Development Program annual progress report for 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, L.L.; Cushman, J.H.; Ehrenshaft, A.R.; McLaughlin, S.B.; McNabb, W.A.; Ranney, J.W.; Tuskan, G.A.; Turhollow, A.F.

    1992-12-01

    This report provides an overview of the ongoing research funded in 1991 by the Department of Energy`s Biofuels Feedstock Development Program (BFDP). The BFDP is managed by the Environmental Sciences Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and encompasses the work formerly funded by the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program and the Herbaceous Energy Crops Program. The combined program includes crop development research on both woody and herbaceous energy crop species, cross-cutting energy and environmental analysis and integration, and information management activities. Brief summaries of 26 different program activities are included in the report.

  14. An alternative feedstock of corn meal for industrial fuel ethanol production: delignified corncob residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Cheng; Zhang, Jian; Xiao, Lin; Bao, Jie

    2014-09-01

    Delignified corncob residue is an industrial solid waste from xylose production using corncob as feedstock. In this study, delignified corncob residue was used as the feedstock of ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) and the optimal fermentation performance was investigated under various operation conditions. The ethanol titer and yield reached 75.07 g/L and 89.38%, respectively, using a regular industrial yeast strain at moderate cellulase dosage and high solids loading. A uniform SSF temperature of 37°C at both prehydrolysis and SSF stages was tested. The fermentation performance and cost of delignified corncob residue and corn meal was compared as feedstock of ethanol fermentation. The result shows that the delignified corncob residue is competitive to corn meal as ethanol production feedstock. The study gives a typical case to demonstrate the potential of intensively processed lignocellulose as the alternative feedstock of corn meal for industrial fuel ethanol production.

  15. Biofuels feedstock development program. Annual progress report for 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, L.L.; Cushman, J.H.; Ehrenshaft, A.R.; McLaughlin, S.B.; McNabb, W.A.; Martin, S.A.; Ranney, J.W.; Tuskan, G.A.; Turhollow, A.F.

    1993-11-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Biofuels Feedstock Development Program (BFDP) leads the nation in the research, development, and demonstration of environmentally acceptable and commercially viable dedicated feedstock supply systems (DFSS). The purpose of this report is to highlight the status and accomplishments of the research that is currently being funded by the BFDP. Highlights summarized here and additional accomplishments are described in more detail in the sections associated with each major program task. A few key accomplishments include (1) development of a methodology for doing a cost-supply analysis for energy crops and the application of that methodology to looking at possible land use changes around a specific energy facility in East Tennessee; (2) preliminary documentation of the relationship between woody crop plantation locations and bird diversity at sites in the Midwest, Canada, and the pacific Northwest supplied indications that woody crop plantations could be beneficial to biodiversity; (3) the initiation of integrated switchgrass variety trials, breeding research, and biotechnology research for the south/southeast region; (4) development of a data base management system for documenting the results of herbaceous energy crop field trials; (5) publication of three issues of Energy Crops Forum and development of a readership of over 2,300 individuals or organizations as determined by positive responses on questionnaires.

  16. Waste Cooking Oil as an Alternate Feedstock for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rafiqul Islam

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available As crude oil price reach a new high, the need for developing alternate fuels has become acute. Alternate fuels should be economically attractive in order to compete with currently used fossil fuels. In this work, biodiesel (ethyl ester was prepared from waste cooking oil collected from a local restaurant in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Ethyl alcohol with sodium hydroxide as a catalyst was used for the transesterification process. The fatty acid composition of the final biodiesel esters was determined by gas chromatography. The biodiesel was characterized by its physical and fuel properties including density, viscosity, acid value, flash point, cloud point, pour point, cetane index, water and sediment content, total and free glycerin content, diglycerides and monoglycerides, phosphorus content and sulfur content according to ASTM standards. The viscosity of the biodiesel ethyl ester was found to be 5.03 mm2/sec at 40oC. The viscosity of waste cooking oil measured in room temperature (at 21° C was 72 mm2/sec. From the tests, the flash point was found to be 164oC, the phosphorous content was 2 ppm, those of calcium and magnesium were 1 ppm combined, water and sediment was 0 %, sulfur content was 2 ppm, total acid number was 0.29 mgKOH/g, cetane index was 61, cloud point was -1oC and pour point was -16oC. Production of biodiesel from waste cooking oils for diesel substitute is particularly important because of the decreasing trend of economical oil reserves, environmental problems caused due to fossil fuel use and the high price of petroleum products in the international market.

  17. Waste cooking oil as an alternate feedstock for biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chhetri, A. B.; Rafiqul Islam, M. [Civil and Resources Engineering Dalhousie University, Room D510, 1360 Barrington St., Box 1000, Halifax, N.S. B3J 2X4 (Canada); Watts, K. Ch. [Process Engineering, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Box 1000, Halifax, N.S. B3J 2X4 (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    As crude oil price reach a new high, the need for developing alternate fuels has become acute. Alternate fuels should be economically attractive in order to compete with currently used fossil fuels. In this work, biodiesel (ethyl ester) was prepared from waste cooking oil collected from a local restaurant in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Ethyl alcohol with sodium hydroxide as a catalyst was used for the transesterification process. The fatty acid composition of the final biodiesel esters was determined by gas chromatography. The biodiesel was characterized by its physical and fuel properties including density, viscosity, acid value, flash point, cloud point, pour point, cetane index, water and sediment content, total and free glycerin content, diglycerides and monoglycerides, phosphorus content and sulfur content according to ASTM standards. The viscosity of the biodiesel ethyl ester was found to be 5.03 mm{sup 2}/sec at 40 {sup o}C. The viscosity of waste cooking oil measured in room temperature (at 21 {sup o}C) was 72 mm{sup 2}/sec. From the tests, the flash point was found to be 164 {sup o}C, the phosphorous content was 2 ppm, those of calcium and magnesium were 1 ppm combined, water and sediment was 0 %, sulfur content was 2 ppm, total acid number was 0.29 mg KOH/g, cetane index was 61, cloud point was -1 {sup o}C and pour point was -16 {sup o}C. Production of biodiesel from waste cooking oils for diesel substitute is particularly important because of the decreasing trend of economical oil reserves, environmental problems caused due to fossil fuel use and the high price of petroleum products in the international market. (author)

  18. Plant oils as feedstock alternatives to petroleum - A short survey of potential oil crop platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Anders S

    2009-06-01

    Our society is highly depending on petroleum for its activities. About 90% is used as an energy source for transportation and for generation of heat and electricity and the remaining as feedstocks in the chemical industry. However, petroleum is a finite source as well as causing several environmental problems such as rising carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. Petroleum therefore needs to be replaced by alternative and sustainable sources. Plant oils and oleochemicals derived from them represent such alternative sources, which can deliver a substantial part of what is needed to replace the petroleum used as feedstocks. Plant derived feedstock oils can be provided by two types of oil qualities, multi-purpose and technical oils. Multi-purpose oils represent oil qualities that contain common fatty acids and that can be used for both food and feedstock applications. Technical oil qualities contain unusual fatty acids with special properties gained from their unique molecular structure and these types of oils should only be used for feedstock applications. As a risk mitigation strategy in the selection of crops, technical oil qualities should therefore preferably be produced by oil crop platforms dedicated for industrial usage. This review presents a short survey of oil crop platforms to be considered for either multi-purpose or technical oils production. Included among the former platforms are some of the major oil crops in cultivation such as oil palm, soybean and rapeseed. Among the later are those that could be developed into dedicated industrial platforms such as crambe, flax, cotton and Brassica carinata. The survey finishes off by highlighting the potential of substantial increase in plant oil production by developing metabolic flux platforms, which are starch crops converted into oil crops.

  19. New technologies and alternative feedstocks in petrochemistry and refining. Preprints of the conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, S.; Jess, A.; Lercher, J.A.; Lichtscheidl, J.; Marchionna, M. (eds.)

    2013-11-01

    This international conference paper provides a forum for chemists and engineers from refinery, petrochemistry and the chemical industry as well as from academia to discuss new technologies and alternative feedstocks in petrochemistry and refining with the special topic ''Shale Gas, Heavy Oils and Coal''. 23 Lectures and 18 Posters are presented. All papers are analyzed for the ENERGY database.

  20. 76 FR 64839 - Sugar Program; Feedstock Flexibility Program for Bioenergy Producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Commodity Credit Corporation 7 CFR Part 1435 RIN 0560-AH86 Sugar Program; Feedstock.... SUMMARY: The Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) proposes regulations with respect to general sugar... Secretary to purchase sugar to produce bioenergy as a means to avoid forfeitures of sugar loan...

  1. Fatty acid composition as a tool for screening alternative feedstocks for production of biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatty acid (FA) composition was used as a screening tool for the selection of feedstocks high in monounsaturated content for evaluation as biodiesel. The feedstocks were ailanthus (Ailanthus altissima), anise (Pimpinella anisum), arugula (Eruca vesicaria), camelina (Camelina sativa), coriander (Cori...

  2. Evaluation of Indian milkweed (Calotropis gigantea) seed oil as alternative feedstock for biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calotropis gigantea (Indian milkweed) is a common plant in Asia that grows as a weed on open waste ground. Flowering and fruiting take place throughout the year. In this study, Indian milkweed oil was evaluated as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. The oil was extracted from Indian milk...

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Oxide Feedstock Powders for the Fuel Cycle R&D Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voit, Stewart L [ORNL; Vedder, Raymond James [ORNL; Johnson, Jared A [ORNL

    2010-09-01

    Nuclear fuel feedstock properties, such as physical, chemical, and isotopic characteristics, have a significant impact on the fuel fabrication process and, by extension, the in-reactor fuel performance. This has been demonstrated through studies with UO{sub 2} spanning greater than 50 years. The Fuel Cycle R&D Program with The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy has initiated an effort to develop a better understanding of the relationships between oxide feedstock, fresh fuel properties, and in-reactor fuel performance for advanced mixed oxide compositions. Powder conditioning studies to enable the use of less than ideal powders for ceramic fuel pellet processing are ongoing at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and an understanding of methods to increase the green density and homogeneity of pressed pellets has been gained for certain powders. Furthermore, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is developing methods for the co-conversion of mixed oxides along with techniques to analyze the degree of mixing. Experience with the fabrication of fuel pellets using co-synthesized multi-constituent materials is limited. In instances where atomically mixed solid solutions of two or more species are needed, traditional ceramic processing methods have been employed. Solution-based processes may be considered viable synthesis options, including co-precipitation (AUPuC), direct precipitation, direct-conversion (Modified Direct Denitration or MDD) and internal/external gelation (sol-gel). Each of these techniques has various advantages and disadvantages. The Fiscal Year 2010 feedstock development work at ORNL focused on the synthesis and characterization of one batch of UO{sub x} and one batch of U{sub 80}Ce{sub 20}O{sub x}. Oxide material synthesized at ORNL is being shipped to LANL for fuel fabrication process development studies. The feedstock preparation was performed using the MDD process which utilizes a rotary kiln to continuously thermally denitrate double

  4. Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seed oil as an alternative feedstock for the production of biodiesel in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schinas, P.; Karavalakis, G.; Davaris, C.; Anastopoulos, G.; Karonis, D.; Zannikos, F.; Stournas, S.; Lois, E. [Laboratory of Fuels and Lubricants Technology, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Iroon Polytechniou Street, Zografou Campus, 157 80 Athens (Greece)

    2009-01-15

    In recent years, the acceptance of fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel) as a substitute to petroleum diesel has rapidly grown in Greece. The raw materials for biodiesel production in this country mainly include traditional seed oils (cotton seed oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil and rapeseed oil) and used frying oils. In the search for new low-cost alternative feedstocks for biodiesel production, this study emphasizes the evaluation of pumpkin seed oil. The experimental results showed that the oil content of pumpkin seeds was remarkably high (45%). The fatty acid profile of the oil showed that is composed primarily of linoleic, oleic, palmitic and stearic acids. The oil was chemically converted via an alkaline transesterification reaction with methanol to methyl esters, with a yield nearly 97.5 wt%. All of the measured properties of the produced biodiesel met the current quality requirements according to EN 14214. Although this study showed that pumpkin oil could be a promising feedstock for biodiesel production within the EU, it is rather difficult for this production to be achieved on a large scale. (author)

  5. Characterization of Lignocellulosic Fruit Waste as an Alternative Feedstock for Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymundo Sánchez Orozco

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available To use a new potential lignocellulosic bioresource that has several attractive agroenergy features for ethanol production, the chemical characterization and compositional analysis of several fruit wastes were carried out. Orange bagasse and orange, banana, and mango peels were studied to determine their general biomass characteristics and to provide detailed analysis of their chemical structures. Semiquantitative analysis showed that the components for each fruit waste differed with respect to chemical composition. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR of the residual biomass showed the presence of various functional groups – aldehydes or ketones (C=O, alkanes (C-C, and ethers (C-O-C. Even water molecules were detected, indicating the complex nature of the feedstocks. The concentrations of total sugars ranged between 0.487 g∙g−1 and 0.591 g∙g−1 of dry weight biomass. The thermal profiles (TG-DSC of the residual fruits occurred in at least three steps, which are associated with the main components (hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin. The decomposition by thermal analysis was completed at around 600 °C and was influenced by the nature of the component ratio.

  6. Investigation in the use of plasma arc welding and alternative feedstock delivery method in additive manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhuzaim, Abdullah F.

    productivity and maintain smaller grain size and therefore higher hardness and strength in the deposit. It was concluded that the use of PAW welding with small shot as feedstock could offer a means to additively manufacture components with reasonably small geometric details.

  7. Room Temperature Ionic Liquids as Green Solvent Alternatives in the Metathesis of Oleochemical Feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya A. Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important areas of green chemistry is the application of environmentally friendly solvents in catalysis and synthesis. Conventional organic solvents pose a threat to the environment due to the volatility, highly flammability, toxicity and carcinogenic properties they exhibit. The recently emerged room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs are promising green solvent alternatives to the volatile organic solvents due to their ease of reuse, non-volatility, thermal stability and ability to dissolve a variety of organic and organometallic compounds. This review explores the use of RTILs as green solvent media in olefin metathesis for applications in the oleochemical industry.

  8. Biohydrogen production from lignocellulosic feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chieh-Lun; Lo, Yung-Chung; Lee, Kuo-Shing; Lee, Duu-Jong; Lin, Chiu-Yue; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2011-09-01

    Due to the recent energy crisis and rising concern over climate change, the development of clean alternative energy sources is of significant interest. Biohydrogen produced from cellulosic feedstock, such as second generation feedstock (lignocellulosic biomass) and third generation feedstock (carbohydrate-rich microalgae), is a promising candidate as a clean, CO2-neutral, non-polluting and high efficiency energy carrier to meet the future needs. This article reviews state-of-the-art technology on lignocellulosic biohydrogen production in terms of feedstock pretreatment, saccharification strategy, and fermentation technology. Future developments of integrated biohydrogen processes leading to efficient waste reduction, low CO2 emission and high overall hydrogen yield is discussed.

  9. School Counseling in Disciplinary Alternative Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Patrick R.; Lambie, Glenn W.

    2013-01-01

    Disciplinary alternative education programs (DAEP) service many students; however, limited literature is published for school counselors working in these schools. Therefore, this manuscript provides a conceptual foundation for counselors working with students attending DAEPs. Specifically, the manuscript (a) reviews the types of alternative…

  10. Fourth annual report to Congress, Federal Alternative Motor Fuels Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This annual report to Congress presents the current status of the alternative fuel vehicle programs being conducted across the country in accordance with the Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988. These programs, which represent the most comprehensive data collection effort ever undertaken on alternative fuels, are beginning their fifth year. This report summarizes tests and results from the fourth year.

  11. The Role of Alternative Programming in College Radio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauls, Samuel J.

    College radio is quite often viewed as the true alternative to commercial radio. However, what is alternative radio and how does college radio factor into the ideal? To further understand this concept, this paper focuses on the role of alternative programming in college radio. Areas discussed include alternative radio as a non-mainstream form of…

  12. EPAct Alternative Fuel Transporation Program - State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets: Frequently Asked Questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-03-01

    Factsheet answering frequently asked questions about the U.S. Department of Energy's Alternative Fuel Transportation Program (the Program) that implements provisions of Titles III–V of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct). Answers to questions that are frequently asked about the Program by managers of state government and alternative fuel provider fleets are provided in the factsheet.

  13. 45 CFR 400.69 - Alternative RCA programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative RCA programs. 400.69 Section 400.69 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR... Assistance § 400.69 Alternative RCA programs. A State that determines that a public/private RCA program or...

  14. 7 CFR 58.141 - Alternate quality control program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alternate quality control program. 58.141 Section 58... Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Milk § 58.141 Alternate quality control program. When a plant has in operation an acceptable quality program, at the producer level, which is approved by...

  15. Lignocellulosic feedstock resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rooney, T.

    1998-09-01

    This report provides overall state and national information on the quantity, availability, and costs of current and potential feedstocks for ethanol production in the United States. It characterizes end uses and physical characteristics of feedstocks, and presents relevant information that affects the economic and technical feasibility of ethanol production from these feedstocks. The data can help researchers focus ethanol conversion research efforts on feedstocks that are compatible with the resource base.

  16. Retrenchment: Alternatives for Teacher Education Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossack, Sharon W.; Greenberg, Barry

    1983-01-01

    Faced with declining enrollments, teacher education institutions must seek new approaches that either maintain present programs or encourage new programs in nontraditional areas. Results of a study of retrenchment strategies presently in use are reported. Implications for the quality of teacher education programs are also discussed. (PP)

  17. Spaces of Difference: The Contradictions of Alternative Educational Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadeboncoeur, Jennifer A.

    2009-01-01

    Drawing upon the concept of "thirdspace" (Soja 1996), this article extends sociocultural theorizations of space in relation to alternative educational programs: programs designed to re-engage youth who have been pushed out of mainstream schools. Snapshots of educational programs, provided by ethnographic research gathered in the United…

  18. Spaces of Difference: The Contradictions of Alternative Educational Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadeboncoeur, Jennifer A.

    2009-01-01

    Drawing upon the concept of "thirdspace" (Soja 1996), this article extends sociocultural theorizations of space in relation to alternative educational programs: programs designed to re-engage youth who have been pushed out of mainstream schools. Snapshots of educational programs, provided by ethnographic research gathered in the United States,…

  19. Alternative Living Kidney Donation Programs Boost Genetically Unrelated Donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalie A. Poldervaart

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Donor-recipient ABO and/or HLA incompatibility used to lead to donor decline. Development of alternative transplantation programs enabled transplantation of incompatible couples. How did that influence couple characteristics? Between 2000 and 2014, 1232 living donor transplantations have been performed. In conventional and ABO-incompatible transplantation the willing donor becomes an actual donor for the intended recipient. In kidney-exchange and domino-donation the donor donates indirectly to the intended recipient. The relationship between the donor and intended recipient was studied. There were 935 conventional and 297 alternative program transplantations. There were 66 ABO-incompatible, 68 domino-paired, 62 kidney-exchange, and 104 altruistic donor transplantations. Waiting list recipients (n=101 were excluded as they did not bring a living donor. 1131 couples remained of whom 196 participated in alternative programs. Genetically unrelated donors (486 were primarily partners. Genetically related donors (645 were siblings, parents, children, and others. Compared to genetically related couples, almost three times as many genetically unrelated couples were incompatible and participated in alternative programs (P<0.001. 62% of couples were genetically related in the conventional donation program versus 32% in alternative programs (P<0.001. Patient and graft survival were not significantly different between recipient programs. Alternative donation programs increase the number of transplantations by enabling genetically unrelated donors to donate.

  20. Evaluating Alternative High Schools: Program Evaluation in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinds, Drew Samuel Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Alternative high schools serve some of the most vulnerable students and their programs present a significant challenge to evaluate. Determining the impact of an alternative high school that serves mostly at-risk students presented a significant research problem. Few studies exist that dig deeper into the characteristics and strategies of…

  1. Evolution and Development of Effective Feedstock Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garold Gresham; Rachel Emerson; Amber Hoover; Amber Miller; William Bauer; Kevin Kenney

    2013-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy promotes the production of a range of liquid fuels and fuel blend stocks from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass collection, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. The 2012 feedstock logistics milestone demonstrated that for high-yield areas that minimize the transportation distances of a low-density, unstable biomass, we could achieve a delivered cost of $35/ton. Based on current conventional equipment and processes, the 2012 logistics design is able to deliver the volume of biomass needed to fulfill the 2012 Renewable Fuel Standard’s targets for ethanol. However, the Renewable Fuel Standard’s volume targets are continuing to increase and are expected to peak in 2022 at 36 billion gallons. Meeting these volume targets and achieving a national-scale biofuels industry will require expansion of production capacity beyond the 2012 Conventional Feedstock Supply Design Case to access diverse available feedstocks, regardless of their inherent ability to meet preliminary biorefinery quality feedstock specifications. Implementation of quality specifications (specs), as outlined in the 2017 Design Case – “Feedstock Supply System Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels” (in progress), requires insertion of deliberate, active quality controls into the feedstock supply chain, whereas the 2012 Conventional Design only utilizes passive quality controls.

  2. Hawaii alternative fuels utilization program. Phase 3, final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, C.M.; Staackmann, M.

    1996-08-01

    The Hawaii Alternative Fuels Utilization Program originated as a five-year grant awarded by the US Department of Energy (USDOE) to the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) of the University of Hawaii at Manoa. The overall program included research and demonstration efforts aimed at encouraging and sustaining the use of alternative (i.e., substitutes for gasoline and diesel) ground transportation fuels in Hawaii. Originally, research aimed at overcoming technical impediments to the widespread adoption of alternative fuels was an important facet of this program. Demonstration activities centered on the use of methanol-based fuels in alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). In the present phase, operations were expanded to include flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) which can operate on M85 or regular unleaded gasoline or any combination of these two fuels. Additional demonstration work was accomplished in attempting to involve other elements of Hawaii in the promotion and use of alcohol fuels for ground transportation in Hawaii.

  3. 78 FR 31535 - Assistive Technology Alternative Financing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... slate of applicants developed for the Assistive Technology (AT) Alternative Financing Program (AFP) in... AT AFP. The notice indicated that the absolute and competitive preference priorities in the notice.... L. 113-006). In FY 2012, we received 15 applications for AT AFP grants and made three grant...

  4. Considerations for the Placement of Youth with EBD in Alternative Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Trent; Bartuska, Jamie

    2010-01-01

    Alternative education programs (also called alternative schools) first appeared on the American landscape in the 1960s. Despite the proliferation of these programs, a generic description of what constitutes an alternative education program, historically, has been elusive. Most alternative education programs have the general criteria of serving…

  5. Biomass Feedstock National User Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Bioenergy research at the Biomass Feedstock National User Facility (BFNUF) is focused on creating commodity-scale feed-stocks from native biomass that meet the needs...

  6. Quality Practices of Alternative Education Learning Environments as Represented in Virginia's Individual Student Alternative Education Plan (ISAEP) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltman, Doris R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze a prominent alternative education practice in the Commonwealth of Virginia through an analysis of the Virginia Department of Education's Individual Student Alternative Education Plan (ISAEP) program and the alternative education environment it provides. This was a descriptive study using non-experimental…

  7. ISO New England: Results of Ancillary Service Pilot Programs, Alternative Technology Regulation Pilot Program and Demand Response Reserves Pilot Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowell, Jon [ISO New England, Holyoke, MA (United States); Yoshimura, Henry [ISO New England, Holyoke, MA (United States)

    2011-10-26

    This PowerPoint presentation compares performance of pilot program assets and generation resources in alternative technology regulation and demand response reserves for flywheels and residential electric thermal storage.

  8. Coal conversion and biomass conversion: Volume 1: Final report on USAID (Agency for International Development)/GOI (Government of India) Alternate Energy Resources and Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulkarni, A.; Saluja, J.

    1987-06-30

    The United States Agency for International Development (AID), in joint collaboration with the Government of India (GOI), supported a research and development program in Alternate Energy Resources during the period March 1983 to June 1987. The primary emphasis of this program was to develop new and advanced coal and biomass conversion technologies for the efficient utilization of coal and biomass feedstocks in India. This final ''summary'' report is divided into two volumes. This Report, Volume I, covers the program overview and coal projects and Volume II summarizes the accomplishments of the biomass projects. The six projects selected in the area of coal were: Evaluation of the Freeboard Performance in a Fluidized-Bed Combustor; Scale-up of AFBC boilers; Rheology, Stability and Combustion of Coal-Water Slurries; Beneficiation of Fine Coal in Dense Medium Cyclones; Hot Gas Cleanup and Separation; and Cold Gas Cleanup and Separation.

  9. Alternation-Trading Proofs, Linear Programming, and Lower Bounds

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    A fertile area of recent research has demonstrated concrete polynomial time lower bounds for solving natural hard problems on restricted computational models. Among these problems are Satisfiability, Vertex Cover, Hamilton Path, Mod6-SAT, Majority-of-Majority-SAT, and Tautologies, to name a few. The proofs of these lower bounds follow a certain proof-by-contradiction strategy that we call alternation-trading. An important open problem is to determine how powerful such proofs can possibly be. We propose a methodology for studying these proofs that makes them amenable to both formal analysis and automated theorem proving. We prove that the search for better lower bounds can often be turned into a problem of solving a large series of linear programming instances. Implementing a small-scale theorem prover based on this result, we extract new human-readable time lower bounds for several problems. This framework can also be used to prove concrete limitations on the current techniques.

  10. 78 FR 45253 - National Toxicology Program Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Toxicology Program Scientific Advisory Committee... (ICCVAM), the National Toxicology Program (NTP) Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative... . Dated: July 17, 2013. John R. Bucher, Associate Director, National Toxicology Program. BILLING CODE...

  11. Two alternating motor programs drive navigation in Drosophila larva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, Subhaneil; Shen, Konlin; Klein, Mason; Tang, Anji; Kane, Elizabeth; Gershow, Marc; Garrity, Paul; Samuel, Aravinthan D T

    2011-01-01

    When placed on a temperature gradient, a Drosophila larva navigates away from excessive cold or heat by regulating the size, frequency, and direction of reorientation maneuvers between successive periods of forward movement. Forward movement is driven by peristalsis waves that travel from tail to head. During each reorientation maneuver, the larva pauses and sweeps its head from side to side until it picks a new direction for forward movement. Here, we characterized the motor programs that underlie the initiation, execution, and completion of reorientation maneuvers by measuring body segment dynamics of freely moving larvae with fluorescent muscle fibers as they were exposed to temporal changes in temperature. We find that reorientation maneuvers are characterized by highly stereotyped spatiotemporal patterns of segment dynamics. Reorientation maneuvers are initiated with head sweeping movement driven by asymmetric contraction of a portion of anterior body segments. The larva attains a new direction for forward movement after head sweeping movement by using peristalsis waves that gradually push posterior body segments out of alignment with the tail (i.e., the previous direction of forward movement) into alignment with the head. Thus, reorientation maneuvers during thermotaxis are carried out by two alternating motor programs: (1) peristalsis for driving forward movement and (2) asymmetric contraction of anterior body segments for driving head sweeping movement.

  12. Towards a Typology of Alternative Education Programs: A Compilation of Elements from the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, Laudan Y.

    This paper synthesizes existing knowledge, definitions, and themes about alternative education programs, based on a review of literature and reports, focusing on common terminologies to characterize the various kinds of alternative education programs. It seeks to develop a typology of existing alternative education by focusing on certain common…

  13. Development of a lactic acid production process using lignocellulosic biomass as feedstock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, van der E.C.

    2016-01-01

    The availability of crude oil is finite. Therefore, an alternative feedstock has to be found for the production of fuels and plastics. Lignocellulose is such an alternative feedstock. It is present in large quantities in agricultural waste material such as sugarcane bagasse. In this PhD thesis, lign

  14. Alternatives Analysis for the Resumption of Transient Testing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Nelson

    2013-11-01

    An alternatives analysis was performed for resumption of transient testing. The analysis considered eleven alternatives – including both US international facilities. A screening process was used to identify two viable alternatives from the original eleven. In addition, the alternatives analysis includes a no action alternative as required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The alternatives considered in this analysis included: 1. Restart the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT) 2. Modify the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) which includes construction of a new hot cell and installation of a new hodoscope. 3. No Action

  15. Interweaving Teaching and Emotional Support for Novice Special Educators in Alternative Certification Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Leila Ansari; Zetlin, Andrea G.

    2013-01-01

    As the shortage of special education teachers has led to increasing numbers of teacher candidates enrolled in alternative certification programs, there is a need to provide systematic mentoring and coaching. The relationship between support providers and novice teachers enrolled in an alternative certification program in a diverse, urban…

  16. Bibliography on Biomass Feedstock Research: 1978-2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushman, J.H.

    2003-05-01

    This report provides bibliographic citations for more than 1400 reports on biomass feedstock development published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and its collaborators from 1978 through 2002. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is engaged in analysis of biomass resource supplies, research on the sustainability of feedstock resources, and research on feedstock engineering and infrastructure. From 1978 until 2002, Oak Ridge National Laboratory also provided technical leadership for the U.S. Department of Energy's Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program (BFDP), which supported research to identify and develop promising energy crops. This bibliography lists reports published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and by its collaborators in the BFDP, including graduate student theses and dissertations.

  17. Biomass Feedstock and Conversion Supply System Design and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Jacob J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Roni, Mohammad S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lamers, Patrick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cafferty, Kara G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) supports the U.S. Department of Energy’s bioenergy research program. As part of the research program INL investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. A series of reports were published between 2000 and 2013 to demonstrate the feedstock logistics cost. Those reports were tailored to specific feedstock and conversion process. Although those reports are different in terms of conversion, some of the process in the feedstock logistic are same for each conversion process. As a result, each report has similar information. A single report can be designed that could bring all commonality occurred in the feedstock logistics process while discussing the feedstock logistics cost for different conversion process. Therefore, this report is designed in such a way that it can capture different feedstock logistics cost while eliminating the need of writing a conversion specific design report. Previous work established the current costs based on conventional equipment and processes. The 2012 programmatic target was to demonstrate a delivered biomass logistics cost of $55/dry ton for woody biomass delivered to fast pyrolysis conversion facility. The goal was achieved by applying field and process demonstration unit-scale data from harvest, collection, storage, preprocessing, handling, and transportation operations into INL’s biomass logistics model. The goal of the 2017 Design Case is to enable expansion of biofuels production beyond highly productive resource areas by breaking the reliance of cost-competitive biofuel production on a single, low-cost feedstock. The 2017 programmatic target is to supply feedstock to the conversion facility that meets the in-feed conversion process quality specifications at a total logistics cost of $80/dry T. The $80/dry T. target encompasses total delivered feedstock cost, including both grower payment and logistics costs, while meeting all conversion in-feed quality targets

  18. Development and Delivery of an FCS Alternative Program for License

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Marsha L.

    2013-01-01

    When addressing the ongoing shortage of family and consumer sciences (FCS) teachers, it is important to accommodate those unable to follow a traditional college program. This article describes a program that is beneficial to practicing professionals; it utilizes technology to aid in effective communication and efficiency of content delivery.…

  19. Survey and Analysis of Alternative Education Programs II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosley, Nathaniel S.; Hosley, Jessica; Thein, Myint

    2009-01-01

    This research is a follow up to a similar study published by the Center for Rural Pennsylvania in 2003 in which researchers examined alternative education policies and practices among Pennsylvania school districts. The current study extended the previous research to include information on the perceptions of administrators and teachers on the…

  20. EPAct Alternative Fuel Transportation Program: State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleet Compliance Annual Report; Fleet Compliance Results for MY 2013/FY 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    Compliance rates for covered state government and alternative fuel provider fleets under the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program (pursuant to the Energy Policy Act or EPAct) are reported for MY 2013/FY 2014 in this publication.

  1. Prevention-Related Research Targeting African American Alternative Education Program Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carswell, Steven B.; Hanlon, Thomas E.; Watts, Amy M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a program of research that examined the background, planning, implementation, and evaluation of an after-school preventive intervention program within an ongoing urban alternative education program targeting African American students referred to the school because of their problematic behavior in regular schools. The…

  2. CARBONIZER TESTS WITH LAKELAND FEEDSTOCKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Lu; Z. Fan; R. Froehlich; A. Robertson

    2003-09-01

    Research has been conducted under United States Department of Energy Contract (USDOE) DE-AC21-86MC21023 to develop a new type of coal-fired plant for electric power generation. This new type of plant, called a Second Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion Plant (2nd Gen PFB), offers the promise of efficiencies greater than 48%, with both emissions and a cost of electricity that are significantly lower than those of conventional pulverized coal-fired (PC) plants with wet flue gas desulfurization/scrubbers. The 2nd Gen PFB plant incorporates the partial gasification of coal in a carbonizer, the combustion of carbonizer char in a pressurized circulating fluidized (PCFB) bed boiler, and the combustion of carbonizer syngas in a topping combustor to achieve gas turbine inlet temperatures of 2700 F and higher. Under the USDOE Clean Coal V Demonstration Plant Program, a nominal 260 MWe plant demonstrating 2nd Gen PFB technology has been proposed for construction at the McIntosh Power Plant of the City of Lakeland, Florida. In the September-December 1997 time period, four test runs were conducted in Foster Wheeler's 12-inch diameter carbonizer pilot plant in Livingston New Jersey to ascertain carbonizer performance characteristics with the Kentucky No. 9 coal and Florida limestone proposed for use in the Lakeland plant. The tests were of a short-term nature exploring carbonizer carbon conversions, sulfur capture efficiencies and syngas alkali levels. The tests were successful; observed carbonizer performance was in agreement with predictions and no operating problems, attributed to the planned feedstocks, were encountered. The results of the four test runs are reported herein.

  3. 76 FR 64124 - Implementation of the Alternative Dispute Resolution Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... company? 4. In addition to ``abuse of the program,'' should there be other restrictions to entry into the... can gain entry into ADAMS, which provides text and image files of the NRC's public documents. If...

  4. ON ALTERNATIVE OPTIMAL SOLUTIONS TO QUASIMONOTONIC PROGRAMMING WITH LINEAR CONSTRAINTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Shengjia

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the nonlinear programming problem with quasimonotonic ( both quasiconvex and quasiconcave )objective function and linear constraints is considered. With the decomposition theorem of polyhedral sets, the structure of optimal solution set for the programming problem is depicted. Based on a simplified version of the convex simplex method,the uniqueness condition of optimal solution and the computational procedures to determine all optimal solutions are given, if the uniqueness condition is not satisfied. An illustrative example is also presented.

  5. An Alternative Preparation Program in Early Childhood Education: Description and Comparison of Alternative and Traditional Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, Edith; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Students entering traditional and nontraditional early childhood teacher preparation programs completed the Educational Attitudes Inventory, Teacher Certification Test, and Efficacy Scale. Mean personal teaching efficacy scores were significantly higher for traditional students. Nontraditional students tended to be males, minorities, and older,…

  6. 77 FR 31756 - Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternative Rating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... opportunity to make an oral presentation at the public meeting. Such persons may hand-deliver requests to... feedback on how manufacturers currently develop any simulation tools to ensure they are applicable across a... with the Building Technologies Program in advance. When necessary, the request to give an...

  7. Wellness-Based Group Counseling with Elementary Students in Disciplinary Alternative Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perepiczka, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    Students in Disciplinary Alternative Education Programs (DAEPs) have a variety of behavior problems. School counselors in DAEPs have the opportunity to address emotional, academic, social, and behavioral concerns of these students. Counselors may use the strengths-based wellness paradigm as an alternative method of addressing students' holistic…

  8. Factors Associated with Student Resilience: Perspectives of Graduates of Alternative Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolkoski, Staci M.; Bullock, Lyndal M.; Gable, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Many students with emotional and behavioral disorders placed in alternative education settings lack resilience and are likely to experience failure in school and beyond without carefully designed intervention programs. Although researchers have examined both resilience in children and youth and their placement in alternative education settings,…

  9. Alternative Break Programs: From Isolated Enthusiasm to Best Practices--The Haiti Compact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacitelli, Jill; Barwick, Molly; Doerr, Elizabeth; Porter, Melody; Sumka, Shoshanna

    2013-01-01

    Alternative break programs, which are short-term service-learning trips, immerse students in direct service and education, resulting in the creation of active citizens who think and act critically around the root causes of social issues. Over the last 20 years, domestic alternative breaks have effectively created strong community partnerships and…

  10. Alternate space shuttle concepts study: Design requirements and phased programs evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    A study to determine program and technical alternatives to the design of the space shuttle orbiter is described. The alternatives include a phased approach, involving orbiter development and operation with an expendable booster for an interim period, as well as design variations to the basic vehicle. The space shuttle orbiter configurations and predicted performance parameters are presented.

  11. 76 FR 77716 - Alternate Passenger Rail Service Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... bidder's verifiable cost projections for their proposed service, rather than the historical Amtrak costs... quantitative measurements of the cost and benefit streams expected to result from the adoption of a rule... pay for any such operating subsidy, or any other costs arising from the proposed pilot program;...

  12. Virginia Alternative Assessment Program: Implementation Manual (Revised 2002).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virginia State Dept. of Education, Richmond.

    The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act requires state programs to adopt standards for all children, including those with disabilities, in state and district-wide assessments with the provision of appropriate and necessary accommodations. For students who cannot participate in state and district-wide assessments, the law requires that…

  13. Economic feasibility of alternative utility-sponsored weatherization programs in Maryland. Phase 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubinsky, R.; Thibodeau, T.

    1983-05-01

    The economic costs and benefits of sponsoring weatherization programs are presented for Maryland utilities that operate Residential Conservation Service (RCS) programs. The key issues investigated are: the potential for cost-effective weatherization in each utility's service area; the savings in fuel and generating capacity that are likely to result from alternative weatherization programs; and the cost-effectiveness of such programs to each utility and to its ratepayers.

  14. Certification Report: Army Aviation Alternative Fuels Certification Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    fuel purchase for this program was through a qualified Defense Logistics Agency – Energy (DLA-E) vendor utilizing funding provided to the Research...Performance Related Fuel Properties Characteristics) • Hot Surface Ignition Under Turbulent Airflow • Thermal Expansion • Ignition Energy ... Fuel Acquisition The Defense Logistics Agency – Energy (DLA-E) provided a key role in the acquisition of the ATJ fuel required to complete the

  15. 2009 Feedstocks Platform Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, John [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program‘s Feedstock platform review meeting, held on April 8–10, 2009, at the Grand Hyatt Washington, Washington, D.C.

  16. ALTERNATIVES TO IMPROVE HYBRIDIZATION EFFICIENCY IN Eucalyptus BREEDING PROGRAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselaine Cristina Pereira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple and quick hybridization procedures and ways to keep pollen grains viable for long periods are sought in plant breeding programs to provide greater work flexibility. The presentstudy was carried out to assess the efficiency of pollinations made shortly after flower emasculationand the viability of stored pollen from Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus urophylla clones cultivated in Northwestern Minas Gerais State. Controlled pollinations were carried out at zero, one,three, five and seven days after emasculation. Hybridization efficiency was assessed by thepercentage of viable fruits, number of seeds produced per fruit, percentage of viable seeds and also bycytological observation of the pollen development along the style. Flower buds from clones of the twospecies were collected close to anthesis to assess the viability of pollen grain storage. Pollen was thencollected and stored in a freezer (-18oC for 1, 2 and 3 months. Pollen assessed was carried out by invitro and in vivo germination tests. The efficiency of the pollinations varied with their delay and alsobetween species. The greatest pollination efficiency was obtained when they were carried out on thethird and fifth day after emasculation, but those performed simultaneously with emasculationproduced enough seeds to allow this practice in breeding programs. The decrease in pollen viabilitywith storage was not sufficiently significant to preclude the use of this procedure in artificialhybridization.

  17. 7 CFR 58.149 - Alternate quality control programs for dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alternate quality control programs for dairy products... FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection... for dairy products. (a) When a plant has in operation an acceptable quality control program which...

  18. Does Teaching Experience Matter? Examining Biology Teachers' Prior Knowledge for Teaching in an Alternative Certification Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrichsen, Patricia J.; Abell, Sandra K.; Pareja, Enrique M.; Brown, Patrick L.; Lankford, Deanna M.; Volkmann, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    Alternative certification programs (ACPs) have been proposed as a viable way to address teacher shortages, yet we know little about how teacher knowledge develops within such programs. The purpose of this study was to investigate prior knowledge for teaching among students entering an ACP, comparing individuals with teaching experience to those…

  19. An Alternative School Teacher Education Program. Teacher Education Forum; Volume 3, Number 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Robert D.

    The Alternative School Teacher Education Program, cooperatively developed by participating public schools and Indiana University, is a field-based masters degree program designed for completion in one calendar year. Students spend two summers on campus pursuing graduate course work. During the academic year between these summers, students earn…

  20. Yoga for Stress Management Program as a Complementary Alternative Counseling Resource in a University Counseling Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, Colleen K.

    2006-01-01

    A Yoga for Stress Management Program (YSMP) that served as a complementary alternative therapy resource was successfully implemented at a midsize, predominantly undergraduate university. It was offered in addition to traditional treatments for student mental health. Counselors, Residence Life staff, and faculty found that the program was useful…

  1. Student Learning Outcomes: Transition from Traditional to Online in an Alternative Teacher Certification Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Sharon M.; Wickersham, Leah E.

    2008-01-01

    Results from the survey of faculty who teach in an alternative teacher certification program provided a framework to develop a holistic programmatic assessment of student learning outcomes for a newly developed online program. Research highlights the process of determining student learning outcomes identification and appropriate courses and best…

  2. Effect of hydrotreating FCC feedstock on product distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar-Sotelo, D.; Maya-Yescas, R.; Mariaca-Dominguez, E.; Rodriguez-Salomon, S.; Aguilera-Lopez, M. [Programa de Tratamiento de Crudo Maya, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Lazaro Cardenas 152, San Bartolo Atepehuacan, 07730 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-11-24

    The demand of low-sulfur fuels has been increasing during the last 20 years due to environmental concerns about SO{sub x} emissions from processing plants and engines. Due to its high contribution to the gasoline pool, hydrotreating fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) feedstock offers several advantages, such as the increase of conversion and yields of gasoline and liquid-phase gas, meanwhile sulfur content in fuels is diminished. However, there are more important factors to be considered when hydrotreating FCC feedstock.In this work, two FCC feedstocks, typical and hydrotreated, were converted in a microactivity test (MAT) reactor, as described by ASTM D-3907-92, at different severities and using two commercial catalysts. Feedstock conversion, product yields and selectivity to valuable products were compared against industrial-scale results predicted by using commercial FCC simulation software. Expected increment in conversion and yield to profitable products was observed when hydrotreated feedstock was used; simulation results follow acceptably MAT results. Some recommendations are given for looking closely at the overall behavior (riser-regenerator), using reliable kinetic models and simulation programs.

  3. Complementary and alternative medicine education in dietetics programs: existent but not consistent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickery, Connie E; Cotugna, Nancy

    2006-06-01

    This descriptive survey was undertaken to determine the inclusion of complementary and alternative medicine topics into undergraduate didactic dietetics education. The response rate was 34% (n=92) of all directors (N=273) of didactic and coordinated dietetics programs. Almost all programs (n=81; 88%) include complementary and alternative medicine instruction in some form in their curricula; the majority of content is integrated into already existing nutrition courses. The nutrition courses most often containing complementary and alternative medicine were medical nutrition therapy, advance nutrition, and community nutrition. Topics addressed were varied and included herbal supplements, functional foods, Native-American healing, and quackery in medicine. Most directors indicated that complementary and alternative medicine is an important component of dietetics education, yet many indicated that students are not being adequately prepared in this area. The mean familiarity of program directors with complementary and alternative medicine competencies for dietetics practice was 6 on a scale, with 10 being the most knowledgeable. Respondents also identified whether complementary and alternative medicine and dietary supplement competencies were being addressed at all in their curricula. Lack of time seemed to be the limiting factor to incorporation of complementary and alternative medicine topics into the curricula. Evidence from this study indicates that current curricula are providing some complementary and alternative medicine content, but a core of knowledge is lacking. The complementary and alternative medicine competencies for entry-level dietetics practice anticipated by 2006 will be useful in helping educators adequately meet the needs of future professionals in the area of complementary and alternative medicine.

  4. Engineered plant biomass feedstock particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, James H.; Lanning, David N.; Broderick, Thomas F.

    2011-10-11

    A novel class of flowable biomass feedstock particles with unusually large surface areas that can be manufactured in remarkably uniform sizes using low-energy comminution techniques. The feedstock particles are roughly parallelepiped in shape and characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially with the grain direction and defining a substantially uniform distance along the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L. The particles exhibit a disrupted grain structure with prominent end and surface checks that greatly enhances their skeletal surface area as compared to their envelope surface area. The L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers. The W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers. The L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top surfaces characterized by some surface checking between longitudinally arrayed fibers. The feedstock particles are manufactured from a variety of plant biomass materials including wood, crop residues, plantation grasses, hemp, bagasse, and bamboo.

  5. Alternative fuels for vehicles fleet demonstration program. Final report, volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Alternative Fuels for Vehicles Fleet Demonstration Program (AFV-FDP) was a multiyear effort to collect technical data for use in determining the costs and benefits of alternative-fuel vehicles (AFVs) in typical applications in New York State. This report, Volume 2, includes 13 appendices to Volume 1 that expand upon issues raised therein. Volume 1 provides: (1) Information about the purpose and scope of the AFV-FDP; (2) A summary of AFV-FDP findings organized on the basis of vehicle type and fuel type; (3) A short review of the status of AFV technology development, including examples of companies in the State that are active in developing AFVs and AFV components; and (4) A brief overview of the status of AFV deployment in the State. Volume 3 provides expanded reporting of AFV-FDP technical details, including the complete texts of the brochure Garage Guidelines for Alternative Fuels and the technical report Fleet Experience Survey Report, plus an extensive glossary of AFV terminology. The appendices cover a wide range of issues including: emissions regulations in New York State; production and health effects of ozone; vehicle emissions and control systems; emissions from heavy-duty engines; reformulated gasoline; greenhouse gases; production and characteristics of alternative fuels; the Energy Policy Act of 1992; the Clean Fuel Fleet Program; garage design guidelines for alternative fuels; surveys of fleet managers using alternative fuels; taxes on conventional and alternative fuels; and zero-emission vehicle technology.

  6. Final priority; Rehabilitation Services Administration--Assistive Technology Alternative Financing Program. Final priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-14

    The Assistant Secretary for Special Education and Rehabilitative Services announces a priority under the Assistive Technology Alternative Financing Program administered by the Rehabilitation Services Administration (RSA). The Assistant Secretary may use this priority for competitions in fiscal year (FY) 2014 and later years. This priority is designed to ensure that the Department funds high-quality assistive technology (AT) alternative financing programs (AFPs) that meet rigorous standards in order to enable individuals with disabilities to access and acquire assistive technology devices and services necessary to achieve education, community living, and employment goals.

  7. Alternative-fueled truck demonstration natural gas program: Caterpillar G3406LE development and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    In 1990, the California Energy Commission, the South Coast Air Quality Management District, and the Southern California Gas Company joined together to sponsor the development and demonstration of compressed natural gas engines for Class 8 heavy-duty line-haul trucking applications. This program became part of an overall Alternative-Fueled Truck Demonstration Program, with the goal of advancing the technological development of alternative-fueled engines. The demonstration showed natural gas to be a technically viable fuel for Class 8 truck engines.

  8. Bureaucratic discretion and alternative teacher certification: understanding program variation in Missouri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethan B. Heinen

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Alternative teacher certification literature has contributed significantly to our understanding of this approach to teacher preparation. However, this literature has more often than not treated alternative teacher certification programs (ATCPs as a black box, thus ignoring program heterogeneity. The present study examines how and why five ATCPs in Missouri have evolved in different ways. To understand this variation and its potential significance for researchers and practitioners, we use political science literature on bureaucratic discretion to understand programs' varied responses within the same state policy context. Using a multiple case study design, we present two key findings. First, external factors such as the state's regulatory approach, programs' relationships with school districts, and programs' relationship with external partners shape program coordinators' perceptions of their discretionary authority. Second, within an environment of limited regulation, programs responded to these external factors in ways that shaped programs in dramatically different ways. These approaches ranged from formal partnerships with large urban school districts and philanthropic funders to alternative certification programs that were at least partially blended with existing undergraduate and post baccalaureate teacher preparation programs. In our discussion, we explore how state attempts to widen the discretionary space between the rules may have allowed external interests (e.g., school districts, and external funders to backfill that space in ways that limit the potential for programs to provide high quality preparation experiences. This study explores these consequences and trade offs in order to inform policy makers and practitioners who are concerned with fostering innovative and creative ways to prepare high quality teachers.

  9. COMPUTATIONAL RESOURCES FOR BIOFUEL FEEDSTOCK SPECIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buell, Carol Robin [Michigan State University; Childs, Kevin L [Michigan State University

    2013-05-07

    While current production of ethanol as a biofuel relies on starch and sugar inputs, it is anticipated that sustainable production of ethanol for biofuel use will utilize lignocellulosic feedstocks. Candidate plant species to be used for lignocellulosic ethanol production include a large number of species within the Grass, Pine and Birch plant families. For these biofuel feedstock species, there are variable amounts of genome sequence resources available, ranging from complete genome sequences (e.g. sorghum, poplar) to transcriptome data sets (e.g. switchgrass, pine). These data sets are not only dispersed in location but also disparate in content. It will be essential to leverage and improve these genomic data sets for the improvement of biofuel feedstock production. The objectives of this project were to provide computational tools and resources for data-mining genome sequence/annotation and large-scale functional genomic datasets available for biofuel feedstock species. We have created a Bioenergy Feedstock Genomics Resource that provides a web-based portal or clearing house for genomic data for plant species relevant to biofuel feedstock production. Sequence data from a total of 54 plant species are included in the Bioenergy Feedstock Genomics Resource including model plant species that permit leveraging of knowledge across taxa to biofuel feedstock species.We have generated additional computational analyses of these data, including uniform annotation, to facilitate genomic approaches to improved biofuel feedstock production. These data have been centralized in the publicly available Bioenergy Feedstock Genomics Resource (http://bfgr.plantbiology.msu.edu/).

  10. Programs and Practices for Special Education Students in Alternative Education Settings. Research to Practice Brief. Volume 6, Issue 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, Deanne; Bullis, Michael; Todis, Bonnie; Waintrup, Miriam; Atkins, Trent

    2007-01-01

    This brief presents a review of alternative education programs targeting students with disabilities. Because there is no clear picture of how alternative education programs operate, specifically regarding youth with disabilities, the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) funded three grants to develop a…

  11. An Alternating Direction Method for Convex Quadratic Second-Order Cone Programming with Bounded Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Xuewen Mu; Yaling Zhang

    2015-01-01

    An alternating direction method is proposed for convex quadratic second-order cone programming problems with bounded constraints. In the algorithm, the primal problem is equivalent to a separate structure convex quadratic programming over second-order cones and a bounded set. At each iteration, we only need to compute the metric projection onto the second-order cones and the projection onto the bound set. The result of convergence is given. Numerical results demonstrate that our method is ...

  12. Feedstock storage, handling and processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egg, R.P.; Coble, C.G.; Engler, C.R. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering); Lewis, D.H. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology)

    1993-01-01

    This paper is a review of the technology and research covering components of a methane from biomass system between the field and the digester. It deals primarily with sorghum as a feedstock and focuses on research conducted by the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station. Subjects included in this paper are harvesting, hay storage, ansiling, materials handling, pumping and hydraulic characteristics, hydraulic conductivity, pressure/density relationship, and biological pretreatment. This paper is not a comprehensive design manual; however, design equations and coefficients for sorghum are presented, where available, along with references describing the development and application of design models. (author)

  13. The Effects of a Violence Prevention Program on Alternative High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triplett, Carla A.

    2013-01-01

    This study addressed the effectiveness of a violence prevention program in an inner-city alternative school setting. The researcher, an administrator at the school, used a prepackaged curriculum targeting lessons on violence in an eight-week study with the entire school population. Students met bi-weekly with a team of two teachers to review and…

  14. Perceptions of Educators Regarding the Effectiveness of Alternative Programs in a Southern State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Lydia

    2015-01-01

    At-risk students are engaged in dangerous behaviors that lead them to become involved in the juvenile justice system and cause the feeling of low self-worth. This eventually causes at-risk youths to drop out of school and engage in detrimental behaviors that meddle in their academic success. The alternative education program provides these at-risk…

  15. Piloting a Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT) Infused Skills Group in a Disciplinary Alternative Education Program (DAEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricard, Richard J.; Lerma, Eunice; Heard, Courtney C. C.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the impact of a 4-week skills group intervention based on the principles of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) with a sample of adolescents attending a Disciplinary Alternative Education Program. This article provides a session-by-session overview of activities adapted from DBT-specified training modules of mindfulness,…

  16. Correlates of Risky Sexual Activity for Urban African American Youth in an Alternative Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carswell, Steven B.; Hanlon, Thomas E.; Watts, Amy M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the link between developmental risk and protective factors and risky sexual activity among 222 urban African American youth attending an alternative education program (AEP) because of problematic behavior. Self-report information provided by these AEP participants revealed that, for the risk and protective factors examined, the…

  17. Total Program Efficacy: A Comparison of Traditionally and Alternatively Certified Agriculture Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Dennis W.; Ricketts, John C.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine agriculture teachers' perceived levels of efficacy as they relate to managing the total program of agricultural education, both for traditionally and alternatively certified teachers. The constructs used in this study were technical content, FFA/leadership development/SAE, teaching and learning, and…

  18. Using Feasible Direction to Find All Alternative Extreme Optimal Points for Linear Programming Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. F. Tantawy

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We presented a feasible direction method to find all optimal extreme points for the linear programming problem. Our method depends on the conjugate gradient projection method starting with an initial point we generate a sequence of feasible directions towards all alternative extremes.

  19. Evaluation of 2+2 Alternative Teacher Performance Appraisal Program in Shanxi, People's Republic of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiping

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the impact of the 2+2 Alternative Teacher Performance Appraisal System that has been implemented in Shanxi province in China. A mixed research design was used to evaluate the program. Six high schools and a total of 78 teachers (13 teachers in each school) in Shanxi province were selected. Three of the schools participated in…

  20. Accelerating the commercialization on new technologies. [free market operation of federal alternate energy sources programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, T. J.; Nawrocki, P. M.

    1978-01-01

    It is suggested that federal programs for hastening the adoption of alternative energy sources must operate within the free market structure. Five phases of the free market commercialization process are described. Federal role possibilities include information dissemination and funding to stimulate private sector activities within these five phases, and federally sponsored procedures for accelerating commercialization of solar thermal small power systems are considered.

  1. Army Gas-Cooled Reactor Systems program: alternator final design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1964-06-01

    The development and testing of a demonstration brushless alternator for the ML-1 mobile nuclear power plant is described. The brushless concept was selected after it became apparent that a conventional power generator could not satisfy the ML-1 weight and size requirements. The demonstration alternator fabricated and tested under this program did not meet all performance specifications; the efficiency was low and the unit could not be operated for significant periods of time without overheating. However, a large body of useful data was accumulated during the extensive development program. Of special interest are data on the rotor and stator design, the cooling requirements and on the distribution of eddy current losses. Analysis of the data indicates that a brushless alternator, only slightly larger and heavier than was specified for the ML-1, could be developed with a modest additional effort.

  2. EPAct Alternative Fuel Transportation Program: State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleet Compliance Annual Report, Fleet Compliance Results for MY 2014/ FY 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-04-01

    This annual report of the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program, which ensures compliance with DOE regulations covering state government and alternative fuel provider fleets pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), as amended, provides fleet compliance results for manufacturing year 2014 / fiscal year 2015.

  3. Hydropyrolysis of biomass to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Final report. Biomass Alternative-Fuels Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, R K; Bodle, W W; Yuen, P C

    1982-10-01

    The ojective of the study is to provide a process design and cost estimates for a biomass hydropyrolysis plant and to establish its economic viability for commercial applications. A plant site, size, product slate, and the most probable feedstock or combination of feedstocks were determined. A base case design was made by adapting IGT's HYFLEX process to Hawaiian biomass feedstocks. The HYFLEX process was developed by IGT to produce liquid and/or gaseous fuels from carbonaceous materials. The essence of the process is the simultaneous extraction of valuable oil and gaseous products from cellulosic biomass feedstocks without forming a heavy hard-to-handle tar. By controlling rection time and temperature, the product slate can be varied according to feedstock and market demand. An optimum design and a final assessment of the applicability of the HYFLEX process to the conversion of Hawaiian biomass was made. In order to determine what feedstocks could be available in Hawaii to meet the demands of the proposed hydropyrolysis plant, various biomass sources were studied. These included sugarcane and pineapple wastes, indigenous and cultivated trees and indigenous and cultivated shrubs and grasses.

  4. Exchange program. Alternative options for purchase of environmentally friendly vehicles in Stockholm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rader Olsson, Amy [Inregia AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Elam, N. [Atrax Energi AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1999-11-01

    The city of Stockholm has decided to exchange 300 of its gasoline-driven vehicles for vehicles which emit fewer hazardous pollutants. A vehicle exchange program is being developed based on analyses which describe the driving patterns of Stockholm's vehicles, alternative fuel technology status, and financing alternatives. This report comprises the first two analyses, that of Stockholm's fleet driving patterns and alternative fuel technology options. The report has four major sections: * a technical analysis of the status of certain fuels and vehicles, including prognoses of availability in Sweden and the future development potential of each. (electric, biogas, ethanol, RME), * a driving study, which identifies those vehicles currently in Stockholm's fleet which could be exchanged for alternatively-fueled vehicles, * an analysis of five purchase package alternatives, and * a location analysis, which describes the accessibility of vehicles in each alternative to alternative fuel refueling facilities in Stockholm. Given current prices and availability of the alternative fuels and vehicles studied, we recommend a high share of electric and biogas vehicles for purchases during 1997. The cost-effectiveness of different vehicle types in their reduction of various hazardous pollutants, may however change dramatically as prices and availability of vehicles changes and the market for alternative fuels develops. Accessibility to alternative fuel refueling facilities is adequate in Stockholm, though not always ideal. To improve the accessibility of biogas vehicles further, we suggest a third biogas refueling facility in the city's northeastern area (Ropsten, Vaertahamnen). If MFO chooses to purchase a significant number of diesel passenger vehicles to be driven on RME; we propose that a facility in the northeastern area would improve accessibility more than another facility in southern Stockholm.

  5. Crisis intervention program: an alternative to inpatient psychiatric treatment for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Samuel H

    2002-03-01

    This study evaluated the impact of a Crisis Intervention program as an alternative to use of psychiatric treatment beds for young children. A multidisciplinary community-based intervention was utilized, including family therapy, psychiatric intervention, and school consultations. The impact of the service was evaluated in relation to the use of psychiatric treatment beds by the population of children eligible for Medicaid or uninsured. In comparison to an historical control group, the program resulted in a 23% reduction in the use of psychiatric treatment beds. A cost-minimization analysis indicated that in addition to the program reducing the use of psychiatric treatment beds, the cost of treatment was also slightly reduced.

  6. Innovative Program Targets Five Common Pain Syndromes With Non-opioid Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    To combat the prescription opioid problem, St. Joseph's Healthcare System in Paterson, NJ, has developed a new program that gives providers options they can use to effectively alleviate pain without resorting to highly addictive medication. Launched in January 2016 in the ED at St. Joseph's Regional Medical Center (SJRMC), the Alternatives to Opioids (ALTO) program utilizes protocols that primarily target five common conditions: renal colic, sciatica, headaches, musculoskeletal pain, and extremity fractures. Administrators say they have successfully treated more than 300 patients under the new program, and they see ALTO as a model other hospitals can duplicate. Among the alternative therapies called for in the ALTO program are trigger point injections, nitrous oxide, and ultrasound-guided nerve blocks. ALTO medications are specifically chosen because of how they affect the pain receptor sites for each different pain syndrome. While the primary goal of the program is to use alternatives to opioids when-ever possible, another important underlying goal is to stop acute pain from becoming chronic. While ALTO therapies typically take a bit longer to deliver than prescribing opioids, administrators note that this has not adversely affected patient flow in the ED.

  7. The role of microalgae as biodiesel feedstock in a tropical setting: Economics, agro-energy competitiveness, and potential impacts on regional agricultural feedstock production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, Matias G.

    The objective of this study is to obtain a realistic evaluation of the potential role of microalgae as a biodiesel feedstock in a tropical setting. First, microalgae economics are estimated, including the detailed design of a 400 ha microalgae open pond production farm together with the microalgae biomass and crude oil production costs calculations. Sensitivity analysis and a stochastic evaluation of the microalgae venture chances for profit are also included. Next, microalgae potential for biodiesel production is compared to traditional oil crops such as soybeans and African palm. This comparison is performed using the Northeast Region (NER) of Brazil as background. Six potential biodiesel feedstock sources produced in the NER and microalgae are compared considering selected environmental, economic and social sustainability indicators. Finally, in the third chapter, the study proposes a cropland allocation model for the NER. The model aims to offer insights to the decision maker concerning biofuel development strategies and their impact on regional agricultural feedstock production. In the model, cropland allocation among three agriculture feedstock sectors, namely staple food, commodity export and biofuel is optimized through the use of the multiple objective technique referred to as compromise programming (CP). Our results indicate a projected microalgae total production cost of R 78,359 ha-1 (US43,533), which has a breakdown as follows: R 34,133 ha-1 (US18,963) for operating costs and R 44,226 ha-1 (US24,570) for overhead (ownership) costs. Our stochastic analysis indicates that microalgae production under the conditions assumed in the baseline scenario of this study has a 0% chance to present a positive NPV for a microalgae crude oil price of R 1.86. This price corresponds to an international oil price around US 77 bbl-1. To obtain a reasonable investment return (IRR = 12%) from the microalgae farm, an international oil price as high as US 461 bbl-1 is

  8. Low Cost and Energy Efficient Methods for the Manufacture of Semi-Solid (SSM) Feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diran Apelian; Qingyue Pan; Makhlouf Makhlouf

    2005-11-07

    The SSM Consortium (now ACRC) at WPI has been carrying out fundamental, pre-competitive research in SSM for several years. Current and past research (at WPI) has generated many results of fundamental and applied nature, which are available to the SSM community. These include materials characterization, yield stress effects, alloy development, rheological properties, process modeling/simulation, semi-solid slurry formation, etc. Alternative method to produce SSM slurries at lower processing costs and with reduced energy consumption is a critical need. The production of low cost SSM feedstock will certainly lead to a dramatic increase in the tonnage of castings produced by SSM, and will provide end users such as the transportation industry, with lighter, cheaper and high performance materials. In this program, the research team has addressed three critical issues in semi-solid processing. They are: (1) Development of low cost, reliable slurry-on-demand approaches for semi-solid processing; (2) Application of the novel permanent grain refining technology-SiBloy for the manufacture of high-quality SSM feedstock, and (3) Development of computational and modeling tools for semi-solid processing to enhance SSM process control. Salient results from these studies are summarized and detailed in our final technical report.

  9. Development Of Educational Programs In Renewable And Alternative Energy Processing: The Case Of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svirina, Anna; Shindor, Olga; Tatmyshevsky, Konstantin

    2014-12-01

    The paper deals with the main problems of Russian energy system development that proves necessary to provide educational programs in the field of renewable and alternative energy. In the paper the process of curricula development and defining teaching techniques on the basis of expert opinion evaluation is defined, and the competence model for renewable and alternative energy processing master students is suggested. On the basis of a distributed questionnaire and in-depth interviews, the data for statistical analysis was obtained. On the basis of this data, an optimization of curricula structure was performed, and three models of a structure for optimizing teaching techniques were developed. The suggested educational program structure which was adopted by employers is presented in the paper. The findings include quantitatively estimated importance of systemic thinking and professional skills and knowledge as basic competences of a masters' program graduate; statistically estimated necessity of practice-based learning approach; and optimization models for structuring curricula in renewable and alternative energy processing. These findings allow the establishment of a platform for the development of educational programs.

  10. Degradation of cellulosic biomass and its subsequent utilization for the production of chemical feedstocks. Progress report, December 1, 1978-February 28, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, D.I.C.; Cooney, C.L.; Demain, A.L.; Gomez, R.F.; Sinskey, A.J.

    1979-02-01

    The ongoing progress of a coordinated research program aimed at optimizing the biodegradation of cellulosic biomass to ethanol and chemical feedstocks is summarized. Growth requirements and genetic manipulations of clostridium thermocellum for selection of high cellulose producers are reported. The enzymatic activity of the cellulase produced by these organisms was studied. The soluble sugars produced from hydrolysis were analyzed. Increasing the tolerance of C. thermocellum to ethanol during liquid fuel production, increasing the rate of product formation, and directing the catabolism to selectively achieve high ethanol concentrations with respect to other products were studied. Alternative substrates for C. thermocellum were evaluated. Studies on the utilization of xylose were performed. Single stage fermentation of cellulose using mixed cultures of C. thermocellum and C. thermosaccharolyticum were studied. The study of the production of chemical feedstocks focused on acrylic acid, acetone/butanol, acetic acid, and lactic acid.

  11. Description of the Prometheus Program Alternator/Thruster Integration Laboratory (ATIL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baez, Anastacio N.; Birchenough, Arthur G.; Lebron-Velilla, Ramon C.; Gonzalez, Marcelo C.

    2005-01-01

    The Project Prometheus Alternator Electric Thruster Integration Laboratory's (ATIL) primary two objectives are to obtain test data to influence the power conversion and electric propulsion systems design, and to assist in developing the primary power quality specifications prior to system Preliminary Design Review (PDR). ATIL is being developed in stages or configurations of increasing fidelity and complexity in order to support the various phases of the Prometheus program. ATIL provides a timely insight of the electrical interactions between a representative Permanent Magnet Generator, its associated control schemes, realistic electric system loads, and an operating electric propulsion thruster. The ATIL main elements are an electrically driven 100 kWe Alternator Test Unit (ATU), an alternator controller using parasitic loads, and a thruster Power Processing Unit (PPU) breadboard. This paper describes the ATIL components, its development approach, preliminary integration test results, and current status.

  12. The youth alternative solutions program: evaluating a hospital-based intervention for adolescent substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Whitney N; D'Errico, Ellen; Morrell, Holly E R

    2015-01-01

    Issues of alcohol and drug use are more pronounced during adolescence than at any other period of the lifespan and represent a significant public health concern in the United States. As a result, there is currently a need for research on developmentally appropriate interventions for adolescent substance use (SU). Nurses and other mental health professionals working with adolescents need effective evidenced-based programs to refer clients having issues with SU. The current pilot study evaluated the effectiveness of the Youth Alternative Solutions Program, a hospital-based intervention program at a Level I trauma center in Southern California that partners with community stakeholders to accomplish its goals. A sample of 27 adolescents was recruited from August 2010 until October 2011. Twenty-seven total participants completed both pretest and posttest questionnaires; 14 of these participants also completed follow-up data collection. Results indicated a significant increase in negative alcohol outcome expectancies between the three study time points. More comprehensive studies of the Youth Alternative Solutions Program should be conducted in the future to determine the utility of hospital-based SU interventions and to provide evidence of the program's long-term effects.

  13. Engineered plant biomass feedstock particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, James H [Federal Way, WA; Lanning, David N [Federal Way, WA; Broderick, Thomas F [Lake Forest Park, WA

    2012-04-17

    A new class of plant biomass feedstock particles characterized by consistent piece size and shape uniformity, high skeletal surface area, and good flow properties. The particles of plant biomass material having fibers aligned in a grain are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain and defining a substantially uniform distance along the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L. In particular, the L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers, the W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers, and the L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces. The L.times.W surfaces of particles with L/H dimension ratios of 4:1 or less are further elaborated by surface checking between longitudinally arrayed fibers. The length dimension L is preferably aligned within 30.degree. parallel to the grain, and more preferably within 10.degree. parallel to the grain. The plant biomass material is preferably selected from among wood, agricultural crop residues, plantation grasses, hemp, bagasse, and bamboo.

  14. Using Populus as a lignocellulosic feedstock for bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porth, Ilga; El-Kassaby, Yousry A

    2015-04-01

    Populus species along with species from the sister genus Salix will provide valuable feedstock resources for advanced second-generation biofuels. Their inherent fast growth characteristics can particularly be exploited for short rotation management, a time and energy saving cultivation alternative for lignocellulosic feedstock supply. Salicaceae possess inherent cell wall characteristics with favorable cellulose to lignin ratios for utilization as bioethanol crop. We review economically important traits relevant for intensively managed biofuel crop plantations, genomic and phenotypic resources available for Populus, breeding strategies for forest trees dedicated to bioenergy provision, and bioprocesses and downstream applications related to opportunities using Salicaceae as a renewable resource. Challenges need to be resolved for every single step of the conversion process chain, i.e., starting from tree domestication for improved performance as a bioenergy crop, bioconversion process, policy development for land use changes associated with advanced biofuels, and harvest and supply logistics associated with industrial-scale biorefinery plants using Populus as feedstock. Significant hurdles towards cost and energy efficiency, environmental friendliness, and yield maximization with regards to biomass pretreatment, saccharification, and fermentation of celluloses and the sustainability of biorefineries as a whole still need to be overcome.

  15. A framework program for the teaching of alternative methods (replacement, reduction, refinement) to animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshian, Mardas; Akbarsha, Mohammad A; Blaauboer, Bas; Caloni, Francesca; Cosson, Pierre; Curren, Rodger; Goldberg, Alan; Gruber, Franz; Ohl, Frauke; Pfaller, Walter; van der Valk, Jan; Vinardell, Pilar; Zurlo, Joanne; Hartung, Thomas; Leist, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Development of improved communication and education strategies is important to make alternatives to the use of animals, and the broad range of applications of the 3Rs concept better known and understood by different audiences. For this purpose, the Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing in Europe (CAAT-Europe) together with the Transatlantic Think Tank for Toxicology (t(4)) hosted a three-day workshop on "Teaching Alternative Methods to Animal Experimentation". A compilation of the recommendations by a group of international specialists in the field is summarized in this report. Initially, the workshop participants identified the different audience groups to be addressed and also the communication media that may be used. The main outcome of the workshop was a framework for a comprehensive educational program. The modular structure of the teaching program presented here allows adaptation to different audiences with their specific needs; different time schedules can be easily accommodated on this basis. The topics cover the 3Rs principle, basic research, toxicological applications, method development and validation, regulatory aspects, case studies and ethical aspects of 3Rs approaches. This expert consortium agreed to generating teaching materials covering all modules and providing them in an open access online repository.

  16. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume 1. Program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    This report summarizes the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP): its background, its studies, and its results. This introductory chapter traces the growth of the issue of nuclear weapons proliferation and the organization and objectives of NASAP. Chapter 2 summarizes the program's assessments, findings and recommendations. Each of Volumes II-VII reports on an individual assessment (Volume II: Proliferation Resistance; Volume III: Resources and Fuel Cycle Facilities; Volume IV: Commercial Potential; Volume V: Economics and Systems Analysis; Volume VI: Safety and Environmental Considerations for Licensing; Volume VII: International Perspectives). Volume VIII (Advanced Concepts) presents a combined assessment of several less fully developed concepts, and Volume IX (Reactor and Fuel Cycle Descriptions) provides detailed descriptions of the reactor and fuel-cycle systems studied by NASAP.

  17. Evaluation of the Courtlink Auto Crime Prevention Program (CACPP) for Senior Elementary and Alternative School Students in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Charles K.; Meehan, George

    This study evaluated the Courtlink Auto Crime Prevention Program (CACPP), a 13-hour curriculum for senior elementary school and secondary school alternative program at-risk students in British Columbia, Canada. The program provides students with information about automobile crime and its costs, consequences, and prevention. It promotes positive…

  18. Computational Analysis of an Evolutionarily Conserved VertebrateMuscle Alternative Splicing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Debopriya; Clark, Tyson A.; Schweitzer, Anthony; Marr,Henry; Yamamoto, Miki L.; Parra, Marilyn K.; Arribere, Josh; Minovitsky,Simon; Dubchak, Inna; Blume, John E.; Conboy, John G.

    2006-06-15

    A novel exon microarray format that probes gene expression with single exon resolution was employed to elucidate critical features of a vertebrate muscle alternative splicing program. A dataset of 56 microarray-defined, muscle-enriched exons and their flanking introns were examined computationally in order to investigate coordination of the muscle splicing program. Candidate intron regulatory motifs were required to meet several stringent criteria: significant over-representation near muscle-enriched exons, correlation with muscle expression, and phylogenetic conservation among genomes of several vertebrate orders. Three classes of regulatory motifs were identified in the proximal downstream intron, within 200nt of the target exons: UGCAUG, a specific binding site for Fox-1 related splicing factors; ACUAAC, a novel branchpoint-like element; and UG-/UGC-rich elements characteristic of binding sites for CELF splicing factors. UGCAUG was remarkably enriched, being present in nearly one-half of all cases. These studies suggest that Fox and CELF splicing factors play a major role in enforcing the muscle-specific alternative splicing program, facilitating expression of a set of unique isoforms of cytoskeletal proteins that are critical to muscle cell differentiation. Supplementary materials: There are four supplementary tables and one supplementary figure. The tables provide additional detailed information concerning the muscle-enriched datasets, and about over-represented oligonucleotide sequences in the flanking introns. The supplementary figure shows RT-PCR data confirming the muscle-enriched expression of exons predicted from the microarray analysis.

  19. Biofuel production from microalgae as feedstock: current status and potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Song-Fang; Jin, Wen-Biao; Tu, Ren-Jie; Wu, Wei-Min

    2015-06-01

    Algal biofuel has become an attractive alternative of petroleum-based fuels in the past decade. Microalgae have been proposed as a feedstock to produce biodiesel, since they are capable of mitigating CO2 emission and accumulating lipids with high productivity. This article is an overview of the updated status of biofuels, especially biodiesel production from microalgae including fundamental research, culture selection and engineering process development; it summarizes research on mathematical and life cycle modeling on algae growth and biomass production; and it updates global efforts of research and development and commercialization attempts. The major challenges are also discussed.

  20. Alternative Education: A Comparative Case Study of the Behavior Modification Programs of Two Upstate South Carolina Alternative Schools for Youth Who Exhibit Behavior That Is Disruptive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scipio, Timothy Lamont

    2013-01-01

    This study examined behavior modification programs in schools designed to focus on discipline and that aim to reform disruptive behavior in students, usually over a limited period of time. This was a comparative case study of two type II alternative schools in the Upstate of South Carolina. The findings contributed to the research base regarding…

  1. The Use of Artificial Neural Networks for Identifying Sustainable Biodiesel Feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran D. Ristovski

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades, biodiesel produced from oilseed crops and animal fat is receiving much attention as a renewable and sustainable alternative for automobile engine fuels, and particularly petroleum diesel. However, current biodiesel production is heavily dependent on edible oil feedstocks which are unlikely to be sustainable in the longer term due to the rising food prices and the concerns about automobile engine durability. Therefore, there is an urgent need for researchers to identify and develop sustainable biodiesel feedstocks which overcome the disadvantages of current ones. On the other hand, artificial neural network (ANN modeling has been successfully used in recent years to gain new knowledge in various disciplines. The main goal of this article is to review recent literatures and assess the state of the art on the use of ANN as a modeling tool for future generation biodiesel feedstocks. Biodiesel feedstocks, production processes, chemical compositions, standards, physio-chemical properties and in-use performance are discussed. Limitations of current biodiesel feedstocks over future generation biodiesel feedstock have been identified. The application of ANN in modeling key biodiesel quality parameters and combustion performance in automobile engines is also discussed. This review has determined that ANN modeling has a high potential to contribute to the development of renewable energy systems by accelerating biodiesel research.

  2. Alternative response technology program for the Deepwater Horizon in the Gulf of Mexico - an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortez, Michael J.; Rowe, Hunter G. [BP - Gulf Coast Restoration (United States)], email: michael.cortez@bp.com

    2011-07-01

    The innovative approach utilized by the Alternative Response Technology (ART) Program for the MC252 Deepwater Horizon response in the Gulf of Mexico during 2010 was presented in this paper. The ART program is authorized by the Unified Area Command. This paper focuses on the spill response technologies that were implemented offshore, near shore and on-shore, and covers technologies related to booming, skimming, separation, sand cleaning, surveillance and detection. A process was designed and implemented for capturing ideas real time, which leveraged the public's ingenuity and entrepreneurial spirit. About 120,000 individual ideas were submitted by the public globally from more than 100 countries. About 40,000 of these ideas were related to addressing the spill response. There are about 100 new technologies related to spill response that were formally evaluated and/or field tested, and approximately 25 of those tested were successfully implemented across the spill response area.

  3. A Preliminary Study: Do Alternative Certification Route Programs Develop the Necessary Skills and Knowledge in Assistive Technology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Sherry Mee; Cihak, David F.; Judge, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    A large number of special education teachers in the United States are prepared in alternative certification programs and insufficient empirical information exists regarding their knowledge of assistive technology. The purpose of this study was to conduct a preliminary investigation of alternatively licensed special education teachers' knowledge,…

  4. Hura crepitans Seed Oil: An Alternative Feedstock for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewale Adewuyi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil was extracted from the seed of Hura crepitans using hexane in a soxhlet extractor and analyzed for iodine value, saponification value and free fatty acid content. The dominant fatty acid in the oil was C18:2 (52.8±0.10% while the iodine value was 120.10±0.70 g iodine/100 g. Biodiesel was produced from the oil using a two-step reaction system involving a first step of pretreatment via esterification reaction and a second step via transesterification reaction. The pretreatment step showed that free fatty acid in Hura crepitans seed oil can be reduced in a one-step pretreatment of esterification using H2SO4 as catalyst. The biodiesel produced from Hura crepitans seed oil had an acid value of 0.21±0.00 mg KOH/g, flash point of 152 ± 1.10°C, copper strip corrosion value of 1A, calorific value of 39.10±0.30 mJ/kg, cetane number of 45.62±0.30, and density of 0.86±0.02 g cm−3. The process gave a biodiesel yield of 98.70±0.40% with properties within the recommended values of EN 14214.

  5. The building of the kitchen table : In search of an alternative model for in-company leadership development programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sigaloff, C.L.; Nabben, E.H. (Iselien); Bergsma, E.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an alternative model of a leadership-development program. Design/methodology/approach: A leadership-development program based on a "closure-type description" instead of an "input-type description" (Varela) was designed and executed for an organization. The res

  6. Estimating Biofuel Feedstock Water Footprints Using System Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inman, Daniel; Warner, Ethan; Stright, Dana; Macknick, Jordan; Peck, Corey

    2016-07-01

    Increased biofuel production has prompted concerns about the environmental tradeoffs of biofuels compared to petroleum-based fuels. Biofuel production in general, and feedstock production in particular, is under increased scrutiny. Water footprinting (measuring direct and indirect water use) has been proposed as one measure to evaluate water use in the context of concerns about depleting rural water supplies through activities such as irrigation for large-scale agriculture. Water footprinting literature has often been limited in one or more key aspects: complete assessment across multiple water stocks (e.g., vadose zone, surface, and ground water stocks), geographical resolution of data, consistent representation of many feedstocks, and flexibility to perform scenario analysis. We developed a model called BioSpatial H2O using a system dynamics modeling and database framework. BioSpatial H2O could be used to consistently evaluate the complete water footprints of multiple biomass feedstocks at high geospatial resolutions. BioSpatial H2O has the flexibility to perform simultaneous scenario analysis of current and potential future crops under alternative yield and climate conditions. In this proof-of-concept paper, we modeled corn grain (Zea mays L.) and soybeans (Glycine max) under current conditions as illustrative results. BioSpatial H2O links to a unique database that houses annual spatially explicit climate, soil, and plant physiological data. Parameters from the database are used as inputs to our system dynamics model for estimating annual crop water requirements using daily time steps. Based on our review of the literature, estimated green water footprints are comparable to other modeled results, suggesting that BioSpatial H2O is computationally sound for future scenario analysis. Our modeling framework builds on previous water use analyses to provide a platform for scenario-based assessment. BioSpatial H2O's system dynamics is a flexible and user

  7. Biofuel Feedstock Assessment for Selected Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, K.L.; Oladosu, G.A.; Wolfe, A.K.; Perlack, R.D.; Dale, V.H.

    2008-02-18

    Findings from biofuel feedstock production assessments and projections of future supply are presented and discussed. The report aims to improve capabilities to assess the degree to which imported biofuel could contribute to meeting future U.S. targets to reduce dependence on imported oil. The study scope was focused to meet time and resource requirements. A screening process identified Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, India, Mexico, and the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) region for initial analysis, given their likely role in future feedstock supply relevant to U.S. markets. Supply curves for selected feedstocks in these countries are projected for 2012, 2017 and 2027. The supply functions, along with calculations to reflect estimated supplies available for export and/or biofuel production, were provided to DOE for use in a broader energy market allocation study. Potential cellulosic supplies from crop and forestry residues and perennials were also estimated for 2017 and 2027. The analysis identified capacity to potentially double or triple feedstock production by 2017 in some cases. A majority of supply growth is derived from increasing the area cultivated (especially sugarcane in Brazil). This is supplemented by improving yields and farming practices. Most future supplies of corn and wheat are projected to be allocated to food and feed. Larger shares of future supplies of sugarcane, soybean and palm oil production will be available for export or biofuel. National policies are catalyzing investments in biofuel industries to meet targets for fuel blending that generally fall in the 5-10% range. Social and environmental concerns associated with rapid expansion of feedstock production are considered. If the 2017 projected feedstock supply calculated as ‘available’ for export or biofuel were converted to fuel, it would represent the equivalent of about 38 billion gallons of gasoline. Sugarcane and bagasse dominate the available supply, representing 64

  8. MSWT-01, an alternative in combining Production Based Education (PBE) and student CSR program in Polman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananto, Gamawan; Setiawan, Albertus B.; Z, Darman M.

    2014-06-01

    MSWT-01, Mobile Surface Water Treatment, producing 1m3 per hour, is an alternative for providing clean water in flood disaster areas, and was developed at Bandung State Polytechnic for Manufacturing (Polman) as a part of institution research project. The combination of cartridge or membrane technology such as carbon block, MF, UF and filtration media is used for this machine, instead of coagulation-flocculation with chemical addition, due to emergency purposes related with its treatment processing time. The idea is that MSWT could be combined with Production Based Education (PBE) concept in Polman as a vocational education institution and students 'CSR', students social activities. With the number of implementation trials in real flood area condition, MSWT will be developed further based on the technical output result. The manufacturing process for improving or adding necessary features could be implemented as a student's project in PBE system. This might be an ideal combination alternative for such vocational institution that students get the product media for their PBE program and implement their work as a defined social activity. They will learn and experience related technical matters and more social interactions with the people and other disaster stakeholder as well.

  9. Thermal conversion of biomass to valuable fuels, chemical feedstocks and chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, William A.; Howard, Jack B.; Modestino, Anthony J.; Vogel, Fredreric; Steffin, Carsten R.

    2009-02-24

    A continuous process for the conversion of biomass to form a chemical feedstock is described. The biomass and an exogenous metal oxide, preferably calcium oxide, or metal oxide precursor are continuously fed into a reaction chamber that is operated at a temperature of at least 1400.degree. C. to form reaction products including metal carbide. The metal oxide or metal oxide precursor is capable of forming a hydrolizable metal carbide. The reaction products are quenched to a temperature of 800.degree. C. or less. The resulting metal carbide is separated from the reaction products or, alternatively, when quenched with water, hydolyzed to provide a recoverable hydrocarbon gas feedstock.

  10. High quality transportation fuels from renewable feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindfors, Lars Peter

    2010-09-15

    Hydrotreating of vegetable oils is novel process for producing high quality renewable diesel. Hydrotreated vegetable oils (HVO) are paraffinic hydrocarbons. They are free of aromatics, have high cetane numbers and reduce emissions. HVO can be used as component or as such. HVO processes can also be modified to produce jet fuel. GHG savings by HVO use are significant compared to fossil fuels. HVO is already in commercial production. Neste Oil is producing its NExBTL diesel in two plants. Production of renewable fuels will be limited by availability of sustainable feedstock. Therefore R and D efforts are made to expand feedstock base further.

  11. Wastepaper as a feedstock for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeron, P.W.; Riley, C.J.

    1991-11-01

    The possibility of using wastepaper as a cheap feedstock for production of ethanol is discussed. As the single largest material category in the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream, wastepaper is the main target of efforts to reduce the volume of MSW. And in the process for producing ethanol from lignocellulosics, the feedstock represents the highest cost. If wastepaper could be obtained cheaply in large enough quantities and if conversion process cost and efficiency prove to be similar to those for wood, the cost of ethanol could be significantly reduced. At the same time, the volume of wastepaper that must be disposed of in landfills could be lessened. 13 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Upgrading of petroleum oil feedstocks using alkali metals and hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, John Howard

    2014-09-09

    A method of upgrading an oil feedstock by removing heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals from the oil feedstock composition. This method reacts the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and an upgradant hydrocarbon. The alkali metal reacts with a portion of the heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals to form an inorganic phase separable from the organic oil feedstock material. The upgradant hydrocarbon bonds to the oil feedstock material and increases the number of carbon atoms in the product. This increase in the number of carbon atoms of the product increases the energy value of the resulting oil feedstock.

  13. The Anne Frank Haven: A case of an alternative educational program in an integrative Kibbutz setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Peretz, Miriam; Giladi, Moshe; Dror, Yuval

    1992-01-01

    The essential features of the programme of the Anne Frank Haven are the complete integration of children from low SES and different cultural backgrounds with Kibbutz children; a holistic approach to education; and the involvement of the whole community in an "open" residential school. After 33 years, it is argued that the experiment has proved successful in absorbing city-born youth in the Kibbutz, enabling at-risk populations to reach significant academic achievements, and ensuring their continued participation in the dominant culture. The basic integration model consists of "layers" of concentric circles, in dynamic interaction. The innermost circle is the class, the learning community. The Kibbutz community and the foster parents form a supportive, enveloping circle, which enables students to become part of the outer community and to intervene in it. A kind of meta-environment, the inter-Kibbutz partnership and the Israeli educational system, influence the program through decision making and guidance. Some of the principles of the Haven — integration, community involvement, a year's induction for all new students, and open residential settings — could be useful for cultures and societies outside the Kibbutz. The real "secret" of success of an alternative educational program is the dedicated, motivated and highly trained staff.

  14. Biobutanol as a Potential Sustainable Biofuel - Assessment of Lignocellulosic and Waste-based Feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Niemisto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the production process of an alternative transportation biofuel, biobutanol. European legislation concerning biofuels and their sustainability criteria are also briefly described. The need to develop methods to ensure more sustainable and efficient biofuel production processes is recommended. In addition, the assessment method to evaluate the sustainability of biofuels is considered and sustainability assessment of selected feedstocks for biobutanol production is performed. The benefits and potential of using lignocellulosic and waste materials as feedstocks in the biobutanol production process are also discussed. Sustainability assessment in this paper includes cultivation, harvest/collection and upstream processing (pretreatment of feedstocks, comparing four main biomass sources: food crops, non-food crops, food industry by-product and wood-based biomass. It can be concluded that the highest sustainable potential in Finland is when biobutanol production is integrated into pulp & paper mills.

  15. Acceptable contamination levels in solar grade silicon: From feedstock to solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstetter, J. [Instituto de Energia Solar, Avd. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: jasmin.hofstetter@ies-def.upm.es; Lelievre, J.F.; Canizo, C.; Luque, A. del [Instituto de Energia Solar, Avd. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-03-15

    Ultimately, alternative ways of silicon purification for photovoltaic applications are developed and applied. There is an ongoing debate about what are the acceptable contamination levels within the purified silicon feedstock to specify the material as solar grade silicon. Applying a simple model and making some additional assumptions, we calculate the acceptable contamination levels of different characteristic impurities for each fabrication step of a typical industrial mc-Si solar cell. The acceptable impurity concentrations within the finished solar cell are calculated for SRH recombination exclusively and under low injection conditions. It is assumed that during solar cell fabrication impurity concentrations are only altered by a gettering step. During the crystallization process, impurity segregation at the solid-liquid interface and at extended defects are taken into account. Finally, the initial contamination levels allowed within the feedstock are deduced. The acceptable concentration of iron in the finished solar cell is determined to be 9.7x10{sup -3} ppma whereas the concentration in the silicon feedstock can be as high as 12.5 ppma. In comparison, the titanium concentration admitted in the solar cell is calculated to be 2.7x10{sup -4} ppma and the allowed concentration of 2.2x10{sup -2} ppma in the feedstock is only two orders of magnitude higher. Finally, it is shown theoretically and experimentally that slow cooling rates can lead to a decrease of the interstitial Fe concentration and thus relax the purity requirements in the feedstock.

  16. Preprocessing Moist Lignocellulosic Biomass for Biorefinery Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal Yancey; Christopher T. Wright; Craig Conner; J. Richard Hess

    2009-06-01

    Biomass preprocessing is one of the primary operations in the feedstock assembly system of a lignocellulosic biorefinery. Preprocessing is generally accomplished using industrial grinders to format biomass materials into a suitable biorefinery feedstock for conversion to ethanol and other bioproducts. Many factors affect machine efficiency and the physical characteristics of preprocessed biomass. For example, moisture content of the biomass as received from the point of production has a significant impact on overall system efficiency and can significantly affect the characteristics (particle size distribution, flowability, storability, etc.) of the size-reduced biomass. Many different grinder configurations are available on the market, each with advantages under specific conditions. Ultimately, the capacity and/or efficiency of the grinding process can be enhanced by selecting the grinder configuration that optimizes grinder performance based on moisture content and screen size. This paper discusses the relationships of biomass moisture with respect to preprocessing system performance and product physical characteristics and compares data obtained on corn stover, switchgrass, and wheat straw as model feedstocks during Vermeer HG 200 grinder testing. During the tests, grinder screen configuration and biomass moisture content were varied and tested to provide a better understanding of their relative impact on machine performance and the resulting feedstock physical characteristics and uniformity relative to each crop tested.

  17. Halophytes Energy Feedstocks: Back to Our Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2008-01-01

    Of the Earth s landmass, approx.43% is arid or semi-arid, and 97% of the Earth s water is seawater. Halophytes are salt-tolerant plants (micro and macro) that can prosper in seawater or brackish waters and are common feedstocks for fuel and food (fuel-food feedstocks) in depressed countries. Two types, broadly classed as coastal and desert, can be found in marshes, coastal planes, inland lakes, and deserts. Major arid or semi-arid halophyte agriculture problems include pumping and draining the required high volumes of irrigation water from sea or ocean sources. Also, not all arid or semi-arid lands are suitable for crops. Benefits of halophyte agriculture include freeing up arable land and freshwater resources, cleansing the environment, decontaminating soils, desalinating brackish waters, and carbon sequestration. Sea and ocean halophyte agriculture problems include storms, transport, and diffuse harvesting. Benefits include available nutrients, ample water, and Sun. Careful attention to details and use of saline agriculture fuel feedstocks are required to prevent anthropogenic disasters. It is shown that the potential for fuel-food feedstock halophyte production is high; based on test plot data, it could supply 421.4 Quad, or 94% of the 2004 world energy consumption and sequester carbon, with major impact on the Triangle of Conflicts.

  18. Chemical or feedstock recycling of WEEE products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tukker, A.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter reviews initiatives with regard to chemical or feedstock recycling of plastics waste from electrical and electronic products. eurostat estimates the amount of waste from electrical and electronic products that is collected is 2.2 million tonnes. Roughly 20% of this waste consists of pla

  19. Sustainable Use of Biotechnology for Bioenergy Feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hong S.; Abercrombie, Jason M.; Kausch, Albert P.; Stewart, C. Neal

    2010-10-01

    Done correctly, cellulosic bioenergy should be both environmentally and economically beneficial. Carbon sequestration and decreased fossil fuel use are both worthy goals in developing next-generation biofuels. We believe that biotechnology will be needed to significantly improve yield and digestibility of dedicated perennial herbaceous biomass feedstocks, such as switchgrass and Miscanthus, which are native to the US and China, respectively. This Forum discusses the sustainability of herbaceous feedstocks relative to the regulation of biotechnology with regards to likely genetically engineered traits. The Forum focuses on two prominent countries wishing to develop their bioeconomies: the US and China. These two countries also share a political desire and regulatory frameworks to enable the commercialization and wide release of transgenic feedstocks with appropriate and safe new genetics. In recent years, regulators in both countries perform regular inspections of transgenic field releases and seriously consider compliance issues, even though the US framework is considered to be more mature and stringent. Transgene flow continues to be a pertinent environmental and regulatory issue with regards to transgenic plants. This concern is largely driven by consumer issues and ecological uncertainties. Regulators are concerned about large-scale releases of transgenic crops that have sexually compatible crops or wild relatives that can stably harbor transgenes via hybridization and introgression. Therefore, prior to the commercialization or extensive field testing of transgenic bioenergy feedstocks, we recommend that mechanisms that ensure biocontainment of transgenes be instituted, especially for perennial grasses. A cautionary case study will be presented in which a plant’s biology and ecology conspired against regulatory constraints in a non-biomass crop perennial grass (creeping bentgrass, Agrostis stolonifera), in which biocontainment was not attained. Appropriate

  20. Ligncellulosic feedstock supply systems with intermodal and overseas transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ric Hoefnagels; Kara Cafferty; Erin Searcy; Jacob J. Jacobson; Martin Junginger; Thijs Cornelissen; Andre Faaij

    2014-12-01

    With growing demand for biomass from industrial uses and international trade, the logistic operations required to economically move the biomass from the field or forest to the end users have become increasingly complex. In addition to economics, understanding energy and GHG emissions is required to design cost effective, sustainable logistic process operations; in order to improve international supply chains it is also important to understate their interdependencies and related uncertainties. This article presents an approach to assess lignocellulosic feedstock supply systems at the operational level. For this purpose, the Biomass Logistic Model (BLM) has been linked with the Geographic Information Systems based Biomass Intermodal Transportation model (BIT-UU) and extended with inter-continental transport routes. Case studies of herbaceous and woody biomass, produced in the U.S. Midwest and U.S. Southeast, respectively, and shipped to Europe for conversion to Fischer-Tropsch (FT) diesel are included to demonstrate how intermodal transportation and, in particular, overseas shipping integrates with the bioenergy supply chains. For the cases demonstrated, biomass can be supplied at 99 € Mg-1 to 117 € Mg-1 (dry) and converted to FT-diesel at 19 € GJ-1 to 24 € GJ-1 depending on the feedstock type and location, intermediate (chips or pellets) and size of the FT-diesel production plant. With the flexibility to change the design of supply chains as well as input variables, many alternative supply chain cases can be assessed.

  1. Alternative fuels for vehicles fleet demonstration program final report. Volume 1: Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The Alternative Fuels for Vehicles Fleet Demonstration Program (AFV-FDP) was a multiyear effort to collect technical data for use in determining the costs and benefits of alternative-fuel vehicles in typical applications in New York State. During 3 years of collecting data, 7.3 million miles of driving were accumulated, 1,003 chassis-dynamometer emissions tests were performed, 862,000 gallons of conventional fuel were saved, and unique information was developed about garage safety recommendations, vehicle performance, and other topics. Findings are organized by vehicle and fuel type. For light-duty compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles, technology has evolved rapidly and closed-loop, electronically-controlled fuel systems provide performance and emissions advantages over open-loop, mechanical systems. The best CNG technology produces consistently low tailpipe emissions versus gasoline, and can eliminate evaporative emissions. Reduced driving range remains the largest physical drawback. Fuel cost is low ($/Btu) but capital costs are high, indicating that economics are best with vehicles that are used intensively. Propane produces impacts similar to CNG and is less expensive to implement, but fuel cost is higher than gasoline and safety codes limit use in urban areas. Light-duty methanol/ethanol vehicles provide performance and emissions benefits over gasoline with little impact on capital costs, but fuel costs are high. Heavy-duty CNG engines are evolving rapidly and provide large reductions in emissions versus diesel. Capital costs are high for CNG buses and fuel efficiency is reduced, but the fuel is less expensive and overall operating costs are about equal to those of diesel buses. Methanol buses provide performance and emissions benefits versus diesel, but fuel costs are high. Other emerging technologies were also evaluated, including electric vehicles, hybrid-electric vehicles, and fuel cells.

  2. Supply Deficit of Feedstock Oils for Carbon Black

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Bingyan

    2007-01-01

    @@ Feedstock oils used for carbon blackproduction mainly include ethylene tar,anthracene oil and coal tar. With thegrowing output of carbon black in re-cent years, demand for feedstock oilshas increased constantly.

  3. Bioenergy grass feedstock: current options and prospects for trait improvement using emerging genetic, genomic, and systems biology toolkits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltus, Frank Alex; Vandenbrink, Joshua P

    2012-11-02

    For lignocellulosic bioenergy to become a viable alternative to traditional energy production methods, rapid increases in conversion efficiency and biomass yield must be achieved. Increased productivity in bioenergy production can be achieved through concomitant gains in processing efficiency as well as genetic improvement of feedstock that have the potential for bioenergy production at an industrial scale. The purpose of this review is to explore the genetic and genomic resource landscape for the improvement of a specific bioenergy feedstock group, the C4 bioenergy grasses. First, bioenergy grass feedstock traits relevant to biochemical conversion are examined. Then we outline genetic resources available bioenergy grasses for mapping bioenergy traits to DNA markers and genes. This is followed by a discussion of genomic tools and how they can be applied to understanding bioenergy grass feedstock trait genetic mechanisms leading to further improvement opportunities.

  4. Bioenergy grass feedstock: current options and prospects for trait improvement using emerging genetic, genomic, and systems biology toolkits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feltus Frank

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For lignocellulosic bioenergy to become a viable alternative to traditional energy production methods, rapid increases in conversion efficiency and biomass yield must be achieved. Increased productivity in bioenergy production can be achieved through concomitant gains in processing efficiency as well as genetic improvement of feedstock that have the potential for bioenergy production at an industrial scale. The purpose of this review is to explore the genetic and genomic resource landscape for the improvement of a specific bioenergy feedstock group, the C4 bioenergy grasses. First, bioenergy grass feedstock traits relevant to biochemical conversion are examined. Then we outline genetic resources available bioenergy grasses for mapping bioenergy traits to DNA markers and genes. This is followed by a discussion of genomic tools and how they can be applied to understanding bioenergy grass feedstock trait genetic mechanisms leading to further improvement opportunities.

  5. The CAM Education Program of the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Nancy J; Chesney, Margaret A

    2007-10-01

    The authors provide a historical context and overview of the experience of education projects at 14 health professions schools in the United States and the American Medical Students Association that were funded by the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine at the National Institutes of Health in cohorts of five per year in 2000, 2001, and 2002-2003. These 15 projects were designed to incorporate CAM information into the curricula of conventional health professions schools. A longer-term goal was to accelerate the integration of CAM and conventional medicine. The overall program started in 2000 at a time when discussions about the definition, goals, and value of integrative medicine were already well underway. The efforts specific to each project, as well as the shared challenges, accomplishments, and collaborative efforts of all 15 projects, can provide guidance for the education of conventional health care providers about CAM in an integrative medicine environment. Challenging issues that must be faced include (1) the need to develop successful strategies to incorporate information about CAM into already dense health professions school curricula, (2) the need for conventional health professionals to have authoritative resources to provide their patients information about risks and benefits of CAM practices, and (3) the need to identify appropriate roles for CAM practitioners in educating conventional health professionals about CAM therapies. The authors discuss these issues and others and present some recommendations.

  6. EM-21 ALTERNATIVE ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING PROGRAM FOR SLUDGE HEEL REMOVAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, M; King, W; Martino, C

    2009-12-18

    Preliminary studies in the EM-21 Alternative Chemical Cleaning Program have focused on understanding the dissolution of Hematite (a primary sludge heel phase) in oxalic acid, with a focus on minimizing oxalic acid usage. Literature reviews, thermodynamic modeling, and experimental results have all confirmed that pH control, preferably using a supplemental proton source, is critical to oxalate minimization. With pH control, iron concentrations as high as 0.103 M have been obtained in 0.11 M oxalic acid. This is consistent with the formation of a 1:1 (iron:oxalate) complex. The solubility of Hematite in oxalic acid has been confirmed to increase by a factor of 3 when the final solution pH decreases from 5 to below 1. This is consistent with literature predictions of a shift in speciation from a 1:3 to 1:1 as the pH is lowered. Above a solution pH of 6, little Hematite dissolves. These results emphasize the importance of pH control in optimizing Hematite dissolution in oxalic acid.

  7. Structure of the Minnesota Developmental Programming System Behavioral Scales, Alternate Form C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, W P; Silver, E J; Lubin, R A; Sersen, E A

    1983-09-01

    The Minnesota Developmental Programming System Behavioral Scales, Alternate Form C, designed to assess adaptive behavior of profoundly developmentally disabled individuals, was evaluated using data from 3,487 individuals. Relative difficulty within each of four 20-item subscales (Gross Motor, Eating, Environmental Integration, and Language/Communication) deviated slightly from the original instrument description. Factor analyses with orthogonal rotation revealed six factors with high loadings on, respectively: (a) difficult items from all subscales, (b) items from both Gross Motor and Eating subscales, (c) items from both Environmental Integration and Language/Communication subscales, and (d) items within each individual subscale except Language/Communication. Oblique rotation suggested two factors for each subscale, one loading on easier items and one loading on more difficult items. Factor patterns after oblique rotation were similar for four age groups ranging from young children (less than 5 years) to adults (over 30 years). Factor analyses of items within each subscale showed predominance of a single factor and no strong evidence of subscale multidimensionality. These results, in large part, confirmed the original Form C description.

  8. Biofuel Feedstock Assessment For Selected Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Keith L [ORNL; Oladosu, Gbadebo A [ORNL; Wolfe, Amy K [ORNL; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; Dale, Virginia H [ORNL

    2008-02-01

    Findings from biofuel feedstock production assessments and projections of future supply are presented and discussed. The report aims to improve capabilities to assess the degree to which imported biofuel could contribute to meeting future U.S. targets to reduce dependence on imported oil. The study scope was focused to meet time and resource requirements. A screening process identified Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, India, Mexico, and the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) region for initial analysis, given their likely role in future feedstock supply relevant to U.S. markets. Supply curves for selected feedstocks in these countries are projected for 2012, 2017 and 2027. The supply functions, along with calculations to reflect estimated supplies available for export and/or biofuel production, were provided to DOE for use in a broader energy market allocation study. Potential cellulosic supplies from crop and forestry residues and perennials were also estimated for 2017 and 2027. The analysis identified capacity to potentially double or triple feedstock production by 2017 in some cases. A majority of supply growth is derived from increasing the area cultivated (especially sugarcane in Brazil). This is supplemented by improving yields and farming practices. Most future supplies of corn and wheat are projected to be allocated to food and feed. Larger shares of future supplies of sugarcane, soybean and palm oil production will be available for export or biofuel. National policies are catalyzing investments in biofuel industries to meet targets for fuel blending that generally fall in the 5-10% range. Social and environmental concerns associated with rapid expansion of feedstock production are considered. If the 2017 projected feedstock supply calculated as 'available' for export or biofuel were converted to fuel, it would represent the equivalent of about 38 billion gallons of gasoline. Sugarcane and bagasse dominate the available supply

  9. An overview of palm, jatropha and algae as a potential biodiesel feedstock in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, S.; Abdullah, N. R.; Mamat, R.; Rashid, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    The high demand to replace petroleum fuel makes renewable and sustainable sources such as Palm oil, Jatropha oil and Algae a main focus feedstock for biodiesel production in Malaysia. There are many studies conducted on Palm oil and Jatropha oil, however, the use of Algae as an alternative fuel is still in its infancy. Malaysia already implemented B5 based Palm oil as a feedstock and this biodiesel has been proven safe and can be used without any engine modification. The use of biodiesel produced from these feedstock will also developed domestic economic and provide job opportunities especially in the rural area. In addition, biodiesel has many advantages especially when dealing with the emissions produce as compared to petroleum fuel such as; it can reduce unwanted gases and particulate matter harmful to the atmosphere and mankind. Thus, this paper gathered and examines the most prominent engine emission produced from Palm oil and Jatropha feedstock and also to observe the potential of Algae to be one of the sources of alternative fuel in Malaysia.

  10. Coffee oil as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Leandro S; Franca, Adriana S; Camargos, Rodrigo R S; Ferraz, Vany P

    2008-05-01

    A preliminary evaluation of the feasibility of producing biodiesel using oil extracted from defective coffee beans was conducted as an alternative means of utilizing these beans instead of roasting for consumption of beverage with depreciated quality. Direct transesterifications of triglycerides from refined soybean oil (reference) and from oils extracted from healthy and defective coffee beans were performed. Type of alcohol employed and time were the reaction parameters studied. Sodium methoxide was used as alkaline catalyst. There was optimal phase separation after reactions using both soybean and healthy coffee beans oils when methanol was used. This was not observed when using the oil from defective beans which required further processing to obtain purified alkyl esters. Nevertheless, coffee oil was demonstrated to be a potential feedstock for biodiesel production, both from healthy and defective beans, since the corresponding oils were successfully converted to fatty acid methyl and ethyl esters.

  11. Educators' Perceptions of the Effects of School Uniforms on School Climate in a Selected Metropolitan Disciplinary Alternative Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chime, Emmanuel Onoh

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine educators' perceptions regarding the effects of school uniforms on school climate in a selected metropolitan disciplinary alternative education program. More specifically, this study investigated the influence of the variables group status, gender, ethnicity, age and years of experience on the perceptions…

  12. Processing Cost Analysis for Biomass Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badger, P.C.

    2002-11-20

    The receiving, handling, storing, and processing of woody biomass feedstocks is an overlooked component of biopower systems. The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to identify and characterize all the receiving, handling, storing, and processing steps required to make woody biomass feedstocks suitable for use in direct combustion and gasification applications, including small modular biopower (SMB) systems, and (2) to estimate the capital and operating costs at each step. Since biopower applications can be varied, a number of conversion systems and feedstocks required evaluation. In addition to limiting this study to woody biomass feedstocks, the boundaries of this study were from the power plant gate to the feedstock entry point into the conversion device. Although some power plants are sited at a source of wood waste fuel, it was assumed for this study that all wood waste would be brought to the power plant site. This study was also confined to the following three feedstocks (1) forest residues, (2) industrial mill residues, and (3) urban wood residues. Additionally, the study was confined to grate, suspension, and fluidized bed direct combustion systems; gasification systems; and SMB conversion systems. Since scale can play an important role in types of equipment, operational requirements, and capital and operational costs, this study examined these factors for the following direct combustion and gasification system size ranges: 50, 20, 5, and 1 MWe. The scope of the study also included: Specific operational issues associated with specific feedstocks (e.g., bark and problems with bridging); Opportunities for reducing handling, storage, and processing costs; How environmental restrictions can affect handling and processing costs (e.g., noise, commingling of treated wood or non-wood materials, emissions, and runoff); and Feedstock quality issues and/or requirements (e.g., moisture, particle size, presence of non-wood materials). The study found that over the

  13. Thoughts on Optimization of Aromatic Feedstock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Jian

    2002-01-01

    This article refers to four cases of process unit combinations with different throughputs of aromatics unit for production of 450 kt/a paraxylene at a certain petrochemical complex in order to against a representative case (provided with an 800-kt/a CCR unit and a 600-kt/a disproportionation unit) and the feasibility and advantage of using prolysis gasoline as aromatic feedstock is studied.

  14. [The teaching and application of alternative medicine in medical education programs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Han-Sun

    2014-12-01

    The history of alternative medicine is perhaps as long as the history of human medicine. The development of evidence-based medicine has not annihilated alternative medicine. On the contrary, more people turn to alternative medicine because this approach to treatment serves as an effective remedial or supportive treatment when used in conjunction with evidence-based medicine. In contemporary healthcare, alternative medicine is now an essential part of integrated medicine. In Taiwan, most professional medical practitioners have not received proper education about alternative medicine and therefore generally lack comprehensive knowledge on this subject. While alternative medicine may be effective when used with some patients, it may also impart a placebo effect, which helps restore the body and soul of the patients. Medical staff with advanced knowledge of alternative medicine may not only help patients but also improve the doctor-patient relationship. There is great diversity in alternative medicine, with some alternative therapies supported by evidence and covered by insurance. However, there also remain fraudulent medical practices that may be harmful to health. Medical staff must be properly educated so that they can provide patients and their family a proper understanding and attitude toward alternative medicine. Therefore, alternative medicine should be included in the standard medical education curriculum. Offering classes on alternative medicine in university for more than 10 years, the author shares his experiences regarding potential content, lecture subjects, group experience exercises, and in-class activities. This article is intended to provide a reference to professors in university medical education and offer a possible model for alternative medicine education in Taiwan.

  15. Design of a biomass-to-biorefinery logistics system through bio-inspired metaheuristic optimization considering multiple types of feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueba, Isidoro

    Bioenergy has become an important alternative source of energy to alleviate the reliance on petroleum energy. Bioenergy offers significant potential to mitigate climate change by reducing life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions relative to fossil fuels. The Energy Independence and Security Act mandate the use of 21 billion gallons of advanced biofuels including 16 billion gallons of cellulosic biofuels by the year 2022. It is clear that Biomass can make a substantial contribution to supplying future energy demand in a sustainable way. However, the supply of sustainable energy is one of the main challenges that mankind will face over the coming decades. For instance, many logistical challenges will be faced in order to provide an efficient and reliable supply of quality feedstock to biorefineries. 700 million tons of biomass will be required to be sustainably delivered to biorefineries annually to meet the projected use of biofuels by the year of 2022. This thesis is motivated by the urgent need of advancing knowledge and understanding of the highly complex biofuel supply chain. While corn ethanol production has increased fast enough to keep up with the energy mandates, production of biofuels from different types of feedstocks has also been incremented. A number of pilot and demonstration scale advanced biofuel facilities have been set up, but commercial scale facilities are yet to become operational. Scaling up this new biofuel sector poses significant economic and logistical challenges for regional planners and biofuel entrepreneurs in terms of feedstock supply assurance, supply chain development, biorefinery establishment, and setting up transport, storage and distribution infrastructure. The literature also shows that the larger cost in the production of biomass to ethanol originates from the logistics operation therefore it is essential that an optimal logistics system is designed in order to keep low the costs of producing ethanol and make possible the shift from

  16. Serving a Higher Power: The Influence of Alternative Break Programs on Students' Religiousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehaus, Elizabeth; Rivera, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between students' religiousness and participation in alternative breaks (ABs) using both survey and interview data from the National Survey of Alternative Breaks. Findings from this mixed methods study demonstrate the potential for ABs to facilitate religiousness and help students connect…

  17. Non-proliferation, safeguards, and security for the fissile materials disposition program immobilization alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, R.A.; Jaeger, C.D.; Tolk, K.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Moore, L.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy is analyzing long-term storage and disposition alternatives for surplus weapons-usable fissile materials. A number of different disposition alternatives are being considered. These include facilities for storage, conversion and stabilization of fissile materials, immobilization in glass or ceramic material, fabrication of fissile material into mixed oxide (MOX) fuel for reactors, use of reactor based technologies to convert material into spent fuel, and disposal of fissile material using geologic alternatives. This paper will focus on how the objectives of reducing security and proliferation risks are being considered, and the possible facility impacts. Some of the areas discussed in this paper include: (1) domestic and international safeguards requirements, (2) non-proliferation criteria and measures, (3) the threats, and (4) potential proliferation, safeguards, and security issues and impacts on the facilities. Issues applicable to all of the possible disposition alternatives will be discussed in this paper. However, particular attention is given to the plutonium immobilization alternatives.

  18. Biocatalysis for the application of CO2 as a chemical feedstock

    OpenAIRE

    Apostolos Alissandratos; Easton, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Biocatalysts, capable of efficiently transforming CO2 into other more reduced forms of carbon, offer sustainable alternatives to current oxidative technologies that rely on diminishing natural fossil-fuel deposits. Enzymes that catalyse CO2 fixation steps in carbon assimilation pathways are promising catalysts for the sustainable transformation of this safe and renewable feedstock into central metabolites. These may be further converted into a wide range of fuels and commodity chemicals, thro...

  19. Alternative Schools and Programs for Public School Students at Risk of Educational Failure: 2007-08. First Look. NCES 2010-026

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Priscilla Rouse; Lewis, Laurie; Tice, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This report provides national estimates on the availability of alternative schools and programs for students at risk of educational failure in public school districts during the 2007-08 school year. The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) previously reported results from a similar survey of alternative schools and programs conducted…

  20. Design, modeling, and analysis of a feedstock logistics system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Jason D; Sarin, Subhash C; Cundiff, John S

    2012-01-01

    Given the location of a bio-energy plant for the conversion of biomass to bio-energy, a feedstock logistics system that relies on the use of satellite storage locations (SSLs) for temporary storage and loading of round bales is proposed. Three equipment systems are considered for handling biomass at the SSLs, and they are either placed permanently or are mobile and thereby travel from one SSL to another. A mathematical programming-based approach is utilized to determine SSLs and equipment routes in order to minimize the total cost. The use of a Side-loading Rack System results in average savings of 21.3% over a Densification System while a Rear-loading Rack System is more expensive to operate than either of the other equipment systems. The utilization of mobile equipment results in average savings of 14.8% over the equipment placed permanently. Furthermore, the Densification System is not justifiable for transportation distances less than 81 km.

  1. 76 FR 2388 - National Toxicology Program (NTP); NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Toxicology Program (NTP); NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of... Director, National Toxicology Program. BILLING CODE 4140-01-P...

  2. 75 FR 62845 - National Toxicology Program (NTP) Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... in vitro and in vivo alternative test methods that can be used to evaluate the hazard potential of... K2-16, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, (phone) 919-541- 2384, (fax) 919-541-0947, (e-mail)...

  3. Lifeline electric rates and alternative approaches to the problems of low-income ratepayers. Ten case studies of implemented programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    Program summaries, issue developments, governmental processes, and impacts are discussed for 10 case studies dealing with lifeline electric rates and alternative approaches to the problems of low-income ratepayers, namely; the Boston Edison rate freeze; the California lifeline; Florida Power and Light conservation rate; the Iowa-Illinois Gas and Electric small-use rate; the Maine demonstration lifeline program; the Massachusetts Electric Company A-65 rate; the Michigan optional senior citizen rate; the Narragansett Electric Company A-65 SSI rate; the Northern States Power Company conservation rate break; and the Potomac Electric Power Company rate freeze. (MCW)

  4. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume IV. Commercial potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    This volume of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP) report provides time and cost estimates for positioning new nuclear power systems for commercial deployment. The assessment also estimates the rates at which the new systems might penetrate the domestic market, assuming the continuing viability of the massive light-water reactor network that now exists worldwide. This assessment does not recommend specific, detailed program plans and budgets for individual systems; however, it is clear from this analysis that any of the systems investigated could be deployed if dictated by national interest.

  5. Invasive plants as feedstock for biochar and bioenergy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Rui; Gao, Bin; Fang, June

    2013-07-01

    In this work, the potential of invasive plant species as feedstock for value-added products (biochar and bioenergy) through pyrolysis was investigated. The product yield rates of two major invasive species in the US, Brazilian Pepper (BP) and Air Potato (AP), were compared to that of two traditional feedstock materials, water oak and energy cane. Three pyrolysis temperatures (300, 450, and 600°C) and four feedstock masses (10, 15, 20, and 25 g) were tested for a total of 12 experimental conditions. AP had high biochar and low oil yields, while BP had a high oil yield. At lower temperatures, the minimum feedstock residence time for biochar and bioenergy production increased at a faster rate as feedstock weight increased than it did at higher temperatures. A simple mathematical model was successfully developed to describe the relationship between feedstock weight and the minimum residence time.

  6. CBTL Design Case Summary Conventional Feedstock Supply System - Herbaceous

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher T. Wright; Erin M. Searcy

    2012-02-01

    A conventional bale feedstock design has been established that represents supply system technologies, costs, and logistics that are achievable today for supplying herbaceous feedstocks as a blendstock with coal for energy production. Efforts are made to identify bottlenecks and optimize the efficiency and capacities of this supply system, within the constraints of existing local feedstock supplies, equipment, and permitting requirements. The feedstock supply system logistics operations encompass all of the activities necessary to move herbaceous biomass feedstock from the production location to the conversion reactor ready for blending and insertion. This supply system includes operations that are currently available such that costs and logistics are reasonable and reliable. The system modeled for this research project includes the uses of field-dried corn stover or switchgrass as a feedstock to annually supply an 800,000 DM ton conversion facility.

  7. Preparation of gasification feedstock from leafy biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shone, C M; Jothi, T J S

    2016-05-01

    Dried leaves are a potential source of energy although these are not commonly used beside to satisfy daily energy demands in rural areas. This paper aims at preparing a leafy biomass feedstock in the form of briquettes which can be directly used for combustion or to extract the combustible gas using a gasifier. Teak (Tectona grandis) and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) leaves are considered for the present study. A binder-assisted briquetting technique with tapioca starch as binder is adopted. Properties of these leafy biomass briquettes such as moisture content, calorific value, compressive strength, and shatter index are determined. From the study, briquettes with biomass-to-binder ratio of 3:5 are found to be stable. Higher mass percentage of binder is considered for preparation of briquettes due to the fact that leafy biomasses do not adhere well on densification with lower binder content. Ultimate analysis test is conducted to analyze the gasification potential of the briquettes. Results show that the leafy biomass prepared from teak and rubber leaves has calorific values of 17.5 and 17.8 MJ/kg, respectively, which are comparable with those of existing biomass feedstock made of sawdust, rice husk, and rice straw.

  8. Bio-energy feedstock yields and their water quality benefits in Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parajuli, Prem B.

    2011-08-10

    Cellulosic and agricultural bio-energy crops can, under careful management, be harvested as feedstock for bio-fuels production and provide environmental benefits. However, it is required to quantify their relative advantages in feedstock production and water quality. The primary objective of this research was to evaluate potential feedstock yield and water quality benefit scenarios of bioenergy crops: Miscanthus (Miscanthus-giganteus), Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense), Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), Soybean {Glycine max (L.) Merr.}, and Corn (Lea mays) in the Upper Pearl River watershed (UPRW), Mississippi using a Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The SWAT model was calibrated (January 1981 to December 1994) and validated (January 1995 to September 2008) using monthly measured stream flow data. The calibrated and validated model determined good to very good performance for stream flow prediction (R2 and E from 0.60 to 0.86). The RMSE values (from 14 m3 s-1 to 37 m3 s-1) were estimated at similar levels of errors during model calibration and validation. The long-term average annual potential feedstock yield as an alternative energy source was determined the greatest when growing Miscanthus grass (373,849 Mg) as followed by Alfalfa (206,077 Mg), Switchgrass (132,077 Mg), Johnsongrass (47,576 Mg), Soybean (37,814 Mg), and Corn (22,069 Mg) in the pastureland and cropland of the watershed. Model results determined that average annual sediment yield from the Miscanthus grass scenario determined the least (1.16 Mg/ha) and corn scenario the greatest (12.04 Mg/ha). The SWAT model simulated results suggested that growing Miscanthus grass in the UPRW would have the greatest potential feedstock yield and water quality benefits.

  9. Admission to the Master of Business Administration Program: An Alternative for Savannah State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Bill

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, graduate programs in business administration have heavily relied on the Graduate Management Aptitude Test prepared and administered by the Educational Testing Service in the decision to admit a candidate to the program. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature regarding the statistical validity and statistical…

  10. 75 FR 25866 - National Toxicology Program (NTP); NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Toxicology Program (NTP); NTP Interagency Center.... John R. Bucher, Associate Director, National Toxicology Program. BILLING CODE 4140-01-P...

  11. 75 FR 37443 - National Toxicology Program (NTP); NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Toxicology Program (NTP); NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of...'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation. Toxicology Letters 119(3): 203-208. Dated: June 16, 2010. John R. Bucher, Associate Director, National Toxicology Program. BILLING CODE 4140-01-P...

  12. An Alternating Direction Method for Convex Quadratic Second-Order Cone Programming with Bounded Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuewen Mu

    2015-01-01

    quadratic programming over second-order cones and a bounded set. At each iteration, we only need to compute the metric projection onto the second-order cones and the projection onto the bound set. The result of convergence is given. Numerical results demonstrate that our method is efficient for the convex quadratic second-order cone programming problems with bounded constraints.

  13. The Relationship of Academic Achievement and Duration of Placement in Alternative Education Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Janilyn

    2011-01-01

    Education agencies are driven by the need to remove disruptive and dangerous students from classrooms without suspending or expelling them to home or the streets (Bear, 1998). As stated in the National Association of State Boards of Education (1994), the term "alternative education" refers to nontraditional educational services ranging from…

  14. 77 FR 5617 - Alternative Transportation in Parks and Public Lands Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ..., Efficient Transportation Equity Act--A Legacy for Users of 2005 (SAFETEA-LU) and its extensions, and... expenses for alternative transportation systems in parks and public lands. Federal land management agencies and State, tribal and local governments acting with the consent of a Federal land management...

  15. Alternatives to Custody: A Ten-Year Review of a Community-Based Program in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Barbara Christine

    1996-01-01

    Describes the development of a community forensic psychology service during its first 10 years of service. Service emphasizes cooperation among psychologists, probation officers, and others in establishing alternatives to custody for sex offenders, shoplifters, drug and alcohol abusers, and young criminals. Discusses theoretical orientation of the…

  16. 5 CFR 2424.10 - Collaboration and Alternative Dispute Resolution Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collaboration and Alternative Dispute... information or assistance under this part may call or write the CADR Office at (202) 218-7969, 1400 K Street, NW., Washington, DC 20424-0001. A brief summary of CADR activities is available on the Internet...

  17. A Longitudinal Comparative Study of Alternative and Traditional Teacher Education Programs in Israel: Initial Training, Induction Period, School Placement, and Retention Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Yehudith; Donitsa-Schmidt, Smadar

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare alternative teacher education programs in English as a foreign language (EFL), biology, and mathematics to traditional programs in the same subjects. To do this, we analyzed data on all of the students who studied in the aforementioned programs during 2009 and 2010 in the largest college of education in…

  18. Converging and Diverging Service Delivery Systems in Alternative Education Programs for Disabled and Non-Disabled Youth Involved in the Juvenile Justice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Trent; Bullis, Michael; Todis, Bonnie

    2005-01-01

    This study is part of a directed research project funded by the Office of Special Education Programs. Using qualitative research methods, consisting of interviews and participant observations, the policies and procedures of three alternative education programs in various settings were investigated. These programs served youth with and without…

  19. Economic feasibility of alternative utility-sponsored weatherization programs in Maryland. Phase II. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubinsky, R.; Thibodeau, T.

    1982-12-01

    This report summarizes the results of a study of the economic impacts of residential energy conservation programs on Potomac Edison, Potomac Electric Power Company, Washington Gas Light Company, Delmarva Power and Light Company, and Southern Maryland Electric Cooperative. The report is intended to provide policy makers with information concerning the advantages and disadvantages and costs and benefits of various program options. These findings can assist the policy maker in determining what kinds of residential conservation programs are appropriate for Maryland, how large they should be, how they should be implemented and who should pay for them.

  20. Interfacing feedstock logistics with bioenergy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokhansanj, S. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Oak Ridge National Lab

    2010-07-01

    The interface between biomass production and biomass conversion platforms was investigated. Functional relationships were assembled in a modeling platform to simulate the flow of biomass feedstock from farm and forest to a densification plant. The model considers key properties of biomass for downstream pre-processing and conversion. These properties include moisture content, cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, ash, particle size, specific density and bulk density. The model simulates logistical operations such as grinding to convert biomass to pellets that are supplied to a biorefinery for conversion to heat, power, or biofuels. Equations were developed to describe the physical aspects of each unit operation. The effect that each of the process variables has on the efficiency of the conversion processes was described.

  1. Calophyllum inophyllum L. as a future feedstock for bio-diesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atabania, A.E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Khartoum (Sudan)], email: a_atabani2@msn.com, email: ardinsu@yahoo.co.id; Silitonga, A.S.; Mahlia, T.M.I.; Masjukia, H.H.; Badruddin, I.A. [University of Malaya (Malaysia)

    2011-07-01

    Due to the energy crisis and the concerns about climate change, the possibility of using biodiesel as an alternative energy resource has been examined. It has been found that biodiesel could be a solution for the future but the first generation of biodiesel, prepared from edible vegetable oils, has raised important concerns about food and environmental problems. The aim of this study is to assess if Calophyllum inophyllum, a non-edible oil, could be used for biodiesel production. Density, kinematic viscosity, cetane number, flashpoint and iodine value were determined on Calophyllum inophyllum trees from Cilacap, Indonesia and compared in light of ASTM D6751 biodiesel standards. It was found that Calophyllum inophyllum would be a satisfactory feedstock to produce biodiesel in the future. This study demonstrated that Calophyllum inophyllum has the potential to be a biodiesel feedstock and further research should be carried out on engine performance, combustion and emission performance of biodiesel produced from Calophyllum inophyllum.

  2. Feedstock to Tailpipe Initiative: Kansas Biofuels Production, Testing and Certification Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stagg-Williams, Susan M. [Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering; Depcik, Chris [Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering; Sturm, Belinda [Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering

    2013-12-31

    The primary task of this grant was to establish an ASTM testing facility for biodiesel and ethanol and to use this facility to develop methods to predict fuel characteristics based on feedstock composition and feedstock cultivation. In addition to characterizing fuel properties, this grant allowed for the purchase and installation of a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) emissions analyzer that will provide an analysis of the emissions leaving the engine in order to meet EPA regulations. This FTIR system is combined with an Alternating Current (AC) dynamometer that allows the engine to follow Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Test Procedure (FTP) cycles. A secondary task was to investigate cultivating algae utilizing wastewater and top-down ecological control and subsequent harvesting using coagulation and dissolved air flotation. Lipid extraction utilizing environmentally-friendly and cost-effective solvents, with and without cell-disruption pretreatment was also explored. Significant work on the hydrothermal liquefaction of wastewater cultivated algae was conducted.

  3. Feedstock Quality Factor Calibration and Data Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard D. Boardman; Tyler L. Westover; Garold L. Gresham

    2010-05-01

    The goal of the feedstock assembly operation is to deliver uniform, quality-assured feedstock materials that will enhance downstream system performance by avoiding problems in the conversion equipment. In order to achieve this goal, there is a need for rapid screening tools and methodologies for assessing the thermochemical quality characteristics of biomass feedstock through the assembly process. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been identified as potential technique that could allow rapid elemental analyses of the inorganic content of biomass feedstocks; and consequently, would complement the carbohydrate data provided by near-infrared spectrometry (NIRS). These constituents, including Si, K, Ca, Na, S, P, Cl, Mg, Fe and Al, create a number of downstream problems in thermochemical processes. In particular, they reduce the energy content of the feedstock, influence reaction pathways, contribute to fouling and corrosion within systems, poison catalysts, and impact waste streams.

  4. C4 Plants as Biofuel Feedstocks: Optimising Biomass Production and Feedstock Quality from a Lignocellulosic Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Caitlin S.Byrt; Christopher P.L.Grof; Robert T.Furbank

    2011-01-01

    The main feedstocks for bioethanol are sugarcane (Saccharum offic-inarum) and maize (Zea mays), both of which are C4 grasses, highly efficient at converting solar energy into chemical energy, and both are food crops. As the systems for lignocellulosic bioethanol production become more efficient and cost effective, plant biomass from any source may be used as a feedstock for bioethanol production. Thus, a move away from using food plants to make fuel is possible, and sources of biomass such as wood from forestry and plant waste from cropping may be used. However, the bioethanol industry will need a continuous and reliable supply of biomass that can be produced at a low cost and with minimal use of water, fertilizer and arable land. As many C4 plants have high light, water and nitrogen use efficiency, as compared with C3 species, they are ideal as feedstock crops. We consider the productivity and resource use of a number of candidate plant species, and discuss biomass 'quality', that is, the composition of the plant cell wall.

  5. The STEPPS Group Treatment Program as an alternative in helping people with borderline personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerica Radež

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Borderline personality disorder is a complex mental disorder which has severe impact on the quality of an individual's life. Although it is the most common type of personality disorder in the population of people with mental disorders, it has so far proven to be rather resistant to pharmacological treatments. This may suggest that effective psychotherapeutic methods need to be developed to help people with this diagnosis. There have been several attempts to develop successful therapeutic interventions for borderline personality disorder. Most of them were developed either from cognitive-behavioural or from psychoanalytic paradigm. More recent studies have focused on developing a more holistic approach. One such approach is the STEPPS program. This programme combines elements from cognitive-behavioural and systemic approaches. STEPPS is a 20-week, manually based group treatment for patients with borderline personality disorder. In comparison with other established approaches, the STEPPS program does not interfere with patient's other ongoing treatments. In this article we present the basics of the STEPPS program. We also provide a review of studies, investigating the effectiveness of the program. We also discuss advantages and disadvantages of the program and suggest some topics for further research.

  6. Impact of Technology and Feedstock Choice on the Environmental Footprint of Biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, P. B.; Dodder, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    The implementation of the U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard program (RFS2) has led to a dramatic shift in the use of biofuel in the U.S. transportation system over the last decade. To satisfy this demand, the production of U.S. corn-based ethanol has grown rapidly, with an average increase of over 25% annually from 2002 to 2010. RFS2 requires a similarly steep increase in the production of advanced biofuels, such as cellulosic ethanol. Unlike corn-based ethanol, which is derived from the biochemical fermentation of sugars in wet and dry mills, it is likely that a more diverse suite of technologies will need to be developed to be able to meet the advanced biofuel RFS2 targets, including biochemical as well as thermochemical (e.g., gasification and pyrolysis) approaches. Rather than relying on energy crops, a potential advantage of thermochemical approaches is the ability to use a wider variety of feedstocks, including municipal solid waste and wood waste. In this work, we conduct a system-level analysis to understand how technology and feedstock choice can impact the environmental footprint of biofuels in the U.S. We use a least-cost optimization model of the U.S. energy system to account for interactions between various components of the energy system: industrial, transportation, electric, and residential/commercial sectors. The model was used to understand the scale of feedstock demand required from dedicated energy crops, as well as other biomass feedstocks, in order to meet the RFS2 mandate. On a regional basis, we compare the overall water-consumption and land requirements for biofuels production given a suite of liquid-fuel production technologies. By considering a range of scenarios, we examine how the use of various feedstocks (e.g., agricultural residues, wood wastes, mill residues and municipal wastes) can be used to off-set environmental impacts as compared to relying solely on energy crops.

  7. The implementation limitations of and alternative policy solutions for Indonesia's REDD+ program concerning peatland restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Guzick

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent increases in global demand for palm oil have resulted in rapid, widespread deforestation in Indonesia, making Indonesia the third largest emitter of greenhouse gases in the world. Although the Indonesian government has sought to pursue progressive environmental policies to curb deforestation, such as through REDD+, implementation has been hampered by legal loopholes, corruption and weak rule of law. This paper will examine two alternative carbon sequestration policies to REDD+: a drying up of the palm oil market and a buy-out of palm oil plantations.

  8. Comparison of Teaching Attitudes, Teacher Efficacy, and Teacher Performance of First Year Teachers Prepared by Alternative and Traditional Teacher Education Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, Edith; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The findings from this study of Georgia teachers generally support the contention that condensed pedagogical preparation and a supervised internship are a reasonable alternative to traditional teacher preparation programs for persons with degrees in the subject they will teach. (IAH)

  9. An Exploratory Inquiry of the Outcomes of Adults Who Participated in a Virginia Alternative Education Program: Making Sense of Their Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, Melody D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to develop an understanding of how one group of adults who graduated from a Virginia regional alternative program made sense of their experience in an alternative education setting. Specifically, this study sought to determine if adult participants, several years later, perceived participation in the…

  10. Giving Literacy Away. Alternative Strategies for Increasing Adult Literacy Development, Training Capacity and Program Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reder, Stephen M.

    The phenomenon of adult functional illiteracy in the United States is examined, and strategies are considered for addressing the problem. Reasons for the failure of existing programs (schools, adult education, and volunteer tutoring) to close the literacy gap are explored; among these factors are the relative growth of underserved populations,…

  11. 78 FR 22026 - Alternative Transportation in Parks and Public Lands Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... authorized by Section 3021 of the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act--A Legacy... lands. Federal land management agencies and State, tribal and local governments acting with the consent of a federal land management agency are eligible recipients. This program was not re-authorized...

  12. Value-Added Models for Teacher Preparation Programs: Validity and Reliability Threats, and a Manageable Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Michael P.; Heiser, Lawrence A.; McCormick, Jazarae K.; Forgan, James

    2016-01-01

    High-stakes standardized student assessments are increasingly used in value-added evaluation models to connect teacher performance to P-12 student learning. These assessments are also being used to evaluate teacher preparation programs, despite validity and reliability threats. A more rational model linking student performance to candidates who…

  13. 75 FR 25867 - National Toxicology Program (NTP) Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Toxicology Program (NTP) Interagency Center for...://iccvam.niehs.nih.gov . Dated: April 30, 2010. John R. Bucher, Associate Director, National...

  14. 75 FR 32942 - National Toxicology Program (NTP); NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Toxicology Program (NTP); NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of...://iccvam.niehs.nih.gov . Dated: June 3, 2010. John R. Bucher, Associate Director, National...

  15. An Alternative Approach for MBA Mentor Programs: Empower the Protégé

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artis, Andrew B.

    2013-01-01

    A new approach is proposed to maximize the benefits of mentor relationships between master of business administration (MBA) students and executives by empowering students to select and recruit their own mentors, and then be responsible for managing those relationships. This mentor program is designed to be short but intensive. First-year MBA…

  16. Alternative Ultrasound Gel for a Sustainable Ultrasound Program: Application of Human Centered Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Margaret; Salmon, Christian; Bissinger, Alexa; Muller, Mundenga Mutendi; Gebreyesus, Alegnta; Geremew, Haimanot; Wendel, Sarah K; Wendell, Sarah; Azaza, Aklilu; Salumu, Maurice; Benfield, Nerys

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes design of a low cost, ultrasound gel from local products applying aspects of Human Centered Design methodology. A multidisciplinary team worked with clinicians who use ultrasound where commercial gel is cost prohibitive and scarce. The team followed the format outlined in the Ideo Took Kit. Research began by defining the challenge "how to create locally available alternative ultrasound gel for a low-resourced environment? The "End-Users," were identified as clinicians who use ultrasound in Democratic Republic of the Congo and Ethiopia. An expert group was identified and queried for possible alternatives to commercial gel. Responses included shampoo, oils, water and cornstarch. Cornstarch, while a reasonable solution, was either not available or too expensive. We then sought deeper knowledge of locally sources materials from local experts, market vendors, to develop a similar product. Suggested solutions gleaned from these interviews were collected and used to create ultrasound gel accounting for cost, image quality, manufacturing capability. Initial prototypes used cassava root flour from Great Lakes Region (DRC, Rwanda, Uganda, Tanzania) and West Africa, and bula from Ethiopia. Prototypes were tested in the field and resulting images evaluated by our user group. A final prototype was then selected. Cassava and bula at a 32 part water, 8 part flour and 4 part salt, heated, mixed then cooled was the product design of choice.

  17. Alternative Ultrasound Gel for a Sustainable Ultrasound Program: Application of Human Centered Design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Salmon

    Full Text Available This paper describes design of a low cost, ultrasound gel from local products applying aspects of Human Centered Design methodology. A multidisciplinary team worked with clinicians who use ultrasound where commercial gel is cost prohibitive and scarce. The team followed the format outlined in the Ideo Took Kit. Research began by defining the challenge "how to create locally available alternative ultrasound gel for a low-resourced environment? The "End-Users," were identified as clinicians who use ultrasound in Democratic Republic of the Congo and Ethiopia. An expert group was identified and queried for possible alternatives to commercial gel. Responses included shampoo, oils, water and cornstarch. Cornstarch, while a reasonable solution, was either not available or too expensive. We then sought deeper knowledge of locally sources materials from local experts, market vendors, to develop a similar product. Suggested solutions gleaned from these interviews were collected and used to create ultrasound gel accounting for cost, image quality, manufacturing capability. Initial prototypes used cassava root flour from Great Lakes Region (DRC, Rwanda, Uganda, Tanzania and West Africa, and bula from Ethiopia. Prototypes were tested in the field and resulting images evaluated by our user group. A final prototype was then selected. Cassava and bula at a 32 part water, 8 part flour and 4 part salt, heated, mixed then cooled was the product design of choice.

  18. The potential impacts of biomass feedstock production on water resource availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, K C; Hunt, P G; Cantrell, K B; Ro, K S

    2010-03-01

    Biofuels are a major topic of global interest and technology development. Whereas bioenergy crop production is highly dependent on water, bioenergy development requires effective allocation and management of water. The objectives of this investigation were to assess the bioenergy production relative to the impacts on water resource related factors: (1) climate and weather impact on water supplies for biomass production; (2) water use for major bioenergy crop production; and (3) potential alternatives to improve water supplies for bioenergy. Shifts to alternative bioenergy crops with greater water demand may produce unintended consequences for both water resources and energy feedstocks. Sugarcane and corn require 458 and 2036 m(3) water/m(3) ethanol produced, respectively. The water requirements for corn grain production to meet the US-DOE Billion-Ton Vision may increase approximately 6-fold from 8.6 to 50.1 km(3). Furthermore, climate change is impacting water resources throughout the world. In the western US, runoff from snowmelt is occurring earlier altering the timing of water availability. Weather extremes, both drought and flooding, have occurred more frequently over the last 30 years than the previous 100 years. All of these weather events impact bioenergy crop production. These events may be partially mitigated by alternative water management systems that offer potential for more effective water use and conservation. A few potential alternatives include controlled drainage and new next-generation livestock waste treatment systems. Controlled drainage can increase water available to plants and simultaneously improve water quality. New livestock waste treatments systems offer the potential to utilize treated wastewater to produce bioenergy crops. New technologies for cellulosic biomass conversion via thermochemical conversion offer the potential for using more diverse feedstocks with dramatically reduced water requirements. The development of bioenergy

  19. Integration of alternative feedstreams for biomass treatment and utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Susan Marie; Friend, Julie; Dunson, Jr., James B.; Tucker, III, Melvin P.; Elander, Richard T.; Hames, Bonnie

    2011-03-22

    The present invention provides a method for treating biomass composed of integrated feedstocks to produce fermentable sugars. One aspect of the methods described herein includes a pretreatment step wherein biomass is integrated with an alternative feedstream and the resulting integrated feedstock, at relatively high concentrations, is treated with a low concentration of ammonia relative to the dry weight of biomass. In another aspect, a high solids concentration of pretreated biomass is integrated with an alternative feedstream for saccharifiaction.

  20. Performance Analysis of Classification Methods and Alternative Linear Programming Integrated with Fuzzy Delphi Feature Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Izadi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Among various statistical and data mining discriminant analysis proposed so far for group classification, linear programming discriminant analysis have recently attracted the researchers’ interest. This study evaluates multi-group discriminant linear programming (MDLP for classification problems against well-known methods such as neural networks, support vector machine, and so on. MDLP is less complex compared to other methods and does not suffer from local optima. However, sometimes classification becomes infeasible due to insufficient data in databases such as in the case of an Internet Service Provider (ISP small and medium-sized market considered in this research. This study proposes a fuzzy Delphi method to select and gather required data. The results show that the performance of MDLP is better than other methods with respect to correct classification, at least for small and medium-sized datasets.

  1. Tanks Focus Area Alternative Salt Processing Research and Development Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, Harry D.

    2000-05-15

    In March 2000, DOE-Headquarters (HQ) requested the Tanks Focus Area (TFA)to assume management responsibility for the Salt Processing Project technology development program at Savannah River Site. The TFA was requested to conduct several activities, including review and revision of the technology development roadmaps, development of down-selection criteria, and preparation of a comprehensive Research and Development (R&D) Program Plan for three candidate cesium removal technologies, as well as the Alpha and strontium removal processes that must also be carried out. The three cesium removal candidate technologies are Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) Non-Elutable Ion Exchange, Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX), and Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Precipitation (STTP). This plan describes the technology development needs for each process that must be satisfied in order to reach a down-selection decision, as well as continuing technology development required to support conceptual design activities.

  2. Tanks Focus Area Alternative Salt Processing Research and Development Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, Harry D.

    2000-11-30

    In March 2000, DOE-Headquarters (HQ) requested the Tanks Focus Area (TFA) to assume management responsibility for the Salt Processing Project technology development program at Savannah River Site. The TFA was requested to conduct several activities, including review and revision of the technology development roadmaps, development of down-selection criteria, and preparation of a comprehensive Research and Development (R&D) Program Plan for three candidate cesium removal technologies, as well as the Alpha and strontium removal processes that must also be carried out. The three cesium removal candidate technologies are Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) Non-Elutable Ion Exchange, Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX), and Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Precipitation (STTP). This plan describes the technology development needs for each process that must be satisfied in order to reach a down-selection decision, as well as continuing technology development required to support conceptual design activities.

  3. From Punishment to Treatment: The “Clinical Alternative to Punitive Segregation” (CAPS Program in New York City Jails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Glowa-Kollisch

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of jails and prisons as places of institutionalization for persons with serious mental illness (SMI has resulted in many of these patients receiving jail-based punishments, including solitary confinement. Starting in 2013, the New York City (NYC jail system developed a new treatment unit for persons with SMI who were judged to have violated jail rules (and previously would have been punished with solitary confinement called the Clinical Alternative to Punitive Segregation (CAPS unit. CAPS is designed to offer a full range of therapeutic activities and interventions for these patients, including individual and group therapy, art therapy, medication counseling and community meetings. Each CAPS unit requires approximately $1.5 million more investment per year, largely in additional staff as compared to existing mental health units, and can house approximately 30 patients. Patients with less serious mental illness who received infractions were housed on units that combined solitary confinement with some clinical programming, called Restrictive Housing Units (RHU. Between 1 December 2013 and 31 March 2015, a total of 195 and 1433 patients passed through the CAPS and RHU units, respectively. A small cohort of patients experienced both CAPS and RHU (n = 90. For these patients, their rates of self-harm and injury were significantly lower while on the CAPS unit than when on the RHU units. Improvements in clinical outcomes are possible for incarcerated patients with mental illness with investment in new alternatives to solitary confinement. We have started to adapt the CAPS approach to existing mental health units as a means to promote better clinical outcomes and also help prevent jail-based infractions. The cost of these programs and the dramatic differences in length of stay for patients who earn these jail-based infractions highlight the need for alternatives to incarceration, some of which have recently been announced in NYC.

  4. Genetic Improvement of Switchgrass and Other Herbaceous Plants for Use as Biomass Fuel Feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, K.P.

    2001-01-11

    It should be highly feasible to genetically modify the feedstock quality of switchgrass and other herbaceous plants using both conventional and molecular breeding techniques. Effectiveness of breeding to modify herbages of switchgrass and other perennial and annual herbaceous species has already been demonstrated. The use of molecular markers and transformation technology will greatly enhance the capability of breeders to modify the plant structure and cell walls of herbaceous plants. It will be necessary to monitor gene flow to remnant wild populations of plants and have strategies available to curtail gene flow if it becomes a potential problem. It also will be necessary to monitor plant survival and long-term productivity as affected by genetic changes that improve forage quality. Information on the conversion processes that will be used and the biomass characteristics that affect conversion efficiency and rate is absolutely essential as well as information on the relative economic value of specific traits. Because most forage or biomass quality characteristics are highly affected by plant maturity, it is suggested that plant material of specific maturity stages be used in research to determining desirable feedstock quality characteristics. Plant material could be collected at various stages of development from an array of environments and storage conditions that could be used in conversion research. The same plant material could be used to develop NIRS calibrations that could be used by breeders in their selection programs and also to develop criteria for a feedstock quality assessment program. Breeding for improved feedstock quality will likely affect the rate of improvement of biomass production per acre. If the same level of resources are used, multi-trait breeding simply reduces the selection pressure and hence the breeding progress that can be made for a single trait unless all the traits are highly correlated. Since desirable feedstock traits are likely

  5. Method for determining processability of a hydrocarbon containing feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schabron, John F.; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F.

    2013-09-10

    Disclosed herein is a method involving the steps of (a) precipitating an amount of asphaltenes from a liquid sample of a first hydrocarbon-containing feedstock having solvated asphaltenes therein with one or more first solvents in a column; (b) determining one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes; (c) analyzing the one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes; and (d) correlating a measurement of feedstock reactivity for the first hydrocarbon-containing feedstock sample with a mathematical parameter derived from the results of analyzing the one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes.

  6. Development of Oilfield Chemicals Based on Advantages in Petrochemical Feedstocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xieqing; Peng Pu

    2002-01-01

    This article focuses on the routes for development of oilfield chemicals by making use of the feedstock advantages of the petrochemical industry. The diversification of oilfield chemicals has re sulted in thousand product grades. Because there are hundred domestic producers of oilfield chemicals,mostly medium and small producers, the fluctuations of feedstock prices and product quality cannot be conducive to the application and development of oilfield chemicals. This article illustrates the feasibility of oilfield chemical production by state-run medium and large petrochemical enterprises by allowing full play to their own advantages in petrochemical feedstocks.

  7. Geoffroea decorticans for Biofuels: A Promising Feedstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Santibáñez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, chañar (Geoffroea decorticans fruit is evaluated as a potential feedstock for biodiesel and biomass pellets production with reference to some relevant properties. The fatty acid profile of this oil (83% unsaturated acids is found to be comparable to similar seed oils which have been attempted for biodiesel production. As a result, the methyl esters (biodiesel obtained from this oil exhibits high quality properties. Chañar biodiesel quality meets all other biodiesel international standards (ASTM D6751 and EN 14214. Moreover, the husk that surrounds the kernel showed a high potential for usage as densified solid fuels. The results demonstrate that chañar husks pellets have a higher calorific value when compared with other biomass pellets, typically, approximately 21 MJ kg−1 with 1.8% of ashes (which is equivalent to that obtained from the combustion of pellets produced from forest wastes. This study indicates that chañar can be used as a multipurpose energy crop in semiarid regions for biodiesel and densified solid fuels (pellets production.

  8. Economic Impacts of Using Switchgrass as a Feedstock for Ethanol Production: A Case Study Located in East Tennessee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burton C. English

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major motivations to establish a biobased energy sector in the United States is to promote economic development in the rural areas of the nation. This study estimated the economic impact of investing and operating a switchgrass-based ethanol plant in East Tennessee. Applying a spatially oriented mixed-integer mathematical programming model, we first determined the location of biorefinery, feedstock draw area, and the resources used in various feedstock supply systems by minimizing the total plant gate cost of feedstock. Based on the model output, an input-output model was utilized to determine the total economic impact, including direct, indirect, and induced effects of feedstock investment and annual production in the study region. Moreover, the economic impact of ethanol plant investment and annual conversion operation was analyzed. Results suggest that the total annual expenditures in an unprotected large round bale system generated a total $92.5 million in economic output within the 13 counties of East Tennessee. In addition, an estimated $234 million in overall economic output was generated through the operation of the biorefinery. This research showed that the least-cost configuration of the feedstock supply chain influenced the levels and types of economic impact of biorefinery.

  9. MYCN controls an alternative RNA splicing program in high-risk metastatic neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shile; Wei, Jun S; Li, Samuel Q; Badgett, Tom C; Song, Young K; Agarwal, Saurabh; Coarfa, Cristian; Tolman, Catherine; Hurd, Laura; Liao, Hongling; He, Jianbin; Wen, Xinyu; Liu, Zhihui; Thiele, Carol J; Westermann, Frank; Asgharzadeh, Shahab; Seeger, Robert C; Maris, John M; Guidry Auvil, Jamie M; Smith, Malcolm A; Kolaczyk, Eric D; Shohet, Jason; Khan, Javed

    2016-02-28

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the aggressive behavior of MYCN driven neuroblastoma (NBL) is under intense investigation; however, little is known about the impact of this family of transcription factors on the splicing program. Here we used high-throughput RNA sequencing to systematically study the expression of RNA isoforms in stage 4 MYCN-amplified NBL, an aggressive subtype of metastatic NBL. We show that MYCN-amplified NBL tumors display a distinct gene splicing pattern affecting multiple cancer hallmark functions. Six splicing factors displayed unique differential expression patterns in MYCN-amplified tumors and cell lines, and the binding motifs for some of these splicing factors are significantly enriched in differentially-spliced genes. Direct binding of MYCN to promoter regions of the splicing factors PTBP1 and HNRNPA1 detected by ChIP-seq demonstrates that MYCN controls the splicing pattern by direct regulation of the expression of these key splicing factors. Furthermore, high expression of PTBP1 and HNRNPA1 was significantly associated with poor overall survival of stage4 NBL patients (p ≤ 0.05). Knocking down PTBP1, HNRNPA1 and their downstream target PKM2, an isoform of pro-tumor-growth, result in repressed growth of NBL cells. Therefore, our study reveals a novel role of MYCN in controlling global splicing program through regulation of splicing factors in addition to its well-known role in the transcription program. These findings suggest a therapeutically potential to target the key splicing factors or gene isoforms in high-risk NBL with MYCN-amplification.

  10. Progress in the production of bioethanol on starch-based feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragiša Savić

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol produced from renewable biomass, such as sugar, starch, or lignocellulosic materials, is one of the alternative energy resources, which is both renewable and environmentally friendly. Although, the priority in global future ethanol production is put on lignocellulosic processing, which is considered as one of the most promising second-generation biofuel technologies, the utilizetion of lignocellulosic material for fuel ethanol is still under improvement. Sugar- based (molasses, sugar cane, sugar beet and starch-based (corn, wheat, triticale, potato, rice, etc. feedstock are still currently predominant at the industrial level and they are, so far, economically favorable compared to lingocelluloses. Currently, approx. 80 % of total world ethanol production is obtained from the fermentation of simple sugars by yeast. In Serbia, one of the most suitable and available agricultural raw material for the industrial ethanol production are cereals such as corn, wheat and triticale. In addition, surpluses of this feedstock are being produced in our country constantly. In this paper, a brief review of the state of the art in bioethanol production and biomass availability is given, pointing out the progress possibilities on starch-based production. The progress possibilities are discussed in the domain of feedstock choice and pretreatment, optimization of fermentation, process integration and utilization of the process byproducts.

  11. DNAM-1 Expression Marks an Alternative Program of NK Cell Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic Martinet

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells comprise a heterogeneous population of cells important for pathogen defense and cancer surveillance. However, the functional significance of this diversity is not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate through transcriptional profiling and functional studies that the activating receptor DNAM-1 (CD226 identifies two distinct NK cell functional subsets: DNAM-1+ and DNAM-1− NK cells. DNAM-1+ NK cells produce high levels of inflammatory cytokines, have enhanced interleukin 15 signaling, and proliferate vigorously. By contrast, DNAM-1− NK cells that differentiate from DNAM-1+ NK cells have greater expression of NK-cell-receptor-related genes and are higher producers of MIP1 chemokines. Collectively, our data reveal the existence of a functional program of NK cell maturation marked by DNAM-1 expression.

  12. Microbial renewable feedstock utilization: A substrate-oriented approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rumbold, K.; Buijsen, H.J.J. van; Gray, V.M.; Groenestijn, J.W. van; Overkamp, K.M.; Slomp, R.S.; Werf, M.J. van der; Punt, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Increasingly lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates are used as the feedstock for industrial fermentations. These biomass hydrolysates consist of complex mixtures of different fermentable sugars, but also contain inhibitors and salts that affect the performance of the productgenerating microbes. The p

  13. Feedstock and Conversion Supply System Design and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mohammad, R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cafferty, K. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kenney, K. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Searcy, E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hansen, J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The success of the earlier logistic pathway designs (Biochemical and Thermochemical) from a feedstock perspective was that it demonstrated that through proper equipment selection and best management practices, conventional supply systems (referred to in this report as “conventional designs,” or specifically the 2012 Conventional Design) can be successfully implemented to address dry matter loss, quality issues, and enable feedstock cost reductions that help to reduce feedstock risk of variable supply and quality and enable industry to commercialize biomass feedstock supply chains. The caveat of this success is that conventional designs depend on high density, low-cost biomass with no disruption from incremental weather. In this respect, the success of conventional designs is tied to specific, highly productive regions such as the southeastern U.S. which has traditionally supported numerous pulp and paper industries or the Midwest U.S for corn stover.

  14. Feedstock Supply and Logistics: Biomass as a Commodity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-05-06

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office and its partners are developing the technologies and systems needed to sustainably and economically deliver a broad range of biomass in formats that enable their efficient use as feedstocks for biorefineries.

  15. Biodiesel production from low cost and renewable feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gude, Veera; Grant, Georgene; Patil, Prafulla; Deng, Shuguang

    2013-12-01

    Sustainable biodiesel production should: a) utilize low cost renewable feedstock; b) utilize energy-efficient, nonconventional heating and mixing techniques; c) increase net energy benefit of the process; and d) utilize renewable feedstock/energy sources where possible. In this paper, we discuss the merits of biodiesel production following these criteria supported by the experimental results obtained from the process optimization studies. Waste cooking oil, non-edible (low-cost) oils (Jatropha curcas and Camelina Sativa) and algae were used as feedstock for biodiesel process optimization. A comparison between conventional and non-conventional methods such as microwaves and ultrasound was reported. Finally, net energy scenarios for different biodiesel feedstock options and algae are presented.

  16. Algae as a Feedstock for Transportation Fuels. The Future of Biofuels?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGill, Ralph [Sentech, Inc., Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Consulting, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2008-05-15

    Events in world energy markets over the past several years have prompted many new technical developments as well as political support for alternative transportation fuels, especially those that are renewable. We have seen dramatic rises in the demand for and production of fuel ethanol from sugar cane and corn and biodiesel from vegetable oils. The quantities of these fuels being used continue to rise dramatically, and their use is helping to create a political climate for doing even more. But, the quantities are still far too small to stem the tide of rising crude prices worldwide. In fact, the use of some traditional crops (corn, sugar, soy, etc.) in making fuels instead of food is apparently beginning to impact the cost of food worldwide. Thus, there is considerable interest in developing alternative biofuel feedstocks for use in making fuels -- feedstocks that are not used in the food industries. Of course, we know that there is a lot of work in developing cellulosic-based ethanol that would be made from woody biomass. Process development is the critical path for this option, and the breakthrough in reducing the cost of the process has been elusive thus far. Making biodiesel from vegetable oils is a well-developed and inexpensive process, but to date there have been few reasonable alternatives for making biodiesel, although advanced processes such as gasification of biomass remain an option.

  17. Horse manure as feedstock for anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadin, Sa; Eriksson, Ola

    2016-10-01

    Horse keeping is of great economic, social and environmental benefit for society, but causes environmental impacts throughout the whole chain from feed production to manure treatment. According to national statistics, the number of horses in Sweden is continually increasing and is currently approximately 360,000. This in turn leads to increasing amounts of horse manure that have to be managed and treated. Current practices could cause local and global environmental impacts due to poor performance or lack of proper management. Horse manure with its content of nutrients and organic material can however contribute to fertilisation of arable land and recovery of renewable energy following anaerobic digestion. At present anaerobic digestion of horse manure is not a common treatment. In this paper the potential for producing biogas and biofertiliser from horse manure is analysed based on a thorough literature review in combination with mathematical modelling and simulations. Anaerobic digestion was chosen as it has a high degree of resource conservation, both in terms of energy (biogas) and nutrients (digestate). Important factors regarding manure characteristics and operating factors in the biogas plant are identified. Two crucial factors are the type and amount of bedding material used, which has strong implications for feedstock characteristics, and the type of digestion method applied (dry or wet process). Straw and waste paper are identified as the best materials in an energy point of view. While the specific methane yield decreases with a high amount of bedding, the bedding material still makes a positive contribution to the energy balance. Thermophilic digestion increases the methane generation rate and yield, compared with mesophilic digestion, but the total effect is negligible.

  18. Sophorolipid production from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samad, Abdul

    The present study investigated the feasibility of production of sophorolipids (SLs) using yeast Candida bombicola grown on hydrolysates derived lignocellulosic feedstock either with or without supplementing oil as extra carbon source. Several researchers have reported using pure sugars and various oil sources for producing SLs which makes them expensive for scale-up and commercial production. In order to make the production process truly sustainable and renewable, we used feedstocks such as sweet sorghum bagasse, corn fiber and corn stover. Without oil supplementation, the cell densities at the end of day-8 was recorded as 9.2, 9.8 and 10.8 g/L for hydrolysate derived from sorghum bagasse, corn fiber, and corn fiber with the addition of yeast extract (YE) during fermentation, respectively. At the end of fermentation, the SL concentration was 3.6 g/L for bagasse and 1.0 g/L for corn fiber hydrolysate. Among the three major sugars utilized by C. bombicola in the bagasse cultures, glucose was consumed at a rate of 9.1 g/L-day; xylose at 1.8 g/L-day; and arabinose at 0.98 g/L-day. With the addition of soybean oil at 100 g/L, cultures with bagasse hydrolysates, corn fiber hydrolysates and standard medium had a cell content of 7.7 g/L; 7.9 g/L; and 8.9 g/L, respectively after 10 days. The yield of SLs from bagasse hydrolysate was 84.6 g/L and corn fiber hydrolysate was15.6 g/L. In the same order, the residual oil in cultures with these two hydrolysates was 52.3 g/L and 41.0 g/L. For this set of experiment; in the cultures with bagasse hydrolysate; utilization rates for glucose, xylose and arabinose was recorded as 9.5, 1.04 and 0.08 g/L-day respectively. Surprisingly, C. bombicola consumed all monomeric sugars and non-sugar compounds in the hydrolysates and cultures with bagasse hydrolysates had higher yield of SLs than those from a standard medium which contained pure glucose at the same concentration. Based on the SL concentrations and considering all sugars consumed

  19. MLP: A Parallel Programming Alternative to MPI for New Shared Memory Parallel Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taft, James R.

    1999-01-01

    Recent developments at the NASA AMES Research Center's NAS Division have demonstrated that the new generation of NUMA based Symmetric Multi-Processing systems (SMPs), such as the Silicon Graphics Origin 2000, can successfully execute legacy vector oriented CFD production codes at sustained rates far exceeding processing rates possible on dedicated 16 CPU Cray C90 systems. This high level of performance is achieved via shared memory based Multi-Level Parallelism (MLP). This programming approach, developed at NAS and outlined below, is distinct from the message passing paradigm of MPI. It offers parallelism at both the fine and coarse grained level, with communication latencies that are approximately 50-100 times lower than typical MPI implementations on the same platform. Such latency reductions offer the promise of performance scaling to very large CPU counts. The method draws on, but is also distinct from, the newly defined OpenMP specification, which uses compiler directives to support a limited subset of multi-level parallel operations. The NAS MLP method is general, and applicable to a large class of NASA CFD codes.

  20. Breeding programs for smallholder sheep farming systems: I. Evaluation of alternative designs of breeding schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizaw, S; Rischkowsky, B; Valle-Zárate, A; Haile, A; van Arendonk, J A M; Mwai, A O; Dessie, T

    2014-10-01

    Village- and central nucleus-based schemes were simulated and evaluated for their relative bio-economic efficiencies, using Ethiopia's Menz sheep as example. The schemes were: village-based 2-tier (Scheme-1) and 1-tier (Scheme-2) cooperative village breeding schemes, dispersed village-based nuclei scheme (Scheme-3), conventional 2-tier central nucleus-based scheme (Scheme-4), and schemes linking a central nucleus and village multiplier nuclei with selection in central nucleus (Scheme-5) or in both central and village nuclei (Scheme-6). Among village-based schemes, Scheme-1 gave the highest genetic progress, while Scheme-2 was economically the most efficient with genetic gain in the breeding objective of Birr 5.6 and a profit of Birr 37.2/ewe/year. The central nucleus schemes were more efficient than the village schemes. Scheme-4 was the most efficient with genetic gain in the breeding objective of Birr 13.5 and a profit of Birr 71.2, but is operationally more difficult as it requires a very large central nucleus. The choice between village and central nucleus-based schemes would depend on local conditions (availability of infrastructure, logistics and technical knowhow and support). Linking central nucleus with village-based nuclei (Scheme-6) would be a feasible option to overcome the operational difficulties of the conventional central nucleus scheme. If a village-based breeding program is envisaged as should be the 1st step in most low-input systems, then Scheme-2 is the most efficient. To scale out to an entire Menz breed level, Scheme-3 would be recommended.

  1. A lecture program on complementary and alternative medicine for cancer patients--evaluation of the pilot phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, J; Ebel, M; Muenstedt, K; Micke, O; Prott, F J; Muecke, R; Hoppe, A

    2015-06-01

    About half of all patients with cancer use complementary or alternative medicine (CAM). In 2013, we started a lecture program for patients, followed by evidence-based recommendations on counseling on CAM. These recommendations have been published before by this working group. The aim of the program is to provide scientific facts on the most often used CAM methods in standardized presentations which help patients discuss the topic with their oncologists and support shared decision making. The article presents the evaluation of the pilot phase. Participants received a standardized questionnaire before the start of the lecture. The questionnaire comprises four parts: demographic data, data concerning experience with CAM, satisfaction with the lecture, and needs for further information on CAM. In 2013, seven lectures on CAM were given in cooperation with regional branches of the German Cancer Society in several German states. Four hundred sixty patients and relatives took part (75% females and 16% males). Forty-eight percent formerly had used CAM. Most often named sources of information on CAM were print media (48%) and the Internet (37%). Most participants rated additional written information valuable. About one third would like to have an individual consultation concerning CAM. A standardized presentation of evidence on CAM methods most often used, together with recommendations on the self-management of symptoms, is highly appreciated. The concept of a highly interactive lecture comprising is feasible and if presented in lay terminology, adequate. In order to give additional support on the topic, written information should be provided as the first step.

  2. Roadmap for Agriculture Biomass Feedstock Supply in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Richard Hess; Thomas D. Foust; Reed Hoskinson; David Thompson

    2003-11-01

    The Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee established a goal that biomass will supply 5% of the nation’s power, 20% of its transportation fuels, and 25% of its chemicals by 2030. These combined goals are approximately equivalent to 30% of the country’s current petroleum consumption. The benefits of a robust biorefinery industry supplying this amount of domestically produced power, fuels, and products are considerable, including decreased demand for imported oil, revenue to the depressed agricultural industry, and revitalized rural economies. A consistent supply of highquality, low-cost feedstock is vital to achieving this goal. This biomass roadmap defines the research and development (R&D) path to supplying the feedstock needs of the biorefinery and to achieving the important national goals set for biomass. To meet these goals, the biorefinery industry must be more sustainable than the systems it will replace. Sustainability hinges on the economic profitability of all participants, on environmental impact of every step in the process, and on social impact of the product and its production. In early 2003, a series of colloquies were held to define and prioritize the R&D needs for supplying feedstock to the biorefinery in a sustainable manner. These colloquies involved participants and stakeholders in the feedstock supply chain, including growers, transporters, equipment manufacturers, and processors as well as environmental groups and others with a vested interest in ensuring the sustainability of the biorefinery. From this series of colloquies, four high-level strategic goals were set for the feedstock area: • Biomass Availability – By 2030, 1 billion dry tons of lignocellulosic feedstock is needed annually to achieve the power, fuel, and chemical production goals set by the Biomass Research and Development Technology Advisory Production Committee • Sustainability – Production and use of the 1 billion dry tons annually must be

  3. Biodiesel Drives Florida Power & Light's EPAct Alternative Compliance Strategy; EPAct Alternative Fuel Transportation Program: Success Story (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-05-01

    This success story highlights how Florida Power & Light Company has successfully complied with the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) through Alternative Compliance using biodiesel technologies and how it has become a biofuel leader, reducing petroleum use and pollutant emissions throughout Florida.

  4. Genetic Modification of Short Rotation Poplar Biomass Feedstock for Efficient Conversion to Ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinus, R.J.

    2000-08-30

    The Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory is developing poplars (Populus species and hybrids) as sources of renewable energy, i.e., ethanol. Notable increases in adaptability, volume productivity, and pest/stress resistance have been achieved via classical selection and breeding and intensified cultural practices. Significant advances have also been made in the efficiencies of harvesting and handling systems. Given these and anticipated accomplishments, program leaders are considering shifting some attention to genetically modifying feedstock physical and chemical properties, so as to improve the efficiency with which feedstocks can be converted to ethanol. This report provides an in-depth review and synthesis of opportunities for and feasibilities of genetically modifying feedstock qualities via classical selection and breeding, marker-aided selection and breeding, and genetic transformation. Information was collected by analysis of the literature, with emphasis on that published since 1995, and interviews with prominent scientists, breeders, and growers. Poplar research is well advanced, and literature is abundant. The report therefore primarily reflects advances in poplars, but data from other species, particularly other shortrotation hardwoods, are incorporated to fill gaps. An executive summary and recommendations for research, development, and technology transfer are provided immediately after the table of contents. The first major section of the report describes processes most likely to be used for conversion of poplar biomass to ethanol, the various physical and chemical properties of poplar feedstocks, and how such properties are expected to affect process efficiency. The need is stressed for improved understanding of the impact of change on both overall process and individual process step efficiencies. The second part documents advances in trait measurement instrumentation and methodology

  5. Vermicompost derived from different feedstocks as a plant growth medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warman, P R; Anglopez, M J

    2010-06-01

    This study determined feedstock effects on earthworm populations and the quality of resulting vermicomposts produced from different types of feedstocks using different vermicomposting durations. Feedstock combinations (Kitchen Paper Waste (KPW), Kitchen Yard Waste (KYW), Cattle Manure Yard Waste (CMY)), three durations of vermicomposting (45, 68 or 90 days), and two seed germination methods (with two concentrations of vermicompost) for radish, marigold and upland cress, served as the independent variables. The worms (Eisenia fetida) doubled their weight by day 68 in KPW and CMY vermicomposts and day 90 KPW vermicompost produced the greatest weight of worms. The direct seed germination method (seeding into soil or vermicompost-soil mixtures) indicated that KPW and KYW feedstocks decreased germination compared to the control, even in mature vermicompost. Seed germination was greater in the water extract method; however, most of the vermicompost extracts suppressed germination of the three seed species compared to the water controls. Vermicomposts from all three feedstocks increased leaf area and biomass compared to the control, especially in the 10% vermicompost:soil mix. Thus, seed germination and leaf area or plant biomass for these three species are contrasting vermicompost quality indicators.

  6. BLENDED LEARNING (BL AS PEDAGOGICAL ALTERNATIVE TO TEACH BUSINESS COMMUNICATION COURSE: Case Study of UUM Executive Diploma Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisham DZAKIRIA

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Globally, blended learning (BL technologies have been increasingly applied in a variety of fields, both public and private sectors. In recent years, universities, public and private businesses and organizations are among those employing blended learning methods and technologies in training and re-training of professionals in the workforce. In Malaysia, the increasing use of blended learning to enhance learning and enriching of soft skills among professionals and individuals in the work place is evident. The advancement of technology is an onset to many new avenues and tool for learning and teaching, and it is the coalescing of these various technologies with particular pedagogy or andragogy has helped to popularize BL. However, when an institution makes the critical choice of delivery methods, it is pertinent that the university needs to consider various success factors. One in particular is student-centered approach that entails the need to understand the students as the beneficiary of learning, and the support system they need to help them learn. This qualitative study reports in detail the experience of a small group of students undertaking Executive Diplomas at Executive Development Centre (EDC, Universiti Utara Malaysia as they progress through their Executive program. This paper looks at learning experiences as described by the learners- it is their story, their experience, and their perspective. This study suggests that BL offered a comfortable middle ground, and has lots of potential in higher education in Malaysia. It is a pedagogical alternative that could play a significant role not only for teaching Business Communication, but has the potential to promote lifelong learning initiatives in Malaysia in a much meaningful and inviting way. Although this study shows that BL contributed a significant and meaningful learning particularly for adult learners, it needs more definitive studies. Such information can be used to guide policy makers

  7. All About Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Robert D.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    A primer on alternative schools. Described are existing programs in different areas, philosophy of the alternative schools, funding, student behavior, community relations, accountability, State regulations, management, and the environment of the alternative school. A list of sources of additional information on alternative schools is included.…

  8. Ensiling corn stover: effect of feedstock preservation on particleboard performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Haiyu; Richard, Tom L; Chen, Zhilin; Kuo, Monlin; Bian, Yilin; Moore, Kenneth J; Patrick, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    Ensilage is a truncated solid-state fermentation in which anaerobically produced organic acids accumulate to reduce pH and limit microbial activity. Ensilage can be used to both preserve and pretreat biomass feedstock for further downstream conversion into chemicals, fuels, and/or fiber products. This study examined the ensilage of enzyme-treated corn stover as a feedstock for particleboard manufacturing. Corn stover at three different particle size ranges (ensilage process, as indicated by sustained lower pH (P ensilage process. Compared with fresh stover, the ensilage process did increase IB of stover particleboard by 33% (P ensilage can be used as a long-term feedstock preservation method for particleboard production from corn stover. Enzyme-amended ensilage not only improved stover preservation but also enhanced the properties of particleboard products.

  9. Cost Methodology for Biomass Feedstocks: Herbaceous Crops and Agricultural Residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL; Webb, Erin [ORNL; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL

    2009-12-01

    This report describes a set of procedures and assumptions used to estimate production and logistics costs of bioenergy feedstocks from herbaceous crops and agricultural residues. The engineering-economic analysis discussed here is based on methodologies developed by the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE) and the American Agricultural Economics Association (AAEA). An engineering-economic analysis approach was chosen due to lack of historical cost data for bioenergy feedstocks. Instead, costs are calculated using assumptions for equipment performance, input prices, and yield data derived from equipment manufacturers, research literature, and/or standards. Cost estimates account for fixed and variable costs. Several examples of this costing methodology used to estimate feedstock logistics costs are included at the end of this report.

  10. Bioprocessing of bio-based chemicals produced from lignocellulosic feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Hideo; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2016-12-01

    The feedstocks used for the production of bio-based chemicals have recently expanded from edible sugars to inedible and more recalcitrant forms of lignocellulosic biomass. To produce bio-based chemicals from renewable polysaccharides, several bioprocessing approaches have been developed and include separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF), simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), and consolidated bioprocessing (CBP). In the last decade, SHF, SSF, and CBP have been used to generate macromolecules and aliphatic and aromatic compounds that are capable of serving as sustainable, drop-in substitutes for petroleum-based chemicals. The present review focuses on recent progress in the bioprocessing of microbially produced chemicals from renewable feedstocks, including starch and lignocellulosic biomass. In particular, the technological feasibility of bio-based chemical production is discussed in terms of the feedstocks and different bioprocessing approaches, including the consolidation of enzyme production, enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass, and fermentation.

  11. CBTL Design Case Summary Conventional Feedstock Supply System - Woody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher T. Wright; Erin M. Searcy

    2012-02-01

    A conventional woody feedstock design has been developed that represents supply system technologies, costs, and logistics that are achievable today for supplying woody biomass as a blendstock with coal for energy production. Efforts are made to identify bottlenecks and optimize the efficiency and capacities of this supply system, within the constraints and consideration of existing local feedstock supplies, equipment, and permitting requirements. The feedstock supply system logistics operations encompass all of the activities necessary to move woody biomass from the production location to the conversion reactor ready for blending and insertion. This supply system includes operations that are currently available such that costs and logistics are reasonable and reliable. The system modeled for this research project includes the use of the slash stream since it is a more conservative analysis and represents the material actually used in the experimental part of the project.

  12. C-Speak Aphasia alternative communication program for people with severe aphasia: importance of executive functioning and semantic knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Marjorie; Sinotte, Michele P; Helm-Estabrooks, Nancy

    2011-06-01

    Learning how to use a computer-based communication system can be challenging for people with severe aphasia even if the system is not word-based. This study explored cognitive and linguistic factors relative to how they affected individual patients' ability to communicate expressively using C-Speak Aphasia (CSA), an alternative communication computer program that is primarily picture-based. Ten individuals with severe non-fluent aphasia received at least six months of training with CSA. To assess carryover of training, untrained functional communication tasks (i.e., answering autobiographical questions, describing pictures, making telephone calls, describing a short video, and two writing tasks) were repeatedly probed in two conditions: (1) using CSA in addition to natural forms of communication, and (2) using only natural forms of communication, e.g., speaking, writing, gesturing, drawing. Four of the 10 participants communicated more information on selected probe tasks using CSA than they did without the computer. Response to treatment was also examined in relation to baseline measures of non-linguistic executive function skills, pictorial semantic abilities, and auditory comprehension. Only nonlinguistic executive function skills were significantly correlated with treatment response.

  13. Program of rational energy use and alternative sources; Programa de uso racional de energia e fontes alternativas-PUREFA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Velazquez, Silvia Maria Stortini Gonzalez; Silva, Orlando Cristiano da; Varkulya Junior, Americo; Pecora, Vanessa [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO)

    2004-07-01

    The PUREFA (Program of Rational Energy Use and Alternative Sources), developed by USP - University of Sao Paulo and supported by FINEP - Financial of Studies and Projects, consists of 14 purposes and has three main objectives: to introduce measures of management and energy efficiency proceedings; to increase the distributed generation at USP, employing renewable and not conventional energy resources and to introduce permanent incentive polices of efficient and rational energy use. In this project, the CENBIO - Brazilian Reference Center on Biomass is responsible for purposes 11 and 12 that are related to the biogas use for electricity generation. The first one, the 11th has as main objectives to implant the generation system, to capture and to stock the biogas produced by the biodigestor located at the Technological Hydraulically Center (CTH - USP). The biodigestors type is a UASB (Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket), whose outflow of the biogas produced is near to 4m{sup 3}/day and operates 24 hours per day, utilizing sewer from the residential buildings located at Sao Paulo University, inside the campus. Nowadays, this equipment is used for biogas treatment researches, the biogas emitted to the atmosphere. In order to use the biogas, it is necessary to identify its outflow, chemical composition and heat value, parameters that will determinate its real potential for generation and will show the necessity of a previous treatment, as H{sub 2}S removal. Finished this stage will be started the purpose 12, purpose that regards the biogas use as fuel for electricity generation. (author)

  14. Effects of milling and active surfactants on rheological behavior of powder injection molding feedstock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范景莲; 黄伯云; 曲选辉

    2001-01-01

    The effects of milling and active surfactants on the rheological behavior of powder injection molding feedstock were discussed. The feedstock consists of traditional compositional 90W-7Ni-3Fe powder mixture and a wax based polymer binder. Before mixing feedstock, the powder mixture was milled for different times in a QM-1 high-energy ball mill. The viscosity of the feedstock was examined in a capillary rheometer. The rheological behavior was evaluated from viscosity data. The results show that the feedstock belongs to a pseudoplastic fluid, milling decreases viscosity of the feedstock and the sensitivity of viscosity to shear strain rate. The flowability, rheology and powder loading of this feedstock are improved by milling. Active surfactants such as stearic acid (SA) and di-n-octyl-o-phthalate (DOP) have great influences on the rheological properties of the feedstock. DOP improves the flowability and rheological stability of the feedstock further.

  15. Washery tailings from coal preparation used as aluminium feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehn, L.; Schieder, T.; Belsky, M.; Lotze, J.; Winkhaus, G.

    1982-06-01

    Kaolinite clays and washery tailings of coal mines are the major feedstocks of the West German aluminium industry. Statistics are given in order to assess the amount of washery tailings available and their suitability as feedstocks for aluminium production. The chemical and mineralogical composition are similar for washery tailings from different mines; accordingly, also their behaviour regarding decomposition by acids will be almost identical. Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ extraction yields are satisfactory with strongly precalcinated material using concentrated sulphuric acid or azeotropic hydrochloric acid - in the latter case, however, only if fluoride is added to the acid.

  16. Macroalgae as a Biomass Feedstock: A Preliminary Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesijadi, Guritno; Jones, Susanne B.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2010-09-26

    A thorough of macroalgae analysis as a biofuels feedstock is warranted due to the size of this biomass resource and the need to consider all potential sources of feedstock to meet current biomass production goals. Understanding how to harness this untapped biomass resource will require additional research and development. A detailed assessment of environmental resources, cultivation and harvesting technology, conversion to fuels, connectivity with existing energy supply chains, and the associated economic and life cycle analyses will facilitate evaluation of this potentially important biomass resource.

  17. Reading Fluency through Alternative Text: Rereading with an Interact Sing-to-Read Program Embedded within a Middle School Music Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Marie C.; Watkins, Nancy A.

    2008-01-01

    Singing exaggerates the language of reading. The students find their voices in the rhythm and bounce of language by using music as an alternative technological approach to reading. A concurrent mixed methods study was conducted to investigate the use of an interactive sing-to-read program Tune Into Reading (Electronic Learning Products, 2006)…

  18. Alternative Teacher Certification and the New Professionalism: The Pre-Service Preparation of Mathematics Teachers in the New York City Teaching Fellows Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantlinger, Andrew; Smith, Beverly

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context: For more than a decade, large alternative teacher certification programs (ATCP) such as the New York City Teaching Fellows (NYCTF) have provided qualified applicants with fast-track or "early entry" routes to paid teaching. While early-entry ATCPs enjoy powerful support in the public and private sectors, critics…

  19. Restructuring upstream bioprocessing: technological and economical aspects for production of a generic microbial feedstock from wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutinas, A A; Wang, R; Webb, C

    2004-03-05

    Restructuring and optimization of the conventional fermentation industry for fuel and chemical production is necessary to replace petrochemical production routes. Guided by this concept, a novel biorefinery process has been developed as an alternative to conventional upstream processing routes, leading to the production of a generic fermentation feedstock from wheat. The robustness of Aspergillus awamori as enzyme producer is exploited in a continuous fungal fermentation on whole wheat flour. Vital gluten is extracted as an added-value byproduct by the conventional Martin process from a fraction of the overall wheat used. Enzymatic hydrolysis of gluten-free flour by the enzyme complex produced by A. awamori during fermentation produces a liquid stream rich in glucose (320 g/L). Autolysis of fungal cells produces a micronutrient-rich solution similar to yeast extract (1.6 g/L nitrogen, 0.5 g/L phosphorus). The case-specific combination of these two liquid streams can provide a nutrient-complete fermentation medium for a spectrum of microbial bioconversions for the production of such chemicals as organic acids, amino acids, bioethanol, glycerol, solvents, and microbial biodegradable plastics. Preliminary economic analysis has shown that the operating cost required to produce the feedstock is dependent on the plant capacity, cereal market price, presence and market value of added-value byproducts, labor costs, and mode of processing (batch or continuous). Integration of this process in an existing fermentation plant could lead to the production of a generic feedstock at an operating cost lower than the market price of glucose syrup (90% to 99% glucose) in the EU, provided that the plant capacity exceeds 410 m(3)/day. Further process improvements are also suggested.

  20. The direct liquefaction proof of concept program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comolli, A.G.; Lee, L.K.; Pradhan, V.R.; Stalzer, R.H. [New York & Puritan Avenues, Lawrenceville, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The goal of the Proof of Concept (POC) Program is to develop Direct Coal Liquefaction and associated transitional technologies towards commercial readiness for economically producing premium liquid fuels from coal in an environmentally acceptable manner. The program focuses on developing the two-stage liquefaction (TSL) process by utilizing geographically strategic feedstocks, commercially feasible catalysts, new prototype equipment, and testing co-processing or alternate feedstocks and improved process configurations. Other high priority objectives include dispersed catalyst studies, demonstrating low rank coal liquefaction without solids deposition, improving distillate yields on a unit reactor volume basis, demonstrating ebullated bed operations while obtaining scale-up data, demonstrating optimum catalyst consumption using new concepts (e.g. regeneration, cascading), producing premium products through on-line hydrotreating, demonstrating improved hydrogen utilization for low rank coals using novel heteroatom removal methods, defining and demonstrating two-stage product properties for upgrading; demonstrating efficient and economic solid separation methods, examining the merits of integrated coal cleaning, demonstrating co-processing, studying interactions between the preheater and first and second-stage reactors, improving process operability by testing and incorporating advanced equipment and instrumentation, and demonstrating operation with alternate coal feedstocks. During the past two years major PDU Proof of Concept runs were completed. POC-1 with Illinois No. 6 coal and POC-2 with Black Thunder sub-bituminous coal. Results from these operations are continuing under review and the products are being further refined and upgraded. This paper will update the results from these operations and discuss future plans for the POC program.

  1. Lignocellulosic feedstock supply systems with intermodal and overseas transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefnagels, Ric; Searcy, E.; Kafferty, K.; Cornelissen, T.; Junginger, Martin; Jacobson, J.; Faaij, André

    2014-01-01

    With growing demand for internationally traded biomass, the logistic operations required to economically move biomass from the field or forest to end- users have become increasingly complex. To design cost effective and sustainable feedstock supply chains, it is important to understand the economics

  2. The impact of silicon feedstock on the PV module cost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    del Coso, G.; del Cañizo, C.; Sinke, W.C.

    2010-01-01

    The impact of the use of new (solar grade) silicon feedstock materials on the manufacturing cost of wafer-based crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules is analyzed considering effects of material cost, efficiency of utilisation, and quality. Calculations based on data provided by European industry

  3. Elemental concentrations in Triticale straw, a potential bioenergy feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack) is produced on more than three million ha world wide including 344,000 ha in the USA. Straw resulting from triticale production could provide feedstock for bioenergy production in many regions of the world, but high concentrations of certain elements, including s...

  4. Maximum fossil fuel feedstock replacement potential of petrochemicals via biorefineries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brehmer, B.; Boom, R.M.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    The search for feedstock replacement options within the petrochemical industry should logically be based upon non-fossil resources. Retaining the functionality of the biochemicals in biomass for use as chemical products and precursors can lead to a sizeable reduction of fossil fuel consumption. This

  5. A Landscape Vision for Sustainable Bioenergy Feedstock Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feedstock production for biofuel and other bioproducts is poised to rejuvenate rural economies, but may lead to long-term degradation of soil resources or other adverse and unintended environmental consequences if the practices are not developed in a sustainable manner. This presentation will examin...

  6. a Novel Framework for Incorporating Sustainability Into Biomass Feedstock Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, G.; Negri, C.

    2012-12-01

    There is a strong society need to evaluate and understand the sustainability of biofuels, especially due to the significant increases in production mandated by many countries, including the United States. Biomass feedstock production is an important contributor to environmental, social and economic impacts from biofuels. We present a systems approach where the agricultural, urban, energy and environmental sectors are considered as components of a single system and environmental liabilities are used as recoverable resources for biomass feedstock production. A geospatial analysis evaluating marginal land and degraded water resources to improve feedstock productivity with concomitant environmental restoration was conducted for the major corn producing states in the US. The extent and availability of these resources was assessed and geospatial techniques used to identify promising opportunities to implement this approach. Utilizing different sources of marginal land (roadway buffers, contaminated land) could result in a 7-fold increase in land availability for feedstock production and provide ecosystem services such as water quality improvement and carbon sequestration. Spatial overlap between degraded water and marginal land resources was found to be as high as 98% and could maintain sustainable feedstock production on marginal lands through the supply of water and nutrients. Multi-objective optimization was used to quantify the tradeoffs between net revenue, improvements in water quality and carbon sequestration at the farm scale using this design. Results indicated that there is an initial opportunity where land that is marginally productive for row crops and of marginal value for conservation purposes could be used to grow bioenergy crops such that that water quality and carbon sequestration benefits are obtained.

  7. Biocatalysis for the application of CO2 as a chemical feedstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos Alissandratos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biocatalysts, capable of efficiently transforming CO2 into other more reduced forms of carbon, offer sustainable alternatives to current oxidative technologies that rely on diminishing natural fossil-fuel deposits. Enzymes that catalyse CO2 fixation steps in carbon assimilation pathways are promising catalysts for the sustainable transformation of this safe and renewable feedstock into central metabolites. These may be further converted into a wide range of fuels and commodity chemicals, through the multitude of known enzymatic reactions. The required reducing equivalents for the net carbon reductions may be drawn from solar energy, electricity or chemical oxidation, and delivered in vitro or through cellular mechanisms, while enzyme catalysis lowers the activation barriers of the CO2 transformations to make them more energy efficient. The development of technologies that treat CO2-transforming enzymes and other cellular components as modules that may be assembled into synthetic reaction circuits will facilitate the use of CO2 as a renewable chemical feedstock, greatly enabling a sustainable carbon bio-economy.

  8. Green biodiesel production: a review on feedstock, catalyst, monolithic reactor, and supercritical fluid technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizo Edwin Gumba

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The advancement of alternative energy is primarily catalyzed by the negative environmental impacts and energy depletion caused by the excessive usage of fossil fuels. Biodiesel has emerged as a promising substitute to petrodiesel because it is biodegradable, less toxic, and reduces greenhouse gas emission. Apart from that, biodiesel can be used as blending component or direct replacements for diesel fuel in automotive engines. A diverse range of methods have been reported for the conversion of renewable feedstocks (vegetable oil or animal fat into biodiesel with transesterification being the most preferred method. Nevertheless, the cost of producing biodiesel is higher compared to fossil fuel, thus impeding its commercialization potentials. The limited source of reliable feedstock and the underdeveloped biodiesel production route have prevented the full-scale commercialization of biodiesel in many parts of the world. In a recent development, a new technology that incorporates monoliths as support matrices for enzyme immobilization in supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 for continuous biodiesel production has been proposed to solve the problem. The potential of SC-CO2 system to be applied in enzymatic reactors is not well documented and hence the purpose of this review is to highlight the previous studies conducted as well as the future direction of this technology.

  9. Metals and minerals as a biotechnology feedstock: engineering biomining microbiology for bioenergy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Indrani; Burrell, Brittany; Reed, Cara; West, Alan C; Banta, Scott

    2017-03-31

    Developing new feedstocks for the efficient production of biochemicals and biofuels will be a critical challenge as we diversify away from petrochemicals. One possible opportunity is the utilization of sulfide-based minerals in the Earth's crust. Non-photosynthetic chemolithoautotrophic bacteria are starting to be developed to produce biochemicals from CO2 using energy obtained from the oxidation of inorganic feedstocks. Biomining of metals like gold and copper already exploit the native metabolism of these bacteria and these represent perhaps the largest-scale bioprocesses ever developed. The metabolic engineering of these bacteria could be a desirable alternative to classical heterotrophic bioproduction. In this review, we discuss biomining operations and the challenges and advances in the engineering of associated chemolithoautotrophic bacteria for biofuel production. The co-generation of biofuels integrated with mining operations is a largely unexplored opportunity that will require advances in fundamental microbiology and the development of new genetic tools and techniques for these organisms. Although this approach is presently in its infancy, the production of biochemicals using energy from non-petroleum mineral resources is an exciting new biotechnology opportunity.

  10. Fatty acid profile as a basis for screening feedstocks for biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatty acid (FA) profile was used as a screening tool for the selection of feedstocks high in monounsaturated content for evaluation as biodiesel. The feedstocks were ailanthus (Ailanthus altissima), anise (Pimpinella anisum), arugula (Eruca vesicaria), camelina (Camelina sativa), coriander (Coriandr...

  11. Soil C storage and greenhouse gas emission perennial grasses managed for bio energy feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perennial grasses like switchgrass or big bluestem when managed as bioenergy feedstock require nitrogenous inputs. Nitrogen fertilizer frequently cause nitrous oxide emission. Therefore, managing grasses as feedstock may reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation potential expected from perennial. ...

  12. Genetic engineering of cyanobacteria as biodiesel feedstock.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruffing, Anne.; Trahan, Christine Alexandra; Jones, Howland D. T.

    2013-01-01

    Algal biofuels are a renewable energy source with the potential to replace conventional petroleum-based fuels, while simultaneously reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The economic feasibility of commercial algal fuel production, however, is limited by low productivity of the natural algal strains. The project described in this SAND report addresses this low algal productivity by genetically engineering cyanobacteria (i.e. blue-green algae) to produce free fatty acids as fuel precursors. The engineered strains were characterized using Sandias unique imaging capabilities along with cutting-edge RNA-seq technology. These tools are applied to identify additional genetic targets for improving fuel production in cyanobacteria. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates successful fuel production from engineered cyanobacteria, identifies potential limitations, and investigates several strategies to overcome these limitations. This project was funded from FY10-FY13 through the President Harry S. Truman Fellowship in National Security Science and Engineering, a program sponsored by the LDRD office at Sandia National Laboratories.

  13. Modeling Sustainable Bioenergy Feedstock Production in the Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraxner, Florian; Leduc, Sylvain; Kindermann, Georg; Fuss, Sabine; Pietsch, Stephan; Lakyda, Ivan; Serrano Leon, Hernan; Shchepashchenko, Dmitry; Shvidenko, Anatoly

    2016-04-01

    Sustainability of bioenergy is often indicated by the neutrality of emissions at the conversion site while the feedstock production site is assumed to be carbon neutral. Recent research shows that sustainability of bioenergy systems starts with feedstock management. Even if sustainable forest management is applied, different management types can impact ecosystem services substantially. This study examines different sustainable forest management systems together with an optimal planning of green-field bioenergy plants in the Alps. Two models - the biophysical global forest model (G4M) and a techno-economic engineering model for optimizing renewable energy systems (BeWhere) are implemented. G4M is applied in a forward looking manner in order to provide information on the forest under different management scenarios: (1) managing the forest for maximizing the carbon sequestration; or (2) managing the forest for maximizing the harvestable wood amount for bioenergy production. The results from the forest modelling are then picked up by the engineering model BeWhere, which optimizes the bioenergy production in terms of energy demand (power and heat demand by population) and supply (wood harvesting potentials), feedstock harvesting and transport costs, the location and capacity of the bioenergy plant as well as the energy distribution logistics with respect to heat and electricity (e.g. considering existing grids for electricity or district heating etc.). First results highlight the importance of considering ecosystem services under different scenarios and in a geographically explicit manner. While aiming at producing the same amount of bioenergy under both forest management scenarios, it turns out that in scenario (1) a substantially larger area (distributed across the Alps) will need to be used for producing (and harvesting) the necessary amount of feedstock than under scenario (2). This result clearly shows that scenario (2) has to be seen as an "intensification

  14. WTAQ version 2-A computer program for analysis of aquifer tests in confined and water-table aquifers with alternative representations of drainage from the unsaturated zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Paul M.; Moench, Allen F.

    2011-01-01

    The computer program WTAQ simulates axial-symmetric flow to a well pumping from a confined or unconfined (water-table) aquifer. WTAQ calculates dimensionless or dimensional drawdowns that can be used with measured drawdown data from aquifer tests to estimate aquifer hydraulic properties. Version 2 of the program, which is described in this report, provides an alternative analytical representation of drainage to water-table aquifers from the unsaturated zone than that which was available in the initial versions of the code. The revised drainage model explicitly accounts for hydraulic characteristics of the unsaturated zone, specifically, the moisture retention and relative hydraulic conductivity of the soil. The revised program also retains the original conceptualizations of drainage from the unsaturated zone that were available with version 1 of the program to provide alternative approaches to simulate the drainage process. Version 2 of the program includes all other simulation capabilities of the first versions, including partial penetration of the pumped well and of observation wells and piezometers, well-bore storage and skin effects at the pumped well, and delayed drawdown response of observation wells and piezometers.

  15. Theoretical Analysis of Unit Friction Force Working on the Metal Contact Surface with the Roll Change during Feedstock with Non-Uniform Temperature Distribution Rolling Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sygut P.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of theoretical studies influence of non-uniform temperature distribution along the feedstock length to the unit friction force working on the metal contact surface with the roll change during the round bars 70 mm in diameter continuous rolling process. This value is one of the major factors affecting the grooves wear during the rolling process. The studies were carried out based on the actual engineering data for 160 × 160 mm square cross-section feedstock of steel S355J0. Numerical modelling of the rolling process was performed using Forge2008®, a finite-element based computer program.

  16. Alternative Approaches for Educating Future Global Marketing Professionals: A Comparison of Foreign Study and Research-Intensive Marketing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Peter A.; Melton, Horace L.; Varner, Iris I.; Hoelscher, Mark; Schmidt, Klaus; Spaulding, Aslihan D.

    2011-01-01

    Using an experiential learning model as a conceptual background, this article discusses characteristics and learning objectives for well-known foreign study programs such as study tours, study abroad, and internships and compares them with a less common overseas program called the "Global Marketing Program" (GMP). GMP involves…

  17. Alternative Approaches for Educating Future Global Marketing Professionals: A Comparison of Foreign Study and Research-Intensive Marketing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Peter A.; Melton, Horace L.; Varner, Iris I.; Hoelscher, Mark; Schmidt, Klaus; Spaulding, Aslihan D.

    2011-01-01

    Using an experiential learning model as a conceptual background, this article discusses characteristics and learning objectives for well-known foreign study programs such as study tours, study abroad, and internships and compares them with a less common overseas program called the "Global Marketing Program" (GMP). GMP involves interdisciplinary…

  18. “Nerdy Know-it-Alls” and “Paranoid Parents”: Images of Alternative Learning in Films and Television Programs

    OpenAIRE

    David Cameron HAUSEMAN

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how homeschooling, unschooling and alternative learners have been portrayed in five recent films and television programs. It also investigates whether the media are grounding their representations of these students and their parents in reality, or if it is disseminating harmful stereotypes that may have detrimental effects for those who choose to learn in this manner in real life.In the wake of numerous (and often misguided) school reform efforts across North America and m...

  19. Integrating multimodal transport into cellulosic biofuel supply chain design under feedstock seasonality with a case study based on California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fei; Huang, Yongxi; Eksioglu, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    A multistage, mixed integer programing model was developed that fully integrates multimodal transport into the cellulosic biofuel supply chain design under feedstock seasonality. Three transport modes are considered: truck, single railcar, and unit train. The goal is to minimize the total cost for infrastructure, feedstock harvesting, biofuel production, and transportation. Strategic decisions including the locations and capacities of transshipment hubs, biorefineries, and terminals and tactical decisions on system operations are optimized in an integrated manner. When the model was implemented to a case study of cellulosic ethanol production in California, it was found that trucks are convenient for short-haul deliveries while rails are more effective for long-haul transportation. Taking the advantage of these benefits, the multimodal transport provides more cost effective solutions than the single-mode transport (truck).

  20. Multicrystalline silicon wafers prepared from upgraded metallurgical feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degoulange, J.; Trassy, C. [SIMAP UMR CNRS, INP Grenoble (France); Perichaud, I.; Martinuzzi, S. [TECSEN UMR CNRS-University Paul Cezanne-Aix, Marseille III (France)

    2008-10-15

    A solution to the problem of the shortage of silicon feedstock used to grow multicrystalline ingots can be the production of a feedstock obtained by the direct purification of upgraded metallurgical silicon by means of a plasma torch. It is found that the dopant concentrations in the material manufactured following this metallurgical route are in the 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} range. Minority carrier diffusion lengths L{sub n} are close to 35 {mu}m in the raw wafers and increases up to 120 {mu}m after the wafers go through the standard processing steps needed to make solar cells: phosphorus diffusion, aluminium-silicon alloying and hydrogenation by deposition of a hydrogen-rich silicon nitride layer followed by an annealing. L{sub n} values are limited by the presence of residual metallic impurities, mainly slow diffusers like aluminium, and also by the high doping level. (author)

  1. Hydrogen production via catalytic processing of renewable feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazim Muradov; Franklyn Smith; Ali T-Raissi [Florida Solar Energy Center, University of Central Florida, Cocoa, Florida, (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Landfill gas (LFG) and biogas can potentially become important feedstocks for renewable hydrogen production. The objectives of this work were: (1) to develop a catalytic process for direct reforming of CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2} gaseous mixture mimicking LFG, (2) perform thermodynamic analysis of the reforming process using AspenPlus chemical process simulator, (3) determine operational conditions for auto-thermal (or thermo-neutral) reforming of a model CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2} feedstock, and (4) fabricate and test a bench-scale hydrogen production unit. Experimental data obtained from catalytic reformation of the CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2}-O{sub 2} gaseous mixtures using Ni-catalyst were in a good agreement with the simulation results. It was demonstrated that catalytic reforming of LFG-mimicking gas produced hydrogen with the purity of 99.9 vol.%. (authors)

  2. Pyrolysis of biomass to produce fuels and chemical feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaman, Serdar E-mail: yamans@itu.edu.tr

    2004-03-01

    This review presents the summary of new studies on pyrolysis of biomass to produce fuels and chemical feedstocks. A number of biomass species, varying from woody and herbaceous biomass to municipal solid waste, food processing residues and industrial wastes, were subjected to different pyrolysis conditions to obtain liquid, gas and solid products. The results of various biomass pyrolysis investigations connected with the chemical composition and some properties of the pyrolysis products as a result of the applied pyrolysis conditions were combined. The characteristics of the liquid products from pyrolysis were examined, and some methods, such as catalytic upgrading or steam reforming, were considered to improve the physical and chemical properties of the liquids to convert them to economic and environmentally acceptable liquid fuels or chemical feedstocks. Outcomes from the kinetic studies performed by applying thermogravimetric analysis were also presented.

  3. Pyrolysis of biomass to produce fuels and chemical feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serdar Yaman [Istanbul Technical University (Turkey). Chemical Engineering Dept.

    2004-03-01

    This review presents the summary of new studies on pyrolysis of biomass to produce fuels and chemical feedstocks. A number of biomass species, varying from woody and herbaceous biomass to municipal solid waste, food processing residues and industrial wastes, were subjected to different pyrolysis conditions to obtain liquid, gas and solid products. The results of various biomass pyrolysis investigations connected with the chemical composition and some properties of the pyrolysis products as a result of the applied pyrolysis conditions were combined. The characteristics of the liquid products from pyrolysis were examined, and some methods, such as catalytic upgrading or steam reforming, were considered to improve the physical and chemical properties of the liquids to convert them to economic and environmentally acceptable liquid fuels or chemical feedstocks. Outcomes from the kinetic studies performed by applying thermogravimetric analysis were also presented. (author)

  4. Effects of feedstocks on the process integration of biohydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foglia, Domenico; Wukovits, Walter; Friedl, Anton [Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria); Ljunggren, Mattias; Zacchi, Guido [Lund University, P. O. Box 124, Lund (Sweden); Urbaniec, Krzysztof; Markowski, Mariusz [Warsaw University of Technology, Plock (Poland)

    2011-08-15

    Future production of hydrogen must be sustainable. To obtain it, renewable resources have to be employed for its production. Fermentation of biomasses could be a viable way. The process evaluated is a two-step fermentation to produce hydrogen from biomass. Process options with barley straws, PSP, and thick juice as feedstocks have been compared on the basis of process balances. Aspen Plus has been used to calculate mass and energy balances taking into account the integration of the process. Results show that the production of hydrogen as energy carrier is technically feasible with all the considered feedstocks and thanks to heat integration, second generation biomass (PSP and barley straws) are competitive with food crops (thick juice). (orig.)

  5. Processes for liquefying carbonaceous feedstocks and related compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonnell, Frederick M.; Dennis, Brian H.; Billo, Richard E.; Priest, John W.

    2017-02-28

    Methods for the conversion of lignites, subbituminous coals and other carbonaceous feedstocks into synthetic oils, including oils with properties similar to light weight sweet crude oil using a solvent derived from hydrogenating oil produced by pyrolyzing lignite are set forth herein. Such methods may be conducted, for example, under mild operating conditions with a low cost stoichiometric co-reagent and/or a disposable conversion agent.

  6. Effects of surfactant on properties of MIM feedstock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yi-min; LIU Xiang-quan; LUO Feng-hua; YUE Jian-ling

    2007-01-01

    Effects of the surfactant for improving the properties of MIM feedstock were investigated. Feedstocks were prepared by 17-4PH stainless steel(SS) powder and paraffin wax-based binder containing different contents of stearic acid(SA) as the surfactant. The viscosity of the feedstock decreases significantly when the SA is added. Besides, the wetting angle of the binder against the 17-4PH SS powder decreases greatly and the critical solid loading increases with the adding of the SA. Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy(FTIR) analysis was used to prove the interaction between the SA and the 17-4PH SS powder. Chemical bonding is found on the surface of 17-4PH SS powder after mixing and it helps a lot to enhance the interacting force between the binder and the powder. Then an adsorbing model was adopted to estimate the least content of the surfactant that formed a monolayer adsorption on the mono-sized spherical powder (with smooth surface). The least content of the surfactant is calculated to be 0.19%. Whereas, the experiments indicate that about 5% is the optimal value to improve the properties of the feedstock. The reason may come from two aspects: firstly, the powders used in current experiment are not all mono-sized spheres and the coarse surface of the powder has a great effect on the adsorptive capacity of the powder; secondly, multilayer adsorption is likely to occur on the powder surface, which will also increase the adsorptive capacity.

  7. LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS: A POTENTIAL FEEDSTOCK TO REPLACE PETROLEUM

    OpenAIRE

    Lucian A. Lucia

    2008-01-01

    Sustainability considerations for product and energy production in a future US economy can be met with lignocellulosic biomass. The age of petroleum as the key resource to meet the US economy requirements is rapidly dwindling, given the limited resources of petroleum, the growing global population, and concurrent detrimental effects on environmental safety. The use of natural and renewable feedstocks such as trees and switchgrass is becoming more attractive; indeed, lignocellulosic biomass i...

  8. Effect of Agricultural Feedstock to Energy Conversion Rate on Bioenergy and GHG Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chun Kung

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan is eager to develop renewable energy because it is vulnerable to energy price distortion and ocean level rise. Previous studies show bioenergy technologies can be applied mutually, but pay little attention on feedstocks to energy conversion rate, which has potential influences on policy making in renewable energy and environment. This study employs a price endogenous mathematical programming model to simultaneously simulate the market operations under various feedstocks to energy conversion rates, energy prices, and greenhouse gas (GHG prices. The result shows pyrolysis-based electricity can reach up to 2.75 billion kWh annually, but it will be driven out at low conversion rate and high GHG price. Pyrolysis plus biochar application will be the optimal option in terms of carbon sequestration. Market valuation on potential threats of extreme weather could have substantial influences on ethanol and renewable electricity generation. To achieve aimed GHG emission reduction and/or bioenergy production, government intervention may be involved to align the market operation with Taiwan’s environmental policy.

  9. Expected international demand for woody and herbaceous feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamers, Patrick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Jacobson, Jacob [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mohammad, Roni [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wright, Christopher [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The development of a U.S. bioenergy market and ultimately ‘bioeconomy’ has primarily been investigated with a national focus. Limited attention has been given to the potential impacts of international market developments. The goal of this project is to advance the current State of Technology of a single biorefinery to the global level providing quantitative estimates on how international markets may influence the domestic feedstock supply costs. The scope of the project is limited to feedstock that is currently available and new crops being developed to be used in a future U.S. bioeconomy including herbaceous residues (e.g., corn stover), woody biomass (e.g., pulpwood), and energy crops (e.g., switchgrass). The timeframe is set to the periods of 2022, 2030, and 2040 to align with current policy targets (e.g., the RFS2) and future updates of the Billion Ton data. This particular milestone delivers demand volumes for generic woody and herbaceous feedstocks for the main (net) importing regions along the above timeframes. The regional focus of the study is the European Union (EU), currently the largest demand region for U.S. pellets made from pulpwood and forest residues. The pellets are predominantly used in large-scale power plants (>5MWel) in the United Kingdom (UK), the Netherlands (NL), Belgium (BE), and Denmark (DK).

  10. Physiochemical Characterization of Briquettes Made from Different Feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Karunanithy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Densification of biomass can address handling, transportation, and storage problems and also lend itself to an automated loading and unloading of transport vehicles and storage systems. The purpose of this study is to compare the physicochemical properties of briquettes made from different feedstocks. Feedstocks such as corn stover, switchgrass, prairie cord grass, sawdust, pigeon pea grass, and cotton stalk were densified using a briquetting system. Physical characterization includes particle size distribution, geometrical mean diameter (GMD, densities (bulk and true, porosity, and glass transition temperature. The compositional analysis of control and briquettes was also performed. Statistical analyses confirmed the existence of significant differences in these physical properties and chemical composition of control and briquettes. Correlation analysis confirms the contribution of lignin to bulk density and durability. Among the feedstocks tested, cotton stalk had the highest bulk density of 964 kg/m3 which is an elevenfold increase compared to control cotton stalk. Corn stover and pigeon pea grass had the highest (96.6% and lowest (61% durability.

  11. How non-conventional feedstocks will affect aromatics technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, E. [Clariant Produkte (Deutschland) GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    The abundance of non-conventional feedstocks such as coal and shale gas has begun to affect the availability of traditional base chemicals such as propylene and BTX aromatics. Although this trend is primarily fueled by the fast growing shale gas economy in the US and the abundance of coal in China, it will cause the global supply and demand situation to equilibrate across the regions. Lower demand for gasoline and consequently less aromatics rich reformate from refineries will further tighten the aromatics markets that are expected to grow at healthy rates, however. Refiners can benefit from this trend by abandoning their traditional fuel-oriented business model and becoming producers of petrochemical intermediates, with special focus on paraxylene (PX). Cheap gas from coal (via gasification) or shale reserves is an advantaged feedstock that offers a great platform to make aromatics in a cost-competitive manner, especially in regions where naphtha is in short supply. Gas condensates (LPG and naphtha) are good feedstocks for paraffin aromatization, and methanol from coal or (shale) gas can be directly converted to BTX aromatics (MTA) or alkylated with benzene or toluene to make paraxylene. Most of today's technologies for the production and upgrading of BTX aromatics and their derivatives make use of the unique properties of zeolites. (orig.)

  12. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Program. Bibliography, 1993 edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, K.H.

    1993-06-01

    The Bibliography contains listings of publicly available reports, journal articles, and published conference papers sponsored by the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and published between 1987 and mid-1993. The topics of Bibliography include: analysis and evaluation; building equipment research; building thermal envelope systems and materials; district heating; residential and commercial conservation program; weatherization assistance program; existing buildings research program; ceramic technology project; alternative fuels and propulsion technology; microemulsion fuels; industrial chemical heat pumps; materials for advanced industrial heat exchangers; advanced industrial materials; tribology; energy-related inventions program; electric energy systems; superconducting technology program for electric energy systems; thermal energy storage; biofuels feedstock development; biotechnology; continuous chromatography in multicomponent separations; sensors for electrolytic cells; hydropower environmental mitigation; environmental control technology; continuous fiber ceramic composite technology.

  13. Two Year Virologic Outcomes of an Alternative AIDS Care Model: Evaluation of a Peer Health Worker and Nurse-Staffed Community-Based Program in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Larry W.; Alamo, Stella; Guma, Samuel; Christopher, Jason; Suntoke, Tara; Omasete, Richard; Montis, Jennifer P.; Quinn, Thomas C.; Juncker, Margrethe; Reynolds, Steven J

    2009-01-01

    Background There is growing concern about the human resources needed to care for increasing numbers of patients receiving antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings. We evaluated an alternative model, community-based, comprehensive antiretroviral program staffed primarily by peer health workers and nurses. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients receiving antiretroviral therapy during the first 10 months of program enrollment beginning in late 2003. Virologic, immunologic, clinical, and adherence data were collected. Results Of 360 patients started on treatment, 258 (72%) were active and on therapy approximately two years later. Viral load testing demonstrated that 86% of active patients (211 of 246 tested) had a viral load <400 copies/mL. The median CD4 increase for active patients was 197 cells/mm3 (IQR, 108–346). Patients with either a history of antiretroviral use or lack of CD4 response were more likely to experience virologic failure. Survival was 84% at one year and 82% at two years. WHO stage 4 was predictive of both not sustaining therapy and increased mortality. Conclusions A community-based antiretroviral treatment program in a resource-limited setting can provide excellent AIDS care over at least a two year period. A comprehensive program based upon peer health workers and nurses provides an effective alternative model for AIDS care. PMID:19194316

  14. Community Alternatives for Love and Limits (CALL: A community-based family strengthening multi-family intervention program to respond to adolescents at risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Wilkerson

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Family strengthening has become a source of growing interest, research, and program design in the fields of prevention and treatment for problems of youth delinquency, school failure, alcohol, tobacco and other drug abuse (ATOD. Despite many studies that illustrate the positive outcomes of family strengthening programs and family-focused interventions, their use in communities has not advanced commensurate with their promise. This article offers a rationale for why programming efforts should continue to be directed towards family strengthening efforts as opposed to youth-focused only interventions. In addition, a community-based, family-strengthening alternative is described that addresses issues of youth delinquency while reducing barriers associated with availability, accessibility, and cost.

  15. Prospective framework for collection and exploitation of waste cooking oil as feedstock for energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhabhandhu, Ampaitepin; Tezuka, Tetsuo [Energy Economics Laboratory, Department of Socio-Environmental Energy Science, Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Yoshida-honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    From the viewpoint of waste-to-energy, waste cooking oil is one of the attractive and available recycled feedstocks, apart from agricultural residues. The generation of energy from waste cooking oil is considered as an effective technique for waste management, as well as a beneficial form of energy recovery. Two alternative systems and a conventional system of waste cooking oil collection and conversion are evaluated by the cost benefit analysis in order to find a suitable method for waste-to-energy conversion. The results show that the collection of waste cooking oil with waste lubricating oil (System II) a useful alternative to the management of waste cooking oil (B/C > 1). The total heat produced by the combustion of pyrolytic oil at maximum and minimum conversion rates is also determined. The separate collection of waste cooking oil, subjected to chemical pre-treatment prior to introduction in a pyrolysis reactor (System III), is considered an undesirable option (B/C < 1) due to the cost of the chemicals involved. Although the exclusion of chemical pre-treatment makes System III a desirable option, the total amount of heat of combustion generated is less. The increased electricity cost required for the process has no effect on the benefit-cost ratio of System II. However, System III, excluding chemical pre-treatment, becomes an unprofitable alternative when the electricity cost reaches 100% of the fixed capital cost at the minimum conversion rate. (author)

  16. A Mixed Methods Examination of Resilience and Social Connectedness among Youth in an Alternative to Suspension Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Dawn X.

    2012-01-01

    Since 1970 suspension rates for adolescents have more than doubled across the nation. Numerous risk factors serve as determinants and are associated with such outcomes. However, presented with these alarming statistics advocates have called for an alternative to out of school suspension policies and practices. Embedded within this context is an…

  17. Are We Supporting Teacher Success: Insights from an Alternative Route Mathematics Teacher Certification Program for Urban Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Mary Q.; Brantlinger, Andrew; Haydar, Hanna N.; Smith, Beverly; Gonzalez, Lidia

    2011-01-01

    In this article we examine induction policies and practices for new alternatively certified mathematics teachers in the country's largest urban school district, New York City. Our focus is on the support system for such teachers as it is legislated and as it is enacted. This includes the induction and general supports (e.g., mentoring, coaching,…

  18. Supplementary analysis of impacts of alternative approaches for the Certification/Enforcement Program for consumer-product energy-efficiency standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-04

    Vitro Laboratories Task 2 Report developed and qualitatively evaluated 4 alternative approaches for a DOE program for the certification and enforcement of consumer-product energy efficiency standards. This Task 5 report provides supplemental resource impact analyses of the four (a minimal governmental intervention approach, a strong certification control approach, a strong enforcement audit approach, and a mixed certification/enforcement approach) approaches. This analysis derives quantitative estimates of the impacts of these alternative approaches in terms of the five key decision variables defined in Task 2 (DOE staffing requirements, DOE program costs, test costs, indirect costs, and level of compliance). Definitions and assumptions of the resource-impact analyses of the four alternative certification and enforcement approaches are described for furnaces and boilers, water heaters, refrigerators and refrigerator/freezers, kitchen ranges and ovens (gas only), central air conditioners, and freezers. The next 5 chapters are dedicated to discussions of the five key decision variables. Results of the comparative evaluation are presented in the final chapter.

  19. Outlook for alternative transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gushee, D.E. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This presentation provides a brief review of regulatory issues and Federal programs regarding alternative fuel use in automobiles. A number of U.S. DOE initiatives and studies aimed at increasing alternative fuels are outlined, and tax incentives in effect at the state and Federal levels are discussed. Data on alternative fuel consumption and alternative fuel vehicle use are also presented. Despite mandates, tax incentives, and programs, it is concluded alternative fuels will have minimal market penetration. 7 refs., 5 tabs.

  20. Study of Recycled and Virgin Compounded Metal Injection Moulded Feedstock for Stainless Steel 630

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manonukul, Anchalee; Likityingwara, Warakij; Rungkiatnawin, Phataraporn; Muenya, Nattapol; Amoranan, Suttha; Kittinantapol, Witoo; Surapunt, Suphachai

    Fine rounded powders preferable for metal injection moulding (MIM) are expensive. This forces MIM makers to recycle green scraps, for example, the runner system and defected green parts. This is particularly necessary for injection moulded small parts where parts are only a small portion of the injection short size. There is very little published data, although recycling feedstock has been practise throughout the industry. This work aims at investigating the effects of recycled stainless steel 630 feedstock content on the density, mechanical properties, dimensional changes and microstructure. Five batches of compounded virgin and recycled feedstock were studies from 0% to 100% recycled feedstock with the increment of 25%. Homogenously compounded feedstock was injected using the same injection condition. Subsequently, green parts were debinded and sintered at 1325°C for 2 hours in argon atmosphere. The results suggest that the green density increases linearly with increasing percentage of recycled feedstock because the polymeric binder was broken down during previous process. However, the sintered density remains nominally constant. As a result, the mechanical properties and microstructure of sintered parts are independent of recycled feedstock content. However, the volumetric and linear shrinkage decreases linearly with the increase in percentage of recycled feedstock. The difference in shrinkage is vital to dimensional control during commercial production. For example, only 4.5% of recycled feedstock can be added to virgin feedstock if a tolerance of ±0.3 mm is required for a 25 mm MIM part.

  1. Lifeline electric rates and alternative approaches to the problems of low-income ratepayers: cross-program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to aid the US Department of Energy in developing materials to assist state regulatory authorities and nonregulated utilities in determining whether or not to implement lifeline rates. In accordance with this objective, case studies of ten implemented and ten rejected lifeline-rate programs were conducted. The initiation and implementation of these programs are described in detail and their actual or anticipated impact on conservation, efficiency, and equity are assessed. The findings of the study are reported in three volumes. The first volume provides general overview and cross-program comparisons of the social and economic context of lifeline, governmental process, and impact assessment. Volume 2 describes the case studies of the 10 implemented programs and Volume 3 describes the 10 non-implemented lifeline proposals. The programs were selected so that in each of these groups at least one program would have the following eligibility requirements: all residential users; elderly low-income residential users; and elderly residential users. (MCW)

  2. Identification and genetic characterization of maize cell wall variation for improved biorefinery feedstock characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauly, Markus [UC Berkeley; Hake, Sarah [USDA Albany

    2013-10-31

    The objectives of this program are to 1) characterize novel maize mutants with altered cell walls for enhanced biorefinery characteristics and 2) find quantitative trait loci (QTLs) related to biorefinery characteristics by taking advantage of the genetic diversity of maize. As a result a novel non-transgenic maize plant (cal1) has been identified, whose stover (leaves and stalk) contain more glucan in their walls leading to a higher saccharification yield, when subjected to a standard enzymatic digestion cocktail. Stacking this trait with altered lignin mutants yielded evene higher saccharification yields. Cal-1 mutants do not show a loss of kernel and or biomass yield when grown in the field . Hence, cal1 biomass provides an excellent feedstock for the biofuel industry.

  3. High efficiency esterification and transesterification of alternative feedstock for biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boffito, D.C.; Mansi, S.; Pirola, C.; Vitali, S.; Bianchi, C.L. [Milano Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica Fisica ed Elettrochimica; Leveque, J.M. [Savoie Univ., Le Bourget du Lac (France). LCME/CISM; Carvoli, G. [Khemistar S.r.l.-P, Novara (Italy); Rispoli, A.; Barnabe, D.; Bucchi, R. [Agri2000 Soc. Coop., Castel Maggiore (Italy)

    2012-07-01

    Free Fatty Acids (FFA) esterification and transesterification reactions were studied in presence of traditional and sonochemical assisted techniques, such as microwave (MW) and ultrasound (US). Several non edible oils, both of vegetable origin or waste oil were used. Acid ion exchange resins Amebrlyst {sup registered} 15 (A15) and 46 (A46) and Purolite {sup registered} D5081 were used as catalysts for the FFA esterification. All the oils were successfully deacified over the resins, in particular A46 and D5081 showed a very good performance also after several recycles of use. Sonochemical methods were able to increase the conversion of the reactions. MW resulted to shorten the time to reach the plateau of conversion in FFA esterification, while US-assisted transesterification required lower reagents amount and much shorter times than the traditional one. (orig.)

  4. A Century Long Pursuit of Alternative Fuels and Feedstocks: A Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Retrieved January 3, 2011, from JSTOR : http://www.jstor.org/stable/3742604 Glover, B., & Mattingly, J. (2009). Reconsidering Municipal Solid Waste as a...the Rise of the German Synthetic Fuel Industry. Retrieved August 11, 2010, from JSTOR : http://www.jstor.org/stable/232411 Stranges, A. N. (2003

  5. Fuel property enhancement of biodiesel fuels from common and alternative feedstocks via complementary blending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel) prepared from field pennycress and meadowfoam seed oils were blended with methyl esters from camelina, cottonseed, palm, and soybean oils in an effort to ameliorate technical deficiencies inherent to these biodiesel fuels. For instance, camelina, cottonseed, and ...

  6. Forest feedstocks : systems for recovery of residual biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, J. [FP Innovations, Vancouver, BC (Canada). FERIC Div.

    2007-07-01

    Interest in forest feedstock is growing due to high energy costs, the need for energy self-sufficiency and climate change issues. The Mountain Pine Beetle (MPB) epidemic in British Columbia has also contributed to the growing interest in forest feedstock. This presentation discussed the potential for wood to be used for liquid fuels conversion, pellets and biorefineries. The extraction of energy from residue biomass was reviewed with reference to traditional sources such as hog fuel and black liquor, as well as new sources that consider the changing landscape. These include harvest residues, MPB-killed stands, burned stands, non-merchantable stands, and stumps. Early thinning and FireSmart treatments were outlined along with the value of purpose-grown energy plantations. The variety of available recovery methods and equipment was demonstrated, including whole-tree chippers; disc and drum chippers; grinders and shredders; overhead conveyor systems; blower attachments; and, wheel-mounted equipment. The performance of each method and equipment was reviewed along with challenges regarding the transportation of a low-value, low bulk-density material over long distances. Although residue bundlers have been developed, it was suggested that it may be more cost effective to convert the feedstock in the field using a mobile biorefinery, and then transport the denser fuel. It was shown that although a range of equipment is available, nothing has been designed specifically for full-tree residue. It was noted that coordination with conventional harvesting is desirable, but may not be possible in all cases. Lessons from studies have indicated that the distance from the mill is a major cost factor and that the debris should be prepared in advance to shipping. tabs., figs.

  7. Environmental and financial implications of ethanol as a bioethylene feedstock versus as a transportation fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKechnie, Jon; Pourbafrani, Mohammad; Saville, Bradley A.; MacLean, Heather L.

    2015-12-01

    Bulk chemicals production from biomass may compete with biofuels for low-cost and sustainable biomass sources. Understanding how alternative uses of biomass compare in terms of financial and environmental parameters is therefore necessary to help ensure that efficient uses of resources are encouraged by policy and undertaken by industry. In this paper, we compare the environmental and financial performance of using ethanol as a feedstock for bioethylene production or as a transport fuel in the US life cycle-based models are developed to isolate the relative impacts of these two ethanol uses and generate results that are applicable irrespective of ethanol production pathway. Ethanol use as a feedstock for bioethylene production or as a transport fuel leads to comparable greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fossil energy consumption reductions relative to their counterparts produced from fossil sources. By displacing gasoline use in vehicles, use of ethanol as a transport fuel is six times more effective in reducing petroleum energy use on a life cycle basis. In contrast, bioethylene predominately avoids consumption of natural gas. Considering 2013 US ethanol and ethylene market prices, our analysis shows that bioethylene is financially viable only if significant price premiums are realized over conventional ethylene, from 35% to 65% depending on the scale of bioethylene production considered (80 000 t yr-1 to 240 000 t yr-1). Ethanol use as a transportation fuel is therefore the preferred pathway considering financial, GHG emissions, and petroleum energy use metrics, although bioethylene production could have strategic value if demand-side limitations of ethanol transport fuel markets are reached.

  8. Biomass supply chain management in North Carolina (part 2: biomass feedstock logistical optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Caffrey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Biomass logistics operations account for a major portion of the feedstock cost of running a biorefinery, and make up a significant portion of total system operational costs. Biomass is a bulky perishable commodity that is required in large quantities year round for optimal biorefinery operations. As a proof of concept for a decision making tool for biomass production and delivery, a heuristic was developed to determine biorefinery location, considering city size, agricultural density, and regional demographics. Switchgrass and sorghum (with winter canola were selected to examine as viable biomass feedstocks based on positive economic results determined using a predictive model for cropland conversion potential. Biomass harvest systems were evaluated to examine interrelationships of biomass logistical networks and the least cost production system, with results demonstrating a need to shift to maximize supply-driven production harvest operations and limit storage requirements. For this supply-driven production harvest operations approach a harvest window from September until March was selected for producing big square bales of switchgrass for storage until use, forage chopped sorghum from September to December, and forage chopped switchgrass from December to March. A case study of the three major regions of North Carolina (Mountains, Piedmont, and Coastal Plain was used to assess logistical optimization of the proposed supply-driven production harvest system. Potential biomass production fields were determined within a hundred mile radius of the proposed biorefinery location, with individual fields designated for crop and harvest system by lowest transportation cost. From these selected fields, crops and harvest system regional storage locations were determined using an alternate location-allocation heuristic with set storage capacity per site. Model results showed that the supply-driven production harvest system greatly reduced system complexity

  9. SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTION OF MICROALGAE OIL FEEDSTOCK USING MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER AND CO2 FERTILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Chaput

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The increasing scarcity of fossil fuels has forced industry to look for new cost effective, clean,and sustainable sources of energy. With recent advances in technology, biofuels have become a more viableoption. Microalgae are cost effective and efficient feedstock for the production of biodiesel. One of the algae advantages is the ability to grow it in a wastewater media. This provides essential nutrients without the addition of chemicals. When grown in a photobioreactor, the algae can be cultivated on non-arable land, preventing competition with food supply unlike other leading biodiesel feedstocks such as canola and soybean crop. The strain of algae used in this study was Chlorella sp. The primary goals of this project were to determine the viability of algae growth in a wastewater medium, test the effectiveness of an alternate nitrogen source, andexamine the effects of CO2 fertilization on algae growth and lipid content. Sodium bicarbonate was used to simulate CO2 fertilization. Results showed that: the use of a 50/50 wastewater/reverse osmosis (RO medium yielded 83% of the lipid productivity of a 100% RO medium while the 100% wastewater medium yielded 35% of the lipid productivity; urea as a substitute for KNO3 in 100% RO, 50/50, and 100% Wastewater medium increased lipid productivity by 1.4%, 52.3%, and 88.3%, respectively. The lipid productivity of urea 100% wastewater medium was increased by 68.9% when fertilized with sodium bicarbonate. The optimum trial, a urea 100% wastewater medium with daily additions of sodium bicarbonate, had a lipid productivity of 0.062 grams/liter of growth medium and a volumetric biomass yield of 0.15 grams per liter-day.

  10. Energy supply chain optimization of hybrid feedstock processes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elia, Josephine A; Floudas, Christodoulos A

    2014-01-01

    The economic, environmental, and social performances of energy systems depend on their geographical locations and the surrounding market infrastructure for feedstocks and energy products. Strategic decisions to locate energy conversion facilities must take all upstream and downstream operations into account, prompting the development of supply chain modeling and optimization methods. This article reviews the contributions of energy supply chain studies that include heat, power, and liquid fuels production. Studies are categorized based on specific features of the mathematical model, highlighting those that address energy supply chain models with and without considerations of multiperiod decisions. Studies that incorporate uncertainties are discussed, and opportunities for future research developments are outlined.

  11. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume VII. International perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    The purpose of this volume is to assess the proliferation vulnerabilities of the present deployment of civilian nuclear-power systems within the current nonproliferation regime and, in light of their prospective deployment, to consider technical and institutional measures and alternatives which may contribute to an improved regime in which nuclear power could play a significant part. An assessment of these measures must include consideration of their nonproliferation effectiveness as well as their bearing upon energy security, and their operational, economic, and political implications. The nature of these considerations can provide some measure of their likely acceptability to various nations.

  12. Development of feedstock of tungsten-nickel-iron- polyformaldehyde for MIM technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostin, D. V.; Parkhomenko, A. V.; Amosov, A. P.; Samboruk, A. R.; Chemashkin, A. V.

    2016-11-01

    The article presents the results of the research and development of technology and formulation of the feedstock from domestic metal powders and polymers to fabricate complexshaped components from heavy alloy of VNZh 7-3 brand (90 wt. % tungsten - 7% nickel - 3% iron) by Metal Injection Molding (MIM technology). The metal part of the feedstock is composed of powders of tungsten, nickel and iron, and the polymer part is composed of polyformaldehyde with the addition of low-density polyethylene and beeswax. The modes of mixing the components and the influence of the composition of the feedstock on the melt flow rate and the homogeneity of the feedstock were investigated. The optimal formulation of the feedstock was determined. Microstructure, density and hardness of control samples fabricated by MIM technology from the developed feedstock, correspond to, and in some respects are superior to the samples of VNZh 7-3 alloy fabricated by technology of traditional powder metallurgy.

  13. Land use and second-generation biofuel feedstocks: The unconsidered impacts of Jatropha biodiesel in Rajasthan, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Findlater, K.M. [Institute for Resources Environment and Sustainability, University of British Columbia, 429-2202 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T1Z4 (Canada); Kandlikar, M., E-mail: milind.k@ubc.ca [Liu Institute for Global Studies, University of British Columbia, 6476 NW Marine Drive, Vancouver, BC, V6T1Z2 (Canada)

    2011-06-15

    Governments around the world see biofuels as a common solution to the multiple policy challenges posed by energy insecurity, climate change and falling farmer incomes. The Indian government has enthusiastically adopted a second-generation feedstock - the oilseed-bearing shrub, Jatropha curcas - for an ambitious national biodiesel program. Studies estimating the production capacity and potential land use implications of this program have typically assumed that the 'waste land' slated for Jatropha production has no economic value and that no activities of note will be displaced by plantation development. Here we examine the specific local impacts of rapid Jatropha plantation development on rural livelihoods and land use in Rajasthan, India. We find that in Jhadol Tehsil, Jatropha is planted on both government and private land, and has typically displaced grazing and forage collection. For those at the socioeconomic margins, these unconsidered impacts counteract the very benefits that the biofuel programs aim to create. The Rajasthan case demonstrates that local land-use impacts need to be integrated into decision-making for national targets and global biofuel promotion efforts. - Highlights: > Hardy biofuel crops like Jatropha replace edible feedstocks that use arable land. > In Rajasthan, Jatropha displaces grazing and forage on both public and private land. > As Jatropha plantations mature, the loss of grass becomes more pronounced. > Unconsidered impacts negate the benefits that the biodiesel program aims to create. > Local land-use impacts need to be integrated into decision-making.

  14. An Alternative Evaluation Approach for the Problem-Solving Training Program: A Utilization-Focused Evaluation Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Michael Quinn

    1984-01-01

    A utilization-focused approach in evaluating a problem-solving skills training program (see TM 510 179) would have placed more emphasis on identifying evaluation users, their information needs, and likely use of findings. Other methods options are also discussed, along with how to prepare decision makers for utilization. (Author/BW)

  15. Increasing Feedstock Production for Biofuels: Economic Drivers, Environmental Implications, and the Role of Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-10-27

    The Biomass Research and Development Board (Board) commissioned an economic analysis of feedstocks to produce biofuels. The Board seeks to inform investments in research and development needed to expand biofuel production. This analysis focuses on feedstocks; other interagency teams have projects underway for other parts of the biofuel sector (e.g., logistics). The analysis encompasses feedstocks for both conventional and advanced biofuels from agriculture and forestry sources.

  16. Strategies for Lipid Production Improvement in Microalgae as a Biodiesel Feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z. H.; Hiltunen, E.

    2016-01-01

    In response to the energy crisis, global warming, and climate changes, microalgae have received a great deal of attention as a biofuel feedstock. Due to a high lipid content in microalgal cells, microalgae present as a promising alternative source for the production of biodiesel. Environmental and culturing condition variations can alter lipid production as well as chemical compositions of microalgae. Therefore, application of the strategies to activate lipid accumulation opens the door for lipid overproduction in microalgae. Until now, many original studies regarding the approaches for enhanced microalgal lipid production have been reported in an effort to push forward the production of microalgal biodiesel. However, the current literature demonstrates fragmented information available regarding the strategies for lipid production improvement. From the systematic point of view, the review highlights the main approaches for microalgal lipid accumulation induction to expedite the application of microalgal biodiesel as an alternative to fossil diesel for sustainable environment. Of the several strategies discussed, the one that is most commonly applied is the design of nutrient (e.g., nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur) starvation or limitation. Other viable approaches such as light intensity, temperature, carbon dioxide, salinity stress, and metal influence can also achieve enhanced microalgal lipid production. PMID:27725942

  17. Strategies for Lipid Production Improvement in Microalgae as a Biodiesel Feedstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In response to the energy crisis, global warming, and climate changes, microalgae have received a great deal of attention as a biofuel feedstock. Due to a high lipid content in microalgal cells, microalgae present as a promising alternative source for the production of biodiesel. Environmental and culturing condition variations can alter lipid production as well as chemical compositions of microalgae. Therefore, application of the strategies to activate lipid accumulation opens the door for lipid overproduction in microalgae. Until now, many original studies regarding the approaches for enhanced microalgal lipid production have been reported in an effort to push forward the production of microalgal biodiesel. However, the current literature demonstrates fragmented information available regarding the strategies for lipid production improvement. From the systematic point of view, the review highlights the main approaches for microalgal lipid accumulation induction to expedite the application of microalgal biodiesel as an alternative to fossil diesel for sustainable environment. Of the several strategies discussed, the one that is most commonly applied is the design of nutrient (e.g., nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur starvation or limitation. Other viable approaches such as light intensity, temperature, carbon dioxide, salinity stress, and metal influence can also achieve enhanced microalgal lipid production.

  18. Alternative Crops and Biofuel Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenkel, Philip [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Holcomb, Rodney B. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)

    2013-03-01

    In order for the biofuel industry to meet the RFS benchmarks for biofuels, new feedstock sources and production systems will have to be identified and evaluated. The Southern Plains has the potential to produce over a billion gallons of biofuels from regionally produced alternative crops, agricultural residues, and animal fats. While information on biofuel conversion processes is available, it is difficult for entrepreneurs, community planners and other interested individuals to determine the feasibility of biofuel processes or to match production alternatives with feed stock availability and community infrastructure. This project facilitates the development of biofuel production from these regionally available feed stocks. Project activities are concentrated in five major areas. The first component focused on demonstrating the supply of biofuel feedstocks. This involves modeling the yield and cost of production of dedicated energy crops at the county level. In 1991 the DOE selected switchgrass as a renewable source to produce transportation fuel after extensive evaluations of many plant species in multiple location (Caddel et al,. 2010). However, data on the yield and cost of production of switchgrass are limited. This deficiency in demonstrating the supply of biofuel feedstocks was addressed by modeling the potential supply and geographic variability of switchgrass yields based on relationship of available switchgrass yields to the yields of other forage crops. This model made it possible to create a database of projected switchgrass yields for five different soil types at the county level. A major advantage of this methodology is that the supply projections can be easily updated as improved varieties of switchgrass are developed and additional yield data becomes available. The modeling techniques are illustrated using the geographic area of Oklahoma. A summary of the regional supply is then provided.

  19. Evaluation of attached periphytical algal communities for biofuel feedstock generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandefur, H.N.; Matlock, M.D.; Costello, T.A. [Arkansas Univ., Division of Agriculture, Fayetteville, AR (United States). Dept. of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Center for Agricultural and Rural Sustainability

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study that investigated the feasibility of using algal biomass as a feedstock for biofuel production. Algae has a high lipid content, and with its high rate of production, it can produce more oil on less land than traditional bioenergy crops. In addition, algal communities can remove nutrients from wastewater. Enclosed photobioreactors and open pond systems are among the many different algal growth systems that can be highly productive. However, they can also be difficult to maintain. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the ability of a pilot scale algal turf scrubber (ATS) to facilitate the growth of attached periphytic algal communities for the production of biomass feedstock and the removal of nutrients from a local stream in Springdale, Arizona. The ATS operated for a 9 month sampling period, during which time the system productivity averaged 26 g per m{sup 2} per day. The removal of total phosphorus and total nitrogen averaged 48 and 13 per cent, respectively.

  20. Alternative energies; Energies alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonal, J.; Rossetti, P

    2007-07-01

    The earth took millions years to made the petroleum, the gas the coal and the uranium. Only a few centuries will be needed to exhaust these fossil fuels and some years to reach expensive prices. Will the wold continue on this way of energy compulsive consumption? The renewable energies and some citizen attitudes are sufficient to break this spiral. This book proposes to discuss these alternative energies. It shows that this attitude must be supported by the government. It takes stock on the more recent information concerning the renewable energies. it develops three main points: the electricity storage, the housing and the transports. (A.L.B.)

  1. Security of feedstocks supply for future bio-ethanol production in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silalertruksa, Thapat; Gheewala, Shabbir H. [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Prachauthit Road, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2010-11-15

    This study assesses the security of feedstock supply to satisfy the increased demand for bio-ethanol production based on the recent 15 years biofuels development plan and target (year 2008-2022) of the Thai government. Future bio-ethanol systems are modeled and the feedstock supply potentials analyzed based on three scenarios including low-, moderate- and high-yields improvement. The three scenarios are modeled and key dimensions including availability; diversity; and environmental acceptability of feedstocks supply in terms of GHG reduction are evaluated through indicators such as net feedstock balances, Shannon index and net life cycle GHG emissions. The results show that only the case of high yields improvement scenario can result in a reliable and sufficient supply of feedstocks to satisfy the long-term demands for bio-ethanol and other related industries. Cassava is identified as the critical feedstock and a reduction in cassava export is necessary. The study concludes that to enhance long-term security of feedstocks supply for sustainable bio-ethanol production in Thailand, increasing use of sugarcane juice as feedstock, improved yields of existing feedstocks and promoting production of bio-ethanol derived from agricultural residues are three key recommendations that need to be urgently implemented by the policy makers. (author)

  2. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume II. Proliferation resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    The purpose of this volume is limited to an assessment of the relative effects that particular choices of nuclear-power systems, for whatever reasons, may have on the possible spread of nuclear-weapons capabilities. This volume addresses the concern that non-nuclear-weapons states may be able to initiate efforts to acquire or to improve nuclear-weapons capabilities through civilian nuclear-power programs; it also addresses the concern that subnational groups may obtain and abuse the nuclear materials or facilities of such programs, whether in nuclear-weapons states (NWS's) or nonnuclear-weapons states (NNW's). Accordingly, this volume emphasizes one important factor in such decisions, the resistance of nuclear-power systems to the proliferation of nuclear-weapons capabilities.

  3. Alternative Labeling Programs and Purchasing Behavior toward Organic Foods: The Case of the Participatory Guarantee Systems in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Sacchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory standards and certification models are essential tools guaranteeing the authenticity of organic products. In particular, third-party certification is useful to consumers since it provides guarantees regarding production processes and food quality. In an attempt to cope with the costs and bureaucratic procedures related to the adoption of such certification, groups of small producers have begun to rely upon alternative quality assurance systems such as Participatory Guarantee Systems (PGS. This study contextualizes and analyzes the PGS scheme and describes the Brazilian Rede Ecovida de Agroecologia network. We then investigate the effect of various factors on Brazilian consumers’ purchasing behavior for organic products guaranteed by PGS. The results show that employed and older consumers who live in rural and suburban areas are more likely to buy organic PGS products.

  4. Long-term Outcomes of the ATHENA (Athletes Targeting Healthy Exercise & Nutrition Alternatives) Program for Female High School Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Elliot, Diane L.; Goldberg, Linn; Moe, Esther L; DeFrancesco, Carol A.; Durham, Melissa B.; McGinnis, Wendy; Lockwood, Chondra

    2008-01-01

    Adolescence and emerging adulthood are critical windows for establishing life-long behaviors. We assessed long-term outcomes of a prospective randomized harm reduction/health promotion program for female high school athletes. The intervention’s immediate beneficial effects on diet pill use and unhealthy eating behaviors have been reported; however, tobacco, alcohol and marijuana use were not immediately altered (Elliot et al, 2004). One to three years following graduation, positive benefits i...

  5. Device and method for upgrading petroleum feedstocks and petroleum refinery streams using an alkali metal conductive membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, John Howard; Alvare, Javier

    2016-09-13

    A reactor has two chambers, namely an oil feedstock chamber and a source chamber. An ion separator separates the oil feedstock chamber from the source chamber, wherein the ion separator allows alkali metal ions to pass from the source chamber, through the ion separator, and into the oil feedstock chamber. A cathode is at least partially housed within the oil feedstock chamber and an anode is at least partially housed within the source chamber. A quantity of an oil feedstock is within the oil feedstock chamber, the oil feedstock comprising at least one carbon atom and a heteroatom and/or one or more heavy metals, the oil feedstock further comprising naphthenic acid. When the alkali metal ion enters the oil feedstock chamber, the alkali metal reacts with the heteroatom, the heavy metals and/or the naphthenic acid, wherein the reaction with the alkali metal forms inorganic products.

  6. Alternative additives; Alternative additiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-08-15

    In this project a number of industrial and agricultural waste products have been characterised and evaluated in terms of alkali-getter performance. The intended use is for biomass-fired power stations aiming at reducing corrosion or slagging related problems. The following products have been obtained, characterised and evaluated: 1) Brewery draff 2) Danish de-gassed manure 3) Paper sludge 4) Moulding sand 5) Spent bleaching earth 6) Anorthosite 7) Sand 8) Clay-sludge. Most of the above alternative additive candidates are deemed unsuitable due to insufficient chemical effect and/or expensive requirements for pre-treatment (such as drying and transportation). 3 products were selected for full-scale testing: de-gassed manure, spent bleaching earth and clay slugde. The full scale tests were undertaken at the biomass-fired power stations in Koege, Slagelse and Ensted. Spent bleaching earth (SBE) and clay sludge were the only tested additive candidates that had a proven ability to react with KCl, to thereby reduce Cl-concentrations in deposits, and reduce the deposit flux to superheater tubes. Their performance was shown to nearly as good as commercial additives. De-gassed manure, however, did not evaluate positively due to inhibiting effects of Ca in the manure. Furthermore, de-gassed manure has a high concentration of heavy metals, which imposes a financial burden with regard to proper disposal of the ash by-products. Clay-sludge is a wet clay slurring, and drying and transportation of this product entails substantial costs. Spent bleaching does not require much pre-treatment and is therefore the most promising alternative additive. On the other hand, bleaching earth contains residual plant oil which means that a range of legislation relating to waste combustion comes into play. Not least a waste combustion fee of 330 DKK/tonne. For all alternative (and commercial) additives disposal costs of the increase ash by-products represents a significant cost. This is

  7. Continuous pyrolysis of biomass feedstocks in rotary kiln convertors. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, Jr, H. H.; Kimzey, J. R.; Turpin, J. L.; MacCallum, R. N.

    1979-08-30

    The biomass research program at the University of Arkansas has developed three experimental projects or tasks for the attainment of its objectives. They are: (1) utilization of the existing full scale convertor for testing and data acquisition at Jonesboro, Arkansas; (2) development of a scale model rotary pyrolytic convertor (bench scale research kiln); and (3) development of analytical laboratory services for the analysis of feedstocks and products, and for basic pyrolytic process studies. The project at Jonesboro, Arkansas, which aimed at testing the Angelo convertor concept through heat and material balances over the available range of operations, could not completely achieve this objective because of the severe mechanical and structural deficiencies in the full scale convertor. A limited number of data have been taken in spite of the deficiencies of the machine. The scale model rotary kiln has been the most successful of the three projects. The kiln has been completed as planned and successfully operated with a number of feedstock materials. Good qualitative data have been obtained on conversion rate capacities, charcoal yields, and off gas combustion product temperatures. In all, about one hundred test runs were made in the scale model kiln. About 90% of the results expected were attained. The laboratory services project was designed to provide analytical testing for the other two projects and to do basic studies in biomass material conversion processes. The project delivered the testing services, but was severely restricted in the area of basic studies because of the failure of the main instrument, the gas chromatograph, to operate successfully. In all it is estimated that this project attained about 80% of its expected goals.

  8. Development of a student-mentored research program between a complementary and alternative medicine university and a traditional, research-intensive university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Barbara M; Furner, Sylvia E; Cramer, Gregory D

    2014-09-01

    The global need to develop clinician-scientists capable of using research in clinical practice, translating research knowledge into practice, and carrying out research that affects the quality, efficacy, and efficiency of health care is well documented. The complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) professions embrace the call to develop physician-researchers to carry out translational and applied research for CAM modalities. CAM universities face unique challenges when implementing research training compared with traditional, research-intensive (TRI) universities and medical centers where the majority of medical research is carried out.The authors present the development and outcomes of a mentored research program (MRP) between a CAM and a TRI institution, the National University of Health Sciences and the University of Illinois at Chicago School of Public Health, between 2006 and 2012. CAM predoctoral students engaged in a full-immersion semester at the TRI, including didactic courses and active research with a TRI faculty research mentor. Half of the participating doctor of chiropractic (DC) students continued on to PhD programs, and half established integrative medicine, primary care clinical careers.Establishing rigorous criteria for mentors and mentees, communicating expectations, developing solid relationships between the mentor, mentee, and home school advisor, responding quickly to impediments, and providing adequate support from CAM and TRI investigators were key to the MRP's success. To sustain research opportunities, coordinated degree programs for the DC and master of public health and master of clinical and translational research were established.

  9. Biorefining of lignocellulosic feedstock--Technical, economic and environmental considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lin; van der Voet, Ester; Huppes, Gjalt

    2010-07-01

    Biorefinery, an example of a multiple products system, integrates biomass conversion processes and equipment to produce fuels, power and chemicals from biomass. This study focuses on technical design, economic and environmental analysis of a lignocellulosic feedstock (LCF) biorefinery producing ethanol, succinic acid, acetic acid and electricity. As the potential worldwide demand of succinic acid and its derivatives can reach 30 million tons per year, succinic acid is a promising high-value product if production cost and market price are substantially lowered. The results of the economic analysis show that the designed refinery has great potentials compared to the single-output ethanol plant; even when the price of succinic acid is lowered or the capital investment doubled. In terms of eco-efficiency, the LCF biorefinery shows better environmental performances mainly in global warming potential due to CO(2) fixation during acid fermentation. The overall evaluation of the eco-efficiency depends on the importance attached to each impact category.

  10. Study on the Adaptability of Etheriifcation Feedstock to Reactor Type

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao Junyi; Yuan Qing; Wang Lei; Huang Tao

    2016-01-01

    A reactive C5 oleifns and methanol etheriifcation kinetic model based on E-R mechanism was established and three different types of reactors including the adiabatic ifxed-bed liquid reactor, the external loop reactor and the mixed-phase reactor were constructed by Aspen Plus. The adaptability of reactive C5 oleifns to these reactors was studied and simulated using various gasoline fractions with different oleifns content. After the theoretical model was validated by the experimental data of the etheriifcation of three C5 light cut fractions from different gasoline sources in different reactors, the simulated isoamylene conversion with reactive C5 olefin contents increasing from 10% to 60% was studied in the three different types of reactors for etheriifcation with methanol, respectively. Test results show that there is an obvious adaptability of the feedstock composition to the reactor type to achieve a high conversion.

  11. Evaluation of filamentous green algae as feedstocks for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Yonggang; Cui, Binjie; Wang, Hui; Liu, Tianzhong

    2016-11-01

    Compared with unicellular microalgae, filamentous algae have high resistance to grazer-predation and low-cost recovery in large-scale production. Green algae, as the most diverse group of algae, included numerous filamentous genera and species. In this study, records of filamentous genera and species in green algae were firstly censused and classified. Then, seven filamentous strains subordinated in different genera were cultivated in bubbled-column to investigate their growth rate and energy molecular (lipid and starch) capacity. Four strains including Stigeoclonium sp., Oedogonium nodulosum, Hormidium sp. and Zygnema extenue were screened out due to their robust growth. And they all could accumulate triacylglycerols and starch in their biomass, but with different capacity. After nitrogen starvation, Hormidium sp. and Oedogonium nodulosum respectively exhibited high capacity of lipid (45.38% in dry weight) and starch (46.19% in dry weight) accumulation, which could be of high potential as feedstocks for biodiesel and bioethanol production.

  12. Arid lands plants as feedstocks for fuels and chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the recent research on arid-adapted plants that have potential as producers of fuels or chemicals. The major focus will be on plant species that appear to have commercial value. Research on guayule (Parthenium argentatum) and jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) will be mentioned only briefly, since these plants have been discussed extensively in the literature, and excellent reviews are already in existence. In this review the literature on arid-adapted plants that have potential uses for solid fuels, liquid fuels, and chemical feedstocks is summarized, followed by an overview of the research directions and types of development that are needed in order for bio-energy production systems to reach the commercial stage. 127 references.

  13. An alternative method for monitoring carbonyls, and the development of a 24-port fully automated carbonyl sampler for PAMS program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parmar, S.S.; Ugarova, L. [Atmospheric Analysis and Consulting, Ventura, CA (United States); Fernandes, C.; Guyton, J.; Lee, C.P. [Arizona Dept. of Environmental Quality, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The authors have investigated the possibility of collecting different aldehydes and ketones on different sorbents such as silica gel, molecular sieve and charcoal followed by solvent extraction, DNPH derivatization and HPLC/UV analysis. Carbonyl collection efficiencies for these sorbents were calculated relative to a DNPH coated C{sub 18} sep-pak cartridge. From a limited number of laboratory experiments, at various concentrations, it appears that silica gel tubes can be used for sampling aldehydes (collection efficiencies {approximately} 1), whereas charcoal tubes are suitable for collecting ketones. Molecular sieve was found to be unsuitable for collecting most of the carbonyl studied. The authors also report the development of a fully automated 24-port carbonyl sampler specially designed for EPA`s PAMS program.

  14. Evaluation of unthrottled combustion system options for light duty applications with future syncrude derived fuels. Alternative Fuels Utilization Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Needham, J. R.; Cooper, B. M.; Norris-Jones, S. R.

    1982-12-01

    An experimental program examining the interaction between several fuel and light duty automotive engine combinations is detailed. Combustion systems addressed covered indirect and direct injection diesel and spark ignited stratified charge. Fuels primarily covered D2, naphtha and intermediate broadcut blends. Low ignition quality diesel fuels were also evaluated. The results indicate the baseline fuel tolerance of each combustion system and enable characteristics of the systems to be compared. Performance, gaseous and particulate emissions aspects were assessed. The data obtained assists in the selection of candidate combustion systems for potential future fuels. Performance and environmental penalties as appropriate are highlighted relative to the individual candidates. Areas of further work for increased understanding are also reviewed.

  15. Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the U.S. transportation sector. Technical report fourteen: Market potential and impacts of alternative fuel use in light-duty vehicles -- A 2000/2010 analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    In this report, estimates are provided of the potential, by 2010, to displace conventional light-duty vehicle motor fuels with alternative fuels--compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), methanol from natural gas, ethanol from grain and from cellulosic feedstocks, and electricity--and with replacement fuels such as oxygenates added to gasoline. The 2010 estimates include the motor fuel displacement resulting both from government programs (including the Clean Air Act and EPACT) and from potential market forces. This report also provides an estimate of motor fuel displacement by replacement and alterative fuels in the year 2000. However, in contrast to the 2010 estimates, the year 2000 estimate is restricted to an accounting of the effects of existing programs and regulations. 27 figs., 108 tabs.

  16. Regional Environmental Impacts of Biofuel Feedstock Production--Scaling Biogeochemical Cycles in Space and Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanloocke, A.; Bernacchi, C.

    2008-12-01

    Recently there has been increasing socio-economic and scientific interest in the use of alternative sources of energy to offset the negative effects of current fossil fuel dependence and consequent greenhouse gas emissions. Currently, one of the most popular alternatives is to use ethanol produced from domestically grown crops for use as fuel in the transportation sector. In 2007, over 7.5 billion gallons of ethanol were produced in the U.S. from corn, a traditional food crop. Recent research indicates that it may be logistically impractical, ecologically counterproductive (i.e. a net carbon source), and economically devastating to produce ethanol from crops previously grown to produce food. The EBI (Energy Biosciences Institute, at University of California Berkley and University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign) is now conducting research to assess the ability of traditional crops as well as dedicated biofuel feedstocks (e.g. Panicum virgatum (switchgrass), Miscanthus x Giganteus (Miscanthus), and Saccharum spp (sugar cane)) to provide a productive and sustainable alternative to fossil fuel. This is an important step to take before implementing the large-scale growth necessary to meet U.S. energy needs .A process-based terrestrial ecosystem model, Agro-IBIS (Agricultural Integrated Biosphere Simulator) was adapted to simulate the growth of Miscanthus. The model was calibrated using data collected from sites at the University of Illinois south farms. Simulations indicated significant implications on the regional carbon and water budgets. Next this locally validated method will be extrapolated to simulate the regional scale growth of Miscanthus in the Midwestern U.S. and sugarcane in Brazil and a similar analysis will be conducted for switchgrass. The results should provide insight on optimal land-use decisions and legislation that regard meeting energy demands and mitigating climate change in the near future.

  17. Sorghum as Dry Land Feedstock for Fuel Ethanol Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Donghai; WU Xiaorong

    2010-01-01

    Dry land crops such as sorghums(grain sorghum,sweet sorghum and forage sorghum)have been identified aspromising feedstocks for fuel ethanol production.The major issue for using the sweet sorghum as feedstock is its stability at room temperature.At room temperature,the sweet sorghum juice could lose from 40%to50%of its fermentable sugars from 7to14 days.No significant sugar content and profile changes were observed in juice stored at refrigerator temperature in two weeks.Ethanolfermentation efficiencies of fresh and frozen juice were high(-93%).Concentrated juice(≥25%sugar)had significantly lower efficiencies and large amounts of fructose left in finished beer; however,winery yeast strains and novel fermentation techniques maysolve these problems.The ethanol yield from sorghum grain increased as starch content increased.No linear relationship betweenstarch content and fermentation efficiency was found.Key factors affecting the ethanol fermentation efficiency of sorghum includestarches and protein digestibility,amylose-lipid complexes,tannin content,and mash viscosity.Life cycle analysis showed a positivenet energy value(NEV)=25 500 Btu/gal ethanol.Fourier transform infrared(FTIR)spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction(XRD)were used to determine changes in the structure and chemical composition of sorghum biomasses.Dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment waseffective in removing the hemicellulose from biomasses and exposing the cellulose for enzymatic hydrolysis.Forage sorghum ligninhad a lower syringyl/guaiacyl ratio and its pretreated biomass was easier to hydrolyze.Up to 72% hexose yield and 94% pentoseyield were obtained by using a modified steam explosion with 2% sulfuric acid at 140"C for 30 min and enzymatic hydrolysis withcellulase.

  18. Thermo-chemical and biological conversion potential of various biomass feedstocks to ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this study is to evaluate the potential and the economy of producing ethanol from gasification-fermentation of various biomass feedstocks. The biomass feedstocks include winter cover crops (wheat, rye, clover, hairy betch), summer cover crop (sunhemp), chicken litter, and woody biomass. ...

  19. Nitrous oxide emission and soil carbon sequestration from herbaceous perennial biofuel feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation and renewable, domestic fuels are needed in the United States. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and big bluestem (Andropogon gerdardii Vitman) are potential bioenergy feedstocks that may meet this need. However, managing perennial grasses for feedstock requires nitro...

  20. Degradation of cellulosic biomass and its subsequent utilization for the production of chemical feedstocks. Progress report, March 1-August 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, D. I.C.

    1980-09-01

    Progress is reported in this coordinated research program to effect the microbiological degradation of cellulosic biomass by anaerobic microorganisms possessing cellulolytic enzymes. Three main areas of research are discussed: increasing enzyme levels through genetics, mutations, and genetic manipulation; the direct conversion of cellulosic biomass to liquid fuel (ethanol); and the production of chemical feedstocks from biomass (acrylic acid, acetone/butanol, and acetic acid). (DMC)

  1. Method for estimating processability of a hydrocarbon-containing feedstock for hydroprocessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schabron, John F; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F

    2014-01-14

    Disclosed herein is a method involving the steps of (a) precipitating an amount of asphaltenes from a liquid sample of a first hydrocarbon-containing feedstock having solvated asphaltenes therein with one or more first solvents in a column; (b) determining one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes; (c) analyzing the one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes; and (d) correlating a measurement of feedstock reactivity for the first hydrocarbon-containing feedstock sample with a mathematical parameter derived from the results of analyzing the one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitates asphaltenes. Determined parameters and processabilities for a plurality of feedstocks can be used to generate a mathematical relationship between parameter and processability; this relationship can be used to estimate the processability for hydroprocessing for a feedstock of unknown processability.

  2. Chemical Preconversion: Application of Low-Severity Pretreatment Chemistries for Commoditization of Lignocellulosic Feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David N. Thompson; Timothy Campbell; Bryan Bals; Troy Runge; Farzaneh Teymouri

    2013-05-01

    Securing biofuels project financing is challenging, in part because of risks in feedstock supply. Commoditization of the feedstock and decoupling its supply from the biorefinery will promote greater economies of scale, reduce feedstock supply risk and reduce the need for overdesign of biorefinery pretreatment technologies. We present benefits and detractions of applying low-severity chemical treatments or ‘chemical preconversion treatments’ to enable this approach through feedstock modification and densification early in the supply chain. General structural modifications to biomass that support cost-effective densification and transportation are presented, followed by available chemistries to achieve these modifications with minimal yield loss and the potential for harvesting value in local economies. A brief review of existing biomass pretreatment technologies for cellulolytic hydrolysis at biorefineries is presented, followed by a discussion toward economically applying the underlying chemistries at reduced severity in light of capital and operational limitations of small-scale feedstock depots.

  3. Rarity-weighted richness: a simple and reliable alternative to integer programming and heuristic algorithms for minimum set and maximum coverage problems in conservation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Fabio; Beier, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Here we report that prioritizing sites in order of rarity-weighted richness (RWR) is a simple, reliable way to identify sites that represent all species in the fewest number of sites (minimum set problem) or to identify sites that represent the largest number of species within a given number of sites (maximum coverage problem). We compared the number of species represented in sites prioritized by RWR to numbers of species represented in sites prioritized by the Zonation software package for 11 datasets in which the size of individual planning units (sites) ranged from algorithms remain superior for conservation prioritizations that consider compactness and multiple near-optimal solutions in addition to species representation. But because RWR can be implemented easily and quickly in R or a spreadsheet, it is an attractive alternative to integer programming or heuristic algorithms in some conservation prioritization contexts.

  4. Induction of mitochondrial alternative oxidase in response to a cell signal pathway down-regulating the cytochrome pathway prevents programmed cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanlerberghe, Greg C; Robson, Christine A; Yip, Justine Y H

    2002-08-01

    Treatment of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Petit Havana SR1) cells with cysteine (Cys) triggers a signal pathway culminating in a large loss of mitochondrial cytochrome (cyt) pathway capacity. This down-regulation of the cyt path likely requires events outside the mitochondrion and is effectively blocked by cantharidin or endothall, indicating that protein dephosphorylation is one critical process involved. Generation of reactive oxygen species, cytosolic protein synthesis, and Ca(2+) flux from organelles also appear to be involved. Accompanying the loss of cyt path is a large induction of alternative oxidase (AOX) protein and capacity. Induction of AOX allows the cells to maintain high rates of respiration, indicating that the lesion triggered by Cys is in the cyt path downstream of ubiquinone. Consistent with this, transgenic (AS8) cells unable to induce AOX (due to the presence of an antisense transgene) lose all respiratory capacity upon Cys treatment. This initiates in AS8 a programmed cell death pathway, as evidenced by the accumulation of oligonucleosomal fragments of DNA as the culture dies. Alternatively, wild-type cells remain viable and eventually recover their cyt path. Induction of AOX in response to a chemical inhibition of the cyt path (by antimycin A) is also dependent upon protein dephosphorylation and the generation of reactive oxygen species. Common events required for both down-regulation of the cyt path and induction of AOX may represent a mechanism to coordinate the biogenesis of these two electron transport paths. Such coordinate regulation may be necessary, not only to satisfy metabolic demands, but also to modulate the initiation of a programmed cell death pathway responsive to mitochondrial respiratory status.

  5. Teacher Identity and Self-efficacy Development in an Alternative Licensure Program for Middle and High School Math and Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Robert J.

    This mixed-method case study focused on the phenomenon of the transition from student to teacher. The educational system in the United States is constantly shifting to provide the correct number of teachers for our nations' schools. There is no simple formula for this process and occasionally an area of need arises that is not being met. Recently, the demand for science and math teachers in the K-12 system has outpaced the supply of new teachers (Business-Higher Education Forum, 2011). To complicate the problem further, teachers are leaving the field in record numbers both through retirement and attrition (National Commission on Teaching and America's Future, 2007). Particularly hard hit are poor rural schools with low-performing students, such as the schools of Appalachia (Barley, 2009; Goodpaster, Adedokun, & Weaver, 2012). Out of this need, alternative licensure programs for teachers have developed. The alternative teacher-training program studied in this research is the Woodrow Wilson Teaching Fellowship (WWTF) website, "The Woodrow Wilson Ohio Teaching Fellowship seeks to attract talented, committed individuals with backgrounds in the STEM fields---science, technology, engineering, and mathematics---into teaching in high-need Ohio secondary schools" (para. 2) . The researcher was interested in the formation of teacher identity and self-efficacy as these constructs have been shown to manifest in highly effective teachers that are likely to remain in the field of teaching (Beaucamp & Thomas 2009; Klassen, Tze, Betts, & Gordon, 2010). The research method included in-depth interviews, mixed with pretest/posttest administrations of the Teacher Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES) (Tschannen-Moran & Woolfolk Hoy 2001) given during the teacher-training period and again following the first year of professional teaching. Results from both the TSES and the interviews indicate that the participants had a successful transition into teaching. They both felt and demonstrated that

  6. 78 FR 45441 - Sugar Program; Feedstock Flexibility Program for Bioenergy Producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... not change CCC's management of sugar loans, sugar marketing allotments, or import tariff-rate quotas... direct effect on States, the relationship between the Federal government and the States, or the... sugar marketing allocation. (The definition for ``marketing'' in Sec. 1435.2 applies to this...

  7. NASA Alternative Aviation Fuel Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Thornhill, K. L., II; Moore, R.; Shook, M.; Winstead, E.; Ziemba, L. D.; Crumeyrolle, S.

    2015-12-01

    We present an overview of research conducted by NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate to evaluate the performance and emissions of "drop-in" alternative jet fuels, highlighting experiment design and results from the Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiments (AAFEX-I & -II) and Alternative Fuel-Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions flight series (ACCESS-I & II). These projects included almost 100 hours of sampling exhaust emissions from the NASA DC-8 aircraft in both ground and airborne operation and at idle to takeoff thrust settings. Tested fuels included Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthetic kerosenes manufactured from coal and natural-gas feedstocks; Hydro-treated Esters and Fatty-Acids (HEFA) fuels made from beef-tallow and camelina-plant oil; and 50:50 blends of these alternative fuels with Jet A. Experiments were also conducted with FT and Jet A fuels doped with tetrahydrothiophene to examine the effects of fuel sulfur on volatile aerosol and contrail formation and microphysical properties. Results indicate that although the absence of aromatic compounds in the alternative fuels caused DC-8 fuel-system leaks, the fuels did not compromise engine performance or combustion efficiency. And whereas the alternative fuels produced only slightly different gas-phase emissions, dramatic reductions in non-volatile particulate matter (nvPM) emissions were observed when burning the pure alternative fuels, particularly at low thrust settings where particle number and mass emissions were an order of magnitude lower than measured from standard jet fuel combustion; 50:50 blends of Jet A and alternative fuels typically reduced nvPM emissions by ~50% across all thrust settings. Alternative fuels with the highest hydrogen content produced the greatest nvPM reductions. For Jet A and fuel blends, nvPM emissions were positively correlated with fuel aromatic and naphthalene content. Fuel sulfur content regulated nucleation mode aerosol number and mass concentrations within aging

  8. “Nerdy Know-it-Alls” and “Paranoid Parents”: Images of Alternative Learning in Films and Television Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cameron HAUSEMAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines how homeschooling, unschooling and alternative learners have been portrayed in five recent films and television programs. It also investigates whether the media are grounding their representations of these students and their parents in reality, or if it is disseminating harmful stereotypes that may have detrimental effects for those who choose to learn in this manner in real life.In the wake of numerous (and often misguided school reform efforts across North America and much of the developed world, many students and their parents have become disillusioned with traditional forms of formal education and find themselves turning to homeschooling, unschooling and other methods of alternative learning that have gained steam and a great deal of credibility over the past decade (Lloyd, 2009. Lloyd (2009 notes that approximately 1.5 million students in the United States of America are homeschooled, with 10-15% of that number representing unschoolers. Homeschooling is a term with which most are familiar. It refers to children who receive their education at home rather than in the confines of a formal classroom. Unschooling, which can differ greatly from homeschooling, is a term used to classify a range of educational philosophies and practices predicated on allowing children to learn through life experience, play and social interaction without being forced to perform tasks by interfering adults (Ricci, 2009, p. 12. While these are two separate and competing educational philosophies, they have been lumped together for the purposes of this paper as the media texts used as the data sources for this study often blur the boundaries between these methods of learning. After a brief exploration of media culture and the ever increasing influence that television and films are having as socialization agents in the lives of youth and adults alike, this study will investigate how students who pursue alternative forms of learning are being

  9. Microwave assisted extraction of biodiesel feedstock from the seeds of invasive chinese tallow tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldor, Dorin; Kanitkar, Akanksha; Terigar, Beatrice G; Leonardi, Claudia; Lima, Marybeth; Breitenbeck, Gary A

    2010-05-15

    Chinese tallow tree (TT) seeds are a rich source of lipids and have the potential to be a biodiesel feedstock, but currently, its invasive nature does not favor large scale cultivation. Being a nonfood material, they have many advantages over conventional crops that are used for biodiesel production. The purpose of this study was to determine optimal oil extraction parameters in a batch-type and laboratory scale continuous-flow microwave system to obtain maximum oil recovery from whole TT seeds using ethanol as the extracting solvent. For the batch system, extractions were carried out for different time-temperature combinations ranging from 60 to 120 degrees C for up to 20 min. The batch system was modified for continuous extractions, which were carried out at 50, 60, and 73 degrees C and maintained for various residence times of up to 20 min. Control runs were performed under similar extraction conditions and the results compared well, especially when accounting for extremely short extraction times (minutes vs hours). Maximum yields of 35.32% and 32.51% (by weight of dry mass) were obtained for the continuous and batch process, respectively. The major advantage of microwave assisted solvent extraction is the reduced time of extraction required to obtain total recoverable lipids, with corresponding reduction in energy consumption costs per unit of lipid extracted. This study indicates that microwave extraction using ethanol as a solvent can be used as a viable alternative to conventional lipid extraction techniques for TT seeds.

  10. Opuntia ficus-indica cladodes as feedstock for ethanol production by Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuloyo, Olukayode O; du Preez, James C; García-Aparicio, Maria del Prado; Kilian, Stephanus G; Steyn, Laurinda; Görgens, Johann

    2014-12-01

    The feasibility of ethanol production using an enzymatic hydrolysate of pretreated cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (prickly pear cactus) as carbohydrate feedstock was investigated, including a comprehensive chemical analysis of the cladode biomass and the effects of limited aeration on the fermentation profiles and sugar utilization. The low xylose and negligible mannose content of the cladode biomass used in this study suggested that the hemicellulose structure of the O. ficus-indica cladode was atypical of hardwood or softwood hemicelluloses. Separate hydrolysis and fermentation and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation procedures using Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 40 and 35 °C, respectively, gave similar ethanol yields under non-aerated conditions. In oxygen-limited cultures K. marxianus exhibited almost double the ethanol productivity compared to non-aerated cultures, although after sugar depletion utilization of the produced ethanol was evident. Ethanol concentrations of up to 19.5 and 20.6 g l(-1) were obtained with K. marxianus and S. cerevisiae, respectively, representing 66 and 70 % of the theoretical yield on total sugars in the hydrolysate. Because of the low xylan content of the cladode biomass, a yeast capable of xylose fermentation might not be a prerequisite for ethanol production. K. marxianus, therefore, has potential as an alternative to S. cerevisiae for bioethanol production. However, the relatively low concentration of fermentable sugars in the O. ficus-indica cladode hydrolysate presents a technical constraint for commercial exploitation.

  11. Using the GREET model to analyze algae as a feedstock for biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatum, Christopher

    There is a growing interest in renewable, carbon-neutral biofuels such as ethanol and biodiesel. A life-cycle analysis is conducted in this study to determine the viability of using algae as a feedstock for biodiesel. The method involves assessing energy use, fossil fuel use, greenhouse gas emissions, and criteria pollutant emissions using a simulation developed by Argonne National Laboratory. The energy and emissions of algae-derived biodiesel are compared to those of soybean biodiesel, corn ethanol, conventional gasoline, and low-sulfur diesel. Results show that there are sizeable greenhouse gas emission benefits attributed to the production of both types of biodiesel as compared to petroleum fuels. Energy expenditures are much larger when producing algae biodiesel than compared to the other four fuels. The alternative scenario of growing algae at a wastewater treatment plant is also evaluated and is proven to reduce fossil fuel consumption by 17%. The results suggest that producing biodiesel from algae, while not yet competitive regarding energy use, does have many benefits and is worthy of further research and development.

  12. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume IX. Reactor and fuel cycle descriptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    The Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP) has characterized and assessed various reactor/fuel-cycle systems. Volume IX provides, in summary form, the technical descriptions of the reactor/fuel-cycle systems studied. This includes the status of the system technology, as well as a discussion of the safety, environmental, and licensing needs from a technical perspective. This information was then used in developing the research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) program, including its cost and time frame, to advance the existing technology to the level needed for commercial use. Wherever possible, the cost data are given as ranges to reflect the uncertainties in the estimates. Volume IX is divided into three sections: Chapter 1, Reactor Systems; Chapter 2, Fuel-Cycle Systems; and the Appendixes. Chapter 1 contains the characterizations of the following 12 reactor types: light-water reactor; heavy-water reactor; water-cooled breeder reactor; high-temperature gas-cooled reactor; gas-cooled fast reactor; liquid-metal fast breeder reactor; spectral-shift-controlled reactor; accelerator-driven reactor; molten-salt reactor; gaseous-core reactor; tokamak fusion-fisson hybrid reactor; and fast mixed-spectrum reactor. Chapter 2 contains similar information developed for fuel-cycle facilities in the following categories: mining and milling; conversion and enrichment; fuel fabrication; spent fuel reprocessing; waste handling and disposal; and transportation of nuclear materials.

  13. Gasification reactivity and ash sintering behaviour of biomass feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moilanen, A.; Nasrullah, M.

    2011-12-15

    Char gasification reactivity and ash sintering properties of forestry biomass feedstocks selected for large-scale gasification process was characterised. The study was divided into two parts: (1) Internal variation of the reactivity and the ash sintering of feedstocks. (2) Measurement of kinetic parameters of char gasification reactions to be used in the modelling of a gasifier. The tests were carried out in gases relevant to pressurized oxygen gasification, i.e. steam and carbon dioxide, as well as their mixtures with the product gases H{sub 2} and CO. The work was based on experimental measurements using pressurized thermobalance. In the tests, the temperatures were below 1000 deg C, and the pressure range was between 1 and 20 bar. In the first part, it was tested the effect of growing location, storage, plant parts and debarking method. The following biomass types were tested: spruce bark, pine bark, aspen bark, birch bark, forestry residue, bark feedstock mixture, stump chips and hemp. Thick pine bark had the lowest reactivity (instantaneous reaction rate 14%/min) and hemp the highest (250%/min); all other biomasses laid between these values. There was practically no difference in the reactivities among the spruce barks collected from the different locations. For pine bark, the differences were greater, but they were probably due to the thickness of the bark rather than to the growth location. For the spruce barks, the instantaneous reaction rate measured at 90% fuel conversion was 100%/min, for pine barks it varied between 14 and 75%/min. During storage, quite large local differences in reactivity seem to develop. Stump had significantly lower reactivity compared with the others. No clear difference in the reactivity was observed between barks obtained with the wet and dry debarking, but, the sintering of the ash was more enhanced for the bark from dry debarking. Char gasification rate could not be modelled in the gas mixture of H{sub 2}O + CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2

  14. Generation of dried tube specimen for HIV-1 viral load proficiency test panels: a cost-effective alternative for external quality assessment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Artur; Nguyen, Shon; Garcia, Albert; Subbarao, Shambavi; Nkengasong, John N; Ellenberger, Dennis

    2013-03-01

    Participation in external quality assessment programs is critical to ensure quality clinical laboratory testing. Commercially available proficiency test panels for HIV-1 virus load testing that are used commonly in external quality assessment programs remain a financial obstacle to resource-limited countries. Maintaining cold-chain transportation largely contributes to the cost of traditional liquid proficiency test panels. Therefore, we developed and evaluated a proficiency test panel using dried tube specimens that can be shipped and stored at ambient temperature. This dried tube specimens panel consisted of 20 μl aliquots of a HIV-1 stock that were added to 2 ml tubes and left uncapped for drying, as a preservation method. The stability of dried tube specimens at concentrations ranging from 10² to 10⁶·⁵ RNA copies/ml was tested at different temperatures over time, showing no viral load reduction at 37 °C and a decrease in viral load smaller than 0.5 Log₁₀ at 45 °C for up to eight weeks when compared to initial results. Eight cycles of freezing-thawing had no effect on the stability of the dried tube specimens. Comparable viral load results were observed when dried tube specimen panels were tested on Roche CAPTAQ, Abbott m2000, and Biomerieux easyMAG viral load systems. Preliminary test results of dried proficiency test panels shipped to four African countries at ambient temperature demonstrated a low inter assay variation (SD range: 0.29-0.41 Log₁₀ RNA copies/ml). These results indicated that HIV-1 proficiency test panels generated by this methodology might be an acceptable alternative for laboratories in resource-limited countries to participate in external quality assessment programs.

  15. Regional Feedstock Partnership Summary Report: Enabling the Billion-Ton Vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, Vance N. [South Dakota State Univ., Brookings, SD (United States). North Central Sun Grant Center; Karlen, Douglas L. [Dept. of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service, Ames, IA (United States). National Lab. for Agriculture and the Environment; Lacey, Jeffrey A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Process Science and Technology Division

    2016-07-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Sun Grant Initiative established the Regional Feedstock Partnership (referred to as the Partnership) to address information gaps associated with enabling the vision of a sustainable, reliable, billion-ton U.S. bioenergy industry by the year 2030 (i.e., the Billion-Ton Vision). Over the past 7 years (2008–2014), the Partnership has been successful at advancing the biomass feedstock production industry in the United States, with notable accomplishments. The Billion-Ton Study identifies the technical potential to expand domestic biomass production to offset up to 30% of U.S. petroleum consumption, while continuing to meet demands for food, feed, fiber, and export. This study verifies for the biofuels and chemical industries that a real and substantial resource base could justify the significant investment needed to develop robust conversion technologies and commercial-scale facilities. DOE and the Sun Grant Initiative established the Partnership to demonstrate and validate the underlying assumptions underpinning the Billion-Ton Vision to supply a sustainable and reliable source of lignocellulosic feedstock to a large-scale bioenergy industry. This report discusses the accomplishments of the Partnership, with references to accompanying scientific publications. These accomplishments include advances in sustainable feedstock production, feedstock yield, yield stability and stand persistence, energy crop commercialization readiness, information transfer, assessment of the economic impacts of achieving the Billion-Ton Vision, and the impact of feedstock species and environment conditions on feedstock quality characteristics.

  16. Molding Properties of Inconel 718 Feedstocks Used in Low-Pressure Powder Injection Molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad Fareh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of binders and temperature on the rheological properties of feedstocks used in low-pressure powder injection molding was investigated. Experiments were conducted on different feedstock formulations obtained by mixing Inconel 718 powder with wax-based binder systems. The shear rate sensitivity index and the activation energy were used to study the degree of dependence of shear rate and temperature on the viscosity of the feedstocks. The injection performance of feedstocks was then evaluated using an analytical moldability model. The results indicated that the viscosity profiles of feedstocks depend significantly on the binder constituents, and the secondary binder constituents play an important role in the rheological behavior (pseudoplastic or near-Newtonian exhibited by the feedstock formulations. Viscosity values as low as 0.06 to 2.9 Pa·s were measured at high shear rates and high temperatures. The results indicate that a feedstock containing a surfactant agent exhibits the best moldability characteristics.

  17. Transesterification catalyzed by Lipozyme TLIM for biodiesel production from low cost feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Siti Fatimah Abdul; Hassan, Hamizura; Amri, Nurulhuda; Bashah, Nur Alwani Ali

    2015-05-01

    The development of new strategies to efficiently synthesize biodiesel is of extreme important. This is because biodiesel has been accepted worldwide as an alternative fuel for diesel engines. Biodiesel as alkyl ester derived from vegetable oil has considerable advantages in terms of environmental protection. The diminishing petroleum reserves are the major driving force for researchers to look for better strategies in producing biodiesel. The main hurdle to commercialization of biodiesel is the cost of the raw material. Biodiesel is usually produced from food-grade vegetable oil that is more expensive than diesel fuel. Therefore, biodiesel produced from food-grade vegetable oil is currently not economically feasible. Use of an inexpensive raw material such as waste cooking palm oil and non edible oil sea mango are an attractive option to lower the cost of biodiesel. This study addresses an alternative method for biodiesel production which is to use an enzymatic approach in producing biodiesel fuel from low cost feedstock waste cooking palm oil and unrefined sea mango oil using immobilized lipase Lipozyme TL IM. tert-butanol was used as the reaction medium, which eliminated both negative effects caused by excessive methanol and glycerol as the byproduct. Two variables which is methanol to oil molar ratio and enzyme loading were examine in a batch system. Transesterification of waste cooking palm oil reach 65% FAME yield (methanol to oil molar ratio 6:1 and 10% Novozyme 435 based on oil weight), while transesterification of sea mango oil can reach 90% FAME yield (methanol to oil molar ratio 6:1 and 10% Lipozyme TLIM based on oil weight).

  18. Method for predicting fouling tendency of a hydrocarbon-containing feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schabron, John F; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F

    2013-07-23

    Disclosed herein is a method involving the steps of (a) precipitating an amount of asphaltenes from a liquid sample of a first hydrocarbon-containing feedstock having solvated asphaltenes therein with one or more first solvents in a column; (b) determining one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes; (c) analyzing the one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes; and (d) correlating a measurement of feedstock fouling tendency for the first hydrocarbon-containing feedstock sample with a mathematical parameter derived from the results of analyzing the one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes.

  19. Methods of refining and producing dibasic esters and acids from natural oil feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snead, Thomas E.; Cohen, Steven A.; Gildon, Demond L.

    2016-06-14

    Methods and systems for making dibasic esters and/or dibasic acids using metathesis are generally disclosed. In some embodiments, the methods comprise reacting a terminal olefin ester with an internal olefin ester in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a dibasic ester and/or dibasic acid. In some embodiments, the terminal olefin ester or the internal olefin ester are derived from a renewable feedstock, such as a natural oil feedstock. In some such embodiments, the natural oil feedstock, or a transesterified derivative thereof, is metathesized to make the terminal olefin ester or the internal olefin ester.

  20. Two Types of Novel Feedstock Injection Structures of the FCC Riser Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范怡平; 蔡飞鹏; 时铭显; 徐春明

    2004-01-01

    Based on the analysis of flow characteristics of the FCC riser feedstock injection zone, two novel feedstock injection structures are put forward. By investigating three flow parameters in the feedstock injection zone under the three different structures (the traditional and the novel No. 1, No. 2 structures): the local density, the particle backmixng ratio, and the jet eigen-concentration, the flow feature under three structures were obtained. The experimental results demonstrate that the flow features under both proposed structures are obviously improved comparing with those under the traditional structure. Especially, the performance of the deflector-structured No. 2 is more desirable than that of No. 1.

  1. Plant triacylglycerols as feedstocks for the production of biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrett, Timothy P; Benning, Christoph; Ohlrogge, John

    2008-05-01

    Triacylglycerols produced by plants are one of the most energy-rich and abundant forms of reduced carbon available from nature. Given their chemical similarities, plant oils represent a logical substitute for conventional diesel, a non-renewable energy source. However, as plant oils are too viscous for use in modern diesel engines, they are converted to fatty acid esters. The resulting fuel is commonly referred to as biodiesel, and offers many advantages over conventional diesel. Chief among these is that biodiesel is derived from renewable sources. In addition, the production and subsequent consumption of biodiesel results in less greenhouse gas emission compared to conventional diesel. However, the widespread adoption of biodiesel faces a number of challenges. The biggest of these is a limited supply of biodiesel feedstocks. Thus, plant oil production needs to be greatly increased for biodiesel to replace a major proportion of the current and future fuel needs of the world. An increased understanding of how plants synthesize fatty acids and triacylglycerols will ultimately allow the development of novel energy crops. For example, knowledge of the regulation of oil synthesis has suggested ways to produce triacylglycerols in abundant non-seed tissues. Additionally, biodiesel has poor cold-temperature performance and low oxidative stability. Improving the fuel characteristics of biodiesel can be achieved by altering the fatty acid composition. In this regard, the generation of transgenic soybean lines with high oleic acid content represents one way in which plant biotechnology has already contributed to the improvement of biodiesel.

  2. Bioplastic production using wood mill effluents as feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, M; Mato, T; Lopez, A; Vila, M; Kennes, C; Veiga, M C

    2011-01-01

    Fibreboard production is one of the most important industrial activities in Galicia (Spain). Great amounts of wastewater are generated, with properties depending on the type of wood, treatment process, final product and water reusing, among others. These effluents are characterized by a high chemical oxygen demand, low pH and nutrients limitation. Although anaerobic digestion is one of the most suitable processes for the treatment, lately bioplastics production (mainly polyhydroxyalkanoates) from wastewaters with mixed cultures is being evaluated. Substrate requirements for these processes consist of high organic matter content and low nutrient concentration. Therefore, wood mill effluents could be a suitable feedstock. In this work, the possibility of producing bioplastics from to wood mill effluents is evaluated. First, wood mill effluent was converted to volatile fatty acids in an acidogenic reactor operated at two different hydraulic retention times of 1 and 1.5 d. The acidification percentage obtained was 37% and 42%, respectively. Then, aerobic batch assays were performed using fermented wood mill effluents obtained at different hydraulic retention times. Assays were developed using different cultures as inoculums. The maximum storage yield of 0.57 Cmmol/Cmmol was obtained when when the culture was enriched on a synthetic media.

  3. Practical Considerations of Moisture in Baled Biomass Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William A. Smith; Ian J. Bonner; Kevin L. Kenney; Lynn M. Wendt

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural residues make up a large portion of the immediately available biomass feedstock for renewable energy markets. Current collection and storage methods rely on existing feed and forage practices designed to preserve nutrients and properties of digestibility. Low-cost collection and storage practices that preserve carbohydrates across a range of inbound moisture contents are needed to assure the economic and technical success of the emerging biomass industry. This study examines the movement of moisture in storage and identifies patterns of migration resulting from several on-farm storage systems and their impacts on moisture measurement and dry matter recovery. Baled corn stover and energy sorghum were stored outdoors in uncovered, tarp-covered, or wrapped stacks and sampled periodically to measure moisture and dry matter losses. Interpolation between discrete sampling locations in the stack improved bulk moisture content estimates and showed clear patterns of accumulation and re-deposition. Atmospheric exposure, orientation, and contact with barriers (i.e., soil, tarp, and wrap surfaces) were found to cause the greatest amount of moisture heterogeneity within stacks. Although the bulk moisture content of many stacks remained in the range suitable for aerobic stability, regions of high moisture were sufficient to support microbial activity, thus support dry matter loss. Stack configuration, orientation, and coverage methods are discussed relative to impact on moisture management and dry matter preservation. Additionally, sample collection and data analysis are discussed relative to assessment at the biorefinery as it pertains to stability in storage, queuing, and moisture carried into processing.

  4. Assessing Pinyon Juniper Feedstock Properties and Utilization Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gresham, Garold Linn [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kenney, Kevin Louis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Pinyon-juniper woodlands are a major ecosystem type found in the Southwest and the Intermountain West regions of the United States. These ecosystems are characterized by the presence of several different species of pinyon pine and juniper as the dominant plant cover. Since the 1800s, pinyon-juniper woodlands have rapidly expanded their range at the expense of existing ecosystems. Additionally, existing woodlands have become more dense, potentially increasing fire hazards. Land managers responsible for these areas often desire to reduce pinyonjuniper coverage on their lands for a variety of reasons, including restoration to previous vegetative cover, mitigation of fire risk, and improvement in wildlife habitat. However, the cost of clearing or thinning pinyon-juniper stands can be prohibitive. One reason for this is the lack of utilization options for the resulting biomass that could help recover some of the cost of pinyonjuniper stand management. The goal of this project was to assess the feedstock characteristics of biomass from a pinyon-juniper harvest so that potential applications for the biomass may be evaluated.

  5. Technology choice and development in Brazil: An assessment of Brazil's alternative fuel program and the agriculture, manufacturing, energy, and service sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Lucy A.

    Technology choice profoundly affects a country's development process because capital-intensive and labor-intensive technologies have different socioeconomic linkages within the economy. This research examines the impacts of technology choice through the use of a social accounting matrix (SAM) framework. SAM-based modeling determines the direct and indirect effects of technology choice on development, particularly poverty alleviation in Brazil. Brazil's alternative fuel program was analyzed as a special example of technology choice. Two ethanol production technologies and the gasoline sector were compared; to make the study more robust, labor and capital intensive technologies were evaluated in the production of agriculture, manufacturing, energy, and services. Growth in these economic sectors was examined to assess the effects on employment, factor and household income, energy intensity, and carbon dioxide costs. Poverty alleviation was a focus, so income to unskilled agriculture labor, unskilled non-agriculture labor, and income to rural and urban households in poverty was also analyzed. The major research finding is that overall, labor-intensive technologies generate more employment, factor and household income, environmental and energy benefits to Brazil's economy than capital-intensive technologies. In addition, labor-intensive technologies make a particular contribution to poverty alleviation. The results suggest that policies to encourage the adoption of these technologies, especially in the agriculture and renewable energy sectors, are important because of their intersectoral linkages within the economy. Many studies have shown that Brazil's fuel ethanol program has helped to realize multiple macroeconomic objectives. However, this is the first empirical study to quantify its household income effects. The ethanol industry generated the most household income of the energy sectors. The research confirms a key finding of the appropriate technology literature

  6. Transgenic plant cells lacking mitochondrial alternative oxidase have increased susceptibility to mitochondria-dependent and -independent pathways of programmed cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Christine A; Vanlerberghe, Greg C

    2002-08-01

    The plant mitochondrial electron transport chain is branched such that electrons at ubiquinol can be diverted to oxygen via the alternative oxidase (AOX). This pathway does not contribute to ATP synthesis but can dampen the mitochondrial generation of reactive oxygen species. Here, we establish that transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Petit Havana SR1) cells lacking AOX (AS8 cells) show increased susceptibility to three different death-inducing compounds (H(2)O(2), salicylic acid [SA], and the protein phosphatase inhibitor cantharidin) in comparison with wild-type cells. The timing and extent of AS8 cell death are very similar among the three treatments and, in each case, are accompanied by the accumulation of oligonucleosomal fragments of DNA, indicative of programmed cell death. Death induced by H(2)O(2) or SA occurs by a mitochondria-dependent pathway characterized by cytochrome c release from the mitochondrion. Conversely, death induced by cantharidin occurs by a pathway without any obvious mitochondrial involvement. The ability of AOX to attenuate these death pathways may relate to its ability to maintain mitochondrial function after insult with a death-inducing compound or may relate to its ability to prevent chronic oxidative stress within the mitochondrion. In support of the latter, long-term treatment of AS8 cells with an antioxidant compound increased the resistance of AS8 cells to SA- or cantharidin-induced death. The results indicate that plants maintain both mitochondria-dependent and -independent pathways of programmed cell death and that AOX may act as an important mitochondrial "survival protein" against such death.

  7. Surface properties correlate to the digestibility of hydrothermally pretreated lignocellulosic Poaceae biomass feedstocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tristan Djajadi, Demi; Hansen, Aleksander R.; Jensen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    in response to hydrothermal pretreatment at different severities are still not sufficiently understood. Results: Potentially important lignocellulosic feedstocks for biorefining, corn stover (Zea mays subsp. mays L.), stalks of Miscanthus × giganteus, and wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) were systematically...... hydrothermally pretreated; each at three different severities of 3.65, 3.83, and 3.97, respectively, and the enzymatic digestibility was assessed.Pretreated samples of Miscanthus × giganteus stalks were the least digestible among the biomass feedstocks producing~24 to 66.6% lower glucose yields than the other...... feedstocks depending on pretreatment severity and enzymedosage. Bulk biomass composition analyses, 2D nuclear magnetic resonance, and comprehensive microarray polymer profiling were not able to explain the observed differences in recalcitrance among the pretreated feedstocks. However, methods characterizing...

  8. Microbial production host selection for converting second-generation feedstocks into bioproducts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rumbold, K.; Buijsen, H.J.J. van; Overkamp, K.M.; Groenestijn, J.W. van; Punt, P.J.; Werf, M.J.V.D.

    2009-01-01

    Increasingly lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates are used as the feedstock for industrial fermentations. These biomass hydrolysates are complex mixtures of different fermentable sugars, but also inhibitors and salts that affect the performance of the microbial production host. The performance of si

  9. Evaluation of Co-precipitation Processes for the Synthesis of Mixed-Oxide Fuel Feedstock Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Emory D [ORNL; Voit, Stewart L [ORNL; Vedder, Raymond James [ORNL

    2011-06-01

    The focus of this report is the evaluation of various co-precipitation processes for use in the synthesis of mixed oxide feedstock powders for the Ceramic Fuels Technology Area within the Fuels Cycle R&D (FCR&D) Program's Advanced Fuels Campaign. The evaluation will include a comparison with standard mechanical mixing of dry powders and as well as other co-conversion methods. The end result will be the down selection of a preferred sequence of co-precipitation process for the preparation of nuclear fuel feedstock materials to be used for comparison with other feedstock preparation methods. A review of the literature was done to identify potential nitrate-to-oxide co-conversion processes which have been applied to mixtures of uranium and plutonium to achieve recycle fuel homogeneity. Recent studies have begun to study the options for co-converting all of the plutonium and neptunium recovered from used nuclear fuels, together with appropriate portions of recovered uranium to produce the desired mixed oxide recycle fuel. The addition of recycled uranium will help reduce the safeguard attractiveness level and improve proliferation resistance of the recycled fuel. The inclusion of neptunium is primarily driven by its chemical similarity to plutonium, thus enabling a simple quick path to recycle. For recycle fuel to thermal-spectrum light water reactors (LWRs), the uranium concentration can be {approx}90% (wt.), and for fast spectrum reactors, the uranium concentration can typically exceed 70% (wt.). However, some of the co-conversion/recycle fuel fabrication processes being developed utilize a two-step process to reach the desired uranium concentration. In these processes, a 50-50 'master-mix' MOX powder is produced by the co-conversion process, and the uranium concentration is adjusted to the desired level for MOX fuel recycle by powder blending (milling) the 'master-mix' with depleted uranium oxide. In general, parameters that must be

  10. Process Design Report for Stover Feedstock: Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Design and Economics Utilizing Co-Current Dilute Acid Prehydrolysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis for Corn Stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aden, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ruth, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ibsen, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jechura, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Neeves, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sheehan, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wallace, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Montague, L. [Harris Group, Seattle, WA (United States); Slayton, A. [Harris Group, Seattle, WA (United States); Lukas, J. [Harris Group, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2002-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is promoting the development of ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks as an alternative to conventional petroleum-based transportation fuels. DOE funds both fundamental and applied research in this area and needs a method for predicting cost benefits of many research proposals. To that end, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has modeled many potential process designs and estimated the economics of each process during the last 20 years. This report is an update of the ongoing process design and economic analyses at NREL.

  11. State of the art on reactor designs for solar gasification of carbonaceous feedstock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puig Arnavat, Maria; Tora, E.A.; Bruno, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    to produce high quality synthesis gas with a higher output per unit of feedstock and that allows for the chemical storage of solar energy in the form of a readily transportable fuel, among other advantages. The present paper describes the latest advances in solar thermochemical reactors for gasification...... of carbonaceous feedstocks. This work is categorized in this paper into patents and research/journal papers. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd....

  12. Process for Generation of Hydrogen Gas from Various Feedstocks Using Thermophilic Bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ooteghem Van, Suellen

    2005-09-13

    A method for producing hydrogen gas is provided comprising selecting a bacteria from the Order Thermotogales, subjecting the bacteria to a feedstock and to a suitable growth environment having an oxygen concentration below the oxygen concentration of water in equilibrium with air; and maintaining the environment at a predetermined pH and at a temperature of at least approximately 45 degrees C. for a time sufficient to allow the bacteria to metabolize the feedstock.

  13. Simulating the Effect of Alternative Climate Change Scenarios on Pollutant Loading Reduction Requirements for Meeting Water Quality Standards Under USEPA's Total Maximum Daily Load Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronewold, A. D.; Alameddine, I.; Anderson, R.; Wolpert, R.; Reckhow, K.

    2008-12-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) total maximum daily load (TMDL) program requires that individual states assess the condition of surface waters and identify those which fail to meet ambient water quality standards. Waters failing to meet those standards must have a TMDL assessment conducted to determine the maximum allowable pollutant load which can enter the water without violating water quality standards. While most of the nearly 30,000 TMDL assessments completed since 1995 use mechanistic or empirical water quality models to forecast water quality conditions under alternative pollutant loading reduction scenarios, few, if any, also simulate water quality conditions under alternative climate change scenarios. As a result, model-based loading reduction requirements (which serve as the cornerstone for implementing water resource management plans, and initiating environmental management infrastructure projects), believed to improve water quality in impaired waters and reinstate their designated use, may misrepresent the actual required reduction when future climate change scenarios are considered. For example, recent research indicates a potential long term future increase in both the number of days between, and the intensity of, individual precipitation events. In coastal terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, such climate conditions could lead to an increased accumulation of pollutants on the landscape between precipitation events, followed by a washoff event with a relatively high pollutant load. On the other hand, anticipated increases in average temperature and evaporation rate might not only reduce effective rainfall rates (resulting in less energy for transporting pollutants from the landscape) but also reduce the tidal exchange ratio in shallow estuaries (many of which are valuable recreational, commercial, and aesthetic natural resources). Here, we develop and apply a comprehensive watershed-scale model for simulating water quality in

  14. Pectin-rich biomass as feedstock for fuel ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Meredith C.; Doran-Peterson, Joy [Georgia Univ., Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Microbiology

    2012-08-15

    The USA has proposed that 30 % of liquid transportation fuel be produced from renewable resources by 2030 (Perlack and Stokes 2011). It will be impossible to reach this goal using corn kernel-based ethanol alone. Pectin-rich biomass, an under-utilized waste product of the sugar and juice industry, can augment US ethanol supplies by capitalizing on this already established feedstock. Currently, pectin-rich biomass is sold (at low value) as animal feed. This review focuses on the three most studied types of pectin-rich biomass: sugar beet pulp, citrus waste and apple pomace. Fermentations of these materials have been conducted with a variety of ethanologens, including yeasts and bacteria. Escherichia coli can ferment a wide range of sugars including galacturonic acid, the primary component of pectin. However, the mixed acid metabolism of E. coli can produce unwanted side products. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cannot naturally ferment galacturonic acid nor pentose sugars but has a homoethanol pathway. Erwinia chrysanthemi is capable of degrading many of the cell wall components of pectin-rich materials, including pectin. Klebsiella oxytoca can metabolize a diverse array of sugars including cellobiose, one degradation product of cellulose. However, both E. chrysanthemi and K. oxytoca produce side products during fermentation, similar to E. coli. Using pectin-rich residues from industrial processes is beneficial because the material is already collected and partially pretreated to facilitate enzymatic deconstruction of the plant cell walls. Using biomass already produced for other purposes is an attractive practice because fewer greenhouse gases (GHG) will be anticipated from land-use changes. (orig.)

  15. Effect of biomass feedstock chemical and physical properties on energy conversion processes: Volume 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butner, R.S.; Elliott, D.C.; Sealock, L.J., Jr.; Pyne, J.W.

    1988-12-01

    This report presents an exploration of the relationships between biomass feedstocks and the conversion processes that utilize them. Specifically, it discusses the effect of the physical and chemical structure of biomass on conversion yields, rates, and efficiencies in a wide variety of available or experimental conversion processes. A greater understanding of the complex relationships between these conversion systems and the production of biomass for energy uses is required to help optimize the complex network of biomass production, collection, transportation, and conversion to useful energy products. The review of the literature confirmed the scarcity of research aimed specifically at identifying the effect of feedstock properties on conversion. In most cases, any mention of feedstock-related effects was limited to a few brief remarks (usually in qualitative terms) in the conclusions, or as a topic for further research. Attempts to determine the importance of feedstock parameters from published data were further hampered by the lack of consistent feedstock characterization and the difficulty of comparing results between different experimental systems. Further research will be required to establish quantitative relationships between feedstocks and performance criteria in conversion. 127 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. Integration of Feedstock Assembly System and Cellulosic Ethanol Conversion Models to Analyze Bioenergy System Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jared M. Abodeely; Douglas S. McCorkle; Kenneth M. Bryden; David J. Muth; Daniel Wendt; Kevin Kenney

    2010-09-01

    Research barriers continue to exist in all phases of the emerging cellulosic ethanol biorefining industry. These barriers include the identification and development of a sustainable and abundant biomass feedstock, the assembly of viable assembly systems formatting the feedstock and moving it from the field (e.g., the forest) to the biorefinery, and improving conversion technologies. Each of these phases of cellulosic ethanol production are fundamentally connected, but computational tools used to support and inform analysis within each phase remain largely disparate. This paper discusses the integration of a feedstock assembly system modeling toolkit and an Aspen Plus® conversion process model. Many important biomass feedstock characteristics, such as composition, moisture, particle size and distribution, ash content, etc. are impacted and most effectively managed within the assembly system, but generally come at an economic cost. This integration of the assembly system and the conversion process modeling tools will facilitate a seamless investigation of the assembly system conversion process interface. Through the integrated framework, the user can design the assembly system for a particular biorefinery by specifying location, feedstock, equipment, and unit operation specifications. The assembly system modeling toolkit then provides economic valuation, and detailed biomass feedstock composition and formatting information. This data is seamlessly and dynamically used to run the Aspen Plus® conversion process model. The model can then be used to investigate the design of systems for cellulosic ethanol production from field to final product.

  17. Plasma-Powder Feedstock Interaction During Plasma Spray-Physical Vapor Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwaar, Aleem; Wei, Lianglinag; Guo, Hongbo; Zhang, Baopeng

    2017-01-01

    Plasma spray-physical vapor deposition is a new process developed to produce coatings from the vapor phase. To achieve deposition from the vapor phase, the plasma-feedstock interaction inside the plasma torch, i.e., from the powder injection point to the nozzle exit, is critical. In this work, the plasma characteristics and the momentum and heat transfer between the plasma and powder feedstock at different torch input power levels were investigated theoretically to optimize the net plasma torch power, among other important factors such as the plasma gas composition, powder feed rate, and carrier gas. The plasma characteristics were calculated using the CEA2 code, and the plasma-feedstock interaction was studied inside the torch nozzle at low-pressure (20-25 kPa) conditions. A particle dynamics model was introduced to compute the particle velocity, coupled with Xi Chen's drag model for nonevaporating particles. The results show that the energy transferred to the particles and the coating morphology are greatly influenced by the plasma gas characteristics and the particle dynamics inside the nozzle. The heat transfer between the plasma gas and feedstock material increased with the net torch power up to an optimum at 64 kW, at which a maximum of 3.4% of the available plasma energy was absorbed by the feedstock powder. Experimental results using agglomerated 7-8 wt.% yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) powder as feedstock material confirmed the theoretical predictions.

  18. A Review on Biomass Densification Systems to Develop Uniform Feedstock Commodities for Bioenergy Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Christopher T. Wright; J. Richard Hess; Kevin L. Kenney

    2011-11-01

    Developing uniformly formatted, densified feedstock from lignocellulosic biomass is of interest to achieve consistent physical properties like size and shape, bulk and unit density, and durability, which significantly influence storage, transportation and handling characteristics, and, by extension, feedstock cost and quality. A variety of densification systems are considered for producing a uniform format feedstock commodity for bioenergy applications, including (a) baler, (b) pellet mill, (c) cuber, (d) screw extruder, (e) briquette press, (f) roller press, (g) tablet press, and (g) agglomerator. Each of these systems has varying impacts on feedstock chemical and physical properties, and energy consumption. This review discusses the suitability of these densification systems for biomass feedstocks and the impact these systems have on specific energy consumption and end product quality. For example, a briquette press is more flexible in terms of feedstock variables where higher moisture content and larger particles are acceptable for making good quality briquettes; or among different densification systems, a screw press consumes the most energy because it not only compresses but also shears and mixes the material. Pretreatment options like preheating, grinding, steam explosion, torrefaction, and ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX) can also help to reduce specific energy consumption during densification and improve binding characteristics. Binding behavior can also be improved by adding natural binders, such as proteins, or commercial binders, such as lignosulphonates. The quality of the densified biomass for both domestic and international markets is evaluated using PFI (United States Standard) or CEN (European Standard).

  19. Research on the Background' of American Alternative Teacher Certification Program%美国选择性教师认证项目的实施背景探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈颖

    2013-01-01

    Alternative teacher certification program is an important reform in American education today. Alternative teacher certification program refers to creations of state licensing agencies that are alternatives to the traditional college, campus-based (usually undergraduate) teacher education program route culminating in a certificate (license) to teach. The general phenomenon of teacher shortages is one of the targets that alternative certification programs designed to improve. The focus on improving the quality of the nation's teacher workforce and the need to recruit a more diverse pool of teachers are the catalysts for the implementation of alternative routes to teacher certification. There is growing dissatisfaction and impatience with traditional, university-based teacher education, which is also a reason of implementation of alternative routes.%选择性教师认证项目是美国重要的教育改革运动,是取得教师资格证书的非传统路径,是州认证机构在传统的以大学为本的教师教育计划之外建立的另一种颁发教师证书的可供选择的方法。解决教师短缺是选择性认证项目产生的最直接的动因,除此之外,美国社会对教师质量的关注,对教师队伍结构优化的要求以及对于现行教师教育的不满,均是促使选择性教师认证项目开展实施的催化剂。

  20. Chemicals from biomass: an assessment of the potential for production of chemical feedstocks from renewable resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, T.L.; Culberson, O.L.

    1983-06-01

    This assessment of the potential for production of commodity chemicals from renewable biomass resources is based on (1) a Delphi study with 50 recognized authorities to identify key technical issues relevant to production of chemicals from biomass, and (2) a systems model based on linear programming for a commodity chemicals industry using renewable resources and coal as well as gas and petroleum-derived resources. Results from both parts of the assessment indicate that, in the absence of gas and petroleum, coal undoubtedly would be a major source of chemicals first, followed by biomass. The most attractive biomass resources are wood, agricultural residues, and sugar and starch crops. A reasonable approximation to the current product slate for the petrochemical industry could be manufactured using only renewable resources for feedstocks. Approximately 2.5 quads (10/sup 15/ Btu (1.055 x 10/sup 18/ joules)) per year of oil and gas would be released. Further use of biomass fuels in the industry could release up to an additional 1.5 quads. however, such an industry would be unprofitable under current economic conditions with existing or near-commercial technology. As fossil resources become more expensive and biotechnology becomes more efficient, the economics will be more favorable. Use of the chemicals industry model to evaluate process technologies is demonstrated. Processes are identified which have potential for significant added value to the system if process improvements can be made to improve the economics. Guidelines and recommendations for research and development programs to improve the attractiveness of chemicals from biomass are discussed.

  1. Evaluation of shredder residue as cement manufacturing feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boughton, Bob [California Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Toxic Substances Control, Office of Pollution Prevention and Technology Development, 1001 I Street, P.O. Box 806, Sacramento, CA 95812 (United States)

    2007-09-15

    Metal recycling from automobiles, appliances and scrap steel occurs at over 200 dedicated metal shredding operations in the US. Shredder residue (SR) consists of glass, rubber, plastics, fibers, dirt, and fines that remain after ferrous and non-ferrous metals have been removed. Over 3 million tonnes of SR generated in the US each year are landfilled. The results of a previous end-of-life impact assessment showed that use of SR as a fuel supplement for cement manufacturing was environmentally beneficial to the current practice of landfilling and appears better in comparison to the other management methods studied. However, because many reuse and recycling options may not be cost effective, there is a need for further study. Simplistic methods to separate SR into energy and mineral rich streams may facilitate the use of a sizable fraction of SR. Due to the large scale of the cement industry in the US, a significant amount of SR is recoverable. The goal of this study was to identify the feedstock quality parameters needed to satisfy kiln operators and then to assess the mechanical means necessary to process SR into material acceptable as coal and mineral substitutes. Field tests were conducted to separate and beneficiate the coarse SR waste stream. Density separation techniques commonly used by shredders in the past were tested to separate rubber and plastics from non-combustibles and contaminants (e.g., PVC and copper wire). A fraction constituting about 30 wt% of the total SR had fuel characteristics mirroring those of coal. However, remaining levels of potentially problematic constituents (e.g., total chlorine and heavy metals) may limit use to a low relative addition rate at some kilns. An economic review of a full-scale separation system showed that processing SR appears to be economically marginal considering avoided landfilling costs alone. However, significant economic benefits would result from additional non-ferrous metals recovery (namely copper). The

  2. Alternative metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    As the old 'publish or perish' adage is brought into question, additional research-impact indices, known as altmetrics, are offering new evaluation alternatives. But such metrics may need to adjust to the evolution of science publishing.

  3. Value of Distributed Preprocessing of Biomass Feedstocks to a Bioenergy Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher T Wright

    2006-07-01

    Biomass preprocessing is one of the primary operations in the feedstock assembly system and the front-end of a biorefinery. Its purpose is to chop, grind, or otherwise format the biomass into a suitable feedstock for conversion to ethanol and other bioproducts. Many variables such as equipment cost and efficiency, and feedstock moisture content, particle size, bulk density, compressibility, and flowability affect the location and implementation of this unit operation. Previous conceptual designs show this operation to be located at the front-end of the biorefinery. However, data are presented that show distributed preprocessing at the field-side or in a fixed preprocessing facility can provide significant cost benefits by producing a higher value feedstock with improved handling, transporting, and merchandising potential. In addition, data supporting the preferential deconstruction of feedstock materials due to their bio-composite structure identifies the potential for significant improvements in equipment efficiencies and compositional quality upgrades. Theses data are collected from full-scale low and high capacity hammermill grinders with various screen sizes. Multiple feedstock varieties with a range of moisture values were used in the preprocessing tests. The comparative values of the different grinding configurations, feedstock varieties, and moisture levels are assessed through post-grinding analysis of the different particle fractions separated with a medium-scale forage particle separator and a Rototap separator. The results show that distributed preprocessing produces a material that has bulk flowable properties and fractionation benefits that can improve the ease of transporting, handling and conveying the material to the biorefinery and improve the biochemical and thermochemical conversion processes.

  4. Characterization of potassium hydroxide (KOH) modified hydrochars from different feedstocks for enhanced removal of heavy metals from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kejing; Tang, Jingchun; Gong, Yanyan; Zhang, Hairong

    2015-11-01

    Hydrochars produced from different feedstocks (sawdust, wheat straw, and corn stalk) via hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) and KOH modification were used as alternative adsorbents for aqueous heavy metals remediation. The chemical and physical properties of the hydrochars and KOH-treated hydrochars were characterized, and the ability of hydrochars for removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions as a function of reaction time, pH, and initial contaminant concentration was tested. The results showed that KOH modification of hydrochars might have increased the aromatic and oxygen-containing functional groups, such as carboxyl groups, resulting in about 2-3 times increase of cadmium sorption capacity (30.40-40.78 mg/g) compared to that of unmodified hydrochars (13.92-14.52 mg/g). The sorption ability among different feedstocks after modification was as the following: sawdust > wheat straw > corn stack. Cadmium sorption kinetics on modified hydrochars could be interpreted with a pseudo-second order, and sorption isotherm was simulated with Langmuir adsorption model. High cadmium uptake on modified hydrochars was observed over the pH range of 4.0-8.0, while for other heavy metals (Pb(2+), Cu(2+), and Zn(2+)) the range was 4.0-6.0. In a multi-metal system, the sorption capacity of heavy metals by modified hydrochars was also higher than that by unmodified ones and followed the order of Pb(II) > Cu(II) > Cd(II) > Zn(II). The results suggest that KOH-modified hydrochars can be used as a low cost, environmental-friendly, and effective adsorbent for heavy metal removal from aqueous solutions.

  5. Feedstock Supply System Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels: Conversion Pathway: Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons The 2017 Design Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Kenney; Kara G. Cafferty; Jacob J. Jacobson; Ian J Bonner; Garold L. Gresham; William A. Smith; David N. Thompson; Vicki S. Thompson; Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Neal Yancey

    2013-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy promotes the production of a range of liquid fuels and fuel blendstocks from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass collection, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. Between 2000 and 2012, INL conducted a campaign to quantify the economics and sustainability of moving biomass from standing in the field or stand to the throat of the biomass conversion process. The goal of this program was to establish the current costs based on conventional equipment and processes, design improvements to the current system, and to mark annual improvements based on higher efficiencies or better designs. The 2012 programmatic target was to demonstrate a delivered biomass logistics cost of $35/dry ton. This goal was successfully achieved in 2012 by implementing field and process demonstration unit-scale data from harvest, collection, storage, preprocessing, handling, and transportation operations into INL’s biomass logistics model. Looking forward to 2017, the programmatic target is to supply biomass to the conversion facilities at a total cost of $80/dry ton and on specification with in-feed requirements. The goal of the 2017 Design Case is to enable expansion of biofuels production beyond highly productive resource areas by breaking the reliance of cost-competitive biofuel production on a single, abundant, low-cost feedstock. If this goal is not achieved, biofuel plants are destined to be small and/or clustered in select regions of the country that have a lock on low-cost feedstock. To put the 2017 cost target into perspective of past accomplishments of the cellulosic ethanol pathway, the $80 target encompasses total delivered feedstock cost, including both grower payment and logistics costs, while meeting all

  6. Cellulose solvent- and organic solvent-based lignocellulose fractionation enabled efficient sugar release from a variety of lignocellulosic feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; Zhu, Zhiguang; Zhang, Y-H Percival

    2012-08-01

    Developing feedstock-independent biomass pretreatment would be vital to second generation biorefineries that would fully utilize diverse non-food lignocellulosic biomass resources, decrease transportation costs of low energy density feedstock, and conserve natural biodiversity. Cellulose solvent- and organic solvent-based lignocellulose fractionation (COSLIF) was applied to a variety of feedstocks, including Miscanthus, poplar, their mixture, bagasse, wheat straw, and rice straw. Although non-pretreated biomass samples exhibited a large variation in enzymatic digestibility, the COSLIF-pretreated biomass samples exhibited similar high enzymatic glucan digestibilities and fast hydrolysis rates. Glucan digestibilities of most pretreated feedstocks were ∼93% at five filter paper units per gram of glucan. The overall glucose and xylose yields for the Miscanthus:poplar mixture at a weight ratio of 1:2 were 93% and 85%, respectively. These results suggested that COSLIF could be regarded as a feedstock-independent pretreatment suitable for processing diverse feedstocks by adjusting pretreatment residence time only.

  7. Rheological study of copper and copper grapheme feedstock for powder injection molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaman, N. Emira Binti; Rafi Raza, M.; Muhamad, N.; Niaz Akhtar, M.; Bakar Sulong, A.

    2017-01-01

    Heatsink is one of the solution to optimize the performance of smart electronic devices. Copper and its composites are helping the electronic industry to solve the heating problem. Copper-graphene heat sink material with enhanced thermal conductivity is the ultimate goal.Powder injection molding (PIM) has advantages of high precision and production rate, complex shape, low cost and suitabality for metal and cremics.PIM consists of four sub sequential steps; feedstock preparation, molding, debinding and sintering. Feedstock preparation is a critical step in PIM process. Any deficiency at this stage cannot be recovered at latter stages. Therefore, this research was carried out to investigate the injectability of copper and copper graphene composite using PIM. PEG based multicomponent binder system was used and the powder loading was upto 7vol.% less than the critical powder loading was used to provide the wettability of the copper powder and graphene nanoplatelets (GNps). Corpper-graphene feedstock contained 0.5vol.% of GNps . To ensure the homogeneity of GNps within feedstock a unique technique was addopted. The microscopic results showed that the feedstock is homogeneous and ready for injection. The viscosity-shear rate relationship was determined and results showed that the addition of 0.5vol.% of GNps in copper has increased the viscosity upto 64.9% at 140˚C than that of pure copper feedstock. This attribute may be due to the large surface area of GNps. On the other hand, by increasing the temperature, viscosity of the feedstock was decreased, which was recommended for PIM. The overall viscosity and share rate lies within the range recommended for PIM process. It is clear that both feedstocks showed pseudo plastic behaviour which is suitable for PIM process. In the pseudo plastic behaviour, the viscosity decreases with the shear rate. It may be due to change in the structure of the solid particles or the binder. The molding results showed that both copper

  8. Effects of Torrefaction Temperature on Pyrolysis Vapor Products of Woody and Herbaceous Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starace, Anne K.; Evans, Robert J.; Lee, David D.; Carpenter, Daniel L.

    2016-07-21

    A variety of hardwood, softwood, and herbaceous feedstocks (oak, southern yellow pine mix, loblolly pine, pinyon-juniper mix, and switchgrass) were each torrefied at 200, 250, and 300 degrees C. Each of the feedstocks was pyrolyzed and the resulting vapors were analyzed with a molecular beam mass spectrometer (py-MBMS). Compositional analysis was used to measure the total lignin content of three of the feedstocks (southern yellow pine, softwood; oak, hardwood; and switchgrass, herbaceous) before and after torrefaction at 300 degrees C, and large differences in the fraction of lignin lost during torrefaction were found between feedstocks, with oak having the largest decrease in lignin during torrefaction and switchgrass having the least. It is hypothesized that these differences in the thermal degradation are due to, in part, the different ratios of S, G, and H lignins in the feedstocks. Additionally, the torrefaction of kraft lignin was studied using thermogravimetric analysis coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TGA-FTIR) and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR).

  9. The use of co-digested solid fraction as feedstock for biogas plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elio Dinuccio

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study was set up in order to assess the technical feasibility of the long-term reuse of the mechanically separated co-digested solid fraction as a feedstock for anaerobic digestion plants (ADP. The biogas yields of two feedstock mixtures (A and B were assessed in mesophilic conditions (40°C±2°C using 6 lab-scale continuous stirredtank reactors. Feedstock mixture A (control consisted of pig slurry (70%, farmyard manure (4%, sorghum silage (12% and maize silage (14%. Feedstock mixture B was the same as the control plus the solid fraction derived from the mechanical separation of the output raw codigestate collected from the reactors. All reactors were fed simultaneously, three times a week, over a period of nine month. According to the study results, the reuse of the co-digested solid fraction as feedstock for ADP could increase the methane yield by approximately 4%. However, ADP efficiency evaluation (e.g., daily yield of methane per m3 of digester suggests limiting this practice to a maximum time period of 120 days.

  10. The use of co-digested solid fraction as feedstock for biogas plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Dinuccio

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study was set up in order to assess the technical feasibility of the long-term reuse of the mechanically separated co-digested solid fraction as a feedstock for anaerobic digestion plants (ADP. The biogas yields of two feedstock mixtures (A and B were assessed in mesophilic conditions (40 °C ± 2 °C using 8 lab-scale continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSRT. Feedstock mixture A (control consisted of pig slurry (70%, farmyard manure (4%, sorghum silage (12% and maize silage (14%. Feedstock mixture B was the same as the control plus the solid fraction derived from the mechanical separation of the output raw co-digestate collected on daily basis from the reactors. All reactors were fed simultaneously, three times a week, over a period of nine month. According to the study results, the reuse of the co-digested solid fraction as feedstock for ADP could increase the methane yield by approximately 4%. However, ADP efficiency evaluation (e.g., daily yield of methane per m3 of digester suggest to limit this practice to a maximum time period of 120 days.

  11. Microalgae as Sustainable Renewable Energy Feedstock for Biofuel Production

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The world energy crisis and increased greenhouse gas emissions have driven the search for alternative and environmentally friendly renewable energy sources. According to life cycle analysis, microalgae biofuel is identified as one of the major renewable energy sources for sustainable development, with potential to replace the fossil-based fuels. Microalgae biofuel was devoid of the major drawbacks associated with oil crops and lignocelluloses-based biofuels. Algae-based biofuels are technical...

  12. Alternatives evaluation for the decontamination and decommissioning of buildings 3506 and 3515 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    this is an alternative evaluation document that records the evaluation process and justification for choosing the alternative recommended for the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the 3506 and 3515 buildings at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The alternatives for the D&D of the two buildings were: (1) no action (continued surveillance and maintenance), (2) decontamination for free release, (3) entombment in place, (4) partial dismantlement, and (5) complete dismantlement. Soil remediation is not included in any of the alternatives. The recommended alternative for the D&D of Building 3506 is partial dismantlement at an estimated cost of $936, 000 in escalated dollars. The cost estimate for complete dismantlement is $1,384,000. The recommended alternative for the D&D of Building 3515 is complete dismantlement at an estimated cost of $3,733,000 in escalated dollars. This alternative is recommended, because the soils below the foundation of the 3515 building are highly contaminated, and removing the foundation in the D&D project results in lower overall worker risk, costs, and improved post-D&D site conditions. A further recommendation is to revise these cost estimates after the conclusion of the ongoing characterization study. The results of the characterization of the two buildings is expected to change some of the assumptions and resolve some of the uncertainties in the development of these estimates.

  13. State of the Art on Alternative Fuels in Aviation. Executive summary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blakey, S.; Novelli, P.; Costes, P.; Bringtown, S.; Christensen, D.; Sakintuna, B.; Peineke, C.; Jongschaap, R.E.E.; Conijn, J.G.; Rutgers, B.; Valot, L.; Joubert, E.; Perelgritz, J.F.; Filogonio, A.; Roetger, T.; Prieur, A.; Starck, L.; Jeuland, N.; Bogers, P.; Midgley, R.; Bauldreay, J.; Rollin, G.; Rye, L.; Wilson, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarises the findings from the SWAFEA preliminary state of the art study. It covers trends in aspects of future air transport, potential candidate fuels and associated feedstock along with sustainability and economical issues relevant for alternative fuels in aviation..

  14. Strategy of changing cracking furnace feedstock based on improved group search optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoyu Nian; Zhenlei Wang; Feng Qian

    2015-01-01

    The scheduling process of cracking furnace feedstock is important in an ethylene plant. In this paper it is described as a constraint optimization problem. The constraints consist of the cycle of operation, maximum tube metal temperature, process time of each feedstock, and flow rate. A modified group search optimizer is pro-posed to deal with the optimization problem. Double fitness values are defined for every group. First, the factor of penalty function should be changed adaptively by the ratio of feasible and general solutions. Second, the“excel-lent”infeasible solution should be retained to guide the search. Some benchmark functions are used to evaluate the new algorithm. Final y, the proposed algorithm is used to optimize the scheduling process of cracking furnace feedstock. And the optimizing result is obtained.

  15. Solar cells from 120 PPMA carbon-contaminated feedstock without significantly higher reverse current or shunt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manshanden, P.; Coletti, G. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-09-15

    In a bid to drive down the cost of silicon wafers, several options for solar grade silicon feedstock have been investigated over the years. All methods have in common that the resulting silicon contains higher levels of impurities like dopants, oxygen, carbon or transition metals, the type and level of impurities depending on the raw materials and refining processes. In this work wafers from a p-type mc-Si ingot made with feedstock contaminated with 120 ppma of carbon have been processed into solar cells together with reference uncontaminated feedstock from semiconductor grade polysilicon with <0.4 ppma carbon. The results show that comparable reverse current, shunts, and efficiencies can be reached for both types of wafers. Gettering and defect hydrogenation effectiveness also did not deviate from the reference. Electroluminescence pictures do not show increased hotspot formation, even at -16V.

  16. Efficient process for producing saccharides and ethanol from a biomass feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okeke, Benedict C.; Nanjundaswamy, Ananda K.

    2017-04-11

    Described herein is a process for producing saccharides and ethanol from biomass feedstock that includes (a) producing an enzyme composition by culturing a fungal strain(s) in the presence of a lignocellulosic medium, (b) using the enzyme composition to saccharify the biomass feedstock, and (c) fermenting the saccharified biomass feedstock to produce ethanol. The process is scalable and, in certain aspects, is capable of being deployed on farms, thereby allowing local production of saccharides and ethanol and resulting in a reduction of energy and other costs for farm operators. Optional steps to improve the biomass-to-fuel conversion efficiency are also contemplated, as are uses for byproducts of the process described herein.

  17. The effect of aqueous ammonia soaking pretreatment on methane generation uing different lignocellulosic feedstocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonopoulou, Georgia; Jonuzaj, Suela; Gavala, Hariklia N.;

    2014-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass including agricultural and forestry residues, perennial crops, softwoods and hardwoods, can be used as feedstock for methane production. Although being abundant and almost zero cost feedstocks, the main obstacles of their use are the low efficiencies and yields attained, due...... be converted to methane in consecutive steps, by microorganisms, , leading thus to higher yields. Among different pretreatment technologies, aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) presents certain advantages since ammonia is relative safe to handle, non polluting, non corrosive, easily recoverable and presents a high...... for enhanced methane production, so far. In the present study AAS has been tested as a pretreatment method in anaerobic digestion of three lignocellulosic feedstocks with a different origin: one agricultural residue: sunflower straw, one perennial crop: grass and a hardwood: poplar. The effect of the AAS...

  18. Long term storage of dilute acid pretreated corn stover feedstock and ethanol fermentability evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Shao, Shuai; Bao, Jie

    2016-02-01

    This study reported a new solution of lignocellulose feedstock storage based on the distributed pretreatment concept. The dry dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment (DDAP) was conducted on corn stover feedstock, instead of ammonia fiber explosion pretreatment. Then the dry dilute acid pretreated corn stover was stored for three months during summer season with high temperature and humidity. No negative aspects were found on the physical property, composition, hydrolysis yield and ethanol fermentability of the long term stored pretreated corn stover, plus the additional merits including no chemicals recovery operation, anti-microbial contaminant environment from stronger acid and inhibitor contents, as well as the mild and slow hydrolysis in the storage. The new pretreatment method expanded the distributed pretreatment concept of feedstock storage with potential for practical application.

  19. Magnetostrictive Alternator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Rodger; Bruder, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    This innovation replaces the linear alternator presently used in Stirling engines with a continuous-gradient, impedance-matched, oscillating magnetostrictive transducer that eliminates all moving parts via compression, maintains high efficiency, costs less to manufacture, reduces mass, and eliminates the need for a bearing system. The key components of this new technology are the use of stacked magnetostrictive materials, such as Terfenol-D, under a biased magnetic and stress-induced compression, continuous-gradient impedance-matching material, coils, force-focusing metallic structure, and supports. The acoustic energy from the engine travels through an impedancematching layer that is physically connected to the magnetostrictive mass. Compression bolts keep the structure under compressive strain, allowing for the micron-scale compression of the magnetostrictive material and eliminating the need for bearings. The relatively large millimeter displacement of the pressure side of the impedance-matching material is reduced to micron motion, and undergoes stress amplification at the magnetostrictive interface. The alternating compression and expansion of the magnetostrictive material creates an alternating magnetic field that then induces an electric current in a coil that is wound around the stack. This produces electrical power from the acoustic pressure wave and, if the resonant frequency is tuned to match the engine, can replace the linear alternator that is commonly used.

  20. Growing Alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Petersen, Mai Corlin

    2014-01-01

    From 2014, Anhui Province will pilot a reform of the residential land market in China, thus integrating rural Anhui in the national housing market. In contrast, artist and activist Ou Ning has proposed the Bishan time money currency, intending to establish an alternative economic circuit in Bishan...

  1. Alternative Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... triglyceride (fat) produced by processing coconut oil or palm kernel oil. The body breaks down caprylic acid into substances called “ketone bodies.” The theory behind Axona is that the ketone bodies derived from caprylic acid may provide an alternative energy source for brain cells that have lost ...

  2. The potential of freshwater macroalgae as a biofuels feedstock and the influence of nutrient availability on freshwater macroalgal biomass production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jin-Ho

    Extensive efforts have been made to evaluate the potential of microalgae as a biofuel feedstock during the past 4-5 decades. However, filamentous freshwater macroalgae have numerous characteristics that favor their potential use as an alternative algal feedstock for biofuels production. Freshwater macroalgae exhibit high rates of areal productivity, and their tendency to form dense floating mats on the water surface imply significant reductions in harvesting and dewater costs compared to microalgae. In Chapter 1, I reviewed the published literature on the elemental composition and energy content of five genera of freshwater macroalgae. This review suggested that freshwater macroalgae compare favorably with traditional bio-based energy sources, including terrestrial residues, wood, and coal. In addition, I performed a semi-continuous culture experiment using the common Chlorophyte genus Oedogonium to investigate whether nutrient availability can influence its higher heating value (HHV), productivity, and proximate analysis. The experimental study suggested that the most nutrient-limited growth conditions resulted in a significant increase in the HHV of the Oedogonium biomass (14.4 MJ/kg to 16.1 MJ/kg). Although there was no significant difference in productivity between the treatments, the average dry weight productivity of Oedogonium (3.37 g/m2/day) was found to be much higher than is achievable with common terrestrial plant crops. Although filamentous freshwater macroalgae, therefore, have significant potential as a renewable source of bioenergy, the ultimate success of freshwater macroalgae as a biofuel feedstock will depend upon the ability to produce biomass at the commercial-scale in a cost-effective and sustainable manner. Aquatic ecology can play an important role to achieve the scale-up of algal crop production by informing the supply rates of nutrients to the cultivation systems, and by helping to create adaptive production systems that are resilient to

  3. Alternative Prison-Based Educational Programs for Women: A Phenomenological Inquiry of Girl Scouts beyond Bars in a Central Midwestern State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goepferich, Nellie E.

    2012-01-01

    Correctional programs that respond to female offenders with young to school-aged children are growing in number. Girl Scouts Beyond Bars is one of these programs. Research and evaluation of female-specific programs in corrections is limited. This study examined the experiences and individual perceptions of female offenders while participating in…

  4. Renewable raw materials new feedstocks for the chemical industry

    CERN Document Server

    Ulber, Roland; Hirth, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    One of the main challenges facing the chemical industry is the transition to sustainable operations. Industries are taking initiatives to reduce resource intensities or footprints, and by adopting safer materials and processes. Such efforts need to be supported by techniques that can quantify the broad economic and environmental implications of industrial operations, retrofi t options and provide new design alternatives. This contemporary overview focuses on cradle-to-grave life cycle assessments of existing or conceptual processes for producing valueadded fuels, chemicals, and/or material

  5. Demystifying Alternative Education: Considering What Really Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Diane E.

    2003-01-01

    The effectiveness of alternative programs requires an understanding of both research and practice. Essential components of alternative educational programs must include opportunities to build and foster resilience in our youth. Program elements must be reflective of the quality and standards mandated by the "No Child Left Behind Act of 2001."…

  6. Bioethanol - Status report on bioethanol production from wood and other lignocellulosic feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott-Kerr, Chris; Johnson, Tony; Johnson, Barbara; Kiviaho, Jukka

    2010-09-15

    Lignocellulosic biomass is seen as an attractive feedstock for future supplies of renewable fuels, reducing the dependence on imported petroleum. However, there are technical and economic impediments to the development of commercial processes that utilise biomass feedstocks for the production of liquid fuels such as ethanol. Significant investment into research, pilot and demonstration plants is on-going to develop commercially viable processes utilising the biochemical and thermochemical conversion technologies for ethanol. This paper reviews the current status of commercial lignocellulosic ethanol production and identifies global production facilities.

  7. Process for improving the energy density of feedstocks using formate salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Marshall Clayton; van Heiningen, Adriaan R.P.; Case, Paige A.

    2015-09-01

    Methods of forming liquid hydrocarbons through thermal deoxygenation of cellulosic compounds are disclosed. Aspects cover methods including the steps of mixing a levulinic acid salt-containing feedstock with a formic acid salt, exposing the mixture to a high temperature condition to form hydrocarbon vapor, and condensing the hydrocarbon vapor to form liquid hydrocarbons, where both the formic acid salt and the levulinic acid salt-containing feedstock decompose at the high temperature condition and wherein one or more of the mixing, exposing, and condensing steps is carried out a pressure between about vacuum and about 10 bar.

  8. Sunflower-based Feedstocks in Nonfood Applications: Perspectives from Olefin Metathesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvey, Bassie B.

    2008-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) oil remains under-utilised albeit one of the major seed oils produced world-wide. Moreover, the high oleic sunflower varieties make the oil attractive for applications requiring high temperature processes and those targeting the C=C double bond functionality. Herein an overview of the recent developments in olefin metathesis of sunflower-based feedstocks is presented. The improved performance of olefin metathesis catalysts leading to high turnover numbers, high selectivity and catalyst recyclability, opens new opportunities for tailoring sunflower-based feedstocks into products required for possible new niche market applications. Promising results in biofuel, biopolymers, fragrances and fine chemicals applications have been reported. PMID:19325810

  9. Watermelon juice: a promising feedstock supplement, diluent, and nitrogen supplement for ethanol biofuel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruton Benny D

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two economic factors make watermelon worthy of consideration as a feedstock for ethanol biofuel production. First, about 20% of each annual watermelon crop is left in the field because of surface blemishes or because they are misshapen; currently these are lost to growers as a source of revenue. Second, the neutraceutical value of lycopene and L-citrulline obtained from watermelon is at a threshold whereby watermelon could serve as starting material to extract and manufacture these products. Processing of watermelons to produce lycopene and L-citrulline, yields a waste stream of watermelon juice at the rate of over 500 L/t of watermelons. Since watermelon juice contains 7 to 10% (w/v directly fermentable sugars and 15 to 35 μmol/ml of free amino acids, its potential as feedstock, diluent, and nitrogen supplement was investigated in fermentations to produce bioethanol. Results Complete watermelon juice and that which did not contain the chromoplasts (lycopene, but did contain free amino acids, were readily fermentable as the sole feedstock or as diluent, feedstock supplement, and nitrogen supplement to granulated sugar or molasses. A minimum level of ~400 mg N/L (~15 μmol/ml amino nitrogen in watermelon juice was required to achieve maximal fermentation rates when it was employed as the sole nitrogen source for the fermentation. Fermentation at pH 5 produced the highest rate of fermentation for the yeast system that was employed. Utilizing watermelon juice as diluent, supplemental feedstock, and nitrogen source for fermentation of processed sugar or molasses allowed complete fermentation of up to 25% (w/v sugar concentration at pH 3 (0.41 to 0.46 g ethanol per g sugar or up to 35% (w/v sugar concentration at pH 5 with a conversion to 0.36 to 0.41 g ethanol per g sugar. Conclusion Although watermelon juice would have to be concentrated 2.5- to 3-fold to serve as the sole feedstock for ethanol biofuel production, the results

  10. An integrated bioconversion process for the production of L-lactic acid from starchy feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, S.P.; Moon, S.H.

    1997-07-01

    The potential market for lactic acid as the feedstock for biodegradable polymers, oxygenated chemicals, and specialty chemicals is significant. L-lactic acid is often the desired enantiomer for such applications. However, stereospecific lactobacilli do not metabolize starch efficiently. In this work, Argonne researchers have developed a process to convert starchy feedstocks into L-lactic acid. The processing steps include starch recovery, continuous liquefaction, and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. Over 100 g/L of lactic acid was produced in less than 48 h. The optical purity of the product was greater than 95%. This process has potential economical advantages over the conventional process.

  11. Low temperature microwave-assisted vs conventional pyrolysis of various biomass feedstocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter Shuttleworth; Vitaliy Budarin; Mark Gronnow; James H. Clark; Rafael Luque

    2012-01-01

    A comparison between conventional pyrolysis and a novel developed low-temperature microwave-assisted pyrolysis methodology has been performed for the valorisation of a range of biomass feedstocks including waste residues.Microwave pyrolysis was found to efficiently deliver comparable evolution of bio-gases in the system as compared with conventional pyrolysis at significantly reduced temperatures (120-180 ℃ vs 250-400 ℃).The gas obtained from microwave-assistet pyrolysis was found to contain CO2,CH4 and CO as major components as well as other related chemicals (e.g.acids,aldehydes,alkanes) which were obtained in different proportions depending on the selected feedstock.

  12. Catalytic Hydrothermal Conversion of Wet Biomass Feedstocks and Upgrading – Process Design and Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Jessica; Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse

    Liquid biofuels will play a major role for a more sustainable energy system of the future. The CatLiq® process is a 2nd generation biomass conversion process that is based on hydrothermal liquefaction. Hydrothermal liquefaction offers a very efficient and feedstock flexible way of converting...... biomass to bio-oil. Bio-oils from hydrothermal liquefaction are characterised by their high feedstock flexibility. Upgrading of complete bio-oils derived from hydrothermal conversion has not yet been extensively studied. Purpose of this work is to reduce the oxygen content of the bio-oil to improve...

  13. Methods of refining and producing dibasic esters and acids from natural oil feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snead, Thomas E; Cohen, Steven A; Gildon, Demond L

    2015-04-07

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing dibasic esters and/or dibasic acids. The methods comprise reacting a terminal olefin with an internal olefin in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a dibasic ester and/or dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin esters are formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having olefin esters.

  14. Methods of refining and producing dibasic esters and acids from natural oil feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snead, Thomas E.; Cohen, Steven A.; Gildon, Demond L.

    2016-03-15

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing dibasic esters and/or dibasic acids. The methods comprise reacting a terminal olefin with an internal olefin in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a dibasic ester and/or dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin esters are formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having olefin esters.

  15. Halophytes, Algae, and Bacteria Food and Fuel Feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Bushnell, D. M.

    2009-01-01

    The constant, increasing demand for energy, freshwater, and food stresses our ability to meet these demands within reasonable cost and impact on climate while sustaining quality of life. This environmental Triangle of Conflicts between energy, food, and water--while provoked by anthropogenic monetary and power struggles--can be resolved through an anthropogenic paradigm shift in how we produce and use energy, water, and food. With world population (6.6 billion) projected to increase 40 percent in 40 to 60 yr, proper development of saline agriculture and aquaculture is required, as 43 percent of the Earth's landmass is arid or semi-arid and 97 percent of the Earth's water is seawater. In light of this, we seek fuel alternatives in plants that thrive in brackish and saltwater with the ability to survive in arid lands. The development and application of these plants (halophytes) become the primary focus. Herein we introduce some not-so-familiar halophytes and present a few of their benefits, cite a few research projects (including some on the alternatives algae and bacteria), and then set theoretical limits on biomass production followed by projections in terms of world energy demands. Based on diverse arid lands with a total size equivalent to the Sahara Desert (8.6(exp 8) ha, or 2.1(exp 9) acres), these projections show that halophyte agriculture and algae systems can provide for the projected world energy demand.

  16. Medicare Program; Merit-Based Incentive Payment System (MIPS) and Alternative Payment Model (APM) Incentive Under the Physician Fee Schedule, and Criteria for Physician-Focused Payment Models. Final rule with comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-04

    The Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015 (MACRA) repeals the Medicare sustainable growth rate (SGR) methodology for updates to the physician fee schedule (PFS) and replaces it with a new approach to payment called the Quality Payment Program that rewards the delivery of high-quality patient care through two avenues: Advanced Alternative Payment Models (Advanced APMs) and the Merit-based Incentive Payment System (MIPS) for eligible clinicians or groups under the PFS. This final rule with comment period establishes incentives for participation in certain alternative payment models (APMs) and includes the criteria for use by the Physician-Focused Payment Model Technical Advisory Committee (PTAC) in making comments and recommendations on physician-focused payment models (PFPMs). Alternative Payment Models are payment approaches, developed in partnership with the clinician community, that provide added incentives to deliver high-quality and cost-efficient care. APMs can apply to a specific clinical condition, a care episode, or a population. This final rule with comment period also establishes the MIPS, a new program for certain Medicare-enrolled practitioners. MIPS will consolidate components of three existing programs, the Physician Quality Reporting System (PQRS), the Physician Value-based Payment Modifier (VM), and the Medicare Electronic Health Record (EHR) Incentive Program for Eligible Professionals (EPs), and will continue the focus on quality, cost, and use of certified EHR technology (CEHRT) in a cohesive program that avoids redundancies. In this final rule with comment period we have rebranded key terminology based on feedback from stakeholders, with the goal of selecting terms that will be more easily identified and understood by our stakeholders.

  17. Methane Hydrates: More Than a Viable Aviation Fuel Feedstock Option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Robert C.

    2007-01-01

    Demand for hydrocarbon fuels is steadily increasing, and greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise unabated with the energy demand. Alternate fuels will be coming on line to meet that demand. This report examines the recovering of methane from methane hydrates for fuel to meet this demand rather than permitting its natural release into the environment, which will be detrimental to the planet. Some background on the nature, vast sizes, and stability of sedimentary and permafrost formations of hydrates are discussed. A few examples of the severe problems associated with methane recovery from these hydrates are presented along with the potential impact on the environment and coastal waters. Future availability of methane from hydrates may become an attractive option for aviation fueling, and so future aircraft design associated with methane fueling is considered.

  18. Assessment of alternatives for management of ORNL retrievable transuranic waste. Nuclear Waste Program: transuranic waste (Activity No. AR 05 15 15 0; ONL-WT04)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    Since 1970, solid waste with TRU or U-233 contamination in excess of 10 ..mu..Ci per kilogram of waste has been stored in a retrievable fashion at ORNL, such as in ss drums, concrete casks, and ss-lined wells. This report describes the results of a study performed to identify and evaluate alternatives for management of this waste and of the additional waste projected to be stored through 1995. The study was limited to consideration of the following basic strategies: Strategy 1: Leave waste in place as is; Strategy 2: Improve waste confinement; and Strategy 3: Retrieve waste and process for shipment to a Federal repository. Seven alternatives were identified and evaluated, one each for Strategies 1 and 2 and five for Strategy 3. Each alternative was evaluated from the standpoint of technical feasibility, cost, radiological risk and impact, regulatory factors and nonradiological environmental impact.

  19. 78 FR 49749 - Williams Olefins Feedstock Pipelines, L.L.C.; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Williams Olefins Feedstock Pipelines, L.L.C.; Notice of Petition for... Practices and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.207(a)(2)(2012), Williams Olefins Feedstock Pipelines, L.L.C., filed...

  20. Environmental and energy system analysis of bio-methane production pathways : A comparison between feedstocks and process optimizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierie, F.; van Someren, C. E. J.; Benders, R. M. J.; Bekkering, J.; van Gemert, W. J. Th; Moll, H. C.

    2015-01-01

    The energy efficiency and sustainability of an anaerobic green gas production pathway was evaluated, taking into account five biomass feedstocks, optimization of the green gas production pathway, replacement of current waste management pathways by mitigation, and transport of the feedstocks. Sustain

  1. Farm systems assessment of bioenergy feedstock production: Integrating bio-economic models and life cycle analysis approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glithero, N J; Ramsden, S J; Wilson, P

    2012-06-01

    Climate change and energy security concerns have driven the development of policies that encourage bioenergy production. Meeting EU targets for the consumption of transport fuels from bioenergy by 2020 will require a large increase in the production of bioenergy feedstock. Initially an increase in 'first generation' biofuels was observed, however 'food competition' concerns have generated interest in second generation biofuels (SGBs). These SGBs can be produced from co-products (e.g. cereal straw) or energy crops (e.g. miscanthus), with the former largely negating food competition concerns. In order to assess the sustainability of feedstock supply for SGBs, the financial, environmental and energy costs and benefits of the farm system must be quantified. Previous research has captured financial costs and benefits through linear programming (LP) approaches, whilst environmental and energy metrics have been largely been undertaken within life cycle analysis (LCA) frameworks. Assessing aspects of the financial, environmental and energy sustainability of supplying co-product second generation biofuel (CPSGB) feedstocks at the farm level requires a framework that permits the trade-offs between these objectives to be quantified and understood. The development of a modelling framework for Managing Energy and Emissions Trade-Offs in Agriculture (MEETA Model) that combines bio-economic process modelling and LCA is presented together with input data parameters obtained from literature and industry sources. The MEETA model quantifies arable farm inputs and outputs in terms of financial, energy and emissions results. The model explicitly captures fertiliser: crop-yield relationships, plus the incorporation of straw or removal for sale, with associated nutrient impacts of incorporation/removal on the following crop in the rotation. Key results of crop-mix, machinery use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per kg of crop product and energy use per hectare are in line with previous

  2. Alternative fuelds in urban fleets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, T.

    1994-12-31

    In this presentation the author addresses four main objectives. They are to: discuss programs that are driving the introduction of alternative fuels into fleet operations in urban areas around the country; define alternative fuels; quantify the present use and future projections on alternative fuel vehicles (AVFs) in the Chicago metropolitan statistical area; and discuss benefits of increased use of alternative fuels in urban areas. Factors which touch on these points include: present domestic dependence on petroleum for autos, with usage exceeding production; the large populations in urban areas which do not meet Clean Air Standards; recent legislative initiatives which give guidance and aid in the adoption of such strategies.

  3. Degradation of cellulosic biomass and its subsequent utilization for the production of chemical feedstocks. Final report, February 1, 1978-January 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    This is a coordinated program to effect the microbiological degradation of cellulosic biomasses and will focus on the use of anaerobic microorganisms which possess cellulolytic enzyme. The studies will attempt to increase the enzyme levels through genetics, mutation and strain selection. In addition, the direct conversion from cellulosic biomasses to liquid fuel (ethanol) and/or soluble sugars by the cellulolytic, anaerobic organism is also within the scope of this program. Process and engineering scale-up, along with economic analyses, will be performed throughout the course of the program. The second area of our major effort is devoted to the production of chemical feedstocks. In particular, three fermentations have been identified for exploration. These are: acrylic acid, acetone/butanol and acetic acid. The main efforts in these fermentations will address means for the reduction of the cost of manufacturing for these large volume chemicals.

  4. Biotechnological processes for biodiesel production using alternative oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azócar, Laura; Ciudad, Gustavo; Heipieper, Hermann J; Navia, Rodrigo

    2010-10-01

    As biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester (FAME)) is mainly produced from edible vegetable oils, crop soils are used for its production, increasing deforestation and producing a fuel more expensive than diesel. The use of waste lipids such as waste frying oils, waste fats, and soapstock has been proposed as low-cost alternative feedstocks. Non-edible oils such as jatropha, pongamia, and rubber seed oil are also economically attractive. In addition, microalgae, bacteria, yeast, and fungi with 20% or higher lipid content are oleaginous microorganisms known as single cell oil and have been proposed as feedstocks for FAME production. Alternative feedstocks are characterized by their elevated acid value due to the high level of free fatty acid (FFA) content, causing undesirable saponification reactions when an alkaline catalyst is used in the transesterification reaction. The production of soap consumes the conventional catalyst, diminishing FAME production yield and simultaneously preventing the effective separation of the produced FAME from the glycerin phase. These problems could be solved using biological catalysts, such as lipases or whole-cell catalysts, avoiding soap production as the FFAs are esterified to FAME. In addition, by-product glycerol can be easily recovered, and the purification of FAME is simplified using biological catalysts.

  5. Biotechnological processes for biodiesel production using alternative oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azocar, Laura; Ciudad, Gustavo [La Frontera Univ., Temuco (Chile). Nucleo Cietifico Tecnologico en Biorrecursos; Heipieper, Hermann J. [Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Leipzig (Germany). Dept. of Environmental Biotechnology; Navia, Rodrigo [La Frontera Univ., Temuco (Chile). Nucleo Cietifico Tecnologico en Biorrecursos; La Frontera Univ., Temuco (Chile). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica

    2010-10-15

    As biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester (FAME)) is mainly produced from edible vegetable oils, crop soils are used for its production, increasing deforestation and producing a fuel more expensive than diesel. The use of waste lipids such as waste frying oils, waste fats, and soapstock has been proposed as low-cost alternative feedstocks. Non-edible oils such as jatropha, pongamia, and rubber seed oil are also economically attractive. In addition, microalgae, bacteria, yeast, and fungi with 20% or higher lipid content are oleaginous microorganisms known as single cell oil and have been proposed as feedstocks for FAME production. Alternative feedstocks are characterized by their elevated acid value due to the high level of free fatty acid (FFA) content, causing undesirable saponification reactions when an alkaline catalyst is used in the transesterification reaction. The production of soap consumes the conventional catalyst, diminishing FAME production yield and simultaneously preventing the effective separation of the produced FAME from the glycerin phase. These problems could be solved using biological catalysts, such as lipases or whole-cell catalysts, avoiding soap production as the FFAs are esterified to FAME. In addition, by-product glycerol can be easily recovered, and the purification of FAME is simplified using biological catalysts. (orig.)

  6. Biomass Program 2007 Accomplishments - Full Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-10-27

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's (EERE’s) Biomass Program works with industry, academia and its national laboratory partners on a balanced portfolio of research in biomass feedstocks and conversion technologies. This document provides Program accomplishments for 2007.

  7. Sustainable bioenergy feedstock production systems: Integrating carbon dynamics, erosion, water quality, and greenhouse gas production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emission is one of several rationales for developing renewable biomass energy. Unfortunately, there are few studies reporting direct impacts of harvesting biomass feedstocks on GHG, especially effects on nitrous oxide (N2O) flux. Overzealous biomass harvest may accelera...

  8. Biodiesel from Citrus reticulata (Mandarin orange) seed oil, a potential non-food feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil extracted from Citrus reticulata (Mandarin orange) seeds was investigated as a potential feedstock for the production of biodiesel. The biodiesel fuel was prepared by sodium methoxide-catalyzed transesterification of the oil with methanol. Fuel properties that were determined include cetane numb...

  9. Models to Predict the Viscosity of Metal Injection Molding Feedstock Materials as Function of Their Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joamin Gonzalez-Gutierrez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The viscosity of feedstock materials is directly related to its processability during injection molding; therefore, being able to predict the viscosity of feedstock materials based on the individual properties of their components can greatly facilitate the formulation of these materials to tailor properties to improve their processability. Many empirical and semi-empirical models are available in the literature that can be used to predict the viscosity of polymeric blends and concentrated suspensions as a function of their formulation; these models can partly be used also for metal injection molding binders and feedstock materials. Among all available models, we made a narrow selection and used only simple models that do not require knowledge of molecular weight or density and have parameters with physical background. In this paper, we investigated the applicability of several of these models for two types of feedstock materials each one with different binder composition and powder loading. For each material, an optimal model was found, but each model was different; therefore, there is not a universal model that fits both materials investigated, which puts under question the underlying physical meaning of these models.

  10. Valorization of guayule as a feedstock for lignocellulosic biorefineries using ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural rubber latex extraction from guayule leaves behind greater than 80% (by weight) of agricultural residue as a feedstock suitable for conversion to biofuels via a thermochemical or biochemical route. Untreated guayule shrub and bagasse (after latex extraction) has shown to be very recalcitrant...

  11. CONTEXT MATTERS: THE IMPORTANCE OF MARKET CHARACTERISTICS IN THE VOLATILITY OF FEEDSTOCK COSTS FOR BIOGAS PLANTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, A; Van Meensel, J; Mondelaers, K; Buysse, J

    2015-01-01

    Recently, biogas plant managers in Flanders face increased financial uncertainty. Between 2011 and 2012, 20% of the Flemish biogas plants went bankrupt. Difficulties in obtaining feedstock at stable and affordable prices is one reason why the biogas sector struggles. In literature, contracting is often proposed as a way to decrease the volatility of the feedstock costs. However, these studies generally do not consider the context in which the biogas plant manager needs to buy the feedstock. Yet, this context could be of specific importance when biogas plant managers are in competition with other users of the same biomass type. Silage maize is an example of such a feedstock, as it is both used by dairy farmers and biogas plant managers. Using a combination of qualitative research and agent-based modelling, we investigated the effect of specific characteristics of the silage maize market on the acquisition of local silage maize by biogas plant managers. This paper details the institutional arrangements of the silage maize market in Flanders and the results of a scenario analysis, simulating three different scenarios. As shown by the results, the time of entry into the market, as well as the different institutional arrangements used by the biogas plant managers as opposed to dairy farmers could explain the difficulties in obtaining a stable supply of local silage maize by biogas plants. Our findings can help to develop mitigation strategies addressing these difficulties.

  12. Analyzing hydrotreated renewable jet fuel (HRJ) feedstock availability using crop simulation modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    While hydrotreated renewable jet fuel (HRJ) has been demonstrated for use in commercial and military aviation, a challenge to large-scale adoption is availability of cost competitive feedstocks. Brassica oilseed crops like Brassica napus, B. rapa, B. juncea, B. carinata, Sinapis alba, and Camelina s...

  13. Apparatus and method for converting biomass to feedstock for biofuel and biochemical manufacturing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania, John; Qiao, Ming; Woods, Elizabeth M.; Cortright, Randy D.; Myren, Paul

    2015-12-15

    The present invention includes improved systems and methods for producing biomass-derived feedstocks for biofuel and biochemical manufacturing processes. The systems and methods use components that are capable of transferring relatively high concentrations of solid biomass utilizing pressure variations between vessels, and allows for the recovery and recycling of heterogeneous catalyst materials.

  14. Gene flow matters in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a potential widespread biofuel feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwit, Charles; Stewart, C Neal

    2012-01-01

    There currently exists a large push for the use, improvement, and expansion via landscape modification of dedicated biofuel crops (feedstocks) in the United States and in many parts of the world. Ecological concerns have been voiced because many biofuel feedstocks exhibit characteristics associated with invasiveness, and due to potential negative consequences of agronomic genes in native wild populations. Seed purity concerns for biofuel feedstock cultivars whose seeds would be harvested in agronomic fields also exist from the agribusiness sector. The common thread underlying these concerns, which have regulatory implications, is gene flow; thus detailed knowledge of gene flow in biofuel crop plants is important in the formulation of environmental risk management plans. Here, we synthesize the current state of knowledge of gene flow in an exemplary biofuel crop, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), which is native to eastern North America and is currently experiencing conventional and technological advances in biomass yields and ethanol production. Surprisingly little is known regarding aspects of switchgrass pollen flow and seed dispersal, and whether native populations of conspecific or congeneric relatives will readily cross with current agronomic switchgrass cultivars. We pose that filling these important gaps will be required to confront the sustainability challenges of widespread planting of biofuel feedstocks.

  15. Dedicated Industrial Oilseed Crops as Metabolic Engineering Platforms for Sustainable Industrial Feedstock Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Li Hua; Krens, Frans; Smith, Mark A.; Li, Xueyuan; Qi, Weicong; Loo, Van Eibertus N.; Iven, Tim; Feussner, Ivo; Nazarenus, Tara J.; Huai, Dongxin; Taylor, David C.; Zhou, Xue Rong; Green, Allan G.; Shockey, Jay; Klasson, Thomas K.; Mullen, Robert T.; Huang, Bangquan; Dyer, John M.; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2016-01-01

    Feedstocks for industrial applications ranging from polymers to lubricants are largely derived from petroleum, a non-renewable resource. Vegetable oils with fatty acid structures and storage forms tailored for specific industrial uses offer renewable and potentially sustainable sources of petroch

  16. Ericameria Nauseosa (rubber rabbitbrush): a complementary rubber feedstock to augment the guayule rubber production stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericameria nauseosa (rubber rabbitbrush) is a highly prolific desert shrub that produces high quality natural rubber. Over the past several years we have investigated rabbitbrush’s potential as a commercial rubber feedstock. Like guayule, rabbitbrush produces natural rubber within its bark tissues a...

  17. Sorghum as a renewable feedstock for production of fuels and industrial chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considerable efforts have been made in the USA and other countries to develop renewable feedstocks for production of fuels and chemicals. Among these, sorghum has attracted strong interest because of its many good characteristics such as rapid growth and high sugar accumulation, high biomass product...

  18. Development and Characterization of a Metal Injection Molding Bio Sourced Inconel 718 Feedstock Based on Polyhydroxyalkanoates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Royer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The binder plays the most important role in the metal injection molding (MIM process. It provides fluidity of the feedstock mixture and adhesion of the powder to keep the molded shape during injection molding. The binder must provide strength and cohesion for the molded part and must be easy to remove from the molded part. Moreover, it must be recyclable, environmentally friendly and economical. Also, the miscibility between polymers affects the homogeneity of the injected parts. The goal of this study is to develop a feedstock of superalloy Inconel 718 that is environmentally friendly. For these different binders, formulations based on polyethylene glycol (PEG, because of his water solubility property, and bio sourced polymers were studied. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA were investigated as a bio sourced polymer due to its miscibility with the PEG. The result is compared to a standard formulation using polypropylene (PP. The chemical and rheological behavior of the binder formulation during mixing, injection and debinding process were investigated. The feedstock was characterized in the same way as the binders and the interactions between the powder and the binders were also studied. The results show the well adapted formulation of polymer binder to produce a superalloy Inconel 718 feedstock.

  19. Exometabolomics Approaches in Studying the Application of Lignocellulosic Biomass as Fermentation Feedstock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zha, Y.; Punt, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is the future feedstock for the production of biofuel and bio-based chemicals. The pretreatment-hydrolysis product of biomass, so-called hydrolysate, contains not only fermentable sugars, but also compounds that inhibit its fermentability by microbes. To reduce the toxicity o

  20. Nutrient and water requirements for elephantgrass production as a bio-fuel feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumacher) is a tall tropical bunch grass that produces high enough yields to being considered an excellent bio-energy feedstock for the lower South. However, previous studies have shown that production is not sustainable without fertilizer application and adequ...

  1. Effect of organic loading rate and feedstock composition on foaming in manure-based biogas reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2013-01-01

    Foaming is one of the major problems that occasionally occur in biogas plants, affecting negatively the overall digestion process. In the present study, the effect of organic loading rate (OLR) and feedstock composition on foaming was elucidated in continuous reactor experiments. By stepwise...

  2. Effects of Biochar Feedstock and Pyrolysis Temperature on Growth of Corn, Soybean, Lettuce and Carrot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochar, the carbon-rich material remaining after pyrolysis (low oxygen) of cellulosic feedstocks, has the potential as a soil amendment to sequester carbon, improve soil water-holding capacity, and increase nutrient retention thereby enhancing soil conditions to benefit plant gr...

  3. Drought effects on composition and yield for corn stover, mixed grasses, and Miscanthus as bioenergy feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachel Emerson; Amber Hoover; Allison Ray; Jeffrey Lacey; Marnie Cortez; Courtney Payne; Doug Karlen; Stuart Birrell; David Laird; Robert Kallenbach; Josh Egenolf; Matthew Sousek; Thomas Voigt

    2014-11-01

    Drought conditions in 2012 were some of the most severe reported in the United States. It is necessary to explore the effects of drought on the quality attributes of current and potential bioenergy feedstocks. Compositional analysis data for corn stover, Miscanthus, and CRP grasses from one or more locations for years 2010 (normal precipitation levels) and 2012 (a known severe drought year nationally) was collected. Results & discussion: The general trend for samples that experienced drought was an increase in extractives and a decrease in structural sugars and lignin. The TEY yields were calculated to determine the drought effects on ethanol production. All three feedstocks had a decrease of 12-14% in TEY when only decreases of carbohydrate content was analyzed. When looking at the compounded effect of both carbohydrate content and the decreases in dry matter loss for each feedstock there was a TEY decrease of 25%-59%. Conclusion: Drought had a significant impact on the quality of all three bioenergy crops. In all cases where drought was experienced both the quality of the feedstock and the yield decreased. These drought induced effects could have significant economic impacts on biorefineries.

  4. Influence of feedstock particle size on lignocellulose conversion--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Bernardo C; Dien, Bruce S; Ting, K C; Singh, Vijay

    2011-08-01

    Feedstock particle sizing can impact the economics of cellulosic ethanol commercialization through its effects on conversion yield and energy cost. Past studies demonstrated that particle size influences biomass enzyme digestibility to a limited extent. Physical size reduction was able to increase conversion rates to maximum of ≈ 50%, whereas chemical modification achieved conversions of >70% regardless of biomass particle size. This suggests that (1) mechanical pretreatment by itself is insufficient to attain economically feasible biomass conversion, and, therefore, (2) necessary particle sizing needs to be determined in the context of thermochemical pretreatment employed for lignocellulose conversion. Studies of thermochemical pretreatments that have taken into account particle size as a factor have exhibited a wide range of maximal sizes (i.e., particle sizes below which no increase in pretreatment effectiveness, measured in terms of the enzymatic conversion resulting from the pretreatment, were observed) from pretreatment employed, with maximal size range decreasing as follows: steam explosion > liquid hot water > dilute acid and base pretreatments. Maximal sizes also appeared dependent on feedstock, with herbaceous or grassy biomass exhibiting lower maximal size range (biomass (>3 mm). Such trends, considered alongside the intensive energy requirement of size reduction processes, warrant a more systematic study of particle size effects across different pretreatment technologies and feedstock, as a requisite for optimizing the feedstock supply system.

  5. Two-stage Hydrolysis of Invasive Algal Feedstock for Ethanol Fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Wang; Xianhua Liu; Guangyi Wang

    2011-01-01

    The overall goal of this work was to develop a saccharification method for the production of third generation biofuel(i.e.bioethanol) using feedstock of the invasive marine macroalga Gracilaria salicornia.Under optimum conditions(120℃ and 2% sulfuric acid for 30 min), dilute acid hydrolysis of the homogenized invasive plants yielded a low concentration of glucose(4.1mM or 4.3g glucose/kg fresh algal biomass). However, two-stage hydrolysis of the homogenates (combination of dilute acid hydrolysis with enzymatic hydrolysis) produced 13.8g of glucose from one kilogram of fresh algal feedstock. Batch fermentation analysis produced 79.1g EtOH from one kilogram of dried invasive algal feedstock using the ethanologenic strain Escherichia coli K011. Furthermore, ethanol production kinetics indicated that the invasive algal feedstock contained different types of sugar, including C5-sugar. This study represents the first report on third generation biofuel production from invasive macroalgae, suggesting that there is great potential for the production of renewable energy using marine invasive biomass.

  6. 26 CFR 48.4082-7 - Kerosene; exemption for feedstock purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Kerosene; exemption for feedstock purposes. 48.4082-7 Section 48.4082-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... same form as the model certificate provided in paragraph (e)(2) of this section, and contains...

  7. Towards fermentation of galacturonic acid-containing feedstocks with Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisjes, E.H.

    2013-01-01

    The ambition to reduce our current dependence on fossil transportation fuels has driven renewed interest in bioethanol. Pectin-rich feedstocks like sugar beet pulp and citrus peel, which are currently sold as cattle feed, are promising raw materials for the production of bioethanol. This thesis expl

  8. Agave: a biofuel feedstock for arid and semi-arid environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, Stephen; Martin, Jeffrey; Simpson, June; Wang, Zhong; Visel, Axel

    2011-05-31

    Efficient production of plant-based, lignocellulosic biofuels relies upon continued improvement of existing biofuel feedstock species, as well as the introduction of newfeedstocks capable of growing on marginal lands to avoid conflicts with existing food production and minimize use of water and nitrogen resources. To this end, specieswithin the plant genus Agave have recently been proposed as new biofuel feedstocks. Many Agave species are adapted to hot and arid environments generally unsuitable forfood production, yet have biomass productivity rates comparable to other second-generation biofuel feedstocks such as switchgrass and Miscanthus. Agavesachieve remarkable heat tolerance and water use efficiency in part through a Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) mode of photosynthesis, but the genes andregulatory pathways enabling CAM and thermotolerance in agaves remain poorly understood. We seek to accelerate the development of agave as a new biofuelfeedstock through genomic approaches using massively-parallel sequencing technologies. First, we plan to sequence the transcriptome of A. tequilana to provide adatabase of protein-coding genes to the agave research community. Second, we will compare transcriptome-wide gene expression of agaves under different environmentalconditions in order to understand genetic pathways controlling CAM, water use efficiency, and thermotolerance. Finally, we aim to compare the transcriptome of A.tequilana with that of other Agave species to gain further insight into molecular mechanisms underlying traits desirable for biofuel feedstocks. These genomicapproaches will provide sequence and gene expression information critical to the breeding and domestication of Agave species suitable for biofuel production.

  9. The National Biofuels Strategy - Importance of sustainable feedstock production systems in regional-based supply chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Region-based production systems are needed to produce the feedstocks that will be turned into the biofuels required to meet Federal mandated targets. Executive and Legislative actions have put into motion significant government responses designed to advance the development and production of domestic...

  10. Biomass Feedstock Availability in the United States: 1999 State Level Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Marie E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Perlack, Robert L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Turhollow, Anthony [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); de la Torre Ugarte, Daniel [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Becker, Denny A. [Science Applications International Corporation, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Graham, Robin L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Slinsky, Stephen E. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Ray, Daryll E. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Interest in using biomass feedstocks to produce power, liquid fuels, and chemicals in the U.S. is increasing. Central to determining the potential for these industries to develop is an understanding of the location, quantities, and prices of biomass resources. This paper describes the methodology used to estimate biomass quantities and prices for each state in the continental United States.

  11. Moving virtuality into reality: A comparison study of the effectiveness of traditional and alternative assessments of learning in a multisensory, fully immersive physics program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamor, Keysha Ingram

    This paper contains a research study that investigated the relative efficacy of using both a traditional paper-and-pencil assessment instrument and an alternative, virtual reality (VR) assessment instrument to assist educators and/or instructional designers in measuring learning in a virtual reality learning environment. To this end, this research study investigated assessment in VR, with the goal of analyzing aspects of student learning in VR that are feasible to access or capture by traditional assessments and alternative assessments. The researcher also examined what additional types of learning alternative assessments may offer. More specifically, this study compared the effectiveness of a traditional method with an alternative (performance-based) method of assessment that was used to examine the ability of the tools to accurately evidence the levels of students' understanding and learning. The domain area was electrostatics, a complex, abstract multidimensional concept, with which students often experience difficulty. Outcomes of the study suggest that, in the evaluation of learning in an immersive VR learning environment, assessments would most accurately manifest student learning if the assessment measure matched the learning environment itself. In this study, learning and assessing in the VR environment yielded higher final test scores than learning in VR and testing with traditional paper-and-pencil. Being able to transfer knowledge from a VR environment to other situations is critical in demonstrating the overall level of understanding of a concept. For this reason, the researcher recommends a combination of testing measures to enhance understanding of complex, abstract concepts.

  12. Study on American Alternative CTE of Teachers’ Induction Training Program%美国CTE选择性证书教师入职培训研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马妍

    2013-01-01

    美国生涯与技术教育的教师一直匮乏,备选证书(alternative certificate)的制定为教师队伍的壮大贡献了力量,但是备选教师(alternative teacher)在初次教学时遇到了很多阻碍,因此,美国南区教育委员会实施了美国 CTE 选择性证书教师入职培训。针对此项入职培训介绍其背景、培训概况以及培训的效果。%There has been a shortage in the number of career and technical education teachers in American. Alternative certificate has contributed to the growth of the teachers. But alternative teachers, when teaching for the first time, might meet with many obstacles. Therefore, the United States for the southern district education commission adopted the teacher induction model of CTE selective certificate. This paper has introduced its background, training, induction and training result.

  13. Greenhouse gas mitigation for U.S. plastics production: energy first, feedstocks later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posen, I. Daniel; Jaramillo, Paulina; Landis, Amy E.; Griffin, W. Michael

    2017-03-01

    Plastics production is responsible for 1% and 3% of U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and primary energy use, respectively. Replacing conventional plastics with bio-based plastics (made from renewable feedstocks) is frequently proposed as a way to mitigate these impacts. Comparatively little research has considered the potential for green energy to reduce emissions in this industry. This paper compares two strategies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from U.S. plastics production: using renewable energy or switching to renewable feedstocks. Renewable energy pathways assume all process energy comes from wind power and renewable natural gas derived from landfill gas. Renewable feedstock pathways assume that all commodity thermoplastics will be replaced with polylactic acid (PLA) and bioethylene-based plastics, made using either corn or switchgrass, and powered using either conventional or renewable energy. Corn-based biopolymers produced with conventional energy are the dominant near-term biopolymer option, and can reduce industry-wide GHG emissions by 25%, or 16 million tonnes CO2e/year (mean value). In contrast, switching to renewable energy cuts GHG emissions by 50%–75% (a mean industry-wide reduction of 38 million tonnes CO2e/year). Both strategies increase industry costs—by up to 85/tonne plastic (mean result) for renewable energy, and up to 3000 tonne‑1 plastic for renewable feedstocks. Overall, switching to renewable energy achieves greater emission reductions, with less uncertainty and lower costs than switching to corn-based biopolymers. In the long run, producing bio-based plastics from advanced feedstocks (e.g. switchgrass) and/or with renewable energy can further reduce emissions, to approximately 0 CO2e/year (mean value).

  14. Microbial production host selection for converting second-generation feedstocks into bioproducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Groenestijn Johan W

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasingly lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates are used as the feedstock for industrial fermentations. These biomass hydrolysates are complex mixtures of different fermentable sugars, but also inhibitors and salts that affect the performance of the microbial production host. The performance of six industrially relevant microorganisms, i.e. two bacteria (Escherichia coli and Corynebacterium glutamicum, two yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis and two fungi (Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma reesei were compared for their (i ability to utilize monosaccharides present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, (ii resistance against inhibitors present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, (iii their ability to utilize and grow on different feedstock hydrolysates (corn stover, wheat straw, sugar cane bagasse and willow wood. The feedstock hydrolysates were generated in two manners: (i thermal pretreatment under mild acid conditions followed by enzymatic hydrolysis and (ii a non-enzymatic method in which the lignocellulosic biomass is pretreated and hydrolyzed by concentrated sulfuric acid. Moreover, the ability of the selected hosts to utilize waste glycerol from the biodiesel industry was evaluated. Results Large differences in the performance of the six tested microbial production hosts were observed. Carbon source versatility and inhibitor resistance were the major discriminators between the performances of these microorganisms. Surprisingly all 6 organisms performed relatively well on pretreated crude feedstocks. P. stipitis and A. niger were found to give the overall best performance C. glutamicum and S. cerevisiae were shown to be the least adapted to renewable feedstocks. Conclusion Based on the results obtained we conclude that a substrate oriented instead of the more commonly used product oriented approach towards the selection of a microbial production host will avoid the requirement for extensive metabolic

  15. Brewer's spent grain: a valuable feedstock for industrial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussatto, Solange I

    2014-05-01

    Brewer's spent grain (BSG) is the most abundant by-product generated from the beer-brewing process, representing approximately 85% of the total by-products obtained. This material is basically constituted by the barley grain husks obtained as solid residue after the wort production. Since BSG is rich in sugars and proteins, the main and quickest alternative for elimination of this industrial by-product has been as animal feed. However, BSG is a raw material of interest for application in different areas because of its low cost, large availability throughout the year and valuable chemical composition. In the last decade, many efforts have been directed towards the reuse of BSG, taking into account the incentive that has been given to recycle the wastes and by-products generated by industrial activities. Currently, many interesting and advantageous methods for application of BSG in foods, in energy production and in chemical and biotechnological processes have been reported. The present study presents and discusses the most recent perspectives for BSG application in such areas.

  16. Microalgae as Sustainable Renewable Energy Feedstock for Biofuel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikanth Reddy Medipally

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The world energy crisis and increased greenhouse gas emissions have driven the search for alternative and environmentally friendly renewable energy sources. According to life cycle analysis, microalgae biofuel is identified as one of the major renewable energy sources for sustainable development, with potential to replace the fossil-based fuels. Microalgae biofuel was devoid of the major drawbacks associated with oil crops and lignocelluloses-based biofuels. Algae-based biofuels are technically and economically viable and cost competitive, require no additional lands, require minimal water use, and mitigate atmospheric CO2. However, commercial production of microalgae biodiesel is still not feasible due to the low biomass concentration and costly downstream processes. The viability of microalgae biodiesel production can be achieved by designing advanced photobioreactors, developing low cost technologies for biomass harvesting, drying, and oil extraction. Commercial production can also be accomplished by improving the genetic engineering strategies to control environmental stress conditions and by engineering metabolic pathways for high lipid production. In addition, new emerging technologies such as algal-bacterial interactions for enhancement of microalgae growth and lipid production are also explored. This review focuses mainly on the problems encountered in the commercial production of microalgae biofuels and the possible techniques to overcome these difficulties.

  17. Microalgae as sustainable renewable energy feedstock for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medipally, Srikanth Reddy; Yusoff, Fatimah Md; Banerjee, Sanjoy; Shariff, M

    2015-01-01

    The world energy crisis and increased greenhouse gas emissions have driven the search for alternative and environmentally friendly renewable energy sources. According to life cycle analysis, microalgae biofuel is identified as one of the major renewable energy sources for sustainable development, with potential to replace the fossil-based fuels. Microalgae biofuel was devoid of the major drawbacks associated with oil crops and lignocelluloses-based biofuels. Algae-based biofuels are technically and economically viable and cost competitive, require no additional lands, require minimal water use, and mitigate atmospheric CO2. However, commercial production of microalgae biodiesel is still not feasible due to the low biomass concentration and costly downstream processes. The viability of microalgae biodiesel production can be achieved by designing advanced photobioreactors, developing low cost technologies for biomass harvesting, drying, and oil extraction. Commercial production can also be accomplished by improving the genetic engineering strategies to control environmental stress conditions and by engineering metabolic pathways for high lipid production. In addition, new emerging technologies such as algal-bacterial interactions for enhancement of microalgae growth and lipid production are also explored. This review focuses mainly on the problems encountered in the commercial production of microalgae biofuels and the possible techniques to overcome these difficulties.

  18. Heterogeneous catalysis and the challenges of powering the planet, securing chemicals for civilised life, and clean efficient utilization of renewable feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, John Meurig

    2014-07-01

    This article reviews, first, the prospects, practices and principles of generating solar fuels. It does so with an analysis of recent progress in the light-driven emission of H2 (and other fuels) as well as O2 from water. To place this challenge in perspective, some current practices entailing the use of well-proven solid catalysts developed for fossil-based feedstocks, are described. The massive differences between proven methods of generating fuel and chemicals from non-renewable and from solar radiation are emphasized with the aid of numerous quantitative examples. Whilst it is acknowledged that a key action in reducing the liberation of greenhouse gases (GHG) is to tackle the challenge of decreasing their evolution in power generation and in the production of steel, aluminium and other bulk commodities (metals, alloys, concrete and ceramics), nevertheless much can be done to diminish the emission of CO2 (and to use it as feedstock) through the agency of new, designed solid catalysts and microalgae. Solar-thermal converters are also attractive alternatives, even though they are more likely to be used centrally rather than in small modular units like 'artificial leaves,' some of which are promising for the purposes of generating energy (and perhaps fuel) in a delocalized, modular manner.

  19. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic municipal wastewater treatment process residuals as feedstocks for the recovery of simple sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Pascale; Li, Caijian

    2009-12-01

    This study examined the hydrolysis of lignocellulose extracted from municipal wastewater treatment process residuals for the purpose of investigating low-cost feedstocks for ethanol production, while providing an alternative solid waste management strategy. Primary and thickened waste activated sludges and anaerobically digested biosolids underwent various pre-treatments to enhance subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. Half of the pre-treated samples were dried and grinded, while the other half were used as is (wet). The wet primary sludge yielded the highest reducing sugar conversions. When wet primary sludge without pre-treatment was hydrolyzed at 40 degrees C and an enzyme loading of 800 U/g substrate, 31.1+/-2.7% was converted to reducing sugars in 24 h. This increased to 54.2+/-4.0% when HCl and KOH pre-treatments were applied. FTIR analyses were used to examine differences in the sludge compositions. These indicated that the cellulose content in the primary sludge was higher than that of the thickened waste activated sludge and biosolids, which was consistent with the higher reducing sugar yields observed in the primary sludge.

  20. Alternative Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planting, A.; De saint Jacob, Y.; Verwijs, H.; Belin, H.; Preesman, L.

    2009-03-15

    In two articles, one interview and one column attention is paid to alternative energies. The article 'A new light on saving energy' discusses the option to save energy by modernising lighting systems in urban areas. The column 'View from Paris' focuses on investment decisions in France with regard to renewable energy and energy savings. The article 'Europe turns a blind eye to big battery' discusses developments in batteries to store energy. The interview concerns fuel cell expert and formerly President of UTC Power Jan van Dokkum. The last article gives a brief overview of the European Energy Research Alliance (EERA) and the challenges this alliance will have to face with regard to climate change and energy security.

  1. The impact of extreme drought on the biofuel feedstock production

    Science.gov (United States)

    hussain, M.; Zeri, M.; Bernacchi, C.

    2013-12-01

    Miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus) and Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) have been identified as the primary targets for second-generation cellulosic biofuel crops. Prairie managed for biomass is also considered as one of the alternative to conventional biofuel and promised to provide ecosystem services, including carbon sequestration. These perennial grasses possess a number of traits that make them desirable biofuel crops and can be cultivated on marginal lands or interspersed with maize and soybean in the Corn Belt region. The U.S. Corn Belt region is the world's most productive and expansive maize-growing region, approximately 20% of the world's harvested corn hectares are found in 12 Corn Belt states. The introduction of a second generation cellulosic biofuels for biomass production in a landscape dominated by a grain crop (maize) has potential implications on the carbon and water cycles of the region. This issue is further intensified by the uncertainty in the response of the vegetation to the climate change induced drought periods, as was seen during the extreme droughts of 2011 and 2012 in the Midwest. The 2011 and 2012 growing seasons were considered driest since the 1932 dust bowl period; temperatures exceeded 3.0 °C above the 50- year mean and precipitation deficit reached 50 %. The major objective of this study was to evaluate the drought responses (2011 and 2012) of corn and perennial species at large scale, and to determine the seasonability of carbon and water fluxes in the response of controlling factors. We measured net CO2 ecosystem exchange (NEE) and water fluxes of maize-maize-soybean, and perennial species such as miscanthus, switchgrass and mixture of prairie grasses, using eddy covariance in the University of Illinois energy farm at Urbana, IL. The data presented here were for 5 years (2008- 2012). In the first two years, higher NEE in maize led to large CO2 sequestration. NEE however, decreased in dry years, particularly in 2012. On the other

  2. Single cell oil of oleaginous fungi from the tropical mangrove wetlands as a potential feedstock for biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khot Mahesh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single cell oils (SCOs accumulated by oleaginous fungi have emerged as a potential alternative feedstock for biodiesel production. Though fungi from mangrove ecosystem have been reported for production of several lignocellulolytic enzymes, they remain unexplored for their SCO producing ability. Thus, these oleaginous fungi from the mangrove ecosystem could be suitable candidates for production of SCOs from lignocellulosic biomass. The accumulation of lipids being species specific, strain selection is critical and therefore, it is of importance to evaluate the fungal diversity of mangrove wetlands. The whole cells of these fungi were investigated with respect to oleaginicity, cell mass, lipid content, fatty acid methyl ester profiles and physicochemical properties of transesterified SCOs in order to explore their potential for biodiesel production. Results In the present study, 14 yeasts and filamentous fungi were isolated from the detritus based mangrove wetlands along the Indian west coast. Nile red staining revealed that lipid bodies were present in 5 of the 14 fungal isolates. Lipid extraction showed that these fungi were able to accumulate > 20% (w/w of their dry cell mass (4.14 - 6.44 g L-1 as lipids with neutral lipid as the major fraction. The profile of transesterified SCOs revealed a high content of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids i.e., palmitic (C16:0, stearic (C18:0 and oleic (C18:1 acids similar to conventional vegetable oils used for biodiesel production. The experimentally determined and predicted biodiesel properties for 3 fungal isolates correlated well with the specified standards. Isolate IBB M1, with the highest SCO yield and containing high amounts of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid was identified as Aspergillus terreus using morphotaxonomic study and 18 S rRNA gene sequencing. Batch flask cultures with varying initial glucose concentration revealed that maximal cell biomass

  3. 10 CFR 490.506 - Alternative fueled vehicle credit transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 490.506 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program § 490.506 Alternative fueled vehicle credit transfers. (a) Any fleet... fueled vehicle credit to— (1) A fleet that is required to acquire alternative fueled vehicles; or (2)...

  4. Potential land competition between open-pond microalgae production and terrestrial dedicated feedstock supply systems in the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langholtz, Matthew H.; Coleman, Andre M.; Eaton, Laurence M.; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Hellwinckel, Chad M.; Brandt, Craig C.

    2016-08-01

    Biofuels produced from both terrestrial and algal biomass feedstocks can contribute to energy security while providing economic, environmental, and social benefits. To assess the potential for land competition between these two feedstock types in the United States, we evaluate a scenario in which 41.5 x 109 L yr-1 of second-generation biofuels are produced on pastureland, the most likely land base where both feedstock types may be deployed. This total includes 12.0 x 109 L yr-1 of biofuels from open-pond microalgae production and 29.5 x 109 L yr-1 of biofuels from terrestrial dedicated feedstock supply systems. Under these scenarios, open-pond microalgae production is projected to use 1.2 million ha of private pastureland, while terrestrial dedicated feedstock supply systems would use 14.0 million ha of private pastureland. A spatial meta-analysis indicates that potential competition for land under these scenarios would be concentrated in 110 counties, containing 1.0 and 1.7 million hectares of algal and terrestrial dedicated feedstock production, respectively. A land competition index applied to these 110 counties suggests that 38 to 59 counties could experience competition for upwards of 40% of a county’s pastureland. However, this combined 2.7 million ha represents only 2%-5% of total pastureland in the U.S., with the remaining 12.5 million ha of algal or terrestrial dedicated feedstock production on pastureland in non-competing areas.

  5. Development of High Yield Feedstocks and Biomass Conversion Technology for Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Andrew G. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Crow, Susan [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); DeBeryshe, Barbara [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Ha, Richard [Hamakua Springs County Farms, Hilo, HI (United States); Jakeway, Lee [Hawaiian Commercial and Sugar Company, Puunene, HI (United States); Khanal, Samir [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Nakahata, Mae [Hawaiian Commercial and Sugar Company, Puunene, HI (United States); Ogoshi, Richard [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Shimizu, Erik [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Stern, Ivette [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Turano, Brian [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Turn, Scott [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Yanagida, John [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2015-04-09

    This project had two main goals. The first goal was to evaluate several high yielding tropical perennial grasses as feedstock for biofuel production, and to characterize the feedstock for compatible biofuel production systems. The second goal was to assess the integration of renewable energy systems for Hawaii. The project focused on high-yield grasses (napiergrass, energycane, sweet sorghum, and sugarcane). Field plots were established to evaluate the effects of elevation (30, 300 and 900 meters above sea level) and irrigation (50%, 75% and 100% of sugarcane plantation practice) on energy crop yields and input. The test plots were extensive monitored including: hydrologic studies to measure crop water use and losses through seepage and evapotranspiration; changes in soil carbon stock; greenhouse gas flux (CO2, CH4, and N2O) from the soil surface; and root morphology, biomass, and turnover. Results showed significant effects of environment on crop yields. In general, crop yields decrease as the elevation increased, being more pronounced for sweet sorghum and energycane than napiergrass. Also energy crop yields were higher with increased irrigation levels, being most pronounced with energycane and less so with sweet sorghum. Daylight length greatly affected sweet sorghum growth and yields. One of the energy crops (napiergrass) was harvested at different ages (2, 4, 6, and 8 months) to assess the changes in feedstock characteristics with age and potential to generate co-products. Although there was greater potential for co-products from younger feedstock, the increased production was not sufficient to offset the additional cost of harvesting multiple times per year. The feedstocks were also characterized to assess their compatibility with biochemical and thermochemical conversion processes. The project objectives are being continued through additional support from the Office of Naval Research, and the Biomass Research and Development

  6. MODEL BASED BIOMASS SYSTEM DESIGN OF FEEDSTOCK SUPPLY SYSTEMS FOR BIOENERGY PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David J. Muth, Jr.; Jacob J. Jacobson; Kenneth M. Bryden

    2013-08-01

    Engineering feedstock supply systems that deliver affordable, high-quality biomass remains a challenge for the emerging bioenergy industry. Cellulosic biomass is geographically distributed and has diverse physical and chemical properties. Because of this feedstock supply systems that deliver cellulosic biomass resources to biorefineries require integration of a broad set of engineered unit operations. These unit operations include harvest and collection, storage, preprocessing, and transportation processes. Design decisions for each feedstock supply system unit operation impact the engineering design and performance of the other system elements. These interdependencies are further complicated by spatial and temporal variances such as climate conditions and biomass characteristics. This paper develops an integrated model that couples a SQL-based data management engine and systems dynamics models to design and evaluate biomass feedstock supply systems. The integrated model, called the Biomass Logistics Model (BLM), includes a suite of databases that provide 1) engineering performance data for hundreds of equipment systems, 2) spatially explicit labor cost datasets, and 3) local tax and regulation data. The BLM analytic engine is built in the systems dynamics software package PowersimTM. The BLM is designed to work with thermochemical and biochemical based biofuel conversion platforms and accommodates a range of cellulosic biomass types (i.e., herbaceous residues, short- rotation woody and herbaceous energy crops, woody residues, algae, etc.). The BLM simulates the flow of biomass through the entire supply chain, tracking changes in feedstock characteristics (i.e., moisture content, dry matter, ash content, and dry bulk density) as influenced by the various operations in the supply chain. By accounting for all of the equipment that comes into contact with biomass from the point of harvest to the throat of the conversion facility and the change in characteristics, the

  7. Alternative medicine among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaedeke, R M; Tootelian, D H; Holst, C

    1999-01-01

    The use of "alternative" medicine has become increasingly popular in the United States. Books devoted to alternative medicine, e.g., Spontaneous Healing and 8 Weeks to Optimum Health, have become best sellers. Nevertheless, relatively few research studies have focused on the subject. This study examined the role of alternative medicine among college students. Issues addressed included students' familiarity with, use of, and perceptions regarding unconventional health therapies. The study substantiated a phenomenon health care providers across the country are discovering: a growing number of Americans with interest and financial resources support the development of "mainstream" alternative medicine programs. Results of the study also suggest that well-respected traditional health care organizations would not suffer reputation damage if they were to offer such programs.

  8. Moving toward Standards-Based Alternative Certification in Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Sue; Burstein, Nancy; Ashton, Tamarah; Murawski, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    Alternative programs in special education are often developed in response to chronic personnel shortages. At issue, however, is the quality of alternative programs and their graduates. This paper describes the design, implementation and evaluation of a large special education alternative certification program that adheres to both professional…

  9. Alternative Education Completers: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Becky L.; Holt, Carleton R.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the elements of the alternative education experience significant to successful completion of the program. This phenomenological paradigm provided the framework for all aspects of the qualitative study. Students, parents, administrators, and staff members of two alternative programs in the southeast Kansas…

  10. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume IX. Reactor and fuel cycle description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    The Nonproliferation Alterntive Systems Assessment Program (NASAP) has characterized and assessed various reactor/fuel-cycle systems. Volume IX provides, in summary form, the technical descriptions of the reactor/fuel-cycle systems studied. This includes the status of the system technology, as well as a discussion of the safety, environmental, and licensing needs from a technical perspective. This information was then used in developing the research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) program, including its cost and time frame, to advance the existing technology to the level needed for commercial use. Wherever possible, the cost data are given as ranges to reflect the uncertainties in the estimates.

  11. Multi-scale process and supply chain modelling: from lignocellulosic feedstock to process and products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Ali; Shah, Nilay

    2011-04-06

    There is a large body of literature regarding the choice and optimization of different processes for converting feedstock to bioethanol and bio-commodities; moreover, there has been some reasonable technological development in bioconversion methods over the past decade. However, the eventual cost and other important metrics relating to sustainability of biofuel production will be determined not only by the performance of the conversion process, but also by the performance of the entire supply chain from feedstock production to consumption. Moreover, in order to ensure world-class biorefinery performance, both the network and the individual components must be designed appropriately, and allocation of resources over the resulting infrastructure must effectively be performed. The goal of this work is to describe the key challenges in bioenergy supply chain modelling and then to develop a framework and methodology to show how multi-scale modelling can pave the way to answer holistic supply chain questions, such as the prospects for second generation bioenergy crops.

  12. Modifying lignin to improve bioenergy feedstocks: strengthening the barrier against pathogens?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott eSattler

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Lignin is a ubiquitous polymer present in cell walls of all vascular plants, where it rigidifies and strengthens the cell wall structure through covalent cross-linkages to cell wall polysaccharides. The presence of lignin makes the cell wall recalcitrant to conversion into fermentable sugars for bioenergy uses. Therefore, reducing lignin content and modifying its linkages have become major targets for bioenergy feedstock development through either biotechnology or traditional plant breeding. In addition, lignin synthesis has long been implicated as an important plant defense mechanism against pathogens, because lignin synthesis is often induced at the site of pathogen attack. This article explores the impact of lignin modifications on the susceptibility of a range of plant species to their associated pathogens, and the implications for development of feedstocks for the second-generation biofuels industry. Surprisingly, there are some instances where plants modified in lignin synthesis may display increased resistance to associated pathogens, which is explored in this article.

  13. Modelling of pretreatment and saccharification with different feedstocks and kinetic modeling of sorghum saccharification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prathyusha, N; Kamesh, Reddi; Rani, K Yamuna; Sumana, C; Sridhar, S; Prakasham, R S; Yashwanth, V V N; Sheelu, G; Kumar, M Pradeep

    2016-12-01

    Experiments have been performed for pretreatment of sorghum, wheat straw and bamboo through high temperature alkali pretreatment with different alkaline loading and temperatures, and the data on extent of delignification in terms of the final compositions of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin have been generated. Further, enzymatic saccharification has been carried out in all the cases to find the extent of conversion possible after 72h. The effect of different operating parameters on the extent of delignification and cellulose conversion are evaluated. This data is employed to develop a generalized multi-feedstock and individual feedstock based models which can be used to determine the extent of delignification and cellulose conversion for any and specific biomass respectively with alkaline pretreatment and similar enzyme conditions as considered in the present study. Also, a kinetic model is developed and validated for sorghum for cellulosic conversion.

  14. Sunflower-based Feedstocks in Nonfood Applications: Perspectives from Olefin Metathesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassie B. Marvey

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. oil remains under-utilised albeit one of the major seed oils produced world-wide. Moreover, the high oleic sunflower varieties make the oil attractive for applications requiring high temperature processes and those targeting the C=C double bond functionality. Herein an overview of the recent developments in olefin metathesis of sunflower-based feedstocks is presented. The improved performance of olefin metathesis catalysts leading to high turnover numbers, high selectivity and catalyst recyclability, opens new opportunities for tailoring sunflower-based feedstocks into products required for possible new niche market applications. Promising results in biofuel, biopolymers, fragrances and fine chemicals applications have been reported.

  15. Computer Vision and Machine Learning for Autonomous Characterization of AM Powder Feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCost, Brian L.; Jain, Harshvardhan; Rollett, Anthony D.; Holm, Elizabeth A.

    2017-03-01

    By applying computer vision and machine learning methods, we develop a system to characterize powder feedstock materials for metal additive manufacturing (AM). Feature detection and description algorithms are applied to create a microstructural scale image representation that can be used to cluster, compare, and analyze powder micrographs. When applied to eight commercial feedstock powders, the system classifies powder images into the correct material systems with greater than 95% accuracy. The system also identifies both representative and atypical powder images. These results suggest the possibility of measuring variations in powders as a function of processing history, relating microstructural features of powders to properties relevant to their performance in AM processes, and defining objective material standards based on visual images. A significant advantage of the computer vision approach is that it is autonomous, objective, and repeatable.

  16. Syngas. The flexible solution in a volatile feed-stock market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurzel, T. [Air Liquide Global E und C Solutions c/o Lurgi GmbH, Frankfurt a.M. (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    The paper presents the versatility of syngas allowing the extended application of new feedstock sources such as shale gas or coal to deliver fuels and chemicals traditionally derived from crude oil. In order to provide a holistic view on this topic of current interest, the syngas market, the pre-dominant production technologies and main economic consideration for selected applications are presented and analyzed. It can be concluded that a broad portfolio of well-mastered and referenced syngas production technologies which are continuously improved to meet actual market requirements (e.g. ability to valorize biomass) will remain key to enable economic solutions in a world characterized by growing dynamics with regards to the supply of (carbonaceous) feedstock. (orig.)

  17. Computer Vision and Machine Learning for Autonomous Characterization of AM Powder Feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCost, Brian L.; Jain, Harshvardhan; Rollett, Anthony D.; Holm, Elizabeth A.

    2016-12-01

    By applying computer vision and machine learning methods, we develop a system to characterize powder feedstock materials for metal additive manufacturing (AM). Feature detection and description algorithms are applied to create a microstructural scale image representation that can be used to cluster, compare, and analyze powder micrographs. When applied to eight commercial feedstock powders, the system classifies powder images into the correct material systems with greater than 95% accuracy. The system also identifies both representative and atypical powder images. These results suggest the possibility of measuring variations in powders as a function of processing history, relating microstructural features of powders to properties relevant to their performance in AM processes, and defining objective material standards based on visual images. A significant advantage of the computer vision approach is that it is autonomous, objective, and repeatable.

  18. Effect of thermo-mechanical properties of PIM feedstock on compacts shape retention during debinding process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The removal of the binder from the powder compacts (debinding) can be a slow step and a source of problems. To improve the debinding process of powder injection molding operation, it's necessary to understand the thermal and mechanical properties of powder injection molding feedstocks and to find the major causes responsible for molding difficulties and compacts shape retention during debinding process. The effects of thermo-mechanical properties of the PIM feedstock on the compacts shape retention during debinding process were discussed and explained from practical point of view. The results indicate that the heat of fusion affects the cooling time. The binder component with high heat of fusion and high-decomposed temperature is more effective as the second binder component for the compact to retain its shape during debinding.

  19. A Saponification Method for Chlorophyll Removal from Microalgae Biomass as Oil Feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Xu, Jin; Wu, Hualian; Wang, Guanghua; Dai, Shikun; Fan, Jiewei; He, Hui; Xiang, Wenzhou

    2016-01-01

    Microalgae oil is an optimal feedstock for nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and biodiesel production, but its high levels of chlorophyll limit its large-scale application. To date, few effective approaches have been developed to remove chlorophyll from microalgae oil. The main purpose of this study was to present a preprocessing method of algae oil feedstock (Scenedesmus) to remove chlorophyll by saponification. The results showed that 96% of chlorophyll in biomass was removed. High quality orange transparent oil could be extracted from the chlorophyll reduced biomass. Specifically, the proportion of neutral lipids and saturation levels of fatty acids increased, and the pigments composition became carotenoids-based. The critical parameters of chlorophyll reduced biodiesel conformed to the standards of the USA, China and EU. Sodium copper chlorophyllin could be prepared from the bleaching effluent. The results presented herein offer a useful pathway to improve the quality of microalgae oil and reduce the cost of microalgae biodiesel. PMID:27618070

  20. A Saponification Method for Chlorophyll Removal from Microalgae Biomass as Oil Feedstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae oil is an optimal feedstock for nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and biodiesel production, but its high levels of chlorophyll limit its large-scale application. To date, few effective approaches have been developed to remove chlorophyll from microalgae oil. The main purpose of this study was to present a preprocessing method of algae oil feedstock (Scenedesmus to remove chlorophyll by saponification. The results showed that 96% of chlorophyll in biomass was removed. High quality orange transparent oil could be extracted from the chlorophyll reduced biomass. Specifically, the proportion of neutral lipids and saturation levels of fatty acids increased, and the pigments composition became carotenoids-based. The critical parameters of chlorophyll reduced biodiesel conformed to the standards of the USA, China and EU. Sodium copper chlorophyllin could be prepared from the bleaching effluent. The results presented herein offer a useful pathway to improve the quality of microalgae oil and reduce the cost of microalgae biodiesel.

  1. Methods of refining and producing isomerized fatty acid esters and fatty acids from natural oil feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snead, Thomas E.; Cohen, Steven A.; Gildon, Demond L.; Beltran, Leslie V.; Kunz, Linda A.; Pals, Tessa M.; Quinn, Jordan R; Behrends, Jr., Raymond T.; Bernhardt, Randal J.

    2016-07-05

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing isomerized esters and acids. The methods comprise providing a C4-C18 unsaturated fatty ester or acid, and isomerizing the fatty acid ester or acid in the presence of heat or an isomerization catalyst to form an isomerized fatty ester or acid. In some embodiments, the methods comprise forming a dibasic ester or dibasic acid prior to the isomerizing step. In certain embodiments, the methods further comprise hydrolyzing the dibasic ester to form a dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin is formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having unsaturated esters.

  2. A Saponification Method for Chlorophyll Removal from Microalgae Biomass as Oil Feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Xu, Jin; Wu, Hualian; Wang, Guanghua; Dai, Shikun; Fan, Jiewei; He, Hui; Xiang, Wenzhou

    2016-09-07

    Microalgae oil is an optimal feedstock for nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and biodiesel production, but its high levels of chlorophyll limit its large-scale application. To date, few effective approaches have been developed to remove chlorophyll from microalgae oil. The main purpose of this study was to present a preprocessing method of algae oil feedstock (Scenedesmus) to remove chlorophyll by saponification. The results showed that 96% of chlorophyll in biomass was removed. High quality orange transparent oil could be extracted from the chlorophyll reduced biomass. Specifically, the proportion of neutral lipids and saturation levels of fatty acids increased, and the pigments composition became carotenoids-based. The critical parameters of chlorophyll reduced biodiesel conformed to the standards of the USA, China and EU. Sodium copper chlorophyllin could be prepared from the bleaching effluent. The results presented herein offer a useful pathway to improve the quality of microalgae oil and reduce the cost of microalgae biodiesel.

  3. Promotion of microalgal growth by co-culturing with Cellvibrio pealriver using xylan as feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhangzhang; Lin, Weitie; Luo, Jianfei

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a Cellvibrio pealriver-microalga co-cultivation mode was used to promote the growths of four microalgae by using xylan as feedstock. After 12days of cultivation, the biomass concentrations of Chlorella sacchrarophila, Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in co-cultivation were equal to those in mixotrophic growth on glucose, and the Dunaliella was about 1.6-fold higher than that on glucose. The comparative transcriptomes analysis demonstrated that the xylose and xylan hydrolysates were catalyzed to some active substrates by C. pealriver via some functional enzymes; these active substrates are possibly responsible for the promotion of microalgal growth. This C. pealriver-microalga co-cultivation mode is a potential method to produce low-cost microalgal biodiesel by using hemicellulose as feedstock.

  4. Alternatives for the Training of Skilled Industrial Labor in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Program of Studies in Non-Formal Education, Supplementary Series. Paper No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukomski, Michael

    The study deals with the development of skilled industrial manpower in Sao Paulo, Brazil, and with the Federal government's SENAI (Service Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial) industrial apprenticeship and trainign program. An analysis of six variables among lathe setter-operators showed that: present work situations among the operators varied…

  5. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valkenburt, Corinne; Walton, Christie W.; Thompson, Becky L.; Gerber, Mark A.; Jones, Susanne B.; Stevens, Don J.

    2008-12-01

    This report investigated the potential of using municipal solid waste (MSW) to make synthesis gas (syngas) suitable for production of liquid fuels. Issues examined include: • MSW physical and chemical properties affecting its suitability as a gasifier feedstock and for liquid fuels synthesis • expected process scale required for favorable economics • the availability of MSW in quantities sufficient to meet process scale requirements • the state-of-the-art of MSW gasification technology.

  6. Processes for converting biomass-derived feedstocks to chemicals and liquid fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Andrew; Woods, Elizabeth; Cortright, Randy; Gray, Matthew

    2016-07-05

    The present invention provides processes, methods, and systems for converting biomass-derived feedstocks to liquid fuels and chemicals. The method generally includes the reaction of a hydrolysate from a biomass deconstruction process with hydrogen and a catalyst to produce a reaction product comprising one of more oxygenated compounds. The process also includes reacting the reaction product with a condensation catalyst to produce C.sub.4+ compounds useful as fuels and chemicals.

  7. Development and use of bioenergy feedstocks for semi-arid and arid lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, John C; Davis, Sarah C; Yang, Xiaohan; Borland, Anne M

    2015-07-01

    Global climate change is predicted to increase heat, drought, and soil-drying conditions, and thereby increase crop sensitivity to water vapour pressure deficit, resulting in productivity losses. Increasing competition between agricultural freshwater use and municipal or industrial uses suggest that crops with greater heat and drought durability and greater water-use efficiency will be crucial for sustainable biomass production systems in the future. Agave (Agavaceae) and Opuntia (Cactaceae) represent highly water-use efficient bioenergy crops that could diversify bioenergy feedstock supply yet preserve or expand feedstock production into semi-arid, abandoned, or degraded agricultural lands, and reclaim drylands. Agave and Opuntia are crassulacean acid metabolism species that can achieve high water-use efficiencies and grow in water-limited areas with insufficient precipitation to support traditional C3 or C4 bioenergy crops. Both Agave and Opuntia have the potential to produce above-ground biomass rivalling that of C3 and C4 crops under optimal growing conditions. The low lignin and high amorphous cellulose contents of Agave and Opuntia lignocellulosic biomass will be less recalcitrant to deconstruction than traditional feedstocks, as confirmed by pretreatments that improve saccharification of Agave. Refined environmental productivity indices and geographical information systems modelling have provided estimates of Agave and Opuntia biomass productivity and terrestrial sequestration of atmospheric CO2; however, the accuracy of such modelling efforts can be improved through the expansion of field trials in diverse geographical settings. Lastly, life cycle analysis indicates that Agave would have productivity, life cycle energy, and greenhouse gas balances comparable or superior to those of traditional bioenergy feedstocks, but would be far more water-use efficient.

  8. Impacts of near-future cultivation of biofuel feedstocks on atmospheric composition and local air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, K.; Folberth, G.; Hewitt, C. N.; Wild, O.

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale production of feedstock crops for biofuels will lead to land use changes. We quantify the effects of realistic land use change scenarios for biofuel feedstock production on isoprene emissions and hence atmospheric composition and chemistry using the HadGEM2 model. Two feedstocks are considered: oil palm for biodiesel in the tropics and short rotation coppice (SRC) in the mid-latitudes. In total, 69 Mha of oil palm and 9 Mha of SRC are planted, each sufficient to replace just over 1% of projected global fossil fuel demand in 2020. Both planting scenarios result in increases in total global annual isoprene emissions of about 1%. In each case, changes in surface concentrations of ozone and biogenic secondary organic aerosol (bSOA) are substantial at the regional scale, with implications for air quality standards. However, the changes in tropospheric burden of ozone and the OH radical, and hence effects on global climate, are negligible. Over SE Asia, one region of oil palm planting, increases in annual mean surface ozone and bSOA concentrations reach over 3 ppbv (+11%) and 0.4 μg m-3 (+10%) respectively for parts of Borneo, with monthly mean increases of up to 6.5 ppbv (+25%) and 0.5 μg m-3 (+12%). Under the SRC scenario, Europe experiences monthly mean changes of over 0.6 ppbv (+1%) and 0.1 μg m-3 (+5%) in June and July, with peak increases of over 2 ppbv (+3%) and 0.5 μg m-3 (+8 %). That appreciable regional atmospheric impacts result from low level planting scenarios demonstrates the need to include changes in emissions of reactive trace gases such as isoprene in life cycle assessments performed on potential biofuel feedstocks.

  9. Fractional condensation of pyrolysis vapors produced from Nordic feedstocks in cyclone pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Ann-Christine; Iisa, Kristiina; Sandström, Linda; Ben, Haoxi; Pilath, Heidi; Deutch, Steve; Wiinikka, Henrik; Öhrman, Olov G. W.

    2017-01-01

    Pyrolysis oil is a complex mixture of different chemical compounds with a wide range of molecular weights and boiling points. Due to its complexity, an efficient fractionation of the oil may be a more promising approach of producing liquid fuels and chemicals than treating the whole oil. In this work a sampling system based on fractional condensation was attached to a cyclone pyrolysis pilot plant to enable separation of the produced pyrolysis vapors into five oil fractions. The sampling system was composed of cyclonic condensers and coalescing filters arranged in series. The objective was to characterize the oil fractions produced from three different Nordic feedstocks and suggest possible applications. The oil fractions were thoroughly characterized using several analytical techniques including water content; elemental composition; heating value, and chemical compound group analysis using solvent fractionation, quantitative 13C NMR and 1H NMR and GC x GC - TOFMS. The results show that the oil fractions significantly differ from each other both in chemical and physical properties. The first fractions and the fraction composed of aerosols were highly viscous and contained larger energy-rich compounds of mainly lignin-derived material. The middle fraction contained medium-size compounds with relatively high concentration of water, sugars, alcohols, hydrocarbonyls and acids and finally the last fraction contained smaller molecules such as water, aldehydes, ketones and acids. However, the properties of the respective fractions seem independent on the studied feedstock types, i.e. the respective fractions produced from different feedstock are rather similar. This promotes the possibility to vary the feedstock depending on availability while retaining the oil properties. Possible applications of the five fractions vary from oil for combustion and extraction of the pyrolytic lignin in the early fractions to extraction of sugars from the early and middle fractions, and

  10. Feedstock Supply System Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels Conversion Pathway: Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrotreating Bio-Oil Pathway "The 2017 Design Case"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin L. Kenney; Kara G. Cafferty; Jacob J. Jacobson; Ian J. Bonner; Garold L. Gresham; J. Richard Hess; William A. Smith; David N. Thompson; Vicki S. Thompson; Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Neal Yancey

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy promotes the production of liquid fuels from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass sustainable supply, logistics, conversion, and overall system sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. Between 2000 and 2012, INL quantified and the economics and sustainability of moving biomass from the field or stand to the throat of the conversion process using conventional equipment and processes. All previous work to 2012 was designed to improve the efficiency and decrease costs under conventional supply systems. The 2012 programmatic target was to demonstrate a biomass logistics cost of $55/dry Ton for woody biomass delivered to fast pyrolysis conversion facility. The goal was achieved by applying field and process demonstration unit-scale data from harvest, collection, storage, preprocessing, handling, and transportation operations into INL’s biomass logistics model.

  11. Screening microalgae isolated from urban storm- and wastewater systems as feedstock for biofuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Massimi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Exploiting microalgae as feedstock for biofuel production is a growing field of research and application, but there remain challenges related to industrial viability and economic sustainability. A solution to the water requirements of industrial-scale production is the use of wastewater as a growth medium. Considering the variable quality and contaminant loads of wastewater, algal feedstock would need to have broad tolerance and resilience to fluctuating wastewater conditions during growth. As a first step in targeting strains for growth in wastewater, our study isolated microalgae from wastewater habitats, including urban stormwater-ponds and a municipal wastewater-treatment system, to assess growth, fatty acids and metal tolerance under standardized conditions. Stormwater ponds in particular have widely fluctuating conditions and metal loads, so microalgae from this type of environment may have desirable traits for growth in wastewater. Forty-three algal strains were isolated in total, including several strains from natural habitats. All strains, with the exception of one cyanobacterial strain, are members of the Chlorophyta, including several taxa commonly targeted for biofuel production. Isolates were identified using taxonomic and 18S rRNA sequence methods, and the fastest growing strains with ideal fatty acid profiles for biodiesel production included Scenedesmus and Desmodesmus species (Growth rate (d−1 > 1. All isolates in a small, but diverse taxonomic group of test-strains were tolerant of copper at wastewater-relevant concentrations. Overall, more than half of the isolated strains, particularly those from stormwater ponds, show promise as candidates for biofuel feedstock.

  12. Screening microalgae isolated from urban storm- and wastewater systems as feedstock for biofuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massimi, Rebecca; Kirkwood, Andrea E

    2016-01-01

    Exploiting microalgae as feedstock for biofuel production is a growing field of research and application, but there remain challenges related to industrial viability and economic sustainability. A solution to the water requirements of industrial-scale production is the use of wastewater as a growth medium. Considering the variable quality and contaminant loads of wastewater, algal feedstock would need to have broad tolerance and resilience to fluctuating wastewater conditions during growth. As a first step in targeting strains for growth in wastewater, our study isolated microalgae from wastewater habitats, including urban stormwater-ponds and a municipal wastewater-treatment system, to assess growth, fatty acids and metal tolerance under standardized conditions. Stormwater ponds in particular have widely fluctuating conditions and metal loads, so microalgae from this type of environment may have desirable traits for growth in wastewater. Forty-three algal strains were isolated in total, including several strains from natural habitats. All strains, with the exception of one cyanobacterial strain, are members of the Chlorophyta, including several taxa commonly targeted for biofuel production. Isolates were identified using taxonomic and 18S rRNA sequence methods, and the fastest growing strains with ideal fatty acid profiles for biodiesel production included Scenedesmus and Desmodesmus species (Growth rate (d(-1)) > 1). All isolates in a small, but diverse taxonomic group of test-strains were tolerant of copper at wastewater-relevant concentrations. Overall, more than half of the isolated strains, particularly those from stormwater ponds, show promise as candidates for biofuel feedstock.

  13. Improvement of hydrogen solubility and entrainment in hydrocracker feedstocks. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabadi, V.N.

    1997-02-01

    The project consisted of two tasks: (1) development of a thermodynamic model for hydrogen solubility in hydrocarbons and extension of this model to predict solubility of hydrogen in hydrocracker feedstocks at conditions similar to those of hydrocracking operations, and (2) design and construction of a gas solubility apparatus to measure solubility of hydrogen in hydrocarbons and in hydrocracker feedstocks. The theoretical work proposed was fully accomplished by developing a sophisticated model for hydrogen solubility in hydrocarbons and in hydrocracker feedstocks at advanced temperatures and pressures. The proposed experimental work ran into a number of obstacles, especially to get the original and newly designed on-line sampling technique to function properly. A number of calibrations and tests for reproducibility were necessary to assure the accuracy of measured data. Although a very well designed gas solubility apparatus was built, not much time was left to generate significant hydrogen solubility data. The plans are to use the apparatus in future to measure hydrogen solubility data in liquid fuels to facilitate more efficient design of fuel conversion systems.

  14. Optimal Distribution of Biofuel Feedstocks within Marginal Land in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, D.

    2015-12-01

    The United States can have 43 to 123 Mha of marginal land to grow second generation biofuel feedstocks. A physiological and biophysical model (BioCro) was run using 30 yr climate data (NARR) and SSURGO soil data for the conterminous United Stated to simulate growth of miscanthus, switchgrass, sugarcane, and short rotation coppice. Overlay analyses of the regional maps of predicted yields and marginal land suggest maximum availability of 0.33, 1.15, 1.13, and 1.89 PG year-1 of biomass from sugarcane, willow, switchgrass, and miscanthus, respectively. Optimal distribution of these four biofuel feedstocks within the marginal land in the USA can provide up to 2 PG year-1 of biomass for the production of second generation of biofuel without competing for crop land used for food production. This approach can potentially meet a significant fraction of liquid fuel demand in the USA and reduce greenhouse gas emission while ensuring that current crop land under food production is not used for growing biofuel feedstocks.

  15. Sorghum as a renewable feedstock for production of fuels and industrial chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhuan P. Nghiem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerable efforts have been made in the USA and other countries to develop renewable feedstocks for production of fuels and chemicals. Among these, sorghum has attracted strong interest because of its many good characteristics such as rapid growth and high sugar accumulation, high biomass production potential, excellent nitrogen usage efficiency, wide adaptability, drought resistance, and water lodging tolerance and salinity resistance. The ability to withstand severe drought conditions and its high water usage efficiency make sorghum a good renewable feedstock suitable for cultivation in arid regions, such as the southern US and many areas in Africa and Asia. Sorghum varieties include grain sorghum, sweet sorghum, and biomass sorghum. Grain sorghum, having starch content equivalent to corn, has been considered as a feedstock for ethanol production. Its tannin content, however, may cause problems during enzyme hydrolysis. Sweet sorghum juice contains sucrose, glucose and fructose, which are readily fermentable by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and hence is a good substrate for ethanol fermentation. The enzyme invertase, however, needs to be added to convert sucrose to glucose and fructose if the juice is used for production of industrial chemicals in fermentation processes that employ microorganisms incapable of metabolizing sucrose. Biomass sorghum requires pretreatment prior to enzymatic hydrolysis to generate fermentable sugars to be used in the subsequent fermentation process. This report reviews the current knowledge on bioconversion of sorghum to fuels and chemicals and identifies areas that deserve further studies.

  16. The Rheology behind Stress-Induced Solidification in Native Silk Feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter R. Laity

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism by which native silk feedstocks are converted to solid fibres in nature has attracted much interest. To address this question, the present work used rheology to investigate the gelation of Bombyx mori native silk feedstock. Exceeding a critical shear stress appeared to be more important than shear rate, during flow-induced initiation. Compositional changes (salts, pH etc., were not required, although their possible role in vivo is not excluded. Moreover, after successful initiation, gel strength continued to increase over a considerable time under effectively quiescent conditions, without requiring further application of the initial stimulus. Gelation by elevated temperature or freezing was also observed. Prior to gelation, literature suggests that silk protein adopts a random coil configuration, which argued against the conventional explanation of gelation, based on hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions. Instead, a new hypothesis is presented, based on entropically-driven loss of hydration, which appears to explain the apparently diverse methods by which silk feedstocks can be gelled.

  17. R3DO: A Plastic Recycling System For Creating 3D Printer Feedstock On-Orbit Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An automated in-space recycling system for 3D printer feedstock will provide game-changing resupply benefits including but not limited to launch mass reduction,...

  18. Effects of alternative oil stockpiling programs on the U. S. economy, 1976--1979. Final results. [Effects of 730-/and 4380-million barrel stockpiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessmer, R.G. Jr.; Behling, D.J. Jr.

    1976-06-01

    Application of Brookhaven's Energy Input-Output Model is demonstrated by analyzing economy-wide effects of an Oil Stockpile Program. The model is used to estimate the 1976-79 inter-industry output, employment, capital, and energy substitution effects of 730- and 4380-barrel stockpiles. Two policy variables--the type of stockpile facility and the method of financing--and one assumption--balance of payments effects--are examined.

  19. A NEW CLASS MESOPOROUS ALUMINOPHOSPHATES AS POTENTIAL CATALYSTS IN THE UPGRADING PETROLEUM FEEDSTOCKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad Ingram; Mark Mitchell

    2005-08-31

    A comprehensive investigation was conducted towards the synthesis and catalytic evaluation of high surface areas, uniform pore size, mesoporous aluminophosphates (AlPO{sub 4}) as potential catalysts for the upgrading of heavy petroleum feedstock, such as heavy crudes and petroleum residuum. The influence of several synthesis variables (including, the nature of the reactants, chemical composition of reaction mixtures, time and temperature) on the synthesis and physicochemical characteristics of the resulting products was explored. Phosphoric acid and three different aluminum sources, namely, aluminum hydroxide, aluminum isopropoxide and psuedobohemite alumina, were used as the inorganic precursors. Cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (C{sub 16}TACl) surfactant was used as charge compensating cation and structure directing agent in the surfactant-micellar-mediated synthesis pathway employed. Synthesis were conducted from reaction mixtures within the following typical molar composition range: xAl{sub 2}O{sub 3}:P{sub 2}O{sub 5}:yC{sub 16}TMACl: zTHMAOH: wH{sub 2}O, where x = 0.29-2.34, y = 0.24-0.98, z = 0.34-1.95, w = 86-700. Selected materials were evaluated for the conversion of isopropylbenzene (cumene) in order to understand the nature of any acid sites created. The synthesis products obtained depended strongly on the molar composition of the synthesis mixture. A lamellar (layered) phase was favored by synthesis mixtures comprised of low Al/P ratios (<0.33), low TMAOH content, high C{sub 16}TACl concentrations and high synthesis temperature (110 C). Formation of the desired hexagonal (tubular) phase was favored by higher Al/P ratios and TMAOH content, pH range between 8-10, low C{sub 16}TACl concentration and ambient temperature. The aluminum source had significant influence on the products obtained. With aluminum hydroxide (A1(OH){sub 3}) as the hydroxide source, the resulting hexagonal phase in the ''as-synthesized'' form demonstrated well

  20. Impacts of Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives on utility demand-side management and conservation and renewable energy programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavallo, J.D.; Germer, M.F.; Tompkins, M.M.

    1995-03-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) requires all of its long-term firm power customers to implement programs that promote the conservation of electric energy or facilitate the use of renewable energy resources. Western has also proposed that all customers develop integrated resource plans that include cost-effective demand-side management programs. As part of the preparation of Western`s Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) developed estimates of the reductions in energy demand resulting from Western`s conservation and renewable energy activities in its Salt Lake City Area Office. ANL has also estimated the energy-demand reductions from cost-effective, demand-side management programs that could be included in the integrated resource plans of the customers served by Western`s Salt Lake City Area Office. The results of this study have been used to adjust the expected hourly demand for Western`s major systems in the Salt Lake City Area. The expected hourly demand served as the basis for capacity expansion plans develops with ANL`s Production and Capacity Expansion (PACE) model.

  1. Test Plan for Evaluating Hammer and Fixed Cutter Grinders Using Multiple Varieties and Moistures of Biomass Feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Not listed

    2007-07-01

    Biomass preprocessing is a critical operation in the preparation of feedstock for the front-end of a cellulosic ethanol biorefinery. Its purpose is to chop, grind, or otherwise format the biomass material into a suitable feedstock for optimum conversion to ethanol and other bioproducts. Without this operation, the natural size, bulk density, and flowability characteristics of harvested biomass would decrease the capacities and efficiencies of feedstock assembly unit operations and biorefinery conversion processes to the degree that programmatic cost targets could not be met. The preprocessing unit operation produces a bulk flowable material that 1) improves handling and conveying efficiencies throughout the feedstock assembly system and biorefinery 2) increases biomass surface areas for improved pretreatment efficiencies, 3) reduces particle sizes for improved feedstock uniformity and density, and 4) fractionates structural components for improved compositional quality. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is tasked with defining the overall efficiency/effectiveness of current commercial hammer and fixed cutter grinding systems and other connecting systems such as harvest and collection, storage, transportation, and handling for a wide variety of feedstock types used in bioethanol or syngas production. This test plan details tasks and activities for two separate full-scale grinding tests: Material Characterization Test and Machine Characterization Test. For the Material Characterization Test, a small amount (~5-7 tons each) of several feedstock varieties will be ground. This test will define the fractionation characteristics of the grinder that affect the bulk density, particle size distribution, and quality of the size reduced biomass resulting from different separation screen sizes. A specific screen size will be selected based on the characteristics of the ground material. The Machine Characterization Test will then use this selected screen to grind several 30

  2. Looking for an Alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Jack

    1999-01-01

    Argues that high school newspapers might do well to create stronger ties with alternative weeklies. Discusses issues of niche marketing, alternative content, and alternative presentation. Notes that high school papers could learn a lot from alternative newspapers. (SR)

  3. Leaching Pretreatments for Improving Biomass Quality: Feedstocks, Solvents, and Extraction Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chao Wei

    In this research, a systematic study was conducted to quantify the inorganic and organic compounds leached from rice straw, wheat straw, corn stover, switchgrass, Jose Tall Wheatgrass, Douglas fir, and Miscanthus with water, and to evaluate the feedstock quality and characteristics of leached solids for thermal process applications. Leaching feedstocks with water at ambient temperature with a 20 L/kg (dry matter) ratio for 2 hours greatly increased the ash fusion temperature of rice straw (from 1050°C to above 1550°C) and wheat straw (from 900°C to 1250°C), but the treatment only increased the ash fusion temperature of corn stover from 900°C to 950°C. Miscanthus had relatively good initial feedstock quality and leaching may not prove necessary for this feedstock in thermal systems. Leaching also changed the combustion kinetics of biomass by increasing the initial degradation temperature of most feedstocks from originally between 165°C and 186°C to between 180°C and 250°C depending on feedstock. Moreover, leaching increased the maximum rate of weight loss of feedstock by 11% to 54% and increased the corresponding temperatures for peak loss up to 34°C. Leaching removed a sizeable fraction of organic compounds (between 2% and 12% of dry matter). These organic extracts were identified as mostly sugars and acids which might be valuable co-products. Moisture contents of feedstocks after leaching were typically high, ranging between 68 and 81% wet basis. A dewatering step is generally required prior to using the leached biomass for thermochemical conversion. Solvents with ability to dissolve ion-exchangeable, organically associated, and acid soluble metals can further remove non-water soluble metals from biomass and may also improve feedstock quality. In a solvent evaluation, corn stover and wheat straw were leached with water, 1M ammonium acetate, 1M HCl, 100% methanol, 50% methanol, 100% ethanol, and 50% ethanol, and leached solids and leachate were

  4. Recommendation of a More Effective Alternative to the NASA Launch Services Program Mission Integration Reporting System (MIRS) and Implementation of Updates to the Mission Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Over the course of my internship in the Flight Projects Office of NASA's Launch Services Program (LSP), I worked on two major projects, both of which dealt with updating current systems to make them more accurate and to allow them to operate more efficiently. The first project dealt with the Mission Integration Reporting System (MIRS), a web-accessible database application used to manage and provide mission status reporting for the LSP portfolio of awarded missions. MIRS had not gone through any major updates since its implementation in 2005, and it was my job to formulate a recommendation for the improvement of the system. The second project I worked on dealt with the Mission Plan, a document that contains an overview of the general life cycle that is followed by every LSP mission. My job on this project was to update the information currently in the mission plan and to add certain features in order to increase the accuracy and thoroughness of the document. The outcomes of these projects have implications in the orderly and efficient operation of the Flight Projects Office, and the process of Mission Management in the Launch Services Program as a whole.

  5. Co-production of bioethanol and probiotic yeast biomass from agricultural feedstock: application of the rural biorefinery concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Claire M; Loveridge, E Joel; Donnison, Iain S; Kelly, Diane E; Kelly, Steven L

    2014-01-01

    Microbial biotechnology and biotransformations promise to diversify the scope of the biorefinery approach for the production of high-value products and biofuels from industrial, rural and municipal waste feedstocks. In addition to bio-based chemicals and metabolites, microbial biomass itself constitutes an obvious but overlooked by-product of existing biofermentation systems which warrants fuller attention. The probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii is used to treat gastrointestinal disorders and marketed as a human health supplement. Despite its relatedness to S. cerevisiae that is employed widely in biotechnology, food and biofuel industries, the alternative applications of S. boulardii are not well studied. Using a biorefinery approach, we compared the bioethanol and biomass yields attainable from agriculturally-sourced grass juice using probiotic S. boulardii (strain MYA-769) and a commercial S. cerevisiae brewing strain (Turbo yeast). Maximum product yields for MYA-769 (39.18 [±2.42] mg ethanol mL(-1) and 4.96 [±0.15] g dry weight L(-1)) compared closely to those of Turbo (37.43 [±1.99] mg mL(-1) and 4.78 [±0.10] g L(-1), respectively). Co-production, marketing and/or on-site utilisation of probiotic yeast biomass as a direct-fed microbial to improve livestock health represents a novel and viable prospect for rural biorefineries. Given emergent evidence to suggest that dietary yeast supplementations might also mitigate ruminant enteric methane emissions, the administration of probiotic yeast biomass could also offer an economically feasible way of reducing atmospheric CH4.

  6. An Overview of Alternative Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, Laudan Y.

    2006-01-01

    This publication represents the first in a series of papers on alternative education for the U.S. Department of Labor. The main focus of this review is community- or district-based programs that have as their primary focus the re-engagement of out-of-school youth in learning in order to better prepare these youth to successfully enter high growth…

  7. Development of a system for characterizing biomass quality of lignocellulosic feedstocks for biochemical conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Patrick Thomas

    The purpose of this research was twofold: (i) to develop a system for screening lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks for biochemical conversion to biofuels and (ii) to evaluate brown midrib corn stover as feedstock for ethanol production. In the first study (Chapter 2), we investigated the potential of corn stover from bm1-4 hybrids for increased ethanol production and reduced pretreatment intensity compared to corn stover from the isogenic normal hybrid. Corn stover from hybrid W64A X A619 and respective isogenic bm hybrids was pretreated by aqueous ammonia steeping using ammonium hydroxide concentrations from 0 to 30%, by weight, and the resulting residues underwent simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF) to ethanol. Dry matter (DM) digested by SSCF increased with increasing ammonium hydroxide concentration across all genotypes (P>0.0001) from 277 g kg-1 DM in the control to 439 g kg-1 DM in the 30% ammonium hydroxide pretreatment. The bm corn stover materials averaged 373 g kg-1 DM of DM digested by SSCF compared with 335 g kg-1 DM for the normal corn stover (Pcell-wall carbohydrate hydrolysis of corn stover, (ii) the lowest initial cell-wall carbohydrate concentration, (iii) the lowest dry matter remaining after pretreatment, and (iv) the highest amount of monosaccharides released during enzymatic hydrolysis. However, bm corn stover did not reduce the severity of aqueous ammonia steeping pretreatment needed to maximize DM hydrolysis during SSCF compared with normal corn stover. In the remaining studies (Chapters 3 thru 5), a system for analyzing the quality of lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks for biochemical conversion to biofuels (i.e., pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation) was developed. To accomplish this, a carbohydrate availability model was developed to characterize feedstock quality. The model partitions carbohydrates within a feedstock material into fractions based on their availability to be converted to fermentable

  8. Manipulating microRNAs for improved biomass and biofuels from plant feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbo, Jennifer Lynn; Zhang, Baohong; Stewart, Charles Neal

    2015-04-01

    Petroleum-based fuels are nonrenewable and unsustainable. Renewable sources of energy, such as lignocellulosic biofuels and plant metabolite-based drop-in fuels, can offset fossil fuel use and reverse environmental degradation through carbon sequestration. Despite these benefits, the lignocellulosic biofuels industry still faces many challenges, including the availability of economically viable crop plants. Cell wall recalcitrance is a major economic barrier for lignocellulosic biofuels production from biomass crops. Sustainability and biomass yield are two additional, yet interrelated, foci for biomass crop improvement. Many scientists are searching for solutions to these problems within biomass crop genomes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in almost all biological and metabolic process in plants including plant development, cell wall biosynthesis and plant stress responses. Because of the broad functions of their targets (e.g. auxin response factors), the alteration of plant miRNA expression often results in pleiotropic effects. A specific miRNA usually regulates a biologically relevant bioenergy trait. For example, relatively low miR156 overexpression leads to a transgenic feedstock with enhanced biomass and decreased recalcitrance. miRNAs have been overexpressed in dedicated bioenergy feedstocks such as poplar and switchgrass yielding promising results for lignin reduction, increased plant biomass, the timing of flowering and response to harsh environments. In this review, we present the status of miRNA-related research in several major biofuel crops and relevant model plants. We critically assess published research and suggest next steps for miRNA manipulation in feedstocks for increased biomass and sustainability for biofuels and bioproducts.

  9. Performance Analysis of an Integrated Fixed Bed Gasifier Model for Different Biomass Feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmina Begum

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy recovery from biomass by gasification technology has attracted significant interest because it satisfies a key requirement of environmental sustainability by producing near zero emissions. Though it is not a new technology, studies on its integrated process simulation and analysis are limited, in particular for municipal solid waste (MSW gasification. This paper develops an integrated fixed bed gasifier model of biomass gasification using the Advanced System for Process ENngineering (Aspen Plus software for its performance analysis. A computational model was developed on the basis of Gibbs free energy minimization. The model is validated with experimental data of MSW and food waste gasification available in the literature. A reasonable agreement between measured and predicted syngas composition was found. Using the validated model, the effects of operating conditions, namely air-fuel ratio and gasifier temperature, on syngas production are studied. Performance analyses have been done for four different feedstocks, namely wood, coffee bean husks, green wastes and MSWs. The ultimate and proximate analysis data for each feedstock was used for model development. It was found that operating parameters have a significant influence on syngas composition. An air-fuel ratio of 0.3 and gasifier temperature of 700 °C provides optimum performance for a fixed bed gasifier for MSWs, wood wastes, green wastes and coffee bean husks. The developed model can be useful for gasification of other biomasses (e.g., food wastes, rice husks, poultry wastes and sugarcane bagasse to predict the syngas composition. Therefore, the study provides an integrated gasification model which can be used for different biomass feedstocks.

  10. Identification of tetraphenylborate radiolysis products in a simulated feedstock for radioactive waste processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eibling, R.E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Bartlett, M.G.; Carlson, R.E.; Testino, S.A. Jr.; Kunkel, G.J.; Browner, R.F.; Busch, K.L. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Chemistry and Biochemistry

    1994-10-01

    The first step towards immobilization of the soluble radioactive species in borosilicate glass is the addition of sodium tetraphenylborate (TPB) and sodium titanate to the radioactive aqueous solution. Initial studies of the TPB hydrolysis process have found that some component of the radiolysis mixture inactivates the Cu catalyst. The interaction of organic materials with the catalyst, and the subsequent interference with the hydrolysis process, would have presented problems with the use of the vitrification process. Prevention of the catalyst deactivation is obtained by washing the irradiated TPB precipitate in the Late Wash Facility prior to hydrolysis to remove the soluble radiolysis products. Identification of the organic radiolysis products, their distribution in the Late Wash Facility, and their interactions with the Cu catalyst has become an important analytical issue. To further investigate the reaction products of the TPB precipitation process, a simulated feedstock was created from compounds known to be present in the starting materials. This simulated feedstock was precipitated with sodium TPB and then exposed to Co-60 gamma radiation to simulate two years of additional storage time prior to the hydrolysis process. The irradiated product was divided into two parts, the filtered supernatant liquid and the precipitate slurry, which contains the TPB and the solid sodium titanate. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, liquid secondary ion mass spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry, ion chromatography, and high performance liquid chromatography, over 50 organic and inorganic species have been identified in the aqueous portion of a simulated feedstock for TPB hydrolysis. The major organic species present are benzene, phenol, benzamide and a variety of substituted phenylphenols. The major inorganic species present are sodium, nitrite, and oxalate ions.

  11. Methodological issues in life cycle assessment of mixed-culture polyhydroxyalkanoate production utilising waste as feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimersson, Sara; Morgan-Sagastume, Fernando; Peters, Gregory M; Werker, Alan; Svanström, Magdalena

    2014-06-25

    Assessing the environmental performance of emerging technologies using life cycle assessment (LCA) can be challenging due to a lack of data in relation to technologies, application areas or other life cycle considerations, or a lack of LCA methodology that address the specific concerns. Nevertheless, LCA can be a valuable tool in the environmental optimisation in the technology development phase. One emerging technology is the mixed-culture production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). PHA production by pure microbial cultures has been developed and assessed in several LCAs during the previous decade. Recent developments within mixed-culture PHA production call for environmental assessment to guide in technology development. Mixed-culture PHA production can use the organic content in wastewater as a feedstock; the production may then be integrated with wastewater treatment (WWT) processes. This means that mixed-culture PHA is produced as a by-product from services in the WWT. This article explores different methodological challenges for LCA of mixed-culture PHA production using organic material in wastewater as feedstock. LCAs of both pure- and mixed-culture PHA production were reviewed. Challenges, similarities and differences when assessing PHA production by mixed- or pure-cultures were identified and the resulting implications for methodological choices in LCA were evaluated and illustrated, using a case study with mixed- and pure-culture PHA model production systems, based on literature data. Environmental impacts of processes producing multiple products or services need to be allocated between the different products or services. Such situations occur both in feedstock production and when the studied system is providing multiple functions. The selection of allocation method is shown to determine the LCA results. The type of data used, for electricity in the energy system, is shown to be important for the results, which indicates, a strong regional dependency of

  12. Long-Term Variability in Sugarcane Bagasse Feedstock Compositional Methods: Sources and Magnitude of Analytical Variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Templeton, David W.; Sluiter, Justin B.; Sluiter, Amie; Payne, Courtney; Crocker, David P.; Tao, Ling; Wolfrum, Ed

    2016-10-18

    In an effort to find economical, carbon-neutral transportation fuels, biomass feedstock compositional analysis methods are used to monitor, compare, and improve biofuel conversion processes. These methods are empirical, and the analytical variability seen in the feedstock compositional data propagates into variability in the conversion yields, component balances, mass balances, and ultimately the minimum ethanol selling price (MESP). We report the average composition and standard deviations of 119 individually extracted National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) bagasse [Reference Material (RM) 8491] run by seven analysts over 7 years. Two additional datasets, using bulk-extracted bagasse (containing 58 and 291 replicates each), were examined to separate out the effects of batch, analyst, sugar recovery standard calculation method, and extractions from the total analytical variability seen in the individually extracted dataset. We believe this is the world's largest NIST bagasse compositional analysis dataset and it provides unique insight into the long-term analytical variability. Understanding the long-term variability of the feedstock analysis will help determine the minimum difference that can be detected in yield, mass balance, and efficiency calculations. The long-term data show consistent bagasse component values through time and by different analysts. This suggests that the standard compositional analysis methods were performed consistently and that the bagasse RM itself remained unchanged during this time period. The long-term variability seen here is generally higher than short-term variabilities. It is worth noting that the effect of short-term or long-term feedstock compositional variability on MESP is small, about $0.03 per gallon. The long-term analysis variabilities reported here are plausible minimum values for these methods, though not necessarily average or expected variabilities. We must emphasize the importance of training and

  13. Assessment of leaf/stem ratio in wheat straw feedstock and impact on enzymatic conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Heng; Fangel, Jonatan Ulrik; Willats, William George Tycho

    2014-01-01

    . By preparing samples of various leaf-to-stem (L/S) ratios, we found shifting conversion behavior as processing parameters were modified. Increasing the enzyme dosage, pretreatment temperature and pretreatment time all significantly improved conversion rates in samples with more than 50% leaf content, whereas...... conversion processes and additionally in feedstock breeding. Furthermore, this highlights the need for rapid techniques for determining L/S ratio in wheat straw harvests. The CoMPP data on specific carbohydrates and leaf pectin highlight carbohydrate epitopes that may be useful as markers in the development...

  14. Uncertainties in Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Advanced Biomass Feedstock Logistics Supply Chains in Kansas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Nguyen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To meet Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA cellulosic biofuel mandates, the United States will require an annual domestic supply of about 242 million Mg of biomass by 2022. To improve the feedstock logistics of lignocellulosic biofuels in order to access available biomass resources from areas with varying yields, commodity systems have been proposed and designed to deliver quality-controlled biomass feedstocks at preprocessing “depots”. Preprocessing depots densify and stabilize the biomass prior to long-distance transport and delivery to centralized biorefineries. The logistics of biomass commodity supply chains could introduce spatially variable environmental impacts into the biofuel life cycle due to needing to harvest, move, and preprocess biomass from multiple distances that have variable spatial density. This study examines the uncertainty in greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of corn stover logistics within a bio-ethanol supply chain in the state of Kansas, where sustainable biomass supply varies spatially. Two scenarios were evaluated each having a different number of depots of varying capacity and location within Kansas relative to a central commodity-receiving biorefinery to test GHG emissions uncertainty. The first scenario sited four preprocessing depots evenly across the state of Kansas but within the vicinity of counties having high biomass supply density. The second scenario located five depots based on the shortest depot-to-biorefinery rail distance and biomass availability. The logistics supply chain consists of corn stover harvest, collection and storage, feedstock transport from field to biomass preprocessing depot, preprocessing depot operations, and commodity transport from the biomass preprocessing depot to the biorefinery. Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate the spatial uncertainty in the feedstock logistics gate-to-gate sequence. Within the logistics supply chain GHG emissions are most sensitive to the

  15. Building Supportive School Environments for Alternative Education Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar-Smith, Susan; Palmer, Ruth Baugher

    2015-01-01

    This article reports findings from a study of an alternative educational program for at-risk secondary students, comparing student perceptions of their public school environment, measured upon intake in the alternative school, with their perceptions of the alternative school environment after four and eight months of attendance in the program.…

  16. Performance and energy efficiency of alternative comminution principles: Chipping versus grinding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinelli, Raffaele; Magagnotti, Natascia; Nati, Carla (CNR IVALSA, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)); Cavallo, Eugenio; Facello, Alessio; Paletto, Giuseppe (CNR IMAMOTER, Torino (Italy))

    2012-05-15

    Comminution is a critical process in biomass supply chains and can be conducted with either chippers or grinders. These machines use different work tools(knives and hammers, respectively) and are applied to different feedstock types, but few studies are available on the inherent differences between the two technologies. A versatile grinder, alternatively equipped with hammers and knives, was studied to investigate the effect of tool type on machine productivity, fuel consumption, and product quality.The machine was powered by an agricultural tractor rigged with a flow meter, a torque meter, and shaft revolution meter for determining fuel consumption, power output, and engine speed. Three different feedstock types were processed: discarded pallets, solid logs, and residues from park maintenance, the latter consisting of branches from ornamental tree and shrub species. Depending on feedstock type, the knife configuration was 30 - 80 % (average 50 %) more productive than the hammer configuration and required 15 - 30 % (average 24 %) less energy per unit of product. Fuel consumption per dry ton was 30 - 75 % (average 52 %) higher for the hammer configuration. That held true for all feedstock types. Product quality was better for the knife configuration, except for park maintenance residues. In general, hammers should be limited to product with severe contamination that prevents the efficient use of knives

  17. Environmental enhancement using short-rotation woody crops and perennial grasses as alternative agricultural crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolbert, V.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schiller, A. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Short-rotation woody crops and perennial grasses are grown as biomass feedstocks for energy and fiber. When replacing traditional row crops on similar lands, these alternative crops can provide multiple environmental benefits in addition to enhancing rural economies and providing valuable feedstock resources. The Department of Energy is supporting research to address how these crops can provide environmental benefits to soil, water and native wildlife species in addition to providing bioenergy feedstocks. Research is underway to address the potential for biomass crops to provide soil conservation and water quality improvements in crop settings. Replacement of traditional erosive row crops with biomass crops on marginal lands and establishment of biomass plantations as filter strips adjacent to streams and wetlands are being studied. The habitat value of different biomass crops for selected wildlife species is also under study. To date, these studies have shown that in comparison with row crops biomass plantings of both grass and tree crops increased biodiversity of birds; however, the habitat value of tree plantations is not equivalent to natural forests. The effects on native wildlife of establishing multiple plantations across a landscape are being studied. Combining findings on wildlife use of individual plantations with information on the cumulative effects of multiple plantations on wildlife populations can provide guidance for establishing and managing biomass crops to enhance biodiversity while providing biomass feedstocks. Data from site-specific environmental studies can provide input for evaluation of the probable effects of large-scale plantings at both landscape and regional levels of resolution.

  18. Alternative medicine - pain relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative medicine refers to treatments that are used instead of conventional (standard) ones. If you use an alternative ... with conventional medicine or therapy, it is considered complementary therapy. There are many forms of alternative medicine. Acupuncture ...

  19. High-solids enrichment of thermophilic microbial communities and their enzymes on bioenergy feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, A. P.; Allgaier, M.; Singer, S.W.; Hazen, T.C.; Simmons, B.A.; Hugenholtz, P.; VanderGheynst, J.S.

    2011-04-01

    Thermophilic microbial communities that are active in a high-solids environment offer great potential for the discovery of industrially relevant enzymes that efficiently deconstruct bioenergy feedstocks. In this study, finished green waste compost was used as an inoculum source to enrich microbial communities and associated enzymes that hydrolyze cellulose and hemicellulose during thermophilic high-solids fermentation of the bioenergy feedstocks switchgrass and corn stover. Methods involving the disruption of enzyme and plant cell wall polysaccharide interactions were developed to recover xylanase and endoglucanase activity from deconstructed solids. Xylanase and endoglucanase activity increased by more than a factor of 5, upon four successive enrichments on switchgrass. Overall, the changes for switchgrass were more pronounced than for corn stover; solids reduction between the first and second enrichments increased by a factor of four for switchgrass while solids reduction remained relatively constant for corn stover. Amplicon pyrosequencing analysis of small-subunit ribosomal RNA genes recovered from enriched samples indicated rapid changes in the microbial communities between the first and second enrichment with the simplified communities achieved by the third enrichment. The results demonstrate a successful approach for enrichment of unique microbial communities and enzymes active in a thermophilic high-solids environment.

  20. Modification of Corn Starch Ethanol Refinery to Efficiently Accept Various High-Impact Cellulosic Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derr, Dan

    2013-12-30

    The goal of the Corn-to-Cellulosic Migration (CCM) pilot facility was to demonstrate the implementation of advanced technologies and methods for conversion of non-food, cellulosic feedstocks into ethanol, assess the economics of the facility and evaluate potential environmental benefits for biomass to fuels conversion. The CCM project was comprised of design, build, and operate phases for the CCM pilot facility as well as research & development, and modeling components. The CCM pilot facility was designed to process 1 tonne per day of non-food biomass and biologically convert that biomass to ethanol at a rate of 70 gallons per tonne. The plant demonstrated throughputs in excess of 1 tonne per day for an extended run of 1400 hours. Although target yields were not fully achieved, the continuous operation validated the design and operability of the plant. These designs will permit the design of larger scale operations at existing corn milling operations or for greenfield plants. EdeniQ, a partner in the project and the owner of the pilot plant, continues to operate and evaluate other feedstocks.