WorldWideScience

Sample records for alternative experimental method

  1. Prediction of skin sensitizers using alternative methods to animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Henrik; Lindstedt, Malin

    2014-07-01

    Regulatory frameworks within the European Union demand that chemical substances are investigated for their ability to induce sensitization, an adverse health effect caused by the human immune system in response to chemical exposure. A recent ban on the use of animal tests within the cosmetics industry has led to an urgent need for alternative animal-free test methods that can be used for assessment of chemical sensitizers. To date, no such alternative assay has yet completed formal validation. However, a number of assays are in development and the understanding of the biological mechanisms of chemical sensitization has greatly increased during the last decade. In this MiniReview, we aim to summarize and give our view on the recent progress of method development for alternative assessment of chemical sensitizers. We propose that integrated testing strategies should comprise complementary assays, providing measurements of a wide range of mechanistic events, to perform well-educated risk assessments based on weight of evidence.

  2. A framework program for the teaching of alternative methods (replacement, reduction, refinement) to animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshian, Mardas; Akbarsha, Mohammad A; Blaauboer, Bas; Caloni, Francesca; Cosson, Pierre; Curren, Rodger; Goldberg, Alan; Gruber, Franz; Ohl, Frauke; Pfaller, Walter; van der Valk, Jan; Vinardell, Pilar; Zurlo, Joanne; Hartung, Thomas; Leist, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Development of improved communication and education strategies is important to make alternatives to the use of animals, and the broad range of applications of the 3Rs concept better known and understood by different audiences. For this purpose, the Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing in Europe (CAAT-Europe) together with the Transatlantic Think Tank for Toxicology (t(4)) hosted a three-day workshop on "Teaching Alternative Methods to Animal Experimentation". A compilation of the recommendations by a group of international specialists in the field is summarized in this report. Initially, the workshop participants identified the different audience groups to be addressed and also the communication media that may be used. The main outcome of the workshop was a framework for a comprehensive educational program. The modular structure of the teaching program presented here allows adaptation to different audiences with their specific needs; different time schedules can be easily accommodated on this basis. The topics cover the 3Rs principle, basic research, toxicological applications, method development and validation, regulatory aspects, case studies and ethical aspects of 3Rs approaches. This expert consortium agreed to generating teaching materials covering all modules and providing them in an open access online repository.

  3. Alternative methods in toxicology: pre-validated and validated methods

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The development of alternative methods to animal experimentation has progressed rapidly over the last 20 years. Today, in vitro and in silico methods have an important role in the hazard identification and assessment of toxicology profile of compounds. Advanced alternative methods and their combinations are also used for safety assessment of final products. Several alternative methods, which were scientifically validated and accepted by competent regulatory bodies, can be used for regulatory ...

  4. Alternative methods in toxicology: pre-validated and validated methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandárová, Helena; Letašiová, Silvia

    2011-09-01

    The development of alternative methods to animal experimentation has progressed rapidly over the last 20 years. Today, in vitro and in silico methods have an important role in the hazard identification and assessment of toxicology profile of compounds. Advanced alternative methods and their combinations are also used for safety assessment of final products. Several alternative methods, which were scientifically validated and accepted by competent regulatory bodies, can be used for regulatory toxicology purposes, thus reducing or fully replacing living animals in toxicology experimentation. The acceptance of the alternative methods as valuable tools of modern toxicology has been recognized by regulators, including OECD, FDA and EPA.This paper provides a brief overview of the topic "alternative methods in toxicology" and focuses on pre-validated and validated alternative methods and their position in the modern toxicology.

  5. Distributed Reconstruction via Alternating Direction Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linyuan Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of compressive sensing theory, image reconstruction from few-view projections has received considerable research attentions in the field of computed tomography (CT. Total-variation- (TV- based CT image reconstruction has been shown to be experimentally capable of producing accurate reconstructions from sparse-view data. In this study, a distributed reconstruction algorithm based on TV minimization has been developed. This algorithm is very simple as it uses the alternating direction method. The proposed method can accelerate the alternating direction total variation minimization (ADTVM algorithm without losing accuracy.

  6. Alternatives to animal experimentation in basic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Franz P; Hartung, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    In contrast to animal testing required by law to guarantee minimum safety standards for the licensing of drugs and chemicals, there are no regulations in basic research forcing scientists to perform animal tests. By (usually) free choice, questions are posed and hypotheses are examined which, in many cases, can only be answered by means of animal tests. Just as easily, different questions could be asked or different hypotheses could be examined which do not require animal tests. The only criterion for the choice of a topic is its relevance which cannot necessarily be judged in the short-term. Thus, it is up to the individual scientist to judge what is worth studying and therefore worth animal consumption. The educated mind will consider ethical aspects of this choice. However, on the other hand, this decision is largely influenced by questions of efficacy or (in a negative sense) by the obstacles posed to an animal consuming approach. Here, peer review and general attitude will strongly influence the methodology chosen. Availability and awareness of adequate in vitro techniques represent the prerequisites for the use of alternative methods. The least one can do in basic research is to avoid tests which cause severe suffering to animals, as is required in Switzerland and other European countries by binding ethical principles and guidelines. The increasing standard of approval and control procedures has improved the situation over the years. There are many examples of successful alternative methods in basic research. But, the application of such methods is in most cases limited to the laboratories in which they were developed, calling for technology transfer. Exceptions are procedures that are used worldwide, like the production of monoclonal antibodies, which instead of using the ascites mouse can also be performed in vitro with some good will. In these cases, commercialisation of the techniques has aided their spread within the scientific community. Sadly, many

  7. Methods for Characterization of Alternative RNA Splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Samuel E; Cheng, Chonghui

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of alternative splicing to detect the abundance of differentially spliced isoforms of a gene in total RNA can be accomplished via RT-PCR using both quantitative real-time and semi-quantitative PCR methods. These methods require careful PCR primer design to ensure specific detection of particular splice isoforms. We also describe analysis of alternative splicing using a splicing "minigene" in mammalian cell tissue culture to facilitate investigation of the regulation of alternative splicing of a particular exon of interest.

  8. Methods for Characterization of Alternative RNA Splicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Samuel E.; Cheng, Chonghui

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of alternative splicing to detect the abundance of differentially spliced isoforms of a gene in total RNA can be accomplished via RT-PCR using both quantitative real-time and semi-quantitative PCR methods. These methods require careful PCR primer design to ensure specific detection of particular splice isoforms. We also describe analysis of alternative splicing using a splicing “minigene” in mammalian cell tissue culture to facilitate investigation of the regulation of alternative splicing of a particular exon of interest. PMID:26721495

  9. Alternative methods of ophthalmic treatment in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vader, L

    1994-04-01

    Russian ophthalmic nurses and physicians are using alternative methods of treatment to supplement traditional eye care. As acupuncture and iridology become more popular in the United States, ophthalmic nurses need to be more knowledgeable about these treatments and the implications for patients.

  10. Experimental Evaluation of the Free Piston Engine - Linear Alternator (FPLA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leick, Michael T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Moses, Ronald W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report describes the experimental evaluation of a prototype free piston engine - linear alternator (FPLA) system developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The opposed piston design wa developed to investigate its potential for use in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The system is mechanically simple with two - stroke uniflow scavenging for gas exchange and timed port fuel injection for fuel delivery, i.e. no complex valving. Electrical power is extracted from piston motion through linear alternators wh ich also provide a means for passive piston synchronization through electromagnetic coupling. In an HEV application, this electrical power would be used to charge the batteries. The engine - alternator system was designed, assembled and operated over a 2 - year period at Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, CA. This report primarily contains a description of the as - built system, modifications to the system to enable better performance, and experimental results from start - up, motoring, and hydrogen combus tion tests.

  11. Experimental Evaluation of the Free Piston Engine - Linear Alternator (FPLA).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leick, Michael T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Moses, Ronald W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report describes the experimental evaluation of a prototype free piston engine - linear alternator (FPLA) system developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The opposed piston design wa developed to investigate its potential for use in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The system is mechanically simple with two - stroke uniflow scavenging for gas exchange and timed port fuel injection for fuel delivery, i.e. no complex valving. Electrical power is extracted from piston motion through linear alternators wh ich also provide a means for passive piston synchronization through electromagnetic coupling. In an HEV application, this electrical power would be used to charge the batteries. The engine - alternator system was designed, assembled and operated over a 2 - year period at Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, CA. This report primarily contains a description of the as - built system, modifications to the system to enable better performance, and experimental results from start - up, motoring, and hydrogen combus tion tests.

  12. Experimental Investigation of Turbine Vane Heat Transfer for Alternative Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nix, Andrew Carl [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2015-03-23

    modern turbine engines; and What advancements in film cooling hole geometry and design can increase effectiveness of film cooling in turbines burning high-hydrogen coal syngas due to the higher heat loads and mass flow rates of the core flow? Experimental and numerical investigations of advanced cooling geometries that can improve resistance to surface deposition were performed. The answers to these questions were investigated through experimental measurements of turbine blade surface temperature and coolant coverage (via infrared camera images and thermocouples) and time-varying surface roughness in the NETL high-pressure combustion rig with accelerated, simulated surface deposition and advanced cooling hole concepts, coupled with detailed materials analysis and characterization using conventional methods of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), 3-D Surface Topography (using a 3-D stylus profilometer). Detailed surface temperatures and cooling effectiveness could not be measured due to issues with the NETL infrared camera system. In collaboration with faculty startup funding from the principal investigator, experimental and numerical investigations were performed of an advanced film cooling hole geometry, the anti-vortex hole (AVH), focusing on improving cooling effectiveness and decreasing the counter-rotating vortex of conventional cooling holes which can entrain mainstream particulate matter to the surface. The potential benefit of this program is in gaining a fundamental understanding of how the use of alternative fuels will effect the operation of modern gas turbine engines, providing valuable data for more effective cooling designs for future turbine systems utilizing alternative fuels.

  13. Purification of Carbon Nanotubes: Alternative Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Files, Bradley; Scott, Carl; Gorelik, Olga; Nikolaev, Pasha; Hulse, Lou; Arepalli, Sivaram

    2000-01-01

    Traditional carbon nanotube purification process involves nitric acid refluxing and cross flow filtration using surfactant TritonX. This is believed to result in damage to nanotubes and surfactant residue on nanotube surface. Alternative purification procedures involving solvent extraction, thermal zone refining and nitric acid refiuxing are used in the current study. The effect of duration and type of solvent to dissolve impurities including fullerenes and P ACs (polyaromatic compounds) are monitored by nuclear magnetic reasonance, high performance liquid chromatography, and thermogravimetric analysis. Thermal zone refining yielded sample areas rich in nanotubes as seen by scanning electric microscopy. Refluxing in boiling nitric acid seem to improve the nanotube content. Different procedural steps are needed to purify samples produced by laser process compared to arc process. These alternative methods of nanotube purification will be presented along with results from supporting analytical techniques.

  14. Alternative parameter determination methods for a PMSG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalogiannis, Theodoros; Malz, Elena; Llano, Enrique Muller

    2014-01-01

    standards. In the other hand a new approach for an alternative stator inductance and inertia measurement is analysed. More precisely, the former is obtained through laboratory work based on the locked rotor test, and the latter through a CAD software based on a 3D model. In order to assess and validate...... the obtained values, an electromechanical model is derived for validation and contribution of the whole project. Finally, small relative errors between measured and simulated values indicate the functionality of the used methods and of the machine....

  15. [Alternatives to animal experimentation v.s. animal rights terrorism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Tsutomu Miki

    2008-05-01

    Systematic modern animal experimentation was established by Bernard Claude who wrote "An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine" in 1865. At this point, the public was already asking that the pain and distress of experimental animals be reduced. For this, scientists, William Russell and Rex Burch in 1959 proposed the principles of alternatives to animal experimentation, the "3Rs". Since that time, animal welfare advocates have promoted the 3Rs concept in biomedical research communities. However, cruel animal experiments have continued and there are reports of radical extremists showing their opposition by invasion, arson, theft and even bombing of institutions involved, resulting in killing of the animals. SHAC, one extremist group believed to be animal welfare activitists was recognized as a terrorist group after the 9.11 tragedy in USA and the government viewed their activities very seriously. In 2001, British animal extremists invaded Japanese universities and stole laboratory resources; one individual was arrested and sentenced to prison for three years; Japanese who assisted in the incident were arrested and one was sentenced for one year. In 2006, SHAC USA members were prosecuted and sentenced for up to 6 years for their terrorism activities including arson. We need to consider the background of these activities which are financially supported by animal welfare advocates. The way we, as scientists who conduct such experiments can respond is by promoting alternatives to this experimentation. In Japan, the animal welfare law was revised in 2005 stressing the importance of 3Rs in scientific activities with animals. The promotion of 3Rs should be strengthened in the pharmaceutical community.

  16. An Alternative Method to Project Wind Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadillioglu, Cagla; Kiyisuren, I. Cagatay; Collu, Kamil; Turp, M. Tufan; Kurnaz, M. Levent; Ozturk, Tugba

    2016-04-01

    Wind energy is one of the major clean and sustainable energy sources. Beside its various advantages, wind energy has a downside that its performance cannot be projected very accurately in the long-term. In this study, we offer an alternative method which can be used to determine the best location to install a wind turbine in a large area aiming maximum energy performance in the long run. For this purpose, a regional climate model (i.e. RegCM4.4) is combined with a software called Winds on Critical Streamline Surfaces (WOCSS) in order to identify wind patterns for any domains even in a changing climate. As a special case, Çanakkale region is examined due to the terrain profile having both coastal and mountainous features. WOCSS program was run twice for each month in the sample years in a double nested fashion, using the provisional RegCM4.4 wind data between years 2020 and 2040. Modified version of WOCSS provides terrain following flow surfaces and by processing those data, it makes a wind profile output for certain heights specified by the user. The computational time of WOCSS is also in reasonable range. Considering the lack of alternative methods for long-term wind performance projection, the model used in this study is a very good way for obtaining quick indications for wind performance taking the impact of the terrain effects into account. This research has been supported by Boǧaziçi University Research Fund Grant Number 10421.

  17. Alternative method of removing otoliths from sturgeon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Dittman, Dawn E.

    2016-01-01

    Extracting the otoliths (ear bones) from fish that have very thick skulls can be difficult and very time consuming. The common practice of making a transverse vertical incision on the top of the skull with a hand or electrical saw may damage the otolith if not performed correctly. Sturgeons (Acipenseridae) are one family in particular that have a very large and thick skull. A new laboratory method entering the brain cavity from the ventral side of the fish to expose the otoliths was easier than other otolith extraction methods found in the literature. Methods reviewed in the literature are designed for the field and are more efficient at processing large quantities of fish quickly. However, this new technique was designed to be more suited for a laboratory setting when time is not pressing and successful extraction from each specimen is critical. The success of finding and removing otoliths using this technique is very high and does not compromise the structure in any manner. This alternative technique is applicable to other similar fish species for extracting the otoliths.

  18. Alternative method for assessing coking coal plasticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzuy Nguyen; Susan Woodhouse; Merrick Mahoney [University of Adelaide (Australia). BHP Billiton Newcastle Technology Centre

    2008-07-15

    Traditional plasticity measurements for coal have a number of limitations associated with the reproducibility of the tests and their use in predicting coking behaviour. This report reviews alternative rheological methods for characterising the plastic behaviour of coking coals. It reviews the application of more fundamental rheological measurements to the coal system as well as reviewing applications of rheology to other physical systems. These systems may act as potential models for the application of fundamental rheological measurements to cokemaking. The systems considered were polymer melts, coal ash melts, lava, bread making and ice cream. These systems were chosen because they exhibit some physically equivalent processes to the processes occurring during cokemaking, eg, the generation of bubbles within a softened system that then resolidifies. A number of recommendations were made; the steady and oscillatory shear squeeze flow techniques be further investigated to determine if the measured rheology characteristics are related to transformations within the coke oven and the characteristics of resultant coke; modification of Gieseler plastometers for more fundamental rheology measurements not be attempted.

  19. Experimental Methodology in English Teaching and Learning: Method Features, Validity Issues, and Embedded Experimental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jang Ho

    2012-01-01

    Experimental methods have played a significant role in the growth of English teaching and learning studies. The paper presented here outlines basic features of experimental design, including the manipulation of independent variables, the role and practicality of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in educational research, and alternative methods…

  20. Alternate methods to teach history of anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Manisha S; Desai, Sukumar P

    2014-02-01

    Residency programs in anesthesiology in the United States struggle to balance the conflicting needs of formal didactic sessions, clinical teaching, and clinical service obligations. As a consequence of the explosion in knowledge about basic and applied sciences related to our specialty, residents and fellows are expected to make substantial efforts to supplement formal lectures with self-study. There is strong evidence to suggest that members of the younger generation use nontraditional methods to acquire information. Although training programs are not required to include topics related to history of anesthesia (HOA) in the didactic curriculum, and despite the fact that such knowledge does not directly impact clinical care, many programs include such lectures and discussions. We describe and discuss our experience with 3 alternate modalities of teaching HOA.First, we provide brief descriptions of HOA-related historical narratives and novels within the domain of popular literature, rather than those that might be considered textbooks. Second, we analyze content in movies and videodiscs dealing with HOA and determine their utility as educational resources. Third, we describe HOA tours to sites in close proximity to our institutions, as well as those in locations elsewhere in the United States and abroad.We suggest that informal HOA teaching can be implemented by every residency program without much effort and without taking away from the traditional curriculum. Participating in this unique and enriching experience may be a means of academic advancement. It is our hope and expectation that graduates from programs that incorporate such exposure to HOA become advocates of history and may choose to devote a part of their academic career toward exploration of HOA.

  1. From alternative methods to a new toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Thomas

    2011-04-01

    Mechanistic toxicology has evolved by relying, to a large extent, on methodologies that substitute or complement traditional animal tests. The biotechnology and informatics revolutions of the last decades have made such technologies broadly available and useful, but regulatory toxicology has been slow to embrace these new approaches. Major validation efforts, however, have delivered the evidence that new approaches do not lower safety standards and can be integrated into regulatory safety assessments. Particularly in the EU, political pressures, such as the REACH legislation and the 7th Amendment to the cosmetic legislation, have prompted the need of new approaches. In the US, the NRC vision report calling for a toxicology for the 21st century (and its most recent adaptation by EPA for their toxicity testing strategy) have initiated a debate about how to create a novel approach based on human cell cultures, lower species, high-throughput testing, and modeling. Lessons learned from the development, validation, and acceptance of alternative methods support the creation of a new approach based on identified toxicity pathways. Conceptual steering and an objective assessment of current practices by evidence-based toxicology (EBT) are required. EBT is modeled on evidence-based medicine, which has demonstrated that rigorous systematic reviews of current practices and meta-analyses of studies provide powerful tools to provide health care professionals and patients with the current best scientific evidence. Similarly, a portal for high-quality reviews of toxicological approaches and tools for the quantitative meta-analyses of data promise to serve as door opener for a new regulatory toxicology.

  2. Methods for generating hydroelectric power development alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Shoou-yuh; Liaw, Shu-liang; Sale, M.J.; Railsback, S.F.

    1989-01-01

    Hydropower development on large rivers can result in a number of environmental impacts, including potential reductions in dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations. This study presents a methodology for generating different hydropower development alternatives for evaluation. This methodology employs a Streeter-Phelps model to simulate DO, and the Bounded Implicit Enumeration algorithm to solve an optimization model formulated to maximize hydroelectric energy production subject to acceptable DO limits. The upper Ohio River basin was used to illustrate the use and characteristics of the methodology. The results indicate that several alternatives which meet the specified DO constraints can be generated efficiently, meeting both power and environmental objectives. 17 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Alternatives to animal experimentation for hormonal compounds research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penza, M; Jeremic, M; Montani, C; Unkila, M; Caimi, L; Mazzoleni, G; Di Lorenzo, Diego

    2009-09-01

    Alternatives to animal testing and the identification of reliable methods that may decrease the need for animals are currently the subject of intense investigation worldwide. Alternative testing procedures are particularly important for synthetic and natural chemicals that exert their biological actions through binding nuclear receptors, called nuclear receptors-interacting compounds (NR-ICs), for which research is increasingly emphasizing the limits of several models in the accurate estimation of the physiological consequences of exposure to these compounds. In particular, estrogen receptor interacting compounds (ER-ICs) have a great impact on human health from the therapeutic, nutritional, and toxicological point of view due to the highly permissive nature of the estrogen receptors towards a large number of natural and synthetic compounds. Similar to in vitro systems, recently generated animal models (e.g., animal models generated for the study of estrogen receptor ligands) may fulfill the 3R principles: refine, reduce, and replace. If used correctly, NR-regulated models, such as reporter mice, xenopus, or zebrafish, and models obtained by somatic gene transfer in reporter systems, combined with imaging technologies, may contribute to strongly decreasing the overall number of animals required for NR-IC testing and research. With these models, flexible and highly standardized parameters and reporter marker quantification can be obtained. Here, we highlight the need for the substitution of currently used testing models with more appropriate ones that can reproduce the features and reactivity of specific mammalian target tissue/organs. We consider the promotion of this advancement a research priority bearing scientific, economic, social, and ethical relevance.

  4. Alternatives to radioimmunoassay: labels and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schall, R.F. Jr.; Tenoso, H.J.

    1981-07-01

    The following labels used as substitutes for radioisotopes in immunoassay systems are reviewed bacteriophages, chemiluminescence precursors, fluorochromes, fluorogens, fluorescence quenchers, enzymes, coenzymes, inhibitors, substrates, various particulates, metal atoms, and stable free radicals. New methods for performing immunoassays with these labels are described where appropriate. Methods that require no separation steps and offer special promise for easy automation are noted. 69 references cited.

  5. Alternative Inspection Methods for Single Shell Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Timothy J.; Alzheimer, James M.; Hurley, David E.

    2010-01-19

    This document was prepared to provide evaluations and recommendations regarding nondestructive evaluation methods that might be used to determine cracks and bowing in the ceiling of waste storage tanks on the Hanford site. The goal was to determine cracks as small as 1/16 in. wide in the ceiling, and bowing as small as 0.25 in. This report describes digital video camera methods that can be used to detect a crack in the ceiling of the dome, and methods for determining the surface topography of the ceiling in the waste storage tanks to detect localized movements in the surface. A literature search, combined with laboratory testing, comprised this study.

  6. PID Techniques: Alternatives to RICH Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Va'vra, Jerry

    2016-01-01

    In this review article we discuss new updates on PID techniques, other than the Cherenkov method. In particular, we discuss recent efforts to develop high resolution timing, placing an emphasis on small scale test results.

  7. Alternative Therapy of Animals – Homeopathy and Other Alternative Methods of Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Løken Torleiv

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Alternative therapy of animals is described, in the meaning of alternatives to veterinary therapy traditionally accepted by veterinary faculties and schools and included in their curricula. Alternative therapy composes of different disciplines, of which homeopathy is emphasised in this presentation. Information is given on the use and interest of such therapy among veterinarians and animal owners. Homeopathy as other alternative therapies, may offer great advances, if they induce any effect. Some of the disciplines are based on a scientifically accepted documentation. Others, and homeopathy in particular, are missing such a documentation of effect. The justification of including alternative therapy in treating animals is discussed. Research in alternative therapy of animals is greatly needed, in particular to evaluate therapeutic methods which are in extensive use without any documented effect. An ongoing research project in Norway on the effect of homeopathic treatment of mastitis in cows is shortly presented.

  8. Optimal Alternative to the Akima's Method of Smooth Interpolation Applied in Diabetology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Paul

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available It is presented a new method of cubic piecewise smooth interpolation applied to experimental data obtained by glycemic profile for diabetics. This method is applied to create a soft useful in clinical diabetology. The method give an alternative to the Akima's procedure of the derivatives computation on the knots from [Akima, J. Assoc. Comput. Mach., 1970] and have an optimal property.

  9. HERBAL MEDICINE AMONG COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE METHODS

    OpenAIRE

    A. Ruban; Rodioniva, T.

    2012-01-01

    Alternative medicine methods may incorporate or base themselves on traditional medicine [1], folk knowledge [2], spiritual beliefs, or newly conceived approaches to healing. The major complementary and alternative medicine systems have many common characteristics, treating the whole person, including a focus on individualizing treatments, promoting self-care and self-healing, and recognizing the spiritual nature of each individual. Complementary and alternative medicine often lacks or has onl...

  10. Evaluation of alternative methods for the disinfection of toothbrushes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Yukio Komiyama

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate alternative methods for the disinfection of toothbrushes considering that most of the previously proposed methods are expensive and cannot be easily implemented. Two-hundred toothbrushes with standardized dimensions and bristles were included in the study. The toothbrushes were divided into 20 experimental groups (n = 10, according to microorganism considered and chemical agent used. The toothbrushes were contaminated in vitro by standardized suspensions of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus or Candida albicans. The following disinfectants were tested: 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate, 50% white vinegar, a triclosan-containing dentifrice solution, and a perborate-based tablet solution. The disinfection method was immersion in the disinfectant for 10 min. After the disinfection procedure, the number of remaining microbial cells was evaluated. The values of cfu/toothbrush of each group of microorganism after disinfection were compared by Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA and Dunn's test for multiple comparisons (5%. The chlorhexidine digluconate solution was the most effective disinfectant. The triclosan-based dentifrice solution promoted a significant reduction of all microorganisms' counts in relation to the control group. As to the disinfection with 50% vinegar, a significant reduction was observed for all the microorganisms, except for C. albicans. The sodium perborate solution was the less effective against the tested microorganisms. Solutions based on triclosan-containing dentifrice may be considered effective, nontoxic, cost-effective, and an easily applicable alternative for the disinfection of toothbrushes. The vinegar solution reduced the presence of S. aureus, S. mutans and S. pyogenes on toothbrushes.

  11. Alternative methods for characterization of extracellular vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh eMomen-Heravi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles are nano-sized vesicles released by all cells in vitro as well as in vivo. Their role has been implicated mainly in cell-cell communication, but also in disease biomarkers and more recently in gene delivery. They represent a snapshot of the cell status at the moment of release and carry bioreactive macromolecules such as nucleic acids, proteins and lipids. A major limitation in this emerging new field is the availability/awareness of techniques to isolate and properly characterize Extracellular vesicles. The lack of gold standards makes comparing different studies very difficult and may potentially hinder some Extracellular vesicles -specific evidence. Characterization of Extracellular vesicles has also recently seen many advances with the use of Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA, flow cytometry, cryo-EM instruments and proteomic technologies. In this review, we discuss the latest developments in translational technologies involving characterization methods including the facts in their support and the challenges they face.

  12. A quantitative method for evaluating alternatives. [aid to decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forthofer, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    When faced with choosing between alternatives, people tend to use a number of criteria (often subjective, rather than objective) to decide which is the best alternative for them given their unique situation. The subjectivity inherent in the decision-making process can be reduced by the definition and use of a quantitative method for evaluating alternatives. This type of method can help decision makers achieve degree of uniformity and completeness in the evaluation process, as well as an increased sensitivity to the factors involved. Additional side-effects are better documentation and visibility of the rationale behind the resulting decisions. General guidelines for defining a quantitative method are presented and a particular method (called 'hierarchical weighted average') is defined and applied to the evaluation of design alternatives for a hypothetical computer system capability.

  13. Insuflador alternativo para cirurgia videoendoscópica experimental Alternative insufflator to experimental videoendoscopic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ivamberg Nobre de Sena

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available É indiscutível a importância de um pneumoperitônio eficiente para a realização segura da cirurgia videolaparoscópica. A avançada tecnologia moderna proporcionou o desenvolvimento de insufladores eletro-eletrônicos muito eficientes, porém de elevado custo. Este trabalho tem o objetivo de apresentar um modelo alternativo de insuflador eletromecânico para uso principalmente em videocirurgia experimental, de baixo custo e de grande eficiência. Este modelo é capaz de proporcionar um pneumoperitônio com controle permanente da pressão intracavitária desejada e reposição adequada em tempo-hábil das eventuais perdas pressóricas. O sistema é perfeitamente adequado à cirurgia videolaparoscópica experimental em cadáver humano e em animais de laboratório, podendo ainda seu uso ser expandido a alguns procedimentos cirúrgicos in vivo.During the videolaparoscopic surgery is necessary the permanent exposure of an appropriate visual field to the surgeon and his assistants work with the maximum security possible. The importance of an efficient pneumoperitoneum to a secure practice of a videolaparoscopic surgery is indisputable. The advance of modern technology provided the developmentof very efficient electronic insuflators, however too expensive. The objective of this work is to show an alternative model of insuflator much cheaper and more efficient. This model can provide a competent pneumoperitoneum with a permanent control of the ideal intracavitary pressure and an appropriate restitution in case of eventual down pressures. We have already realised about a hundred videolaparoscopics surgical procedures in human corpses (adults and fetus and in research animais like dogs end pigs. The system is perfectly adapted to experimental videolaparoscopic surgery. Its efficiency was proved. It can also be expanded to some surgical procedures in vivo and in little-sized laboratory animais like mouses and rabbits.

  14. Nucleic acid amplification: Alternative methods of polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakruddin, Md; Mannan, Khanjada Shahnewaj Bin; Chowdhury, Abhijit; Mazumdar, Reaz Mohammad; Hossain, Md Nur; Islam, Sumaiya; Chowdhury, Md Alimuddin

    2013-10-01

    Nucleic acid amplification is a valuable molecular tool not only in basic research but also in application oriented fields, such as clinical medicine development, infectious diseases diagnosis, gene cloning and industrial quality control. A comperehensive review of the literature on the principles, applications, challenges and prospects of different alternative methods of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed. PCR was the first nucleic acid amplification method. With the advancement of research, a no of alternative nucleic acid amplification methods has been developed such as loop mediated isothermal amplification, nucleic acid sequence based amplification, strand displacement amplification, multiple displacement amplification. Most of the alternative methods are isothermal obviating the need for thermal cyclers. Though principles of most of the alternate methods are relatively complex than that of PCR, they offer better applicability and sensitivity in cases where PCR has limitations. Most of the alternate methods still have to prove themselves through extensive validation studies and are not available in commercial form; they pose the potentiality to be used as replacements of PCR. Continuous research is going on in different parts of the world to make these methods viable technically and economically.

  15. Alternate Location Method of a Robot Team in Unknown Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-zhong; LIU Jing-jing

    2008-01-01

    The alternate location method of a robot team is proposed. Three of the robots are kept still as beacon robots, not always the same ones, while the others are regarded as mobile robots. The mobile robots alternatively measure the distance between one of them and three beacon robots with ultrasonic measurement module. The distance data are combined with its dead-reckoning information using iterated extended Kalman filter(IEKF) to realize the optimal estimate of its position. According to the condition the future beacon robots positions should be desired ones, the target function and the nonlinear constrain equations are set up which are used by nonlinear optimization algorithm to estimate the position of the future beacon robots. By alternately changing the robots roles as active beacon, the alternate location in unknown environment can be realized. Process and result of the simulation test are given and the position estimation error is within±10mm, which proves the validity of this method.

  16. Alternative methods in toxicity testing: the current approach

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo,Gabrielle Luck de; Campos,Maria Augusta Amaral; Valente,Maria Anete Santana; Silva,Sarah Cristina Teixeira; França,Flávia Dayrell; Chaves,Miriam Martins; Tagliati, Carlos Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Alternative methods are being developed to reduce, refine, and replace (3Rs) animals used in experiments, aimed at protecting animal welfare. The present study reports alternative tests which are based on the principles of the 3Rs and the efforts made to validate these tests. In Europe, several methodologies have already been implemented, such as tests of irritability, cell viability, and phototoxicity as well as in vitro mathematical models together with the use of in silico tools. This is a...

  17. Experimental design methods for bioengineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin Gündoğdu, Tuğba; Deniz, İrem; Çalışkan, Gülizar; Şahin, Erdem Sefa; Azbar, Nuri

    2016-01-01

    Experimental design is a form of process analysis in which certain factors are selected to obtain the desired responses of interest. It may also be used for the determination of the effects of various independent factors on a dependent factor. The bioengineering discipline includes many different areas of scientific interest, and each study area is affected and governed by many different factors. Briefly analyzing the important factors and selecting an experimental design for optimization are very effective tools for the design of any bioprocess under question. This review summarizes experimental design methods that can be used to investigate various factors relating to bioengineering processes. The experimental methods generally used in bioengineering are as follows: full factorial design, fractional factorial design, Plackett-Burman design, Taguchi design, Box-Behnken design and central composite design. These design methods are briefly introduced, and then the application of these design methods to study different bioengineering processes is analyzed.

  18. Experimental test of airplane boarding methods

    CERN Document Server

    Steffen, Jason H

    2011-01-01

    We report the results of an experimental comparison of different airplane boarding methods. This test was conducted in a mock 757 fuselage, located on a Southern California soundstage, with 12 rows of six seats and a single aisle. Five methods were tested using 72 passengers of various ages. We found a significant reduction in the boarding times of optimized methods over traditional methods. These improved methods, if properly implemented, could result in a significant savings to airline companies.

  19. Alternative methods for top quark mass measurements at the CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Ji Hyun

    2016-01-01

    The top quark mass is a fundamental parameter of the standard model and together with the W boson mass and the Higgs boson mass it provides a strong self-consistency check of the electroweak theory. Recently several new measurements of the top quark mass using alternative observables and reconstruction methods are performed by the CMS collaborations at the CERN LHC. Alternative methods can give a insight by providing different systematic sensitivities while standard ones are currently limited by jet energy uncertainties. We introduce various results from new methods including the one using a charmed meson, which are found to be consistent with what is obtained in standard measurements.

  20. An Alternative Surgical Method for Treatment of Osteoid Osteoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökalp, Mehmet Ata; Gözen, Abdurrahim; Ünsal, Seyyid Şerif; Önder, Haci; Güner, Savaş

    2016-02-22

    BACKGROUND An osteoid osteoma is a benign bone tumor that tends to be osteoma can be treated with various conservative and surgical methods, but these have some risks and difficulties. The purpose of the present study was to present an alternative treatment method for osteoid osteoma and the results we obtained. MATERIAL AND METHODS In the period from 2010 to 2014, 10 patients with osteoid osteoma underwent nidus excision by using a safe alternative method in an operating room (OR) with no computed tomography (CT). The localization of the tumor was determined by use of a CT-guided Kirschner wire in the radiology unit, then, in the OR the surgical intervention was performed without removing the Kirschner wire. RESULTS Following the alternative intervention, all the patients were completely relieved of pain. In the follow-up, no recurrence or complication occurred. CONCLUSIONS The presented alternative method for treating osteoid osteoma is an efficient and practical procedure for surgeons working in clinics that lack specialized equipment.

  1. An Alternative Surgical Method for Treatment of Osteoid Osteoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökalp, Mehmet Ata; Gözen, Abdurrahim; Ünsal, Seyyid Şerif; Önder, Haci; Güner, Savaş

    2016-01-01

    Background An osteoid osteoma is a benign bone tumor that tends to be osteoma can be treated with various conservative and surgical methods, but these have some risks and difficulties. The purpose of the present study was to present an alternative treatment method for osteoid osteoma and the results we obtained. Material/Methods In the period from 2010 to 2014, 10 patients with osteoid osteoma underwent nidus excision by using a safe alternative method in an operating room (OR) with no computed tomography (CT). The localization of the tumor was determined by use of a CT-guided Kirschner wire in the radiology unit, then, in the OR the surgical intervention was performed without removing the Kirschner wire. Results Following the alternative intervention, all the patients were completely relieved of pain. In the follow-up, no recurrence or complication occurred. Conclusions The presented alternative method for treating osteoid osteoma is an efficient and practical procedure for surgeons working in clinics that lack specialized equipment. PMID:26898923

  2. Report on HOM experimental methods and code

    CERN Document Server

    Shinton, I R R; Flisgen, T

    2013-01-01

    Experimental methods and various codes used are reported on with the aim to understand the signals picked up from the higher order modes in the third harmonic cavities within the ACC39 module at FLASH. Both commercial computer codes have been used, and also codes written for the express purpose of understanding the sensitivity of the modal profiles to geometrical errors and other sources of experimental errors.

  3. 40 CFR 35.6315 - Alternative methods for obtaining property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternative methods for obtaining property. 35.6315 Section 35.6315 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions...

  4. Innovative Teaching Practice: Traditional and Alternative Methods (Challenges and Implications)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurutdinova, Aida R.; Perchatkina, Veronika G.; Zinatullina, Liliya M.; Zubkova, Guzel I.; Galeeva, Farida T.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the present issue is caused be the strong need in alternative methods of learning foreign language and the need in language training and retraining for the modern professionals. The aim of the article is to identify the basic techniques and skills in using various modern techniques in the context of modern educational tasks. The…

  5. Alternative method of retesting UF{sub 6} cylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ, R. [Nuclear Crago + Service GmbH, Hanau (Germany)

    1991-12-31

    The paper describes an alternative method to perform the periodic inspection of UF{sub 6} cylinders. The hydraulic test is replaced by ultrasonic checking of wall thickness and by magnetic particle testing of all the weld seams. Information about the legal background, the air leak test and the qualification of inspectors is also given.

  6. 27 CFR 24.22 - Alternate method or procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alternate method or procedure. 24.22 Section 24.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions...

  7. A fast alternating projection method for complex frequency estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, Fredrik; Ivert, Per-Anders

    2011-01-01

    The problem of approximating a sampled function using sums of a fixed number of complex exponentials is considered. We use alternating projections between fixed rank matrices and Hankel matrices to obtain such an approximation. Convergence, convergence rates and error estimates for this technique are proven, and fast algorithms are developed. We compare the numerical results obtain with the MUSIC and ESPRIT methods.

  8. Alternating Anderson-Richardson method: An efficient alternative to preconditioned Krylov methods for large, sparse linear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Suryanarayana, Phanish; Pask, John E

    2016-01-01

    We generalize the recently proposed Alternating Anderson-Jacobi (AAJ) method (Pratapa et al., J. Comput. Phys. (2016), 306, 43--54) to include preconditioning, and demonstrate its efficiency and scaling in the solution of large, sparse linear systems on parallel computers. The resulting preconditioned Alternating Anderson-Richardson (AAR) method reduces to the AAJ method for a particular choice of preconditioner. The AAR method employs Anderson extrapolation at periodic intervals within a preconditioned Richardson iteration to accelerate convergence. In this work, we develop a version of the method that is particularly well suited for scalable high-performance computing. In applications to Helmholtz and Poisson equations, we show that the strong and weak parallel scaling of AAR is superior to both Generalized Minimal Residual (GMRES) and Conjugate Gradient (CG) methods, using the same preconditioning, in large-scale parallel calculations employing up to 110,592 computational cores. Moreover, we find that the ...

  9. Alternative methods for the control of postharvest citrus diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talibi, I; Boubaker, H; Boudyach, E H; Ait Ben Aoumar, A

    2014-07-01

    The postharvest diseases of citrus fruit cause considerable losses during storage and transportation. These diseases are managed principally by the application of synthetic fungicides. However, the increasing concern for health hazards and environmental pollution due to chemical use has required the development of alternative strategies for the control of postharvest citrus diseases. Management of postharvest diseases using microbial antagonists, natural plant-derived products and Generally Recognized As Safe compounds has been demonstrated to be most suitable to replace the synthetic fungicides, which are either being banned or recommended for limited use. However, application of these alternatives by themselves may not always provide a commercially acceptable level of control of postharvest citrus diseases comparable to that obtained with synthetic fungicides. To provide more effective disease control, a multifaceted approach based on the combination of different postharvest treatments has been adopted. Actually, despite the distinctive features of these alternative methods, several reasons hinder the commercial use of such treatments. Consequently, research should emphasize the development of appropriate tools to effectively implement these alternative methods to commercial citrus production.

  10. Experimental validation of structural optimization methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, Howard M.

    1992-01-01

    The topic of validating structural optimization methods by use of experimental results is addressed. The need for validating the methods as a way of effecting a greater and an accelerated acceptance of formal optimization methods by practicing engineering designers is described. The range of validation strategies is defined which includes comparison of optimization results with more traditional design approaches, establishing the accuracy of analyses used, and finally experimental validation of the optimization results. Examples of the use of experimental results to validate optimization techniques are described. The examples include experimental validation of the following: optimum design of a trussed beam; combined control-structure design of a cable-supported beam simulating an actively controlled space structure; minimum weight design of a beam with frequency constraints; minimization of the vibration response of helicopter rotor blade; minimum weight design of a turbine blade disk; aeroelastic optimization of an aircraft vertical fin; airfoil shape optimization for drag minimization; optimization of the shape of a hole in a plate for stress minimization; optimization to minimize beam dynamic response; and structural optimization of a low vibration helicopter rotor.

  11. Alternative statistical methods for cytogenetic radiation biological dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Fornalski, Krzysztof Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents alternative statistical methods for biological dosimetry, such as the Bayesian and Monte Carlo method. The classical Gaussian and robust Bayesian fit algorithms for the linear, linear-quadratic as well as saturated and critical calibration curves are described. The Bayesian model selection algorithm for those curves is also presented. In addition, five methods of dose estimation for a mixed neutron and gamma irradiation field were described: two classical methods, two Bayesian methods and one Monte Carlo method. Bayesian methods were also enhanced and generalized for situations with many types of mixed radiation. All algorithms were presented in easy-to-use form, which can be applied to any computational programming language. The presented algorithm is universal, although it was originally dedicated to cytogenetic biological dosimetry of victims of a nuclear reactor accident.

  12. AN ALTERNATIVE GREEN SCREEN KEYING METHOD FOR FILM VISUAL EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Zhi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on a green screen keying method developed especially for film visual effects. There are a series of ways of using existing tools for creating mattes from green or blue screen plates. However, it is still a time-consuming process, and the results vary especially when it comes to retaining tiny details, such as hair and fur. This paper introduces an alternative concept and method for retaining edge details of characters on a green screen plate, also, a number of connected mathematical equations are explored. At the end of this study, a simplified process of applying this method in real productions is also tested.

  13. ALTERNATING DIRECTION FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR SOME REACTION DIFFUSION MODELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江成顺; 刘蕴贤; 沈永明

    2004-01-01

    This paper is concerned with some nonlinear reaction - diffusion models. To solve this kind of models, the modified Laplace finite element scheme and the alternating direction finite element scheme are established for the system of patrical differential equations. Besides, the finite difference method is utilized for the ordinary differential equation in the models. Moreover, by the theory and technique of prior estimates for the differential equations, the convergence analyses and the optimal L2- norm error estimates are demonstrated.

  14. Experimental methods of shock wave research

    CERN Document Server

    Seiler, Friedrich

    2016-01-01

    This comprehensive and carefully edited volume presents a variety of experimental methods used in Shock Waves research. In 14 self contained chapters this 9th volume of the “Shock Wave Science and Technology Reference Library” presents the experimental methods used in Shock Tubes, Shock Tunnels and Expansion Tubes facilities. Also described is their set-up and operation. The uses of an arc heated wind tunnel and a gun tunnel are also contained in this volume. Whenever possible, in addition to the technical description some typical scientific results obtained using such facilities are described. Additionally, this authoritative book includes techniques for measuring physical properties of blast waves and laser generated shock waves. Information about active shock wave laboratories at different locations around the world that are not described in the chapters herein is given in the Appendix, making this book useful for every researcher involved in shock/blast wave phenomena.

  15. Hypoplastic thumb type IIIB: An alternative method for surgical repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih Onur Basat

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Hypoplastic thumb is the second most common congenital deformity of the thumb. Thumb hypoplasia is characterized by diminished thumb size, metacarpal adduction, metacarpophalangeal joint instability, and thenar muscle hypoplasia. In the literature, different classification types of hypoplastic thumb have been used and different treatment methods described. In this case we presented an alternative palliative treatment method for a ten-year-old patient with modified Blauth's classification type IIIB hypoplastic thumb and one-year follow-up results. [Hand Microsurg 2014; 3(2.000: 59-61

  16. Osmotic shock as alternative method to control Acanthaster planci

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jairo Rivera-Posada; Leigh Owens

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To test six osmotic stressors as alternative methods to control Acanthaster planci (A. planci) outbreaks by exploiting their incapacity to tolerate drastic changes in osmolarity. Finding more effective ways to control A. planci outbreaks is one of the most immediate and effective ways by which to reverse rapid declines in the abundance of live coral cover in the Indo-Pacific. Methods: A total of 10 mL of each of the following chemicals: sodium chloride, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, sodium carbonate, sodium cholate, sodium deoxycholate, urea and mannitol were injected into individual healthy sea stars to examine which chemicals induced disease and death. Results:Four out of six chemicals used in this study induced disease. Sodium chloride, sodium cholate, sodium deoxycholate and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid are capable of inducing death in injected sea stars offering an alternative option to control A. planci outbreaks. Conclusions: Hyperosmotic stress is a viable alternative to control A. planci outbreaks as massive cell death results when acute hypertonicity exceeds a certain level.

  17. Hysterectomy—Current Methods and Alternatives for Benign Indications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michail S. Papadopoulos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hysterectomy is the commonest gynecologic operation performed not only for malignant disease but also for many benign conditions such as fibroids, endometrial hyperplasia, adenomyosis, uterine prolapse, dysfunctional uterine bleeding, and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. There are many approaches to hysterectomy for benign disease: abdominal hysterectomy, vaginal hysterectomy, laparoscopic assisted vaginal hysterectomy (LAVH where a vaginal hysterectomy is assisted by laparoscopic procedures that do not include uterine artery ligation, total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH where the laparoscopic procedures include uterine artery ligation, and subtotal laparoscopic hysterectomy (STLH where there is no vaginal component and the uterine body is removed using a morcelator. In the last decades, many new techniques, alternative to hysterectomy with conservation of the uterus have been developed. They use modern technologies and their results are promising and in many cases comparable with hysterectomy. This paper is a review of all the existing hysterectomy techniques and the alternative methods for benign indications.

  18. Intrinsic steady alternate bars in alluvial channels. Part 1: experimental observations and numerical tests.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crosato, A.; Desta, F.B.

    2009-01-01

    Alternate bars in straight alluvial channels are migrating or steady. The currently accepted view is that they are steady only if the width-to-depth ratio is at the value of resonance or if the bars are forced by a steady local perturbation. Experimental observations, however, seem to indicate that

  19. 48 CFR 32.503-9 - Liquidation rates-alternate method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-alternate method. 32.503-9 Section 32.503-9 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Liquidation rates—alternate method. (a) The liquidation rate determined under 32.503-8 shall apply throughout... the alternate method in this 32.503-9. The objective of the alternate liquidation rate method is...

  20. Nonequilibrium relaxation method – An alternative simulation strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nobuyasu Ito

    2005-06-01

    One well-established simulation strategy to study the thermal phases and transitions of a given microscopic model system is the so-called equilibrium method, in which one first realizes the equilibrium ensemble of a finite system and then extrapolates the results to infinite system. This equilibrium method traces over the standard theory of the thermal statistical mechanics, and over the idea of the thermodynamic limit. Recently, an alternative simulation strategy has been developed, which analyzes the nonequilibrium relaxation (NER) process. It is called the NER method. NER method has some advantages over the equilibrium method. The NER method provides a simpler analyzing procedure. This implies less systematic error which is inevitable in the simulation and provides efficient resource usage. The NER method easily treats not only the thermodynamic limit but also other limits, for example, non-Gibbsian nonequilibrium steady states. So the NER method is also relevant for new fields of the statistical physics. Application of the NER method have been expanding to various problems: from basic first- and second-order transitions to advanced and exotic phases like chiral, KT spin-glass and quantum phases. These studies have provided, not only better estimations of transition point and exponents, but also qualitative developments. For example, the universality class of a random system, the nature of the two-dimensional melting and the scaling behavior of spin-glass aging phenomena have been clarified.

  1. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Methods in Chronic Renal Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Erdogan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite its long history, use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM methods has increased dramatically only after 1990s. Up to 57% of patients with chronic renal use CAM methods.These patienys use CAM methods to overcome hypertension, fatigue, constipation, leg edema, pain, cramps, anxiety, depression, sleep disorders, to cope with symptoms such as itching, to stop the progression of kidney disease and to improve their quality of life. Methods used are herbal products and food supplements, acupressure, acupuncture, homeopathy, exercise, aromatherapy, yoga and reflexology. Nephrotoxic effect of several CAM therapies used in patients with renal impairment could disturb hemodynamics by reducing the glomerular filtration rate. For this reason, health care providers should question patients about used of CAM, methods. Communication with patients should be clear and should not act judgmental. Health care personnel should learn more about CAM methods in order to avoid unwanted situations that could develop after the application of CAM methods. Patients should be informed correctly and scientifically about these methods to avoid harmful and unnecessary uses. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2014; 23(4.000: 770-786

  2. Fast alternating projection methods for constrained tomographic reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Han, Yongxin; Jin, Mingwu

    2017-01-01

    The alternating projection algorithms are easy to implement and effective for large-scale complex optimization problems, such as constrained reconstruction of X-ray computed tomography (CT). A typical method is to use projection onto convex sets (POCS) for data fidelity, nonnegative constraints combined with total variation (TV) minimization (so called TV-POCS) for sparse-view CT reconstruction. However, this type of method relies on empirically selected parameters for satisfactory reconstruction and is generally slow and lack of convergence analysis. In this work, we use a convex feasibility set approach to address the problems associated with TV-POCS and propose a framework using full sequential alternating projections or POCS (FS-POCS) to find the solution in the intersection of convex constraints of bounded TV function, bounded data fidelity error and non-negativity. The rationale behind FS-POCS is that the mathematically optimal solution of the constrained objective function may not be the physically optimal solution. The breakdown of constrained reconstruction into an intersection of several feasible sets can lead to faster convergence and better quantification of reconstruction parameters in a physical meaningful way than that in an empirical way of trial-and-error. In addition, for large-scale optimization problems, first order methods are usually used. Not only is the condition for convergence of gradient-based methods derived, but also a primal-dual hybrid gradient (PDHG) method is used for fast convergence of bounded TV. The newly proposed FS-POCS is evaluated and compared with TV-POCS and another convex feasibility projection method (CPTV) using both digital phantom and pseudo-real CT data to show its superior performance on reconstruction speed, image quality and quantification.

  3. Self-assessment: an alternative method of assessing speaking skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterini Chalkia

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on self-assessment as an alternative method of assessing the speaking skills of a group of sixth graders of a Greek State Primary School. The paper consists of two parts. In the first part, traditional and alternative assessment approaches are compared and a literature review on self-assessment is presented. In the second part the methodology and the findings of the study are presented. The study was carried out by means of a questionnaire and observation notes. This was done in order to draw conclusions on the benefits of self-assessment, the difficulties students faced while carrying out self-assessment as well as to reveal the extent to which students improved their speaking skills after being involved in self-assessment. The findings revealed that the students were positive towards self-assessment. Although self-assessment was of limited duration, it turned out to be a worthwhile activity as it fostered motivation and sensitized the students to take a more active role in the learning process. It also enabled them to notice their strengths and weaknesses and improve their speaking skills. The study also revealed the practical difficulties the students faced in carrying out their self-assessment. Finally, the study concludes with recommendations for further research into this specific assessment method.

  4. An alternative method to specify the degree of resonator stability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jogy George; K Ranganathan; T P S Nathan

    2007-04-01

    We present an alternative method to specify the stability of real stable resonators. We introduce the degree of optical stability or the parameter, which specify the stability of resonators in a numerical scale ranging from 0 to 100%. The value of zero corresponds to marginally stable resonator and < 0 corresponds to unstable resonator. Also, three definitions of the S parameter are provided: in terms of &, & R0 and 12. It may be noticed from the present formalism that the maximum degree of stability with = 1 automatically corresponds to 12 = 1/2. We also describe the method to measure the parameter from the output beam characteristics and parameter. A possible correlation between the parameter and the misalignment tolerance is also discussed.

  5. Outcome modelling strategies in epidemiology: traditional methods and basic alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenland, Sander; Daniel, Rhian; Pearce, Neil

    2016-04-01

    Controlling for too many potential confounders can lead to or aggravate problems of data sparsity or multicollinearity, particularly when the number of covariates is large in relation to the study size. As a result, methods to reduce the number of modelled covariates are often deployed. We review several traditional modelling strategies, including stepwise regression and the 'change-in-estimate' (CIE) approach to deciding which potential confounders to include in an outcome-regression model for estimating effects of a targeted exposure. We discuss their shortcomings, and then provide some basic alternatives and refinements that do not require special macros or programming. Throughout, we assume the main goal is to derive the most accurate effect estimates obtainable from the data and commercial software. Allowing that most users must stay within standard software packages, this goal can be roughly approximated using basic methods to assess, and thereby minimize, mean squared error (MSE).

  6. An Alternating Iterative Method and Its Application in Statistical Inference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning Zhong SHI; Guo Rong HU; Qing CUI

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies non-convex programming problems. It is known that, in statistical inference, many constrained estimation problems may be expressed as convex programming problems. However, in many practical problems, the objective functions are not convex. In this paper, we give a definition of a semi-convex objective function and discuss the corresponding non-convex programming problems. A two-step iterative algorithm called the alternating iterative method is proposed for finding solutions for such problems. The method is illustrated by three examples in constrained estimation problems given in Sasabuchi et al. (Biometrika, 72, 465–472 (1983)), Shi N. Z. (J. Multivariate Anal.,50, 282–293 (1994)) and El Barmi H. and Dykstra R. (Ann. Statist., 26, 1878–1893 (1998)).

  7. Record-keeping as an Alternative Method οf Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Androniki Kouvdou

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The basic topic of this chapter is the description of an alternative method of assessment which supplements traditional objective techniques (i.e. testing, while counterbalancing their limitations. This alternative method, known as ‘record-keeping’, involves the systematic collection and recording of information about learner progress and aims at providing a more complete and valid formative assessment of their developmental abilities in specified areas. More particularly, this chapter presents a small-scale case study, which was carried out in the sixth grade of a primary school and lasted three months. The subjects of this case study were four twelve-year-old learners and its purpose was to investigate the potential of ‘record-keeping’ as an alternative method of assessing oracy skills in the foreign language. The data that derived from the case study reinforce the usefulness and validity of the particular method of assessment. The goals of the experimental assessment design, which entailed the recording and gradual development of learner oracy skills as well as the enhancement of motivation and awareness of their relevant sub-skills, were accomplished to a considerable degree. Additionally, the learners responded positively to the implemented assessment project, while being actively involved in it, which further substantiates its effectiveness. Alternative assessment, however, is a large area, whose full potential of implementation calls for further investigation.

  8. Alternative Testing Methods for Predicting Health Risk from Environmental Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Colacci

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Alternative methods to animal testing are considered as promising tools to support the prediction of toxicological risks from environmental exposure. Among the alternative testing methods, the cell transformation assay (CTA appears to be one of the most appropriate approaches to predict the carcinogenic properties of single chemicals, complex mixtures and environmental pollutants. The BALB/c 3T3 CTA shows a good degree of concordance with the in vivo rodent carcinogenesis tests. Whole-genome transcriptomic profiling is performed to identify genes that are transcriptionally regulated by different kinds of exposures. Its use in cell models representative of target organs may help in understanding the mode of action and predicting the risk for human health. Aiming at associating the environmental exposure to health-adverse outcomes, we used an integrated approach including the 3T3 CTA and transcriptomics on target cells, in order to evaluate the effects of airborne particulate matter (PM on toxicological complex endpoints. Organic extracts obtained from PM2.5 and PM1 samples were evaluated in the 3T3 CTA in order to identify effects possibly associated with different aerodynamic diameters or airborne chemical components. The effects of the PM2.5 extracts on human health were assessed by using whole-genome 44 K oligo-microarray slides. Statistical analysis by GeneSpring GX identified genes whose expression was modulated in response to the cell treatment. Then, modulated genes were associated with pathways, biological processes and diseases through an extensive biological analysis. Data derived from in vitro methods and omics techniques could be valuable for monitoring the exposure to toxicants, understanding the modes of action via exposure-associated gene expression patterns and to highlight the role of genes in key events related to adversity.

  9. Methods and experimental techniques in computer engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Schiaffonati, Viola

    2014-01-01

    Computing and science reveal a synergic relationship. On the one hand, it is widely evident that computing plays an important role in the scientific endeavor. On the other hand, the role of scientific method in computing is getting increasingly important, especially in providing ways to experimentally evaluate the properties of complex computing systems. This book critically presents these issues from a unitary conceptual and methodological perspective by addressing specific case studies at the intersection between computing and science. The book originates from, and collects the experience of, a course for PhD students in Information Engineering held at the Politecnico di Milano. Following the structure of the course, the book features contributions from some researchers who are working at the intersection between computing and science.

  10. An alternative method for order tracking using autopower spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido R Guercioni

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Order tracking is a method of analysis used by engineers in the diagnosis of rotating machinery. In many applications, order analysis of non-stationary signals is required. The direct extraction of the amplitude information from the short-time Fourier transform may lead to inaccurate vibration-level estimation in the case of fast changes in the signal frequency content. This article discusses spectral smearing, which is the main reason of the problem, and its sensitivity to the characteristics of the signal (frequency and amplitude variations and to the input parameters of discrete Fourier transform analysis (window size and type. Through the years, many different approaches to perform order analysis have been developed; this article introduces a novel method for order tracking based on the short-time Fourier transform, which applies a compensation of the smearing effect based on an invariant information contained in autopower spectrum. The limitations and capabilities of the proposed method with respect to other existing techniques are discussed: considering the accuracy of the results, low requirements of computational resources, and ease of implementation, this method proves a valid alternative to currently used techniques.

  11. Constructivist Pedagogy and Alternative Teaching Methods for Intercultural Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Lupu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Our research proposes to underline the role of the constructivist pedagogy in the formative accomplishing of the intercultural education objectives, starting from the premise that the intuitive learning and the use of active-participative teaching-learning methods cover in a greater measure this discipline‟s cognitive, affective and psychomotor dimensions. The research design is made up of: 2 homogenous lots of intentionality composed of 70 and 60 students. There were used quantitative and qualitative research methods: structured questionnaire, semi-structured interview, focus-group method, evaluative techniques and statistics applied on a 2 years period. The discovery theory applied in teaching and learning increases the acknowledgement degree regarding the existence of ethnic groups and possible discriminatory actions; the mediator role assumed by the professor stimulates the formation and sedimentation of attitudes envisaged by the intercultural education, respecting with great fidelity the principle of conscious appropriation of knowledge; the use of alternative evaluative methods illustrate an increase of the students‟ school efficaciousness at this discipline and in the same time of their enthusiasm; the principles underlined by the constructivist pedagogy apply with great success in intercultural education.

  12. Report and recommendations of the international workshop "Retrieval approaches for information on alternative methods to animal experiments".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grune, Barbara; Fallon, Michael; Howard, Carol; Hudson, Vera; Kulpa-Eddy, Jodie A; Larson, Jean; Leary, Sue; Roi, Annett; van der Valk, Jan; Wood, Mary; Dörendahl, Antje; Köhler-Hahn, Dorothea; Box, Rainer; Spielmann, Horst

    2004-01-01

    In the member states of the EU and in the USA, scientists are obliged by animal welfare legislation not to conduct an animal experiment if another scientifically satisfactory method is reasonably and practicably available. To meet the regulatory obligation to use alternatives to animal experiments, scientists should consult literature and other relevant sources on alternatives prior to any experimental study on laboratory animals. It is the responsibility of the individual scientist to select the most appropriate database to obtain information on alternatives, which have been defined as methods that refine, reduce or replace animal experiments (the 3 Rs concept of Russell and Burch (1959)). Specialised information services provide support to scientists searching for publications on alternative methods. On occasion of a workshop in Berlin in November 2003, representatives of animal welfare information centres discussed currently available information sources on alternative methods, index terms for alternative methods, and search strategies based on index terms for alternative methods. ZEBET presented an investigation on the current status of indexing systems on alternative methods in established literature databases. The project analysed how the results of a search for publications on alternatives was influenced by the indexing procedure. The results of the study were exemplified by a typical search result. The results of the study indicated that the current indexing systems do not provide the required information, since not all of the relevant information is indexed under "alternative methods". The workshop participants developed recommendations for ad hoc working groups and research projects, e.g. development of suitable search strategies on alternative methods for scientists.

  13. An alternative method for the measurement of neutron flux

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rupa Sarkar; Prasanna Kumar Mondal; Barun Kumar Chatterjee

    2015-10-01

    A simple and easy method for measuring the neutron flux is presented. This paper deals with the experimental verification of neutron dose rate–flux relationship for a non-dissipative medium. Though the neutron flux cannot be obtained from the dose rate in a dissipative medium, experimental result shows that for non-dissipative medium one can obtain the neutron flux from dose rate. We have used a 241 AmBe neutron source for neutron irradiation, and the neutron dose rate and count rate were measured using a NM2B neutron monitor and R-12 superheated droplet detector (SDD), respectively. Here, the neutron flux inferred from the neutron count rate obtained with R-12 SDD shows an excellent agreement with the flux inferred from the neutron dose rate in a non-dissipative medium.

  14. Sparse Inverse Covariance Selection via Alternating Linearization Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Scheinberg, Katya; Goldfarb, Donald

    2010-01-01

    Gaussian graphical models are of great interest in statistical learning. Because the conditional independencies between different nodes correspond to zero entries in the inverse covariance matrix of the Gaussian distribution, one can learn the structure of the graph by estimating a sparse inverse covariance matrix from sample data, by solving a convex maximum likelihood problem with an $\\ell_1$-regularization term. In this paper, we propose a first-order method based on an alternating linearization technique that exploits the problem's special structure; in particular, the subproblems solved in each iteration have closed-form solutions. Moreover, our algorithm obtains an $\\epsilon$-optimal solution in $O(1/\\epsilon)$ iterations. Numerical experiments on both synthetic and real data from gene association networks show that a practical version of this algorithm outperforms other competitive algorithms.

  15. An Alternate Approach to Alternating Sums: A Method to DIE for

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Arthur T.; Quinn, Jennifer J.

    2008-01-01

    Positive sums count. Alternating sums match. Alternating sums of binomial coefficients, Fibonacci numbers, and other combinatorial quantities are analyzed using sign-reversing involutions. In particular, we describe the quantity being considered, match positive and negative terms through an Involution, and count the Exceptions to the matching rule…

  16. ALTERNATIVE FIELD METHODS TO TREAT MERCURY IN SOIL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest F. Stine Jr; Steven T. Downey

    2002-08-14

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) used large quantities of mercury in the uranium separating process from the 1950s until the late 1980s in support of national defense. Some of this mercury, as well as other hazardous metals and radionuclides, found its way into, and under, several buildings, soil and subsurface soils and into some of the surface waters. Several of these areas may pose potential health or environmental risks and must be dealt with under current environmental regulations. DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) awarded a contract ''Alternative Field Methods to Treat Mercury in Soil'' to IT Group, Knoxville TN (IT) and its subcontractor NFS, Erwin, TN to identify remedial methods to clean up mercury-contaminated high-clay content soils using proven treatment chemistries. The sites of interest were the Y-12 National Security Complex located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, the David Witherspoon properties located in Knoxville, Tennessee, and at other similarly contaminated sites. The primary laboratory-scale contract objectives were (1) to safely retrieve and test samples of contaminated soil in an approved laboratory and (2) to determine an acceptable treatment method to ensure that the mercury does not leach from the soil above regulatory levels. The leaching requirements were to meet the TC (0.2 mg/l) and UTS (0.025 mg/l) TCLP criteria. In-situ treatments were preferred to control potential mercury vapors emissions and liquid mercury spills associated with ex-situ treatments. All laboratory work was conducted in IT's and NFS laboratories. Mercury contaminated nonradioactive soil from under the Alpha 2 building in the Y-12 complex was used. This soils contained insufficient levels of leachable mercury and resulted in TCLP mercury concentrations that were similar to the applicable LDR limits. The soil was spiked at multiple levels with metallic (up to 6000 mg/l) and soluble mercury compounds (up to 500 mg/kg) to

  17. ALTERNATIVE FIELD METHODS TO TREAT MERCURY IN SOIL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernie F. Stine

    2002-08-14

    The Department of Energy (DOE) currently has mercury (Hg) contaminated materials and soils at the various sites. Figure 1-1 (from http://www.ct.ornl.gov/stcg.hg/) shows the estimated distribution of mercury contaminated waste at the various DOE sites. Oak Ridge and Idaho sites have the largest deposits of contaminated materials. The majorities of these contaminated materials are soils, sludges, debris, and waste waters. This project concerns treatment of mercury contaminated soils. The technology is applicable to many DOE sites, in-particular, the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge Tennessee and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). These sites have the majority of the soils and sediments contaminated with mercury. The soils may also be contaminated with other hazardous metals and radionuclides. At the Y12 plant, the baseline treatment method for mercury contaminated soil is low temperature thermal desorption (LTTD), followed by on-site landfill disposal. LTTD is relatively expensive (estimated cost of treatment which exclude disposal cost for the collect mercury is greater than $740/per cubic yard [cy] at Y-12), does not treat any of the metal or radionuclides. DOE is seeking a less costly alternative to the baseline technology. As described in the solicitation (DE-RA-01NT41030), this project initially focused on evaluating cost-effective in-situ alternatives to stabilize or remove the mercury (Hg) contamination from high-clay content soil. It was believed that ex-situ treatment of soil contaminated with significant quantities of free-liquid mercury might pose challenges during excavation and handling. Such challenges may include controlling potential mercury vapors and containing liquid mercury beads. As described below, the focus of this project was expanded to include consideration of ex-situ treatment after award of the contract to International Technology Corporation (IT). After award of the contract, IT became part of Shaw

  18. Experimental design for stable genetic manipulation in mammalian cell lines: lentivirus and alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Robert F; Saunders, Darren N

    2015-01-01

    The use of third-generation lentiviral vectors is now commonplace in most areas of basic biology. These systems provide a fast, efficient means for modulating gene expression, but experimental design needs to be carefully considered to minimize potential artefacts arising from off-target effects and other confounding factors. This review offers a starting point for those new to lentiviral-based vector systems, addressing the main issues involved with the use of lentiviral systems in vitro and outlines considerations which should be taken into account during experimental design. Factors such as selecting an appropriate system and controls, and practical titration of viral transduction are important considerations for experimental design. We also briefly describe some of the more recent advances in genome editing technology. TALENs and CRISPRs offer an alternative to lentivirus, providing endogenous gene editing with reduced off-target effects often at the expense of efficiency.

  19. Alternative methods for the use of non-human primates in biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burm, Saskia M; Prins, Jan-Bas; Langermans, Jan; Bajramovic, Jeffrey J

    2014-01-01

    The experimental use of non-human primates (NHP) in Europe is tightly regulated and is only permitted when there are no alternatives available. As a result, NHP are most often used in late, pre-clinical phases of biomedical research. Although the impetus for scientists, politicians and the general public to replace, reduce and refine NHP in biomedical research is strong, the development of 3Rs technology for NHP poses specific challenges. In February 2014 a workshop on "Alternative methods for the use of NHP in biomedical research" was organized within the international exchange program of EUPRIM-Net II, a European infrastructure initiative that links biomedical primate research centers. The workshop included lectures by key scientists in the field of alternatives as well as by experts from governmental and non-governmental organizations. Furthermore, parallel sessions were organized to stimulate discussion on the challenges of advancing the use of alternative methods for NHP. Subgroups voted on four statements and together composed a list with opportunities and priorities. This report summarizes the presentations that were held, the content of the discussion sessions and concludes with recommendations on 3Rs development for NHP specifically. These include technical, conceptual as well as political topics.

  20. Integrated Experimental and Computational Study of Hydraulic Fracturing and the Use of Alternative Fracking Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, H.; Carey, J. W.; Karra, S.; Porter, M. L.; Rougier, E.; Zhang, D.; Makedonska, N.; Middleton, R. S.; Currier, R.; Gupta, R.; Lei, Z.; Kang, Q.; O'Malley, D.; Hyman, J.

    2014-12-01

    Shale gas is an unconventional fossil energy resource that is already having a profound impact on US energy independence and is projected to last for at least 100 years. Production of methane and other hydrocarbons from low permeability shale involves hydrofracturing of rock, establishing fracture connectivity, and multiphase fluid-flow and reaction processes all of which are poorly understood. The result is inefficient extraction with many environmental concerns. A science-based capability is required to quantify the governing mesoscale fluid-solid interactions, including microstructural control of fracture patterns and the interaction of engineered fluids with hydrocarbon flow. These interactions depend on coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes over scales from microns to tens of meters. Determining the key mechanisms in subsurface THMC systems has been impeded due to the lack of sophisticated experimental methods to measure fracture aperture and connectivity, multiphase permeability, and chemical exchange capacities at the high temperature, pressure, and stresses present in the subsurface. This project uses innovative high-pressure microfluidic and triaxial core flood experiments on shale to explore fracture-permeability relations and the extraction of hydrocarbon. These data are integrated with simulations including lattice Boltzmann modeling of pore-scale processes, finite-element/discrete element models of fracture development in the near-well environment, discrete-fracture modeling of the reservoir, and system-scale models to assess the economics of alternative fracturing fluids. The ultimate goal is to make the necessary measurements to develop models that can be used to determine the reservoir operating conditions necessary to gain a degree of control over fracture generation, fluid flow, and interfacial processes over a range of subsurface conditions.

  1. Understanding Alternative Education: A Mixed Methods Examination of Student Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, Susan Glassett; Daniels, Erika

    2014-01-01

    Alternative education plays a critical role in the opportunity gap that persists in the US public education system. However, there has been little research on alternative schools. Scaffolded by a theoretical framework constructed from critical theory, self-determination theory (SDT) and student voice, this research examined how well students in…

  2. A new extra-abdominal channel alternative to the mitrofanoff principle: experimental and preliminary clinical experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Macedo Jr.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The appendix is the gold-standard channel for the Mitrofanoff principle in pediatric urology, but the search for alternatives is justified considering it may not be available or preferably used for colonic stomas (Malone antegrade continence enema. The aim of this study is to report on technical feasibility of a new approach for creating catheterizable channels in a rabbit model and to present our preliminary clinical experience. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We configured a tube from two rectangular skin flaps 1x4 cm opposite each other in the middle line of the lower inferior abdomen. The channel was anastomosed to the bladder dome with embedding sutures to create a valvular mechanism. The experimental study consisted of 12 rabbits, divided in 4 groups according to the sacrifice schedule at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks. At 30th postoperative day, an urodynamic evaluation was performed to record continence of the stoma. A histological analysis of the specimens stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Masson trichrome and Picrosirius red was also done in group 2 (sacrifice at 4 weeks postoperatively. We used this method in 3 patients with congenital non-neurogenic bladder disease presenting with massive residual volumes without compliance deficits. RESULT: The technique proved feasible in all animals, 9 of 12 could be easily catheterized and underwent urodynamic study. No stoma leakage was observed in 7 animals at high bladder pressures (> 50 cm H20 and only 2 animals had some leakage at 40 cm H20. Urodynamics performed through the stoma showed urethral leakage at 20 cm H20, therefore demonstrating the efficacy of the valvular mechanism. Histological analysis confirmed good integration between the tube and the bladder. Mean follow-up of the clinical series (3 patients was 7.2 months. Two patients remained continent up to 4 hours, whereas 1 patient had some leakage after 2 hours. CONCLUSION: We were able to confirm feasibility of a new extra

  3. The European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA): promoting alternative methods in Europe and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozigou, Gwenole; Crozier, Jonathan; Hendriksen, Coenraad; Manou, Irene; Ramirez-Hernandez, Tzutzuy; Weissenhorn, Renate

    2015-03-01

    Here in we introduce the European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA) and its activities, which are focused on international cooperation toward alternative methods. The EPAA is one of the leading organizations in Europe for the promotion of alternative approaches to animal testing. Its innovative public-private partnership structure enables a consensus-driven dialogue across 7 industry sectors to facilitate interaction between regulators and regulated stakeholders. Through a brief description of EPAA's activities and organizational structure, we first articulate the value of this collaboration; we then focus on 2 key projects driven by EPAA. The first project aims to address research gaps on stem cells for safety testing, whereas the second project strives for an approach toward demonstration of consistency in vaccine batch release testing. We highlight the growing need for harmonization of international acceptance and implementation of alternative approaches and for increased international collaboration to foster progress on nonanimal alternatives.

  4. Alternative production methods to face global molybdenum-99 supply shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyra, Maria; Charalambatou, Paraskevi; Roussou, Eirini; Fytros, Stavros; Baka, Irini

    2011-01-01

    The sleeping giant of molybdenum-99 ((99)Mo) production is grinding to a halt and the world is wondering how this happened. Fewer than 10 reactors in the world are capable of producing radio nuclides for medicine; approximately 50% of the world's supply of raw material comes from National Research Universal (NRU) reactor in Canada. Many of these reactors, like the NRU, are old and aging. No one of these reactors, and probably not even all of them in combination, can replace the production of NRU. As the healthcare industry faces an aging population and the demand for diagnostic services using (99m)Tc continues to rise, the need for a consistent, reliable supply of (99)Mo has become increasingly important, so alternative methods to produce (99)Mo or even directly (99m)Tc had to be considered to avoid a supply shortage in the coming years. This need guides to the production of (99)Mo by replacing the Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) target in a nuclear reactor with Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) and furthermore to the use of accelerators for manufacturing (99)Mo or for directly producing (99m)Tc.

  5. Assessing Partnership Alternatives in an IT Network Employing Analytical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Reza Salamat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main critical success factors for the companies is their ability to build and maintain an effective collaborative network. This is more critical in the IT industry where the development of sustainable competitive advantage requires an integration of various resources, platforms, and capabilities provided by various actors. Employing such a collaborative network will dramatically change the operations management and promote flexibility and agility. Despite its importance, there is a lack of an analytical tool on collaborative network building process. In this paper, we propose an optimization model employing AHP and multiobjective programming for collaborative network building process based on two interorganizational relationships’ theories, namely, (i transaction cost theory and (ii resource-based view, which are representative of short-term and long-term considerations. The five different methods were employed to solve the formulation and their performances were compared. The model is implemented in an IT company who was in process of developing a large-scale enterprise resource planning (ERP system. The results show that the collaborative network formed through this selection process was more efficient in terms of cost, time, and development speed. The framework offers novel theoretical underpinning and analytical solutions and can be used as an effective tool in selecting network alternatives.

  6. An alternative calibration method for counting P-32 reactor monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirk, T.J. [Applied Nuclear Technologies, Sandia National Laboratories, MS 1143, PO Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1143 (United States); Vehar, D.W. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1143 (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Radioactivation of sulfur is a common technique used to measure fast neutron fluences in test and research reactors. Elemental sulfur can be pressed into pellets and used as monitors. The {sup 32}S(n, p) {sup 32}P reaction has a practical threshold of about 3 MeV and its cross section and associated uncertainties are well characterized [1]. The product {sup 32P} emits a beta particle with a maximum energy of 1710 keV [2]. This energetic beta particle allows pellets to be counted intact. ASTM Standard Test Method for Measuring Reaction Rates and Fast-Neutron Fluences by Radioactivation of Sulfur-32 (E265) [3] details a method of calibration for counting systems and subsequent analysis of results. This method requires irradiation of sulfur monitors in a fast-neutron field whose spectrum and intensity are well known. The resultant decay-corrected count rate is then correlated to the known fast neutron fluence. The Radiation Metrology Laboratory (RML) at Sandia has traditionally performed calibration irradiations of sulfur pellets using the {sup 252}Cf spontaneous fission neutron source at the National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST) [4] as a transfer standard. However, decay has reduced the intensity of NIST's source; thus lowering the practical upper limits of available fluence. As of May 2010, neutron emission rates have decayed to approximately 3 e8 n/s. In practice, this degradation of capabilities precludes calibrations at the highest fluence levels produced at test reactors and limits the useful range of count rates that can be measured. Furthermore, the reduced availability of replacement {sup 252}Cf threatens the long-term viability of the NIST {sup 252}Cf facility for sulfur pellet calibrations. In lieu of correlating count rate to neutron fluence in a reference field the total quantity of {sup 32}P produced in a pellet can be determined by absolute counting methods. This offers an attractive alternative to extended {sup 252}Cf exposures because

  7. An alternative experimental approach for subcritical configurations of the IPEN/MB-01 nuclear reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonnelli, E.; Lee, S. M.; Pinto, L. N.; Landim, H. R.; Diniz, R.; Jerez, R.; dos Santos, A.

    2015-07-01

    This work presents an alternative approach for the reactivity worth experiments analysis in the IPEN/MB-01 reactor considering highly subcritical arrays. In order to reach the subcritical levels, the removal of a specific number of fuel rods is proposed. Twenty three configurations were carried out for this purpose. The control bank insertion experiment was used only as reference for the fuel rod experiment and, in addition, the control banks were maintained completely withdrawn during all the fuel rods experiment. The theoretical simulation results using the MCNP5 code and the ENDF/B-VII.0 library neutron data are in a very good agreement to experimental results.

  8. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF PALM OIL MILL EFFLUENT AND OIL PALM FROND WASTE MIXTURE AS AN ALTERNATIVE BIOMASS FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. HASSAN, L. S. KEE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil mill effluent (POME sludge generated from palm oil mill industry and oil palm frond (OPF from oil palm plantation are considered biomass wastes that can be fully utilized as a renewable energy sources. In this study, an attempt has been made to convert these residues into solid biomass fuel. The study was conducted by developing experimental testing on the POME and OPF mixture. The performance of each sample with different weight percentage was investigated using standard tests. The biomass mixture was converted into compressed form of briquette through a simple process. The properties of the briquettes were observed and compared at different weight percentage following standard testing methods included ultimate and proximate analyses, burning characteristics, dimensional stability and crack analysis. Experimental results showed that POME sludge and OPF mixture is feasible as an alternative biomass fuel, with briquette of 90:10 POME sludge to OPF ratio has a good combination of properties as an overall.

  9. Some thoughts on alternative methods and their scientific implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mansvelt, van J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Reflections upon our agricultural problems cannot be limitated to those problems itself, but should incorporate a reflection upon our social and scientific traditions. An alternative agriculture asks for participating nature research

  10. The Budget Scoring Alternatives Financing Methods for Defense Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-30

    programs, the Department of Defense (DoD) must consider alternative forms of financing, including leases and public - private partnerships (PPPs), to...Åèìáëáíáçå=oÉëÉ~êÅÜW=`ob^qfkd=pvkbodv=clo=fkclojba=`e^kdb====- 4 - = = leases, share-in-savings contracts, and public private partnerships (PPPs), have...to meet the requirements. Alternative Financing Agreements: Public - private Partnerships In August 2003, the Government Accountability Office (GAO

  11. Alternative methods for the treatment of post-menopausal troubles [Alternative Methoden zur Behandlung postmenopausaler Beschwerden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasem, Jürgen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available [english] Menopause is described as the transition from the reproductive phase of a women to the non reproductive. Changes in hormone levels might lead to complaints and health consequences especially during peri- and postmenopause. Hormone therapy has a potential damaging health risk profile and is recommended for temporal limited therapy for acute vasomotor symptoms only.The present HTA-report aims to assess the effectiveness and the cost-effectiveness of alternative treatment methods for women with postmenopausal symptoms in Germany regarding patient relevant endpoints (reduction of symptoms and frequency of adverse events and improvement of quality of life.A systematic literature search was carried out in 33 relevant databases in September 2010. Citations were selected according to pre-defined criteria and were extracted and evaluated.In the systematic research 22 studies are identified for the effectiveness evaluation, 22 primary studies and one review.High doses of isolated genistein reduce the frequency/intensity of hot flashes while low doses of genistein show no significant effect. Intake of isoflavone extract such as genistein, daidzein, glycitein in various combinations does not have an effect on improvement of cognitive function or vaginal dryness. The effect of black cohosh and hop extract for menopausal complaints cannot be determined since results are heterogenous. The combination of isoflavone, black cohosh, monk’s pepper, valerian and vitamin E has a positive effect on menopause symptoms. Ginkgo biloba shows no significant effect on menopause symptoms and cognitive improvement beside mental flexibility. Acupuncture has a significant influence on hot flashes especially in severe cases.No final statement can be drawn regarding the effectiveness of alter­ne treatment methods due to qualitative shortcomings of included studies and a general limited availability of studies in this field. Furthermore, the generalization of the

  12. Which alternative methods to the iridium gamma-graphy?; Quelles methodes alternatives a la gammagraphie a l'iridium?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatsch, J.; Chauveau, D.; Blettner, A. [Institut de Soudure, 93 - Villepinte (France)

    2009-05-15

    Gamma-graphy is a very widely used process for testing welded steel constructions, pipings, pressure vessels, frameworks and particularly welds in them. The major disadvantage of this NDT method lies in the risks due to ionizing radiations requiring the setting up of a safety perimeter being a constraint to the owner or involving a shift system for the personnel and thus heavy indirect expenditures. In addition, the recent French regulatory pressure as for transport, storage, and radioactive sources management make their use still more complicated under industrial conditions and their setting up more and more expensive. It seems difficult that only one NDT technique could a substitute for gamma-graphy. Various alternative solutions are possible. Their setting up depends on the type of component to be inspected, on the nature of material, on the type of welding (butt weld, nozzle), on the orientation and position of the defects to be detected as well as their environment. This conference surveys the techniques liable to substitute for gamma-graphy as well as their scope of application and the hindrances limiting their development. (authors)

  13. A MILP-based flux alternative generation and NMR experimental design strategy for metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phalakornkule, C; Lee, S; Zhu, T; Koepsel, R; Ataai, M M; Grossmann, I E; Domach, M M

    2001-04-01

    A mixed-integer linear program (MILP) is described that can enumerate all the ways fluxes can distribute in a metabolic network while still satisfying the same constraints and objective function. The multiple solutions can be used to (1) generate alternative flux scenarios that can account for limited experimental observations, (2) forecast the potential responses to mutation (e.g., new reaction pathways may be used), and (3) (as illustrated) design (13)C NMR experiments such that different potential flux patterns in a mutant can be distinguished. The experimental design is enabled by using the MILP results as an input to an isotopomer mapping matrices (IMM)-based program, which accounts for the network circulation of (13)C from a precursor such as glucose. The IMM-based program can interface to common plotting programs with the result that the user is provided with predicted NMR spectra that are complete with splittings and Lorentzian line-shape features. The example considered is the trafficking of carbon in an Escherichia coli mutant, which has pyruvate kinase activity deleted for the purpose of eliminating acetate production. Similar yields and extracellular measurements would be manifested by the flux alternatives. The MILP-IMM results suggest how NMR experiments can be designed such that the spectra of glutamate for two flux distribution scenarios differ significantly.

  14. An Alternative Method for Identifying Interplanetary Magnetic Cloud Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda-Gonzalez, A.; Mendes, O.; Calzadilla, A.; Domingues, M. O.; Prestes, A.; Klausner, V.

    2017-03-01

    Spatio-temporal entropy (STE) analysis is used as an alternative mathematical tool to identify possible magnetic cloud (MC) candidates. We analyze Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) data using a time interval of only 10 days. We select a convenient data interval of 2500 records moving forward by 200 record steps until the end of the time series. For every data segment, the STE is calculated at each step. During an MC event, the STE reaches values close to zero. This extremely low value of STE is due to MC structure features. However, not all of the magnetic components in MCs have STE values close to zero at the same time. For this reason, we create a standardization index (the so-called Interplanetary Entropy, IE, index). This index is a worthwhile effort to develop new tools to help diagnose ICME structures. The IE was calculated using a time window of one year (1999), and it has a success rate of 70% over other identifiers of MCs. The unsuccessful cases (30%) are caused by small and weak MCs. The results show that the IE methodology identified 9 of 13 MCs, and emitted nine false alarm cases. In 1999, a total of 788 windows of 2500 values existed, meaning that the percentage of false alarms was 1.14%, which can be considered a good result. In addition, four time windows, each of 10 days, are studied, where the IE method was effective in finding MC candidates. As a novel result, two new MCs are identified in these time windows.

  15. Single-Case Research Methods: History and Suitability for a Psychological Science in Need of Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado-Parrado, Camilo; López-López, Wilson

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a historical and conceptual analysis of a group of research strategies known as the Single-Case Methods (SCMs). First, we present an overview of the SCMs, their history, and their major proponents. We will argue that the philosophical roots of SCMs can be found in the ideas of authors who recognized the importance of understanding both the generality and individuality of psychological functioning. Second, we will discuss the influence that the natural sciences' attitude toward measurement and experimentation has had on SCMs. Although this influence can be traced back to the early days of experimental psychology, during which incipient forms of SCMs appeared, SCMs reached full development during the subsequent advent of Behavior Analysis (BA). Third, we will show that despite the success of SCMs in BA and other (mainly applied) disciplines, these designs are currently not prominent in psychology. More importantly, they have been neglected as a possible alternative to one of the mainstream approaches in psychology, the Null Hypothesis Significance Testing (NHST), despite serious controversies about the limitations of this prevailing method. Our thesis throughout this section will be that SCMs should be considered as an alternative to NHST because many of the recommendations for improving the use of significance testing (Wilkinson & the TFSI, 1999) are main characteristics of SCMs. The paper finishes with a discussion of a number of the possible reasons why SCMs have been neglected.

  16. The effect of varying the number of response alternatives in rating scales: experimental evidence from intra-individual effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maydeu-Olivares, Alberto; Kramp, Uwe; García-Forero, Carlos; Gallardo-Pujol, David; Coffman, Donna

    2009-05-01

    Despite a hundred years of questionnaire testing, no consensus has been reached on the optimal number of response alternatives in rating scales. Differences in prior research may have been due to the use of various psychometric models (classical test theory, item factor analysis, and item response theory) and different performance criteria (reliability, convergent/discriminant validity, and internal structure of the questionnaire). Furthermore, previous empirical studies on this issue have tackled the experimental design from a between-subjects perspective, thus ignoring intra-individual effects. In contrast with this approach, we propose a within-subjects experimental design and a comprehensive statistical methodology using structural equation models for studying all of these aspects simultaneously, therefore increasing statistical power. To illustrate the method, two personality questionnaires were examined using a repeated measures design. Results indicated that as the number of response alternatives increased, (1) internal consistency increased, (2) there was no effect on convergent validity, and (3) goodness of fit worsened. Finally, the article assesses the practical consequences of this research for the design of future personality questionnaires.

  17. Alternative modeling methods for plasma-based Rf ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veitzer, Seth A., E-mail: veitzer@txcorp.com; Kundrapu, Madhusudhan, E-mail: madhusnk@txcorp.com; Stoltz, Peter H., E-mail: phstoltz@txcorp.com; Beckwith, Kristian R. C., E-mail: beckwith@txcorp.com [Tech-X Corporation, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Rf-driven ion sources for accelerators and many industrial applications benefit from detailed numerical modeling and simulation of plasma characteristics. For instance, modeling of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) internal antenna H{sup −} source has indicated that a large plasma velocity is induced near bends in the antenna where structural failures are often observed. This could lead to improved designs and ion source performance based on simulation and modeling. However, there are significant separations of time and spatial scales inherent to Rf-driven plasma ion sources, which makes it difficult to model ion sources with explicit, kinetic Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulation codes. In particular, if both electron and ion motions are to be explicitly modeled, then the simulation time step must be very small, and total simulation times must be large enough to capture the evolution of the plasma ions, as well as extending over many Rf periods. Additional physics processes such as plasma chemistry and surface effects such as secondary electron emission increase the computational requirements in such a way that even fully parallel explicit PIC models cannot be used. One alternative method is to develop fluid-based codes coupled with electromagnetics in order to model ion sources. Time-domain fluid models can simulate plasma evolution, plasma chemistry, and surface physics models with reasonable computational resources by not explicitly resolving electron motions, which thereby leads to an increase in the time step. This is achieved by solving fluid motions coupled with electromagnetics using reduced-physics models, such as single-temperature magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), extended, gas dynamic, and Hall MHD, and two-fluid MHD models. We show recent results on modeling the internal antenna H{sup −} ion source for the SNS at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the fluid plasma modeling code USim. We compare demonstrate plasma temperature equilibration in two

  18. Alternative modeling methods for plasma-based Rf ion sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitzer, Seth A.; Kundrapu, Madhusudhan; Stoltz, Peter H.; Beckwith, Kristian R. C.

    2016-02-01

    Rf-driven ion sources for accelerators and many industrial applications benefit from detailed numerical modeling and simulation of plasma characteristics. For instance, modeling of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) internal antenna H- source has indicated that a large plasma velocity is induced near bends in the antenna where structural failures are often observed. This could lead to improved designs and ion source performance based on simulation and modeling. However, there are significant separations of time and spatial scales inherent to Rf-driven plasma ion sources, which makes it difficult to model ion sources with explicit, kinetic Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulation codes. In particular, if both electron and ion motions are to be explicitly modeled, then the simulation time step must be very small, and total simulation times must be large enough to capture the evolution of the plasma ions, as well as extending over many Rf periods. Additional physics processes such as plasma chemistry and surface effects such as secondary electron emission increase the computational requirements in such a way that even fully parallel explicit PIC models cannot be used. One alternative method is to develop fluid-based codes coupled with electromagnetics in order to model ion sources. Time-domain fluid models can simulate plasma evolution, plasma chemistry, and surface physics models with reasonable computational resources by not explicitly resolving electron motions, which thereby leads to an increase in the time step. This is achieved by solving fluid motions coupled with electromagnetics using reduced-physics models, such as single-temperature magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), extended, gas dynamic, and Hall MHD, and two-fluid MHD models. We show recent results on modeling the internal antenna H- ion source for the SNS at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the fluid plasma modeling code USim. We compare demonstrate plasma temperature equilibration in two-temperature MHD models

  19. Comparison of alternative improved perturbative methods for nonlinear oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amore, Paolo [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal Diaz del Castillo 340, Colima (Mexico)]. E-mail: paolo@ucol.mx; Raya, Alfredo [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal Diaz del Castillo 340, Colima (Mexico); Fernandez, Francisco M. [INIFTA (Conicet, UNLP), Diag. 113 y 64 S/N, Sucursal 4, Casilla de Correo 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2005-06-06

    We discuss and compare two alternative perturbation approaches for the calculation of the period of nonlinear systems based on the Lindstedt-Poincare technique. As illustrative examples we choose one-dimensional anharmonic oscillators and the Van der Pol equation. Our results show that each approach is better for just one type of model considered here.

  20. An alternative quantum theory for single particles and a proposed experimental test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Quan-hui

    2007-01-01

    An alternative quantum theory for single particles bounded in the external field proposed in 1986(Huang X.Y.,Phys.Lett.A.,1986,115:310)is further developed from which the energy of the state for the single particle takes one of the eigenvalues of the quantum Hamiltonian,and the usual quantum mechanics for the particle in a stationary state holds only in the statistical sense.In light of the theory,the particle of definite energy,ground-state-energy for instance,can exhibit a novel periodic behavior.This result for the ground-state-energy state neutron in the Earth's gravitational field is experimentally testable using ultracold neutron beam passing through the same apparatus that was devised in 2002 to identify the energy quantization of neutron in the field(Nesvizhevsky V.V.,et al.,Nature,2002,415:297).

  1. Experimental evidence for drought induced alternative stable states of soil moisture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, David A; Jones, Scott B; Lebron, Inma; Reinsch, Sabine; Domínguez, María T; Smith, Andrew R; Jones, Davey L; Marshall, Miles R; Emmett, Bridget A

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystems may exhibit alternative stable states (ASS) in response to environmental change. Modelling and observational data broadly support the theory of ASS, however evidence from manipulation experiments supporting this theory is limited. Here, we provide long-term manipulation and observation data supporting the existence of drought induced alternative stable soil moisture states (irreversible soil wetting) in upland Atlantic heath, dominated by Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull. Manipulated repeated moderate summer drought, and intense natural summer drought both lowered resilience resulting in shifts in soil moisture dynamics. The repeated moderate summer drought decreased winter soil moisture retention by ~10%. However, intense summer drought, superimposed on the experiment, that began in 2003 and peaked in 2005 caused an unexpected erosion of resilience and a shift to an ASS; both for the experimental drought manipulation and control plots, impairing the soil from rewetting in winter. Measurements outside plots, with vegetation removal, showed no evidence of moisture shifts. Further independent evidence supports our findings from historical soil moisture monitoring at a long-term upland hydrological observatory. The results herald the need for a new paradigm regarding our understanding of soil structure, hydraulics and climate interaction.

  2. Alternative Methods for Field Corrections in Helical Solenoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, M. L. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Krave, S. T. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Tompkins, J. C. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Yonehara, K. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Flanagan, G. [Muons Inc., Batavia, IL (United States); Kahn, S. A. [Muons Inc., Batavia, IL (United States); Melconian, K. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Helical cooling channels have been proposed for highly efficient 6D muon cooling. Helical solenoids produce solenoidal, helical dipole, and helical gradient field components. Previous studies explored the geometric tunability limits on these main field components. In this paper we present two alternative correction schemes, tilting the solenoids and the addition of helical lines, to reduce the required strength of the anti-solenoid and add an additional tuning knob.

  3. Alternative and Efficient Extraction Methods for Marine-Derived Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Clara Grosso; Patrícia Valentão; Federico Ferreres; Paula B. Andrade

    2015-01-01

    Marine ecosystems cover more than 70% of the globe’s surface. These habitats are occupied by a great diversity of marine organisms that produce highly structural diverse metabolites as a defense mechanism. In the last decades, these metabolites have been extracted and isolated in order to test them in different bioassays and assess their potential to fight human diseases. Since traditional extraction techniques are both solvent- and time-consuming, this review emphasizes alternative extracti...

  4. Experimental and analysis methods in radiochemical experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattadori, C. M.; Pandola, L.

    2016-04-01

    Radiochemical experiments made the history of neutrino physics by achieving the first observation of solar neutrinos (Cl experiment) and the first detection of the fundamental pp solar neutrinos component (Ga experiments). They measured along decades the integral νe charged current interaction rate in the exposed target. The basic operation principle is the chemical separation of the few atoms of the new chemical species produced by the neutrino interactions from the rest of the target, and their individual counting in a low-background counter. The smallness of the expected interaction rate (1 event per day in a ˜ 100 ton target) poses severe experimental challenges on the chemical and on the counting procedures. The main aspects related to the analysis techniques employed in solar neutrino experiments are reviewed and described, with a special focus given to the event selection and the statistical data treatment.

  5. Experimental Mathemataics: Examples, Methods andImplications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.

    2005-01-31

    Recent years have seen the flowering of ''experimental'' mathematics, namely the utilization of modern computer technology as an active tool in mathematical research. This development is not limited to a handful of researchers, nor to a handful of universities, nor is it limited to one particular field of mathematics. Instead, it involves hundreds of individuals, at many different institutions, who have turned to the remarkable new computational tools now available to assist in their research, whether it be in number theory, algebra, analysis, geometry or even topology. These tools are being used to work out specific examples, generate plots, perform various algebraic and calculus manipulations, test conjectures, and explore routes to formal proof. Using computer tools to test conjectures is by itself a major time saver for mathematicians, as it permits them to quickly rule out false notions.

  6. Experimental and analysis methods in radiochemical experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cattadori, C.M. [INFN, Milano (Italy); Pandola, L. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN, Catania (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute, INFN, L' Aquila (Italy)

    2016-04-15

    Radiochemical experiments made the history of neutrino physics by achieving the first observation of solar neutrinos (Cl experiment) and the first detection of the fundamental pp solar neutrinos component (Ga experiments). They measured along decades the integral ν{sub e} charged current interaction rate in the exposed target. The basic operation principle is the chemical separation of the few atoms of the new chemical species produced by the neutrino interactions from the rest of the target, and their individual counting in a low-background counter. The smallness of the expected interaction rate (1 event per day in a ∝ 100 ton target) poses severe experimental challenges on the chemical and on the counting procedures. The main aspects related to the analysis techniques employed in solar neutrino experiments are reviewed and described, with a special focus given to the event selection and the statistical data treatment. (orig.)

  7. An alternative method of constructing axisymmetric toroidal equilibria with nonparallel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiroukidis, Ap; Throumoulopoulos, G. N.

    2016-11-01

    An alternative method based on an inverse aspect ratio (ɛ) expansion which reduces the axisymmetric equilibrium problem to a set of ODEs containing terms of arbitrary order in ɛ is employed to solve a generalized Grad-Shafranov equation with incompressible sheared flow nonparallel to the magnetic field. The method is applied to construct equilibria with either circular magnetic surfaces and reversed magnetic shear or D-shaped magnetic surfaces and normal magnetic shear. From the former equilibrium, it turns out that the electric field results in an increase of the reversed magnetic shear, thus indicating potential synergetic effects of the sheared flow and the magnetic shear in the formation of an internal transport barrier in consistent with experimental evidence.

  8. Ecological routes of avian influenza virus transmission to a common mesopredator: an experimental evaluation of alternatives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Jeffrey Root

    Full Text Available Wild raccoons have been shown to be naturally exposed to avian influenza viruses (AIV. However, the mechanisms associated with these natural exposures are not well-understood.We experimentally tested three alternative routes (water, eggs, and scavenged waterfowl carcasses of AIV transmission that may explain how raccoons in the wild are exposed to AIV. Raccoons were exposed to 1 water and 2 eggs spiked with an AIV (H4N6, as well as 3 mallard carcasses experimentally inoculated with the same virus. Three of four raccoons exposed to the high dose water treatment yielded apparent nasal shedding of >10(2.0 PCR EID50 equivalent/mL. Little to no shedding was observed from the fecal route. The only animals yielding evidence of serologic activity during the study period were three animals associated with the high dose water treatment.Overall, our results indicate that virus-laden water could provide a natural exposure route of AIV for raccoons and possibly other mammals associated with aquatic environments. However, this association appears to be related to AIV concentration in the water, which would constitute an infective dose. In addition, strong evidence of infection was only detected in three of four animals exposed to a high dose (e.g., 10(5.0 EID50/mL of AIV in water. As such, water-borne transmission to raccoons may require repeated exposures to water with high concentrations of virus.

  9. Two MIS Analysis Methods: An Experimental Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shouhong

    1996-01-01

    In China, 24 undergraduate business students applied data flow diagrams (DFD) to a mini-case, and 20 used object-oriented analysis (OOA). DFD seemed easier to learn, but after training, those using the OOA method for systems analysis made fewer errors. (SK)

  10. An Alternate Method for Computation of Transfer Function Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Appukuttan K. K.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A direct and simple numerical method is presented for calculating the transfer function matrix of a linear time invariant multivariable system (A, B, C. The method is based on the matrix-determinant identity, and it involves operations with an auxiliary vector on the matrices. The method is computationally faster compared to Liverrier and Danilevsky methods.

  11. Sleep bruxism and sleep arousal: an experimental challenge to assess the role of cyclic alternating pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carra, M C; Rompré, P H; Kato, T; Parrino, L; Terzano, M G; Lavigne, G J; Macaluso, G M

    2011-09-01

    Rhythmic masticatory muscle activity (RMMA) is the characteristic electromyographic pattern of sleep bruxism (SB), a sleep-related motor disorder associated with sleep arousal. Sleep arousals are generally organised in a clustered mode known as the cyclic alternating pattern (CAP). CAP is the expression of sleep instability between sleep maintaining processes (phase A1) and stronger arousal processes (phases A2 and A3). This study aimed to investigate the role of sleep instability on RMMA/SB occurrence by analysing CAP and electroencephalographic (EEG) activities. The analysis was performed on the sleep recordings of 8 SB subjects and 8 controls who received sensory stimulations during sleep. Baseline and experimental nights were compared for sleep variables, CAP, and EEG spectral analyses using repeated measure ANOVAs. Overall, no differences in sleep variables and EEG spectra were found between SB subjects and controls. However, SB subjects had higher sleep instability (more phase A3) than controls (P= 0·05). The frequency of phase A3 was higher in the pre-REM sleep periods (P < 0·001), where peaks in RMMA/SB activity were also observed (P = 0·05). When sleep instability was experimentally increased by sensory stimuli, both groups showed an enhancement in EEG theta and alpha power (P = 0·04 and 0·02, respectively) and significant increases in sleep arousal and all CAP variables. No change in RMMA/SB index was found within either groups (RMMA/SB occurred in all SB subjects and only one control during the experimental night). These findings suggest that CAP phase A3 may act as a permissive window rather than a generator of RMMA/SB activity in predisposed individuals.

  12. Experimental Test of Alternating-Current Zeeman Interference Effect in Ramsey Separated Oscillating Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jun-Hai; WANG Feng-Zhi; YANG Dong-Hai

    2004-01-01

    An experimental test of ac Zeeman effect in an optically pumped caesium beam frequency standard is reported and analysed. An interference pattern of the atomic energy level shift as a function of the applied microwave field near the atomic transition frequency was observed. It was superimposed on the dispersion lineshape of a normal ac Zeeman effect. This effect was analysed with the atomic wavefunction phase analysing method.

  13. 77 FR 43827 - International Workshop on Alternative Methods for Leptospira

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... testing. The goal is to promote development of innovative testing methods and approaches that may provide... and technology that can be applied to the development of new methods and approaches for Leptospira vaccine potency testing. These new methods and approaches may provide improved accuracy, efficiency,...

  14. Alternative microbial methods: An overview and selection criteria.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jasson, V.; Jacxsens, L.; Luning, P.A.; Rajkovic, A.; Uyttendaele, M.

    2010-01-01

    This study provides an overview and criteria for the selection of a method, other than the reference method, for microbial analysis of foods. In a first part an overview of the general characteristics of rapid methods available, both for enumeration and detection, is given with reference to relevant

  15. Alternative and Efficient Extraction Methods for Marine-Derived Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Grosso

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Marine ecosystems cover more than 70% of the globe’s surface. These habitats are occupied by a great diversity of marine organisms that produce highly structural diverse metabolites as a defense mechanism. In the last decades, these metabolites have been extracted and isolated in order to test them in different bioassays and assess their potential to fight human diseases. Since traditional extraction techniques are both solvent- and time-consuming, this review emphasizes alternative extraction techniques, such as supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized solvent extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, pulsed electric field-assisted extraction, enzyme-assisted extraction, and extraction with switchable solvents and ionic liquids, applied in the search for marine compounds. Only studies published in the 21st century are considered.

  16. Alternative and efficient extraction methods for marine-derived compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Clara; Valentão, Patrícia; Ferreres, Federico; Andrade, Paula B

    2015-05-01

    Marine ecosystems cover more than 70% of the globe's surface. These habitats are occupied by a great diversity of marine organisms that produce highly structural diverse metabolites as a defense mechanism. In the last decades, these metabolites have been extracted and isolated in order to test them in different bioassays and assess their potential to fight human diseases. Since traditional extraction techniques are both solvent- and time-consuming, this review emphasizes alternative extraction techniques, such as supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized solvent extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, pulsed electric field-assisted extraction, enzyme-assisted extraction, and extraction with switchable solvents and ionic liquids, applied in the search for marine compounds. Only studies published in the 21st century are considered.

  17. Turf wars: experimental tests for alternative stable states in a two-phase coastal ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownstein, Gretchen; Lee, William G; Pritchard, Daniel W; Wilson, J Bastow

    2014-02-01

    Alternative stable states have long been thought to exist in natural communities, but direct evidence for their presence and for the environmental switches that cause them has been scarce. Using a combination of greenhouse and field experiments, we investigated the environmental drivers associated with two distinctive herbaceous communities in coastal ecosystems in New Zealand. In a mosaic unrelated to micro-topography, a community dominated largely by native turf species (notably Leptinella dioica, Samolus repens, and Selliera radicans) alternates with vegetation comprising exotic (i.e., nonnative) pasture species (notably Agrostis stolonifera, Holcus lanatus, Lolium perenne, and Trifolium repens). The species of these two communities differ in functional characters related to leaf longevity and growth rate, and occupy soils of differing nitrogen levels. Both spatial and environmental factors influenced the species composition locally. Reciprocal transplants of soil, with and without associated vegetation, showed that a native turf community developed when sward or soil from either community was bounded by turf, and a pasture community developed when sward or soil from either community was surrounded by pasture. In artificial mixed communities in the greenhouse, turf was able to invade the pasture community where the vegetation was clipped to simulate grazing, and also where Trifolium was removed and/or salt spray was applied. The pasture community invaded the turf where Trifolium was present or nitrogen was added. These results were supported by trends in experimentally manipulated field plots, where the amount of turf cover increased when nitrogen was kept low and when salt spray was applied, whereas pasture cover increased in the absence of salt spray. Thus, persistence of the native turf community is dependent on grazing, both directly and via its effect on keeping nitrogen levels low by excluding the exotic, nitrogen-fixing Trifolium, and by exposing the

  18. Effectiveness of Alternative Extension Methods through Radio Broadcasting in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Bokar; Otoo, Miriam; Fulton, Joan; Lowenberg-DeBoer, James

    2011-01-01

    There is an urgent need to quantify which extension methods are most effective in Africa. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of alternative extension methods on adoption of the triple bagging cowpea storage technology in Niger and Burkina Faso. This study was designed as a quasi-experiment with two alternative extension…

  19. 77 FR 17457 - Work Group on Alternative Test Methods for Commercial Measuring Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Work Group on Alternative Test Methods for Commercial...: The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is forming a Work Group (WG) to examine alternative methods for testing the accuracy of commercial measuring devices including, but not limited...

  20. 76 FR 50221 - International Workshop on Alternative Methods for Human and Veterinary Rabies Vaccine Testing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES International Workshop on Alternative Methods for Human and Veterinary Rabies Vaccine... ``International Workshop on Alternative Methods for Human and Veterinary Rabies Vaccine Testing: State of the... approaches that may reduce, refine, or replace animal use in human and veterinary rabies vaccine...

  1. Review of experimental methods for evaluating effective delayed neutron fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, Yoshihiro [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). School of Engineering

    1997-03-01

    The International Effective Delayed Neutron Fraction ({beta}{sub eff}) Benchmark Experiments have been carried out at the Fast Critical Assembly of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute since 1995. Researchers from six countries, namely France, Italy, Russia, U.S.A., Korea, and Japan, participate in this FCA project. Each team makes use of each experimental method, such as Frequency Method, Rossi-{alpha} Method, Nelson Number Method, Cf Neutron Source Method, and Covariance Method. In this report these experimental methods are reviewed. (author)

  2. Update and Improve Subsection NH –– Alternative Simplified Creep-Fatigue Design Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tai Asayama

    2009-10-26

    This report described the results of investigation on Task 10 of DOE/ASME Materials NGNP/Generation IV Project based on a contract between ASME Standards Technology, LLC (ASME ST-LLC) and Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). Task 10 is to Update and Improve Subsection NH -- Alternative Simplified Creep-Fatigue Design Methods. Five newly proposed promising creep-fatigue evaluation methods were investigated. Those are (1) modified ductility exhaustion method, (2) strain range separation method, (3) approach for pressure vessel application, (4) hybrid method of time fraction and ductility exhaustion, and (5) simplified model test approach. The outlines of those methods are presented first, and predictability of experimental results of these methods is demonstrated using the creep-fatigue data collected in previous Tasks 3 and 5. All the methods (except the simplified model test approach which is not ready for application) predicted experimental results fairly accurately. On the other hand, predicted creep-fatigue life in long-term regions showed considerable differences among the methodologies. These differences come from the concepts each method is based on. All the new methods investigated in this report have advantages over the currently employed time fraction rule and offer technical insights that should be thought much of in the improvement of creep-fatigue evaluation procedures. The main points of the modified ductility exhaustion method, the strain range separation method, the approach for pressure vessel application and the hybrid method can be reflected in the improvement of the current time fraction rule. The simplified mode test approach would offer a whole new advantage including robustness and simplicity which are definitely attractive but this approach is yet to be validated for implementation at this point. Therefore, this report recommends the following two steps as a course of improvement of NH based on newly proposed creep-fatigue evaluation

  3. Evaluating an alternative method for rapid urinary creatinine determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creatinine (CR) is an endogenously-produced chemical routinely assayed in urine specimens to assess kidney function, sample dilution. The industry-standard method for CR determination, known as the kinetic Jaffe (KJ) method, relies on an exponential rate of a colorimetric change,...

  4. Methods Matter: Tracking Health Disparities in Alternative High Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Karen E; Goyal, Mohit; Simonton, Amanda J; Richardson, Rebecca; Morris, Marian; Rew, Lynn

    2017-02-09

    Alternative high school (AHS) students are at-risk for school dropout and engage in high levels of health-risk behaviors that should be monitored over time. They are excluded from most public health surveillance efforts (e.g., Youth Risk Behavior Survey; YRBS), hindering our ability to monitor health disparities and allocate scarce resources to the areas of greatest need. Using active parental consent, we recruited 515 students from 14 AHSs in Texas to take a modified YRBS. We calculated three different participation rates, tracked participation by age of legal consent (≥18 and <18 years), and identified other considerations for obtaining quality data. Being required to use active consent resulted in a much lower cooperation rate among students <18 years (32%) versus those who were ≥18 years and could provide their own consent (57%). Because chronic truancy is prevalent in AHS students, cooperation rates may be more accurate than participation rates based off of enrollment or attendance. Requiring active consent and not having accurate participation rates may result in surveillance data that are of disparate quality. This threatens to mask the needs of AHS students and perpetuate disparities because we are likely missing the highest-risk students within a high-risk sample and cannot generalize findings.

  5. An experimental investigation into cavitation behaviour and pressure characteristics of alternative blade sections for propellers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkut, Emin; Atlar, Mehmet; Wang, Dazheng

    2013-03-01

    During the final quarter of the last century considerable efforts have been spent to reduce the hull pressure fluctuations caused by unsteady propeller cavitation. This has resulted in further changes in propeller design characteristics including increased skew, tip unloading and introduction of "New Blade Sections" (NBS) designed on the basis of the so-called Eppler code. An experimental study was carried out to investigate flow characteristics of alternative two-dimensional (2-D) blade sections of rectangular planform, one of which was the New Blade Section (NBS) developed in Newcastle University and other was based on the well-known National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) section. The experiments comprised the cavitation observations and the measurements of the local velocity distribution around the blade sections by using a 2-D Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) system. Analysis of the cavitation tests demonstrated that the two blade sections presented very similar bucket shapes with virtually no width at the bottom but relatively favourable buckets arms at the suction and pressure sides for the NACA section. Similarly, pressure analysis of the sections displayed a slightly larger value for the NBS pressure peak. The comparative overall pressure distributions around the sections suggested that the NBS might be more susceptible to cavitation than the NACA section. This can be closely related to the fundamental shape of the NBS with very fine leading edge. Therefore a further investigation into the modification of the leading edge should be considered to improve the cavitation behaviour of the NBS.

  6. Helminth-induced Ly6Chi monocyte-derived alternatively activated macrophages suppress experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrazas, Cesar; de Dios Ruiz-Rosado, Juan; Amici, Stephanie A.; Jablonski, Kyle A.; Martinez-Saucedo, Diana; Webb, Lindsay M.; Cortado, Hanna; Robledo-Avila, Frank; Oghumu, Steve; Satoskar, Abhay R.; Rodriguez-Sosa, Miriam; Terrazas, Luis I.; Guerau-de-Arellano, Mireia; Partida-Sánchez, Santiago

    2017-01-01

    Helminths cause chronic infections and affect the immune response to unrelated inflammatory diseases. Although helminths have been used therapeutically to ameliorate inflammatory conditions, their anti-inflammatory properties are poorly understood. Alternatively activated macrophages (AAMϕs) have been suggested as the anti-inflammatory effector cells during helminth infections. Here, we define the origin of AAMϕs during infection with Taenia crassiceps, and their disease-modulating activity on the Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE). Our data show two distinct populations of AAMϕs, based on the expression of PD-L1 and PD-L2 molecules, resulting upon T. crassiceps infection. Adoptive transfer of Ly6C+ monocytes gave rise to PD-L1+/PD-L2+, but not PD-L1+/PD-L2− cells in T. crassiceps-infected mice, demonstrating that the PD-L1+/PD-L2+ subpopulation of AAMϕs originates from blood monocytes. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of PD-L1+/PD-L2+ AAMϕs into EAE induced mice reduced disease incidence, delayed disease onset, and diminished the clinical disability, indicating the critical role of these cells in the regulation of autoimmune disorders. PMID:28094319

  7. Alternative Methods to Treat Nausea and Vomiting from Cancer Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Sheikhi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy Induced Nausea and Vomiting (CINV is among the most intensive side effects and critical concerns for patients with cancer. Most of these patients experience nausea and vomiting after chemotherapy. Sometimes, this is so annoying that it may prevent them from continuing the therapy. With the recent advances, a variety of therapeutic methods are innovated and applied to control CINV. Among them, the main methods include medicinal therapy, relaxation, and herbal therapy. Yet, using dexamethasone together with massage therapy and ginger is identified as the most effective method.

  8. Alternative method for reconstruction of antihydrogen annihilation vertices

    CERN Document Server

    Amole, C; Andresen , G B; Baquero-Ruiz, M; Bertsche, W; Bowe, P D; Butler, E; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Deller, A; Eriksson, S; Fajans, J; Friesen, T; Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D R; Gutierrez, A; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayano, R S; Hayden, M E; Humphries, A J; Hydomako, R; Jonsell, S; Kurchaninov, L; Madsen, N; Menary, S; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Pusa, P; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Silveira, D M; So, C; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S; Yamazaki,Y

    2012-01-01

    The ALPHA experiment, located at CERN, aims to compare the properties of antihydrogen atoms with those of hydrogen atoms. The neutral antihydrogen atoms are trapped using an octupole magnetic trap. The trap region is surrounded by a three layered silicon detector used to reconstruct the antiproton annihilation vertices. This paper describes a method we have devised that can be used for reconstructing annihilation vertices with a good resolution and is more efficient than the standard method currently used for the same purpose.

  9. Feasibility and acceptability of alternate methods of postnatal data collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Lacey A; Friedrich, Christa; Fahrenwald, Nancy; Specker, Bonny

    2014-05-01

    This study was done in preparation for the launch of the National Children's Study (NCS) main study. The goal of this study was to examine the feasibility (completion rates and completeness of data), acceptability, staff time and cost-effectiveness of three methods of data collection for the postnatal 3- and 9-month questionnaires completed as part of NCS protocol. Eligible NCS participants who were scheduled to complete a postnatal questionnaire at three and nine months were randomly assigned to receive either: (a) telephone data collection (b) web-based data collection, or (c) self-administered (mailed) questionnaires. Event completion rates and satisfaction across the three data collection methods were compared and the influence of socio-demographic factors on completion rates and satisfaction rates was examined. Cost data were compared to data for completion and satisfaction for each of the delivery methods. Completion rates and satisfaction did not differ significantly by method, but completeness of data did, with odds of data completeness higher among web than phone (p data collection methods were seen. Mail and phone data collection were the least complete of the three methods and were the most expensive. Mailed data collection was neither complete nor exceptionally economical. Web-based data collection was the least costly and provided the most complete data. Participants without web access could complete the questionnaire over the phone.

  10. Alternative sample preparation methods for MALDI-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, G.B.; Buchanan, M.V. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Czartoski, T.J. [Kenyon College, Gambier, OH (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Since the introduction of matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization (MALDI), sample preparation has been a limiting step in the applicability of this important technique for mass spectrometric analysis of biomolecules. A number of variations on the original sample preparation method for have been described. The {open_quotes}standard{close_quotes} method of MALDI sample preparation requires mixing a solution containing the analyte and a large excess of matrix, and allowing a small volume of this solution to dry on a probe tip before insertion into the mass spectrometer. The resulting sample can fairly inhomogeneous. As a result, the process of aiming the desorption laser at a favorable spot on the dried sample can be tedious and time-consuming. The authors are evaluating several approaches to MALDI sample preparation, with the goal of developing a faster and more reproducible method.

  11. Conceptual Approaches to Alternate Methods in Toxicological Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan M. Goldberg

    1987-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to public pressure, in vivo methods of toxicity testing is being attempted to be replaced by in vitro methods, such as cell and organ culture, computer modelling and modified LD50 tests using lesser number of animals. Specifically in the case of Draize eye irritancy test using rabbits, a number of refinements have been incorporated by different workers, mainly use of a local anaesthetic which will reduce animal distress without vitiating the test results. The author recommends exploration of new avenues for testing based on the advances in cell biology.

  12. Experimental Methods in Psychology and Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Nielsen, Julie Hassing

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory experiments have always been important in psychology and are as commonly used today as ever due to the dominating position of cognitive research in international psychology. This trend has been further strengthened by recent developments in cognitive neuroscience, where experimental...... studies are central. Recently, experimental studies within the field of affective neuroscience have also received attention. Notwithstanding, experimental methods remain controversial also in psychology, and one should carefully weigh their advantages against their drawbacks....

  13. Experimental Methods in Psychology and Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience

    OpenAIRE

    Habekost, Thomas; Nielsen, Julie Hassing

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory experiments have always been important in psychology and are as commonly used today as ever due to the dominating position of cognitive research in international psychology. This trend has been further strengthened by recent developments in cognitive neuroscience, where experimental studies are central. Recently, experimental studies within the fi eld of affective neuroscience have also received attention. Notwithstanding, experimental methods remain controversial also in psychology...

  14. Alternative correction equations in the Jacobi-Davidson method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genseberger, M.; Sleijpen, G.L.G.

    2001-01-01

    The correction equation in the Jacobi-Davidson method is effective in a subspace orthogonal to the current eigenvector approximation, whereas for the continuation of the process only vectors orthogonal to the search subspace are of importance. Such a vector is obtained by orthogonalizing the (approx

  15. ALTERNATIVE METHODS FOR CONDUCTING COMPARATIVE ANALYSES OF CADASTRAL SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The conception of an efficient cadastral system is an important element in the development of each coun-try. It is crucial for the efficient operation of the real estate market-the security and liberty of making transactions, register-ing a property, planning operations, the introduction of an ad valorem tax on property and more rational use of space. InEurope there are different types of cadastral systems, because the countries in Europe have different cultural back-grounds, different economical and social backgrounds. Through the centuries, many types of cadastral systems evolvedand their differences often depend upon local cultural heritage, physical geography, land use, technology, etc. Compara-tive analyses of cadastral systems have been the subjects of many publications and studies in world literature. It was as-sessed that the useful tools in conducting comparative analyses of various cadastral systems include the procedures of statisti-cal inference. This paper presents the results of a project to compare the performance of ten cadastral systems international-ly by creating appropriate integrated indicators of a cadastral system using statistical technique. Such indicators willmake it possible to compare different cadastral systems and present them hierarchically in relation to their quality, struc-ture, as well as legal, organizational and technological solutions. From a good number of methods available, techniquesoriginating from two spheres of statistic inference were selected: distribution free methods and multivariate analysis meth-ods. For analyses with the distribution free methods, FRIEDMAN's test (FRIENDMAN's non-parametric variance analy-sis) as well as KENDALL's test (KENDALL's compatibility ratio) were selected. For analyses with the multivariate analy-sis methods, factor analysis was selected.

  16. An Accelerated Linearized Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Obozinski, and J.-P. Vert. Group lasso with overlap and graph lasso. In Proceedings of the 26th Annual International Conference on Machine Learning...the 30th International Conference on Machine Learning (ICML-13), pages 80–88, 2013. [43] J. Pena. Nash equilibria computation via smoothing techniques...Optima, 78:12–13, 2008. [44] M. J. D. Powell. A method for nonlinear constraints in minimization problems. In Optimization (Sympos., Univ. Keele

  17. Alternative method for quantification of alfa-amylase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DF. Farias

    Full Text Available A modification of the sensitive agar diffusion method was developed for macro-scale determination of alfa-amylase. The proposed modifications lower costs with the utilisation of starch as substrate and agar as supporting medium. Thus, a standard curve was built using alfa-amylase solution from Aspergillus oryzae, with concentrations ranging from 2.4 to 7,500 U.mL-1. Clear radial diffusion zones were measured after 4 hours of incubation at 20 °C. A linear relationship between the logarithm of enzyme activities and the area of clear zones was obtained. The method was validated by testing α-amylase from barley at the concentrations of 2.4; 60; 300 and 1,500 U.mL-1. The proposed method turned out to be simpler, faster, less expensive and able to determine on a macro-scale α-amylase over a wide range (2.4 to 7,500 U.mL-1 in scientific investigation as well as in teaching laboratory activities.

  18. Experimental Methods for the Analysis of Optimization Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of solution quality, runtime and other measures; and the third part collects advanced methods from experimental design for configuring and tuning algorithms on a specific class of instances with the goal of using the least amount of experimentation. The contributor list includes leading scientists...

  19. Experimental Study for the Different Methods of Generating Millimeter Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aamer Jamal Albaghdadi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a analytical comparison and experimental implementation of different methods used in generating a low phase noise millimeter wave signals is presented. Four techniques were experimented and compared, Multiplication, phase lock loop (PLL, Injection locking (IL, and Injection locking with phase lock loop (ILPLL. The comparison and experimental results of a laboratory discussed.

  20. Proximal Alternating Direction Method with Relaxed Proximal Parameters for the Least Squares Covariance Adjustment Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghua Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of seeking a symmetric positive semidefinite matrix in a closed convex set to approximate a given matrix. This problem may arise in several areas of numerical linear algebra or come from finance industry or statistics and thus has many applications. For solving this class of matrix optimization problems, many methods have been proposed in the literature. The proximal alternating direction method is one of those methods which can be easily applied to solve these matrix optimization problems. Generally, the proximal parameters of the proximal alternating direction method are greater than zero. In this paper, we conclude that the restriction on the proximal parameters can be relaxed for solving this kind of matrix optimization problems. Numerical experiments also show that the proximal alternating direction method with the relaxed proximal parameters is convergent and generally has a better performance than the classical proximal alternating direction method.

  1. OZONE: ALTERNATIVE METHOD FOR MITE CONTROL ON SPECK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Cantoni

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at the development of a method for integrated mite control in the industrial production of speck. The investigation were carried out on the premises of five factories in the north-east of Italy. Tyrophagus putrescentiae and T. longior were predominant. The gaseous ozone treatment at low level (0.4 ppm was able to kill mites in a period within 15 days and 1 month. The characteristic layer of mould on the product surface reappears within 1 month from the end of treatment with ozone.

  2. Development of alternate methods of determining integrated SMR source terms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barry, Kenneth [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2014-06-10

    The Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Licensing Task Force (TF) has been evaluating licensing issues unique and important to iPWRs, ranking these issues, and developing NEI position papers for submittal to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) during the past three years. Papers have been developed and submitted to the NRC in a range of areas including: Price-Anderson Act, NRC annual fees, security, modularity, and staffing. In December, 2012, NEI completed a draft position paper on SMR source terms and participated in an NRC public meeting presenting a summary of this paper, which was subsequently submitted to the NRC. One important conclusion of the source term paper was the evaluation and selection of high importance areas where additional research would have a significant impact on source terms. The highest ranked research area was iPWR containment aerosol natural deposition. The NRC accepts the use of existing aerosol deposition correlations in Regulatory Guide 1.183, but these were developed for large light water reactor (LWR) containments. Application of these correlations to an iPWR design has resulted in greater than a ten-fold reduction of containment airborne aerosol inventory as compared to large LWRs. Development and experimental justification of containment aerosol natural deposition correlations specifically for the unique iPWR containments is expected to result in a large reduction of design basis and beyond-design-basis accident source terms with concomitantly smaller dose to workers and the public. Therefore, NRC acceptance of iPWR containment aerosol natural deposition correlations will directly support the industry’s goal of reducing the Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ) for SMRs. Based on the results in this work, it is clear that thermophoresis is relatively unimportant for iPWRs. Gravitational settling is well understood, and may be the dominant process for a dry environment. Diffusiophoresis and enhanced

  3. Alternative method for direct measurement of tibial slope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stijak Lazar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The tibial slope is one of the most frequently cited anatomical causes of anterior cruciate ligament trauma. The aim of this study was to determine the possibility of direct measuring of the tibial slope of the knee without prior soft tissue dissection in cadavers. Methods. Measurement was performed on the two groups of samples: osteological and cadaveric. The osteological group consisted of 102 matured tibiae and measurement was performed: indirectly by sagittal photographing of the tibia, and directly by a set of parallel bars. The cadaveric group consisted of 50 cadaveric knees and measurement was performed directly by a set of parallel bars. The difference and correlation between indirect and the direct measurements were observed, which included also measuring of the difference and correlation of the tibial slope on the medial and lateral condyles. Results. A statistically significant difference between the direct and indirect method of measuring (p 0.05. However, the slope on the medial condyle, as well as indirect measurement showed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.01. Conclusion. By the use of a set of parallel bars it is possible to measure the tibial slope directly without removal of the soft tissue. The results of indirect, photographic measurement did not statistically differ from the results of direct measurement of the tibial slope.

  4. An alternative method for smartphone input using AR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuna Kang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available As smartphones came into wide use recently, it has become increasingly popular not only among young people, but among middle-aged people as well. Most smartphones adopt capacitive full touch screen, so touch commands are made by fingers unlike the PDAs in the past that use touch pens. In this case, a significant portion of the smartphone’s screen is blocked by the finger so it is impossible to see the screens around the finger touching the screen; this causes difficulties in making precise inputs. To solve this problem, this research proposes a method of using simple AR markers to improve the interface of smartphones. A marker is placed in front of the smartphone camera. Then, the camera image of the marker is analyzed to determine the position of the marker as the position of the mouse cursor. This method can enable click, double-click, drag-and-drop used in PCs as well as touch, slide, long-touch-input in smartphones. Through this research, smartphone inputs can be made more precise and simple, and show the possibility of the application of a new concept of smartphone interface.

  5. Alternative Method for Solving Traveling Salesman Problem by Evolutionary Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Čičková

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the application of Self Organizing Migrating Algorithm (SOMA to the well-known optimization problem - Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP. SOMA is a relatively new optimization method that is based on Evolutionary Algorithms that are originally focused on solving non-linear programming problems that contain continuous variables. The TSP has model character in many branches of Operation Research because of its computational complexity; therefore the use of Evolutionary Algorithm requires some special approaches to guarantee feasibility of solutions. In this article two concrete examples of TSP as 8 cities set and 25 cities set are given to demonstrate the practical use of SOMA. Firstly, the penalty approach is applied as a simple way to guarantee feasibility of solution. Then, new approach that works only on feasible solutions is presented.

  6. ALTERNATING METHOD STUDY ON STRESS ANALYSIS OF SURROUNDING ROCK FOR TWO RANDOM GEOMETRY TUNNELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕爱钟; 张路青

    1997-01-01

    The stress analysis of surrounding rock for two random geometry tunnels is studied inthis paper by using Schwarz's alternating method. The simple and effective alternating algorithm is found, in which the surplus surface force is approximated by Fourier series, thus the iteration derivation can be conducted according to the precision required, finally, the stress results with high precision are obtained.

  7. A von Neumann Alternating Method for Finding Common Solutions to Variational Inequalities

    CERN Document Server

    Censor, Yair; Reich, Simeon

    2012-01-01

    Modifying von Neumann's alternating projections algorithm, we obtain an alternating method for solving the recently introduced Common Solutions to Variational Inequalities Problem (CSVIP). For simplicity, we mainly confine our attention to the two-set CSVIP, which entails finding common solutions to two unrelated variational inequalities in Hilbert space.

  8. Alternative sintering methods compared to conventional thermal sintering for inkjet printed silver nanoparticle ink

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niittynen, J.; Abbel, R.; Mäntysalo, M.; Perelaer, J.; Schubert, U.S.; Lupo, D.

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution several alternative sintering methods are compared to traditional thermal sintering as high temperature and long process time of thermal sintering are increasing the costs of inkjet-printing and preventing the use of this technology in large scale manufacturing. Alternative sint

  9. Innovative Solutions for Words with Emphasis: Alternative Methods of Braille Transcription

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei-Hannan, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    The author of this study proposed two alternative methods for transcribing words with emphasis into braille and compared the use of the symbols for emphasis with the current braille code. The results showed that students were faster at locating words presented in one of the alternate formats, but that there was no difference in students' accuracy…

  10. Between Contemporary Art and Cultural Analysis: Alternative Methods for Knowledge Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billy Ehn

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Artistic research suggests alternative methods for producing various kinds of knowledge, whether within or without the confines of academe. These methods may involve either the production of investigative artworks or the writing by the artist of a doctoral dissertation about his or her own work. For cultural researchers, the methods employed by artists engaged in these processes are both familiar and challenging, as conventional ethnography is mixed with more unpredictable experiments. This article presents several contemporary artworks, including sculpture, film, dance, installation and performance that explore various aspects of reality. What can be learnt from these works? And what could be achieved by an open exchange between artists and academic researchers? Four methodological approaches are highlighted as being of particular interest. The first relates to artists’ tendency to live experimentally, using themselves both as actors and as research objects. The second arises from the very tangible ways in which contemporary artworks approach the theme of materiality. The third relates to the emotional nature of much of contemporary art – even when it is categorised as conceptual – in its creation, forms of presentation, and influence on the spectator. Finally, many artists are gifted with the ability to find and communicate surprising meanings in ordinary life. How do they do this? Part of the answer seems to be that although artists are open to the implementation of “wild whims”, they exploit their spontaneity in a highly professional manner.

  11. Effective Alternating Direction Optimization Methods for Sparsity-Constrained Blind Image Deblurring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Naixue; Liu, Ryan Wen; Liang, Maohan; Wu, Di; Liu, Zhao; Wu, Huisi

    2017-01-18

    Single-image blind deblurring for imaging sensors in the Internet of Things (IoT) is a challenging ill-conditioned inverse problem, which requires regularization techniques to stabilize the image restoration process. The purpose is to recover the underlying blur kernel and latent sharp image from only one blurred image. Under many degraded imaging conditions, the blur kernel could be considered not only spatially sparse, but also piecewise smooth with the support of a continuous curve. By taking advantage of the hybrid sparse properties of the blur kernel, a hybrid regularization method is proposed in this paper to robustly and accurately estimate the blur kernel. The effectiveness of the proposed blur kernel estimation method is enhanced by incorporating both the L 1 -norm of kernel intensity and the squared L 2 -norm of the intensity derivative. Once the accurate estimation of the blur kernel is obtained, the original blind deblurring can be simplified to the direct deconvolution of blurred images. To guarantee robust non-blind deconvolution, a variational image restoration model is presented based on the L 1 -norm data-fidelity term and the total generalized variation (TGV) regularizer of second-order. All non-smooth optimization problems related to blur kernel estimation and non-blind deconvolution are effectively handled by using the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM)-based numerical methods. Comprehensive experiments on both synthetic and realistic datasets have been implemented to compare the proposed method with several state-of-the-art methods. The experimental comparisons have illustrated the satisfactory imaging performance of the proposed method in terms of quantitative and qualitative evaluations.

  12. Effective Alternating Direction Optimization Methods for Sparsity-Constrained Blind Image Deblurring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naixue Xiong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Single-image blind deblurring for imaging sensors in the Internet of Things (IoT is a challenging ill-conditioned inverse problem, which requires regularization techniques to stabilize the image restoration process. The purpose is to recover the underlying blur kernel and latent sharp image from only one blurred image. Under many degraded imaging conditions, the blur kernel could be considered not only spatially sparse, but also piecewise smooth with the support of a continuous curve. By taking advantage of the hybrid sparse properties of the blur kernel, a hybrid regularization method is proposed in this paper to robustly and accurately estimate the blur kernel. The effectiveness of the proposed blur kernel estimation method is enhanced by incorporating both the L 1 -norm of kernel intensity and the squared L 2 -norm of the intensity derivative. Once the accurate estimation of the blur kernel is obtained, the original blind deblurring can be simplified to the direct deconvolution of blurred images. To guarantee robust non-blind deconvolution, a variational image restoration model is presented based on the L 1 -norm data-fidelity term and the total generalized variation (TGV regularizer of second-order. All non-smooth optimization problems related to blur kernel estimation and non-blind deconvolution are effectively handled by using the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM-based numerical methods. Comprehensive experiments on both synthetic and realistic datasets have been implemented to compare the proposed method with several state-of-the-art methods. The experimental comparisons have illustrated the satisfactory imaging performance of the proposed method in terms of quantitative and qualitative evaluations.

  13. Effective Alternating Direction Optimization Methods for Sparsity-Constrained Blind Image Deblurring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Naixue; Liu, Ryan Wen; Liang, Maohan; Wu, Di; Liu, Zhao; Wu, Huisi

    2017-01-01

    Single-image blind deblurring for imaging sensors in the Internet of Things (IoT) is a challenging ill-conditioned inverse problem, which requires regularization techniques to stabilize the image restoration process. The purpose is to recover the underlying blur kernel and latent sharp image from only one blurred image. Under many degraded imaging conditions, the blur kernel could be considered not only spatially sparse, but also piecewise smooth with the support of a continuous curve. By taking advantage of the hybrid sparse properties of the blur kernel, a hybrid regularization method is proposed in this paper to robustly and accurately estimate the blur kernel. The effectiveness of the proposed blur kernel estimation method is enhanced by incorporating both the L1-norm of kernel intensity and the squared L2-norm of the intensity derivative. Once the accurate estimation of the blur kernel is obtained, the original blind deblurring can be simplified to the direct deconvolution of blurred images. To guarantee robust non-blind deconvolution, a variational image restoration model is presented based on the L1-norm data-fidelity term and the total generalized variation (TGV) regularizer of second-order. All non-smooth optimization problems related to blur kernel estimation and non-blind deconvolution are effectively handled by using the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM)-based numerical methods. Comprehensive experiments on both synthetic and realistic datasets have been implemented to compare the proposed method with several state-of-the-art methods. The experimental comparisons have illustrated the satisfactory imaging performance of the proposed method in terms of quantitative and qualitative evaluations. PMID:28106764

  14. Experimental study on the effect of alternator speed to the car charging system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazlan Rozdman K.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present our work, which is doing an energy audit on alternator’s current output and battery’s voltage based on alternator speed. Up until today, the demand for power in automobile is ever increasing. As technology advances, more and more electrical devices were produced and being installed in vehicles. To cope with the demand, alternator has been designed and modified so that it can produce enough power. This research is to study the effect of alternator speed to the charging system. The car used in this experiment is Proton Preve 1.6 Manual. In both ISO 8854 and SAE J 56, alternator testing and labelling standards indicate that the rated output an alternator is the amount of current that it is capable of producing at 6,000 RPM. Three different constant speed of engine which is 750 RPM as idle speed, 1500 RPM and 3000 RPM as cruise speed were taken as parameter. The speed of the alternator was measured using tachometer, digital multi-meter was used to measure battery’s voltage, and AC/DC Clamp was used to measure alternator current output. The result shows that the faster the alternator spin, the more power it can produce. And when there is more power, the faster the charging rate of the battery.

  15. NEW POSSIBILITIES OF RAISING RABBIT YOUNG BY ALTERNATIVE NURSING METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tünde Gyarmati

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In the first experiment 360 Pannon White kits from 45 litters were divided into 3 groups. The kits in group SS were suckled once a day during the first 35 days of life (traditional method of nursing. Group DD was raised by 2 does and the kits were suckled both in the morning and in the evening until 35 days of age. The kits of the 3 rd group (D0 were suckled twice a day for 23 days, after which they were weaned. Rabbits which were suckled twice a day consumed 89 % more milk until 23 days of age than those of the SS kits. In the second experiment authors used different management systems, to investigate the possibilities of “double-suckling”. Both nulliparous as multiparous does were treated to induce pseudopregnancy (by means of GnRH. They were used as second doe and suckled the kits in the afternoon. Pseudopregnant does produced milk (nulliparous does less than does which had previously produced litters, but in conditions of controlled suckling they were not willing to suckle the young. In a third experiment, does (n=44 were inseminated 11 days after kindling. Weaning was performed at the age of 21 days and does could systematically serve as second mother for the litters born at the same day. The “additional” does that nursed the young in the afternoon produced 65 % of the milk quantity produced by the natural mother between days 0 and 21.

  16. A New Curve Fitting Method for Forming Limit Experimental Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jieshi CHEN; Xianbin ZHOU

    2005-01-01

    The forming limit curve (FLC) can be obtained by. means of curve fitting the limit strain points of different strain paths. The theory of percent regression analysis is applied to the curve fitting of forming limit experimental data.Forecast intervals of FLC percentiles can be calculated. Thus reliability and confidence level can be considered. The theoretical method to get the limits of limit strain points distributing region is presented, and the FLC position can be adjusted according to practical requirement. Method for establishing FLC with high reliability using small samples is presented at the same time. This method can make full use of the current experimental data and the previous data.Compared with the traditional method that can only use current experimental data, fewer specimens are required in the present method to obtain the same precision and the result is more accurate with the same number of specimens.

  17. 27 CFR 22.22 - Alternate methods or procedures; and emergency variations from requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF TAX-FREE ALCOHOL Administrative Provisions Authorities § 22.22 Alternate methods or procedures..., conditions or limitations set forth in the approval, authority for the variation from requirements...

  18. 27 CFR 20.22 - Alternate methods or procedures; and emergency variations from requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Administrative Provisions Authorities § 20.22 Alternate methods or... forth in the approval, authority for the variation from requirements is automatically terminated and...

  19. Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Ophthalmic Medications: Relevant Allergens and Alternative Testing Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, Katherine R; Warshaw, Erin M

    Allergic contact dermatitis is an important cause of periorbital dermatitis. Topical ophthalmic agents are relevant sensitizers. Contact dermatitis to ophthalmic medications can be challenging to diagnose and manage given the numerous possible offending agents, including both active and inactive ingredients. Furthermore, a substantial body of literature reports false-negative patch test results to ophthalmic agents. Subsequently, numerous alternative testing methods have been described. This review outlines the periorbital manifestations, causative agents, and alternative testing methods of allergic contact dermatitis to ophthalmic medications.

  20. Experimental Verification of Doppler Effect with the Refraction Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lie FENG; Jia-bi CHEN; Jing-bin HU; Song-lin ZHUANG

    2010-01-01

    The traditional methad of measuring Dopplr Effect is either reflection or dispersion.This article clarifies that it can also verify the Doppler Effect with the refraction method.We have designed the experimental system with the method of optical heterodyne,using the refraction light beam from a prism,and made the experiment.The experimental results are in accordance with the theoreticai calculation.It is very useful in some particular case,such as in Negative-Index Materials(NIM),to verify the Doppler Effect with this method.

  1. Taguchi method of experimental design in materials education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Martin W.

    1993-01-01

    Some of the advantages and disadvantages of the Taguchi Method of experimental design as applied to Materials Science will be discussed. This is a fractional factorial method that employs the minimum number of experimental trials for the information obtained. The analysis is also very simple to use and teach, which is quite advantageous in the classroom. In addition, the Taguchi loss function can be easily incorporated to emphasize that improvements in reproducibility are often at least as important as optimization of the response. The disadvantages of the Taguchi Method include the fact that factor interactions are normally not accounted for, there are zero degrees of freedom if all of the possible factors are used, and randomization is normally not used to prevent environmental biasing. In spite of these disadvantages it is felt that the Taguchi Method is extremely useful for both teaching experimental design and as a research tool, as will be shown with a number of brief examples.

  2. State of the art on alternative methods to animal testing from an industrial point of view: ready for regulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Rachel; De Wever, Bart; Fuchs, Horst W; Gaca, Marianna; Hill, Erin; Krul, Cyrille; Poth, Albrecht; Roggen, Erwin L

    2014-01-01

    Despite changing attitudes towards animal testing and current legislation to protect experimental animals, the rate of animal experiments seems to have changed little in recent years. On May 15-16, 2013, the In Vitro Testing Industrial Platform (IVTIP) held an open meeting to discuss the state of the art in alternative methods, how companies have, can, and will need to adapt and what drives and hinders regulatory acceptance and use. Several key messages arose from the meeting. First, industry and regulatory bodies should not wait for complete suites of alternative tests to become available, but should begin working with methods available right now (e.g., mining of existing animal data to direct future studies, implementation of alternative tests wherever scientifically valid rather than continuing to rely on animal tests) in non-animal and animal integrated strategies to reduce the numbers of animals tested. Sharing of information (communication), harmonization and standardization (coordination), commitment and collaboration are all required to improve the quality and speed of validation, acceptance, and implementation of tests. Finally, we consider how alternative methods can be used in research and development before formal implementation in regulations. Here we present the conclusions on what can be done already and suggest some solutions and strategies for the future.

  3. NordVal: A Nordic system for validation of alternative microbiological methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Sven

    2007-01-01

    NordVal was created in 1999 by the Nordic Committee of Senior Officials for Food Issues under the Nordic Council of Ministers. The Committee adopted the following objective for NordVal: NordVal evaluates the performance and field of application of alternative microbiological methods. This includes...... analyses of food, water, feed, animal faeces and food environmental samples in the Nordic countries. NordVal is managed by a steering group, which is appointed by the National Food Administrations in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The background for creation of NordVal was a Danish......Val validated and certified methods for meat intended for Finland and Sweden. NordVal has at present 25 validated and certified alternative microbiological methods registered. The methods comprise ELISA, PCR and DNA based methods for Salmonella, Listeria and Campylobacter. Alternative culture based methods...

  4. The Continuized Log-Linear Method: An Alternative to the Kernel Method of Continuization in Test Equating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianyou

    2008-01-01

    Von Davier, Holland, and Thayer (2004) laid out a five-step framework of test equating that can be applied to various data collection designs and equating methods. In the continuization step, they presented an adjusted Gaussian kernel method that preserves the first two moments. This article proposes an alternative continuization method that…

  5. Alternative sintering methods compared to conventional thermal sintering for inkjet printed silver nanoparticle ink

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niittynen, Juha, E-mail: juha.niittynen@tut.fi [Department of Electronics and Communications Engineering, Tampere University of Technology, Korkeakoulunkatu 3, 33720 Tampere (Finland); Abbel, Robert [Holst Centre, High Tech Campus 31, 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands); Mäntysalo, Matti [Department of Electronics and Communications Engineering, Tampere University of Technology, Korkeakoulunkatu 3, 33720 Tampere (Finland); Perelaer, Jolke; Schubert, Ulrich S. [Laboratory of Organic and Macromolecular Chemistry (IOMC), Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Humboldtstrasse 10, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Jena Center for Soft Matter (JCSM), Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Humboldtstrasse 10, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Lupo, Donald [Department of Electronics and Communications Engineering, Tampere University of Technology, Korkeakoulunkatu 3, 33720 Tampere (Finland)

    2014-04-01

    In this contribution several alternative sintering methods are compared to traditional thermal sintering as high temperature and long process time of thermal sintering are increasing the costs of inkjet-printing and preventing the use of this technology in large scale manufacturing. Alternative sintering techniques are evaluated based on the electrical and mechanical performance they enable on inkjet-printed structures as well as their potential feasibility for large scale manufacturing. Photonic sintering was identified as the most promising alternative to thermal sintering. - Highlights: • Comparison of alternative sintering techniques for large-scale electronics manufacturing • Laser, plasma and photonic sintering of nanoparticle silver ink tested • Electrical and mechanical properties of sintered inks tested • Microstructure analysis used to explain the different electrical and mechanical properties • Photonic sintering identified as the most promising alternative technique.

  6. New experimental and analysis methods in I-DLTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, S.U.; Middelkamp, P.; Li, Z.; Eremin, V.

    1998-02-01

    A new experimental apparatus to perform I-DLTS measurements is presented. The method is shown to be faster and more sensitive than traditional double boxcar I-DLTS systems. A novel analysis technique utilizing multiple exponential fits to the I-DLTS signal from a highly neutron irradiated silicon sample is presented with a discussion of the results. It is shown that the new method has better resolution and can deconvolute overlapping peaks more accurately than previous methods.

  7. Experimental methods for phase equilibria at high pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohrn, Ralf; Fonseca, José M S; Peper, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of high-pressure phase equilibria is crucial in many fields, e.g., for the design and optimization of high-pressure chemical and separation processes, carbon capture and storage, hydrate formation, applications of ionic liquids, and geological processes. This review presents the variety of methods to measure phase equilibria at high pressures and, following a classification, discusses the measurement principles, advantages, challenges, and error sources. Examples of application areas are given. A detailed knowledge and understanding of the different methods is fundamental not only for choosing the most suitable method for a certain task but also for the evaluation of experimental data. The discrepancy between the (sometimes low) true accuracy of published experimental data and the (high) accuracy claimed by authors is addressed. Some essential requirements for the generation of valuable experimental results are summarized.

  8. Biogeomorphic feedback between plant growth and flooding causes alternative stable states in an experimental floodplain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Wang, Qiao; Meire, Dieter; Ma, Wandong; Wu, Chuanqing; Meng, Zhen; Van de Koppel, Johan; Troch, Peter; Verhoeven, Ronny; De Mulder, Tom; Temmerman, Stijn

    2016-07-01

    It is important to understand the mechanisms of vegetation establishment on bare substrate in a disturbance-driven ecosystem because of many valuable ecosystem services. This study tested for empirical indications of local alternative stable states controlled by biogeomorphic feedbacks using flume experiments with alfalfa: (1) single flood experiments different in flood intensity and plant growth, (2) long-term evolution experiments with repeated flooding and seeding. We observed: (1) a combination of thresholds in plant growth and flooding magnitude for upgrowing seedlings to survive; (2) bimodality in vegetation biomass after floods indicating the existence of two alternative states, either densely vegetated or bare; (3) facilitation of vegetation establishment by the spatial pattern formation of channels and sand bars. In conclusion, empirical indicators were demonstrated for local alternative stable states in a disturbance-driven ecosystem associated with biogeomorphic feedbacks, which could contribute to the protection and restoration of vegetation in such ecosystems.

  9. PROBLEMS CONCERNING ALTERNATIVE EVALUATION METHODS: THE CASE OF SCIENCE AND TEHNOLOGY TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin DEVECİOĞLU-KAYMAKÇI

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent changes on the Science and Tehnology (ST curriculum have required using alternative evaluation methods in learning and teaching process. The aim of this study is to determine the ST teachers’ problems while using the alternative evaluation methods during their courses. To achieve this, semi-structured interviews have been conducted with 10 ST teachers from different parts of Trabzon during the academic year 2008-2009. The data, analyzed qualitatively, reveals that the teachers have important difficulties in determining, using and evaluating these methods. At the end of the research, it has been concluded that besides the lack of physical infrastructure, labs and libraries, computer and other technologies in their schools, most of the teachers lack the knowledge and skills to implement these methods. The result of the study has shown that ST teachers need an adaptation process to appropriate the aims and importance of alternative evaluation methods effectively.

  10. Experimental Methods in Psychology and Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Nielsen, Julie Hassing

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory experiments have always been important in psychology and are as commonly used today as ever due to the dominating position of cognitive research in international psychology. This trend has been further strengthened by recent developments in cognitive neuroscience, where experimental st...... studies are central. Recently, experimental studies within the field of affective neuroscience have also received attention. Notwithstanding, experimental methods remain controversial also in psychology, and one should carefully weigh their advantages against their drawbacks.......Laboratory experiments have always been important in psychology and are as commonly used today as ever due to the dominating position of cognitive research in international psychology. This trend has been further strengthened by recent developments in cognitive neuroscience, where experimental...

  11. Unfolding the mystery of alternative splicing through a unique method of in vivo selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ravindra N

    2007-05-01

    Alternative splicing of pre-messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) is a fundamental mechanism of gene regulation in higher eukaryotes. In addition to creating protein diversity, alternative splicing provides the safest mode of gene evolution. Of late, more and more forms of alternatively spliced transcripts (mRNAs) are being discovered for key genes. Some of the alternatively spliced transcripts are also associated with major human diseases. This has created a sense of urgency to find the methods by which regulation of alternative splicing of specific exons could be best understood. Here I review a powerful in vivo selection method that uses a combinatorial library of partially random sequences. Several advantages of this method include in vivo analysis of large sequences, identification of unique sequence motifs, determination of relative strength of splice sites and identification of long-distance interactions including role of RNA structures. This unique method could be applied to identify tissue-specific cis-elements. Similarly, the method is suitable to find cis-elements that become active in response to specific treatments of cells. Considering this unbiased method uses in vivo conditions, it has potential to identify critical regulatory elements as therapeutic targets for a growing number of splicing-associated diseases.

  12. Biodiesel production by biocatalysis using alternative method for lipase immobilization in hydrogel

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Marder; Mariéli Milanesi Ceolin; Mariele da Silva Mazuim; Rosana de Cassia de Souza Schneider; Marilda Teixeira Macagnan; Valeriano Antonio Corbellini

    2009-01-01

    The society has been looking for alternatives in order to stop the process of environmental destruction installed in the world, however, starting from last century, a new vision on the indiscriminate use of the environmental resources started to be discussed leading to the use of new technologies of production of cleaner fuel, as the biodiesel, produced from vegetable oils. The enzymatic processes are a production alternative, for they are methods with losses reduction and larger efficiency, ...

  13. Experimental observations on long-term behavior of migrating alternate bars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crosato, A.; Desta, F.B.; Cornelisse, J.; Uijttewaal, W.S.J.

    2011-01-01

    Migrating alternate bars form in alluvial channels as a result of morphodynamic instability. Extensive literature can be found on their origin and short-term development, but their long-term evolution has been poorly studied so far. In particular, it is not clear whether they eventually reach an equ

  14. A soil irrigation method for experimental plant growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, M. N.; Soran, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    An irrigation method developed in order to ensure periodic wetting of several batches of soil, for experimental plant growth, is proposed. An experimental irrigation installation, intended to perform real-time soil moisturizing, by adding known quantities (preset for a certain batch of soil) of aqueous solutions has been built and tested. The prototype installation comprises six miniature pumps for water dosage, each meant to moisturize a batch of soil. Each pump is actuated from the mains power supply, with zero-crossing synchronization. The administrated quantity of aqueous solution is a multiple of the minimum volume, 0.2±0.01 ml of fluid. Due to its structure, the system allows the administration of different aqueous solutions for each batch of soil. Due to its modular construction the experimental installation can be expanded in order to ensure water disposal over an increased number of soil batches and the method may be suited also for micro irrigation systems.

  15. An experimental method for validating compressor valve vibration theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habing, R.A.; Peters, M.C.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental method for validating traditional compressor valve theory for unsteady flow conditions. Traditional valve theory considers the flow force acting on the plate and the flow rate as quasi-steady variables. These variables are related via semi-empirical coefficients w

  16. Using Propensity Score Methods to Approximate Factorial Experimental Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Nianbo

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is through Monte Carlo simulation to compare several propensity score methods in approximating factorial experimental design and identify best approaches in reducing bias and mean square error of parameter estimates of the main and interaction effects of two factors. Previous studies focused more on unbiased estimates of…

  17. A Web-based Alternative Non-animal Method Database for Safety Cosmetic Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung Won; Kim, Bae-Hwan

    2016-07-01

    Animal testing was used traditionally in the cosmetics industry to confirm product safety, but has begun to be banned; alternative methods to replace animal experiments are either in development, or are being validated, worldwide. Research data related to test substances are critical for developing novel alternative tests. Moreover, safety information on cosmetic materials has neither been collected in a database nor shared among researchers. Therefore, it is imperative to build and share a database of safety information on toxicological mechanisms and pathways collected through in vivo, in vitro, and in silico methods. We developed the CAMSEC database (named after the research team; the Consortium of Alternative Methods for Safety Evaluation of Cosmetics) to fulfill this purpose. On the same website, our aim is to provide updates on current alternative research methods in Korea. The database will not be used directly to conduct safety evaluations, but researchers or regulatory individuals can use it to facilitate their work in formulating safety evaluations for cosmetic materials. We hope this database will help establish new alternative research methods to conduct efficient safety evaluations of cosmetic materials.

  18. New experimental and analysis methods in I-DLTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, S.U. E-mail: sanjeev@bnl.gov; Middelkamp, P.; Li, Z.; Eremin, V

    1999-04-21

    A simple modification to traditional experimental apparatus to perform I-DLTS measurements is presented. This setup is shown to be faster and more sensitive than traditional double boxcar I-DLTS systems. A novel analysis technique utilising multiple exponential fits to the I-DLTS signal from a highly neutron irradiated silicon sample is presented along with a discussion of the results. It is shown that the new method has better resolution and can deconvolute overlapping peaks more accurately than previous methods.

  19. 76 FR 23323 - Meeting of the Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods (SACATM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... Methods Report on Peer Review Panel Meeting: Evaluation of an In Vitro Estrogen Receptor Transcriptional... (ICCVAM), the NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM... oral presentation are asked to notify Dr. Lori White, NTP Designated Federal Officer, via...

  20. The analysis of covariance and alternatives statistical methods for experiments, quasi-experiments, and single-case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Huitema, Bradley

    2011-01-01

    A complete guide to cutting-edge techniques and best practices for applying covariance analysis methods The Second Edition of Analysis of Covariance and Alternatives sheds new light on its topic, offering in-depth discussions of underlying assumptions, comprehensive interpretations of results, and comparisons of distinct approaches. The book has been extensively revised and updated to feature an in-depth review of prerequisites and the latest developments in the field. The author begins with a discussion of essential topics relating to experimental design and analysis

  1. Validation of Alternative In Vitro Methods to Animal Testing: Concepts, Challenges, Processes and Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesinger, Claudius; Desprez, Bertrand; Coecke, Sandra; Casey, Warren; Zuang, Valérie

    This chapter explores the concepts, processes, tools and challenges relating to the validation of alternative methods for toxicity and safety testing. In general terms, validation is the process of assessing the appropriateness and usefulness of a tool for its intended purpose. Validation is routinely used in various contexts in science, technology, the manufacturing and services sectors. It serves to assess the fitness-for-purpose of devices, systems, software up to entire methodologies. In the area of toxicity testing, validation plays an indispensable role: "alternative approaches" are increasingly replacing animal models as predictive tools and it needs to be demonstrated that these novel methods are fit for purpose. Alternative approaches include in vitro test methods, non-testing approaches such as predictive computer models up to entire testing and assessment strategies composed of method suites, data sources and decision-aiding tools. Data generated with alternative approaches are ultimately used for decision-making on public health and the protection of the environment. It is therefore essential that the underlying methods and methodologies are thoroughly characterised, assessed and transparently documented through validation studies involving impartial actors. Importantly, validation serves as a filter to ensure that only test methods able to produce data that help to address legislative requirements (e.g. EU's REACH legislation) are accepted as official testing tools and, owing to the globalisation of markets, recognised on international level (e.g. through inclusion in OECD test guidelines). Since validation creates a credible and transparent evidence base on test methods, it provides a quality stamp, supporting companies developing and marketing alternative methods and creating considerable business opportunities. Validation of alternative methods is conducted through scientific studies assessing two key hypotheses, reliability and relevance of the

  2. Experimental Study on Current Decay Characteristics of Persistent Current HTS Magnet by Alternating Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Gun; Lee, Chang Young; Hwang, Young Jin; Lee, Woo Seung; Lee, Jiho; Jo, Hyun Chul; Chung, Yoon Do; Ko, Tae Kuk

    This paper deals with a current decay characteristics of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) magnet operated in persistent current mode (PCM). In superconducting synchronous machine applications such as linear synchronous motor (LSM), the superconducting coil is designed to operate in the PCM to obtain steady magnetic field with DC transport current. This superconducting magnet operates on a direct current, but it can be exposed to alternating magnetic field due to the armature winding. When the magnet is subjected to an external time-varying magnetic field, it is possible to result in a decay of the current in PCM system due to AC loss. In this research, a PCM system with armature coil which generates time-varying magnetic field was fabricated to verify current decay characteristics by external alternating magnetic field. The current decay rate was measured by using a hall sensor as functions of amplitude and frequency of armature coil.

  3. Helminth-induced Ly6Chi monocyte-derived alternatively activated macrophages suppress experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    OpenAIRE

    Terrazas, Cesar; de Dios Ruiz-Rosado, Juan; Stephanie A. Amici; Jablonski, Kyle A.; Martinez-Saucedo, Diana; Lindsay M Webb; Cortado, Hanna; Robledo-Avila, Frank; Oghumu, Steve; Satoskar, Abhay R.; Rodriguez-Sosa, Miriam; Terrazas, Luis I.; Guerau-de-Arellano, Mireia; Partida-Sánchez, Santiago

    2017-01-01

    Helminths cause chronic infections and affect the immune response to unrelated inflammatory diseases. Although helminths have been used therapeutically to ameliorate inflammatory conditions, their anti-inflammatory properties are poorly understood. Alternatively activated macrophages (AAMϕs) have been suggested as the anti-inflammatory effector cells during helminth infections. Here, we define the origin of AAMϕs during infection with Taenia crassiceps, and their disease-modulating activity o...

  4. An Exploratory Study of a Subspace Iteration Method as an Alternative to the QR Method for Floquet Eigenanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achar, N. S.; Gaonkar, G. H.

    1994-01-01

    Floquet eigenanalysis requires a few dominant eigenvalues of the Floquet transition matrix (FTM). Although the QR method is used almost exclusively, it is expensive for such partial eigenanalysis; the operation counts and, thereby, the approximate machine-time grow cubically with the matrix order. Accordingly, for Floquet eigenanalysis, the Arnold-Saad method, a subspace iteration method, is investigated as an alternative to the QR method. The two methods are compared for machine-time efficiency and the residual errors of the corresponding eigenpairs. The Arnolds-Saad method takes much less machine-time than the QR method with comparable computational reliability and offers promise fpr large-scale Floquet eigenanalysis.

  5. A methodology to quantify the differences between alternative methods of heart rate variability measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-González, M A; Fernández-Chimeno, M; Guede-Fernández, F; Ferrer-Mileo, V; Argelagós-Palau, A; Álvarez-Gómez, L; Parrado, E; Moreno, J; Capdevila, L; Ramos-Castro, J

    2016-01-01

    This work proposes a systematic procedure to report the differences between heart rate variability time series obtained from alternative measurements reporting the spread and mean of the differences as well as the agreement between measuring procedures and quantifying how stationary, random and normal the differences between alternative measurements are. A description of the complete automatic procedure to obtain a differences time series (DTS) from two alternative methods, a proposal of a battery of statistical tests, and a set of statistical indicators to better describe the differences in RR interval estimation are also provided. Results show that the spread and agreement depend on the choice of alternative measurements and that the DTS cannot be considered generally as a white or as a normally distributed process. Nevertheless, in controlled measurements the DTS can be considered as a stationary process.

  6. Study of alternative strategies and methods for conserving energy. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-04-01

    Objectives of the study were: (1) to identify and analyze alternative methods, means, and techniques, for controlling and moderating the consumption of energy; (2) to evaluate the impact of regulatory actions, taxes, incentives, subsidies or other strategies and methods on alternative physical technologies for energy conservation; and (3) to evaluate, macro- and micro-economic impacts and consequences of alternative energy conservation methods, means and techniques on work, leisure, life styles, and institutions on a local, regional, and national level. The study excludes automobile and related road vehicle energy consumption control strategies, but includes those for residential, commercial, industrial, and other energy end-use sectors. The time frame is from 1973 to 1990/2000, with emphasis on the period 1973-1980.

  7. Solution of nonlinear Volterra-Hammerstein integral equations using alternative Legendre collocation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohrab Bazm

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Alternative Legendre polynomials (ALPs are used to approximate the solution of a class of nonlinear Volterra-Hammerstein integral equations. For this purpose, the operational matrices of integration and the product for ALPs are derived. Then, using the collocation method, the considered problem is reduced into a set of nonlinear algebraic equations. The error analysis of the method is given and the efficiency and accuracy are illustrated by applying the method to some examples.

  8. THE ALTERNATING SEGMENT CRANK-NICOLSON METHOD FOR SOLVING CONVECTION-DIFFUSION EQUATION WITH VARIABLE COEFFICIENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文洽

    2003-01-01

    A new discrete approximation to the convection term of the covection-diffusionequation was constructed in Saul' yev type difference scheme, then the alternating segmentCrank-Nicolson( ASC-N) method for solving the convection-diffusion equation with variablecoefficient was developed. The ASC-N method is unconditionally stable. Numericalexperiment shows that this method has the obvious property of parallelism and accuracy. Themethod can be used directly on parallel computers.

  9. Testing the theory of emissions trading : Experimental evidence on alternative mechanisms for global carbon trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, Ger; Nentjes, Andries; Smith, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Simulation models and theory prove that emission trading converges to market equilibrium. This paper sets out to test these results using experimental economics. Three experiments are conducted for the six largest carbon emitting industrialized regions. Two experiments use auctions, the first a sing

  10. Modeling alternatives for basin-level hydropower development: 1. Optimization methods and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shoou-Yuh; Liaw, Shu-Liang; Railsback, Steven F.; Sale, Michael J.

    1992-10-01

    Development of multiple hydroelectric projects at navigation dams on large river systems can result in a number of environmental impacts, including potential reductions in dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations. This study presents a method for generating hydropower development alternatives for evaluation by planners by quantifying the trade-offs between water quality and power generation. This method employs a Streeter-Phelps model to simulate DO and the bounded implicit enumeration algorithm to solve an optimization model formulated to maximize hydroelectric energy production. A portion of the upper Ohio River basin was selected to illustrate the methodology. The results indicate that various alternatives that meet the specified DO constraints can be generated efficiently. These alternatives are nearly optimal solutions with respect to the modeled objectives but are different with respect to decision variables.

  11. An Alternative Method to Compute the Bit Error Probability of Modulation Schemes Subject to Nakagami- Fading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeiro Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents an alternative method for determining exact expressions for the bit error probability (BEP of modulation schemes subject to Nakagami- fading. In this method, the Nakagami- fading channel is seen as an additive noise channel whose noise is modeled as the ratio between Gaussian and Nakagami- random variables. The method consists of using the cumulative density function of the resulting noise to obtain closed-form expressions for the BEP of modulation schemes subject to Nakagami- fading. In particular, the proposed method is used to obtain closed-form expressions for the BEP of -ary quadrature amplitude modulation ( -QAM, -ary pulse amplitude modulation ( -PAM, and rectangular quadrature amplitude modulation ( -QAM under Nakagami- fading. The main contribution of this paper is to show that this alternative method can be used to reduce the computational complexity for detecting signals in the presence of fading.

  12. Experimental methods for the analysis of optimization algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Bartz-Beielstein, Thomas; Paquete, Luis; Preuss, Mike

    2010-01-01

    In operations research and computer science it is common practice to evaluate the performance of optimization algorithms on the basis of computational results, and the experimental approach should follow accepted principles that guarantee the reliability and reproducibility of results. However, computational experiments differ from those in other sciences, and the last decade has seen considerable methodological research devoted to understanding the particular features of such experiments and assessing the related statistical methods. This book consists of methodological contributions on diffe

  13. Experimental Test of an Event-Based Corpuscular Model Modification as an Alternative to Quantum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Brida, Giorgio; Genovese, Marco; Migdall, Alan; Piacentini, Fabrizio; Polyakov, Sergey V; Traina, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    We present the first experimental test that distinguishes between an event-based corpuscular model (EBCM) [H. De Raedt et al.: J. Comput. Theor. Nanosci. 8 (2011) 1052] of the interaction of photons with matter and quantum mechanics. The test looks at the interference that results as a single photon passes through a Mach-Zehnder interferometer [H. De Raedt et al.: J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 74 (2005) 16]. The experimental results, obtained with a low-noise single-photon source [G. Brida et al.: Opt. Expr. 19 (2011) 1484], agree with the predictions of standard quantum mechanics with a reduced $\\chi^2$ of 0.98 and falsify the EBCM with a reduced $\\chi^2$ of greater than 20.

  14. Report to the Congress on alternative methods for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to fulfill the requirements of Public Law No. 101-46, approved June 30, 1989. The study describes and evaluates alternative methods for financing the future expansion of the Strategic petroleum Reserve (SPR), both to the current target level of 750 million barrels and to potential future levels of up to one billion barrels.

  15. Comparison of DNA Pyrosequencing with Alternative Methods for Identification of Mycobacteria▿

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Identification of mycobacterial clinical isolates by pyrosequencing within the hypervariable A region of the 16S rRNA gene was compared to other identification methods. For >90% of isolates, these identifications correlated to the level of complex or species. For identification of many mycobacteria, pyrosequencing offers an inexpensive alternative to traditional sequencing.

  16. Method and apparatus for detecting cyber attacks on an alternating current power grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEachern, Alexander; Hofmann, Ronald

    2017-04-11

    A method and apparatus for detecting cyber attacks on remotely-operable elements of an alternating current distribution grid. Two state estimates of the distribution grid are prepared, one of which uses micro-synchrophasors. A difference between the two state estimates indicates a possible cyber attack.

  17. Communicative Approach: An Alternative Method Used in Improving Students' Academic Reading Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irmawati, Noer Doddy

    2012-01-01

    Academic reading is a difficult subject to be mastered. It is needed because most of books or references are written in English. The emphasis is on academic reading which becomes a compulsory subject that must be taught and understood in Faculty of Letters UAD Yogyakarta. Communicative approach is used and applied as an alternative method in the…

  18. Consequences for welfare and pension buffers of alternative methods of discounting future pensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Bucciol; R.M.W.J. Beetsma

    2011-01-01

    We explore the implications of alternative methods of discounting future pension outlays for the valuation of funded pension liabilities. Measured liabilities affect the asset-liability ratio of pension funds and, thereby, their policies. Our framework for analysis is an applied many-generation OLG

  19. The Duplicate-Replacement System: An Alternative Method of Handling Book Duplicates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Russell T.

    This report studied the alternative method of using book duplicates as replacement copies for worn or missing stack items. The simple operational procedure which is proposed and evaluated could be adapted to virtually any library setting. When tested in Brigham Young University's Lee Library, it was found that such a procedure cost an estimated…

  20. Alternating Renewal Process Models for Behavioral Observation: Simulation Methods, Software, and Validity Illustrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustejovsky, James E.; Runyon, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Direct observation recording procedures produce reductive summary measurements of an underlying stream of behavior. Previous methodological studies of these recording procedures have employed simulation methods for generating random behavior streams, many of which amount to special cases of a statistical model known as the alternating renewal…

  1. Accelerating the Use of Weblogs as an Alternative Method to Deliver Case-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Charlie; Wu, Jiinpo; Yang, Samuel C.

    2008-01-01

    Weblog technology is an alternative medium to deliver the case-based method of learning business concepts. The social nature of this technology can potentially promote active learning and enhance analytical ability of students. The present research investigates the primary factors contributing to the adoption of Weblog technology by students to…

  2. Discovering the best: Informational efficiency and liquidity of alternative trading mechanisms in experimental asset markets

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports the results of 18 experimental asset markets with 262 subjects that explore the effects of liquidity and aggregation of information. The main focus lies on the comparison of different trading mechanisms of stock exchanges. Compared to most of financial markets experiments, reality is met by introducing long-living assets and integrating all subjects in a multi-period decision-making process. In accordance with the evidence from the empirical research in real financial marke...

  3. Theoretical and experimental studies on combustion of alternative fuels in cement kilns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axelsen, Ernst Petter

    2002-07-01

    In this thesis, the utilization of alternative fuels for NOx reduction by means of reburning and advanced reburning is considered. Laboratory experiments, full-scale experiments and computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations are the basis of the thesis. The goal of the work was to characterize alternative fuels used in cement kilns, with focus on the processes taking place in the precalciner of the cement kiln. To facilitate testing under controlled process conditions, a lab-scale circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) reactor was designed and constructed. A co prehensive study on the fluidization regime in CFBC reactors and precalciners was required to ensure and verify that the operational regime in the CFBC reactor was similar to the regime in a precalciner. Different alternative fuels, such as refuse derived fuel, animal meal and solid hazardous waste, were tested in the CFBC reactor, which proved well suited for characterization of alternative fuels and investigations of NOx reduction, even though the operation of a CFBC reactor is quite complex and gives a certain variation in stability. Experiments with and without circulating mass in the CFBC reactor demonstrated the importance of executing the laboratory combustion experiments in an environment similar to that in the full-scale process, i.e. in the precalciner. Animal meal is believed to follow the reduction route of selective non-catalytic r duction or advanced reburning and to have a special capability of reducing NOx during increased NOx concentrations at the reactor inlet. The increased CO emissions during advanced reburning and reburning with animal meal are most likely to be due to the competition for the OH radical during oxidation of CO and of NH{sub 3}. Furthermore, it was shown, for all fuels, that an increased concentration of NOx at the reactor inlet increases the ratio of NOx at the exit and NOx supplied. Full-scale experiments were executed at Norcem's kiln 6 in Brevik, using

  4. Using a Forensic Research Method for Establishing an Alternative Method for Audience Measurement in Print Advertising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Marcus; Krause, Niels; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe

    2012-01-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of the survey approach are discussed. It is hypothesized that observational methods sometimes constitute reasonable and powerful substitute to traditional survey methods. Under certain circumstances, unobtrusive methods may even outperform traditional techniques. Non-...

  5. Surveying immigrants without sampling frames - evaluating the success of alternative field methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichel, David; Morales, Laura

    2017-01-01

    This paper evaluates the sampling methods of an international survey, the Immigrant Citizens Survey, which aimed at surveying immigrants from outside the European Union (EU) in 15 cities in seven EU countries. In five countries, no sample frame was available for the target population. Consequently, alternative ways to obtain a representative sample had to be found. In three countries 'location sampling' was employed, while in two countries traditional methods were used with adaptations to reach the target population. The paper assesses the main methodological challenges of carrying out a survey among a group of immigrants for whom no sampling frame exists. The samples of the survey in these five countries are compared to results of official statistics in order to assess the accuracy of the samples obtained through the different sampling methods. It can be shown that alternative sampling methods can provide meaningful results in terms of core demographic characteristics although some estimates differ to some extent from the census results.

  6. An evaluation of alternative cleaning methods for removing an organic contaminant from a stainless steel part

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, J.L.

    1996-08-01

    As of December 1995, the manufacture of Freon, along with many other chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), was prohibited by the Clean Air Act of 1990 (CAA). The ban of CFC solvents has forced manufacturers across the country to search for alternative metal cleaning techniques. The objective of this study was to develop a thorough, scientific based approach for resolving one specific manufacturer`s problem of removing organic contamination from a stainless steel part. This objective was accomplished with an approach that involved: (1) defining the problem, (2) identifying the process constraints, (3) researching alternate cleaning methods, (4) researching applicable government regulations, (5) performing a scientific evaluation and (6) drawing conclusions.

  7. An alternative method for modeling the size distribution of top wealth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanjun; You, Shibing

    2016-09-01

    The Pareto distribution has been widely applied in modeling the distribution of wealth, as well as top incomes, cities and firms. However, recent evidence has shown that the Pareto distribution is not consistent with many situations in which it was previously considered applicable. We propose an alternative method for estimating the upper tail distribution of wealth and suggest a new Lorenz curve for building models to provide such estimates. Applying our new models to the Forbes World's Billionaire Lists, we show that they significantly outperform the Pareto Lorenz curve as well as some other popular alternatives.

  8. The Worldsheet Formulation as an Alternative Method for Simulating Dynamical Fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Fort, H

    1998-01-01

    The recently proposed worldsheet formulation of lattice fermions is tested for the first time carrying out a simulation for the simplest model: the one-flavor, strictly massless lattice Schwinger model. A main advantage of this alternative method for simulating dynamical fermions consists in its economy: it involves many fewer degrees of freedom than the ordinary Kogut-Susskind formulation. The known continuum limit is reproduced by the method for relatively small lattices.

  9. An Alternating Direction Method for Convex Quadratic Second-Order Cone Programming with Bounded Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Xuewen Mu; Yaling Zhang

    2015-01-01

    An alternating direction method is proposed for convex quadratic second-order cone programming problems with bounded constraints. In the algorithm, the primal problem is equivalent to a separate structure convex quadratic programming over second-order cones and a bounded set. At each iteration, we only need to compute the metric projection onto the second-order cones and the projection onto the bound set. The result of convergence is given. Numerical results demonstrate that our method is ...

  10. Discrimination of approved drugs from experimental drugs by learning methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yixue

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess whether a compound is druglike or not as early as possible is always critical in drug discovery process. There have been many efforts made to create sets of 'rules' or 'filters' which, it is hoped, will help chemists to identify 'drug-like' molecules from 'non-drug' molecules. However, among the chemical space of the druglike molecules, the minority will be approved drugs. Classifying approved drugs from experimental drugs may be more helpful to obtain future approved drugs. Therefore, discrimination of approved drugs from experimental ones has been done in this paper by analyzing the compounds in terms of existing drugs features and machine learning methods. Results Four methodologies were compared by their performance to classify approved drugs from experimental ones. The best results were obtained by SVM, in which the accuracy is 0.7911, the sensitivity is 0.5929, and the specificity is 0.8743. Based on the results, consensus model was developed to effectively discriminate drugs, which further pushed the correct classification rate up to 0.8517, sensitivity up to 0.7242, specificity up to 0.9352. The applications on the Traditional Chinese Medicine Ingredients Database (TCM-ID tested the methods. Therefore this model has been proven to be a potent tool for identifying drug molecules. Conclusion The studies would have potential applications in the research of combinatorial library design and virtual high throughput screening for drug discovery.

  11. RESEARCH METHODS OF SATURATED VAPOR PRESSURE AND EXPERIMENTAL INSTALLATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharchenko P. M.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The static method is the most common, because it is applicable for measuring SVP of substances in wide ranges of temperatures and pressures. The essence of the method consists in measuring of vapor pressure in equilibrium with its liquid at a given temperature. Dynamic method is based on measurement of the boiling point of the liquid at a certain pressure. Saturation method of moving gas used in the case when the SVP does not exceed a few mm Hg. The method consists the following: the liquid is passed through the inert gas and saturated with vapor of liquids and then it flows into a cooler where the absorbed vapors are condensed. Knowing the amount of absorbed liquid and gas, as well as their molecular weight, allow us calculate saturated vapor pressure of the liquid. Knudsen effusion method is applicable for the measurement of very low pressures (up to 100 Pa. This method consists in researching of depending between the pressure and volume of saturated steam at a constant temperature. At the point of saturation an isotherm should have a break and turn into a straight line. Chromatographic method is based on complete chromatographic analysis of liquid and calculating the sum of partial pressures of all mixture components. Also, the article has a description of existing experimental installation for these researches and their advantages and disadvantages compared with each other

  12. Friction stir welding - an alternative method for sealing nuclear waste storage canisters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, R.E. [TWI Ltd, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2004-12-01

    When welding 50 mm thick copper a very high heat input is required to combat the high thermal diffusivity and only the Electron Beam Welding (EBW) process had this capability when this copper canister concept was conceived. Despite the encouraging results achieved using EBW with thick section copper, SKB felt that it would be prudent to assess other joining methods. This assessment concluded that friction welding, could also provide very high quality welds to satisfy the service life requirements of the SKB canister design. A friction welding variant called Friction Stir Welding (FSW) was shown to have the capability of welding 3 mm thick copper sheet with excellent integrity and reproducibility. This later provided sufficient encouragement for SKB to consider the potential of FSW as a method for joining thick section copper, using relatively simple machine tool based technology. It was thought that FSW might provide an alternative or complementary method for welding lids, or bases to canisters. In 1997 an FSW development programme started at TWI, focussed on the feasibility of welding 10 mm thick copper plate. Once this task was successfully completed, work continued to demonstrate that progressively thicker plate, up to 50 mm thick, could be joined. At this stage, with process viability established, a full size experimental FSW canister machine was designed and built. Work with this machine finished in January 2003, when it had been shown that FSW could definitely be used to weld lids to full size canisters. This report summarises the TWI development of FSW for SKB from 1997 to January 2003. It also highlights the important aspects of the process and the project milestones that will help to ensure that SKB has a welding technology that can be used with confidence for production fabrication of copper waste storage canisters in the future. The overall conclusion to this FSW development is that there is no doubt that the FSW process could be used to produce full

  13. Experimental comparison of alternative convection suppression arrangements for concentrating integral collector storage solar water heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smyth, M.; McGarrigle, P.; Eames, P.C. [Ulster Univ., School of the Built Environment, Newtownabbey, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Norton, B. [Dublin Inst. of Technology, Dublin (Ireland)

    2005-02-01

    An experimental investigation of an inverted absorber integrated collector storage solar water heater mounted in the tertiary cavity of a compound parabolic concentrator with a secondary cylindrical reflector has been performed under simulated solar conditions. The solar water heaters performance was determined with the aperture parallel to the simulator for a range of transparent baffles positioned at different locations within the collector cavity. Results indicate that glass baffles located at the upper portion of the exit aperture of the CPC can reduce thermal losses through convection suppression without significantly increasing optical losses. (Author)

  14. Experimental Evaluation of RGB-D Visual Odometry Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Fang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available RGB-D cameras that can provide rich 2D visual and 3D depth information are well suited to the motion estimation of indoor mobile robots. In recent years, several RGBD visual odometry methods that process data from the sensor in different ways have been proposed. This paper first presents a brief review of recently proposed RGBD visual odometry methods, and then presents a detailed analysis and comparison of eight state-of-the-art realtime 6DOF motion estimation methods in a variety of challenging scenarios, with a special emphasis on the trade-off between accuracy, robustness and computation speed. An experimental comparison is conducted using publicly available benchmark datasets and author-collected datasets in various scenarios, including long corridors, illumination changing environments and fast motion scenarios. Experimental results present both quantitative and qualitative differences between these methods and provide some guidelines on how to choose the right algorithm for an indoor mobile robot according to the quality of the RGB-D data and environmental characteristics.

  15. Causal attribution and Mill's methods of experimental inquiry: past, present and prospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, P A

    2000-09-01

    J. S. Mill proposed a set of Methods of Experimental Inquiry that were intended to guide causal inference under every conceivable set of circumstances in which experiments or observations could be carried out. The conceptual and historical relationship between these Methods and modern models of causal attribution is investigated. Mill's work retains contemporary relevance because his insights show how research can progress into presently uncharted waters. Following Mill, it is proposed that people use many different methods of causal attribution, the nature of which remains to be ascertained, and that the conditions that affect choice of method include the need to eliminate alternative causal candidates, whether single or multiple events are to be explained, the use of intervention or experiment as opposed to mere observation, and practical concerns.

  16. Biodiesel production by biocatalysis using alternative method for lipase immobilization in hydrogel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Marder

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The society has been looking for alternatives in order to stop the process of environmental destruction installed in the world, however, starting from last century, a new vision on the indiscriminate use of the environmental resources started to be discussed leading to the use of new technologies of production of cleaner fuel, as the biodiesel, produced from vegetable oils. The enzymatic processes are a production alternative, for they are methods with losses reduction and larger efficiency, presenting however, high production cost. With the objective of reducing costs and increasing the efficiency we have searched the enzymes immobilization through alternative method and to use them as biocatalysts in the biodiesel production. The immobilization of the lipase PS Amano was accomplished in spheres formed by the hydration of commercial hydrogel in aqueous solution containing the enzyme. With the immobilized enzyme it was accomplished the transesterification, in which it was obtained conversions in methyl esters of up to 70%, in organic solvent, with 24h, 55°C, 100 rpm and 40 hydrogel spheres with immobilized enzyme. The method comes as a promising alternative technology for the biodiesel obtaining.

  17. Direct PCR: Alternative Diagnostic Method for Diagnosis of Diphtheria Rapidly, Easily and Cost Effective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunarno Sunarno

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Some diseases require immediate and appropriate treatment to decrease the fatality risk patients incident, for example diphtheria. Time to help patients is very crucial since delay of therapy may increase the mortality cases up to 20 times. In other hands, conventional diagnostic methods (the gold standard for diagnosis of diphtheria is time consuming and laborious. Therefore, an alternative diagnostic method which is rapid, easy and inexpensive is needed. In this case, direct PCR has been proved to reduce time and cost in laboratory examination. This study aimed to develop direct PCR as alternative diagnostic method for diagnosis of diphtheria rapidly, easily, and inexpensive. Fifteen samples include 10 isolates of Corynebacterium diphtheriae (toxigenic and 3 isolates of Corynebacterium non- diphtheriae (nontoxigenic and 2 clinical specimens (throat swab was examined by performing direct PCR method and a standard PCR method was used for optimizing the protocols. Result showed that direct PCR can be used to amplify target genes correctly as well as standard PCR. All of C. diphtheriae samples showed bands at 168 bp (dtxR gene marker and 551 bp (tox gene marker while no band appeared in others. Direct PCR detected at least 71 CFU/uL of bacterial cells in samples. We concluded that direct PCR can be used for alternative diagnostic method for diagnosis of diphtheria which is rapid, easy and cost effective.

  18. Big Bang, inflation, standard Physics… and the potentialities of new Physics and alternative cosmologies. Present statuts of observational and experimental Cosmology. Open questions and potentialities of alternative cosmologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Mestres, Luis

    2016-11-01

    A year ago, we wrote [1] that the field of Cosmology was undergoing a positive and constructive crisis. The possible development of more direct links between the Mathematical Physics aspects of cosmological patterns and the interpretation of experimental and observational results was particularly emphasized. Controversies on inflation are not really new, but in any case inflation is not required in pre-Big Bang models and the validity of the standard Big Bang + inflation + ΛCDM pattern has not by now been demonstrated by data. Planck has even explicitly reported the existence of "anomalies". Remembering the far-reaching work of Yoichiro Nambu published in 1959-61, it seems legitimate to underline the need for a cross-disciplinary approach in the presence of deep, unsolved theoretical problems concerning new domains of matter properties and of the physical world. The physics of a possible preonic vacuum and the associated cosmology constitute one of these domains. If the vacuum is made of superluminal preons (superbradyons), and if standard particles are vacuum excitations, how to build a suitable theory to describe the internal structure of such a vacuum at both local and cosmic level? Experimental programs (South Pole, Atacama, AUGER, Telescope Array…) and observational ones (Planck, JEM-EUSO…) devoted to the study of cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) and of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) are crucial to elucidate such theoretical interrogations and guide new phenomenological developments. Together with a brief review of the observational and experimental situation, we also examine the main present theoretical and phenomenological problems and point out the role new physics and alternative cosmologies can potentially play. The need for data analyses less focused a priori on the standard models of Particle Physics and Cosmology is emphasized in this discussion. An example of a new approach to both fields is provided by the pre-Big Bang pattern

  19. Pectin extraction from quince (Cydonia oblonga) pomace applying alternative methods: effect of process variables and preliminary optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Valeria Anahí; Lozano, Jorge E; Genovese, Diego Bautista

    2014-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to introduce alternative methods in the process of pectin extraction from quince pomace, to determine the effect of selected process variables (factors) on the obtained pectin, and to perform a preliminary optimization of the process. A fractional factorial experimental design was applied, where the factors considered were six: quince pomace pretreatment (washing vs blanching), drying method (hot air vs LPSSD), acid extraction conditions (pH, temperature, and time), and pectin extract concentration method (vacuum evaporation vs ultrafiltration). The effects of these factors and their interactions on pectin yield (Y: 0.2-34.2 mg/g), GalA content (44.5-76.2%), and DM (47.5-90.9%), were determined. For these three responses, extraction pH was the main effect, but it was involved in two and three factors interactions. Regarding alternative methods, LPSSD was required for maximum Y and GalA, and ultrafiltration for maximum GalA and DM. Response models were used to predict optimum process conditions (quince blanching, pomace drying by LPSSD, acid extraction at pH 2.20, 80 , 3 h, and concentration under vacuum) to simultaneously maximize Y (25.2 mg/g), GalA (66.3%), and DM (66.4%).

  20. Method for exploiting bias in factor analysis using constrained alternating least squares algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Michael R.

    2008-12-30

    Bias plays an important role in factor analysis and is often implicitly made use of, for example, to constrain solutions to factors that conform to physical reality. However, when components are collinear, a large range of solutions may exist that satisfy the basic constraints and fit the data equally well. In such cases, the introduction of mathematical bias through the application of constraints may select solutions that are less than optimal. The biased alternating least squares algorithm of the present invention can offset mathematical bias introduced by constraints in the standard alternating least squares analysis to achieve factor solutions that are most consistent with physical reality. In addition, these methods can be used to explicitly exploit bias to provide alternative views and provide additional insights into spectral data sets.

  1. An evaluation of alternate production methods for Pu-238 general purpose heat source pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Borland; Steve Frank

    2009-06-01

    For the past half century, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has used Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) to power deep space satellites. Fabricating heat sources for RTGs, specifically General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHSs), has remained essentially unchanged since their development in the 1970s. Meanwhile, 30 years of technological advancements have been made in the applicable fields of chemistry, manufacturing and control systems. This paper evaluates alternative processes that could be used to produce Pu 238 fueled heat sources. Specifically, this paper discusses the production of the plutonium-oxide granules, which are the input stream to the ceramic pressing and sintering processes. Alternate chemical processes are compared to current methods to determine if alternative fabrication processes could reduce the hazards, especially the production of respirable fines, while producing an equivalent GPHS product.

  2. Use of Biosensors as Alternatives to Current Regulatory Methods for Marine Biotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. Botana

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Marine toxins are currently monitored by means of a bioassay that requires the use of many mice, which poses a technical and ethical problem in many countries. With the exception of domoic acid, there is a legal requirement for the presence of other toxins (yessotoxin, saxitoxin and analogs, okadaic acid and analogs, pectenotoxins and azaspiracids in seafood to be controlled by bioassay, but other toxins, such as palytoxin, cyclic imines, ciguatera and tetrodotoxin are potentially present in European food and there are no legal requirements or technical approaches available to identify their presence. The need for alternative methods to the bioassay is clearly important, and biosensors have become in recent years a feasible alternative to animal sacrifice. This review will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using biosensors as alternatives to animal assays for marine toxins, with particular focus on surface plasmon resonance (SPR technology.

  3. Habitat structure mediates predation risk for sedentary prey: Experimental tests of alternative hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalfoun, A.D.; Martin, T.E.

    2009-01-01

    Predation is an important and ubiquitous selective force that can shape habitat preferences of prey species, but tests of alternative mechanistic hypotheses of habitat influences on predation risk are lacking. 2. We studied predation risk at nest sites of a passerine bird and tested two hypotheses based on theories of predator foraging behaviour. The total-foliage hypothesis predicts that predation will decline in areas of greater overall vegetation density by impeding cues for detection by predators. The potential-prey-site hypothesis predicts that predation decreases where predators must search more unoccupied potential nest sites. 3. Both observational data and results from a habitat manipulation provided clear support for the potential-prey-site hypothesis and rejection of the total-foliage hypothesis. Birds chose nest patches containing both greater total foliage and potential nest site density (which were correlated in their abundance) than at random sites, yet only potential nest site density significantly influenced nest predation risk. 4. Our results therefore provided a clear and rare example of adaptive nest site selection that would have been missed had structural complexity or total vegetation density been considered alone. 5. Our results also demonstrated that interactions between predator foraging success and habitat structure can be more complex than simple impedance or occlusion by vegetation. ?? 2008 British Ecological Society.

  4. A first vascularized skin equivalent for as an alternative to animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeber, Florian; Engelhardt, Lisa; Lange, Julia; Kurdyn, Szymon; Schmid, Freia F; Rücker, Christoph; Mielke, Stephan; Walles, Heike; Hansmann, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Tissue-engineered skin equivalents mimic key aspects of the human skin, and can thus be employed as wound coverage for large skin defects or as in vitro test systems as an alternative to animal models. However, current skin equivalents lack a functional vasculature limiting clinical and research applications. This study demonstrates the generation of a vascularized skin equivalent with a perfused vascular network by combining a biological vascularized scaffold (BioVaSc) based on a decellularized segment of a porcine jejunum and a tailored bioreactor system. Briefly, the BioVaSc was seeded with human fibroblasts, keratinocytes, and human microvascular endothelial cells. After 14 days at the air-liquid interface, hematoxylin & eosin and immunohistological staining revealed a specific histological architecture representative of the human dermis and epidermis including a papillary-like architecture at the dermal-epidermal-junction. The formation of the skin barrier was measured non-destructively using impedance spectroscopy. Additionally, endothelial cells lined the walls of the formed vessels that could be perfused with a physiological volume flow. Due to the presence of a complex in-vivo-like vasculature, the here shown skin equivalent has the potential for skin grafting and represents a sophisticated in vitro model for dermatological research.

  5. Experimental investigations on mixing of two biodiesels blended with diesel as alternative fuel for diesel engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Srithar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The world faces the crises of energy demand, rising petroleum prices and depletion of fossil fuel resources. Biodiesel has obtained from vegetable oils that have been considered as a promising alternate fuel. The researches regarding blend of diesel and single biodiesel have been done already. Very few works have been done with the combination of two different biodiesel blends with diesel and left a lot of scope in this area. The present study brings out an experiment of two biodiesels from pongamia pinnata oil and mustard oil and they are blended with diesel at various mixing ratios. The effects of dual biodiesel works in engine and exhaust emissions were examined in a single cylinder, direct injection, air cooled and high speed diesel engine at various engine loads with constant engine speed of 3000 rpm. The influences of blends on CO, CO2, HC, NOx and smoke opacity were investigated by emission tests. The brake thermal efficiency of blend A was found higher than diesel. The emissions of smoke, hydro carbon and nitrogen oxides of dual biodiesel blends were higher than that of diesel. But the exhaust gas temperature for dual biodiesel blends was lower than diesel.

  6. Prediction-correction alternating direction method for a class of constrained rain-max problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Min; HE Bingsheng

    2007-01-01

    The problems concerned in this paper are a class of constrained min-max problems. By introducing the Lagrange multipliers to the linearconstraints, such problems can be solved by some projection type prediction-correction methods. However, to obtain components of the predictor one by one, we use an alternating direction method. And then the new iterate is generated by a minor correction. Global convergence of the proposed method is proved. Finally, numerical results for a constrained single-facility location problem are provided to verify that the new method is effective for some practical problems.

  7. Alternative methods for dispoal of low-level radioactive wastes. Task 1. Description of methods and assessment of criteria. [Alternative methods are belowground vaults, aboveground vaults; earth mounded concrete bunkers, mined cavities, augered holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, R.D.; Miller, W.O.; Warriner, J.B.; Malone, P.G.; McAneny, C.C.

    1984-04-01

    The study reported herein contains the results of Task 1 of a four-task study entitled Criteria for Evaluating Engineered Facilities. The overall objective of this study is to ensure that the criteria needed to evaluate five alternative low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal methods are available to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Agreement States. The alternative methods considered are belowground vaults, aboveground vaults, earth mounded concrete bunkers, mined cavities, and augered holes. Each of these alternatives is either being used by other countries for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal or is being considered by other countries or US agencies. In this report the performance requirements are listed, each alternative is described, the experience gained with its use is discussed, and the performance capabilities of each method are addressed. Next, the existing 10 CFR Part 61 Subpart D criteria with respect to paragraphs 61.50 through 61.53, pertaining to site suitability, design, operations and closure, and monitoring are assessed for applicability to evaluation of each alternative. Preliminary conclusions and recommendations are offered on each method's suitability as an LLW disposal alternative, the applicability of the criteria, and the need for supplemental or modified criteria.

  8. Parents' attitude toward multiple vaccinations at a single visit with alternative delivery methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaaijk, Patricia; Kleijne, Deborah E; Knol, Mirjam J; Harmsen, Irene A; Ophorst, Olga J A E; Rots, Nynke Y

    2014-01-01

    Last decades, the number of routine childhood vaccinations has increased considerably, which consequently has led to multiple vaccine injections per consultation. Implementation of additional vaccines will probably lead to more than 2 vaccine injections per consult, which might be a barrier for parents to vaccinate their child. A decrease in vaccination coverage, however, increases the risk of disease outbreaks. Less stressful alternative methods for vaccine delivery might lead to an increased acceptance of multiple childhood vaccinations by parents. The present questionnaire study was set up to explore the maximum number of vaccine injections per visit that is acceptable for parents, as well as to gauge parents' attitude toward alternative needle-free methods for vaccine delivery. For this purpose, the parents' opinion toward a jet injector, a patch, a microneedle system, and nasal spray device as methods for vaccine delivery was assessed. The majority of the 1154 participating parents indicated that 3 vaccine injections per visit was perceived as too much. Most participants had a positive attitude with respect to the jet injector and the patch as alternative vaccine delivery method, whereas the microneedle device and an intranasal spray device were not perceived as better than the conventional syringe by the parents. Parents indicated that both the jet injector and the patch might increase their acceptance of giving their children more than 2 vaccinations at the same time. This should encourage vaccine developers and manufacturers to put efforts in developing these delivery methods for their vaccines.

  9. Fast acquisition of multidimensional NMR spectra of solids and mesophases using alternative sampling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesot, Philippe; Kazimierczuk, Krzysztof; Trébosc, Julien; Amoureux, Jean-Paul; Lafon, Olivier

    2015-11-01

    Unique information about the atom-level structure and dynamics of solids and mesophases can be obtained by the use of multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments. Nevertheless, the acquisition of these experiments often requires long acquisition times. We review here alternative sampling methods, which have been proposed to circumvent this issue in the case of solids and mesophases. Compared to the spectra of solutions, those of solids and mesophases present some specificities because they usually display lower signal-to-noise ratios, non-Lorentzian line shapes, lower spectral resolutions and wider spectral widths. We highlight herein the advantages and limitations of these alternative sampling methods. A first route to accelerate the acquisition time of multidimensional NMR spectra consists in the use of sparse sampling schemes, such as truncated, radial or random sampling ones. These sparsely sampled datasets are generally processed by reconstruction methods differing from the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). A host of non-DFT methods have been applied for solids and mesophases, including the G-matrix Fourier transform, the linear least-square procedures, the covariance transform, the maximum entropy and the compressed sensing. A second class of alternative sampling consists in departing from the Jeener paradigm for multidimensional NMR experiments. These non-Jeener methods include Hadamard spectroscopy as well as spatial or orientational encoding of the evolution frequencies. The increasing number of high field NMR magnets and the development of techniques to enhance NMR sensitivity will contribute to widen the use of these alternative sampling methods for the study of solids and mesophases in the coming years.

  10. Testing alternative ground water models using cross-validation and other methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foglia, L.; Mehl, S.W.; Hill, M.C.; Perona, P.; Burlando, P.

    2007-01-01

    Many methods can be used to test alternative ground water models. Of concern in this work are methods able to (1) rank alternative models (also called model discrimination) and (2) identify observations important to parameter estimates and predictions (equivalent to the purpose served by some types of sensitivity analysis). Some of the measures investigated are computationally efficient; others are computationally demanding. The latter are generally needed to account for model nonlinearity. The efficient model discrimination methods investigated include the information criteria: the corrected Akaike information criterion, Bayesian information criterion, and generalized cross-validation. The efficient sensitivity analysis measures used are dimensionless scaled sensitivity (DSS), composite scaled sensitivity, and parameter correlation coefficient (PCC); the other statistics are DFBETAS, Cook's D, and observation-prediction statistic. Acronyms are explained in the introduction. Cross-validation (CV) is a computationally intensive nonlinear method that is used for both model discrimination and sensitivity analysis. The methods are tested using up to five alternative parsimoniously constructed models of the ground water system of the Maggia Valley in southern Switzerland. The alternative models differ in their representation of hydraulic conductivity. A new method for graphically representing CV and sensitivity analysis results for complex models is presented and used to evaluate the utility of the efficient statistics. The results indicate that for model selection, the information criteria produce similar results at much smaller computational cost than CV. For identifying important observations, the only obviously inferior linear measure is DSS; the poor performance was expected because DSS does not include the effects of parameter correlation and PCC reveals large parameter correlations. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.

  11. Neuroprotection in selective focal ischemia in rats by nitrates, an alternative redox manipulation on nitric oxide: experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Zúñiga, R; Velázquez-Santana, H; Mercado-Pimentel, R; Cerda-Camacho, F

    1998-09-01

    The recent advances in the histopathology of ischemia have set forth new proposals, particularly in regard to excitotoxicity by the glutamate receptor, NMDA. The participation of the nitric oxide (NO) in normal and pathological conditions and its relationship with toxicity in ischemia, suggest new alternatives for the modulation of the NMDA receptor REDOX site through its pharmacologic manipulation. This event would potentially limit the consequences of the activation-calcium flow and the production of peroxoinitrite during the ischemic phenomenon. The present work delivers two proposals: 1) A modified technique to the ones that have been described, of endovascular, without craniectomy, for experimental cerebral ischemia in Wistar rats, and with particular harmful effect upon the hippocampus. 2) It promotes the use of nitrates as an additional alternative to other elements, in order to restrict excitotoxicity in the described experimental cerebral ischemia, and paying attention to CA1-CA2 of the hippocampus. This area, specially sensitive to hypoxia-ischemia, offers an excellent study option for focal, experimental, cerebral ischemia associated with toxicity mediated by excitatory amino acids, since it stores an important concentration of NMDA receptors (R1/R2 A) as well as endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Our parameters are supported by quantitative-qualitative cell analysis, and not by the extension of the stroke which offers a more objective perspective upon the assessment of the focal ischemic event. By means of this technique, these results confirm the extent of the ischemic injury to the cell at the level of the hippocampus compared to a control/basal group, P = 0.0006. Furthermore, it suggests a neuroprotective effect of isosorbide dinitrate since it preserves the viable cells, and limits the appearance of hypoxic-ischemic cells at the hippocampus when the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is occluded endovascularly, as compared to the animals with no treatment

  12. Experimental study on spray characteristics of alternate jet fuels using Phase Doppler Anemometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannaiyan, Kumaran; Sadr, Reza

    2013-11-01

    Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) fuels have gained global attention due to their cleaner combustion characteristics. The chemical and physical properties of GTL jet fuels are different from conventional jet fuels owing to the difference in their production methodology. It is important to study the spray characteristics of GTL jet fuels as the change of physical properties can affect atomization, mixing, evaporation and combustion process, ultimately affecting emission process. In this work, spray characteristics of two GTL synthetic jet fuels are studied using a pressure-swirl nozzle at different injection pressures and atmospheric ambient condition. Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) measurements of droplet size and velocity are compared with those of regular Jet A-1 fuel at several axial and radial locations downstream of the nozzle exit. Experimental results show that although the GTL fuels have different physical properties such as viscosity, density, and surface tension, among each other the resultant change in the spray characteristics is insignificant. Furthermore, the presented results show that GTL fuel spray characteristics exhibit close similarity to those of Jet A-1 fuel. Funded by Qatar Science and Technology Park.

  13. Evaluation of Alternatives to the Ontario Hydro Method as a Reference Method for CAMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis L. Laudal

    2007-03-31

    In June 2005, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) finalized the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR). As part of the rule, all coal-fired power plants will be required to do continuous mercury measurements. To complete the required relative accuracy test assessment (RATA), the only reference methods allowed are the wet-chemistry methods: the Ontario Hydro (OH) mercury speciation method (ASTM International D6784-02) and EPA Method 29. Either method will be a challenge and expensive. It would be much more desirable to use an instrumental reference method (IRM) or use sorbent traps as a reference method so that the results can be obtained quickly and cheaply. This report presents the results from testing at Reliant Energy, Inc.'s, Portland Station. The project was designed to compare mercury concentrations measured using sorbent traps to those obtained using the OH method. The tests were done using a RATA scenario and at three different conditions. In addition, as part of the project, limited IRM testing was also completed. The results from the testing show that the sorbent traps compared very well with the OH method and, therefore, must be considered as a potential reference method. Although the IRM testing using manual injection of elemental and oxidized mercury for dynamic spiking showed some promise, it was clear that additional testing was needed. However, this method of dynamic spiking may not be acceptable to EPA, as it does not consider vapor pressure curves for elemental mercury a National Institute of Standards Technology traceable standard.

  14. Performance of two alternative methods for Listeria detection throughout Serro Minas cheese ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardênia Márcia Silva Campos Mata

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The ability of pathogens to survive cheese ripening is a food-security concern. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the performance of two alternative methods of analysis of Listeria during the ripening of artisanal Minas cheese. These methods were tested and compared with the conventional method: Lateral Flow System™, in cheeses produced on laboratory scale using raw milk collected from different farms and inoculated with Listeria innocua; and VIDAS®-LMO, in cheese samples collected from different manufacturers in Serro, Minas Gerais, Brazil. These samples were also characterized in terms of lactic acid bacteria, coliforms and physical-chemical analysis. In the inoculated samples, L. innocua was detected by Lateral Flow System™ method with 33% false-negative and 68% accuracy results. L. innocua was only detected in the inoculated samples by the conventional method at 60-days of cheese ripening. L. monocytogenes was not detected by the conventional and the VIDAS®-LMO methods in cheese samples collected from different manufacturers, which impairs evaluating the performance of this alternative method. We concluded that the conventional method provided a better recovery of L. innocua throughout cheese ripening, being able to detect L. innocua at 60-day, aging period which is required by the current legislation.

  15. Performance of two alternative methods for Listeria detection throughout Serro Minas cheese ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Gardênia Márcia Silva Campos; Martins, Evandro; Machado, Solimar Gonçalves; Pinto, Maximiliano Soares; de Carvalho, Antônio Fernandes; Vanetti, Maria Cristina Dantas

    2016-01-01

    The ability of pathogens to survive cheese ripening is a food-security concern. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the performance of two alternative methods of analysis of Listeria during the ripening of artisanal Minas cheese. These methods were tested and compared with the conventional method: Lateral Flow System™, in cheeses produced on laboratory scale using raw milk collected from different farms and inoculated with Listeria innocua; and VIDAS(®)-LMO, in cheese samples collected from different manufacturers in Serro, Minas Gerais, Brazil. These samples were also characterized in terms of lactic acid bacteria, coliforms and physical-chemical analysis. In the inoculated samples, L. innocua was detected by Lateral Flow System™ method with 33% false-negative and 68% accuracy results. L. innocua was only detected in the inoculated samples by the conventional method at 60-days of cheese ripening. L. monocytogenes was not detected by the conventional and the VIDAS(®)-LMO methods in cheese samples collected from different manufacturers, which impairs evaluating the performance of this alternative method. We concluded that the conventional method provided a better recovery of L. innocua throughout cheese ripening, being able to detect L. innocua at 60-day, aging period which is required by the current legislation.

  16. Theoretical and experimental physical methods of neutron-capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, G. I.

    2011-09-01

    This review is based to a substantial degree on our priority developments and research at the IR-8 reactor of the Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute. New theoretical and experimental methods of neutron-capture therapy are developed and applied in practice; these are: A general analytical and semi-empiric theory of neutron-capture therapy (NCT) based on classical neutron physics and its main sections (elementary theories of moderation, diffuse, reflection, and absorption of neutrons) rather than on methods of mathematical simulation. The theory is, first of all, intended for practical application by physicists, engineers, biologists, and physicians. This theory can be mastered by anyone with a higher education of almost any kind and minimal experience in operating a personal computer.

  17. Experimental facility and void fraction calibration methods for impedance probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Fernando L. de; Rocha, Marcelo S., E-mail: floliveira@ipen.br, E-mail: msrocha@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    An experimental facility was designed and constructed with aims of to calibrate a capacitance probe for gas-liquid flow void fraction measurements. The facility is composed of a metallic hack with a vertical 2,300 mm high glass tube with 38 mm ID with stagnant water and compressed air bubbling system simulating the gas phase (vapor). At the lower part, a mixing section with a porous media element releases the air bubbles into the water, and the compressed air flow is measured by two calibrated rotameters. At the upper part a stagnant water tank separates the liquid and gas. Two pressure taps are located near the lower and upper sides of the glass tube for pressure difference measurement. The pressure difference is used for low void fraction values (0-15%) calibration methods, as described in the work. Two electrically controlled quick closing valves are installed between the porous media element and the upward separation tank for high void fraction values measurement (15-50%) used to calibrate the capacitance probe. The experimental facility design, construction, capacitance probe calibration methods and results, as well as flow pattern visualization, are presented. Finally, the capacitance probe will be installed on a natural circulation circuit mounted at the Nuclear Engineering Center (CEN/IPEN/CNEN-SP) for measurement of the instantaneous bulk void. Instantaneous signals generated by the capacitance probe will allow the determination of natural circulation loop global energy balance. (author)

  18. Literature in Focus: Statistical Methods in Experimental Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Frederick James was a high-energy physicist who became the CERN "expert" on statistics and is now well-known around the world, in part for this famous text. The first edition of Statistical Methods in Experimental Physics was originally co-written with four other authors and was published in 1971 by North Holland (now an imprint of Elsevier). It became such an important text that demand for it has continued for more than 30 years. Fred has updated it and it was released in a second edition by World Scientific in 2006. It is still a top seller and there is no exaggeration in calling it «the» reference on the subject. A full review of the title appeared in the October CERN Courier.Come and meet the author to hear more about how this book has flourished during its 35-year lifetime. Frederick James Statistical Methods in Experimental Physics Monday, 26th of November, 4 p.m. Council Chamber (Bldg. 503-1-001) The author will be introduced...

  19. Input-constrained model predictive control via the alternating direction method of multipliers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Leo Emil; Frison, Gianluca; Andersen, Martin S.;

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm, based on the alternating direction method of multipliers, for the convex optimal control problem arising in input-constrained model predictive control. We develop an efficient implementation of the algorithm for the extended linear quadratic control problem (LQCP......) with input and input-rate limits. The algorithm alternates between solving an extended LQCP and a highly structured quadratic program. These quadratic programs are solved using a Riccati iteration procedure, and a structure-exploiting interior-point method, respectively. The computational cost per iteration...... is quadratic in the dimensions of the controlled system, and linear in the length of the prediction horizon. Simulations show that the approach proposed in this paper is more than an order of magnitude faster than several state-of-the-art quadratic programming algorithms, and that the difference in computation...

  20. Design of Optimal Sparse Feedback Gains via the Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Fu; Jovanović, Mihailo R

    2011-01-01

    We design sparse and block sparse feedback gains that minimize the $H_2$ norm of distributed systems. Our approach consists of two steps. First, we identify sparsity patterns of the feedback gains by incorporating sparsity-promoting penalty functions into the $H_2$ problem, where the added terms penalize the number of communication links in the distributed controller. Second, we optimize the state feedback gains subject to the structural constraints determined by the identified sparsity patterns. This polishing step improves the $H_2$ performance of the distributed controllers. In the first step, we identify sparsity structure of the feedback gains using the alternating direction method of multipliers, which is a powerful algorithm well-suited to large optimization problems. This method alternates between optimizing the sparsity and optimizing the closed-loop $H_2$ norm, which allows us to exploit the structure of the corresponding objective functions. In particular, we take advantage of the separability of t...

  1. Alternative (non-animal) methods for cosmetics testing: current status and future prospects-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler, Sarah; Basketter, David; Creton, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    The 7th amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive prohibits to put animal-tested cosmetics on the market in Europe after 2013. In that context, the European Commission invited stakeholder bodies (industry, non-governmental organisations, EU Member States, and the Commission's Scientific Committee...... methods would not be available in time. The selected experts were asked to analyse the status and prospects of alternative methods and to provide a scientifically sound estimate of the time necessary to achieve full replacement of animal testing. In summary, the experts confirmed that it will take...... on Consumer Safety) to identify scientific experts in five toxicological areas, i.e. toxicokinetics, repeated dose toxicity, carcinogenicity, skin sensitisation, and reproductive toxicity for which the Directive foresees that the 2013 deadline could be further extended in case alternative and validated...

  2. Facile fabrication of controllable zinc oxide nanorod clusters on polyacrylonitrile nanofibers via repeatedly alternating immersion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Li, Xia; Yu, Hou-Yong; Hu, Guo-Liang; Yao, Ju-Ming

    2016-12-01

    Polyacrylonitrile/zinc oxide (PAN/ZnO) composite nanofiber membranes with different ZnO morphologies were fabricated by repeatedly alternating hot-cold immersion and single alternating hot-cold immersion methods. The influence of the PAN/ZnCl2 ratio and different immersion methods on the morphology, microstructure, and properties of the nanofiber membranes was investigated by using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. A possible mechanism for different morphologies of PAN/ZnO nanofiber membranes with different PAN/ZnCl2 ratio through different immersion processes was presented, and well-dispersed ZnO nanorod clusters with smallest average dimeter of 115 nm and hexagonal wurtzite structure were successfully anchored onto the PAN nanofiber surface for R-7/1 nanofiber membrane. Compared to S-5/1 prepared by single alternating hot-cold immersion method, the PAN/ZnO nanofiber membrane fabricated by repeatedly alternating hot-cold immersion method (especially for R-7/1) showed improved thermal stability and high photocatalytic activity for methylene blue (MB). Compared to S-5/1, decomposition temperature at 5% weight loss ( T 5%) was increased by 43 °C from 282 to 325 °C for R-7/1; meanwhile, R-7/1 showed higher photocatalytic degradation ratio of approximately 100% (after UV light irradiation for 8 h) than 65% for S-5/1 even after irradiation for 14 h. Moreover, the degradation efficiency of R-7/1 with good reuse stability remained above 94% after 3 cycles.

  3. An alternative method to estimate WiP inventory for cultivated assets

    OpenAIRE

    野村, 浩二

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are to describe the problems with the current estimates for WiP inventories of cultivated assets in Japan's system of national accounts and to propose an alternative method of dealing with these assets. There is a huge di erence between inventory stock measurement that are compiled according to the 1968 SNA versus the 1993 SNA for Japan's national accounts. This leads to non-negligible di erences for productivity measures when inventories are treated as a capital ...

  4. The viability of alternative assessment methods in the Greek upper secondary school: the oral portfolio

    OpenAIRE

    Angeliki Daphni

    2012-01-01

    Τhe final examination of the English language subject, in the context of the Greek state upper secondary education, is a traditional paper-and-pencil test which does not include any assessment of oracy skills. This article explores the viability of the oral portfolio as an alternative assessment and pedagogic method that can facilitate the assessment of speaking and listening skills and create a more motivating learning environment. To this effect, three methodological tools were designed, na...

  5. Measurement of the resistivity of porous materials with an alternating air-flow method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragonetti, Raffaele; Ianniello, Carmine; Romano, Rosario A

    2011-02-01

    Air-flow resistivity is a main parameter governing the acoustic behavior of porous materials for sound absorption. The international standard ISO 9053 specifies two different methods to measure the air-flow resistivity, namely a steady-state air-flow method and an alternating air-flow method. The latter is realized by the measurement of the sound pressure at 2 Hz in a small rigid volume closed partially by the test sample. This cavity is excited with a known volume-velocity sound source implemented often with a motor-driven piston oscillating with prescribed area and displacement magnitude. Measurements at 2 Hz require special instrumentation and care. The authors suggest an alternating air-flow method based on the ratio of sound pressures measured at frequencies higher than 2 Hz inside two cavities coupled through a conventional loudspeaker. The basic method showed that the imaginary part of the sound pressure ratio is useful for the evaluation of the air-flow resistance. Criteria are discussed about the choice of a frequency range suitable to perform simplified calculations with respect to the basic method. These criteria depend on the sample thickness, its nonacoustic parameters, and the measurement apparatus as well. The proposed measurement method was tested successfully with various types of acoustic materials.

  6. A simple and cost-effective method, as an appropriate alternative for visible spectrophotometry: development of a dopamine biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaspour, Abdolkarim; Khajehzadeh, Abdolreza; Ghaffarinejad, Ali

    2009-08-01

    In this study, a new, simple, fast and inexpensive method as an alternative to visible spectrophotometry is developed. In this method the cells containing the sample solution were scanned with a scanner, then the color of each cell was analyzed with software written in visual basic (VB 6) media to red, green and blue values. The cells were built by creating holes in the Plexiglas sheet. The dimensions of identical cells were examined by Cr (III) solution with known concentrations. The validity of this new method was studied by determination of dopamine (DA) without using any other reagent. The parameters which affect the system were optimized. The comparison between the current and traditional UV-Vis spectrophotometry methods was studied and the results revealed similar trends in both methods. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of dopamine in serum and urine without using any pretreatment. Finally comparing the results obtained in the developed method showed that microwave irradiation of the solution can decrease the experimental time, increase sensitivity and improve the limit of detection.

  7. Harmonic amplitude dependent dynamic stiffness of hydraulic bushings: Alternate nonlinear models and experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredette, Luke; Dreyer, Jason T.; Rook, Todd E.; Singh, Rajendra

    2016-06-01

    The dynamic stiffness properties of automotive hydraulic bushings exhibit significant amplitude sensitivity which cannot be captured by linear time-invariant models. Quasi-linear and nonlinear models are therefore proposed with focus on the amplitude sensitivity in magnitude and loss angle spectra (up to 50 Hz). Since production bushing model parameters are unknown, dynamic stiffness tests and laboratory experiments are utilized to extract model parameters. Nonlinear compliance and resistance elements are incorporated, including their interactions in order to improve amplitude sensitive predictions. New solution approximations for the new nonlinear system equations refine the multi-term harmonic balance term method. Quasi-linear models yield excellent accuracy but cannot predict trends in amplitude sensitivity since they rely on available dynamic stiffness measurements. Nonlinear models containing both nonlinear resistance and compliance elements yield superior predictions to those of prior models (with a single nonlinearity) while also providing more physical insight. Suggestion for further work is briefly mentioned.

  8. Alternating Direction Finite Volume Element Methods for Three-Dimensional Parabolic Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tongke

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents alternating direction finite volume element methods for three-dimensional parabolic partial differential equations and gives four computational schemes, one is analogous to Douglas finite difference scheme with second-order splitting error, the other two schemes have third-order splitting error, and the last one is an extended LOD scheme. The L2 norm and H1 semi-norm error estimates are obtained for the first scheme and second one, respectively. Finally, two numerical examples are provided to illustrate the efficiency and accuracy of the methods.

  9. Method of estimation of selected hens welfare elements in an alternative maintenance system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Domagalski

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Broody hens welfare in an alternative maintenance system was the focus of the undertaken attempt. Both behavioural and health aspects, as well as numerous physiological indicators are taken into consideration while applying animal welfare estimation methods. The described evaluation complies with the EU recommendations for the applied spot method TG-200. It serves to evaluate the conformity of both buildings and technology of breeding with the requirements of regulations and those defined in the process of the carried out hens research. The following functional areas were focused on while assessing the welfare: terms of mobility, feed intake, herding behaviour, resting conditions, comfort of living, nesting conditions, herd health and care.

  10. ALTERNATING PROJECTION BASED PREDICTION-CORRECTION METHODS FOR STRUCTURED VARIATIONAL INEQUALITIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing-sheng He; Li-zhi Liao; Mai-jian Qian

    2006-01-01

    The monotone variational inequalities Ⅵ(Ω, F) have vast applications, including optimal controls and convex programming. In this paper we focus on the Ⅵ problems that have a particular splitting structure and in which the mapping F does not have an explicit form, therefore only its function values can be employed in the numerical methods for solving such problems. We study a set of numerical methods that are easily implementable.Each iteration of the proposed methods consists of two procedures. The first (prediction) procedure utilizes alternating projections to produce a predictor. The second (correction) procedure generates the new iterate via some minor computations. Convergence of the proposed methods is proved under mild conditions. Preliminary numerical experiments for some traffic equilibrium problems illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  11. Analytical methods for the determination of DEHP plasticizer alternatives present in medical devices: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, L; Décaudin, B; Lecoeur, M; Richard, D; Bourdeaux, D; Cueff, R; Sautou, V

    2014-11-01

    Until 2010, diethylhexylphthalate (DEHP) was the plasticizer most commonly used to soften PVC medical devices (MDs), because of a good efficiency/cost ratio. In flexible plasticized PVC, phthalates are not chemically bound to PVC and they are released into the environment and thus may come into contact with patients. The European Directive 2007/47/CE, classified DEHP as a product with a toxicity risk and restricted its use in MDs. MD manufacturers were therefore forced to quickly find alternatives to DEHP to maintain the elasticity of PVC nutrition tubings, infusion sets and hemodialysis lines. Several replacement plasticizers, so-called "alternative to DEHP plasticizers" were incorporated into the MDs. Nowadays, the risk of exposure to these compounds for hospitalized patients, particularly in situations classified "at risk", has not yet been evaluated, because migrations studies, providing sufficient exposure and human toxicity data have not been performed. To assess the risk to patients of DEHP plasticizer alternatives, reliable analytical methods must be first developed in order to generate data that supports clinical studies being conducted in this area. After a brief introduction of the characteristics and toxicity of the selected plasticizers used currently in MDs, this review outlines recently analytical methods available to determine and quantify these plasticizers in several matrices, allowing the evaluation of potential risk and so risk management.

  12. Short communication: appropriate and alternative methods to determine viable bacterial counts in cow milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss, G; Apprich, S; Kneifel, W; von Mutius, E; Genuneit, J; Braun-Fahrländer, C

    2012-06-01

    Farm milk consumption is reported to be inversely related to the development of asthma and atopy in children and it has been hypothesized that microorganisms in milk might contribute to this protective effect. The GABRIEL study was designed to investigate this hypothesis in a large population of European children, calling for a rapid alternative to classical culture techniques to determine bacteriological properties of milk samples. One objective was to evaluate 2 different rapid methods to determine bacteriological properties in a large number of cow milk samples collected under field conditions. BactoScan (Foss Analytical, Hillerød, Denmark), an automated standard flow cytometric method utilized for routine testing of milk quality, and TEMPO (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France), an automated most-probable-number method, were used to assess the total viable bacterial count in farm and commercial milk samples. Both methods were compared with standard plate count method and each other. Measurements based on the TEMPO method were in good agreement with the standard plate count method and showed reliable results, whereas BactoScan results did not correlate with standard plate count measurements and yielded higher bacteria counts in heat-treated milk samples compared with raw milk samples. Most likely, these discrepant results were due to inferences with staining reactions and detection of bacteria in heat-treated milk samples. We conclude that, in contrast to the routinely used BactoScan method, the TEMPO method is an inexpensive and rapid alternative to standard culture methods suitable to assess total bacterial counts in processed and raw milk samples.

  13. Experimental Data Mining Techniques(Using Multiple Statistical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Zaidi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the possible solutions of non-linear multivariable by experimental Data mining techniques using on orthogonal array. Taguchi method is a very useful technique to reduce the time and cost of the experiment but the ignoring all kind of interaction effects. The results are not much encouraging and motivate to study Laser cutting process of non-linear multivariable is modeled by one and two way analysis of variance also linear and non linear regression analysis. These techniques are used to explore better analysis techniques and improve the laser cutting quality by reducing process variations caused by controllable process parameters. The size of data set causes difficulties in modeling and simulation of the problem such as decision tree is useful technique but it is not able to predict better results. The results of analysis of variance are encouraging. Taguchi and regression normally optimizes input process parameters for single characteristics.

  14. Experimental and Theoretical Methods in Algebra, Geometry and Topology

    CERN Document Server

    Veys, Willem; Bridging Algebra, Geometry, and Topology

    2014-01-01

    Algebra, geometry and topology cover a variety of different, but intimately related research fields in modern mathematics. This book focuses on specific aspects of this interaction. The present volume contains refereed papers which were presented at the International Conference “Experimental and Theoretical Methods in Algebra, Geometry and Topology”, held in Eforie Nord (near Constanta), Romania, during 20-25 June 2013. The conference was devoted to the 60th anniversary of the distinguished Romanian mathematicians Alexandru Dimca and Ştefan Papadima. The selected papers consist of original research work and a survey paper. They are intended for a large audience, including researchers and graduate students interested in algebraic geometry, combinatorics, topology, hyperplane arrangements and commutative algebra. The papers are written by well-known experts from different fields of mathematics, affiliated to universities from all over the word, they cover a broad range of topics and explore the research f...

  15. Experimental Methods for UAV Aerodynamic and Propulsion Performance Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan ANTON

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental method for assessing the performances and the propulsion power of a UAV in several points based on telemetry. The points in which we make the estimations are chosen based on several criteria and the fallowing parameters are measured: airspeed, time-to-climb, altitude and the horizontal distance. With the estimated propulsion power and knowing the shaft motor power, the propeller efficiency is determined at several speed values. The shaft motor power was measured in the lab using the propeller as a break. Many flights, using the same UAV configuration, were performed before extracting flight data, in order to reduce the instrumental or statistic errors. This paper highlights both the methodology of processing the data and the validation of theoretical results.

  16. AN ALTERNATE METHOD TO PREVENT SAND ABRASIVE EROSION IN PIPELINES FOR TRANSPORTING HIGH-SPEED NATURAL GAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an alternate method to re-move the sand carried by natural gas in the upstream pipelinestherefore preventing sand abrasive erosion in pipelines used intransporting high-speed natural gas. Conventionally, most ex-perts pay much attention to improving the anti-erosion charac-teristics of the pipeline materials to solve the problem of seri-ous abrasive erosion, but without significant success. Basedon the theory of multiphase flow and analysis of the character-istics of sandy jets, a new equipment named "Sand Catcher" isintroduced in this article. Experimental results show that theSand Catcher effectively removes most of the sand in the natu-ral gas and significantly reduces the abrasive erosion of thepipelines. The Sand Catcher can be widely applied in practicein the near future.

  17. TREATMENT BY ALTERNATIVE METHODS OF REGRESSION GAS CHROMATOGRAPHIC RETENTION INDICES OF 35 PYRAZINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatiha Mebarki

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The study treated two closer alternative methods of which the principal characteristic: a non-parametric method (the least absolute deviation (LAD and a traditional method of diagnosis OLS.This was applied to model, separately, the indices of retention of the same whole of 35 pyrazines (27 pyrazines with 8 other pyrazines in the same unit eluted to the columns OV-101 and Carbowax-20M, by using theoretical molecular descriptors calculated using the software DRAGON. The detection of influential observations for non-parametric method (LAD is a problem which has been extensively studied and offers alternative dicapproaches whose main feature is the robustness.here is presented and compared with the standard least squares regression .The comparison between methods LAD and OLS is based on the equation of the hyperplane, in order to confirm the robustness thus to detect by the meaningless statements and the points of lever and validated results in the state approached by the tests statistics: Test of Anderson-Darling, shapiro-wilk, Agostino, Jarque-Bera, graphic test (histogram of frequency and the confidence interval thanks to the concept of robustness to check if the distribution of the errors is really approximate.

  18. Alternative normalization methods demonstrate widespread cortical hypometabolism in untreated de novo Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berti, Valentina; Polito, C; Borghammer, Per

    2012-01-01

    , recent studies suggested that conventional data normalization procedures may not always be valid, and demonstrated that alternative normalization strategies better allow detection of low magnitude changes. We hypothesized that these alternative normalization procedures would disclose more widespread...... metabolic alterations in de novo PD. METHODS: [18F]FDG PET scans of 26 untreated de novo PD patients (Hoehn & Yahr stage I-II) and 21 age-matched controls were compared using voxel-based analysis. Normalization was performed using gray matter (GM), white matter (WM) reference regions and Yakushev...... normalization. RESULTS: Compared to GM normalization, WM and Yakushev normalization procedures disclosed much larger cortical regions of relative hypometabolism in the PD group with extensive involvement of frontal and parieto-temporal-occipital cortices, and several subcortical structures. Furthermore...

  19. Experimental validation of the buildings energy performance (PEC assessment methods with reference to occupied spaces heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian PETCU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is part of the series of pre-standardization research aimed to analyze the existing methods of calculating the Buildings Energy Performance (PEC in view of their correction of completing. The entire research activity aims to experimentally validate the PEC Calculation Algorithm as well as the comparative application, on the support of several case studies focused on representative buildings of the stock of buildings in Romania, of the PEC calculation methodology for buildings equipped with occupied spaces heating systems. The targets of the report are the experimental testing of the calculation models so far known (NP 048-2000, Mc 001-2006, SR EN 13790:2009, on the support provided by the CE INCERC Bucharest experimental building, together with the complex calculation algorithms specific to the dynamic modeling, for the evaluation of the occupied spaces heat demand in the cold season, specific to the traditional buildings and to modern buildings equipped with solar radiation passive systems, of the ventilated solar space type. The schedule of the measurements performed in the 2008-2009 cold season is presented as well as the primary processing of the measured data and the experimental validation of the heat demand monthly calculation methods, on the support of CE INCERC Bucharest. The calculation error per heating season (153 days of measurements between the measured heat demand and the calculated one was of 0.61%, an exceptional value confirming the phenomenological nature of the INCERC method, NP 048-2006. The mathematical model specific to the hourly thermal balance is recurrent – decisional with alternating paces. The experimental validation of the theoretical model is based on the measurements performed on the CE INCERC Bucharest building, within a time lag of 57 days (06.01-04.03.2009. The measurements performed on the CE INCERC Bucharest building confirm the accuracy of the hourly calculation model by comparison to the values

  20. An alternative method of gas boriding applied to the formation of borocarburized layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulka, M., E-mail: michal.kulka@put.poznan.pl; Makuch, N.; Pertek, A.; Piasecki, A.

    2012-10-15

    The borocarburized layers were produced by tandem diffusion processes: carburizing followed by boriding. An alternative method of gas boriding was proposed. Two-stage gas boronizing in N{sub 2}-H{sub 2}-BCl{sub 3} atmosphere was applied to the formation of iron borides on a carburized substrate. This process consisted in two stages, which were alternately repeated: saturation by boron and diffusion annealing. The microstructure and microhardness of produced layer were compared to those-obtained in case of continuous gas boriding in H{sub 2}-BCl{sub 3} atmosphere, earlier used. The first objective of two-stage boronizing, consisting in acceleration of boron diffusion, has been efficiently implemented. Despite the lower temperature and shorter duration of boronizing, about 1.5 times larger iron borides' zone has been formed on carburized steel. Second objective, the absolute elimination of brittle FeB phase, has failed. However, the amount of FeB phase has been considerably limited. Longer diffusion annealing should provide the boride layer with single-phase microstructure, without FeB phase. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alternative method of gas boriding in H{sub 2}-N{sub 2}-BCl{sub 3} atmosphere was proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The process consisted in two stages: saturation by boron and diffusion annealing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These stages of short duration were alternately repeated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The acceleration of boron diffusion was efficiently implemented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The amount of FeB phase in the boride zone was limited.

  1. 29 CFR 2520.104-48 - Alternative method of compliance for model simplified employee pensions-IRS Form 5305-SEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternative method of compliance for model simplified employee pensions-IRS Form 5305-SEP. 2520.104-48 Section 2520.104-48 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor... Provisions Applicable to Both Reporting and Disclosure Requirements § 2520.104-48 Alternative method...

  2. Geobacter strains that use alternate organic compounds, methods of making, and methods of use thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovley, Derek R; Summers, Zarath Morgan; Haveman, Shelley Annette; Izallalen, Mounir

    2013-12-03

    In preferred embodiments, the present invention provides new isolated strains of Geobacter species that are capable of using a carbon source that is selected from C.sub.3 to C.sub.12 organic compounds selected from pyruvate or metabolic precursors of pyruvate as an electron donor in metabolism and in subsequent energy production. In other aspects, other preferred embodiments of the present invention include methods of making such strains and methods of using such strains. In general, the wild type strain of the microorganisms has been shown to be unable to use these C.sub.3 to C.sub.12 organic compounds as electron donors in metabolic steps such as the reduction of metallic ions. The inventive strains of microorganisms are useful improving bioremediation applications, including in situ bioremediation (including uranium bioremediation and halogenated solvent bioremediation), microbial fuel cells, power generation from small and large-scale waste facilities (e.g., biomass waste from dairy, agriculture, food processing, brewery, or vintner industries, etc.) using microbial fuel cells, and other applications of microbial fuel cells, including, but not limited to, improved electrical power supplies for environmental sensors, electronic sensors, and electric vehicles.

  3. An alternative method based on enzymatic fat hydrolysis to quantify volatile compounds in wheat bread crumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pico, Joana; Nozal, María Jesús; Gómez, Manuel; Bernal, José Luis

    2016-09-01

    An alternative method to quantify 40 volatile compounds in wheat bread crumb is proposed. It consists of a Soxhlet extraction with a mixture of dichloromethane and diethyl ether containing lipases and a subsequent concentration with Vigreux column. It is the first time that lipases are added to transform the fat into free fatty acids and glycerol, which elute at the end of the chromatogram after the analytes, avoiding problems in the chromatography due to fat residues, such as dirtiness in the injector, column clogging or overlapping peaks. The extract is most easily analysed by GC/MS, using a standard addition method to correct matrix effect. The method was fully validated, with extraction efficiencies between 70% and 100% and precision RSD lower than 15%. The method was applied to a commercial crumb, with acetoin, phenylethyl alcohol and acetic acid as highly abundant compounds, which are considered main volatiles in crumb.

  4. L0-based sparse approximation: two alternative methods and some applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portilla, Javier; Mancera, Luis

    2007-09-01

    We propose two methods for sparse approximation of images under l II error metric. First one performs an approximation error minimization given a l p-norm of the representation through alternated orthogonal projections onto two sets. We study the cases p = 0 (sub-optimal) and p = 1 (optimal), and find that the l 0-AP method is neatly superior, for typical images and overcomplete oriented pyramids. Given that l I-AP is optimal, this shows that it is not equivalent in practical image processing conditions to minimize one or the other norm, contrarily to what is often assumed. The second method is more powerful, and it performs gradient descent onto decreasingly smoothed versions of the sparse approximation cost function, yielding a method previously proposed as a heuristic. We adapt these techniques for being applied to image restoration, with very positive results.

  5. Alternative (non-animal) methods for cosmetics testing: current status and future prospects-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Sarah; Basketter, David; Creton, Stuart; Pelkonen, Olavi; van Benthem, Jan; Zuang, Valérie; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Angers-Loustau, Alexandre; Aptula, Aynur; Bal-Price, Anna; Benfenati, Emilio; Bernauer, Ulrike; Bessems, Jos; Bois, Frederic Y; Boobis, Alan; Brandon, Esther; Bremer, Susanne; Broschard, Thomas; Casati, Silvia; Coecke, Sandra; Corvi, Raffaella; Cronin, Mark; Daston, George; Dekant, Wolfgang; Felter, Susan; Grignard, Elise; Gundert-Remy, Ursula; Heinonen, Tuula; Kimber, Ian; Kleinjans, Jos; Komulainen, Hannu; Kreiling, Reinhard; Kreysa, Joachim; Leite, Sofia Batista; Loizou, George; Maxwell, Gavin; Mazzatorta, Paolo; Munn, Sharon; Pfuhler, Stefan; Phrakonkham, Pascal; Piersma, Aldert; Poth, Albrecht; Prieto, Pilar; Repetto, Guillermo; Rogiers, Vera; Schoeters, Greet; Schwarz, Michael; Serafimova, Rositsa; Tähti, Hanna; Testai, Emanuela; van Delft, Joost; van Loveren, Henk; Vinken, Mathieu; Worth, Andrew; Zaldivar, José-Manuel

    2011-05-01

    The 7th amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive prohibits to put animal-tested cosmetics on the market in Europe after 2013. In that context, the European Commission invited stakeholder bodies (industry, non-governmental organisations, EU Member States, and the Commission's Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety) to identify scientific experts in five toxicological areas, i.e. toxicokinetics, repeated dose toxicity, carcinogenicity, skin sensitisation, and reproductive toxicity for which the Directive foresees that the 2013 deadline could be further extended in case alternative and validated methods would not be available in time. The selected experts were asked to analyse the status and prospects of alternative methods and to provide a scientifically sound estimate of the time necessary to achieve full replacement of animal testing. In summary, the experts confirmed that it will take at least another 7-9 years for the replacement of the current in vivo animal tests used for the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients for skin sensitisation. However, the experts were also of the opinion that alternative methods may be able to give hazard information, i.e. to differentiate between sensitisers and non-sensitisers, ahead of 2017. This would, however, not provide the complete picture of what is a safe exposure because the relative potency of a sensitiser would not be known. For toxicokinetics, the timeframe was 5-7 years to develop the models still lacking to predict lung absorption and renal/biliary excretion, and even longer to integrate the methods to fully replace the animal toxicokinetic models. For the systemic toxicological endpoints of repeated dose toxicity, carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity, the time horizon for full replacement could not be estimated.

  6. Hypnosis and Local Anesthesia for Dental Pain Relief-Alternative or Adjunct Therapy?-A Randomized, Clinical-Experimental Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Thomas Gerhard; Wolf, Dominik; Callaway, Angelika; Below, Dagna; d'Hoedt, Bernd; Willershausen, Brita; Daubländer, Monika

    2016-01-01

    This prospective randomized clinical crossover trial was designed to compare hypnosis and local anesthesia for experimental dental pain relief. Pain thresholds of the dental pulp were determined. A targeted standardized pain stimulus was applied and rated on the Visual Analogue Scale (0-10). The pain threshold was lower under hypnosis (58.3 ± 17.3, p local anesthesia. The pain stimulus was scored higher under hypnosis (3.9 ± 3.8) than with local anesthesia (0.0, p Local anesthesia was superior to hypnosis and is a safe and effective method for pain relief in dentistry. Hypnosis seems to produce similar effects observed under sedation. It can be used in addition to local anesthesia and in individual cases as an alternative for pain control in dentistry.

  7. A projection method for under determined optimal experimental designs

    KAUST Repository

    Long, Quan

    2014-01-09

    A new implementation, based on the Laplace approximation, was developed in (Long, Scavino, Tempone, & Wang 2013) to accelerate the estimation of the post–experimental expected information gains in the model parameters and predictive quantities of interest. A closed–form approximation of the inner integral and the order of the corresponding dominant error term were obtained in the cases where the parameters are determined by the experiment. In this work, we extend that method to the general cases where the model parameters could not be determined completely by the data from the proposed experiments. We carry out the Laplace approximations in the directions orthogonal to the null space of the corresponding Jacobian matrix, so that the information gain (Kullback–Leibler divergence) can be reduced to an integration against the marginal density of the transformed parameters which are not determined by the experiments. Furthermore, the expected information gain can be approximated by an integration over the prior, where the integrand is a function of the projected posterior covariance matrix. To deal with the issue of dimensionality in a complex problem, we use Monte Carlo sampling or sparse quadratures for the integration over the prior probability density function, depending on the regularity of the integrand function. We demonstrate the accuracy, efficiency and robustness of the proposed method via several nonlinear under determined numerical examples.

  8. Timing of Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Yield: Comparison of Alternative Methods with the Classic Method for CD34+ Cell Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Fatorova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs, still represent a certain mystery in biology, have a unique property of dividing into equal cells and repopulating the hematopoietic tissue. This potential enables their use in transplantation treatments. The quality of the HSC grafts for transplantation is evaluated by flow cytometric determination of the CD34+ cells, which enables optimal timing of the first apheresis and the acquisition of maximal yield of the peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs. To identify a more efficient method for evaluating CD34+ cells, we compared the following alternative methods with the reference method: hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC enumeration (using the Sysmex XE-2100 analyser, detection of CD133+ cells, and quantification of aldehyde dehydrogenase activity in the PBSCs. 266 aphereses (84 patients were evaluated. In the preapheretic blood, the new methods produced data that were in agreement with the reference method. The ROC curves have shown that for the first-day apheresis target, the optimal predictive cut-off value was 0.032 cells/mL for the HPC method (sensitivity 73.4%, specificity 69.3%. HPC method exhibited a definite practical superiority as compared to other methods tested. HPC enumeration could serve as a supplementary method for the optimal timing of the first apheresis; it is simple, rapid, and cheap.

  9. Alternative remedies for insomnia: a proposed method for personalized therapeutic trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero K

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Kate Romero,1,2 Balaji Goparaju,1,2 Kathryn Russo,1,2 M Brandon Westover,1 Matt T Bianchi1,2 1Neurology Department, Massachusetts General Hospital, 2Division of Sleep Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Insomnia is a common symptom, with chronic insomnia being diagnosed in 5–10% of adults. Although many insomnia patients use prescription therapy for insomnia, the health benefits remain uncertain and adverse risks remain a concern. While similar effectiveness and risk concerns exist for herbal remedies, many individuals turn to such alternatives to prescriptions for insomnia. Like prescription hypnotics, herbal remedies that have undergone clinical testing often show subjective sleep improvements that exceed objective measures, which may relate to interindividual heterogeneity and/or placebo effects. Response heterogeneity can undermine traditional randomized trial approaches, which in some fields has prompted a shift toward stratified trials based on genotype or phenotype, or the so-called n-of-1 method of testing placebo versus active drug in within-person alternating blocks. We reviewed six independent compendiums of herbal agents to assemble a group of over 70 reported to benefit sleep. To bridge the gap between the unfeasible expectation of formal evidence in this space and the reality of common self-medication by those with insomnia, we propose a method for guided self-testing that overcomes certain operational barriers related to inter- and intraindividual sources of phenotypic variability. Patient-chosen outcomes drive a general statistical model that allows personalized self-assessment that can augment the open-label nature of routine practice. The potential advantages of this method include flexibility to implement for other (nonherbal insomnia interventions. Keywords: insomnia, over the counter, alternative remedy, herbal, supplement

  10. Gene expression in human skeletal muscle: alternative normalization method and effect of repeated biopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, Carsten; Nordsborg, Nikolai; Kusuhara, K.

    2005-01-01

    . Specifically, we investigated (1) a new normalization method based on determining the cDNA content by the flourophores PicoGreen and OliGreen, (2) effect of repeated muscle biopsies on mRNA gene expression, and (3) the spatial heterogeneity in mRNA expression across the muscle. Standard curves using oligo.......99. The present determination of cDNA content in reversed transcribed human skeletal muscle RNA samples by both PicoGreen and OliGreen analyses suggests that these fluorophores provide a potential alternative normalization procedure for human gene expression studies. In addition, the present study shows...

  11. Potential Use of Lime as Nitric Acid Source for Alternative Electrolyte Fuel-Cell Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianto, V.; Smarandache, Florentin

    2011-04-01

    Despite growing popularity for the use of biofuel and other similar methods to generate renewable energy sources from natural plantation in recent years, there is also growing concern over its disadvantage, i.e. that the energy use of edible plants may cause unwanted effects, because the plantation price tends to increase following the oil price. Therefore an alternative solution to this problem is to find `natural plantation' which have no direct link to `food chain' (for basic foods, such as palm oil etc.).

  12. Acoustic rhinometry (AR): An Alternative Method to Image Nasal Airway Geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straszek, Sune; Pedersen, O.F.

      ACOUSTIC RHINOMETRY (AR): AN ALTERNATIVE METHOD TO IMAGE NASAL AIRWAY GEOMETRY.  INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND:  In human studies the acoustic reflection technique was first applied to describe the area-distance relationship of the lower airways, but later the acoustic reflection technique appeared...... studies in laboratory animals more reliable. To accomplish this we hope to receive new input from adjacent fields of research.  [OFP1] Det er ikke nogen piezoelektrisk mikrofon. Det er en ganske billig kondensator mikrofon. [OFP2] Jeg tror du kan nøjes med små figurer1) Indfaldende og reflekteret kurve...

  13. A simple DNA recombination screening method by RT-PCR as an alternative to Southern blot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Eliene; Sbroggiò, Mauro; Martin-Gonzalez, Javier; Avram, Alexandra; Munk, Stephanie; Lopez-Contreras, Andres J

    2017-01-19

    The generation of genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs), including knock-out (KO) and knock-in (KI) models, often requires genomic screening of many mouse ES cell (mESC) clones by Southern blot. The use of large targeting constructs facilitates the recombination of exogenous DNA in a specific genomic locus, but limits the detection of its correct genomic integration by standard PCR methods. Genomic Long Range PCR (LR-PCR), using primers adjacent to the homology arms, has been used as an alternative to radioactive-based Southern blot screenings. However, LR-PCRs are often difficult and render many false positive and false negative results. Here, we propose an alternative screening method based on the detection of a genetic modification at the mRNA level, which we successfully optimized in two mouse models. This screening method consists of a reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) using primers that match exons flanking the targeting construct. The detection of the expected modification in this PCR product confirms the integration at the correct genomic location and shows that the mutant mRNA is expressed. This is a simple and sensitive strategy to screen locus-specific recombination of targeting constructs which can also be useful to screen KO and KI mutant mice or cell lines including those generated by CRISPR/Cas9.

  14. Limitations in small artisanal gold mining addressed by educational components paired with alternative mining methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolnikov, Tara R

    2012-03-01

    Current solutions continue to be inadequate in addressing the longstanding, worldwide problem of mercury emissions from small artisanal gold mining. Mercury, an inexpensive and easily accessible heavy metal, is used in the process of extracting gold from ore. Mercury emissions disperse, affecting human populations by causing adverse health effects and environmental and social ramifications. Many developing nations have sizable gold ore deposits, making small artisanal gold mining a major source of employment in the world. Poverty drives vulnerable, rural populations into gold mining because of social and economic instabilities. Educational programs responding to this environmental hazard have been implemented in the past, but have had low positive results due to lack of governmental support and little economic incentive. Educational and enforced intervention programs must be developed in conjunction with governmental agencies in order to successfully eliminate this ongoing problem. Industry leaders offered hopeful suggestions, but revealed limitations when trying to develop encompassing solutions to halt mercury emissions. This research highlights potential options that have been attempted in the past and suggests alternative solutions to improve upon these methods. Some methods include buyer impact recognition, risk assessment proposals exposing a cost-benefit analysis and toxicokinetic modeling, public health awareness campaigns, and the education of miners, healthcare workers, and locals within hazardous areas of mercury exposure. These methods, paired with the implementation of alternative mining techniques, propose a substantial reduction of mercury emissions.

  15. Comprehensive Review of Foam Application during Foam Assisted Water Alternating Gas (FAWAG Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shabib-asl

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, much focus has been placed on enhancing oil recovery from existing fields. This is accomplished by the study and application of various methods. As for recent cases, the Study of fluid mobility control and sweep efficiency in gas injection process as well as Water Alternating Gas (WAG method have demonstrated positive results on oil recovery and thus gained wide interest in petroleum industry. WAG injection application results in an increased oil recovery. Its mechanism consists in reduction of Gas Oil Ratio (GOR. However, there are some problems associated with this which includes poor volumetric sweep efficiency due to its low density and high mobility when compared with oil. This has led to the introduction of Foam Assisted Water Alternating Gas (FAWAG technique, which in contrast with WAG injection, acts in improving the sweep efficiency and reducing the gas oil ration therefore maximizing the production rate from the producer wells. This study presents a comprehensive review of FAWAG process from perspective of Snorre field experience. In addition some comparative results between FAWAG and the other EOR methods are presented including their setbacks. The main aim is to provide a solid background for future laboratory research and successful field application-extend.

  16. Use of nicarbazin, salinomycin and zinc oxide as alternative molting methods for commercial laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C H de F Domingues

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to evaluate the performance, egg quality and morphometry of the reproductive tract, liver, pancreas and tongue of laying hens submitted to different molting methods. Two hundred and eighty eight 72-week-old Isa brown layers were distributed according to a completely randomized design with six treatments (molting methods and six replicates of eight birds each. Layers were fed diets containing 3000 ppm zinc oxide, 60 ppm or 120 ppm nicarbazin, 30 ppm or 60 ppm salinomycin, or were submitted to feed fasting. Data were submitted to analysis of variance and means were compared by the test of Tukey at 5% probability level. Molting methods alternative to feed fasting were effective to induce molting in layer and provided good performance results in the second laying cycle.

  17. Linearized Alternating Direction Method with Adaptive Penalty for Low-Rank Representation

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Zhouchen; Su, Zhixun

    2011-01-01

    Low-rank representation (LRR) is an effective method for subspace clustering and has found wide applications in computer vision and machine learning. The existing LRR solver is based on the alternating direction method (ADM). It suffers from $O(n^3)$ computation complexity due to the matrix-matrix multiplications and matrix inversions, even if partial SVD is used. Moreover, introducing auxiliary variables also slows down the convergence. Such a heavy computation load prevents LRR from large scale applications. In this paper, we generalize ADM by linearizing the quadratic penalty term and allowing the penalty to change adaptively. We also propose a novel rule to update the penalty such that the convergence is fast. With our linearized ADM with adaptive penalty (LADMAP) method, it is unnecessary to introduce auxiliary variables and invert matrices. The matrix-matrix multiplications are further alleviated by using the skinny SVD representation technique. As a result, we arrive at an algorithm for LRR with comple...

  18. Theoretical and experimental investigation of multispectral photoacoustic osteoporosis detection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Idan; Hershkovich, Hadas Sara; Gannot, Israel; Eyal, Avishay

    2014-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a widespread disorder, which has a catastrophic impact on patients lives and overwhelming related to healthcare costs. Recently, we proposed a multispectral photoacoustic technique for early detection of osteoporosis. Such technique has great advantages over pure ultrasonic or optical methods as it allows the deduction of both bone functionality from the bone absorption spectrum and bone resistance to fracture from the characteristics of the ultrasound propagation. We demonstrated the propagation of multiple acoustic modes in animal bones in-vitro. To further investigate the effects of multiple wavelength excitations and of induced osteoporosis on the PA signal a multispectral photoacoustic system is presented. The experimental investigation is based on measuring the interference of multiple acoustic modes. The performance of the system is evaluated and a simple two mode theoretical model is fitted to the measured phase signals. The results show that such PA technique is accurate and repeatable. Then a multiple wavelength excitation is tested. It is shown that the PA response due to different excitation wavelengths revels that absorption by the different bone constitutes has a profound effect on the mode generation. The PA response is measured in single wavelength before and after induced osteoporosis. Results show that induced osteoporosis alters the measured amplitude and phase in a consistent manner which allows the detection of the onset of osteoporosis. These results suggest that a complete characterization of the bone over a region of both acoustic and optical frequencies might be used as a powerful tool for in-vivo bone evaluation.

  19. Experimental method to predict avalanches based on neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Zhdanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of experimental use of currently available statistical methods to classify the avalanche‑dangerous precipitations and snowfalls in the Kishi Almaty river basin. The avalanche service of Kazakhstan uses graphical methods for prediction of avalanches developed by I.V. Kondrashov and E.I. Kolesnikov. The main objective of this work was to develop a modern model that could be used directly at the avalanche stations. Classification of winter precipitations into dangerous snowfalls and non‑dangerous ones was performed by two following ways: the linear discriminant function (canonical analysis and artificial neural networks. Observational data on weather and avalanches in the gorge Kishi Almaty in the gorge Kishi Almaty were used as a training sample. Coefficients for the canonical variables were calculated by the software «Statistica» (Russian version 6.0, and then the necessary formula had been constructed. The accuracy of the above classification was 96%. Simulator by the authors L.N. Yasnitsky and F.М. Cherepanov was used to learn the neural networks. The trained neural network demonstrated 98% accuracy of the classification. Prepared statistical models are recommended to be tested at the snow‑avalanche stations. Results of the tests will be used for estimation of the model quality and its readiness for the operational work. In future, we plan to apply these models for classification of the avalanche danger by the five‑point international scale.

  20. An alternative method to determine maximal accumulated O2 deficit in runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, D W; Ferguson, C S; Ehler, K L

    1998-12-01

    An accepted measure of anaerobic capacity is the maximal O2 deficit. But it is not feasible to use O2 deficit if > or =10 submaximal runs are needed to extrapolate the O2 demand of high velocity running (Medbø et al. 1988). Recently, an alternative method to determine O2 deficit was proposed (Hill 1996) using only results of supramaximal cycle ergometer tests. The purpose of this study was to evaluate this alternative method with data from treadmill tests. Twenty-six runners ran at 95%, 100%, 105%, and 110% of their velocity at VO2max. Times to exhaustion, velocity, and accumulated oxygen uptake (VO2) from each individual's four tests were fit to the following equation using iterative nonlinear regression: accumulated VO2 = (O2 demand x velocity x time)-O2 deficit. The mean value s derived for O2 demand and O2 deficit were 0.198+/-0.031 ml x kg(-1) x m(-1) and 42+/-22 ml x kg(-1). SEE for the parameters were 0.007+/-0.007 ml x kg(-1) x m(-1) and 8+/-10 ml x kg(-1), respectively. Mean R2 was 0.998+/-0.003. It was concluded that O2 deficit can be determined from all-out treadmill tests without the need to perform submaximal tests.

  1. Low Rank Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers Reconstruction for MR Fingerprinting

    CERN Document Server

    Assländer, Jakob; Knoll, Florian; Sodickson, Daniel K; Hennig, Jürgen; Lattanzi, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The proposed reconstruction framework addresses the reconstruction accuracy, noise propagation and computation time for Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (MRF). Methods Based on a singular value decomposition (SVD) of the signal evolution, MRF is formulated as a low rank inverse problem in which one image is reconstructed for each singular value under consideration. This low rank approximation of the signal evolution reduces the computational burden by reducing the number of Fourier transformations. Also, the low rank approximation improves the conditioning of the problem, which is further improved by extending the low rank inverse problem to an augmented Lagrangian that is solved by the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM). The root mean square error and the noise propagation are analyzed in simulations. For verification, an in vivo example is provided. Results The proposed low rank ADMM approach shows a reduced root mean square error compared to the original fingerprinting reconstructi...

  2. USAGE OF PICTOGRAMS TO INTRODUCE MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS TO EDUCABLE MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN AS AN ALTERNATIVE METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunsu YILMA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine and investigate the perception ability of musical instruments of educable mentally retarded children with the support of visual elements. The research is conducted for every children individually in a special education and rehabilitation centre. The problematic of this research is the level of perception ability of musical instruments with visual support on mild mentally retarded children. In this research, perception ability of defining pictograms by music is introduced as an alternative method. It is researched that how educable mentally retarded children perceive pictograms by music tools. In this case, it is aimed to introduce musical instruments to educable mentally retarded children by pictograms with music. The research is applied with a qualitative approach. Data were obtained with the recorder, then they were turned into texts and analyzed with content analysis method.

  3. Medical savings accounts - in search of an alternative method of health care financing in European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Borda

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In times of increasing health care expenditure and insufficient cover provided by publicly financed health systems additional, alternative methods of health care financing become more and more considerable. The purpose of the paper is to present the concept of Medical Savings Accounts (MSAs and possibilities of their application in the health care systems of European countries. First, the author describes the idea of MSAs and reviews positive and negative findings about the effects of implementing this method into the health systems. Next, two main approaches to the application of MSAs in health care financing are considered. In the last part of the paper, the possibilities of introducing MSAs into health care systems in European countries are discussed. The author takes into consideration the existing health care financing conditions and other specific institutional, socio-economic and cultural factors as the main determinants for successful designing and implementation of the MSA scheme in a given country.

  4. Fast gain calibration in radio astronomy using alternating direction implicit methods: Analysis and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Salvini, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Context. Modern radio astronomical arrays have (or will have) more than one order of magnitude more receivers than classical synthesis arrays, such as the VLA and the WSRT. This makes gain calibration a computationally demanding task. Several alternating direction implicit (ADI) approaches have therefore been proposed that reduce numerical complexity for this task from $\\mathcal{O}(P^3)$ to $\\mathcal{O}(P^2)$, where $P$ is the number of receive paths to be calibrated. Aims. We present an ADI method, show that it converges to the optimal solution, and assess its numerical, computational and statistical performance. We also discuss its suitability for application in self-calibration and report on its successful application in LOFAR standard pipelines. Methods. Convergence is proved by rigorous mathematical analysis using a contraction mapping. Its numerical, algorithmic, and statistical performance, as well as its suitability for application in self-calibration, are assessed using simulations. Results. Our simu...

  5. Designing specific protein-protein interactions using computation, experimental library screening, or integrated methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T Scott; Keating, Amy E

    2012-07-01

    Given the importance of protein-protein interactions for nearly all biological processes, the design of protein affinity reagents for use in research, diagnosis or therapy is an important endeavor. Engineered proteins would ideally have high specificities for their intended targets, but achieving interaction specificity by design can be challenging. There are two major approaches to protein design or redesign. Most commonly, proteins and peptides are engineered using experimental library screening and/or in vitro evolution. An alternative approach involves using protein structure and computational modeling to rationally choose sequences predicted to have desirable properties. Computational design has successfully produced novel proteins with enhanced stability, desired interactions and enzymatic function. Here we review the strengths and limitations of experimental library screening and computational structure-based design, giving examples where these methods have been applied to designing protein interaction specificity. We highlight recent studies that demonstrate strategies for combining computational modeling with library screening. The computational methods provide focused libraries predicted to be enriched in sequences with the properties of interest. Such integrated approaches represent a promising way to increase the efficiency of protein design and to engineer complex functionality such as interaction specificity.

  6. Alternative sanitization methods for minimally processed lettuce in comparison to sodium hypochlorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Lígia Biazotto Bachelli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Lettuce is a leafy vegetable widely used in industry for minimally processed products, in which the step of sanitization is the crucial moment for ensuring a safe food for consumption. Chlorinated compounds, mainly sodium hypochlorite, are the most used in Brazil, but the formation of trihalomethanes from this sanitizer is a drawback. Then, the search for alternative methods to sodium hypochlorite has been emerging as a matter of great interest. The suitability of chlorine dioxide (60 mg L-1/10 min, peracetic acid (100 mg L-1/15 min and ozonated water (1.2 mg L-1 /1 min as alternative sanitizers to sodium hypochlorite (150 mg L-1 free chlorine/15 min were evaluated. Minimally processed lettuce washed with tap water for 1 min was used as a control. Microbiological analyses were performed in triplicate, before and after sanitization, and at 3, 6, 9 and 12 days of storage at 2 ± 1 ºC with the product packaged on LDPE bags of 60 µm. It was evaluated total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., psicrotrophic and mesophilic bacteria, yeasts and molds. All samples of minimally processed lettuce showed absence of E. coli and Salmonella spp. The treatments of chlorine dioxide, peracetic acid and ozonated water promoted reduction of 2.5, 1.1 and 0.7 log cycle, respectively, on count of microbial load of minimally processed product and can be used as substitutes for sodium hypochlorite. These alternative compounds promoted a shelf-life of six days to minimally processed lettuce, while the shelf-life with sodium hypochlorite was 12 days.

  7. Evaluation of the long-term performance of six alternative disposal methods for LLRW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kossik, R.; Sharp, G. [Golder Associates, Inc., Redmond, WA (United States); Chau, T. [Rogers & Associates Engineering Corp., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The State of New York has carried out a comparison of six alternative disposal methods for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW). An important part of these evaluations involved quantitatively analyzing the long-term (10,000 yr) performance of the methods with respect to dose to humans, radionuclide concentrations in the environment, and cumulative release from the facility. Four near-surface methods (covered above-grade vault, uncovered above-grade vault, below-grade vault, augered holes) and two mine methods (vertical shaft mine and drift mine) were evaluated. Each method was analyzed for several generic site conditions applicable for the state. The evaluations were carried out using RIP (Repository Integration Program), an integrated, total system performance assessment computer code which has been applied to radioactive waste disposal facilities both in the U.S. (Yucca Mountain, WIPP) and worldwide. The evaluations indicate that mines in intact low-permeability rock and near-surface facilities with engineered covers generally have a high potential to perform well (within regulatory limits). Uncovered above-grade vaults and mines in highly fractured crystalline rock, however, have a high potential to perform poorly, exceeding regulatory limits.

  8. An evaluation of alternative reactor vessel cutting technologies for the experimental boiling water reactor at Argonne National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boing, L.E.; Henley, D.R. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Manion, W.J.; Gordon, J.W. (Nuclear Energy Services, Inc., Danbury, CT (USA))

    1989-12-01

    Metal cutting techniques that can be used to segment the reactor pressure vessel of the Experimental Boiling Water Reactor (EBWR) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) have been evaluated by Nuclear Energy Services. Twelve cutting technologies are described in terms of their ability to perform the required task, their performance characteristics, environmental and radiological impacts, and cost and schedule considerations. Specific recommendations regarding which technology should ultimately be used by ANL are included. The selection of a cutting method was the responsibility of the decommissioning staff at ANL, who included a relative weighting of the parameters described in this document in their evaluation process. 73 refs., 26 figs., 69 tabs.

  9. Musical training as an alternative and effective method for neuro-education and neuro-rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Clément; Grau-Sánchez, Jennifer; Duarte, Esther; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, important advances in the field of cognitive science, psychology, and neuroscience have largely contributed to improve our knowledge on brain functioning. More recently, a line of research has been developed that aims at using musical training and practice as alternative tools for boosting specific perceptual, motor, cognitive, and emotional skills both in healthy population and in neurologic patients. These findings are of great hope for a better treatment of language-based learning disorders or motor impairment in chronic non-communicative diseases. In the first part of this review, we highlight several studies showing that learning to play a musical instrument can induce substantial neuroplastic changes in cortical and subcortical regions of motor, auditory and speech processing networks in healthy population. In a second part, we provide an overview of the evidence showing that musical training can be an alternative, low-cost and effective method for the treatment of language-based learning impaired populations. We then report results of the few studies showing that training with musical instruments can have positive effects on motor, emotional, and cognitive deficits observed in patients with non-communicable diseases such as stroke or Parkinson Disease. Despite inherent differences between musical training in educational and rehabilitation contexts, these results favor the idea that the structural, multimodal, and emotional properties of musical training can play an important role in developing new, creative and cost-effective intervention programs for education and rehabilitation in the next future.

  10. Social Benefits of Energy Conservation in Hungary. An examination of alternative methods of evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaheim, H.A.; Aunan, K.; Seip, H.M.

    1997-12-31

    This report compares alternative methods for valuation of the social benefits of less air pollution. One can estimate such benefits by the economic consequences of less damage caused by pollution or by the willingness to pay for less pollution. As a case study, the report examines an energy conservation programme in Hungary, in which 64 PJ of fossil energy was conserved per year. According to the damage cost approach, the benefits corresponds to 75 million USD per year, divided into 41 mill for health and 33 mill in material damage. The willingness to pay approach yielded a value of 1.9 bill. USD. Most of the difference is attributed to different estimates for chronic distresses and early death. One should not regard the results of the different approaches as alternative answers to the same question. Instead, damage cost and willingness to pay assessments can be considered as necessary components of a macro economic study of environmental policy. 23 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Optimizing tridiagonal solvers for alternating direction methods on Boolean cube multiprocessors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, C.T. (IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA (US)); Johnsson, S.L. (Dept. of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering, Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (US))

    1990-05-01

    Sets of tridiagonal systems occur in many applications. Fast Poisson solvers and Alternate Direction Methods make use of tridiagonal system solvers. Network-based multiprocessors provide a cost-effective alternative to traditional supercomputer architectures. The complexity of concurrent algorithms for the solution of multiple tridiagonal systems on Boolean-cube-configured multiprocessors with distributed memory are investigated. Variations of odd-even cyclic reduction, parallel cyclic reduction, and algorithms making use of data transposition with or without substructuring and local elimination, or pipelined elimination, are considered. A simple performance model is used for algorithm comparison, and the validity of the model is verified on an Intel iPSC/1. For many combinations of machine and system parameters, pipelined elimination, or equation transposition with or without substructuring is optimum. Hybrid algorithms that at any stage choose the best algorithm among the considered ones for the remainder of the problem are presented. It is shown that the optimum partitioning of a set of independent tridiagonal systems among a set of processors yields the embarrassingly parallel case.

  12. MUSICAL TRAINING AS AN ALTERNATIVE AND EFFECTIVE METHOD FOR NEURO-EDUCATION AND NEURO-REHABILITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément eFrançois

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, important advances in the field of cognitive science, psychology and neuroscience have largely contributed to improve our knowledge on brain functioning. More recently, a line of research has been developed that aims at using musical training and practice as alternative tools for boosting specific perceptual, motor, cognitive and emotional skills both in healthy population and in neurologic patients. These findings are of great hope for a better treatment of language-based learning disorders or motor impairment in chronic non-communicative diseases. In the first part of this review, we highlight several studies showing that learning to play a musical instrument can induce substantial neuroplastic changes in cortical and subcortical regions of motor, auditory and speech processing networks in healthy population. In a second part, we provide an overview of the evidence showing that musical training can be an alternative, low-cost and effective method for the treatment of language-based learning impaired populations. We then report results of the few studies showing that training with musical instruments can have positive effects on motor, emotional and cognitive deficits observed in patients with noncommunicable diseases such as stroke or Parkinson Disease. Despite inherent differences between musical training in educational and rehabilitation contexts, these results favour the idea that the structural, multimodal and emotional properties of musical training can play an important role in developing new, creative and cost-effective intervention programs for education and rehabilitation in the next future.

  13. Feeling blue, going green and finding other attractive alternatives: a case of biphasic anaphylaxis to patent blue and a literature review of alternative sentinel node localisation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Fahad Mujtaba; Basit, Abdul; Salem, Fathi; Vidya, Raghavan

    2015-12-15

    Patent blue dye is used for sentinel lymph node localisation in order to stage the axilla in patients with breast cancer. Patent blue is one of the most common dyes used across the UK, however, the incidence of adverse effects seems to be increasing. This case highlights our experience of a biphasic anaphylactic reaction to patent blue dye, and we conduct a brief literature review of alternative and more novel methods to adequately visualise the lymphatics for sentinel lymph node biopsy.

  14. An alternative empirical likelihood method in missing response problems and causal inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Kaili; Drummond, Christopher A; Brewster, Pamela S; Haller, Steven T; Tian, Jiang; Cooper, Christopher J; Zhang, Biao

    2016-11-30

    Missing responses are common problems in medical, social, and economic studies. When responses are missing at random, a complete case data analysis may result in biases. A popular debias method is inverse probability weighting proposed by Horvitz and Thompson. To improve efficiency, Robins et al. proposed an augmented inverse probability weighting method. The augmented inverse probability weighting estimator has a double-robustness property and achieves the semiparametric efficiency lower bound when the regression model and propensity score model are both correctly specified. In this paper, we introduce an empirical likelihood-based estimator as an alternative to Qin and Zhang (2007). Our proposed estimator is also doubly robust and locally efficient. Simulation results show that the proposed estimator has better performance when the propensity score is correctly modeled. Moreover, the proposed method can be applied in the estimation of average treatment effect in observational causal inferences. Finally, we apply our method to an observational study of smoking, using data from the Cardiovascular Outcomes in Renal Atherosclerotic Lesions clinical trial. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Nonlinear projection trick in kernel methods: an alternative to the kernel trick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Nojun

    2013-12-01

    In kernel methods such as kernel principal component analysis (PCA) and support vector machines, the so called kernel trick is used to avoid direct calculations in a high (virtually infinite) dimensional kernel space. In this brief, based on the fact that the effective dimensionality of a kernel space is less than the number of training samples, we propose an alternative to the kernel trick that explicitly maps the input data into a reduced dimensional kernel space. This is easily obtained by the eigenvalue decomposition of the kernel matrix. The proposed method is named as the nonlinear projection trick in contrast to the kernel trick. With this technique, the applicability of the kernel methods is widened to arbitrary algorithms that do not use the dot product. The equivalence between the kernel trick and the nonlinear projection trick is shown for several conventional kernel methods. In addition, we extend PCA-L1, which uses L1-norm instead of L2-norm (or dot product), into a kernel version and show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  16. Robust fluence map optimization via alternating direction method of multipliers with empirical parameter optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hao

    2016-04-01

    For the treatment planning during intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), beam fluence maps can be first optimized via fluence map optimization (FMO) under the given dose prescriptions and constraints to conformally deliver the radiation dose to the targets while sparing the organs-at-risk, and then segmented into deliverable MLC apertures via leaf or arc sequencing algorithms. This work is to develop an efficient algorithm for FMO based on alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM). Here we consider FMO with the least-square cost function and non-negative fluence constraints, and its solution algorithm is based on ADMM, which is efficient and simple-to-implement. In addition, an empirical method for optimizing the ADMM parameter is developed to improve the robustness of the ADMM algorithm. The ADMM based FMO solver was benchmarked with the quadratic programming method based on the interior-point (IP) method using the CORT dataset. The comparison results suggested the ADMM solver had a similar plan quality with slightly smaller total objective function value than IP. A simple-to-implement ADMM based FMO solver with empirical parameter optimization is proposed for IMRT or VMAT.

  17. Cluster detection of diseases in heterogeneous populations: an alternative to scan methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Ramis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cluster detection has become an important part of the agenda of epidemiologists and public health authorities, the identification of high- and low-risk areas is fundamental in the definition of public health strategies and in the suggestion of potential risks factors. Currently, there are different cluster detection techniques available, the most popular being those using windows to scan the areas within the studied region. However, when these areas are heterogeneous in populations’ sizes, scan window methods can lead to inaccurate conclusions. In order to perform cluster detection over heterogeneously populated areas, we developed a method not based on scanning windows but instead on standard mortality ratios (SMR using irregular spatial aggregation (ISA. Its extension, i.e. irregular spatial aggregation with covariates (ISAC, includes covariates with residuals from Poisson regression. We compared the performance of the method with the flexible shaped spatial scan statistic (FlexScan using mortality data for stomach and bladder cancer for 8,098 Spanish towns. The results show a collection of clusters for stomach and bladder cancer similar to that detected by ISA and FlexScan. However, in general, clusters detected by FlexScan were bigger and include towns with SMR, which were not statistically significant. For bladder cancer, clusters detected by ISAC differed from those detected by ISA and FlexScan in shape and location. The ISA and ISAC methods could be an alternative to the traditional scan window methods for cluster detection over aggregated data when the areas under study are heterogeneous in terms of population. The simplicity and flexibility of the methods make them more attractive than methods based on more complicated algorithms.

  18. Comparison of marine spatial planning methods in Madagascar demonstrates value of alternative approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allnutt, Thomas F; McClanahan, Timothy R; Andréfouët, Serge; Baker, Merrill; Lagabrielle, Erwann; McClennen, Caleb; Rakotomanjaka, Andry J M; Tianarisoa, Tantely F; Watson, Reg; Kremen, Claire

    2012-01-01

    The Government of Madagascar plans to increase marine protected area coverage by over one million hectares. To assist this process, we compare four methods for marine spatial planning of Madagascar's west coast. Input data for each method was drawn from the same variables: fishing pressure, exposure to climate change, and biodiversity (habitats, species distributions, biological richness, and biodiversity value). The first method compares visual color classifications of primary variables, the second uses binary combinations of these variables to produce a categorical classification of management actions, the third is a target-based optimization using Marxan, and the fourth is conservation ranking with Zonation. We present results from each method, and compare the latter three approaches for spatial coverage, biodiversity representation, fishing cost and persistence probability. All results included large areas in the north, central, and southern parts of western Madagascar. Achieving 30% representation targets with Marxan required twice the fish catch loss than the categorical method. The categorical classification and Zonation do not consider targets for conservation features. However, when we reduced Marxan targets to 16.3%, matching the representation level of the "strict protection" class of the categorical result, the methods show similar catch losses. The management category portfolio has complete coverage, and presents several management recommendations including strict protection. Zonation produces rapid conservation rankings across large, diverse datasets. Marxan is useful for identifying strict protected areas that meet representation targets, and minimize exposure probabilities for conservation features at low economic cost. We show that methods based on Zonation and a simple combination of variables can produce results comparable to Marxan for species representation and catch losses, demonstrating the value of comparing alternative approaches during

  19. Comparison of marine spatial planning methods in Madagascar demonstrates value of alternative approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F Allnutt

    Full Text Available The Government of Madagascar plans to increase marine protected area coverage by over one million hectares. To assist this process, we compare four methods for marine spatial planning of Madagascar's west coast. Input data for each method was drawn from the same variables: fishing pressure, exposure to climate change, and biodiversity (habitats, species distributions, biological richness, and biodiversity value. The first method compares visual color classifications of primary variables, the second uses binary combinations of these variables to produce a categorical classification of management actions, the third is a target-based optimization using Marxan, and the fourth is conservation ranking with Zonation. We present results from each method, and compare the latter three approaches for spatial coverage, biodiversity representation, fishing cost and persistence probability. All results included large areas in the north, central, and southern parts of western Madagascar. Achieving 30% representation targets with Marxan required twice the fish catch loss than the categorical method. The categorical classification and Zonation do not consider targets for conservation features. However, when we reduced Marxan targets to 16.3%, matching the representation level of the "strict protection" class of the categorical result, the methods show similar catch losses. The management category portfolio has complete coverage, and presents several management recommendations including strict protection. Zonation produces rapid conservation rankings across large, diverse datasets. Marxan is useful for identifying strict protected areas that meet representation targets, and minimize exposure probabilities for conservation features at low economic cost. We show that methods based on Zonation and a simple combination of variables can produce results comparable to Marxan for species representation and catch losses, demonstrating the value of comparing alternative

  20. Evaluation of Alternate Materials and Methods for Strontium and Alpha Removal from Savannah River Site High-Level Waste Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D.T.

    2000-11-07

    A literature survey indicated a number of alternate materials and methods for the removal of strontium and alpha-emitting radionuclides (actinides). We evaluated the use of alternate materials versus proposed flowsheets for salt processing at the Savannah River Site (SRS). From this evaluation we recommend the following materials for further testing to determine the rate and extent of removal. We do not recommend testing of liquid/liquid extraction and polymer filtration methods at this time.

  1. Designing Alternative Transport Methods for the Distributed Data Collection of ATLAS EventIndex Project

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez Casani, Alvaro; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    One of the key and challenging tasks of the ATLAS EventIndex project is to index and catalog all the produced events not only at CERN but also at hundreds of worldwide grid sites, and convey the data in real time to a central Hadoop instance at CERN. While this distributed data collection is currently operating correctly in production, there are some issues that might impose performance bottlenecks in the future, with an expected rise in the event production and reprocessing rates. In this work, we first describe the current approach based on a messaging system, which conveys the data from the sources to the central catalog, and we identify some weaknesses of this system. Then, we study a promising alternative transport method based on an object store, presenting a performance comparison with the current approach, and the architectural design changes needed to adapt the system to the next run of the ATLAS experiment at CERN.

  2. Valuation of imaging centers: alternative methods and detailed description of the discounted cash flow approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Philip J

    2007-01-01

    Medical imaging centers are an increasingly integral part of the medical services landscape in America. There are many instances in which owners and potential buyers of these enterprises want to ascertain the value of the businesses. There is an industry of professionals who provide expert valuation services for many types of businesses using various recognized alternative methods, some of which are more appropriate than others when valuing an imaging center. The federal government has prescribed parameters for all valuations if they lead to transactions in which fair market value is mandated, and it also expects transactions to adhere to more generalized laws relating to entities that provide services to Medicare patients. Radiologists who own, or who are contemplating ownership of, imaging center operations need to understand the principles of valuation, specifically the factors that are involved in a discounted cash flow determination of fair market value.

  3. Using Writing Portfolios as an Alternative Assessment Method in the Greek Primary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeliki Panou

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to present and analyze the use of writing portfolios as an alternative method of assessing the writing skill in a group of young learners who attend the 6th grade of a Greek State Primary School. In order for this research to be carried out successfully and to provide enlightening results, a systematic and purposeful collection and observation of these learners’ writing samples was conducted over a period of 4 months and further data was basically collected by means of questionnaires before, during and after the completion of the study. There are two major parts in this paper: the theoretical and the practical one. In the first one the following issues are considered: contrasts between traditional testing and alternative assessment and reasons for the selection of the latter as more preferable concerning the positive and very promising outcomes it provides to learners; current portfolio pedagogy and the benefits deriving in relation to the most profound theories underpinning young learners’ cognitive and linguistic development; and the process-writing approach in combination with the use of writing portfolios. The second part presents the actual implementation of the research, analyzing the whole process of the portfolio stages followed from the very beginning of the ‘journey’ to the end. Τhe outcomes and results of this research are discussed and evaluated, whether positive or even negative, and the implications of the present classroom-based study are outlined. Finally, the study concludes with suggestions for further research in order for possible revisions and/or improvements to the specific assessment method to be looked into in future.

  4. Electrical Supply System for the Experimental Zero-Energy Building (of 300 m2 Based on Renewable and Alternative Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basok, B.I.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The results of the development and implementation of the power supply system of the experimental zero-energy building based on renewable and alternative energy sources are presented. CDF-model to determine the optimal conditions for the deployment of wind energy installations within the building limits is developed.

  5. Determination of diametral error using finite elements and experimental method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karabulut

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns experimental and numerical analysis on a one-sided bound workpiece on the lathe machine. Cutting force creates deflection on workpiece while turning process is on. Deflection quantity is estimated utilizing Laser Distance Sensor (LDS with no contact achieved. Also diametral values are detected from different sides of workpiece after each turning operation. It is observed that diametral error differs due to the quantity of the deflection. Diametral error reached a peak where deflection reached a peak. Model which constituted finite elements is verified by experimental results. And also, facts which caused diametral error are determined.

  6. Full-vectorial finite-difference beam propagation method based on the modified alternating direction implicit method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Jin-Biao; Sun Xiao-Han

    2006-01-01

    A modified alternating direction implicit algorithm is proposed to solve the full-vectorial finite-difference beam propagation method formulation based on H fields. The cross-coupling terms are neglected in the first sub-step, but evaluated and doubly used in the second sub-step. The order of two sub-steps is reversed for each transverse magnetic field component so that the cross-coupling terms are always expressed in implicit form, thus the calculation is very efficient and stable. Moreover, an improved six-point finite-difference scheme with high accuracy independent of specific structures of waveguide is also constructed to approximate the cross-coupling terms along the transverse directions. The imaginary-distance procedure is used to assess the validity and utility of the present method. The field patterns and the normalized propagation constants of the fundamental mode for a buried rectangular waveguide and a rib waveguide are presented. Solutions are in excellent agreement with the benchmark results from the modal transverse resonance method.

  7. A novel method to assist the detection of the Cyclic Alternating Pattern (CAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenorio, J M; Alba, A; Mendez, M O; Bianchi, A M; Grassi, A; Arce-Santana, E; Chouvarda, I; Mariani, S; Rosso, V; Terzano, M G; Parrino, L

    2012-01-01

    This study proposes a novel method to assist the detection of the components that build up the Cyclic Alternating Pattern (CAP). CAP is a sleep phenomenon formed by consecutive sequences of activations (A1, A2, A3) and non-activations during nonREM sleep. The main importance of CAP evaluation is the possibility of defining the sleep process more accurately. Ten recordings from healthy and good sleepers were included in this study. The method is based on inferential statistics to define the initial and ending points of the CAP components based only on an initialization point given by the expert. The results show concordance up to 95% for A1, 85% for A2 and 60% for A3, together with an overestimation of 1.5 s in A1, 1.3 s in A2 and 0 s in A3. The total CAP rate presents a total underestimation of 7 min. Those results suggest that the method is able to accurately detect the initial and ending points of the activations, and may be helpful for the physicians by reducing the time dedicated to the manual inspection task.

  8. PHOTOPROBER® Biotin: An Alternative Method for Labeling Archival DNA for Comparative Genomic Hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Korinth

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH represents a powerful method for screening the entire genome of solid tumors for chromosomal imbalances. Particularly it enabled the molecular cytogenetic analysis of archival, formalin‐fixed, paraffin‐embedded (FFPE tissue. A well‐known dilemma, however, is the poor DNA quality of this material with fragment sizes below 1000 bp. Nick translation, the conventionally used enzymatic DNA labeling method in CGH, leads to even shorter fragments often below a critical limit for successful analysis. In this study we report the alternative application of non‐enzymatic, PHOTOPROBE® biotin labeling for conjugation of the hapten to the DNA prior to in situ hybridization and fluorescence detection. We analyzed 51 FFPE tumor samples mainly from the upper respiratory tract by both labeling methods. In 19 cases, both approaches were successful. The comparison of hybridized metaphases showed a distinct higher fluorescence signal of the PHOTOPROBE® samples sometimes with a discrete cytoplasm background which however did not interfere with specificity and sensitivity of the detected chromosomal imbalances. For further 32 cases characterized by an average DNA fragment size below 1000 bp, PHOTOPROBE® biotin was the only successful labeling technique thus offering a new option for CGH analysis of highly degraded DNA from archival material.

  9. Applied Nonlinear Dynamics Analytical, Computational, and Experimental Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Nayfeh, Ali H

    1995-01-01

    A unified and coherent treatment of analytical, computational and experimental techniques of nonlinear dynamics with numerous illustrative applications. Features a discourse on geometric concepts such as Poincaré maps. Discusses chaos, stability and bifurcation analysis for systems of differential and algebraic equations. Includes scores of examples to facilitate understanding.

  10. Leveraging the Experimental Method to Inform Solar Cell Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Mary Annette; Ribblett, Jason W.; Hershberger, Heather Nicole

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the underlying logic of experimentation is exemplified within the context of a photoelectrical experiment for students taking a high school engineering, technology, or chemistry class. Students assume the role of photochemists as they plan, fabricate, and experiment with a solar cell made of copper and an aqueous solution of…

  11. USING COMPUTER-BASED TESTING AS ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT METHOD OF STUDENT LEARNING IN DISTANCE EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia SAPRIATI

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the use of computer-based testing in distance education, based on the experience of Universitas Terbuka (UT, Indonesia. Computer-based testing has been developed at UT for reasons of meeting the specific needs of distance students as the following: Ø students’ inability to sit for the scheduled test, Ø conflicting test schedules, and Ø students’ flexibility to take examination to improve their grades. In 2004, UT initiated a pilot project in the development of system and program for computer-based testing method. Then in 2005 and 2006 tryouts in the use of computer-based testing methods were conducted in 7 Regional Offices that were considered as having sufficient supporting recourses. The results of the tryouts revealed that students were enthusiastic in taking computer-based tests and they expected that the test method would be provided by UT as alternative to the traditional paper and pencil test method. UT then implemented computer-based testing method in 6 and 12 Regional Offices in 2007 and 2008 respectively. The computer-based testing was administered in the city of the designated Regional Office and was supervised by the Regional Office staff. The development of the computer-based testing was initiated with conducting tests using computers in networked configuration. The system has been continually improved, and it currently uses devices linked to the internet or the World Wide Web. The construction of the test involves the generation and selection of the test items from the item bank collection of the UT Examination Center. Thus the combination of the selected items compromises the test specification. Currently UT has offered 250 courses involving the use of computer-based testing. Students expect that more courses are offered with computer-based testing in Regional Offices within easy access by students.

  12. Modeling the impacts of alternative fertilization methods on nitrogen loading in rice production in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zheng; Sha, Zhimin; Liu, Yibo; Wu, Shuhang; Zhang, Hanlin; Li, Changsheng; Zhao, Qi; Cao, Linkui

    2016-10-01

    Nitrogen (N) loss from paddy fields is an important source of agricultural non-point source pollution that leads to eutrophication of water bodies and degradation of water quality. The impacts of alternative N fertilizer management practices on N loading (N loss through runoff and leaching) from paddy fields in Shanghai were assessed using a process-based biogeochemical model, DNDC. The results indicated that the current fertilization rate in paddy fields of Shanghai (300kgN/ha) exceeds the actual rice demand and has led to substantial N loading of 1142±276kg. The combined application of urea at 150kgN/ha and organic manure at 100kgN/ha was identified as the best fertilization method for rice cultivation in Shanghai; this application maintained optimal rice yields and significantly reduced N loading to 714±151kg in comparison with the current fertilization rate. A sensitivity test was conducted with various input parameters, and the results indicated that fertilization, precipitation and soil properties were the most sensitive factors that regulate N loss from paddy fields. The variability of soil properties, especially SOC led to high uncertainties in the simulated results. Therefore, the local climate conditions and soil properties should be taken into account in the identification of the best management practice (BMP) for rice cultivation, given the high spatially heterogeneous N loading values across all towns used in the simulation. The DNDC model is an effective approach for simulating and predicting N loading in paddy fields under alternative agricultural management practices.

  13. Reconstruction of electrical capacitance tomography images based on fast linearized alternating direction method of multipliers for two-phase flow system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chongkun Xia; Chengli Su⁎; Jiangtao Cao; Ping Li

    2016-01-01

    Electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) has been applied to two-phase flow measurement in recent years. Image reconstruction algorithms play an important role in the successful applications of ECT. To solve the il-posed and nonlinear inverse problem of ECT image reconstruction, a new ECT image reconstruction method based on fast lin-earized alternating direction method of multipliers (FLADMM) is proposed in this paper. On the basis of theoretical analysis of compressed sensing (CS), the data acquisition of ECT is regarded as a linear measurement process of permittivity distribution signal of pipe section. A new measurement matrix is designed and L1 regularization method is used to convert ECT inverse problem to a convex relaxation problem which contains prior knowledge. A new fast alternating direction method of multipliers which contained linearized idea is employed to minimize the objective function. Simulation data and experimental results indicate that compared with other methods, the quality and speed of reconstructed images are markedly improved. Also, the dynamic experimental results in-dicate that the proposed algorithm can fulfil the real-time requirement of ECT systems in the application.

  14. Collection methods of trematode eggs using experimental animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubokawa, Daigo; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Mikami, Fusako; Shibata, Katsumasa; Shibahara, Toshiyuki; Fukuda, Koichi; Takamiya, Shinzaburo; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Takeshi; Tsuji, Naotoshi

    2016-10-01

    Although observing the eggs of human parasitic helminth is essential for medical education in parasitology, opportunities for collection of the eggs are limited. Collection of the eggs using experimental animal models is needed for a sustainable supply. The metacercariae of three trematode species, Paragonimus westermani, Clonorchis sinensis and Metagonimus yokogawai, were collected from the second intermediate hosts: freshwater crabs and fishes, which were obtained using online shopping in Japan, and inoculated to experimental animal rat and dog. Consequently, eggs of the three trematode species were obtained abundantly from the feces of the animals. The eggs are being used for student training in several Japanese universities. In this article, we introduce the collection procedures for trematode eggs.

  15. Experimental Comparison of Signal Subspace Based Noise Reduction Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Søren Kirk; Hansen, Per Christian; Hansen, Steffen Duus;

    1999-01-01

    The signal subspace approach for non-parametric speech enhancement is considered. Several algorithms have been proposed in the literature but only partly analyzed. Here, the different algorithms are compared, and the emphasis is put onto the limiting factors and practical behavior of the estimato....... Experimental results show that the signal subspace approach may lead to a significant enhancement of the signal to noise ratio of the output signal....

  16. Experimental Comparison of Signal Subspace Based Noise Reduction Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Peter Søren Kirk; Hansen, Per Christian; Hansen, Steffen Duus; Sørensen, John Aasted

    1999-01-01

    The signal subspace approach for non-parametric speech enhancement is considered. Several algorithms have been proposed in the literature but only partly analyzed. Here, the different algorithms are compared, and the emphasis is put onto the limiting factors and practical behavior of the estimators. Experimental results show that the signal subspace approach may lead to a significant enhancement of the signal to noise ratio of the output signal.

  17. Gradient-based stochastic optimization methods in Bayesian experimental design

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Optimal experimental design (OED) seeks experiments expected to yield the most useful data for some purpose. In practical circumstances where experiments are time-consuming or resource-intensive, OED can yield enormous savings. We pursue OED for nonlinear systems from a Bayesian perspective, with the goal of choosing experiments that are optimal for parameter inference. Our objective in this context is the expected information gain in model parameters, which in general can only be estimated u...

  18. Experimental validation of a high voltage pulse measurement method.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cular, Stefan; Patel, Nishant Bhupendra; Branch, Darren W.

    2013-09-01

    This report describes X-cut lithium niobates (LiNbO3) utilization for voltage sensing by monitoring the acoustic wave propagation changes through LiNbO3 resulting from applied voltage. Direct current (DC), alternating current (AC) and pulsed voltage signals were applied to the crystal. Voltage induced shift in acoustic wave propagation time scaled quadratically for DC and AC voltages and linearly for pulsed voltages. The measured values ranged from 10 - 273 ps and 189 ps 2 ns for DC and non-DC voltages, respectively. Data suggests LiNbO3 has a frequency sensitive response to voltage. If voltage source error is eliminated through physical modeling from the uncertainty budget, the sensors U95 estimated combined uncertainty could decrease to ~0.025% for DC, AC, and pulsed voltage measurements.

  19. Alternative sorptive extraction method for gas chromatography determination of halogenated anisoles in water and wine samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, R. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Instituto de Investigacion y Analisis Alimentario, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela 15782 (Spain); Rodriguez, I. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Instituto de Investigacion y Analisis Alimentario, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela 15782 (Spain)], E-mail: qnisaac@usc.es; Rubi, E.; Bollain, M.H.; Cela, R. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Instituto de Investigacion y Analisis Alimentario, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela 15782 (Spain)

    2007-09-05

    An alternative sorptive microextraction method for the determination of five halogenated anisoles in water and wine matrices is proposed. Analytes were concentrated in an inexpensive and disposable piece of bulk polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), desorbed with a small volume of organic solvent, and determined by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD) or tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The influence of several factors on the efficiency of extraction and desorption steps was investigated in detail and the observed behaviour justified on the basis of thermodynamics and kinetics of the solid-phase microextraction technique. Under optimised conditions, analytes were first extracted in the headspace (HS) mode, at room temperature, for 2.5 h and then desorbed with 1 mL of n-pentane. This extract was further evaporated to 50 {mu}L. The overall extraction yield of the procedure ranged from 40 to 55% and the limits of quantification remained between 0.5 and 20 ng L{sup -1}, depending on the compound considered and the detection technique. Precision and linearity of the method were excellent for all species with both GC-ECD and GC-MS/MS detection. Matrix effects were evaluated with different water and wine samples; moreover, the suitability of the PDMS sorbent for storage of analytes, under different conditions, was demonstrated.

  20. Alternative Chemical Cleaning Methods for High Level Waste Tanks: Simulant Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudisill, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); King, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hay, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jones, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-11-19

    Solubility testing with simulated High Level Waste tank heel solids has been conducted in order to evaluate two alternative chemical cleaning technologies for the dissolution of sludge residuals remaining in the tanks after the exhaustion of mechanical cleaning and sludge washing efforts. Tests were conducted with non-radioactive pure phase metal reagents, binary mixtures of reagents, and a Savannah River Site PUREX heel simulant to determine the effectiveness of an optimized, dilute oxalic/nitric acid cleaning reagent and pure, dilute nitric acid toward dissolving the bulk non-radioactive waste components. A focus of this testing was on minimization of oxalic acid additions during tank cleaning. For comparison purposes, separate samples were also contacted with pure, concentrated oxalic acid which is the current baseline chemical cleaning reagent. In a separate study, solubility tests were conducted with radioactive tank heel simulants using acidic and caustic permanganate-based methods focused on the “targeted” dissolution of actinide species known to be drivers for Savannah River Site tank closure Performance Assessments. Permanganate-based cleaning methods were evaluated prior to and after oxalic acid contact.

  1. The convergence rate of the proximal alternating direction method of multipliers with indefinite proximal regularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The proximal alternating direction method of multipliers (P-ADMM is an efficient first-order method for solving the separable convex minimization problems. Recently, He et al. have further studied the P-ADMM and relaxed the proximal regularization matrix of its second subproblem to be indefinite. This is especially significant in practical applications since the indefinite proximal matrix can result in a larger step size for the corresponding subproblem and thus can often accelerate the overall convergence speed of the P-ADMM. In this paper, without the assumptions that the feasible set of the studied problem is bounded or the objective function’s component θ i ( ⋅ $\\theta_{i}(\\cdot$ of the studied problem is strongly convex, we prove the worst-case O ( 1 / t $\\mathcal{O}(1/t$ convergence rate in an ergodic sense of the P-ADMM with a general Glowinski relaxation factor γ ∈ ( 0 , 1 + 5 2 $\\gamma\\in(0,\\frac{1+\\sqrt{5}}{2}$ , which is a supplement of the previously known results in this area. Furthermore, some numerical results on compressive sensing are reported to illustrate the effectiveness of the P-ADMM with indefinite proximal regularization.

  2. Alternative method for design and optimization of the ring resonator used in micro-optic gyro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kunbo; Feng, Lishuang; Wang, Junjie; Lei, Ming

    2013-03-01

    The ring resonator is one of the key elements in the micro-optic gyro system, but there is not a uniform method for designing the parameters of a ring resonator, especially for its size. In this paper, an alternative method is presented for designing the ring resonator used in micro-optic gyro. Maximization of the resonator output is proposed to be the principle in design and optimization for the first time to our knowledge. The scale factor accuracy and the full range of the gyro system are taken into account to obtain the optimum diameter of the ring. A theoretical optimal diameter of 0.25 m is achieved for SiO(2) waveguide resonator with a dynamic range of ±500°/s by analyzing the influence of resonator parameters on the output in detail, and the corresponding sensitivity of the gyro is less than 1.28°/h, which can meet the demands of a tactical inertia system.

  3. [Ergopsychometry. New methods in experimental psychodiagnosis of pathologic stress reactions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiglböck, W; Feselmayer, S; Bischof, B

    1989-01-01

    Ergopsychometry--testing under physiological and/or psychological stress--has proved to be increasingly successful in recent years. In particular in sports psychology, in which only physiological stress had been considered, have experimental results been successfully implemented into practice. The fact that some subjects appear unchanged or even yield better results under stress than under stress-free conditions applies not only to physiological stress, but also holds true for psychological stress. These results have consequences for the experimental psychodiagnoses of pathological stress reactions, e.g., with alcoholics or psychosomatic patients. Proceeding from the above hypothesis we investigated 20 gamma-alcoholics (so-called relieve drinkers) and 20 psychosomatic inpatients under stress-free as well as under stress conditions, according to the ergopsychometric approach. The control group consisted of 23 subjects matched with respect to age, sex, and profession. We used a test battery to assess concentration, memory, and choice-reaction as well as the subjective state of activation, stress-coping-mechanisms, and self-concepts. Essentially, the validity of ergopsychometric designs was confirmed by our results. In accordance with our expectations, 27.5% of the experimental group showed increasing efficiency scores, compared to 56.5% in the control group. Possible explanations for the findings can be derived from the assessment of subjective activity, but not from of the personality questionnaires.

  4. Validationof alternative bacterial count method of Erdosteine Capsules%厄多司坦胶囊菌落计数替代方法的验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王知坚; 李珏

    2011-01-01

    Objective; Explore the feasibility of the paper method to replace the pharmacopoeia method in bacterial count of Erdosteine Capsules. Methods; According to the alternative method validation guiding principle, the validation of quantitative test parameters are experimental researched and statistical compared with the pharmacopoeia method. Results;No statistically substantial difference in test result is found between using the paper method and the pharmacopoeia method. ( P > 0. 05 ) Conclusion; Results prove that the paper method is accurate and easy - to - use to the alternative method of Erdosteine Capsules bacterial count.%目的:探讨纸片法在厄多司坦胶囊菌落计数实验中替代药典方法的可行性.方法:采用替代方法验证指导原则的有关规定,对定量检验的各项验证参数进行实验研究,并与药典方法进行统计比较.结果:经统计纸片法的各项验证参数均与药典方法相当,结果无显著性差异(P>0.05).结论:纸片法具有结果准确、操作简便的特点,可作为厄多司坦胶囊菌落计数检查的替代方法.

  5. Alternate calibration method of radiochromic EBT3 film for quality assurance verification of clinical radiotherapy treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soah; Kang, Sei-Kwon; Cheong, Kwang-Ho; Hwang, Taejin; Yoon, Jai-Woong; Koo, Taeryool; Han, Tae Jin; Kim, Haeyoung; Lee, Me Yeon; Bae, Hoonsik; Kim, Kyoung Ju

    2016-07-01

    EBT3 film is utilized as a dosimetry quality assurance tool for the verification of clinical radiotherapy treatments. In this work, we suggest a percentage-depth-dose (PDD) calibration method that can calibrate several EBT3 film pieces together at different dose levels because photon beams provide different dose levels at different depths along the axis of the beam. We investigated the feasibility of the film PDD calibration method based on PDD data and compared the results those from the traditional film calibration method. Photon beams at 6 MV were delivered to EBT3 film pieces for both calibration methods. For the PDD-based calibration, the film pieces were placed on solid phantoms at the depth of maximum dose (dmax) and at depths of 3, 5, 8, 12, 17, and 22 cm, and a photon beam was delivered twice, at 100 cGy and 400 cGy, to extend the calibration dose range under the same conditions. Fourteen film pieces, to maintain their consistency, were irradiated at doses ranging from approximately 30 to 400 cGy for both film calibrations. The film pieces were located at the center position on the scan bed of an Epson 1680 flatbed scanner in the parallel direction. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans were created, and their dose distributions were delivered to the film. The dose distributions for the traditional method and those for the PDD-based calibration method were evaluated using a Gamma analysis. The PDD dose values using a CC13 ion chamber and those obtained by using a FC65-G Farmer chamber and measured at the depth of interest produced very similar results. With the objective test criterion of a 1% dosage agreement at 1 mm, the passing rates for the four cases of the three IMRT plans were essentially identical. The traditional and the PDD-based calibrations provided similar plan verification results. We also describe another alternative for calibrating EBT3 films, i.e., a PDD-based calibration method that provides an easy and time-saving approach

  6. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP-strings: an alternative method for assessing genetic associations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas S Goodin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS identify disease-associations for single-nucleotide-polymorphisms (SNPs from scattered genomic-locations. However, SNPs frequently reside on several different SNP-haplotypes, only some of which may be disease-associated. This circumstance lowers the observed odds-ratio for disease-association. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we develop a method to identify the two SNP-haplotypes, which combine to produce each person's SNP-genotype over specified chromosomal segments. Two multiple sclerosis (MS-associated genetic regions were modeled; DRB1 (a Class II molecule of the major histocompatibility complex and MMEL1 (an endopeptidase that degrades both neuropeptides and β-amyloid. For each locus, we considered sets of eleven adjacent SNPs, surrounding the putative disease-associated gene and spanning ∼200 kb of DNA. The SNP-information was converted into an ordered-set of eleven-numbers (subject-vectors based on whether a person had zero, one, or two copies of particular SNP-variant at each sequential SNP-location. SNP-strings were defined as those ordered-combinations of eleven-numbers (0 or 1, representing a haplotype, two of which combined to form the observed subject-vector. Subject-vectors were resolved using probabilistic methods. In both regions, only a small number of SNP-strings were present. We compared our method to the SHAPEIT-2 phasing-algorithm. When the SNP-information spanning 200 kb was used, SHAPEIT-2 was inaccurate. When the SHAPEIT-2 window was increased to 2,000 kb, the concordance between the two methods, in both of these eleven-SNP regions, was over 99%, suggesting that, in these regions, both methods were quite accurate. Nevertheless, correspondence was not uniformly high over the entire DNA-span but, rather, was characterized by alternating peaks and valleys of concordance. Moreover, in the valleys of poor-correspondence, SHAPEIT-2 was also inconsistent with itself

  7. A Comprehensive Study of Internal Distraction Plating, an Alternative Method for Distal Radius Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavani, Kinjal J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The management of highly comminuted distal radius fractures still remains a major treatment challenge. Articular comminution and compromised bone quality are the culprits. One novel approach is the technique of Internal Distraction Plating which involves “bridging” the fracture with the use of a standard 3.5mm plate applied dorsally in distraction from the radius, proximal to the fracture, to the long finger metacarpal distally, bypassing the comminuted segment. The plate is removed once fracture union has been achieved. Aim The present study was conducted with the aim to evaluate the role of internal dorsal distraction plating as an alternative method in the treatment of fracture distal radius in terms of special indications, technique and outcome. Materials and Methods This study was a prospective longitudinal study on 20 patients (mean age 62 years) treated with internal distraction plating for comminuted distal radius fractures with specific indications. Regular follow-ups with standard radiographs and analysis were done upto 24 months. Functional outcome were assessed by DASH Score and the Gartland and Werley demerit score. Results At final follow-up, all fractures had united and X-rays showed mean palmar tilt of 7°, positive ulnar variance of 0.5mm, radial inclination of 18° and average loss of 2mm of radial height. Mean range of motion values for wrist flexion 46°, extension 50°, pronation 79° and supination 77° At final follow-up, the mean DASH score was 32. 85% patient had excellent to good result as per Gartland and Werley demerit score. This construct has yield satisfactory clinical and radiographic results with these very challenging injuries. Conclusion The purpose of this study was to report the radiographic and the functional outcomes of treatment with this technique. External fixator and volar plating in communited distal end radius fractures are not always satisfactory in old age with osteoporotic bone because of

  8. Dental movement acceleration: Literature review by an alternative scientific evidence method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Angela Domínguez; Cujar, Sergio Andres Velásquez

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the majority of publications using effective methods to speed up orthodontic treatment and determine which publications carry high evidence-based value. The literature published in Pubmed from 1984 to 2013 was reviewed, in addition to well-known reports that were not classified under this database. To facilitate evidence-based decision making, guidelines such as the Consolidation Standards of Reporting Trials, Preferred Reporting items for systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses, and Transparent Reporting of Evaluations with Non-randomized Designs check list were used. The studies were initially divided into three groups: local application of cell mediators, physical stimuli, and techniques that took advantage of the regional acceleration phenomena. The articles were classified according to their level of evidence using an alternative method for orthodontic scientific article classification. 1a: Systematic Reviews (SR) of randomized clinical trials (RCTs), 1b: Individual RCT, 2a: SR of cohort studies, 2b: Individual cohort study, controlled clinical trials and low quality RCT, 3a: SR of case-control studies, 3b: Individual case-control study, low quality cohort study and short time following split mouth designs. 4: Case-series, low quality case-control study and non-systematic review, and 5: Expert opinion. The highest level of evidence for each group was: (1) local application of cell mediators: the highest level of evidence corresponds to a 3B level in Prostaglandins and Vitamin D; (2) physical stimuli: vibratory forces and low level laser irradiation have evidence level 2b, Electrical current is classified as 3b evidence-based level, Pulsed Electromagnetic Field is placed on the 4th level on the evidence scale; and (3) regional acceleration phenomena related techniques: for corticotomy the majority of the reports belong to level 4. Piezocision, dentoalveolar distraction, alveocentesis, monocortical tooth dislocation and ligament

  9. An experimental-analytical method to study steady spray combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracco, F. V.

    1973-01-01

    Description of a method for determining the local parameters of the gas mixture resulting from the combustion of sprayed fuel in a gaseous oxidizer. The method is based on the measurement of local static pressures in the gas mixture and does not require the knowledge of the droplet distribution function, drag, and vaporization characteristics. A set of equations with substituted local pressure values is used for calculations. Application of the method is demonstrated on a liquid oxygen-ethanol rocket fuel.

  10. Introduction to experimental infrared spectroscopy fundamentals and practical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Tasumi, Mitsuo; Ochiai, Shukichi

    2014-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopy is generally understood to mean the science of spectra relating to infrared radiation, namely electromagnetic waves, in the wavelength region occurring intermediately between visible light and microwaves. Measurements of infrared spectra have been providing useful information, for a variety of scientific research and industrial studies, for over half a century; this is set to continue in the foreseeable future. Introduction to Experimental Infrared Spectroscopy is intended to be a handy guide for those who have no, or limited, experience in infrared spectroscopi

  11. Application of sensitivity analysis for assessment of de-desertification alternatives in the central Iran by using Triantaphyllou method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi Ravesh, Mohammad Hassan; Ahmadi, Hassan; Zehtabian, Gholamreza

    2011-08-01

    Desertification, land degradation in arid, semi-arid, and dry sub-humid regions, is a global environmental problem. With respect to increasing importance of desertification and its complexity, the necessity of attention to the optimal de-desertification alternatives is essential. Therefore, this work presents an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method to objectively select the optimal de-desertification alternatives based on the results of interviews with experts in Khezr Abad region, central Iran as the case study. This model was used in Yazd Khezr Abad region to evaluate the efficiency in presentation of better alternatives related to personal and environmental situations. Obtained results indicate that the criterion "proportion and adaptation to the environment" with the weighted average of 33.6% is the most important criterion from experts viewpoints. While prevention alternatives of land usage unsuitable of reveres and conversion with 22.88% mean weight and vegetation cover development and reclamation with 21.9% mean weight are recognized ordinarily as the most important de-desertification alternatives in region. Finally, sensitivity analysis is performed in detail by varying the objective factor decision weight, the priority weight of subjective factors, and the gain factors. After the fulfillment of sensitivity analysis and determination of the most sensitive criteria and alternatives, the former classification and ranking of alternatives does not change so much, and it was observed that unsuitable land use alternative with the preference degree of 22.7% was still in the first order of priority. The final priority of livestock grazing control alternative was replaced with the alternative of modification of ground water harvesting.

  12. Experimental Methods in Reduced-gravity Soldering Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettegrew, Richard D.; Struk, Peter M.; Watson, John K.; Haylett, Daniel R.

    2002-01-01

    The National Center for Microgravity Research, NASA Glenn Research Center, and NASA Johnson Space Center are conducting an experimental program to explore the influence of reduced gravity environments on the soldering process. An improved understanding of the effects of the acceleration environment is important to application of soldering during current and future human space missions. Solder joint characteristics that are being considered include solder fillet geometry, porosity, and microstructural features. Both through-hole and surface mounted devices are being investigated. This paper focuses on the experimental methodology employed in this project and the results of macroscopic sample examination. The specific soldering process, sample configurations, materials, and equipment were selected to be consistent with those currently on-orbit. Other apparatus was incorporated to meet requirements imposed by operation onboard NASA's KC-135 research aircraft and instrumentation was provided to monitor both the atmospheric and acceleration environments. The contingent of test operators was selected to include both highly skilled technicians and less skilled individuals to provide a population cross-section that would be representative of the skill mix that might be encountered in space mission crews.

  13. Estimating Rumen Degradable Protein in Forage Legume Hays and Silages by In Situ Disappearance Kinetics vs. Alternative Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currently, the in situ kinetic method is considered the “gold standard” for estimating rumen degradable protein (RDP) in forages. When such estimates are impractical (e.g. numerous samples, limited sample quantities, or lack of ruminally fistulated cattle) alternative RDP methods are used, but their...

  14. Alternative Methods of Classifying Eating Disorders: Models Incorporating Comorbid Psychopathology and Associated Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildes, Jennifer E.; Marcus, Marsha D.

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing recognition of the limitations of current approaches to psychiatric classification. Nowhere is this more apparent than in the eating disorders (EDs). Several alternative methods of classifying EDs have been proposed, which can be divided into two major groups: 1) those that have classified individuals on the basis of disordered eating symptoms; and, 2) those that have classified individuals on the basis of comorbid psychopathology and associated features. Several reviews have addressed symptom-based approaches to ED classification, but we are aware of no paper that has critically examined comorbidity-based systems. Thus, in this paper, we review models of classifying EDs that incorporate information about comorbid psychopathology and associated features. Early approaches are described first, followed by more recent scholarly contributions to comorbidity-based ED classification. Importantly, several areas of overlap among the classification schemes are identified that may have implications for future research. In particular, we note similarities between early models and newer studies in the salience of impulsivity, compulsivity, distress, and inhibition versus risk taking. Finally, we close with directions for future work, with an emphasis on neurobiologically-informed research to elucidate basic behavioral and neuropsychological correlates of comorbidity-based ED classes, as well as implications for treatment. PMID:23416343

  15. Skills based evaluation of alternative input methods to command a semi-autonomous electric wheelchair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Mario; Ponce, Pedro; Molina, Arturo

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents the evaluation, under standardized metrics, of alternative input methods to steer and maneuver a semi-autonomous electric wheelchair. The Human-Machine Interface (HMI), which includes a virtual joystick, head movements and speech recognition controls, was designed to facilitate mobility skills for severely disabled people. Thirteen tasks, which are common to all the wheelchair users, were attempted five times by controlling it with the virtual joystick and the hands-free interfaces in different areas for disabled and non-disabled people. Even though the prototype has an intelligent navigation control, based on fuzzy logic and ultrasonic sensors, the evaluation was done without assistance. The scored values showed that both controls, the head movements and the virtual joystick have similar capabilities, 92.3% and 100%, respectively. However, the 54.6% capacity score obtained for the speech control interface indicates the needs of the navigation assistance to accomplish some of the goals. Furthermore, the evaluation time indicates those skills which require more user's training with the interface and specifications to improve the total performance of the wheelchair.

  16. Equine tracheal epithelial membrane strips - An alternate method for examining epithelial cell arachidonic acid metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, P.R.; Derksen, F.J.; Robinson, N.E.; Peter-Golden, M.L. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (United States) Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (United States))

    1990-02-26

    Arachidonic acid metabolism by tracheal epithelium can be studied using enzymatically dispersed cell suspensions or cell cultures. Both techniques require considerable tissue disruption and manipulation and may not accurately represent in vivo activity. The authors have developed an alternate method for obtaining strips of equine tracheal epithelium without enzymatic digestion. In the horse, a prominent elastic lamina supports the tracheal epithelium. By physical splitting this lamina, they obtained strips ({le}12 x 1.5 cm) of pseudostratified columnar epithelium attached to a layer of elastic tissue 30-100 {mu}m thick. Epithelial strips (1.2 x 0.5 cm) were attached to plexiglass rods and incubated with ({sup 3}H)arachidonic acid in M199 medium (0.5 {mu}Ci/ml) for 24 hours at 37C. The strips incorporated 36{+-}4% (mean {+-} SEM) of the total radioactivity and released 8.0{+-}1.2% of incorporated radioactivity when stimulated by 5.0 {mu}M calcium ionophore A23187. The extracted supernatant was processed using HPLC, resulting in peaks of radioactivity that co-eluted with authentic PGE{sub 2}, PGF{sub 2}{alpha}, and 12-HETE standards. The greatest activity corresponded to the PGE{sub 2} and PGF{sub 2}{alpha} standards, which is a similar pattern to that reported for cultured human tracheal epithelium.

  17. Relationship between DAPI-fluorescence fading and nuclear DNA content: An alternative method to DNA quantification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian; Alvarez-Borrego, Josué; Von Brand, Elisabeth; Dupré, Enrique; Del Río-Portilla, Miguel Angel

    2007-01-01

    In observations by confocal or conventional fluorescence microscopy, important factors should be considered in order to obtain accurate images. One of them, such as the fluorescence bleaching from highest intensity to lowest signal of fluorescence is a common problem with several DNA fluorochromes and especially for DAPI stain. The fluorescence of DAPI fades rapidly when it is exposed to UV light, under optimal conditions of observation. Although the fading process can be retarded using a mounting medium with antifading reagents, the photochemical process underlying the fluorescence decay has not yet been fully explained. In addition, no relationship between fluorescence fading and nuclear DNA content has been tested. In order to test this relationship, we measured by means of image analysis the DAPI-fluorescence intensity in several cellular types (spermatozoa, erythrocytes and haemocytes) during their fluorescence bleaching. An algorithm specifically built in MATLAB software was used for this approach. The correlation coefficient between nuclear DNA content and DAPI-fluorescence fading was found equal to 99%. This study demonstrates the feasibility to measure nuclear DNA content by fluorescence fading quantification, as an alternative method concurrently with image analysis procedures.

  18. The viability of alternative assessment methods in the Greek upper secondary school: the oral portfolio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeliki Daphni

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Τhe final examination of the English language subject, in the context of the Greek state upper secondary education, is a traditional paper-and-pencil test which does not include any assessment of oracy skills. This article explores the viability of the oral portfolio as an alternative assessment and pedagogic method that can facilitate the assessment of speaking and listening skills and create a more motivating learning environment. To this effect, three methodological tools were designed, namely, a questionnaire addressing upper secondary English teachers in Greek state schools, a case study involving an oral portfolio implementation and finally, a questionnaire for students to record their experience. The study demonstrates that implementation of the portfolio contributed to a successful assessment of oracy skills and that it was a stimulating experience for students. The results of the study also showed that the pedagogical value of the portfolio counterbalanced its practical constraints. The paper concludes by putting forward recommendations for the future application of this assessment technique in state school education.

  19. Alternative method of highway traffic safety analysis for developing countries using delphi technique and Bayesian network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbakwe, Anthony C; Saka, Anthony A; Choi, Keechoo; Lee, Young-Jae

    2016-08-01

    Highway traffic accidents all over the world result in more than 1.3 million fatalities annually. An alarming number of these fatalities occurs in developing countries. There are many risk factors that are associated with frequent accidents, heavy loss of lives, and property damage in developing countries. Unfortunately, poor record keeping practices are very difficult obstacle to overcome in striving to obtain a near accurate casualty and safety data. In light of the fact that there are numerous accident causes, any attempts to curb the escalating death and injury rates in developing countries must include the identification of the primary accident causes. This paper, therefore, seeks to show that the Delphi Technique is a suitable alternative method that can be exploited in generating highway traffic accident data through which the major accident causes can be identified. In order to authenticate the technique used, Korea, a country that underwent similar problems when it was in its early stages of development in addition to the availability of excellent highway safety records in its database, is chosen and utilized for this purpose. Validation of the methodology confirms the technique is suitable for application in developing countries. Furthermore, the Delphi Technique, in combination with the Bayesian Network Model, is utilized in modeling highway traffic accidents and forecasting accident rates in the countries of research.

  20. a Study on the Alternative Technology Using Unsm Instead of the Presetting Method for Torsion Bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Chang-Min; Kim, Min-Ho; Baek, Un-Bong; Pyoun, Young-Sik; Kim, Chang-Sik; Chi, Chong-Ho

    The torsion bar must be changed periodically due to its lack of durability and a phenomenon related to stress relaxation. Therefore technical development regarding the torsion bar's durability is urgently needed. In order to improve the fatigue life and durability of the dynamic components, new surface treatment technology such as ultrasonic shot peening, deep rolling, laser shock peening, etc. are developing widely. In this study, Ultrasonic Nanocrystal Surface Modification (UNSM) technology is applied as an advanced one to replace the presetting method (PM). UNSM and PM technology also induced the compressive residual stress on the surface layer of the torsion bar, which is the main improvement factor of fatigue life. DIN17221 material as a new MIL specification of torsion bar and SCM440 (as an alternative one to a old MIL-DTL-62567C) were processed with the UNSM technology to obtain the basic data and compare it between two, and then torsion fatigue tests of two materials were carried out to obtain the characteristics of torsion fatigue in this study.

  1. Hepatotoxic microcystin removal using pumice embedded monolithic composite cryogel as an alternative water treatment method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurbuz, Fatma; Ceylan, Şeyda; Odabaşı, Mehmet; Codd, Geoffrey A

    2016-03-01

    Microcystins are the most commonly encountered water-borne cyanotoxins which present short- and long-term risks to human health. Guidelines at international and national level, and legislation in some countries, have been introduced for the effective health risk management of these potent hepatotoxic, tumour-promoters. The stable cyclic structure of microcystins and their common production by cyanobacteria in waterbodies at times of high total dissolved organic carbon content presents challenges to drinking water treatment facilities, with conventional, advanced and novel strategies under evaluation. Here, we have studied the removal of microcystins using three different forms of pumice particles (PPs), which are embedded into macroporous cryogel columns. Macroporous composite cryogel columns (MCCs) are a new generation of separation media designed to face this challenging task. Three different MCCs were prepared by adding plain PPs, Cu(2+)-attached PPs and Fe(3+)-attached PPs to reaction media before the cryogelation step. Column studies showed that MCCs could be successfully used as an alternative water treatment method for successful microcystin removal.

  2. Theoretical and Experimental Research of Error of Method of Thermocouple with Controlled Profile of Temperature Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Su; Kochan, O.; Chunzhi, Wang; Kochan, R.

    2015-12-01

    The method of study and experimental researches of the error of method of the thermocouple with controlled profile of temperature field along the main thermocouple are considered in this paper. Experimentally determined values of error of method are compared to the theoretical estimations done using Newton's law of cooling. They converge well.

  3. Theoretical and Experimental Research of Error of Method of Thermocouple with Controlled Profile of Temperature Field

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Su; Kochan O.; Chunzhi Wang; Kochan R.

    2015-01-01

    The method of study and experimental researches of the error of method of the thermocouple with controlled profile of temperature field along the main thermocouple are considered in this paper. Experimentally determined values of error of method are compared to the theoretical estimations done using Newton’s law of cooling. They converge well.

  4. Alternative Therapeutic Method for Type Two Diabetes: Whole Body Vibration Therapy: A Mini-Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika L Simmerman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Context As the prevalence of obesity and diabetes continues to increase there is a need for new interventions to control this epidemic. Multiple alternative treatment methods exist for type 2 diabetes mellitus such as acupuncture, bariatric surgery, yoga, aromatherapy, herbal remedies, etc. Whole Body Vibration is a relatively new area of interest recently utilized as an adjunctive therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus, representing a potentially new and novel treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Objective The primary objective of this study was to summarize current literature regarding the effects of whole body vibration on type 2 diabetes mellitus. This review details the effect of whole body vibration on areas of high clinical impact in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus such as glycemic control, body composition, renal function, inflammatory indices, peripheral neuropathy, and wound healing. Methods Reviewers independently screened abstracts and full texts in journal articles and books to extract data from multiple studies and literature to compile a current review on the topic of whole body vibration and diabetes mellitus. Results Current literature in murine and human models reported an overall improvement in glycemic control, renal function, inflammatory indices, and peripheral neuropathy following whole body vibration therapy. Whole body vibration effect on body mass composition is controversial with inconsistent reports of the effect on lean mass, bone density, and fat mass. Conclusions Whole body vibration has demonstrated significant promise in improving multiple systems related to the sequela of type 2 diabetes mellitus, thereby suggesting a new and novel treatment modification in this patient population. Subsequent studies are needed to further analyze the effect of whole body vibration on type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  5. HIPPOTHERAPY SIMULATOR AS ALTERNATIVE METHOD FOR HIPPOTHERAPY TREATMENT IN HEMIPLEGIC CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ali Elshafey

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hippotherapy considered as worldwide techniques used in rehabilitation of children with neurological disorders as it improved gait pattern, balance, postural control, strengthen, range of motion and gross and fine motor skills development but it encounter some technical problems. Purpose: The purpose of the current study was to compare between hippotherapy and hippotherapy simulators effect on back geometry and balance in hemiplegic children. Materials and Methods: Thirty ambulant hemiplegic children, their age ranges from four to six years old participated in this study. They were randomly divided into two matched groups (control and study. The control group treated with hippotherapy for half hour in addition to the selected physical therapy program, while the study group treated with hippotherapy simulators for half hour in addition to the selected physical therapy program also. All children received the treatment three times weekly for three successive months. Spinal geometry were evaluated by Formatric instrumentation systems and balance were evaluated by pediatric balance scale before and after treatment Results: There was significant improvement in all the measured variables for both groups after comparing of their pre and post-treatment mean values with non-significant difference between both groups post treatment. Conclusion: Hippotherapy simulators is an alternative method for hippotherapy could be used for modulation of back geometry and for improving balance in hemiplegic children. Brief summary and potential implication: Hippotherapy simulator was used in treatment of back geometry and balance in hemiplegic children, all the measurements were compared with hippotherapy. The results were nearly the same in both groups.

  6. El método científico experimental en las clases de laboratorio de física / The experimental scientific method in Physics laboratory lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landa, L. C.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio los autores abordan la aplicación del método científico experimental en el proceso de enseñanza de la Física como parte del modelo de aprendizaje como investigación en la carrera de Matemática-Física. El análisis de diferentes resultados investigativos publicados en la última década posibilitó identificar avances significativos en este campo, sobre todo en cuanto a la operacionalización del método y la utilización de simulaciones y experimentos virtuales en la enseñanza de la Física, sin embargo, aún persisten insuficiencias en el proceder de los docentes que limitan la apropiación del método por parte de los estudiantes. En particular, se ofrece a los docentes una alternativa metodológica para la introducción del método científico experimental, en las prácticas de laboratorio de Física, que contribuye al tránsito de los estudiantes por los procedimientos del citado método. Finalmente se expone un ejemplo concreto del modo en que se aplicó la alternativa metodológica en una clase de laboratorio de Física. This article deals with the application of the experimental scientific method in the teaching and learning process in Mathematics-Physics career as a part of learning by researching model. The study of references and the analysis of former research findings allow identifying significant achievements in the last ten years, mainly about the application of the method and also the use of virtual experiments and simulation in teaching Physics. However, there are several shortcomings of procedural nature that hinder the students’ appropriation of the method. The main finding is a proposal of a teaching alternative to achieve the learning of the experimental scientific method and its procedures by the students. Finally, that teaching alternative is illustrated in a particular Physics laboratory lesson

  7. Experimental optimization of a landmine detection facility using PGNAA method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hashem MIRI-HAKIMABAD; Hamed PANJEH; Alireza VEJDANI-NOGHREIYAN

    2008-01-01

    The optimum moderator geometry increases the performance of prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) method considerably. In this work an 241Am-Be source was used in the moderator geometry for detecting buried landmines by PGNAA method. Experiments were done to find the best moderator geometry for the moderated 241 Am-Be source, by replacing the mine with a neutron detector and counting the thermal neutron flux. The flux of thermal neutrons at the place of mine was used as a determining factor to introduce the best moderator geometry.

  8. Validation of analytical methods in GMP: the disposable Fast Read 102® device, an alternative practical approach for cell counting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunetti Monica

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The quality and safety of advanced therapy products must be maintained throughout their production and quality control cycle to ensure their final use in patients. We validated the cell count method according to the International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use and European Pharmacopoeia, considering the tests’ accuracy, precision, repeatability, linearity and range. Methods As the cell count is a potency test, we checked accuracy, precision, and linearity, according to ICH Q2. Briefly our experimental approach was first to evaluate the accuracy of Fast Read 102® compared to the Bürker chamber. Once the accuracy of the alternative method was demonstrated, we checked the precision and linearity test only using Fast Read 102®. The data were statistically analyzed by average, standard deviation and coefficient of variation percentages inter and intra operator. Results All the tests performed met the established acceptance criteria of a coefficient of variation of less than ten percent. For the cell count, the precision reached by each operator had a coefficient of variation of less than ten percent (total cells and under five percent (viable cells. The best range of dilution, to obtain a slope line value very similar to 1, was between 1:8 and 1:128. Conclusions Our data demonstrated that the Fast Read 102® count method is accurate, precise and ensures the linearity of the results obtained in a range of cell dilution. Under our standard method procedures, this assay may thus be considered a good quality control method for the cell count as a batch release quality control test. Moreover, the Fast Read 102® chamber is a plastic, disposable device that allows a number of samples to be counted in the same chamber. Last but not least, it overcomes the problem of chamber washing after use and so allows a cell count in a clean environment such as that in a

  9. An Experimental Method for the Active Learning of Greedy Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez-Iturbide, J. Angel

    2013-01-01

    Greedy algorithms constitute an apparently simple algorithm design technique, but its learning goals are not simple to achieve.We present a didacticmethod aimed at promoting active learning of greedy algorithms. The method is focused on the concept of selection function, and is based on explicit learning goals. It mainly consists of an…

  10. Interleaved Carbon Minibeams: An Experimental Radiosurgery Method With Clinical Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilmanian, F. Avraham, E-mail: dilmanian@bnl.gov [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Stony Brook University Medical Center, NY (United States); Department of Neurology, Stony Brook University Medical Center, NY (United States); Rusek, Adam [NASA Space Radiation Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Fois, Giovanna R. [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Physics Department, University of Cagliari, Sardinia (Italy); Olschowka, John [Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Desnoyers, Nicolle R. [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine, Basseterre, St. Kitts, West Indies (Country Unknown); Park, Jane Y. [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Dioszegi, Istvan [Nonproliferation and National Security Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Dane, Bari; Wang Ruiliang [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Tomasi, Dardo [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse, Bethesda, MD (United States); Lee, Hedok [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Hurley, Sean D. [Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Coyle, Patricia K. [Department of Neurology, Stony Brook University Medical Center, NY (United States); Meek, Allen G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stony Brook University Medical Center, NY (United States); O' Banion, M. Kerry [Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of 'interleaved carbon minibeams' for ablating a 6.5-mm target in a rabbit brain with little damage to the surrounding brain. The method is based on the well-established tissue-sparing effect of arrays of thin planes of radiation. Methods and Materials: Broad carbon beams from the National Aeronautics and Space Agency Space Radiation Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory were segmented into arrays of parallel, horizontal, 0.3-mm-thick planar beams (minibeams). The minibeams' gradual broadening in tissues resulted in 0.525-mm beam thickness at the target's proximal side in the spread-out Bragg peak. Interleaving was therefore implemented by choosing a 1.05 mm beam spacing on-center. The anesthetized rabbit, positioned vertically on a stage capable of rotating about a vertical axis, was exposed to arrays from four 90 Degree-Sign angles, with the stage moving up by 0.525 mm in between. This produced a solid radiation field at the target while exposing the nontargeted tissues to single minibeam arrays. The target 'physical' absorbed dose was 40.2 Gy. Results: The rabbit behaved normally during the 6-month observation period. Contrast magnetic resonance imaging and hematoxylin and eosin histology at 6 months showed substantial focal target damage with little damage to the surrounding brain. Conclusion: We plan to evaluate the method's therapeutic efficacy by comparing it with broad-beam carbon therapy in animal models. The method's merits would combine those of carbon therapy (i.e., tight target dose because of the carbon's Bragg-peak, sharp dose falloff, and high relative biological effectiveness at the target), together with the method's low impact on the nontargeted tissues. The method's smaller impact on the nontargeted brain might allow carbon therapy at higher target doses and/or lower normal tissue impact, thus leading to a more effective treatment of radioresistant

  11. Using Experimental Methods to Investigate Discriminatory Tendencies: A Lesson Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Wen Chen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Using dictator games in experimental analysis, this lesson report demonstrates the process and results of a postgraduate class project in which university students were instructed to scientifically investigate and explore one of German society’s most hotly-contested issues: the level of discriminatory tendencies of non-Muslims towards Muslims. The results of this class project show little or no discriminatory tendencies toward Muslims. Instead, the university students under our investigation tended to act favorably, or at the very least, fairly toward Muslims. We expect that this lesson report can demonstrate how a postgraduate course can be conducted in an innovative way, empowering students to collect primary data and finishing a small scientific project during the span of a semester. Dieser Bericht stellt die Prozesse und Ergebnisse einer experimentellen Studie eines Postgraduierten-Kurses der Universität Greifswald dar. Wir zeigen, wie Studierende das Thema Migration innovativ untersuchen können, indem sie neben theoretischen Lerninhalten an experimentelle Methoden sowie die Primärforschung herangeführt werden. Anhand eines Diktatorspiels wurden die teilnehmenden Studenten angeleitet, ein in der Öffentlichkeit kontrovers debattiertes Thema wissenschaftlich zu untersuchen: Diskriminierende Tendenzen von Nicht-Muslimen gegenüber Muslimen. Die Ergebnisse dieser Studie lassen jedoch nicht auf diskriminierende Tendenzen der Studenten schließen. Stattdessen deuten sie darauf hin, dass sich die Studierenden zumindest fair gegenüber Muslimen verhalten.

  12. 78 FR 45253 - National Toxicology Program Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Toxicology Program Scientific Advisory Committee... (ICCVAM), the National Toxicology Program (NTP) Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative... . Dated: July 17, 2013. John R. Bucher, Associate Director, National Toxicology Program. BILLING CODE...

  13. Experimental method for calculation of effective doses in interventional radiology; Metodo experimental para calculo de dosis efectivas en radiologia intervencionista

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herraiz Lblanca, M. D.; Diaz Romero, F.; Casares Magaz, O.; Garrido Breton, C.; Catalan Acosta, A.; Hernandez Armas, J.

    2013-07-01

    This paper proposes a method that allows you to calculate the effective dose in any interventional radiology procedure using an anthropomorphic mannequin Alderson RANDO and dosimeters TLD 100 chip. This method has been applied to an angio Radiology procedure: the biliary drainage. The objectives that have been proposed are: to) put together a method that, on an experimental basis, allows to know dosis en organs to calculate effective dose in complex procedures and b) apply the method to the calculation of the effective dose of biliary drainage. (Author)

  14. Alternative method for measurement of albumin/creatinine ratio using spectrophotometric sequential injection analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siangproh, Weena; Teshima, Norio; Sakai, Tadao; Katoh, Shuji; Chailapakul, Orawon

    2009-09-15

    A simple, automatic and practical system for successive determination of albumin and creatinine has been developed by combining sequential injection analysis (SIA) and highly sensitive dye-binding assays. Albumin detection was based on the increase in the absorbance due to complex formation between albumin and eosin Y in acidic media. The absorbance of the complex was monitored at 547 nm. For the creatinine assay, the concentration of creatinine was measured by reaction with alkaline picrate to form a colored product which absorbs at 500 nm. The influences of experimental variables such as effects of pH, reagent concentration, standard/sample volume and interferences were investigated. Under optimal conditions, the automated method showed linearity up to 20 mg L(-1) for albumin and 100 mg L(-1) for creatinine. The 3 sigma detection limits were 0.6 and 3.5 mg L(-1) for albumin and creatinine, respectively, and the relative standard deviations (n=10) were 2.49% for 20 mg L(-1) albumin, and 3.14% for 20 mg L(-1) creatinine. Application of the proposed method to the direct analysis of urinary samples yielded results which agreed with those obtained from the Bradford protein assay and a creatinine enzymatic assay according to a paired t-test. The results obtained should be a step towards developing a fully automated and reliable analytical system for clinical research, which requires direct determination of albumin and creatinine and/or its ratios.

  15. An alternant method to the traditional NASA hindlimb unloading model in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, J Andries; Crissey, Jacqueline M; Brown, Marybeth

    2011-03-10

    The Morey-Holton hindlimb unloading (HU) method is a widely accepted National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) ground-based model for studying disuse-atrophy in rodents. Our study evaluated an alternant method to the gold-standard Morey-Holton HU tail-traction technique in mice. Fifty-four female mice (4-8 mo.) were HU for 14 days (n=34) or 28 days (n=20). Recovery from HU was assessed after 3 days of normal cage ambulation following HU (n=22). Aged matched mice (n=76) served as weight-bearing controls. Prior to HU a tail ring was formed with a 2-0 sterile surgical steel wire that was passed through the 5(th), 6(th), or 7(th) inter-vertebral disc space and shaped into a ring from which the mice were suspended. Vertebral location for the tail-ring was selected to appropriately balance animal body weight without interfering with defecation. We determined the success of this novel HU technique by assessing body weight before and after HU, degree of soleus atrophy, and adrenal mass following HU. Body weight of the mice prior to HU (24.3 ± 2.9g) did not significantly decline immediately after 14d of HU (22.7 ± 1.9g), 28d of HU (21.3 + 2.1g) or after 3 days recovery (24.0 ± 1.8g). Soleus muscle mass significantly declined (-39.1%, and -46.6%) following HU for 14 days and 28 days respectively (pmaintenance of animal body weight, comparable adrenal gland weights, and soleus atrophy following HU, corresponding to expected literature values. The primary advantages of this HU method include: 1) ease of tail examination during suspension; 2) decreased likelihood of cyanotic, inflamed, and/or necrotic tails frequently observed with tail-taping and HU; 3) no possibility of mice chewing the traction tape and coming out of the suspension apparatus; and 4) rapid recovery and normal cage activity immediately after HU.

  16. Microangiography - a sensitive method for studying experimental diabetic nephropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merikanto, J. (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Central Hospital, Oulu (Finland)); Hietala, S.O. (Depts. of Diagnostic Radiology and Internal Medicine, Univ. Hospital, Umeaa (Sweden) Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Central Hospital, Oulu (Finland)); Lithner, F. (Depts. of Diagnostic Radiology and Internal Medicine, Univ. Hospital, Umeaa (Sweden) Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Central Hospital, Oulu (Finland)); Haegg, E. (Depts. of Diagnostic Radiology and Internal Medicine, Univ. Hospital, Umeaa (Sweden) Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Central Hospital, Oulu (Finland)); Paeivaensalo, M. (Depts. of Diagnostic Radiology and Internal Medicine, Univ. Hospital, Umeaa (Sweden) Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Central Hospital, Oulu (Finland))

    1993-07-01

    Microangiographic and conventional histopathologic investigations of the kidney were compared in 15 alloxan diabetic and 7 nondiabetic control rats. Contrary to the relatively sparse histologic lesions, microangiography disclosed advanced vascular abnormalities, including arteriolar aneurysms, which increased with the duration of diabetes. It is concluded that microangiography is a sensitive and suitable method for studying the development of microvascular lesions of the kidney in experiment diabetes. (orig.).

  17. Earnings Management of Firms Reporting Long Term Debt: An Alternative Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulius Jogi Christiawan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to apply an alternative detection model to prove that the earnings management will be occured when a company has long-term debts as well as the pressure of operating income. Generally, the literature study of earnings management indicates that the detection of earnings management can be grouped into two objectives, 1] to find variables for detecting earnings management (accruals, real activity and classification shifting and 2] to use some advanced statistical or mathematical models to detect earnings management. This study applies a quantitative approach using secondary data of financial statements. The study was conducted on 50 companies with the largest market capitalization, 50 of the most active companies based on trading volume, 50 of the most active companies based on the value of trade and 50 of the most active companies by frequency trading. All of them are 200  public company (listed in the Indonesia Stock Exchange-ID based on IDX statistical report 2013. The results of this study are expected to provide a new method to detect earnings management and its application in the context of positive accounting theory (PAT. The results of the study proves that the model is able to detect earnings management by utilizing foreign exchange transaction losses and use these models to support PAT (particularly on debt covenant hypothesis. These results contribute that earnings management can be done by using the foreign exchange gain / loss. However, the limitation of this study is the model has not been able to capture the phenomenon of earnings management if a company does not report any long-term debt nor foreign exchange gain/ loss.

  18. Establishment of alternative culture method for spermatogonial stem cells using knockout serum replacement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Aoshima

    Full Text Available Since spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs are capable of both self-renewal and differentiation to daughter cells for subsequent spermatogenesis, the development of an efficient in vitro culture system is essential for studies related to spermatogenesis. Although the currently available system is serum-free and contains only chemically-defined components, it highly relies upon bovine serum albumin (BSA, a component with batch-to-batch quality variations similar to those of fetal bovine serum. Thus, we searched for an alternative BSA-free culture system that preserved the properties of SSCs. In this study, we utilized Knockout Serum Replacement (KSR in the SSC culture medium, as a substitute for BSA. The results demonstrated that KSR supported the continuous growth of SSCs in vitro and the SSC activity in vivo without BSA, in a feeder-cell combination with mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The addition of BSA to KSR further facilitated cell cycle progression, whereas a transplantation assay revealed that the addition of BSA did not affect the number of SSCs in vivo. The combination of KSR with BSA also allowed the elimination of GFRA1 and FGF2, and the reduction of the GDNF concentration from 20 ng/ml to 5 ng/ml, while maintaining the growth rate and the expression of SSC markers. Furthermore, KSR was also useful with SSCs from non-DBA/2 strains, such as C57BL/6 and ICR. These results suggested that KSR is an effective substitute for BSA for long-term in vitro cultures of SSCs. Therefore, this method is practical for various studies related to SSCs, including spermatogenesis and germ stem cell biology.

  19. "Tectonic Petrameter," An Alternative Method to Teaching the Geologic Time Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, E. S.

    2011-12-01

    I have over a decade of experience as a performance poet and am now a graduate student in the geosciences. I have created a performance poem / play script, "Tectonic Petrameter," as an alternative method of teaching the geologic time scale. "The Archean came next and it was a blast. Tectonic plates were smaller and they moved pretty fast. In an enthusiastic flash of ash, volcanic islands smashed together." The use of rhyme and rhythm presents a different and interdisciplinary approach to teaching Earth history that appeals to a wide range of learning styles and makes science fun, while clearly describing important concepts in geology and events in Earth history. "Now it's time to get down with the Coal Swamp Stomp! Tap your feet to the beat of the formation of peat like a plant plantation soaking up the bright heat." "Tectonic Petrameter" by itself is an illustrated spoken-word poem that leads audiences from all levels of scientific background on an excitingly educational journey through geologic time. I will perform my 10-minute memorized poem and present results from my ongoing study to assess the effectiveness of "Tectonic Petrameter" as a teaching tool in K-12 and introductory undergraduate classroom curricula. I propose that using "Tectonic Petrameter" as a performance piece and theatrical play script in K-12 and introductory undergraduate classrooms, as well as in broader community venues, may be an avenue for breaking down barriers related to teaching about Earth's long and complex history. Digital copies of "Tectonic Petrameter" will be made available to interested parties.

  20. Experimental and numerical findings on the long-term evolution of migrating alternate bars in alluvial channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crosato, A.; Desta, F.B.; Cornelisse, J.; Schuurman, F.; Uijttewaal, W.S.J.

    2012-01-01

    Migrating alternate bars form in alluvial channels as a result of morphodynamic instability. Extensive literature can be found on their origin and short-term development, but their long-term evolution has been poorly studied so far. In particular, it is not clear whether migrating bars eventually re

  1. An alternative method for calibration of narrow band radiometer using a radiative transfer model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvador, J; Wolfram, E; D' Elia, R [Centro de Investigaciones en Laseres y Aplicaciones, CEILAP (CITEFA-CONICET), Juan B. de La Salle 4397 (B1603ALO), Villa Martelli, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Zamorano, F; Casiccia, C [Laboratorio de Ozono y Radiacion UV, Universidad de Magallanes, Punta Arenas (Chile) (Chile); Rosales, A [Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia San Juan Bosco, UNPSJB, Facultad de Ingenieria, Trelew (Argentina) (Argentina); Quel, E, E-mail: jsalvador@citefa.gov.ar [Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia Austral, Unidad Academica Rio Gallegos Avda. Lisandro de la Torre 1070 ciudad de Rio Gallegos-Sta Cruz (Argentina) (Argentina)

    2011-01-01

    city of Punta Arenas, Chile using the sun as a source. These results show us that the proposed method is a viable alternative for developing countries that use instrumentation of this type and find it difficult to apply calibration programs on a regular basis.

  2. Development of advanced methods for analysis of experimental data in diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaques, Alonso V.

    There are numerous experimental configurations and data analysis techniques for the characterization of diffusion phenomena. However, the mathematical methods for estimating diffusivities traditionally do not take into account the effects of experimental errors in the data, and often require smooth, noiseless data sets to perform the necessary analysis steps. The current methods used for data smoothing require strong assumptions which can introduce numerical "artifacts" into the data, affecting confidence in the estimated parameters. The Boltzmann-Matano method is used extensively in the determination of concentration - dependent diffusivities, D(C), in alloys. In the course of analyzing experimental data, numerical integrations and differentiations of the concentration profile are performed. These methods require smoothing of the data prior to analysis. We present here an approach to the Boltzmann-Matano method that is based on a regularization method to estimate a differentiation operation on the data, i.e., estimate the concentration gradient term, which is important in the analysis process for determining the diffusivity. This approach, therefore, has the potential to be less subjective, and in numerical simulations shows an increased accuracy in the estimated diffusion coefficients. We present a regression approach to estimate linear multicomponent diffusion coefficients that eliminates the need pre-treat or pre-condition the concentration profile. This approach fits the data to a functional form of the mathematical expression for the concentration profile, and allows us to determine the diffusivity matrix directly from the fitted parameters. Reformulation of the equation for the analytical solution is done in order to reduce the size of the problem and accelerate the convergence. The objective function for the regression can incorporate point estimations for error in the concentration, improving the statistical confidence in the estimated diffusivity matrix

  3. A new experimental protocol as an alternative to the colony-forming unit-granulocyte/macrophage (CFU-GM) clonogenic assay to assess the haematotoxic potential of new drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Negro, Gianni; Vandin, Luca; Bonato, Monica; Repeto, Paolo; Sciuscio, Davide

    2006-08-01

    In this work, a first attempt to set-up a new in vitro experimental protocol with culture in liquid medium and flow cytometry analysis of bone marrow progenitors is described. This protocol is proposed as an alternative to the colony-forming unit-granulocyte/macrophage (CFU-GM) clonogenic in vitro assay currently used to assess the toxic potential of new drugs in the bone marrow. This new experimental approach should enable to speed up the procedure of the in vitro haematotoxic potential assessment, to reduce inter-experimental variability and to enhance result accuracy. Preliminary results obtained demonstrated that the progenitor cell count by flow cytometry replacing the light microscopy granulocyte/macrophage colony count represents a tremendous improvement in terms of accuracy and standardisation. Moreover, differential counts of cell sub-populations can be performed by using specific monoclonal antibodies. Furthermore, this method demonstrated to be time-saving, since 4 day cell incubation period is required instead of 7-14 day incubation in the CFU-GM clonogenic assay. On the basis of results obtained so far, the new experimental protocol proposed looks a promising alternative to the CFU-GM clonogenic assay currently used.

  4. Experimental Validation for Hot Stamping Process by Using Taguchi Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawzi Zamri, Mohd; Lim, Syh Kai; Razlan Yusoff, Ahmad

    2016-02-01

    Due to the demand for reduction in gas emissions, energy saving and producing safer vehicles has driven the development of Ultra High Strength Steel (UHSS) material. To strengthen UHSS material such as boron steel, it needed to undergo a process of hot stamping for heating at certain temperature and time. In this paper, Taguchi method is applied to determine the appropriate parameter of thickness, heating temperature and heating time to achieve optimum strength of boron steel. The experiment is conducted by using flat square shape of hot stamping tool with tensile dog bone as a blank product. Then, the value of tensile strength and hardness is measured as response. The results showed that the lower thickness, higher heating temperature and heating time give the higher strength and hardness for the final product. In conclusion, boron steel blank are able to achieve up to 1200 MPa tensile strength and 650 HV of hardness.

  5. Analysis of an alternative method for the study of bromeliad-associated fauna in plants with different foliar organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Gerson A; Name, Fernando T; Pacheco, Frederico C L; Marcondes, Carlos B

    2010-12-01

    The efficiency of an alternative method of collection (by suction of water) for the study of Culicidae and Chironomidae (Diptera), Scirtidae (Coleoptera) and Coenagrionidae (Odonata) in bromeliads with different foliar architecture in a restinga at Florianópolis, SC, Brazil, was studied. The alternative method was less efficient to collect Culicidae and Chironomidae (Wilcoxon test p 0.05) from Aechmea lindenii. This method was less efficient to collect insects of all groups from Vriesea friburgensis (Wilcoxon test p insects in both species of bromeliads. The higher mobility of immature forms of beetles and dragonflies, and the availability of only one tank in Aechea lindenii, contrasting to several tanks in Vriesea friburgensis that help the suction of these immature, probably influenced the results, which indicated that the suction method should not replace the dismantling in the study of Culicidae and Chironomidae. This method can be useful to get immature forms of Scirtidae and Coenagrionidae in one-tank bromeliads.

  6. Translocations of amphibians: Proven management method or experimental technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seigel, Richard A.; Dodd, C. Kenneth

    2002-01-01

    In an otherwise excellent review of metapopulation dynamics in amphibians, Marsh and Trenham (2001) make the following provocative statements (emphasis added): If isolation effects occur primarily in highly disturbed habitats, species translocations may be necessary to promote local and regional population persistence. Because most amphibians lack parental care, they areprime candidates for egg and larval translocations. Indeed, translocations have already proven successful for several species of amphibians. Where populations are severely isolated, translocations into extinct subpopulations may be the best strategy to promote regional population persistence. We take issue with these statements for a number of reasons. First, the authors fail to cite much of the relevant literature on species translocations in general and for amphibians in particular. Second, to those unfamiliar with current research in amphibian conservation biology, these comments might suggest that translocations are a proven management method. This is not the case, at least in most instances where translocations have been evaluated for an appropriate period of time. Finally, the authors fail to point out some of the negative aspects of species translocation as a management method. We realize that Marsh and Trenham's paper was not concerned primarily with translocations. However, because Marsh and Trenham (2001) made specific recommendations for conservation planners and managers (many of whom are not herpetologists or may not be familiar with the pertinent literature on amphibians), we believe that it is essential to point out that not all amphibian biologists are as comfortable with translocations as these authors appear to be. We especially urge caution about advocating potentially unproven techniques without a thorough review of available options.

  7. Exploring alternative wind vulnerability and loss modeling methods - application to Europe extra-tropical cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiris, N.

    2009-04-01

    Catastrophe models are used to assess the economic and insured loss to the built environment due to natural hazards such as earthquakes, windstorms, floods, storm surges, tsunamis, etc. A conventional catastrophe model estimating direct economic loss could be divided into three basic components; hazard, vulnerability and exposure. For a single event, the hazard component represents the best estimate realization of the hazard footprint over a region at the modeling resolution, i.e. variable grid, postalcode, cresta, etc. The vulnerability component represents the response of the buildings or any modeled structure to the hazard, quantified in terms of a loss ratio. The exposure component represents the value of the buildings in a portfolio covering a region or those underwritten by an insurer or a re-insurer. The exposure together with the vulnerability functions produces the expected economic loss of the hazard footprint for a given hazard event. In the case of estimating indirect economic losses and insured losses financial models are utilized with various financial structures applied on the economic loss estimates. The commonly used method of characterizing wind vulnerability of buildings is to develop functions of mean loss ratio or mean damage ratio (MDR) vs wind speed where the wind speed is often defined as the peak gust measured at a height of 10m above the ground elevation. The uncertainty associated with MDR due to the likelihood of the building experiencing a range of damage states and hence loss ratios at a given wind speed is quantified by a continuous statistical distribution with a mean (which is the MDR) and a standard deviation, SD. For a given event footprint a conventional catastrophe model calculates an MDR and associated SD for each location of a building portfolio. This together with the location exposure or insured value results in the location loss. The location losses are then aggregated together with their SDs to obtain the total expected

  8. Teaching Experimental Method Using the Feature-Present/Feature-Absent Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balch, William R.

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether a classroom experiment improved the learning of experimental method, at the start of the semester 2 introductory psychology classes took a 10-question multiple-choice pretest on experimental method. Two days later, before the instructor covered the relevant material in the course, 1 class took part in a classroom experiment on…

  9. Treatment for chronic daily headache by using auxiliary and alternative methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Golovacheva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic daily headache (CDH is one of the top 10 causes of adult disability and one of the 5 most common causes of female disability. To treat patients with CDH is one of the most difficult tasks in neurological practice. Difficulties in managing patients with CHD are associated with the high prevalence of comorbid mental disorders, analgesic abuse, pain syndromes at another site, and misconceptions of a patient about his/her disease. A combination of drug and non-drug therapies is the mainstay of the current approach to treating patients with CDH. Standard, alternative, and auxiliary therapies are identified. The paper describes different types of current auxiliary and alternative therapy used in the world’s leading headache centers and clinics. It describes experience with cerebrolysin used as auxiliary and alternative pharmacotherapies for CDH.

  10. Reproducible methods for experimental infection with Flavobacterium psychrophilum in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lone; Dalsgaard, Inger

    1999-01-01

    as alternatives to the intraperitoneal method, although the mortalities among infected trout were lower. The results of investigated methods were influenced by parameters such as the challenge isolate, number of fish in the tank affecting the infection pressure. origin of fish and weight of fish....

  11. Periodic Physical Disturbance: An Alternative Method for Controlling Sitophilus zeamais (Maize Weevil Infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Suleiman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky is the most important insect pest of stored maize in tropical regions. The objective of this study was to determine the practicality of periodic physical disturbance on S. zeamais mortality and its adoption by smallholder farmers in developing countries. In this experiment, treatments and control were arranged in a randomized block design with three replications and three storage times in three regions of Tanzania. Region was used as the blocking variable. A total of 108 clean 20-L plastic containers were each loaded with 10 kg of fresh white dent corn and 0.50 kg of maize infested with S. zeamais. For the treatment, containers were disturbed twice a day, whereas for the controls the containers were not disturbed until the end of storage. The overall mortality rate (% after 30, 60, and 90 days of storage were 88%, 96%, and 98%, respectively. A statistically significant difference (p < 0.05 was observed for the number of live S. zeamais between the control and experimental treatments. Additionally, the number of live S. zeamais in the treatment significantly decreased as storage time increased. This study shows the potential of a feasible, simple, affordable, and effective method of protecting maize grain for small-holder farmers in developing countries without using chemicals.

  12. On the Experimental and Theoretical Investigations of Lean Partially Premixed Combustion, Burning Speed, Flame Instability and Plasma Formation of Alternative Fuels at High Temperatures and Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askari, Omid

    composition and thermodynamic properties. The method was applied to compute the thermodynamic properties of hydrogen/air and methane/air plasma mixtures for a wide range of temperatures (1,000-100,000 K), pressures (10-6-100 atm) and different equivalence ratios within flammability limit. In calculating the individual thermodynamic properties of the atomic species, the Debye-Huckel cutoff criterion has been used for terminating the series expression of the electronic partition function. A new differential-based multi-shell model was developed in conjunction with Schlieren photography to measure laminar burning speed and to study the flame instabilities for different alternative fuels such as syngas and GTL. Flame instabilities such as cracking and wrinkling were observed during flame propagation and discussed in terms of the hydrodynamic and thermo-diffusive effects. Laminar burning speeds were measured using pressure rise data during flame propagation and power law correlations were developed over a wide range of temperatures, pressures and equivalence ratios. As a part of this work, the effect of EGR addition and substitution of nitrogen with helium in air on flame morphology and laminar burning speed were extensively investigated. The effect of cell formation on flame surface area of syngas fuel in terms of a newly defined parameter called cellularity factor was also evaluated. In addition to that the experimental onset of auto-ignition and theoretical ignition delay times of premixed GTL/air mixture were determined at high pressures and low temperatures over a wide range of equivalence ratios.

  13. Pre-Service Mathematics Teachers' Views on the Use of Portfolios in Their Education as an Alternative Assessment Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgin, Osman

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the views of pre-service mathematics (PSM) teachers on the use of portfolios as an alternative assessment method. This study was conducted with 146 Turkish PSM teachers participating in a semester-long portfolio assessment application. Data were collected with a questionnaire comprising 34 items on a…

  14. 77 FR 2064 - Availability of the Report on the International Workshop on Alternative Methods To Reduce, Refine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... Science and Future Directions.'' The report was published as an issue of the journal Procedia in Vaccinology, and is available on the journal's Web site at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal..., identification and promotion of alternative methods that ] can reduce, refine, or replace the use of animals...

  15. An Alternate Method for Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopic Determination of Soil Nitrate Using Derivative Analysis and Sample Treatments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choe, E.; Meer, van der F.; Rossiter, D.; Salm, van der C.; Kim, K.W.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed at examining effective sample treatments and spectral processing for an alternate method of soil nitrate determination using the attenuated total reflectance (ATR) of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Prior to FTIR measurements, soil samples were prepared as paste to e

  16. 49 CFR 375.511 - May I use an alternative method for shipments weighing 3,000 pounds or less?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... weighing 3,000 pounds or less? 375.511 Section 375.511 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... alternative method for shipments weighing 3,000 pounds or less? For shipments weighing 3,000 pounds or less (1,362 kilograms or less), you may weigh the shipment upon a platform or warehouse certified scale...

  17. SU-E-J-35: Using CBCT as the Alternative Method of Assessing ITV Volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Y; Turian, J; Templeton, A; Redler, G; Chu, J [Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose To study the accuracy of Internal Target Volumes (ITVs) created on cone beam CT (CBCT) by comparing the visible target volume on CBCT to volumes (GTV, ITV, and PTV) outlined on free breathing (FB) CT and 4DCT. Methods A Quasar Cylindrical Motion Phantom with a 3cm diameter ball (14.14 cc) embedded within a cork insert was set up to simulate respiratory motion with a period of 4 seconds and amplitude of 2cm superioinferiorly and 1cm anterioposteriorly. FBCT and 4DCT images were acquired. A PTV-4D was created on the 4DCT by applying a uniform margin of 5mm to the ITV-CT. PTV-FB was created by applying a margin of the motion range plus 5mm, i.e. total of 1.5cm laterally and 2.5cm superioinferiorly to the GTV outlined on the FBCT. A dynamic conformal arc was planned to treat the PTV-FB with 1mm margin. A CBCT was acquired before the treatment, on which the target was delineated. During the treatment, the position of the target was monitored using the EPID in cine mode. Results ITV-CBCT and ITV-CT were measured to be 56.6 and 62.7cc, respectively, with a Dice Coefficient (DC) of 0.94 and disagreement in center of mass (COM) of 0.59 mm. On the other hand, GTV-FB was 11.47cc, 19% less than the known volume of the ball. PTV-FB and PTV-4D were 149 and 116 cc, with a DC of 0.71. Part of the ITV-CT was not enclosed by the PTV-FB despite the large margin. The cine EPID images have confirmed geometrical misses of the target. Similar under-coverage was observed in one clinical case and captured by the CBCT, where the implanted fiducials moved outside PTV-FB. Conclusion ITV-CBCT is in good agreement with ITV-CT. When 4DCT was not available, CBCT can be an effective alternative in determining and verifying the PTV margin.

  18. Experimental innovations in surface science a guide to practical laboratory methods and instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Yates, John T

    2015-01-01

    This book is a new edition of a classic text on experimental methods and instruments in surface science. It offers practical insight useful to chemists, physicists, and materials scientists working in experimental surface science. This enlarged second edition contains almost 300 descriptions of experimental methods. The more than 50 active areas with individual scientific and measurement concepts and activities relevant to each area are presented in this book. The key areas covered are: Vacuum System Technology, Mechanical Fabrication Techniques, Measurement Methods, Thermal Control, Delivery of Adsorbates to Surfaces, UHV Windows, Surface Preparation Methods, High Area Solids, Safety. The book is written for researchers and graduate students.

  19. Alternative methods for skin irritation testing: the current status : ECVAM skin irritation task force report 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botham, P.A.; Earl, L.K.; Fentem, J.H.; Roguet, R.; Sandt, J.J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The ECVAM Skin Irritation Task Force was established in November 1996, primarily to prepare a report on the current status of the development and validation of alternative tests for skin irritation and corrosion and, in particular, to identify any appropriate non-animal tests for predicting human sk

  20. Enzyme-linked immunospot: an alternative method for the detection of interferon gamma in Johne's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Begg, Douglas J.; de Silva, Kumudika; Bosward, Katrina;

    2009-01-01

    To date, the sensitivity of the interferon gamma (IFN-) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect Johne's disease (JD) has been poor, especially in the early stages of disease. To improve the sensitivity of IFN- detection in the early stages of infection, an alternate assay needs...

  1. The Correlation Function of Multiple Dependent Poisson Processes Generated by the Alternating Renewal Process Method

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Don H

    2008-01-01

    We derive conditions under which alternating renewal processes can be used to construct correlated Poisson processes. The pairwise correlation function is also derived, showing that the resulting correlations can be negative. The technique and the analysis can be extended to the generation of two or more dependent renewal processes.

  2. Mechanical pipe couplings. The alternative jointing method for PE gas pipes up to 10 bar; Mechanische Rohrkupplungen. Die alternative Verbindung fuer PE-Gas-Rohre bis 10 bar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroeger, Axel; Johnson, Alexander [PSI Products GmbH, Moessingen (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Increasing competition nowadays obliges natural gas suppliers to adopt continuous cost-optimization. Many utilities are therefore rethinking their existing methods for jointing of plastic pipes. Around the world, mechanical pipe couplings are becoming established in this field as a rational-cost, safe and easy-to-install alternative to conventional welding methods. For this project, PSI Products GmbH and Elster Perfection are pursuing new routes for the development of solutions to problems in plastic-pipe jointing technology. As a specialist in accessories for the field of pipeline engineering, PSI Products GmbH has now also unveiled, in the form of the Permasert {sup registered} and PermaLock {sup registered} pipe-coupling and jointing systems, a complete product range, with DVGW approval, for mechanical jointing of gas supply pipelines for the German natural gas market. This system has proven its capabilities since its market launch in the USA more than thirty years ago, and is now one of the world's most widely used mechanical PE-pipe jointing methods. Simple and fast installation is the basis of this success. More than 45 million Permasert {sup registered} couplings and PermaLock {sup registered} tapping valves are now in use under virtually all conceivable climatic and soil conditions, and not only in North America and Europe, but also in Asia, Australia, the Middle East, and Central and South America. (orig.)

  3. On sulfur core level binding energies in thiol self-assembly and alternative adsorption sites: An experimental and theoretical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Juanjuan [Institut des Sciences Moléculaires d’Orsay, Université-Paris Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); CNRS, UMR 8214, Institut des Sciences Moléculaires d’Orsay, Orsay ISMO, Bâtiment 351, Université Paris Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); Kara, Abdelkader, E-mail: abdelkader.kara@ucf.edu, E-mail: vladimir.esaulov@u-psud.fr [Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Pasquali, Luca [Dipartimento di Ingegneria “E. Ferrari,” Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Vignolese 905, 41125 Modena (Italy); IOM-CNR, s.s. 14, Km. 163.5 in AREA Science Park, 34149 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 524, Auckland Park 2006 (South Africa); Bendounan, Azzedine; Sirotti, Fausto [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, BP 48, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Esaulov, Vladimir A., E-mail: abdelkader.kara@ucf.edu, E-mail: vladimir.esaulov@u-psud.fr [Institut des Sciences Moléculaires d’Orsay, Université-Paris Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); CNRS, UMR 8214, Institut des Sciences Moléculaires d’Orsay, Orsay ISMO, Bâtiment 351, Université Paris Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); IOM-CNR, s.s. 14, Km. 163.5 in AREA Science Park, 34149 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy)

    2015-09-14

    Characteristic core level binding energies (CLBEs) are regularly used to infer the modes of molecular adsorption: orientation, organization, and dissociation processes. Here, we focus on a largely debated situation regarding CLBEs in the case of chalcogen atom bearing molecules. For a thiol, this concerns the case when the CLBE of a thiolate sulfur at an adsorption site can be interpreted alternatively as due to atomic adsorption of a S atom, resulting from dissociation. Results of an investigation of the characteristics of thiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) obtained by vacuum evaporative adsorption are presented along with core level binding energy calculations. Thiol ended SAMs of 1,4-benzenedimethanethiol (BDMT) obtained by evaporation on Au display an unconventional CLBE structure at about 161.25 eV, which is close to a known CLBE of a S atom on Au. Adsorption and CLBE calculations for sulfur atoms and BDMT molecules are reported and allow delineating trends as a function of chemisorption on hollow, bridge, and atop sites and including the presence of adatoms. These calculations suggest that the 161.25 eV peak is due to an alternative adsorption site, which could be associated to an atop configuration. Therefore, this may be an alternative interpretation, different from the one involving the adsorption of atomic sulfur resulting from the dissociation process of the S–C bond. Calculated differences in S(2p) CLBEs for free BDMT molecules, SH group sulfur on top of the SAM, and disulfide are also reported to clarify possible errors in assignments.

  4. An experimental method to determine the electrostatic field enhancement factor of a practical conductor surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson; Crichton, George C

    1989-01-01

    A method of determining the field enhancement factor of a practical conductor is presented. The method is developed from a modified theory of discharge onset in a gaseous medium. This modification incorporates the influence of conductor surface roughness. Onset data from an experimental study...... that utilized electrodes of varying surface roughness are examined, and the results obtained using the proposed method are discussed with reference to both the underlying theory and the practical aspects of the experimental measurements...

  5. Aotus infulatus monkey is susceptible to Plasmodium falciparum infection and may constitute an alternative experimental model for malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Leonardo JM

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Aotus is one of the WHO-recommended primate models for studies in malaria, and several species can be infected with Plasmodium falciparum or P. vivax. Here we describe the successful infection of the species A. infulatus from eastern Amazon with blood stages of P. falciparum. Both intact and splenectomized animals were susceptible to infection; the intact ones were able to keep parasitemias at lower levels for several days, but developed complications such as severe anemia; splenectomized monkeys developed higher parasitemias but no major complications. We conclude that A. infulatus is susceptible to P. falciparum infection and may represent an alternative model for studies in malaria.

  6. A Network of Resistances against a Multiple Crisis. SOS Rosarno and the Experimentation of Socio-Economic Alternative Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Oliveri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available SOS Rosarno was launched in 2011 by a group of small farmers and activists based in the Gioia Tauro Plain, Calabria, Southern Italy. The idea was to sell organic citrus fruits through short self-organized supply chains, essentially based on Solidarity Purchase Groups, in order to allow producers to pay migrant workers according to the law, to receive a fair remuneration, to guarantee healthy and affordable food to consumers, to protect the integrity of the environment. This paper aims to reconstruct the ideological frame and the genealogy, the organization and the practices, the impact and the limits of SOS Rosarno, drawing mainly on the political documents produced by the association and in-depth interviews with its diverse members. It clarifies, on one side, the strategies of alternative economy and the new social alliances implemented in order to challenge those conditions which impoverish small producers and let migrant farmworkers be exploited and become the target of racism in many Italian countrysides. It explores, on the other side, the development of a new peasant civilization as alternative to the current economic and environmental crises, in terms of de-commodification of nature and labour, construction of a convivial democratic society, transition from monoculture to food sovereignty.

  7. A method of analysing experimental data of nuclear reaction cross sections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FengJun; ShenWen-Qing

    1997-01-01

    A method of analysing experimental data of nuclear reaction cross sections σr induced by radioactive beam is described.It can be used in analysis of experimental unclear reaction cross section data obtained by Na-isopope radioactive beams on different targets.Neutron halo has not been found in these nuclei.

  8. Scaffolded Instruction Improves Student Understanding of the Scientific Method & Experimental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Costa, Allison R.; Schlueter, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Implementation of a guided-inquiry lab in introductory biology classes, along with scaffolded instruction, improved students' understanding of the scientific method, their ability to design an experiment, and their identification of experimental variables. Pre- and postassessments from experimental versus control sections over three semesters…

  9. An alternative method of OBT measurement for the limited quantity of environmental samples using a combustion bomb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Bog; Stuart, Marilyne

    2013-12-01

    The measurement of organically bound tritium (OBT) in environmental samples is much more difficult than the measurement of tritiated water (HTO). This study describes an alternative method for OBT determination in plant materials in which tritium-free polyethylene beads are added to the plant sample prior to combustion in a combustion bomb. It is not always possible to collect large enough amounts of some plants (e.g. algae, plankton, grass) within a specific area or specific period. Excellent water recovery is achieved when dry plant materials are combusted with polyethylene beads. When Ultima Gold AB is used as the scintillation cocktail, it is possible to measure the combustion water directly without distillation. Correction factors were derived for the plants used in the study to account for the dilution of the combustion water due to addition of the polyethylene beads. The alternative method has a number of advantages, including an increased yield of combustion water for liquid scintillation counting, less color quenching, reduced sample size and decreased analysis time. Finally, accuracy tests comparing results of the conventional method with those of the alternative method were carried out using environmental samples.

  10. An alternative method to record rising temperatures during dental implant site preparation: a preliminary study using bovine bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenica Laurito

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Overheating is constantly mentioned as a risk factor for bone necrosis that could compromise the dental implant primary stability. Uncontrolled thermal injury can result in a fibrous tissue, interpositioned at the implant-bone interface, compromising the long-term prognosis. The methods used to record temperature rise include either direct recording by thermocouple instruments or indirect estimating by infrared thermography. This preliminary study was carried out using bovine bone and a different method of temperatures rising estimation is presented. Two different types of drills were tested using fluoroptic thermometer and the effectiveness of this alternative temperature recording method was evaluated.

  11. A PCR Based Microbial Monitoring Alternative Method of Detection and Identification of Microbes Aboard ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadad, Christina; Oubre, Cherie; Castro, Victoria; Flint, Stephanie; Ott, Mark; Roman, Monserrate; Wheeler, Ray; Melendez, Orlando

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has shown that microorganisms and potential human pathogens have been detected on the International Space Station (ISS) with additional introduction of new microflora occurring with every exchange of crew or addition of equipment and supplies. These microbes are readily transferred between crew and subsystems (i.e. ECLSS, environmental control and life support systems). As this can be detrimental to astronaut health and optimal performance of ISS systems, monitoring of systems such as ECLSS to include identification of microbial contaminants could prevent adverse effects on human health and life support systems. Current monitoring on ISS is laborious and utilizes culture based methods followed by sample return to Earth for complete analysis. Future, long-distance spaceflight missions will require real-time monitoring capabilities that enable efficient and rapid assessments of the microbial environment allowing for expedited decisions and more targeted response to cope with anomalies. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a molecular microbial monitoring method was chosen and numerous PCR instruments investigated for their potential to perform in microgravity conditions. Using ISS as a test bed for PCR verification in microgravity will enable NASA to assess whether molecular based microbiological sensors may be components of reliable, closed-loop life support and habitation systems in spacecraft, enhancing infrastructure capabilities through increased efficiency, reliability, and time savings by enabling sample analysis on orbit. NASA selected the Water Monitoring Suite as one of the rapid spaceflight hardware demonstration activities utilizing a streamlined process to minimize the time required to fly experimental flight hardware. The RAZOR EX (BioFire Defense, Salt Lake City, UT) system was part of the water monitoring suite and is a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) real-time PCR instrument designed for field work. The RAZOR EX was originally designed

  12. State university preparatory class EFL instructors' attitudes towards assessment methods used at their institutions and portfolios as a method of alternative assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Oğuz, Şebnem

    2003-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. The purpose of this study was to investigate preparatory class instructors’ attitudes towards the methods of assessment they are currently using at their institutions, and their knowledge about and attitudes towards portfolios as an alternative method of assessment. The study was conducted with 386 English instructors from the preparatory class programs of 14 Turkish state universities. Data were collected through a fourpart questio...

  13. An alternative sensor fusion method for object orientation using low-cost MEMS inertial sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, Joshua L.

    This thesis develops an alternative sensor fusion approach for object orientation using low-cost MEMS inertial sensors. The alternative approach focuses on the unique challenges of small UAVs. Such challenges include the vibrational induced noise onto the accelerometer and bias offset errors of the rate gyroscope. To overcome these challenges, a sensor fusion algorithm combines the measured data from the accelerometer and rate gyroscope to achieve a single output free from vibrational noise and bias offset errors. One of the most prevalent sensor fusion algorithms used for orientation estimation is the Extended Kalman filter (EKF). The EKF filter performs the fusion process by first creating the process model using the nonlinear equations of motion and then establishing a measurement model. With the process and measurement models established, the filter operates by propagating the mean and covariance of the states through time. The success of EKF relies on the ability to establish a representative process and measurement model of the system. In most applications, the EKF measurement model utilizes the accelerometer and GPS-derived accelerations to determine an estimate of the orientation. However, if the GPS-derived accelerations are not available then the measurement model becomes less reliable when subjected to harsh vibrational environments. This situation led to the alternative approach, which focuses on the correlation between the rate gyroscope and accelerometer-derived angle. The correlation between the two sensors then determines how much the algorithm will use one sensor over the other. The result is a measurement that does not suffer from the vibrational noise or from bias offset errors.

  14. Evaluation of alternative age-based methods for estimating relative abundance from survey data in relation to assessment models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Casper Willestofte; Nielsen, Anders; Kristensen, Kasper

    2014-01-01

    Indices of abundance from fishery-independent trawl surveys constitute an important source of information for many fish stock assessments. Indices are often calculated using area stratified sample means on age-disaggregated data, and finally treated in stock assessment models as independent...... observations. We evaluate a series of alternative methods for calculating indices of abundance from trawl survey data (delta-lognormal, delta-gamma, and Tweedie using Generalized Additive Models) as well as different error structures for these indices when used as input in an age-based stock assessment model...... the different indices produced. The stratified mean method is found much more imprecise than the alternatives based on GAMs, which are found to be similar. Having time-varying index variances is found to be of minor importance, whereas the independence assumption is not only violated but has significant impact...

  15. THE MURINE LOCAL LYMPH NODE ASSAY: AN ALTERNATIVE TEST METHOD FOR THE EVALUATION OF THE POTENTIAL FOR CHEMICALS TO ELICIT ALLERGIC CONTACT DERMATITIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACTThe process that a new toxicology test method must undergo to attain acceptance and regulatory implementation may seem daunting. As the first test method to undergo Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) review, the local...

  16. Reverse Schreinemakers Method for Experimental Analysis of Mixed-Solvent Electrolyte Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Thomsen, Kaj; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2009-01-01

    from determining the composition of salt mixtures by pH titration are discussed, and the derived method significantly improves the obtained result from titration. Furthermore, the method reduces the required experimental work needed for analysis of phase composition. The method is applicable to multi...

  17. Mechanical Color Reading of Wood-Staining Fungal Pigment Textile Dyes: An Alternative Method for Determining Colorfastness

    OpenAIRE

    Eric M. Hinsch; Robinson, Sara C

    2016-01-01

    Colorfastness to washing and crocking (color loss due to rubbing) are essential qualities for any dye/fabric combination that will be used for garments or upholstery. In this study, colorfastness to washing and crocking of fabrics dyed with wood-staining fungal pigments was compared to colorfastness of commercial dyes using an alternative mechanical testing method. Overall, wood-staining fungal pigments out performed commercial dyes for colorfastness to washing and wet and dry crocking. Xylin...

  18. Alternative applications of the method of moments: from electromagnetic waves to source synthesis, deconvolution, and data processing in navigation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamas, Razvan; Dumitrascu, Ana; Caruntu, George

    2015-02-01

    The method of moments is mostly used in electromagnetism to solve linear operator equations. In this paper, we present three different, alternative applications of this numerical technique: resolution of the integral equation of convolution i.e., deconvolution, synthesis of electromagnetic radiators optimized to yield a given time-domain or frequency-domain response, and processing of data provided by an inertial navigation system, with the aim to decompose a complex displacement into elementary movements.

  19. Optimization of experimental conditions of hot wire method in thermal conductivity measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Luyao

    2012-01-01

    This work studied the hot wire method in measuring thermal conductivity at room temperature. The purpose is to find the optimized experimental conditions to minimize natural convection in liquid for this method, which will be taken as reference for high temperature thermal conductivity measurement of slag. Combining room temperature experiments and simulation with COMSOL Multiphysics 4.2a, the study on different experimental parameters which may influence the accuracy of the measured thermal ...

  20. Experimental Null Method to Guide the Development of Technical Procedures and to Control False-Positive Discovery in Quantitative Proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaomeng; Hu, Qiang; Li, Jun; Wang, Jianmin; Qu, Jun

    2015-10-02

    Comprehensive and accurate evaluation of data quality and false-positive biomarker discovery is critical to direct the method development/optimization for quantitative proteomics, which nonetheless remains challenging largely due to the high complexity and unique features of proteomic data. Here we describe an experimental null (EN) method to address this need. Because the method experimentally measures the null distribution (either technical or biological replicates) using the same proteomic samples, the same procedures and the same batch as the case-vs-contol experiment, it correctly reflects the collective effects of technical variability (e.g., variation/bias in sample preparation, LC-MS analysis, and data processing) and project-specific features (e.g., characteristics of the proteome and biological variation) on the performances of quantitative analysis. To show a proof of concept, we employed the EN method to assess the quantitative accuracy and precision and the ability to quantify subtle ratio changes between groups using different experimental and data-processing approaches and in various cellular and tissue proteomes. It was found that choices of quantitative features, sample size, experimental design, data-processing strategies, and quality of chromatographic separation can profoundly affect quantitative precision and accuracy of label-free quantification. The EN method was also demonstrated as a practical tool to determine the optimal experimental parameters and rational ratio cutoff for reliable protein quantification in specific proteomic experiments, for example, to identify the necessary number of technical/biological replicates per group that affords sufficient power for discovery. Furthermore, we assessed the ability of EN method to estimate levels of false-positives in the discovery of altered proteins, using two concocted sample sets mimicking proteomic profiling using technical and biological replicates, respectively, where the true

  1. Don't spin the pen: two alternative methods for second-stage sampling in urban cluster surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Angela MC

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In two-stage cluster surveys, the traditional method used in second-stage sampling (in which the first household in a cluster is selected is time-consuming and may result in biased estimates of the indicator of interest. Firstly, a random direction from the center of the cluster is selected, usually by spinning a pen. The houses along that direction are then counted out to the boundary of the cluster, and one is then selected at random to be the first household surveyed. This process favors households towards the center of the cluster, but it could easily be improved. During a recent meningitis vaccination coverage survey in Maradi, Niger, we compared this method of first household selection to two alternatives in urban zones: 1 using a superimposed grid on the map of the cluster area and randomly selecting an intersection; and 2 drawing the perimeter of the cluster area using a Global Positioning System (GPS and randomly selecting one point within the perimeter. Although we only compared a limited number of clusters using each method, we found the sampling grid method to be the fastest and easiest for field survey teams, although it does require a map of the area. Selecting a random GPS point was also found to be a good method, once adequate training can be provided. Spinning the pen and counting households to the boundary was the most complicated and time-consuming. The two methods tested here represent simpler, quicker and potentially more robust alternatives to spinning the pen for cluster surveys in urban areas. However, in rural areas, these alternatives would favor initial household selection from lower density (or even potentially empty areas. Bearing in mind these limitations, as well as available resources and feasibility, investigators should choose the most appropriate method for their particular survey context.

  2. [Mobile phone based data acquisition and evaluation system for the alternative four diagnostic methods of traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Liu, Jing; Liu, Ran

    2013-01-01

    This study is dedicated to integrate the theories of the four diagnostic methods of TCM and the methods of mobile healthcare so as to achieve the goal of the four diagnostic functions of TCM on mobile phone. An Android smartphone based data acquisition system has been developed and experimentally demonstrated. It was shown that the prototype could successfully achieve the fundamental function of the four diagnostic methods of TCM and thus help preliminarily interpret the symptoms of human diseases.

  3. Experimental West Nile Virus Infection in Rabbits: An Alternative Model for Studying Induction of Disease and Virus Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suen, Willy W; Uddin, Muhammad J; Wang, Wenqi; Brown, Vienna; Adney, Danielle R; Broad, Nicole; Prow, Natalie A; Bowen, Richard A; Hall, Roy A; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle

    2015-07-14

    The economic impact of non-lethal human and equine West Nile virus (WNV) disease is substantial, since it is the most common presentation of the infection. Experimental infection with virulent WNV strains in the mouse and hamster models frequently results in severe neural infection and moderate to high mortality, both of which are not representative features of most human and equine infections. We have established a rabbit model for investigating pathogenesis and immune response of non-lethal WNV infection. Two species of rabbits, New Zealand White (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and North American cottontail (Sylvilagus sp.), were experimentally infected with virulent WNV and Murray Valley encephalitis virus strains. Infected rabbits exhibited a consistently resistant phenotype, with evidence of low viremia, minimal-absent neural infection, mild-moderate neuropathology, and the lack of mortality, even though productive virus replication occurred in the draining lymph node. The kinetics of anti-WNV neutralizing antibody response was comparable to that commonly seen in infected horses and humans. This may be explained by the early IFNα/β and/or γ response evident in the draining popliteal lymph node. Given this similarity to the human and equine disease, immunocompetent rabbits are, therefore, a valuable animal model for investigating various aspects of non-lethal WNV infections.

  4. Experimental West Nile Virus Infection in Rabbits: An Alternative Model for Studying Induction of Disease and Virus Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willy W. Suen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The economic impact of non-lethal human and equine West Nile virus (WNV disease is substantial, since it is the most common presentation of the infection. Experimental infection with virulent WNV strains in the mouse and hamster models frequently results in severe neural infection and moderate to high mortality, both of which are not representative features of most human and equine infections. We have established a rabbit model for investigating pathogenesis and immune response of non-lethal WNV infection. Two species of rabbits, New Zealand White (Oryctolagus cuniculus and North American cottontail (Sylvilagus sp., were experimentally infected with virulent WNV and Murray Valley encephalitis virus strains. Infected rabbits exhibited a consistently resistant phenotype, with evidence of low viremia, minimal-absent neural infection, mild-moderate neuropathology, and the lack of mortality, even though productive virus replication occurred in the draining lymph node. The kinetics of anti-WNV neutralizing antibody response was comparable to that commonly seen in infected horses and humans. This may be explained by the early IFNα/β and/or γ response evident in the draining popliteal lymph node. Given this similarity to the human and equine disease, immunocompetent rabbits are, therefore, a valuable animal model for investigating various aspects of non-lethal WNV infections.

  5. Alternation of generations and experimental design: a guided-inquiry lab exploring the nature of the her1 developmental mutant of Ceratopteris richardii (C-Fern).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiro, Mark D; Knisely, Karin I

    2008-01-01

    Inquiry-based labs have been shown to greatly increase student participation and learning within the biological sciences. One challenge is to develop effective lab exercises within the constraints of large introductory labs. We have designed a lab for first-year biology majors to address two primary goals: to provide effective learning of the unique aspects of the plant life cycle and to gain a practical knowledge of experimental design. An additional goal was to engage students regardless of their biology background. In our experience, plant biology, and the plant life cycle in particular, present a pedagogical challenge because of negative student attitudes and lack of experience with this topic. This lab uses the fern Ceratopteris richardii (C-Fern), a model system for teaching and research that is particularly useful for illustrating alternation of generations. This lab does not simply present the stages of the life cycle; it also uses knowledge of alternation of generations as a starting point for characterizing the her1 mutation that affects gametophyte sexual development. Students develop hypotheses, arrive at an appropriate experimental design, and carry out a guided inquiry on the mechanism underlying the her1 mutation. Quantitative assessment of student learning and attitudes demonstrate that this lab achieves the desired goals.

  6. Contributions and limitations of experimentation as a method to investigate the educational effects of media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre FASTREZ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Communication sciences generally analyse media either as texts, or from the standpoint of their production and reception contexts. Experimental methods are of little use in these cases. Instead, the study of educational communication in a semio-cognitive perspective needs appropriate methods to investigate interactions between the semiotic formats used by the media and their users’ cognitive operations. This article considers the contributions and limitations of the experimental method in this context. We conclude on the necessary articulation of methods in communication sciences, depending on the research questions being examined.

  7. The use of alternative preference elicitation methods in complex discrete choice experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hong Il; Doiron, Denise

    2013-12-01

    We analyse stated preference data over nursing jobs collected from two different discrete choice experiments: a multi-profile case best-worst scaling experiment (BWS) prompting selection of the best and worst among alternative jobs, and a profile case BWS wherein the respondents choose the best and worst job attributes. The latter allows identification of additional utility parameters and is believed to be cognitively easier. Results suggest that respondents place greater value on pecuniary over non-pecuniary gains in the multi-profile case. There is little evidence that this discrepancy is induced by the extra cognitive burden of processing several profiles at once in the multi-profile case. We offer thoughts on other likely mechanisms.

  8. Development of an alternative method for testing the immunogenicity of diphtheria vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manghi, M A; Pasetti, M F; Brero, M L; Deluchi, S; di Paola, G; Mathet, V; Eriksson, P V

    1995-04-01

    The immunogenicity of the diphtheria component of 73 commercial vaccines from five different manufacturers was tested by the toxin neutralization test (TNT) and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) developed in our laboratory. A comparison of the antibody levels measured by both assays showed a very good correlation (r = 0.95, p antibody levels as low as 5.5 x 10(-5) IU ml-1. To evaluate the possibility of accelerating the active immunization during the activity test of vaccines, an alternative schedule using one single human dose was assayed. A very good correlation was observed between the IgG antibody response obtained with this schedule and with the traditional programme. Therefore, the cost and the time required to perform the activity test may be considerably reduced when both the rapid immunization schedule and the ELISA are used.

  9. An integrated method for assessing climate-related risks and adaptation alternatives in urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Andersson-Sköld

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The urban environment is a complex structure with interlinked social, ecological and technical structures. Global warming is expected to have a broad variety of impacts, which will add to the complexity. Climate changes will force adaptation, to reduce climate-related risks. Adaptation measures can address one aspect at the time, or aim for a holistic approach to avoid maladaptation. This paper presents a systematic, integrated approach for assessing alternatives for reducing the risks of heat waves, flooding and air pollution in urban settings, with the aim of reducing the risk of maladaptation. The study includes strategies covering different spatial scales, and both the current climate situation and the climate predicted under climate change scenarios. The adaptation strategies investigated included increasing vegetation; selecting density, height and colour of buildings; and retreat or resist (defend against sea-level rise. Their effectiveness was assessed with regard to not only flooding, heat stress and air quality but also with regard to resource use, emissions to air (incl. GHG, soil and water, and people’s perceptions and vulnerability. The effectiveness of the strategies were ranked on a common scale (from −3 to 3 in an integrated assessment. Integrated assessments are recommended, as they help identify the most sustainable solutions, but to reduce the risk of maladaptation they require experts from a variety of disciplines. The most generally applicable recommendation, derived from the integrated assessment here, taking into account both expertise from different municipal departments, literature surveys, life cycle assessments and publics perceptions, is to increase the urban greenery, as it contributes to several positive aspects such as heat stress mitigation, air quality improvement, effective storm-water and flood-risk management, and it has several positive social impacts. The most favourable alternative was compact, mid

  10. Experimental apparatus for measuring heat transfer coefficients by the Wilson plot method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Seara, Jose [Area de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, Escuela Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Campus Lagoas-Marcosende, No 9, 36200 Vigo (Spain); UhIa, Francisco Jose [Area de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, Escuela Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Campus Lagoas-Marcosende, No 9, 36200 Vigo (Spain); Sieres, Jaime [Area de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, Escuela Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Campus Lagoas-Marcosende, No 9, 36200 Vigo (Spain); Campo, Antonio [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405 (United States)

    2005-05-01

    The Wilson plot is a technique to estimate the film coefficients in several types of heat transfer processes and to obtain general heat transfer correlations. This method is an outstanding tool in practical applications and in laboratory research activities that involve analysis of heat exchangers. Moreover, the application of this method is simple enough to be taught in laboratory practices for students at university and doctoral level of physics and engineering. Therefore, an experimental apparatus has been designed and built in our laboratory that allows the students to carry out experiments based on the application of the Wilson plot method. In this note, the principles of the method are explained, the experimental apparatus is described and representative results of the experimental data taken from the apparatus and the application of the Wilson plot method are shown. (note)

  11. Haemophilus ducreyi Seeks Alternative Carbon Sources and Adapts to Nutrient Stress and Anaerobiosis during Experimental Infection of Human Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangaiah, Dharanesh; Zhang, Xinjun; Baker, Beth; Fortney, Kate R; Gao, Hongyu; Holley, Concerta L; Munson, Robert S; Liu, Yunlong; Spinola, Stanley M

    2016-05-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi causes the sexually transmitted disease chancroid in adults and cutaneous ulcers in children. In humans, H. ducreyi resides in an abscess and must adapt to a variety of stresses. Previous studies (D. Gangaiah, M. Labandeira-Rey, X. Zhang, K. R. Fortney, S. Ellinger, B. Zwickl, B. Baker, Y. Liu, D. M. Janowicz, B. P. Katz, C. A. Brautigam, R. S. Munson, Jr., E. J. Hansen, and S. M. Spinola, mBio 5:e01081-13, 2014, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01081-13) suggested that H. ducreyi encounters growth conditions in human lesions resembling those found in stationary phase. However, how H. ducreyi transcriptionally responds to stress during human infection is unknown. Here, we determined the H. ducreyi transcriptome in biopsy specimens of human lesions and compared it to the transcriptomes of bacteria grown to mid-log, transition, and stationary phases. Multidimensional scaling showed that the in vivo transcriptome is distinct from those of in vitro growth. Compared to the inoculum (mid-log-phase bacteria), H. ducreyi harvested from pustules differentially expressed ∼93 genes, of which 62 were upregulated. The upregulated genes encode homologs of proteins involved in nutrient transport, alternative carbon pathways (l-ascorbate utilization and metabolism), growth arrest response, heat shock response, DNA recombination, and anaerobiosis. H. ducreyi upregulated few genes (hgbA, flp-tad, and lspB-lspA2) encoding virulence determinants required for human infection. Most genes regulated by CpxRA, RpoE, Hfq, (p)ppGpp, and DksA, which control the expression of virulence determinants and adaptation to a variety of stresses, were not differentially expressed in vivo, suggesting that these systems are cycling on and off during infection. Taken together, these data suggest that the in vivo transcriptome is distinct from those of in vitro growth and that adaptation to nutrient stress and anaerobiosis is crucial for H. ducreyi survival in humans.

  12. EU sales ban on new cosmetics tested on animals: impact on alternative methods, WTO implications and animal welfare aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhdel, Irmela W

    2004-06-01

    In 1993, the European Union (EU) adopted Directive 93/35/EEC, calling for a sales ban on new cosmetic products containing ingredients tested on animals after 1 January, 1998, provided that alternative methods had been developed by then. In May 2000, for the second time, the European Commission postponed that ban. The Commission justified the repeated postponement of the sales ban by saying that no animal-free methods were available, although three in vitro methods were scientifically approved in 1997. With three years delay, these methods have been published and therefore "made available" in the EU. OECD acceptance is still awaited. Another reason for the postponement was the fear of possible World Trade Organisation (WTO) conflicts. However, according to WTO rules, the protection of public morality or animal health could justify a restriction of the free trade principle. From the animal welfare point of view, an unqualified EU sales ban, combined with an animal testing ban, would provide the incentive to further promote the development and acceptance of alternative methods and to prove that ethical standards are legitimate concerns under WTO rules.

  13. Haemophilus ducreyi Seeks Alternative Carbon Sources and Adapts to Nutrient Stress and Anaerobiosis during Experimental Infection of Human Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangaiah, Dharanesh; Zhang, Xinjun; Baker, Beth; Fortney, Kate R.; Gao, Hongyu; Holley, Concerta L.; Munson, Robert S.; Liu, Yunlong

    2016-01-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi causes the sexually transmitted disease chancroid in adults and cutaneous ulcers in children. In humans, H. ducreyi resides in an abscess and must adapt to a variety of stresses. Previous studies (D. Gangaiah, M. Labandeira-Rey, X. Zhang, K. R. Fortney, S. Ellinger, B. Zwickl, B. Baker, Y. Liu, D. M. Janowicz, B. P. Katz, C. A. Brautigam, R. S. Munson, Jr., E. J. Hansen, and S. M. Spinola, mBio 5:e01081-13, 2014, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01081-13) suggested that H. ducreyi encounters growth conditions in human lesions resembling those found in stationary phase. However, how H. ducreyi transcriptionally responds to stress during human infection is unknown. Here, we determined the H. ducreyi transcriptome in biopsy specimens of human lesions and compared it to the transcriptomes of bacteria grown to mid-log, transition, and stationary phases. Multidimensional scaling showed that the in vivo transcriptome is distinct from those of in vitro growth. Compared to the inoculum (mid-log-phase bacteria), H. ducreyi harvested from pustules differentially expressed ∼93 genes, of which 62 were upregulated. The upregulated genes encode homologs of proteins involved in nutrient transport, alternative carbon pathways (l-ascorbate utilization and metabolism), growth arrest response, heat shock response, DNA recombination, and anaerobiosis. H. ducreyi upregulated few genes (hgbA, flp-tad, and lspB-lspA2) encoding virulence determinants required for human infection. Most genes regulated by CpxRA, RpoE, Hfq, (p)ppGpp, and DksA, which control the expression of virulence determinants and adaptation to a variety of stresses, were not differentially expressed in vivo, suggesting that these systems are cycling on and off during infection. Taken together, these data suggest that the in vivo transcriptome is distinct from those of in vitro growth and that adaptation to nutrient stress and anaerobiosis is crucial for H. ducreyi survival in humans. PMID:26930707

  14. Alternatives to the gravimetric method for quantification of diesel particulate matter near the lower level of detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Jacob; Kittelson, David; Pui, David; Watts, Winthrop

    2010-10-01

    This paper is part of the Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association's 2010 special issue on combustion aerosol measurements. The issue is a combination of papers that synthesize and evaluate ideas and perspectives that were presented by experts at a series of workshops sponsored by the Coordinating Research Council that aimed to evaluate the current and future status of diesel particulate matter (DPM) measurement. Measurement of DPM is a complex issue with many stakeholders, including air quality management and enforcement agencies, engine manufacturers, health experts, and climatologists. Adoption of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2007 heavy-duty engine DPM standards posed a unique challenge to engine manufacturers. The new standards reduced DPM emissions to the point that improvements to the gravimetric method were required to increase the accuracy and the sensitivity of the measurement. Despite these improvements, the method still has shortcomings. The objectives of this paper are to review the physical and chemical properties of DPM that make gravimetric measurement difficult at very low concentrations and to review alternative metrics and methods that are potentially more accurate, sensitive, and specific. Particle volatility, size, surface area, and number metrics are considered, as well as methods to quantify them. Although the authors believe that an alternative method is required to meet the needs of engine manufacturers, the methods reviewed in the paper are applicable to other areas where the gravimetric method detection limit is approached and greater accuracy and sensitivity are required. The paper concludes by suggesting a method to measure active surface area, combined with a method to separate semi-volatile and solid fractions to further increase the specificity of the measurement, has potential for reducing the lower detection limit of DPM and enabling engine manufacturers to reduce DPM emissions in the future.

  15. Development and validation of an alternative to conventional pretreatment methods for residue analysis of butachlor in water, soil, and rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jiaying; Jiang, Wenqing; Liu, Fengmao; Zhao, Huiyu; Wang, Suli; Peng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    A rapid and effective alternative analytical method for residues of butachlor in water, soil, and rice was established. The operating variables affecting performance of this method, including different extraction conditions and cleanup adsorbents, were evaluated. The determination of butachlor residues in soil, straw, rice hull, and husked rice was performed using GC/MS after extraction with n-hexane and cleanup with graphite carbon black. The average recoveries ranged from 81.5 to 102.7%, with RSDs of 0.6-7.7% for all of the matrixes investigated. The limits of quantitation were 0.05 mg/kg in water and rice plant, and 0.01 mg/kg in soil, straw, rice hull, and husked rice. A comparison among this proposed method, the conventional liquid-liquid extraction, the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe method, and Soxhlet extraction indicated that this method was more suitable for analyzing butachlor in rice samples. The further validation of the proposed method was carried out by Soxhlet extraction for the determination of butachlor residues in the husked rice samples, and the residue results showed there was no obvious difference obtained from these two methods. Samples from a rice field were found to contain butachlor residues below the maximum residue limits set by China (0.5 mg/kg) and Japan (0.1 mg/kg). The proposed method has a strong potential for application in routine screening and processing of large numbers of samples. This study developed a more effective alternative to the conventional analytical methods for analyzing butachlor residues in various matrixes.

  16. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 63 - Alternative Validation Procedure for EPA Waste and Wastewater Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EPA Waste and Wastewater Methods D Appendix D to Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Procedure for EPA Waste and Wastewater Methods 1. Applicability This procedure is to be applied exclusively.... For the purposes of this appendix, “waste” means waste and wastewater. 2. Procedure This...

  17. 78 FR 11174 - Recent Postings of Broadly Applicable Alternative Test Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... Oil- emitting EGU Fired Electric (LEE)testing Utility Steam for mercury Generating emissions. Units... Internal Analyzer and Combustion Method 18- Engines. Measurment of Gaseous Organic Compound Emissions by... Municipal Method 18- Solid Waste Measurment of Landfills. Gaseous Organic Compound Emissions by...

  18. Two-phase aqueous micellar systems: an alternative method for protein purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangel-Yagui C. O.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-phase aqueous micellar systems can be exploited in separation science for the extraction/purification of desired biomolecules. This article reviews recent experimental and theoretical work by Blankschtein and co-workers on the use of two-phase aqueous micellar systems for the separation of hydrophilic proteins. The experimental partitioning behavior of the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD in two-phase aqueous micellar systems is also reviewed and new results are presented. Specifically, we discuss very recent work on the purification of G6PD using: i a two-phase aqueous micellar system composed of the nonionic surfactant n-decyl tetra(ethylene oxide (C10E4, and (ii a two-phase aqueous mixed micellar system composed of C10E4 and the cationic surfactant decyltrimethylammonium bromide (C10TAB. Our results indicate that the two-phase aqueous mixed (C10E4/C10TAB micellar system can improve significantly the partitioning behavior of G6PD relative to that observed in the two-phase aqueous C10E4 micellar system.

  19. Development of alternative methods for the determination of raloxifene hydrochloride in tablet dosage form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Rodrigues Salazar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Three methods are proposed for the quantitative determination of raloxifene hydrochloride in pharmaceutical dosage form: ultraviolet method (UV high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and micellar capillary electrophoresis (MEKC. These methods were developed and validated and showed good linearity, precision and accuracy. Also they demonstrated to be specific and robust. The HPLC and MEKC methods were tested in regards to be stability indicating methods and they showed to have this attribute. The UV method used methanol as solvent and optimal wavelength at 284 nm, obeying Lambert-Beer law in these conditions. The chromatographic conditions for the HPLC method included: NST column C18 (250 x 4.6 mm x 5 µm, mobile phase water:acetonitrile:triethylamine (67:33:0,3 v/v, pH 3.5, flow rate 1.0 mL min-1, injection volume 20.0 µl, UV detection 287 nm and analysis temperature 30 °C. The MEKC method was performed on a fused-silica capillary (40 cm effective length x 50 µm i.d. using as background electrolyte 35.0 mmol L-1 borate buffer and 50.0 mmol L-1 anionic detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS at pH 8.8. The capillary temperature was 32°C, applied voltage 25 kV, UV detection at 280 nm and injection was perfomed at 45 mBar for 4 s, hydrodimanic mode. In this MEKC method, potassium diclofenac (200.0 µg mL-1 was used as internal standard. All these methods were statistically analyzed and demonstrated to be equivalent for quantitative analysis of RLX in tablets and were successfully applied for the determination of the drug.

  20. METHODS OF EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION OF STEINER THEOREM IN PHYSICAL PRACTICUM AND LABORATORY WORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zharilkasin Iskakov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the technique of laboratory work on experimental verification of Steiner’s Theorem in laboratory conditions is developed. To do this, specially designed experimental device was used. The main part of such device is a simple physical pendulum, swinging freely about the axis of suspension, consisting of a cylindrical disc set on a thin rod. To determine the moment of inertia of cylindrical body about the axis of vibrations, property of a physical quantity additivity was used. When processing experimental results, functional approximation by a least squares method was applied; as a result, the empirical expression of Steiner’s Theorem was achieved. Results of experimental studies were very close to the results of theoretical calculations. Laboratory work can be easily repeated for a body of arbitrary shape. The methodology used can be recommended for physical practicum in universities as an effective and easy way of experimental verification of Steiner’s theorem.

  1. Calcium oxalate crystallization index (COCI): an alternative method for distinguishing nephrolithiasis patients from healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bowei; Dissayabutra, Thasinas; Ungjaroenwathana, Wattanachai; Tosukhowong, Piyaratana; Srisa-Art, Monpichar; Supaprom, Thavorn; Insin, Numpon; Boonla, Chanchai

    2014-01-01

    Urinary supersaturation triggers lithogenic crystal formation. We developed an alternative test, designated calcium oxalate crystallization index (COCI), to distinguish nephrolithiasis patients from healthy individuals based on their urinary crystallization capability. The effect of urine volume, oxalate, phosphate, citrate, potassium, and sodium on COCI values was investigated. COCI values were determined in 24-hr urine obtained from nephrolithiasis patients (n=72) and matched healthy controls (n=71). Increases in urine oxalate and phosphate and decreases in urine volume and citrate resulted in significantly increased COCI values. The urinary COCI in nephrolithiasis patients was significantly higher than that in healthy individuals. Two healthy subjects who had elevated COCI values were found to have asymptomatic kidney calculi. The receiver operating characteristic analysis showed an area under the curve of the urinary COCI test of 0.9499 (95%CI: 0.9131-0.9868) for distinguishing between nephrolithiasis and healthy subjects. At the cutoff of 165 mg oxalate equivalence/day, the urinary COCI test provided sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy amounts of 83.33%, 97.18%, and 90.21%, respectively. Urinary COCI values were primarily dependent on urine volume, oxalate, and phosphate. The test provided high sensitivity and specificity for clinically discriminating nephrolithiasis patients from healthy controls. It might be used to detect individuals with asymptomatic kidney calculi.

  2. Examination of Submental Space as an Alternative Method of Airway Assessment (Submental Sign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javid Mihan J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Difficult airway especially failed intubation has been associated with a high incidence of mortality and morbidity. Most of mortalities occur when an anaesthesiologist encounters an unanticipated difficult airway. Findings In 1999, a 23 yr. old, 65 kg weight and 170 cm height female patient had been scheduled for arthroscopy. Despite totally normal airway assessment (thyromental distance, mouth opening, jaw and neck movement ... I was astonished by encountering a grade IV Cormack - Lehane laryngoscopic view. Tracheal intubation was impossible and ventilation was very difficult. On attempt to attain a better laryngoscopic view, while manipulating submandibular region I encountered a bulky noncompliant submental space (Submental Sign. This event made me more alert regarding this finding. Thereafter I noted for this sign throughout the past years and I found it very helpful. These findings encouraged me to write this report, and suggest a routine examination of submental space in order to keep the safety of the patient at the heart of the care we provide. Conclusion Evaluation of the submental space is suggested as an alternative predictor of difficult airway and routine examination of the submental space is of value in airway assessment.

  3. Reconciling alternate methods for the determination of charge distributions: A probabilistic approach to high-dimensional least-squares approximations

    CERN Document Server

    Champagnat, Nicolas; Faou, Erwan

    2010-01-01

    We propose extensions and improvements of the statistical analysis of distributed multipoles (SADM) algorithm put forth by Chipot et al. in [6] for the derivation of distributed atomic multipoles from the quantum-mechanical electrostatic potential. The method is mathematically extended to general least-squares problems and provides an alternative approximation method in cases where the original least-squares problem is computationally not tractable, either because of its ill-posedness or its high-dimensionality. The solution is approximated employing a Monte Carlo method that takes the average of a random variable defined as the solutions of random small least-squares problems drawn as subsystems of the original problem. The conditions that ensure convergence and consistency of the method are discussed, along with an analysis of the computational cost in specific instances.

  4. Expression of alternatively spliced variants of Na-Ca-exchanger-1 in experimental colitis: role in reduced colonic contractility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubair, M; Oriowo, M A; Khan, I

    2012-11-01

    Inflammation-induced colonic motility dysfunction is associated with a disturbance in Ca(2+) ion transporting mechanisms. The main objective of this study was to identify the types of Na-Ca-exchanger-1 (NCX-1) variants expressed in the rat colon, and how this was affected by colitis. In addition, the effect of colitis on the possible involvement of NCX-1 in the reduced carbachol-induced contraction of the rat colon was examined. Colitis was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by intra-rectal instillation of trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS). Animals were killed on day 5. Colitis was characterized by estimating myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, body weight, and histological scores. NCX-1 mRNA and protein variants were confirmed by RT-PCR coupled nucleotide sequencing and by Western blot analysis, respectively. Contractility of the colon segments was studied using standard procedure. There was a significant reduction in body weight of TNBS-treated rats. A significant increase in MPO activity and infiltration of inflammatory cells were observed in the inflamed rat colon. RT-PCR coupled nucleotide sequencing identified NCX-1.3 mRNA variant containing exons B and D. Western blot analysis confirmed 70 and 120 kDa molecular mass NCX-1 protein variants in rat colon. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the level of NCX-1 protein variants in inflamed colon as compared to non-colitis controls. Functional experiments demonstrated that NCX in reverse mode played a role in carbachol-induced contraction of colon, and this was not affected by colitis. These findings demonstrated expression of a NCX-1.3 mRNA splice variant, and 70 and 118 kDa protein variants. Inhibition of the reverse mode of NCX-1 was not different in reduced carbachol-induced contraction between the groups. These findings are interpreted to suggest that NCX-1, though expressed did not play a role in reduced contractility in experimental colitis.

  5. Estimating the impact of unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene on the global burden of disease: evolving and alternative methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasen, Thomas; Pruss-Ustun, Annette; Mathers, Colin D; Cumming, Oliver; Cairncross, Sandy; Colford, John M

    2014-08-01

    The 2010 global burden of disease (GBD) study represents the latest effort to estimate the global burden of disease and injuries and the associated risk factors. Like previous GBD studies, this latest iteration reflects a continuing evolution in methods, scope and evidence base. Since the first GBD Study in 1990, the burden of diarrhoeal disease and the burden attributable to inadequate water and sanitation have fallen dramatically. While this is consistent with trends in communicable disease and child mortality, the change in attributable risk is also due to new interpretations of the epidemiological evidence from studies of interventions to improve water quality. To provide context for a series of companion papers proposing alternative assumptions and methods concerning the disease burden and risks from inadequate water, sanitation and hygiene, we summarise evolving methods over previous GBD studies. We also describe an alternative approach using population intervention modelling. We conclude by emphasising the important role of GBD studies and the need to ensure that policy on interventions such as water and sanitation be grounded on methods that are transparent, peer-reviewed and widely accepted.

  6. Alternate energy source usage methods for in situ heat treatment processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, Jr., Francis Marion; Goodwin, Charles R; Richard, Jr., James E

    2014-10-14

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for providing power to one or more subsurface heaters is described herein. The method may include monitoring one or more operating parameters of the heaters, the intermittent power source, and a transformer coupled to the intermittent power source that transforms power from the intermittent power source to power with appropriate operating parameters for the heaters; and controlling the power output of the transformer so that a constant voltage is provided to the heaters regardless of the load of the heaters and the power output provided by the intermittent power source.

  7. A scoping review of studies comparing the medication event monitoring system (MEMS) with alternative methods for measuring medication adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Alili, Mohamed; Vrijens, Bernard; Demonceau, Jenny; Evers, Silvia M; Hiligsmann, Mickael

    2016-07-01

    Different methods are available for measuring medication adherence. In this paper, we conducted a scoping review to identify and summarize evidence of all studies comparing the Medication Event Monitoring System (MEMS) with alternative methods for measuring medication adherence. A literature search was performed using the open database www.iAdherence.org that includes all original studies reporting findings from the MEMS. Papers comparing methods for measuring adherence to solid oral formulations were included. Data was extracted using a standardized extraction table. A total of 117 articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria, including 251 comparisons. Most frequent comparisons were against self-report (n = 119) and pill count (n = 59). Similar outcome measures were used in 210 comparisons (84%), among which 78 used dichotomous variables (adherent or not) and 132 used continuous measures (adherence expressed as percentage). Furthermore, 32% of all comparisons did not estimate adherence over the same coverage period and 44% of all comparisons did not use a statistical method or used a suboptimal one. Only eighty-seven (35%) comparisons had similar coverage periods, similar outcome measures and optimal statistical methods. Compared to MEMS, median adherence was grossly overestimated by 17% using self-report, by 8% using pill count and by 6% using rating. In conclusion, among all comparisons of MEMS versus alternative methods for measuring adherence, only a few used adequate comparisons in terms of outcome measures, coverage periods and statistical method. Researchers should therefore use stronger methodological frameworks when comparing measurement methods and be aware that non-electronic measures could lead to overestimation of medication adherence.

  8. A rugged, precise and accurate new gravimetry method for the determination of gold: an alternative to fire assay method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nahar

    2012-01-01

    A new, rugged, precise, accurate and fast primary method of measurement has been proposed for the determination of gold in various gold articles. Precise and accurate measurement of gold is the primary requirement for hall marking and to trade gold internationally, as billions of dollars of gold are trading world wide for the various applications. At present Fire Assay ASTM E 1335-08 is the only Standard Test Method for the determination of Gold, which is accepted internationally. But the method is time consuming, cumbersome and required expertise to perform the test. In the present investigation, a method has been developed gravimetry based on direct determination of gold after reducing gold in zero-valent state by hydroxylamine hydrochloride. Gravimetry is the most reliable technique and having highest metrological qualities in comparison to titremetry and instrumental method and the results of gravimetry are directly traceable to SI unit. The results of gravimetric method are accepted without reference to a standard of the same quantity. Several experiments were carried out with and without impurities and it has been concluded that gold can be determined accurately and precisely in presence of several impurities. Five replicates of approximate 0.2 g gold samples were analyzed following method proposed and percentage purity were found to be 99.993 ± 0.0056 with 95% confidence level (k = 2). The combined uncertainty in gold measurement has also been evaluated using potential sources of the method according to the EURACHEM/GUM guidelines.

  9. On the rational formulation of alternative fuels: melting point and net heat of combustion predictions for fuel compounds using machine learning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldana, D A; Starck, L; Mougin, P; Rousseau, B; Creton, B

    2013-01-01

    We report the development of predictive models for two fuel specifications: melting points (T(m)) and net heat of combustion (Δ(c)H). Compounds inside the scope of these models are those likely to be found in alternative fuels, i.e. hydrocarbons, alcohols and esters. Experimental T(m) and Δ(c)H values for these types of molecules have been gathered to generate a unique database. Various quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) approaches have been used to build models, ranging from methods leading to multi-linear models such as genetic function approximation (GFA), or partial least squares (PLS) to those leading to non-linear models such as feed-forward artificial neural networks (FFANN), general regression neural networks (GRNN), support vector machines (SVM), or graph machines. Except for the case of the graph machines method for which the only inputs are SMILES formulae, previously listed approaches working on molecular descriptors and functional group count descriptors were used to develop specific models for T(m) and Δ(c)H. For each property, the predictive models return slightly different responses for each molecular structure. Therefore, models labelled as 'consensus models' were built by averaging values computed with selected individual models. Predicted results were then compared with experimental data and with predictions of models in the literature.

  10. Performance Analysis of Classification Methods and Alternative Linear Programming Integrated with Fuzzy Delphi Feature Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Izadi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Among various statistical and data mining discriminant analysis proposed so far for group classification, linear programming discriminant analysis have recently attracted the researchers’ interest. This study evaluates multi-group discriminant linear programming (MDLP for classification problems against well-known methods such as neural networks, support vector machine, and so on. MDLP is less complex compared to other methods and does not suffer from local optima. However, sometimes classification becomes infeasible due to insufficient data in databases such as in the case of an Internet Service Provider (ISP small and medium-sized market considered in this research. This study proposes a fuzzy Delphi method to select and gather required data. The results show that the performance of MDLP is better than other methods with respect to correct classification, at least for small and medium-sized datasets.

  11. An alternative computational method for finding the minimum-premium insurance portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsikis, Vasilios N.

    2016-06-01

    In this article, we design a computational method, which differs from the standard linear programming techniques, for computing the minimum-premium insurance portfolio. The corresponding algorithm as well as a Matlab implementation are provided.

  12. Assessment of alternative disposal methods to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from municipal solid waste in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedla, Sudhakar; Sindhu, N T

    2016-06-01

    Open dumping, the most commonly practiced method of solid waste disposal in Indian cities, creates serious environment and economic challenges, and also contributes significantly to greenhouse gas emissions. The present article attempts to analyse and identify economically effective ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from municipal solid waste. The article looks at the selection of appropriate methods for the control of methane emissions. Multivariate functional models are presented, based on theoretical considerations as well as the field measurements to forecast the greenhouse gas mitigation potential for all the methodologies under consideration. Economic feasibility is tested by calculating the unit cost of waste disposal for the respective disposal process. The purpose-built landfill system proposed by Yedla and Parikh has shown promise in controlling greenhouse gas and saving land. However, these studies show that aerobic composting offers the optimal method, both in terms of controlling greenhouse gas emissions and reducing costs, mainly by requiring less land than other methods.

  13. Experimental parameter estimation method for nonlinear viscoelastic composite material models: an application on arterial tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunbuloglu, Emin; Bozdag, Ergun; Toprak, Tuncer; Islak, Civan

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed at setting a method of experimental parameter estimation for large-deforming nonlinear viscoelastic continuous fibre-reinforced composite material model. Specifically, arterial tissue was investigated during experimental research and parameter estimation studies, due to medical, scientific and socio-economic importance of soft tissue research. Using analytical formulations for specimens under combined inflation/extension/torsion on thick-walled cylindrical tubes, in vitro experiments were carried out with fresh sheep arterial segments, and parameter estimation procedures were carried out on experimental data. Model restrictions were pointed out using outcomes from parameter estimation. Needs for further studies that can be developed are discussed.

  14. Automatic query generation using word embeddings for retrieving passages describing experimental methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydın, Ferhat; Hüsünbeyi, Zehra Melce; Özgür, Arzucan

    2017-01-01

    Information regarding the physical interactions among proteins is crucial, since protein–protein interactions (PPIs) are central for many biological processes. The experimental techniques used to verify PPIs are vital for characterizing and assessing the reliability of the identified PPIs. A lot of information about PPIs and the experimental methods are only available in the text of the scientific publications that report them. In this study, we approach the problem of identifying passages with experimental methods for physical interactions between proteins as an information retrieval search task. The baseline system is based on query matching, where the queries are generated by utilizing the names (including synonyms) of the experimental methods in the Proteomics Standard Initiative–Molecular Interactions (PSI-MI) ontology. We propose two methods, where the baseline queries are expanded by including additional relevant terms. The first method is a supervised approach, where the most salient terms for each experimental method are obtained by using the term frequency–relevance frequency (tf.rf) metric over 13 articles from our manually annotated data set of 30 full text articles, which is made publicly available. On the other hand, the second method is an unsupervised approach, where the queries for each experimental method are expanded by using the word embeddings of the names of the experimental methods in the PSI-MI ontology. The word embeddings are obtained by utilizing a large unlabeled full text corpus. The proposed methods are evaluated on the test set consisting of 17 articles. Both methods obtain higher recall scores compared with the baseline, with a loss in precision. Besides higher recall, the word embeddings based approach achieves higher F-measure than the baseline and the tf.rf based methods. We also show that incorporating gene name and interaction keyword identification leads to improved precision and F-measure scores for all three evaluated

  15. mHealth Research: Current Methods, Alternative Approaches, and Issues for Discussion | Smokefree.gov

    Science.gov (United States)

    On December 3, 2015, the National Cancer Institute convened a group of 18 behavioral scientists for a day-long meeting to discuss scientific methods for evaluating technology-mediated behavior change interventions, with an emphasis on mobile smoking cessation interventions. This post contains excerpts from a document provided to participants in advance of the December 3 meeting. The document was used to set context for discussion by providing a high-level overview of the methods most commonly used in published

  16. Alternative methods for the wool wax extraction from wool scouring wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crespi, M.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Wool fibers have to be properly washed out before being processed into fabrics. This scouring process generates high pollutant wastes in two forms, a liquid phase and a solid phase. Both phases contain a large amount of the grease (wool wax generated by the animal which may be recovered and purified to obtain lanolin, a highly valued product. To evaluate the amount of grease in such wastes, Soxhlet extraction with organic solvent is the technique more widely used in laboratories worldwide as it provides a high grease recovery although it is a time and solvent consuming technique. The present work compares alternative extraction techniques to the Soxhlet extraction (Microwave, automated Soxhlet and Supercritical Fluids recovering 100% of the grease, reducing the time of analysis, the solvent consumption and the waste generation.Las fibras de lana, tras obtenerlas de las ovejas y antes de ser procesadas industrialmente, han de ser lavadas. Este proceso genera residuos altamente contaminantes que pueden obtenerse en dos formas diferentes, una fase líquida y una fase sólida. Ambas fases contienen, entre otros, una gran cantidad de la grasa generada por las ovejas y que se puede recuperar y purificar para obtener lanolina, un producto de alto valor industrial. Para evaluar la cantidad de grasa contenida en dichos efluentes, la técnica más extendida en los laboratorios es la extracción por Soxhlet, la cual consume tiempo y disolventes orgánicos pero obteniendo altos porcentajes de recuperación. En el presente trabajo se compara el porcentaje de recuperación de la cera de lana de efluentes industriales mediante técnicas alternativas a la tradicional (Microondas, Soxhlet automatizado y Fluidos Supercríticos obteniendo recuperaciones del 100%, reduciendo el tiempo de análisis, el consumo de disolvente y la generación de residuos.

  17. An alternate method for estimating the dose-response relationships of neuromuscular blocking drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopman, A F; Klewicka, M M; Neuman, G G

    2000-05-01

    Slopes of the dose-response relationships for all available neuromuscular blocking drugs appear to be essentially parallel and to approximate a log-dose/logit value of 4.75. We tested the possibility of estimating both 50% effective dose (ED(50)) and 95% effective dose (ED(95)) values from a single dose-response data point when that slope is postulated. We compared the ED(50) and ED(95) values of rocuronium and succinylcholine calculated by using traditional log-dose/logit regression analysis with the same values obtained by averaging individual estimates of potency as determined by using the Hill equation. After the induction of anesthesia (propofol/alfentanil), tracheal intubation was accomplished without the administration of neuromuscular blocking drugs. Anesthesia was maintained with nitrous oxide and propofol. The evoked electromyographic response to 0.10-Hz single stimuli was continuously recorded. After baseline stabilization, a single IV bolus of succinylcholine (0.08-0.26 mg/kg, n = 50) or rocuronium (0. 13-0.30 mg/kg, n = 40) was administered and the peak effect noted. By using log-dose/logit regression analysis, we calculated ED(50) and ED(95) values for rocuronium of 0.17 and 0.33 mg/kg and 0.14 and 0.27 mg/kg for succinylcholine. When potency was calculated from the Hill equation, the resultant ED(50) and ED(95) values did not differ by more than +/-4% from those obtained by using regression analysis. Averaging of single-dose estimates of neuromuscular potency provides a useful adjunct and reasonable alternative to conventional regression analysis.

  18. Reading and reacting: from the research of border conditions to experimental methods in architectural and urban design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Schoonderbeek

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available It is in marginal urban areas, borders of states, territories and cities, that marginal urban practices tend to take place. Limits of “normal” behaviour are transgressed and social and political differences become apparent. Such sites, where “other” spatial conditions have emerged, and that are “teeming with suggestive meanings and unexpected potential” (Schoonderbeek 2010, have hardly been analysed and discussed within the contemporary architectural discourse. This paper addresses such marginal urban conditions from an experimental approach to urban analysis and architectural design.  Methods such as mapping, navigation, and literary techniques such as character and scenario are brought into play in the analysis of urban fringes, and in the speculative design of alternative urban realities. With this experimental approach comes as well a certain understanding and appreciation of the border as a space of simultaneity, much like the Aleph of Borges. Drawing on this literary connection, the last part of the text proposes a method for border analysis and design by means of seeking the borders between architecture and literature.

  19. A deterministic alternative to the full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubman, Norm M.; Lee, Joonho; Takeshita, Tyler Y.; Head-Gordon, Martin; Whaley, K. Birgitta

    2016-07-01

    Development of exponentially scaling methods has seen great progress in tackling larger systems than previously thought possible. One such technique, full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo, is a useful algorithm that allows exact diagonalization through stochastically sampling determinants. The method derives its utility from the information in the matrix elements of the Hamiltonian, along with a stochastic projected wave function, to find the important parts of Hilbert space. However, the stochastic representation of the wave function is not required to search Hilbert space efficiently, and here we describe a highly efficient deterministic method that can achieve chemical accuracy for a wide range of systems, including the difficult Cr2 molecule. We demonstrate for systems like Cr2 that such calculations can be performed in just a few cpu hours which makes it one of the most efficient and accurate methods that can attain chemical accuracy for strongly correlated systems. In addition our method also allows efficient calculation of excited state energies, which we illustrate with benchmark results for the excited states of C2.

  20. Single Alternating Group Explicit (SAGE) Method for Electrochemical Finite Difference Digital Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG,Zhao-Xiang(邓兆祥); LIN,Xiang-Qin(林祥钦); TONG,Zhong-Hua(童中华)

    2002-01-01

    The four different schemes of Group Explicit Method (GEM): GER, GEL, SAGE and DAGE have been claimed to be unstable when employed for electrochemical digital simulations with large model diffusion coefficient DM@ However, in this investigation, in spite of the conditional stability of GER and GEL, the SAGE scheme, which is a combination of GEL and GER, was found to be unconditionally stable when used for simulations of electrochemical reaction-diffusions and had a performance comparable with or even better than the Fast Quasi Explicit Finite Difference Method (FQEFD) in srme aspects. Corresponding differential equations of SAGE scheme for digital simulations of various electrochemical mechanisms with both uniform and exponentially expanded space units were established. The effectiveness of the SAGE method was further demonstrated by the simulations of an EC and a catalytic mechanism with very large homogoneous rate constants.

  1. Aortic blood flow subtraction: an alternative method for measuring total renal blood flow in conscious dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandgaard, N C F; Andersen, J L; Holstein-Rathlou, N-H;

    2002-01-01

    We have measured total renal blood flow (TRBF) as the difference between signals from ultrasound flow probes implanted around the aorta above and below the renal arteries. The repeatability of the method was investigated by repeated, continuous infusions of angiotensin II and endothelin-1 seven...... arterial blood pressure by 49% and decreased TRBF by 12%, providing an increase in renal vascular resistance of 69%. Dynamic analysis showed autoregulation of renal blood flow in the frequency range ... of TRBF by aortic blood flow subtraction is a practical and reliable method that allows direct comparison of excretory function and renal blood flow from two kidneys. The method also allows direct comparison between TRBF and flow in the caudal aorta....

  2. High-resolution methods for preserving the sum of mass fractions: improved χ-scheme and an alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syamial, Madhava [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Benyahia, Sofiane [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2013-11-20

    When high resolution convection schemes are used for discretizing chemical species mass balance equations, the mass fractions are not guaranteed to add to one. We show that a proposed remedy called χ-scheme (Darwish and Moukalled, Comput.Methods Appl.Mech. Engrg. 192 (2003): 1711) will degrade to a diffusive first-order scheme when a chemical species vanishes from the mixture, for example, because of chemical reactions. We propose an improvement to the χ-scheme to overcome this problem. Furthermore, a computationally efficient alternative scheme is proposed and evaluated with several examples, to quantify the improvements in the accuracy and the computational time.

  3. Comparison of methods for controlling dental caries in the classical medicine and alternative medical practices and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabbani Khorasgani Mohammad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is a multi-factorial disease and the most common human infection that annually are spent millions dollars to control and treat it. Several methods have been proposed so far to control it. The most important control methods it is now include : dental hygiene, proper nutrition , fluoride therapy , the use of non- cariogenic sweeteners . Also, the use of probiotics , nanomaterials , bacteriophages , antimicrobial peptides and anti- caries vaccines can be considered as new perspective of human in the dental caries control field. In addition, the use of complementary and alternative therapies , especially herbal drug therapy recently has been considered . Demonstrating the efficacy of complementary medicine against dental caries and its use in combination with conventional medicine or trial of new methods for decline of dental caries in the future would be hopeful.

  4. Contingency Space Analysis: An Alternative Method for Identifying Contingent Relations from Observational Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Brian K.; DiGennaro, Florence D.; Reed, Derek D.; Szczech, Frances M.; Rosenthal, Blair D.

    2008-01-01

    Descriptive assessment methods have been used in applied settings to identify consequences for problem behavior, thereby aiding in the design of effective treatment programs. Consensus has not been reached, however, regarding the types of data or analytic strategies that are most useful for describing behavior-consequence relations. One promising…

  5. Assessment of Two Alternative Sample Transport and Fixation Methods in the Microbiological Diagnosis of Bacterial Vaginosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Eason

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The standard method for specimen collection and transport for microbiological diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis is an air-dried smear of vaginal secretions, promptly heat- or alcohol-fixed, Gram-stained and scored by Nugent's criteria.

  6. Multigroup Analysis in Partial Least Squares (PLS) Path Modeling: Alternative Methods and Empirical Results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarstedt, Marko; Henseler, Jörg; Ringle, Christian M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – Partial least squares (PLS) path modeling has become a pivotal empirical research method in international marketing. Owing to group comparisons' important role in research on international marketing, we provide researchers with recommendations on how to conduct multigroup analyses in PLS p

  7. Sampling bee communities using pan traps: alternative methods increase sample size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monitoring of the status of bee populations and inventories of bee faunas require systematic sampling. Efficiency and ease of implementation has encouraged the use of pan traps to sample bees. Efforts to find an optimal standardized sampling method for pan traps have focused on pan trap color. Th...

  8. Fitting Multilevel Models with Ordinal Outcomes: Performance of Alternative Specifications and Methods of Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Daniel J.; Sterba, Sonya K.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has compared methods of estimation for fitting multilevel models to binary data, but there are reasons to believe that the results will not always generalize to the ordinal case. This article thus evaluates (a) whether and when fitting multilevel linear models to ordinal outcome data is justified and (b) which estimator to employ…

  9. Acoustic Rhinometry (AR): An alternative method to image nasal airway geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straszek, Sune

    2007-01-01

    In acoustic rhinometry (AR) a soud pulse enters the nasal cavity, where it is reflected due to changes in the local impedances. From the incident and reflected sound signal we use the Ware-Aki algorithm to calculate an area-distance relationship. The method has been validated in nasal cavity models...

  10. Measurement of interfacial areas with the chemical method for a system with alternating dispersed phases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woezik, van B.A.A.; Westerterp, K.R.

    2000-01-01

    The interfacial area for a liquid–liquid system has been determined by the chemical reaction method. The saponification of butyl formate ester with 8 M sodium hydroxide has been used to this end. A correlation has been derived to describe the mole flux of ester through the interface and the kinetic

  11. 77 FR 11536 - Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... scientific peer review panel in March 2008; the peer review panel report was made available to the public for.... The final BRD, including additional analyses performed by NICEATM as recommended by the peer review... agencies to review ICCVAM test method recommendations and notify ICCVAM in writing of their findings...

  12. 76 FR 9777 - Recent Postings of Broadly Applicable Alternative Test Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ...), flare flow rate Method 2A-- for exit Direct velocity at Measurement of regulated Gas Volume flares as... methane. Emissions by of Performance Gas for Stationary Chromatography. Spark Ignition Internal Combustion... Emissions by Emission Gas Standards for Chromatography. Hazardous Air Pollutants; Site Remediation....

  13. Enhancing Learning Using 3D Printing: An Alternative to Traditional Student Project Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGahern, Patricia; Bosch, Frances; Poli, DorothyBelle

    2015-01-01

    Student engagement during the development of a three-dimensional visual aid or teaching model can vary for a number of reasons. Some students report that they are not "creative" or "good at art," often as an excuse to justify less professional outcomes. Student engagement can be low when using traditional methods to produce a…

  14. An Alternating Direction Method for Convex Quadratic Second-Order Cone Programming with Bounded Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuewen Mu

    2015-01-01

    quadratic programming over second-order cones and a bounded set. At each iteration, we only need to compute the metric projection onto the second-order cones and the projection onto the bound set. The result of convergence is given. Numerical results demonstrate that our method is efficient for the convex quadratic second-order cone programming problems with bounded constraints.

  15. Comparison between experimental and computational methods for scattering anisotropy coefficient determination in dental-resin composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Oliveras, Alicia; Carrasco, Irene M.; Ghinea, Razvan; Pérez, María M.; Rubiño, Manuel

    2012-06-01

    Understanding the behaviour of light propagation in biological materials is essential for biomedical engineering and its applications. Among the key optical properties of biological media is the angular distribution of the scattered light, characterized by the average cosine of the scattering angle, called the scattering anisotropy coefficient (g). The value of g can be determined by experimentally irradiating the material with a laser beam and making angular-scattering measurements in a goniometer. In this work, an experimental technique was used to determine g by means of goniometric measurements of the laser light scattered off two different dental-resin composites (classified as nano and hybrid). To assess the accuracy of the experimental method, a Mie theory-based computational model was used. Independent measurements were used to determine some of the required input parameters for computation of the theoretical model. The g values estimated with the computational method (nano-filled: 0.9399; hybrid: 0.8975) and the values calculated with the experimental method presented (nano-filled: 0.98297 +/- 0.00021; hybrid: 0.95429 +/- 0.00014) agreed well for both dental resins, with slightly higher experimental values. The higher experimental values may indicate that the scattering particle causes more narrow-angle scattering than does a perfect sphere of equal volume, assuming that with more spherical scattering particles the scattering anisotropy coefficient increases. Since g represents the angular distribution of the scattered light, values provided by both the experimental and the computational methods show a strongly forward-directed scattering in the dental resins studied, more pronounced in the nano-filled composite than in the hybrid composite.

  16. Effect of experimental methods for selective development of motor skills of young karatists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymir Galimskyi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: justify, develop and experimentally verify the effectiveness of the pilot program of development of physical qualities of young karate during pre-basic training. Material and Methods: The study was conducted on 52 karate 10–12 years. Applied pedagogical experiment, teacher testing and statistical methods. Results: identify the means program development and evaluation criteria of physical fitness of young karate. Conclusions: The use of the author's program contributed to a more significant increase in special physical preparedness karate experimental group.

  17. Rapid and alternative fabrication method for microfluidic paper based analytical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekghasemi, Soheil; Kahveci, Enver; Duman, Memed

    2016-10-01

    A major application of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (µPADs) includes the field of point-of-care (POC) diagnostics. It is important for POC diagnostics to possess properties such as ease-of-use and low cost. However, µPADs need multiple instruments and fabrication steps. In this study, two different chemicals (Hexamethyldisilazane and Tetra-ethylorthosilicate) were used, and three different methods (heating, plasma treatment, and microwave irradiation) were compared to develop µPADs. Additionally, an inkjet-printing technique was used for generating a hydrophilic channel and printing certain chemical agents on different regions of a modified filter paper. A rapid and effective fabrication method to develop µPADs within 10min was introduced using an inkjet-printing technique in conjunction with a microwave irradiation method. Environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used for morphology characterization and determining the surface chemical compositions of the modified filter paper, respectively. Contact angle measurements were used to fulfill the hydrophobicity of the treated filter paper. The highest contact angle value (141°±1) was obtained using the microwave irradiation method over a period of 7min, when the filter paper was modified by TEOS. Furthermore, by using this method, the XPS results of TEOS-modified filter paper revealed Si2p (23%) and Si-O bounds (81.55%) indicating the presence of Si-O-Si bridges and Si(OEt) groups, respectively. The ESEM results revealed changes in the porous structures of the papers and decreases in the pore sizes. Washburn assay measurements tested the efficiency of the generated hydrophilic channels in which similar water penetration rates were observed in the TEOS-modified filter paper and unmodified (plain) filter paper. The validation of the developed µPADs was performed by utilizing the rapid urease test as a model test system. The detection limit of

  18. CISM-Course on Modern Optical Methods in Experimental Solid Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    The book covers the theories and physics of advanced new optical measuring methods and problems of experimental performance, recent achievements in the basic interferometric methods holography, speckle-interferometry, shearography as well as linear/non-linear photoelasticity and photoviscoelasticity, Moiré- and grid-techniques. It deals with theory and application of digital image processing, methods of data recording, data processing and -visualisation, with mathematical/numerical procedures for final evaluation of digitised measured data and the principle of hybrid techniques. It introduces into the new perceptions of methods in experimental solid mechanics and it should encourage scientists to deal intensively with the theories for further developments, and enables practitioners, to understand theory and physics of the new achievements at least and to apply the methods in research als well as in developments in practice.

  19. An alternative preparation method for ion exchanged catalysts: Solid state redox reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, E.; Hagen, A.; Grunwaldt, J.-D.

    2004-01-01

    A new method for modifying zeolites with zinc is proposed. The solid state redox reaction between metallic zinc and ZSM-5 zeolites with different Si/Al ratios was investigated by temperature programmed hydrogen evolution (TPHE), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and diffuse reflectance...... infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS). The evolution of hydrogen was detected at temperatures above 620 K. The source of hydrogen was the solid state redox reaction of the metal with protons of the support. The samples exhibit catalytic activity in ethane aromatization indicating that zinc...... should be located at the same sites as in catalysts prepared by conventional methods. Combination of XANES and catalytic activity point to zinc being mainly present in tetrahedral geometry under reaction conditions....

  20. An alternative treatment method for defective pseudoarthrosis; evaluation of eight patients treated with Artelon+Kryptonite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uraş, Ismail; Yavuz, Osman Yüksel; Uygun, Murat; Paslioglu, Ebubekir; Kömürcü, Mahmut

    2016-03-01

    Pseudoarthrosis with bone loss is one of the most challenging orthopaedic problems for surgeons. Bone loss usually leads to technical difficulties during surgery due to instability in the fracture area. Eight patients with pseudoarthrosis of different long bones were operated on by the same surgeon. The median age was 53 years (25-61), and the median time period after the index operation was 21 months (12-72 months). Radiographic union was achieved in all patients in 3.62 months (2-5 months). Efficient healing with new bone formation was observed in all of the patients. The result of the current case series is promising. This treatment method can be used for the treatment of pseudoarthrosis without increasing morbidity. Long-term follow-up and larger case series are needed for evidence of the adequacy and reliability of this method of treatment.

  1. Calculation of the Gluon Distribution Function Using Alternative Method for the Proton Structure Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N. Ghahramany; G.R. Boroun

    2003-01-01

    A calculation of the proton structure function F2(x,Q2) is reported with an approximation method that relates the reduced cross section derivative and the F2(x, Q2) scaling violation at low x by using quadratic form for the structure function. This quadratic form approximation method can be used to determine the structure function F2 (x, Q2)from the HERA reduced cross section data taken at low x. This new approach can determine the structure functions F2(x,Q2) with reasonable precision even for low x values which have not been investigated. We observe that the Q2 dependence is quadratic over the full kinematic covered range. To test the validity of our new determined structure functions, wefind the gluon distribution function in the leading order approximation with our new calculation for the structure functions and compare them with the QCD parton distribution functions.

  2. Calculation of the Gluon Distribution Function Using Alternative Method for the Proton Structure Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N.Ghahramany; G.R.Boroun

    2003-01-01

    A calculation of the proton structure function F2(x,Q2) is reported with an approximation method that relates the reduced cross section derivative and the F2(x, Q2) scaling violation at low x by using quadratic form for the structure function. This quadratic form approximation method can be used to determine the structure function F2 (x, Q2) from the HERA reduced cross section data taken at low x. This new approach can determine the structure functions F2(x,Q2) with reasonable precision even for low x values which have not been investigated. We observe that the Q2 dependence is quadratic over the full kinematic covered range. To test the validity of our new determined structure functions, we find the gluon distribution function in the leading order approximation with our new calculation for the structure functions and compare them with the QCD parton distribution functions.

  3. Field simulation of axisymmetric plasma screw pinches by alternating-direction-implicit methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, M.A.

    1996-06-01

    An axisymmetric plasma screw pinch is an axisymmetric column of ionized gaseous plasma radially confined by forces from axial and azimuthal currents driven in the plasma and its surroundings. This dissertation is a contribution to detailed, high resolution computer simulation of dynamic plasma screw pinches in 2-d {ital rz}-coordinates. The simulation algorithm combines electron fluid and particle-in-cell (PIC) ion models to represent the plasma in a hybrid fashion. The plasma is assumed to be quasineutral; along with the Darwin approximation to the Maxwell equations, this implies application of Ampere`s law without displacement current. Electron inertia is assumed negligible so that advective terms in the electron momentum equation are ignored. Electrons and ions have separate scalar temperatures, and a scalar plasma electrical resistivity is assumed. Altemating-direction-implicit (ADI) methods are used to advance the electron fluid drift velocity and the magnetic fields in the simulation. The ADI methods allow time steps larger than allowed by explicit methods. Spatial regions where vacuum field equations have validity are determined by a cutoff density that invokes the quasineutral vacuum Maxwell equations (Darwin approximation). In this dissertation, the algorithm was first checked against ideal MM stability theory, and agreement was nicely demonstrated. However, such agreement is not a new contribution to the research field. Contributions to the research field include new treatments of the fields in vacuum regions of the pinch simulation. The new treatments predict a level of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence near the bulk plasma surface that is higher than predicted by other methods.

  4. Field simulation of axisymmetric plasma screw pinches by alternating-direction-implicit methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, Michael Allen [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1996-06-01

    An axisymmetric plasma screw pinch is an axisymmetric column of ionized gaseous plasma radially confined by forces from axial and azimuthal currents driven in the plasma and its surroundings. This dissertation is a contribution to detailed, high resolution computer simulation of dynamic plasma screw pinches in 2-d rz-coordinates. The simulation algorithm combines electron fluid and particle-in-cell (PIC) ion models to represent the plasma in a hybrid fashion. The plasma is assumed to be quasineutral; along with the Darwin approximation to the Maxwell equations, this implies application of Ampere`s law without displacement current. Electron inertia is assumed negligible so that advective terms in the electron momentum equation are ignored. Electrons and ions have separate scalar temperatures, and a scalar plasma electrical resistivity is assumed. Altemating-direction-implicit (ADI) methods are used to advance the electron fluid drift velocity and the magnetic fields in the simulation. The ADI methods allow time steps larger than allowed by explicit methods. Spatial regions where vacuum field equations have validity are determined by a cutoff density that invokes the quasineutral vacuum Maxwell equations (Darwin approximation). In this dissertation, the algorithm was first checked against ideal MM stability theory, and agreement was nicely demonstrated. However, such agreement is not a new contribution to the research field. Contributions to the research field include new treatments of the fields in vacuum regions of the pinch simulation. The new treatments predict a level of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence near the bulk plasma surface that is higher than predicted by other methods.

  5. Roughness measurement as an alternative method in evaluation of cavitation resistance of steels

    OpenAIRE

    Dojčinović Marina

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate possible application of roughness measurement in evaluation of resistance of steels in conditions of cavitation effect where these materials are usually applied. Steels which belong to different classes were selected for testing. Cavitation testing was performed by using the ultrasonic vibratory cavitation test set up (stationary specimen method). Mass loss and surface degradation of investigated samples were monitored during the exposure to ...

  6. Alternative methods of globotrioside production using Vero cells: a microcarrier system procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Miyagawa Atsushi; Kasuya Maria; Hatanaka Kenichi

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Glycolipids are one component of cell membranes, and are found most prevalently at the surface of the plasma membrane. Animal cells take in amphipathic glycosides, which are later glycosylated after assimilation in biosynthetic pathways. Gycosylated glycosides are released outside of cells to the surrounding culture medium. This represents an accessible method of obtaining complex glycosides. Results Vero cells are sensitive to Shiga toxins and are known to express the gly...

  7. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE ASYNCHRONOUS MULTISPLITTING RELAXATION METHODS FOR THE LINEAR COMPLEMENTARITY PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-zhi Bai

    2002-01-01

    We study the numerical behaviours of the relaxed asynchronous multisplitting methods for the linear complementarity problems by solving some typical problems from practical applications on a real multiprocessor system. Numerical results show that the parallel multisplitting relaxation methods always perform much better than the corresponding sequential alternatives, and that the asynchronous multisplitting relaxation methods often outperform their corresponding synchronous counterparts. Moreover, the two-sweep relaxed multisplitting methods have better convergence properties than their corresponding one-sweep relaxed ones in the sense that they have larger convergence domains and faster convergence speeds. Hence, the asynchronous multisplitting unsymmetric relaxation iterations should be the methods of choice for solving the large sparse linear complementarity problems in the parallel computing environments.

  8. Evaluating the osseointegration of nanostructured titanium implants in animal models: Current experimental methods and perspectives (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babuska, Vaclav; Moztarzadeh, Omid; Kubikova, Tereza; Moztarzadeh, Amin; Hrusak, Daniel; Tonar, Zbynek

    2016-09-15

    The aim of this paper is to review the experimental methods currently being used to evaluate the osseointegration of nanostructured titanium implants using animal models. The material modifications are linked to the biocompatibility of various types of oral implants, such as laser-treated, acid-etched, plasma-coated, and sand-blasted surface modifications. The types of implants are reviewed according to their implantation site (endoosseous, subperiosteal, and transosseous implants). The animal species and target bones used in experimental implantology are carefully compared in terms of the ratio of compact to spongy bone. The surgical technique in animal experiments is briefly described, and all phases of the histological evaluation of osseointegration are described in detail, including harvesting tissue samples, processing undemineralized ground sections, and qualitative and quantitative histological assessment of the bone-implant interface. The results of histological staining methods used in implantology are illustrated and compared. A standardized and reproducible technique for stereological quantification of bone-implant contact is proposed and demonstrated. In conclusion, histological evaluation of the experimental osseointegration of dental implants requires careful selection of the experimental animals, bones, and implantation sites. It is also advisable to use larger animal models and older animals with a slower growth rate rather than small or growing experimental animals. Bones with a similar ratio of compact to spongy bone, such as the human maxilla and mandible, are preferred. A number of practical recommendations for the experimental procedures, harvesting of samples, tissue processing, and quantitative histological evaluations are provided.

  9. Alternative method to determine the bulk etch rate of Lr-115 detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacios, D.; Sajo B, L.; Barros, H.; Greaves, E. D. [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Apdo. Postal 89000, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Palacios, F. [Universidad de Oriente, Santiago de Cuba (Cuba)

    2010-02-15

    The measurements using the Lr-115 solid-state nuclear track detector depend critically on the removed thickness of the active layer during etching. In this work, Lr-115 detectors exposed to alpha particles were etched under no stirring in a 2.5 N NaOH solution at a temperature of 60{+-}1 C and different etching times (from 0.5 to 2.5 hours). The thickness of the removed layer was determined by a variant of the gravimetric method, so that the bulk etch rate could be deduced from mass change measurements of detectors. The bulk etch rate was found to be 3.63 {+-} 0.09 {mu}m.h{sup -}1, which agrees with most of the reported values. Comparisons of our results with the obtained by the optical density method are in correspondence. We propose here a fast, simple, and nondestructive method to determine the active-layer thickness of the Lr-115 solid-state nuclear track detector with good accuracy for routine measurements. (Author)

  10. The Feasibility of Societal Cost Equivalence between Robotic Hysterectomy and Alternate Hysterectomy Methods for Endometrial Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neel T. Shah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We assess whether it is feasible for robotic hysterectomy for endometrial cancer to be less expensive to society than traditional laparoscopic hysterectomy or abdominal hysterectomy. Methods. We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of patient characteristics, operative times, complications, and hospital charges from all (=234 endometrial cancer patients who underwent hysterectomy in 2009 at our hospital. Per patient costs of each hysterectomy method were examined from the societal perspective. Sensitivity analysis and Monte Carlo simulation were performed using a cost-minimization model. Results. 40 (17.1% of hysterectomies for endometrial cancer were robotic, 91 (38.9%, were abdominal, and 103 (44.0% were laparoscopic. 96.3% of the variation in operative cost between patients was predicted by operative time (=0.963, <0.01. Mean operative time for robotic hysterectomy was significantly longer than other methods (<0.01. Abdominal hysterectomy was consistently the most expensive while the traditional laparoscopic approach was consistently least expensive. The threshold in operative time that makes robotic hysterectomy cost equivalent to the abdominal approach is within the range of our experience. Conclusion. It is feasible for robotic hysterectomy to be less expensive than abdominal hysterectomy, but unlikely for robotic hysterectomy to be less expensive than traditional laparoscopy.

  11. Potential contribution of fish restocking to the recovery of deteriorated coral reefs: an alternative restoration method?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uri Obolski

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Counteracting the worldwide trend of coral reef degeneration is a major challenge for the scientific community. A crucial management approach to minimizing stress effects on healthy reefs and helping the recovery of disturbed reefs is reef protection. However, the current rapid decline of the world’s reefs suggests that protection might be insufficient as a viable stand-alone management approach for some reefs. We thus suggest that the ecological restoration of coral reefs (CRR should be considered as a valid component of coral reef management, in addition to protection, if the applied method is economically applicable and scalable. This theoretical study examines the potential applicability and outcomes of restocking grazers as a restoration tool for coral reef recovery—a tool that has not been applied so far in reef restoration projects. We studied the effect of restocking grazing fish as a restoration method using a mathematical model of degrading reefs, and analyzed the financial outcomes of the restocking intervention. The results suggest that applying this restoration method, in addition to protection, can facilitate reef recovery. Moreover, our analysis suggests that the restocking approach almost always becomes profitable within several years. Considering the relatively low cost of this restoration approach and the feasibility of mass production of herbivorous fish, we suggest that this approach should be considered and examined as an additional viable restoration tool for coral reefs.

  12. Highly Efficient Design-of-Experiments Methods for Combining CFD Analysis and Experimental Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Bernhard H.; Haller, Harold S.

    2009-01-01

    It is the purpose of this study to examine the impact of "highly efficient" Design-of-Experiments (DOE) methods for combining sets of CFD generated analysis data with smaller sets of Experimental test data in order to accurately predict performance results where experimental test data were not obtained. The study examines the impact of micro-ramp flow control on the shock wave boundary layer (SWBL) interaction where a complete paired set of data exist from both CFD analysis and Experimental measurements By combining the complete set of CFD analysis data composed of fifteen (15) cases with a smaller subset of experimental test data containing four/five (4/5) cases, compound data sets (CFD/EXP) were generated which allows the prediction of the complete set of Experimental results No statistical difference were found to exist between the combined (CFD/EXP) generated data sets and the complete Experimental data set composed of fifteen (15) cases. The same optimal micro-ramp configuration was obtained using the (CFD/EXP) generated data as obtained with the complete set of Experimental data, and the DOE response surfaces generated by the two data sets were also not statistically different.

  13. Innovation and presentation of RALSPI model: a new method for evaluating alternatives and assessment of development level of settlements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Taghvaei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extended Abstract1- IntroductionIn this paper, Ranking Alternatives by Limiting Substitution Possibilities of Indicators (RALSPI method is proposed as a Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM method. Many MCDM methods have been developed over the years, but little is known about their shortcomings on similar problems. This study explores the main faults of some of the classical MCDM methods including SAW, TOPSIS, AHP, LINMAP, Numerical Taxonomy and Morris. The rationale for such selection has been that most of these are among the most popular and widely used methods in regional studies of classifying the development level of settlements, and each method reflects a different approach to solve MCDM problems. The RALSPI method resolves significant shortcomings of these methods.2- Theoretical basesThe typical MCDM problem is concerned with the task of ranking a finite number of decision alternatives, each of which is explicitly described in terms of different characteristics (also often called attributes, decision criteria, or objectives which have to be taken into account simultaneously. MCDM plays a critical role in many real-life problems; it is hard to accept an MCDM method as being accurate all the time (Wang and Triantaphyllou, 2008. Several methods have been proposed for solving MCDM problems. The major criticism of MCDM methods is that different techniques may yield different results when applied to the same problem, apparently under the same assumptions and by a single DM (Zanakis et al., 1998. Voogd (1983 found that, at least 40% of the time, each technique produced a different result from any other technique. Practitioners seem to prefer simple and transparent methods (Hobbs et al., 1992. According to Hobbs et al. (1992 a good experiment should satisfy the following conditions:Compare methods that are widely used, represent divergent philosophies of decision making or claimed to represent important methodological improvements.Address the

  14. ALTERNATIVE METHODS TO MULTIPLE CORRESPONDENCE ANALYSIS IN RECONSTRUCTING THE RELEVANT INFORMATION IN A BURT'S TABLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Camiz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this work, the reconstruction of the Burt's table, Greenacre (1988's Joint Correspondence Analysis (JCA, and Gower & Hand (1996's Extended Matching Coefficient (EMC are compared to Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA in order to check the quality of the methods. In particular, for the whole table, the ability is considered separately the diagonal, and the off-diagonal tables, that is the ability to describe either each character's distribution or the interaction between pairs of characters, or both. The theoretical aspects are discussed first, and finally the results obtained in an application are shown and discussed.

  15. Alternative Method for Determining the Feynman Propagator of a Non-Relativistic Quantum Mechanical Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Moshinsky

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A direct procedure for determining the propagator associated with a quantum mechanical problem was given by the Path Integration Procedure of Feynman. The Green function, which is the Fourier Transform with respect to the time variable of the propagator, can be derived later. In our approach, with the help of a Laplace transform, a direct way to get the energy dependent Green function is presented, and the propagator can be obtained later with an inverse Laplace transform. The method is illustrated through simple one dimensional examples and for time independent potentials, though it can be generalized to the derivation of more complicated propagators.

  16. An alternative method to achieve one-lung ventilation by surgical pneumothorax in difficult lung isolation patient: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Pin-Hung; Hsu, Po-Kai

    2016-04-01

    It is challenging to establish one-lung ventilation in difficult airway patients. Surgical pneumothorax under spontaneous breathing to obtain well-collapsed lung is a feasible method for thoracic surgery. A 76-year-old man with right empyema was scheduled for decortication. The patient had limited mouth opening due to facial cellulitis extending from the left cheek to neck. Generally, lung isolation is achieved by double-lumen endotracheal tube or bronchial blocker. Double-lumen tube insertion is difficult for patients with limited mouth opening and right-side placement of bronchial blocker usually causes insufficient deflation. We introduce an alternative lung isolation technique by surgical pneumothorax under spontaneous breathing simply with an endotracheal tube placement. This technique has never been applied into the management of difficult one-lung ventilation. By this method, we provide an ideal surgical condition with safer, less time-consuming, and less skill-demanding anesthesia. It would be an alternative choice for management of one-lung ventilation in the difficult lung isolation patient.

  17. An alternative method of chronic cerebrospinal fluid collection via the cisterna magna in conscious rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilberto, David B; Zeoli, Angela H; Szczerba, Peter J; Gehret, John R; Holahan, Marie A; Sitko, Gary R; Johnson, Colena A; Cook, Jacquelynn J; Motzel, Sherri L

    2003-07-01

    Models of chronic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collection previously have been established for nonhuman primates and canines; many of these methods implement stainless-steel cannulas into the lateral or 4th ventricles or catheters into the cerebral or spinal subarachnoid space. These models have proved successful and reliable but unfortunately require invasive techniques to pass through the skull or require a laminectomy to enter the spinal subarachnoid space, involve the use of expensive and highly specialized stereotaxic equipment for the precise placement of the implants, and may require exteriorized hardware which is cumbersome to maintain and unaesthetic. The model we developed for the rhesus monkey allows for direct access to CSF outflow from the cisterna magna by using a 3.5-French fenestrated silicone catheter which was placed 1.0 cm into the cisterna. The catheter was attached to a titanium port placed subcutaneously between the scapulae to permit easy access for sampling CSF in a conscious, chaired rhesus monkey. We currently have instrumented animals from which we have consistently collected CSF for over 18 months. This novel, economical, less-invasive method permits chronic, reliable collection of CSF in conscious rhesus monkeys and has the additional advantages that the model is easier to maintain and more aesthetic.

  18. An alternative treatment method for fluorosurfactant-containing wastewater by aerosol-mediated separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersbach, Ina; Ludwig, Svenja M; Constapel, Marc; Kling, Hans-Willi

    2016-09-15

    The treatment of fluorosurfactant-containing wastewater is still challenging nowadays. Here, a method is presented to remove fluorosurfactants from water, amongst others from electroplating wastewater. This elimination technique is based on the generation of gas bubbles in solution, enrichment and scavenging of fluorosurfactants by transport of the gas bubbles to the water surface. Finally the bubbles collapse and release an aerosol which is enriched with fluorosurfactants. By sampling of the released aerosols a mass balance was established for 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonic acid (6:2 FTSA). Thereby 99.8% of the initial amount was revocered in the collected aerosols. Fluorosurfactant concentration in solution decreased exponentially with half-lives ranging from 2 to 6 min for 6:2 FTSA as well as perfluorooctane carboxylate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). Elimination rate in defined matrix (0.2 M H2SO4) within 60 min was 99.6, 99.9 and 99.8% for 6:2 FTSA, PFOA and PFOS, respectively. The removal rate of 6:2 FTSA increased in solutions with higher ionic strength. Different wastewater from an electroplating industry containing 6:2 FTSA was treated with the described method without any sample pre-treatment and elimination of 6:2 FTSA took place with the same effectiveness as in synthetic matrices.

  19. Alternative method to treat oroantral communication and fistula with autogenous bone graft and platelet rich firbin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedzielska, Iwona; Borgiel-Marek, Halina; Różanowski, Bartosz

    2016-01-01

    Background Removing a tooth from the jaw results in the occurrence of oroantral communication in beneficial anatomic conditions or in the case of a iatrogenic effect. Popularized treatments of the oroantral communication have numerous faults. Large bone defect eliminates the chance to introduce an implant. Purpose of this work was assessment of the usefulness of autogenous bone graft and PRF in normal bone regeneration in the site of oroantral communication. Material and Methods Bone regeneration in the site of oroantral communication was assessed in 20 patients. Bone defects were supplemented autogenous bone graft from mental protuberance in 14 cases and from oblique line in 6 cases. The graft was covered with a PRF membrane. Results In the study group in all cases closure of the oroantral communication was observed. The average width of the alveolar was 13 mm and the average height was 12.5 mm. In 3 patients an average increase of alveolar height of 1.5 mm was observed. Conclusions This method may be the best option to prepare alveolar for new implant and prosthetic solutions. Key words:Oroantral communication, oroantral fistula, autogenous bone graft, bone regeneration, platelet rich fibrin. PMID:27475687

  20. Alternative method for estimating the cross-sectional interpolation errors of discharge measurements using the velocity-area method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despax, Aurélien; Perret, Christian; Garçon, Rémy; Hauet, Alexandre; Belleville, Arnaud; Le Coz, Jérôme; Favre, Anne-Catherine

    2016-04-01

    Quantifying the quality of discharge measurements by uncertainty analysis is a challenge in the hydrometric community. Discharge measurements are the first step to produce hydrometric data which are used in many hydrological studies like design of hydraulic structures or calibration of hydrological models for flood forecasting and warning. Thus associated uncertainty has to be estimated carefully. The velocity-area method is a common approach for estimating river discharge. It consists in integrating depths and point velocities through the cross-section. Due to the limited number of point measurements, the quality of the measurement depends mainly on the sampling strategy. Different methods of uncertainty estimation are available in the literature (ISO 748, Q+ and IVE). The main uncertainty component, noted um, is often related to the cross-sectional interpolation errors. However the computation of this term according to these approaches does not evaluate both the sampling strategy and the complexity of the cross-section. The FLAURE method (FLow Analog UnceRtainty Estimation) includes a new methodology to estimate this term. It is based on the study of high-resolution stream-gaugings (i.e. reference stream-gaugings made with a high number of verticals). The high-resolution measurements are first subsampled by reducing the number of verticals to generate a sample of realistic stream-gaugings. A statistical analysis is performed to estimate the um component and then a sampling quality index is defined. For each reference stream-gauging, it leads to a curve of um component as a function of the sampling quality index. This set of curves is finally used to compute the um component of any routine stream-gauging. Curves are then selected according to the similitude between the routine stream-gauging and reference stream-gaugings. The similitude between the routine stream-gauging and reference stream-gaugings is evaluated thanks to the Nash criteria computed on lateral

  1. Advanced Life Analysis Methods. Volume 3. Experimental Evaluation of Crack Growth Analysis Methods for Attachment Lugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-17

    Structural Lugs 10 6.00 TETM TESX, MARI LOCKHEED L𔃼.0 GRUP IIhA AND 2Rii * 2~~~~.0 .RUPINI .01 .05 1 .2 .5. 9 99PROABLTY F*ý,r 1-40 4oprsno R ato nTs rga...monitor loads and perform failsafe functions . A sinewave function generator provides load commands to the servo loop and a calibrated amplitude measurement...Simple Compounding Solution o 2-D Cracked Finite Element Procedure o Green’s Function Method 0 3-D Cracked Finite Element PrTocedure Parameters and

  2. High fidelity studies of exploding foil initiator bridges, Part 1: Experimental method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Mike; Neal, William

    2017-01-01

    Simulations of high voltage detonators, such as Exploding Bridgewire (EBW) and Exploding Foil Initiators (EFI), have historically been simple, often empirical, one-dimensional models capable of predicting parameters such as current, voltage and in the case of EFIs, flyer velocity. Correspondingly, experimental methods have in general been limited to the same parameters. With the advent of complex, first principles magnetohydrodynamic codes such as ALEGRA and ALE-MHD, it is now possible to simulate these components in three dimensions, predicting a much greater range of parameters than before. A significant improvement in experimental capability was therefore required to ensure these simulations could be adequately validated. In this first paper of a three part study, the experimental method for determining the current, voltage, flyer velocity and multi-dimensional profile of detonator components is presented. This improved capability, along with high fidelity simulations, offer an opportunity to gain a greater understanding of the processes behind the functioning of EBW and EFI detonators.

  3. Recent mouse and rat methods for the study of experimental oral candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Anna C B P; Pereira, Cristiane A; Junqueira, Juliana C; Jorge, Antonio O C

    2013-07-01

    The Candida genus expresses virulence factors that, when combined with immunosuppression and other risk factors, can cause different manifestations of oral candidiasis. The treatment of mucosal infections caused by Candida and the elucidation of the disease process have proven challenging. Therefore, the study of experimentally induced oral candidiasis in rats and mice is useful to clarify the etiopathology of this condition, improve diagnosis, and search for new therapeutic options because the disease process in these animals is similar to that of human candidiasis lesions. Here, we describe and discuss new studies involving rat and mouse models of oral candidiasis with respect to methods for inducing experimental infection, methods for evaluating the development of experimental candidiasis, and new treatment strategies for oral candidiasis.

  4. An improved mixed numerical-experimental method for stress field calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, H. M. R.; Guedes, R. M.; Vaz, M. A.

    2007-07-01

    In this work a numerical-experimental method is used to study the dynamic behavior of an aluminum plate subjected to a small mass impact. The out-of-plane displacements, due to transient bending wave propagation, were assessed for successive time instants, using double pulse TV-holography, also known as pulsed ESPI. The experimental setup and the image processing methods were improved to allow the calculation of the plate transient stress field. Integral transforms are used to obtain the strain fields from spatial derivatives of displacements noisy data. A numerical simulation of the plate transient response was carried out with FEM Ansys ®. For this purpose a PZT transducer was used to record the impact force history, which was inputted in the numerical model. Finally, the comparisons between numerical and experimental results are presented in order to validate the present methodology.

  5. Experimental study on the compressive strength of grouted concrete block masonry based on nondestructive detection methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Hong-bin; LI Long-fei

    2009-01-01

    Existing nondestructive detection methods were adopted to test the compressive strength of grouted concrete block masonry, i.e. the rebound method, pulling-out method and core drilling method were employed to test the strength of block, mortar and grouted concrete, respectively. The suitability of these methods for the testing of strength of grouted concrete block masonry was discussed, and the comprehensive strength of block masonry was appraised by combining existing nondestructive or micro-destructive detection methods. The nondestructive detection test on 25 grouted concrete block masonry specimens was carried out. Experimental results show that these methods mentioned above are applicable for the strength detection of grouted concrete block masonry. Moreover, the formulas of compressive strength, detection methods and proposals are given as well.

  6. Mechanical Color Reading of Wood-Staining Fungal Pigment Textile Dyes: An Alternative Method for Determining Colorfastness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M. Hinsch

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Colorfastness to washing and crocking (color loss due to rubbing are essential qualities for any dye/fabric combination that will be used for garments or upholstery. In this study, colorfastness to washing and crocking of fabrics dyed with wood-staining fungal pigments was compared to colorfastness of commercial dyes using an alternative mechanical testing method. Overall, wood-staining fungal pigments out performed commercial dyes for colorfastness to washing and wet and dry crocking. Xylindein was the most colorfast dye. Draconin red yielded inconsistent results, and the yellow pigment required a mordant to achieve any colorfastness. This study showed that the mechanical color reading method, along with statistical analysis, provided an objective, repeatable gauge of colorfastness, although visual inspection is also needed for practical purposes.

  7. Pilot study on using an alternative method of estimating emission of heavy metals from wood combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszowski, Tomasz; Bożym, Marta

    2014-09-01

    This thesis presents pilot studies concerning the assessment of the possibility of using organic materials of vegetative origin as indices of heavy metals emissions (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) from domestic wood-fired fireplaces. Mosses of the Pleurozium schreberi species as well as cellulose and cotton wool were used during the study as the potential indices for the elements emission. It was proved that mosses are more reliable as indices of metals emissions than cellulose or cotton wool. It was found that the quantity of Ni accumulated in the moss tissue is comparable with the concentration of this compound in the dust assessed with the reference method. A correlation between the Ni, Cr, Zn and Pb concentrations defined in the mosses and dust filter was found. It was proved that mosses as adsorbers, more clearly than in the case of cellulose and cotton, react to the change of the size of the particulates emitted.

  8. A possible alternative method for collecting mosquito larvae in rice fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goff Gilbert

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rice fields are efficient breeding places for malaria vectors in Madagascar. In order to establish as easily as possible if a rice field is an effective larval site for anophelines, we compared classical dipping versus a net as methods of collecting larvae. Results Using similar collecting procedures, we found that the total number of anopheline larvae collected with the net was exactly double (174/87 that collected by dipping. The number of anopheline species collected was also greater with a net. Conclusions The net is an effective means of collecting anopheline larvae and can be used for qualitative ecological studies and to rapidly determine which rice fields are containing malaria vectors.

  9. Methods for estimation of daily and lactation milk yields from alternative milk recording scheme in Holstein and Simmental cattle breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krešimir Kuterovac

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare different statistical methods for the estimation of daily and 305-day lactation milk, fat and protein yields of Holstein and Simmental cattle breeds using an alternative milk recording scheme. Data included 6,824 individual test-day milk yield records collected according to the A4 milk recording method on 668 cows reared on 15 family farms. Daily milk, fat and protein yields were estimated using several statistical methods with regard to breed. The 305-day lactation yields were calculated from estimated daily yields using the Test Interval Method. The correlation between estimated and true yields, as well as the mean difference among estimated and true yield were used as the evaluation criteria for estimation methods. The linear regression of daily to partial milk, fat and protein yields while taking into account the interval between successive milkings was shown to be the most accurate model for estimating daily values, either from morning or evening records. The simple doubling of morning or evening records overestimated and underestimated the daily yields, respectively. When 305-day lactation milk, fat and protein yields were compared no difference between evaluated methods were found. Also, a separate estimation of daily and 305-day lactation yields according to breeds did not result in increased estimation accuracy.

  10. Pore Network Modeling: Alternative Methods to Account for Trapping and Spatial Correlation

    KAUST Repository

    De La Garza Martinez, Pablo

    2016-05-01

    Pore network models have served as a predictive tool for soil and rock properties with a broad range of applications, particularly in oil recovery, geothermal energy from underground reservoirs, and pollutant transport in soils and aquifers [39]. They rely on the representation of the void space within porous materials as a network of interconnected pores with idealised geometries. Typically, a two-phase flow simulation of a drainage (or imbibition) process is employed, and by averaging the physical properties at the pore scale, macroscopic parameters such as capillary pressure and relative permeability can be estimated. One of the most demanding tasks in these models is to include the possibility of fluids to remain trapped inside the pore space. In this work I proposed a trapping rule which uses the information of neighboring pores instead of a search algorithm. This approximation reduces the simulation time significantly and does not perturb the accuracy of results. Additionally, I included spatial correlation to generate the pore sizes using a matrix decomposition method. Results show higher relative permeabilities and smaller values for irreducible saturation, which emphasizes the effects of ignoring the intrinsic correlation seen in pore sizes from actual porous media. Finally, I implemented the algorithm from Raoof et al. (2010) [38] to generate the topology of a Fontainebleau sandstone by solving an optimization problem using the steepest descent algorithm with a stochastic approximation for the gradient. A drainage simulation is performed on this representative network and relative permeability is compared with published results. The limitations of this algorithm are discussed and other methods are suggested to create a more faithful representation of the pore space.

  11. Validation of Experimental whole-body SAR Assessment Method in a Complex Indoor Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bamba, Aliou; Joseph, Wout; Vermeeren, Gunter

    2012-01-01

    simulations with the Finite-Difference Time-Domain method. Furthermore, the method accounts for the diffuse multipath components (DMC) in the total absorption rate by considering the reverberation time of the investigated room, which describes all the losses in a complex indoor environment. The advantage......Assessing experimentally the whole-body specific absorption rate (SARwb) in a complex indoor environment is very challenging. An experimental method based on room electromagnetics theory (accounting only the Line-Of-Sight as specular path) to assess the whole-body SAR is validated by numerical...... of the proposed method is that it allows discarding the computation burden because it does not use any discretizations. Results show good agreement between measurement and computation at 2.8 GHz, as long as the plane wave assumption is valid, i.e., for high distances from the transmitter. Relative deviations 0...

  12. Student's perception and experience of computer assisted learning as a teaching method in experimental pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Tikoo

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: The study demonstrates the effectiveness of CAL in teaching experimental pharmacology concepts and the students felt that this method helped them in a better understanding of the topic as the effects were clearly visualized on the screen and that such simulations need to be a part of the standard curriculum. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(6.000: 1168-1174

  13. A Statistical Comparison Method of the Differences among Single Points for Linear Dynamic Experimental Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The experimental random error and desired valuse of non-observed points in dynamic indexes were estimated by establishing the linear regression equations about variety regulations of dynamic indexes. The methods for difference significant test among different treatments using dynamic point as indexes were presented without setting the replication on each dynamic point observed.

  14. Methods of computer processing of experimental data on the intensity of bunches in synchrotrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhabitsky, V. M.

    2016-12-01

    Methods of computer processing of experimental data on the intensity of bunches in synchrotrons for the purpose of receiving functional dependences from time during the accelerating cycle for a number of circulating particles and the mean-square length of a bunch are discussed. Examples of such dependences for the beam at the nuclotron (JINR) and PSB (CERN) are presented.

  15. TRANSPLANTATION OF HEPATOCYTES AS THE METHOD OF TREATMENT OF LIVER FAILURE: EXPERIMENTAL AND CLINICAL EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Shagidulin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available For correction and treatment of liver failure before liver transplantation were proposed severe methods such as: extracorporal devices, transplantation of hepatocytes and implanted tissue-engineering units. The function of healthy hepatocytes presumes to stabilize the state of patients with chronic liver diseases and to wait a donor organ transplantation. In this review the results of experimental and clinical therapy of liver diseases by method of hepatocyte transplantation were summarized. 

  16. Regulatory Acceptance of Alternative Methods in the Development and Approval of Pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beken, Sonja; Kasper, Peter; van der Laan, Jan-Willem

    Animal studies may be carried out to support first administration of a new medicinal product to either humans or the target animal species, or before performing clinical trials in even larger populations, or before marketing authorisation, or to control quality during production. Ethical and animal welfare considerations require that animal use is limited as much as possible. Directive 2010/63/EU on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes unambiguously fosters the application of the principle of the 3Rs when considering the choice of methods to be used.As such, today, the 3Rs are embedded in the relevant regulatory guidance both at the European (European Medicines Agency (EMA)) and (Veterinary) International Conference on Harmonization ((V)ICH) levels. With respect to non-clinical testing requirements for human medicinal products, reduction and replacement of animal testing has been achieved by the regulatory acceptance of new in vitro methods, either as pivotal, supportive or exploratory mechanistic studies. Whilst replacement of animal studies remains the ultimate goal, approaches aimed at reducing or refining animal studies have also been routinely implemented in regulatory guidelines, where applicable. The chapter provides an overview of the implementation of 3Rs in the drafting of non-clinical testing guidelines for human medicinal products at the level of the ICH. In addition, the revision of the ICH S2 guideline on genotoxicity testing and data interpretation for pharmaceuticals intended for human use is discussed as a case study.In October 2010, the EMA established a Joint ad hoc Expert Group (JEG 3Rs) with the mandate to improve and foster the application of 3Rs principles to the regulatory testing of medicinal products throughout their lifecycle. As such, a Guideline on regulatory acceptance of 3R testing approaches was drafted that defines regulatory acceptance and provides guidance on the scientific and technical criteria for regulatory

  17. Dirichlet Casimir Energy for a Scalar Field in a Sphere: An Alternative Method

    CERN Document Server

    Valuyan, M A

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we compute the leading order of the Casimir energy for a free massless scalar field confined in a sphere in three spatial dimensions, with the Dirichlet boundary condition. When one tabulates all of the reported values of the Casimir energies for two closed geometries, cubical and spherical, in different space-time dimensions and with different boundary conditions, one observes a complicated pattern of signs. This pattern shows that the Casimir energy depends crucially on the details of the geometry, the number of the spatial dimensions, and the boundary conditions. The dependence of the \\emph{sign} of the Casimir energy on the details of the geometry, for a fixed spatial dimensions and boundary conditions has been a surprise to us and this is our main motivation for doing the calculations presented in this paper. Moreover, all of the calculations for spherical geometries include the use of numerical methods combined with intricate analytic continuations to handle many different sorts of diverge...

  18. Determination of Antioxidant Activity and Toxicity of Sambucus nigra Fruit Extract Using Alternative Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Doroftei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to measure the in vitro antioxidant activity of elderberry (Sambucus nigra fruit extract and to study its toxicity in a plant model system with regard to its possible application in food and agricultural industry. The antioxidant capacity of Sambucus nigra fruit powder was quantified by a photochemiluminescence method. The study of phytotoxicity of aqueous solutions of powder extract was performed using Allium cepa as a test organism. Photochemiluminescence determinations showed a very high antioxidant capacity of the product but also revealed its cytotoxic effect, along with mitodepressive activity and even inhibiton of mitosis at the preprophase stage when the fruit extract was used at higher concentrations. Aqueous solutions of the fruit powder have a reasonably expressed mutagenic activity in vivo on the radicles of Allium cepa, especially when they are used at a concentration of 1 g/dL for a prolonged time (48 h. At lower concentrations (0.1 g/dL, however, the mutagenic effect was not observed any more. The conclusion of our study is that Sambucus nigra fruit extract powder has a very high in vitro antioxidant activity and no mutagenic effects at low concentrations, which makes it recommendable for applications in the food industry.

  19. A Homemade Snare: An Alternative Method for Mechanical Removal of Dirofilaria immitis in Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Margarida Alho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Canine dirofilariosis is a life-threatening parasitic disease that is increasingly reported worldwide. Once diagnosed the main treatment goals are to improve the animal’s clinical condition and to eliminate all life stages of the parasite with minimal posttreatment side effects. This can be achieved through mechanical, surgical, or chemotherapeutical approaches. Currently, manual extraction is the preferred method to remove adult heartworms due to its diminished invasiveness, reduced damage to the vascular endothelium, and shortened anaesthesia duration. However, it remains an expensive technique that can be highly traumatic. To address this issue, a nontraumatic homemade catheter-guided snare was developed for heartworm removal by adapting and folding a 0.014-inch coronary wire (BMW, Abbott Vascular. Transvenous heartworm extraction was performed on a dog severely infected with adult heartworms by inserting the modified snare into a 6-F Judkins right coronary guiding catheter BMW (Cordis and advancing it into the right ventricle under fluoroscopic guidance. Fifteen adult specimens of Dirofilaria immitis were successfully extracted from the pulmonary artery and right ventricle without complications. To assure the death of both larvae and adults, postoperative treatment was successfully managed using ivermectin, doxycycline, and melarsomine, with no recurrence after surgery.

  20. Stripping Chronopotentiometry: An Alternative Method for the Determination of Gold in Geological Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nipaporn MEEPUN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A stripping chronopotentiometric method was developed for reliable determination of gold in geological samples. Gold in gold ore and steam sediment samples was determined by constant current film stripping chronopotentiometry at a bare glassy carbon working electrode. The following optimum conditions were obtained: 0.5 M hydrochloric acid as a supporting electrolyte, an electrolysis potential of –0.6 V vs. saturated calomel electrode (SCE, an electrolysis time of 2 min and a constant oxidative current of +4 μA. A linear concentration range was obtained from 1.0 to 20 mg/l. The detection limit was 0.27 mg/l (n = 10 and the relative a standard deviations of 1.0 mg/l Au(III was 2.8 % (n = 10. In order to check the analytical accuracy, standard solution was spiked in a sample and the recoveries were found at 100.1 to 105.8 %. The results revealed that the quantity of gold in gold ore and sediment were 0.6 to 3.3 % and 0.9 to 1.2 %, respectively.