WorldWideScience

Sample records for alternative energy systems

  1. Alternative Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, M.; Duckers, L.; Lockett, P.; Loughridge, B.; Peatfield, T.; White, P.

    1984-01-01

    The Coventry (Lanchester) Polytechnic Wave Energy Group has been involved in the United Kingdom wave energy research programme since its inception in 1975. Whilst the work of the group is mainly concerned with wave energy, and currently is directed towards the design of a wave energy device tailored to the needs of isolated/island communities, it has some involvement with other aspects of the alternatives. This conference, dealing with alternative energy systems and their electrical integration and utilisation was engendered by the general interest which the Polytechnic group members have in the alternatives and their use. The scope for electrical integration and utilisation is very broad. Energy for family groups may be provided in a relatively unsophisticated way which is acceptable to them. Small population centres, for example island communities relying upon diesel equipment, can reap the benefits of the alternatives through their ability to accept novel integration schemes and a flexible approach to the use of the energy available. Consumers already enjoying the benefits of a 'firm' electricity grid supply can use energy from a variety of alternative systems, via the grid, without having to modify their energy consumption habits. In addition to the domestic and industrial applications and coastal possibilities, specialist applications in isolated environments have also emerged. The Proceedings detail practical, technical and economic aspects of the alternatives and their electrical integration and utilisation.

  2. Alternative kinetic energy metrics for Lagrangian systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarlet, W.; Prince, G.

    2010-11-01

    We examine Lagrangian systems on \\ {R}^n with standard kinetic energy terms for the possibility of additional, alternative Lagrangians with kinetic energy metrics different to the Euclidean one. Using the techniques of the inverse problem in the calculus of variations we find necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of such Lagrangians. We illustrate the problem in two and three dimensions with quadratic and cubic potentials. As an aside we show that the well-known anomalous Lagrangians for the Coulomb problem can be removed by switching on a magnetic field, providing an appealing resolution of the ambiguous quantizations of the hydrogen atom.

  3. Modular Energy Storage System for Alternative Energy Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Janice [Magna Electronics Inc., Auburn Hills, MI (United States); Ervin, Frank [Magna Electronics Inc., Auburn Hills, MI (United States)

    2012-05-15

    An electrical vehicle environment was established to promote research and technology development in the area of high power energy management. The project incorporates a topology that permits parallel development of an alternative energy delivery system and an energy storage system. The objective of the project is to develop technologies, specifically power electronics, energy storage electronics and controls that provide efficient and effective energy management between electrically powered devices in alternative energy vehicles plugin electric vehicles, hybrid vehicles, range extended vehicles, and hydrogen-based fuel cell vehicles. In order to meet the project objectives, the Vehicle Energy Management System (VEMS) was defined and subsystem requirements were obtained. Afterwards, power electronics, energy storage electronics and controls were designed. Finally, these subsystems were built, tested individually, and integrated into an electric vehicle system to evaluate and optimize the subsystems performance. Phase 1 of the program established the fundamental test bed to support development of an electrical environment ideal for fuel cell application and the mitigation of many shortcomings of current fuel cell technology. Phase 2, continued development from Phase 1, focusing on implementing subsystem requirements, design and construction of the energy management subsystem, and the integration of this subsystem into the surrogate electric vehicle. Phase 2 also required the development of an Alternative Energy System (AES) capable of emulating electrical characteristics of fuel cells, battery, gen set, etc. Under the scope of the project, a boost converter that couples the alternate energy delivery system to the energy storage system was developed, constructed and tested. Modeling tools were utilized during the design process to optimize both component and system design. This model driven design process enabled an iterative process to track and evaluate the impact

  4. Alternative energy sources or integrated alternative energy systems? Oil as a modern lance of Peleus for the energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szklo, Alexandre; Schaeffer, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    In this viewpoint, we discuss the importance of consorting alternative energy sources with oil, and not of opposing them. That is why we introduce the concept of alternative energy systems, which we feel is broader-ranging and more effective than alternative energy sources, as this deals with the actual transformation process of the global energy system. Alternative energy systems integrate oil with other energy sources and pave the way for new systems, which will benefit from what we call the 'virtues of oil'. They produce energy carriers for multi-fuel and multi-product strategies, where flexibility is a key target, allied to other co-benefits, especially those related to the increased use of renewable energy sources. The concept of alternative energy systems can bring a new light to the oil transition era discussion and might also influence energy policies for promoting renewables

  5. Energy alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweet, C.

    1987-01-01

    The designated successor to fossil fuels is nuclear fission/fusion and that turns out to be problematic. Alternative Energy Systems have great potential but political forces seem to be hampering their development and introduction. The technologies are flexible in their use and scale of operation. The learning curve will not be short but neither will it be as long and as costly as nuclear power. It is time that this is recognised and some serious rethinking takes place in what presently passes for energy policies both in the industrialised countries and in the Third World. Alternative energy systems are defined and some of them which are relevant to the United Kingdom are discussed. (author)

  6. Energy alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    English. A special committe of the Canadian House of Commons was established on 23 May 1980 to investigate the use of alternative energy sources such as 'gasohol', liquified coal, solar energy, methanol, wind and tidal power, biomass, and propane. In its final report, the committee envisions an energy system for Canada based on hydrogen and electricity, using solar and geothermal energy for low-grade heat. The committe was not able to say which method of generating electricty would dominate in the next century, although it recommends that fossil fuels should not be used. The fission process is not specifically discussed, but the outlook for fusion was investigated, and continued governmental support of fusion research is recommended. The report proposes some improvements in governmental energy organizations and programs

  7. Alternative Energetics DC Microgrid With Hydrogen Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaļeskis Genadijs

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is related to an alternative energetics microgrid with a wind generator and a hydrogen energy storage system. The main aim of this research is the development of solutions for effective use of the wind generators in alternative energetics devices, at the same time providing uninterrupted power supply of the critical loads. In this research, it was accepted that the alternative energetics microgrid operates in an autonomous mode and the connection to the conventional power grid is not used. In the case when wind speed is low, the necessary power is provided by the energy storage system, which includes a fuel cell and a tank with stored hydrogen. The theoretical analysis of the storage system operation is made. The possible usage time of the stored hydrogen depends on the available amount of hydrogen and the consumption of the hydrogen by the fuel cell. The consumption, in turn, depends on used fuel cell power. The experimental results suggest that if the wind generator can provide only a part of the needed power, the abiding power can be provided by the fuel cell. In this case, a load filter is necessary to decrease the fuel cell current pulsations.

  8. Integrated alternative energy systems for use in small communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, J.

    1982-01-01

    This paper summarizes the principles and conceptual design of an integrated alternative energy system for use in typical farming communities in developing countries. A system is described that, utilizing the Sun and methane produced from crop waste, would supply sufficient electric and thermal energy to meet the basic needs of villagers for water pumping, lighting, and cooking. The system is sized to supply enough pumping capacity to irrigate 101 ha (249 acres) sufficiently to optimize annual crop yields for the community. Three economic scenarios were developed, showing net benefits to the community of $3,578 to $15,547 anually, payback periods of 9.5 to 20 years, and benefit-to-cost ratios of 1.1 to 1.9.

  9. Energy conversion alternatives study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shure, L. T.

    1979-01-01

    Comparison of coal based energy systems is given. Study identifies and compares various advanced energy conversion systems using coal or coal derived fuels for baselaoad electric power generation. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS) reports provede government, industry, and general public with technically consistent basis for comparison of system's options of interest for fossilfired electric-utility application.

  10. Alternative energy supply system to a rural village in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tucho, Gudina; Nonhebel, Sanderine

    2017-01-01

    Background Most households in rural developing countries do not have access to modern energy supply. Household level biogas energy was considered as an option but failed due to lack of sufficient resources for its installation and operation. A community energy system can be an option, but most

  11. Alternative energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asencio, Michel

    2006-01-01

    In a first part, the author proposes an overview of technological developments in the field of power production. He outlines that technological advances may increase assessments of oil and gas reserves but that the associated costs might be too high to keep on exploiting these resources. The problem is almost the same for coal for which the associated costs concern the reduction of pollution and the sequestration and storage of carbon emissions. Nuclear energy avoids this issue of emissions and researches aim at the development of fusion reactors (ITER project) which still are an economic challenge because of their much higher cost in comparison with fission reactors. The author comments the development of renewable energies which however will not be able to replace thermal and nuclear production to face the constant increase of energy consumption. In the second part, the author evokes the various advances in energy production for transports: fuel cells, energy storage, hydrogen storage, and emergence of a hydrogen economy. He finally evokes applications to military propulsions (ground vehicles, marine propulsion, and aircraft propulsion)

  12. Energy alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Antola, R.

    2010-01-01

    The present work is about primary sources the conventional fossil fuels (petroleum, coal and natural gas) and not conventional (nuclear fuels), as well as the solar light that reaches the floor, the winds, the rivers, the oceanic currents including the seas, and the biomass, among others. In the present technological era the primary sources are used for the most part to transform their energy into electric power.

  13. Social response to nuclear power and alternative energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savellano, R.A.; Bulaon, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    Phase I of this study analyzed attitudes and beliefs of respondents drawn from Metro Manila. The second phase utilized a sample drawn from residents near a geothermal power plant site in the Southern Philippines. Four dimensions of beliefs (psychological environmental risks, technological benefits/development, economic benefits/implications, and socio-political/implications/benefit) were identified through factor analysis of beliefs items on nuclear energy and refined empirically to determine perceptions of respondents about all other energy systems. Identification of the relationship between dimensions provided insight into the shared perceptions about each energy system held by the various groups of respondents. The overall attitude of the respondents towards energy systems (nuclear, solar, hydro, geothermal and oil) was determined using three attitude measures: the Fishbein model, Osgood's semantic differential technique, and direct response to unfavorability/favorability scale. The belief dimensions were correlated with the attitude measures to determine the degree of contribution to attitude. A comparative analysis was made to different attitudes and beliefs held by the PRO and CON nuclear groups and by the subsamples: university students, science teachers and barangay leaders of Metro Manila sample. Attitudes and beliefs relating to the demographic variables were also examined for the two samples. (author)

  14. Public attitudes towards nuclear power and alternative energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-10-01

    Phase I of this study analyzed attitudes and beliefs of respondents drawn from Metro-Manila. The second phase utilized a sample drawn from residents near a geothermal power plant site in Southern Philippines. Four dimensions of beliefs (psychological/environmental risks, technological benefits/development, economic benefits/implications and socio-political implications/benefits) were identified through factor analysis of belief items on nuclear energy and refined empirically to determine perceptions of respondents about all energy systems. Identification of the relationships between dimensions provided insight into the shared perceptions about each energy system held by the various groups of respondents. The overall attitude of the respondents towards energy systems (nuclear, solar, hydro, geothermal and oil) was determined using three attitude measures: Fishbein model, Osgood's semantic differential technique, and direct response to unfavorability/favorability scale. The belief dimensions were correlated with the attitude measures to determine the degree of contribution of each dimension to attitude. A comparative analysis was made to differentiate attitudes and beliefs held by the PRO and CON nuclear groups, and by the subsamples: university students, science teachers and barangay leaders of the Metro-Manila sample. Attitudes and beliefs relating to the demographic variables were also examined for the two samples. (author)

  15. Alternative drives for motor cars. Hybrid systems, fuel cells, alternative energy sources. 3. ed.; Alternative Antriebe fuer Automobile. Hybridsysteme, Brennstoffzellen, alternative Energietraeger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stan, Cornel [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States); Paris-1 Univ., 75 (France); Pisa Univ. (Italy); Perugia Univ. (Italy); Kronstadt Univ. (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    This book describes and assesses on the basis of the latest research and development projects worldwide what the possibilities are for the realisation of future drive concepts, ranging from battery-driven electromotors to hybrid systems combining electromotor and combustion engine to alternative energy resources such as hydrogen or alcohol. Power density, torque band, acceleration characteristics, specific energy consumption and chemical and noise emissions are the most important criteria for assessing the quality of a drive configuration. The boundary conditions for the introduction of alternative automotive drives are determined by the availability or production characteristics and the storability of the energy resources in question as well as by the degree of technical complexity, costs, safety, infrastructure and service. This book provides an updated overview and analysis of the processes, prime movers and energy resources that can be combined in complex energy management systems for automobiles. Up-to-date information of this kind is indispensable for the development of new concepts. The contents in overview: current data and facts on the development of new concepts; compact overview and analysis of processes, prime movers and energy resources; methods and solutions in designing alternative drives. [German] Die Realisierungsmoeglichkeiten zukuenftiger Antriebskonzepte - von batteriebetriebenen Elektromotoren und Hybridsystemen bestehend aus Elektro- und Verbrennungsmotor ueber Brennstoffzellen bis hin zu alternativen Energietraegern wie Wasserstoff oder Alkohol - werden auf Basis neuesten Forschungs- und Entwicklungsarbeiten weltweit praesentiert und bewertet. Leistungsdichte, Drehmomentverlauf, Beschleunigungscharakteristik, spezifischer Energieverbrauch sowie Emission chemischer Stoffe und Geraeusche sind wichtige Merkmale zur Beurteilung der Qualitaet einer Antriebskonfiguration. Die Verfuegbarkeit oder die Herstellungsmerkmale sowie die Speicherfaehigkeit

  16. Cost Benefit and Alternatives Analysis of Distribution Systems with Energy Storage Systems: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Tom; Nagarajan, Adarsh; Baggu, Murali; Bialek, Tom

    2017-06-27

    This paper explores monetized and non-monetized benefits from storage interconnected to distribution system through use cases illustrating potential applications for energy storage in California's electric utility system. This work supports SDG&E in its efforts to quantify, summarize, and compare the cost and benefit streams related to implementation and operation of energy storage on its distribution feeders. This effort develops the cost benefit and alternatives analysis platform, integrated with QSTS feeder simulation capability, and analyzed use cases to explore the cost-benefit of implementation and operation of energy storage for feeder support and market participation.

  17. Alternative drives for motor cars. Hybrid systems, fuel cells, alternative energy sources. 2. enl. ed.; Alternative Antriebe fuer Automobile. Hybridsysteme, Brennstoffzellen, alternative Energietraeger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stan, Cornel [Berkeley Univ., CA (United States)]|[Paris Univ. (France)]|[Pisa Univ. (Italy)]|[Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[Westsaechsischen Hochschule Zwickau (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The implementation possibilities of future drive concepts - from hybrid systems comprising an electric motor and an internal combustion engine to fuel cells to alternative fuels like hydrogen or alcohol - will depend largely on quality criteria, e.g. power density, rotary momentum, acceleration characteristics, specific energy consumption, emissions of chemical substances, and noise. The boundary criteria for the introduction of realizeable concepts of alternative drives for motor cars will be defined by the availability and storability of the envisaged fuels, technical complexity, cost, safety, infrastructure and service. The book presents and analyzes the processes, drives and energy sources that can be combined in complex energy management systems for motor cars in accordance with the aforementioned criteria. Knowledge about these facts is indispensable for the development of new concepts. The 2nd edition describes many new developments in car propulsion systems as well as their combinations, new energy sources, energy converters and energy stores. All contents and literature reflect the latest state of science and technology. (orig.) [German] Ueber die Realisierungsmoeglichkeiten zukuenftiger Antriebskonzepte - von Hybridsystemen Elektro-/Verbrennungsmotor ueber Brennstoffzellen bis zu alternativen Energietraegern wie Wasserstoff oder Alkohol - werden fundierte Kriterien der Qualitaet eines Antriebs entscheiden. Leistungsdichte, Drehmomentverlauf, Beschleunigungscharakteristik, spezifischer Energieverbrauch sowie Emission chemischer Stoffe und Geraeusche sind dafuer wichtige Merkmale zur Qualitaetsbeurteilung. Die Verfuegbarkeit und die Speicherfaehigkeit vorgesehener Energietraeger, die technische Komplexitaet, Kosten, Sicherheit, Infrastruktur und Service werden die Randbedingungen fuer die Einfuehrung realisierbarer Konzepte alternativer Antriebe fuer Automobile stellen. Die Uebersicht und die Analyse der Prozesse, Antriebsmaschinen und Energietraeger, die

  18. Alternatives to nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrado, E.N.

    1981-01-01

    This article discusses several possibilities as alternatives to nuclear energy and their relevance to the Philippine case. The major present and future fuel alternatives to petroleum and nuclear energy are coal, geothermal heat, solar energy and hydrogen, the first two of which are being used. Different conversion technologies are also discussed for large scale electricity production namely solar thermal electric conversion (STC), photovoltaic electric power system (PEPS) and ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). Major environmental considerations affect the choice of energy sources and technologies. We have the problem of long term accumulation of radioactive waste in the case of nuclear energy; in geothermal and fossil-fuels carbon dioxide uranium and accumulation may cause disastrous consequences. With regard to Philippine option, the greatest considerations in selecting alternative energy options would be resources availability - both energy and financial and technology status. For the country's energy plan, coal and geothermal energy are expected to play a significant role. The country's coal resources are 1.4 billion metric tons. For geothermal energy, 25 volcanic centers were identified and has a potential equivalent to 2.5 x 10 6 million barrels of oil. Solar energy if harnessed, being in the sunbelt, averaging some 2000 hours a year could be an energy source. The present dilemma of the policy maker is whether national resources are better spent on large scale urban-based energy projects or whether those should be focused on small scale, rural oriented installations which produced benefits to the more numerous and poorer members of the population. (RTD)

  19. Local Alternative for Energy Supply : Performance Assessment of Integrated Community Energy Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koirala, B.P.; Chaves Avila, J.P.; Gomez, T.; Hakvoort, R.A.; Herder, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    Integrated community energy systems (ICESs) are emerging as a modern development to re-organize local energy systems allowing simultaneous integration of distributed energy resources (DERs) and engagement of local communities. Although local energy initiatives, such as ICESs are rapidly emerging due

  20. Alternative energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiter, J P [N. V. Kema te Arnhem, NL

    1975-01-01

    A review of alternative energy sources is presented. Solar energy may be used by collecting the heat for direct use or by converting it to electricity. Flat-plate and concentrating collectors are described. Wind energy is an indirect form of solar energy, and has been used for many years in the Netherlands. Calculations of the efficiency of windmills, and of the useful available wind energy along the Netherlands' coastline, are provided. The conversion of organic waste to useable energy is described, including techniques of pyrolysis, combustion, and biological conversion. Tidal energy and ocean-thermal-gradient power plants are briefly described. Geothermal energy is a particularly attractive resource. The average temperature gradient is about 30/sup 0/C/km, ranging from 10/sup 0/C/km in South Africa to 150/sup 0/C/km in Italy. In the Netherlands it ranges from 20-50/sup 0/C/km. The various types of geothermal systems (steam, water, geopressured) are reviewed, and presently operating geothermal power plants are described. A comparison is made of the costs of various energy sources, and 27 references are provided.

  1. Life Cycle Multi-Criteria Analysis Of Alternative Energy Supply Systems For A Residential Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Rogoža

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses energy supply alternatives for a partially renovated residential building. In addition to the existing district heating (base case alternative systems, gas boilers, heat pumps (air-water and ground-water, solar collectors, solar cells, and combinations of these systems have been examined. Actual heat consumption of the building and electricity demand determined by the statistical method are used for simulating the systems. The process of simulation is performed using EnergyPro software. In order to select an optimal energy supply option, the life cycle analysis of all systems has been carried out throughout a life span of the building, and the estimated results of energy, environmental and economic evaluation have been converted into non-dimensional variables (3E using multi–criteria analysis.Article in Lithuanian

  2. Use of alternative sources of energy: design study of photovoltaic based parking area lighting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perraki, V.; Loucas, G.

    2000-01-01

    This study proposes the lighting of the parking area and the surrounding streets of the north west part of the University Campus of Patras, using an alternative source of energy, the photovoltaic energy. The sizing of the proposed system results to a reliable, autonomous system which covers the total of the energy needs without any maintenance. Although the energy produced is more expensive compared to the grid electricity nowadays, such solutions seem necessary and well promising for the future as the fuel reserves are limited. (authors)

  3. Energy and cost saving results for advanced technology systems from the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagerman, G. D.; Barna, G. J.; Burns, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    An overview of the organization and methodology of the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study is presented. The objectives of the study were to identify the most attractive advanced energy conversion systems for industrial cogeneration applications in the future and to assess the advantages of advanced technology systems compared to those systems commercially available today. Advanced systems studied include steam turbines, open and closed cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, diesel engines, Stirling engines, phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells and thermionics. Steam turbines, open cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, and diesel engines were also analyzed in versions typical of today's commercially available technology to provide a base against which to measure the advanced systems. Cogeneration applications in the major energy consuming manufacturing industries were considered. Results of the study in terms of plant level energy savings, annual energy cost savings and economic attractiveness are presented for the various energy conversion systems considered.

  4. Alternatives in solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schueler, D. G.

    1978-01-01

    Although solar energy has the potential of providing a significant source of clean and renewable energy for a variety of applications, it is expected to penetrate the nation's energy economy very slowly. The alternative solar energy technologies which employ direct collection and conversion of solar radiation as briefly described.

  5. Assessment of comparative and non-comparative factors in alternate energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, W D; Oterson, P

    1983-01-01

    The American University Institute for Risk Analysis (AURA) has undertaken a study for the European Economic Community to critically evaluate the methodologies for comparative risk analyses and costs and benefits of alternative energy systems used to generate electricity, principally nuclear, coal, and oil. Other energy systems and related industries with major hazards are also addressed where pertinent. This is particularly true for cases where electrical energy may be an inefficient form for end use as for transportation and space heating. Here, comparison on an end use basis by the most efficient method, electrical or otherwise, is required. The starting point and basis for this evaluation has been the array of existing studies of alternative energy systems already published. These studies, including those already undertaken by the Community, are over 50 in number. The purpose of this study is not to make a comparison of alternative energy systems, but to evaluate what is and what is not useful in existing studies, as well as to provide insight on how meaningful studies can be conducted. There has been considerable criticism and discussion about the conduct and validity of several studies, particularly the Inhaber study and the critiques of Holdren et al. While much of the critiques deal with methods and approaches, substantial criticism and discussion has focused on the motivations of the investigators and how the studies were applied. This latter set of issues is hardly a technological or methodological argument.

  6. Alternative energy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, K.F.

    1983-01-01

    It is accepted that coal will continue to play the major role in the supply of energy to the country for the remainder of the century. In this paper, however, emphasis has been directed to those options which could supplement coal in an economic and technically sound manner. The general conclusion is that certain forms of solar energy hold the most promise and it is in this direction that research, development and implementation programmes should be directed. Tidal energy, fusion energy, geothermal energy, hydrogen energy and fuel cells are also discussed as alternative energy options

  7. Alternative energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, P.

    1978-01-01

    It is suggested that the development of alternative energy sources has made them more attractive than nuclear power, due to their characteristics, such as small scale and short lead times, moderate costs and minimal environmental impact. The objectives of energy policy are discussed in relation to forecasts of energy demand. Tables show (a) projected useful energy demands UK; (b) patterns of end-use of energy; (c) costs of heating fuels; (d) net present value of gas purchases; (e) useful-energy by end-use analysis; and (f) primary fuel summary 2025. The contributions of hydro, nuclear, waves, solar, oil, gas and coal are estimated to 2025. (U.K.)

  8. Assessment of Energy Storage Alternatives in the Puget Sound Energy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balducci, Patrick J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jin, Chunlian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wu, Di [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Leslie, Patrick [Puget Sound Energy, Bellevue, WA (United States); Daitch, Charles [Puget Sound Energy, Bellevue, WA (United States); Marshall, A. [Primus Power, Hayward, CA (United States)

    2013-12-01

    As part of an ongoing study co-funded by the Bonneville Power Administration, under its Technology Innovation Grant Program, and the U.S. Department of Energy, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed an approach and modeling tool for assessing the net benefits of using energy storage located close to the customer in the distribution grid to manage demand. PNNL in collaboration with PSE and Primus Power has evaluated the net benefits of placing a zinc bromide battery system at two locations in the PSE system (Baker River / Rockport and Bainbridge Island). Energy storage can provide a number of benefits to the utility through the increased flexibility it provides to the grid system. Applications evaluated in the assessment include capacity value, balancing services, arbitrage, distribution deferral and outage mitigation. This report outlines the methodology developed for this study and Phase I results.

  9. Alternate energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens-Guille, P.D.

    1975-01-01

    The author highlights the interesting points made by the speeches during the conference on Energy and its Future in Southern Africa. He also draws attention to potential alternate energy sources such as power from tides, ocean waves, ocean temperature differences and geothermal power

  10. The alternative energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitzley, H.

    1989-02-01

    The alternative energy future can be achieved only by making energy conservation programmes successful, and by fully committing to the utilization of soft energy sources. This is the perspective drawn by the author who in this book investigates the fundamentals of an ecologically and socially sound energy policy for the future. Looking at California, USA, where completely near concepts have been put to work in the energy sector since the mid-seventies, the author shows how it can be done, by rewarding energy conserving activities, using available energy sources more efficiently, developing the means for renewable energy exploitation wherever appropriate. A turn in energy policy is feasible also in West Germany, both in technical and political terms. Starting from the experience gained in the USA, the author presents an outline of options and potentials of a new energy strategy for the Federal Republic of Germany. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Alternative Energy Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Michaelides, Efstathios E (Stathis)

    2012-01-01

    Alternative Energy Sources is designed to give the reader, a clear view of the role each form of alternative energy may play in supplying the energy needs of the human society in the near and intermediate future (20-50 years).   The two first chapters on energy demand and supply and environmental effects, set the tone as to why the widespread use of alternative energy is essential for the future of human society. The third chapter exposes the reader to the laws of energy conversion processes, as well as the limitations of converting one energy form to another. The sections on exergy give a succinct, quantitative background on the capability/potential of each energy source to produce power on a global scale. The fourth, fifth and sixth chapters are expositions of fission and fusion nuclear energy. The following five chapters (seventh to eleventh) include detailed descriptions of the most common renewable energy sources – wind, solar, geothermal, biomass, hydroelectric – and some of the less common sources...

  12. Energy system aspects of hydrogen as an alternative fuel in transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramesohl, Stephan; Merten, Frank

    2006-01-01

    Considering the enormous ecological and economic importance of the transport sector the introduction of alternative fuels-together with drastic energy efficiency gains-will be a key to sustainable mobility, nationally as well as globally. However, the future role of alternative fuels cannot be examined from the isolated perspective of the transport sector. Interactions with the energy system as a whole have to be taken into account. This holds both for the issue of availability of energy sources as well as for allocation effects, resulting from the shift of renewable energy from the stationary sector to mobile applications. With emphasis on hydrogen as a transport fuel for private passenger cars, this paper discusses the energy systems impacts of various scenarios introducing hydrogen fueled vehicles in Germany. It identifies clear restrictions to an enhanced growth of clean hydrogen production from renewable energy sources (RES). Furthermore, it points at systems interdependencies that call for a priority use of RES electricity in stationary applications. Whereas hydrogen can play an increasing role in transport after 2030 the most important challenge is to exploit short-mid-term potentials of boosting car efficiency

  13. Dynamical energy systems and modern physics: fostering the science and spirit of complementary and alternative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, G E; Russek, L G

    1997-05-01

    When systems theory is carefully applied to the concept of energy, some novel and far-reaching implications for modern physics and complementary medicine emerge. The heart of systems theory is dynamic interactions: systems do not simply act on systems, they interact with them in complex ways. By definition, systems at any level (e.g., physical, biological, social, ecological) are open to information, energy, and matter to varying degrees, and therefore interact with other systems to varying degrees. We first show how resonance between two tuning forks, a classic demonstration in physics, can be seen to reflect synchronized dynamic interactions over time. We then derive how the dynamic interaction of systems in mutual recurrent feedback relationships naturally create dynamic "memories" for their interactions over time. The mystery of how a photon (or electron) "knows" ahead of time whether to function as a particle or wave in the single slit/double slit quantum physics paradigm is potentially solved when energetic interactions inherent in the experimental system are recognized. The observation that energy decreases with the square of distance is shown not to be immutable when viewed from a dynamical energy systems perspective. Implications for controversial claims in complementary and alternative medicine, such as memory for molecules retained in water (homeopathy), remote diagnosis, and prayer and healing, are considered. A dynamical energy systems framework can facilitate the development of what might be termed "relationship consciousness," which has the potential to nurture both the science and spirit of complementary medicine and might help to create integrated medicine.

  14. Catalysis for alternative energy generation

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Summarizes recent problems in using catalysts in alternative energy generation and proposes novel solutions  Reconsiders the role of catalysis in alternative energy generation  Contributors include catalysis and alternative energy experts from across the globe

  15. Alternative future energy pathways: Assessment of the potential of innovative decentralised energy systems in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmutina, Ksenia; Goodier, Chris I.

    2014-01-01

    In order to meet its 2050 target of 80% carbon emissions reduction, the UK is facing a challenge of restructuring its energy system, possibly by introducing more decentralised energy (DE) systems. Following semi-structured interviews, four exemplar international cases have been critiqued in order to investigate the variety and interrelationship of the drivers and barriers involved during their implementation, and then compared with the barriers and drivers that can potentially affect the implementation of similar projects in the UK context. The impacts of the barriers on the outcomes of these projects were evaluated, and recommendations were presented on overcoming these barriers if replicating similar projects in the UK context. Governance drivers play the most significant role, whereas financial drivers (commonly believed to be crucial), are deemed to play a lesser role. Social, governance and financial barriers rather than technological barriers constitute the central problem areas for the increased adoption of DE. The drivers and barriers experienced in the international cases were similar to those anticipated in the UK. The case studies present a high potential for replication and scaling up in the UK context and demonstrate that the increased implementation of DE systems could also enhance social and governance benefits. - Highlights: • This paper examines four international urban decentralised energy initiatives. • Drivers and barriers are found to be highly diverse but similar to the ones in the UK. • Governance drivers play the most significant role. • Increased implementation of DE systems can enhance social and governance benefits

  16. Energy and cost savings results for advanced technology systems from the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study /CTAS/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagerman, G. D.; Barna, G. J.; Burns, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    The Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS), a program undertaken to identify the most attractive advanced energy conversion systems for industrial cogeneration applications in the 1985-2000 time period, is described, and preliminary results are presented. Two cogeneration options are included in the analysis: a topping application, in which fuel is input to the energy conversion system which generates electricity and waste heat from the conversion system is used to provide heat to the process, and a bottoming application, in which fuel is burned to provide high temperature process heat and waste heat from the process is used as thermal input to the energy conversion system which generates energy. Steam turbines, open and closed cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, diesel engines, Stirling engines, phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells and thermionics are examined. Expected plant level energy savings, annual energy cost savings, and other results of the economic analysis are given, and the sensitivity of these results to the assumptions concerning fuel prices, price of purchased electricity and the potential effects of regional energy use characteristics is discussed.

  17. Box Energy: rental of energy-storage systems and alternative fuel technologies for vehicles; Box-energy. Rental of energy. Storage systems and alternative-fuel. Technologies for vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bautz, R.

    2004-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of study on the rental of energy-storage systems and alternative fuel technologies for vehicles. Experience gained in the area of battery-rental is discussed. The aims of the 'Box Energy' project are described, as is its market environment. The 'Box Energy' concept is described and possible customers and partners listed. Logistics aspects are discussed. The organisation of 'Box Energy' is described and the concept's chances and weaknesses are discussed. The launching of a pilot project in Switzerland is discussed. Recommendations on further work to be done are made.

  18. Evaluating energy-system alternatives in the context of sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.

    1993-01-01

    Growing awareness of the negative social, environmental and economic impacts caused by the production, distribution and end-use consumption of energy has led the search for alternatives to become increasingly urgent and complex. The need for analytical methods and tools for evaluating options and opportunities is particularly acute in rapidly developing countries. The aim of this article is to illustrate the broad range of issues and impacts that are important for evaluating and comparing energy-system alternatives in the context of sustainable development. The feasibility of producing and utilizing biomass-based ethanol as an alternative transportation fuel in Thailand is explored herein to provide examples and a forum for discussion of these issues. Scenarios describe the conditions under which a significant potential for fuel-switching to domestically-produced ethanol appears to exist. Harnessing this potential could lead to important improvements in the energy system's impacts on human health, Thailand's economy, and the environment. Achieving these improvements, however, would require comprehensive and long-term planning and support on the part of the Thai government

  19. Energy and power alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messerle, H.K.

    1992-01-01

    Taking into consideration the need for a safe energy supply, rising demand for energy worldwide and limited oil reserves, alternative energy resources for bulk power are discussed. They are nuclear fuel, fluidized bed combustion of coal, coal gasification with combined cycle process, coal-oil mixture combustion and MHD power generation process. It is pointed out that the major environmental impact of fossil fuels is in accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and air pollution due to sulphur emission. (M.G.B.)

  20. Alternative energy review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    A review is presented of electricity generation technologies which are considered to be alternatives to more conventional technologies. The review is limited to those technologies which have application in Ontario, and provides descriptions, technical and economic assessments, environmental information, and forecasts of potential use of solar energy, wind energy, fuel cells, biomass energy, peat, and municipal solid wastes. Of these technologies, only municipal solid waste combustion is economically viable under current conditions, but government policies prohibit the implementation of new facilities. Certain photovoltaic and wind energy technologies are being found viable for remote sites unconnected to the power grid. Wood waste combustion is viable in the forest products industry. The total potential contribution of these six alternative technologies to Ontario's energy production is forecast at under 190 MW to a range of 685-1,465 MW by the year 2005, according to three different scenarios. The technologies showing the greatest future promise are fuel cells, photovoltaics, and biomass. Except for municipal waste combustion, cost continues to be a significant barrier to utility-scale application of alternative generation technologies in Ontario. However, private individuals and corporations (non-utility generators) may adopt some of these technologies in the absence of access to the power grid, in cogeneration applications, or for demonstration purposes. 120 refs., 79 figs., 93 tabs

  1. Energy in transition, 1985-2010. Final report of the Committee on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Systems, National Research Council

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    This exhaustive study, in assessing the roles of nuclear and alternative energy systems in the nation's energy future, focuses on the period between 1985 and 2010. Its intent is to illuminate the kinds of options the nation may wish to keep open in the future and to describe the actions, policies, and R and D programs that may be required to do so. The timing and the context of these decisions depend not only on the technical, social, and economic features of energy-supply technologies, but also on assumptions about future demand for energy and the possibilities for energy conservation through changes in consumption patterns and improved efficiency of the supply and end-use systems. The committee developed a three-tiered functional structure for the project. The first tier was CONAES itself, whose report embodies the ultimate findings, conclusions, and judgments of the study. To provide scientific and engineering data and economic analyses for the committee, a second tier of four panels was appointed by the committee to examine (1) energy demand and conservation, (2) energy supply and delivery systems, (3) risks and impacts of energy supply and use, and (4) various models of possible future energy systems and decision making. Each panel in turn established a number of resource groups - some two dozen in all - to address in detail an array of more particular matters. Briefly stated, recommended strategies are: (1) increased energy conservation; (2) expansion of the nation's balanced coal and nuclear electrical generation base; (3) retention of the breeder option; (4) stimulation of fluid energy development; and (5) immediate increase in research and development of new energy options to ensure availability over the long term.

  2. Energy storage and alternatives to improve train voltage on a mass transit system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, S. P.; Rorke, W. S.

    1995-04-01

    The wide separation of substations in the Bay Area Rapid Transit system's transbay tunnel contributes to voltage sag when power demand is high. In the future, expansions to the system will exacerbate this problem by increasing traffic density. Typically, this situation is remedied through the installation of additional substations to increase the system's power capacity. We have evaluated the efficacy of several alternatives to this approach - specifically, installation of an 8 megajoule energy storage system, modification of the existing substations, or reduction of the resistance of the running rails or the third rail. To support this analysis, we have developed a simple model of the traction power system in the tunnel. We have concluded that the storage system does not have sufficient capacity to deal with the expected voltage sags; in this application, the alternatives present more effective solutions. We have also investigated the potential impact of these system upgrades on expected future capital outlays by BART for traction power infrastructure additions. We have found that rail or substation upgrades may reduce the need for additional substations. These upgrades may also be effective on other parts of the BART system and on other traction power systems.

  3. Cell-free unnatural amino acid incorporation with alternative energy systems and linear expression templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Prashanta; Smith, Mark Thomas; Bundy, Bradley Charles

    2014-01-25

    Site-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids (uAAs) during protein synthesis expands the proteomic code through the addition of unique residue chemistry. This field provides a unique tool to improve pharmacokinetics, cancer treatments, vaccine development, proteomics and protein engineering. The limited ability to predict the characteristics of proteins with uAA-incorporation creates a need for a low-cost system with the potential for rapid screening. Escherichia coli-based cell-free protein synthesis is a compelling platform for uAA incorporation due to the open and accessible nature of the reaction environment. However, typical cell-free systems can be expensive due to the high cost of energizing reagents. By employing alternative energy sources, we reduce the cost of uAA-incorporation in CFPS by 55%. While alternative energy systems reduce cost, the time investment to develop gene libraries can remain cumbersome. Cell-free systems allow the direct use of PCR products known as linear expression templates, thus alleviating tedious plasmid library preparations steps. We report the specific costs of CFPS with uAA incorporation, demonstrate that LETs are suitable expression templates with uAA-incorporation, and consider the substantial reduction in labor intensity using LET-based expression for CFPS uAA incorporation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of alternatives for a second-generation transportation system for Department of Energy transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Department of Energy (DOE) waste storage sites will ship their contact-handled (CH) and remote-handled (RH) transuranic (TRU) waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) beginning FY 1989. The CH-TRU waste will be shipped in the Transuranic Package Transported (TRUPACT-I), a new packaging being developed by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque/Transportation Technology Center. Some of the DOE TRU waste, however, might be unsuitable for shipment in TRUPACT-I, and is designated special-shipped (SS) TRU waste. The purposes of this study were to: (1) identify the quantity and characteristics of SS-TRU waste stored and generated at DOE facilities; (2) identify alternatives for managing the SS-TRU waste; and (3) make overall recommendations for managing the SS-TRU waste. Data on quantity and characteristics were gathered through coordinating visits to the sites and extracting information from each site's records. Representatives of DOE organizations and contractors set objectives for managing the SS-TRU waste. Alternative shipping systems were then identified for CH SS-TRU waste and RH SS-TRU waste. Evaluations of these alternatives considered how well they would satisfy each objective, and associated potential problems. The study recommends delaying the decision on how best to transport the CH SS-TRU waste to WIPP until the amount of SS-TRU processed waste in heavy drums is known. These conditions and choices are presented: a relatively small number of processed, heavy drums could be shipped most economically via TRUPACT-I, mixed with lighter drums of unprocessed waste. If a large number of heavy drums is to be shipped, a shorter and narrower version of TRUPACT-I would be preferred alternative. The Defense High-Level Waste cask is the recommended alternative system for shipping RH SS-TRU waste. 12 references, 15 figures, 22 tables

  5. Alternative Natural Energy Sources in Building Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Albert J.; Schubert, Robert P.

    This publication provides a discussion of various energy conserving building systems and design alternatives. The information presented here covers alternative space and water heating systems, and energy conserving building designs incorporating these systems and other energy conserving techniques. Besides water, wind, solar, and bio conversion…

  6. Comparing solar energy alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, J R

    1984-01-01

    The paper outlines a computational procedure for comparing the merits of alternative processes to convert solar radiation to heat, electrical power, or chemical energy. The procedure uses the ratio of equipment investment to useful work as an index. Comparisons with conversion counterparts based on conventional fuels are also facilitated by examining this index. The procedure is illustrated by comparisons of (1) photovoltaic converters of differing efficiencies; (2) photovoltaic converters with and without focusing concentrators; (3) photovoltaic conversion plus electrolysis vs photocatalysis for the production of hydrogen; (4) photovoltaic conversion plus plasma arcs vs photocatalysis for nitrogen fixation. Estimates for conventionally-fuelled processes are included for comparison. The reasons why solar-based concepts fare poorly in such comparisons are traced to the low energy density of solar radiation and its low stream time factor resulting from the limited number of daylight hours available and clouds obscuring the sun.

  7. Comparing solar energy alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, J R

    1984-01-01

    This paper outlines a computational procedure for comparing the merits of alternative processes to convert solar radiation to heat, electrical power, or chemical energy. The procedure uses the ratio of equipment investment to useful work as an index. Comparisons with conversion counterparts based on conventional fuels are also facilitated by examining this index. The procedure is illustrated by comparisons of (1) photovoltaic converters of differing efficiencies; (2) photovoltaic converters with and without focusing concentrators; (3) photovoltaic conversion plus electrolysis vs photocatalysis for the production of hydrogen; (4) photovoltaic conversion plus plasma arcs vs photocatalysis for nitrogen fixation. Estimates for conventionally-fuelled processes are included for comparison. The reasons why solar-based concepts fare poorly in such comparisons are traced to the low energy density of solar radiation and its low stream time factor resulting from the limited number of daylight hours available and clouds obscuring the sun. 11 references.

  8. The vulnerabilities of the power-grid system: renewable microgrids as an alternative source of energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Victor; Myres, Charles; Bakshi, Nitin

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyse the vulnerabilities of current power-grid systems and to propose alternatives to using fossil fuel power generation and infrastructure solutions in the form of microgrids, particularly those from renewable energy sources. One of the key potential benefits of microgrids, apart from their inherent sustainability and ecological advantages, is increased resilience. The analysis is targeted towards the context of business process outsourcing in India. However, much of the research on vulnerabilities has been derived from the USA and as such many of the examples cite vulnerabilities in the USA and other developed economies. Nevertheless, the vulnerabilities noted are to a degree common to all grid systems, and so the analysis may be more broadly applicable.

  9. Alternative energy in Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, H.B.; Bhandari, K.P.

    2011-05-15

    Renewable energy Technology (RET) becomes the mainstream option for rural Nepal to access modern source of energy. It focuses on the trend of RET applications consisting of biogas technology, solar thermal, micro and Pico hydropower, biomass technology bio fuel technology, wind power technology etc. The RET's which provide both electricity based as well as non electricity based services, have been shown to most immediately meet the needs of a cleaner indoor environment, better quality lightning for education and income generating, activities, alternative cooking fuels and agro processing as well as rural industries. Improved cooking stoves and much more beneficial than other technologies. Wind energy utilization is still not popular. Solar thermal to generate thermal energy to cook, warm and dry, biogas for lighting and cooking services. Micro hydropower for electric as well as mechanical use and solar PV mainly for domestic lighting may become choice. The most important Renewable Energy Technology (RET's) in Nepal are related to Pico hydropower and micro-hydropower, biomass energy (biogas, briquettes, gasifies, improved cooking stoves, bio-fuels etc.) solar photovoltaic energy, solar PV water pumping, solar thermal energy (solar heater, solar dryers, solar cookers etc.) and wind energy (such as wind generators, wind mills etc.). One renowned Non-governmental organization has been established in the Jhapa and Mornag Bhutanese refugee camp. Two families from all the seven camps in Nepal received one solar cooker, one hay box and two cooking posts to each family. Under this programme, a total of 6,850 solar cookers, 12600 hay boxes and 25,200 cooking pots have been distributed 2009. The number of beneficiaries from this program has reached 85,000. Before the distribution of the cookers and the utensils, the instruction and orientation training for the maintenance and repair and operation method was improved. The refugees were divided in 315 groups of 40

  10. Small scale CHP: Alternative integration forms in the Danish energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeg, Rasmus; Gatautis, Ramunas; Engberg Pedersen, Thomas; Schmidt, Rune; Ravn, Hans F.

    2003-01-01

    In Denmark, introduction of small scale combined heat and power (CHP) plants were part of the energy policy during the 1990's. Thus, the installed electricity capacity on this type of units multiplied approximately ten times during this decade, to constitute more than 2000 MW in 2000, or around 20% of total installed electricity capacity. The motivation for this development was mainly energy savings due to the relatively high thermal efficiency in combined production, and the associated reduction of emissions. The remuneration for the electricity delivered to the electrical network was in part based on a feed in tariff. The construction of the tariff reflected estimated benefits to the electrical system. With the liberalisation of the electricity markets this arrangement has been questioned, and it has been suggested that the differentiated payment to local CHP should be based on electricity market prising. For Denmark this would imply that the local CHP should trade the electricity on the Nordpool electricity spot market. This paper analyses parts of these two alternative ways of economic arrangements in relation to small scale CHP. First it describes the development and status till now. Then it analyses the production patterns and associated economic consequences of a change from the tariff based system to a market system. (BA)

  11. A Modified Load Flow Algorithm in Power Systems with Alternative Energy Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras, D.L.; Cañedo, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper an algorithm for calculating the steady state of electrical networks including wind and photovoltaic generation is presented. The wind generators considered are; asynchronous (squirrel cage and doubly fed) and synchronous generators using permanent magnets. The proposed algorithm is based on the formulation of nodal power injections that is solved with the modified Newton Raphson technique in its polar formulation using complex matrices notation. Each power injection of wind and photovoltaic generators is calculated independently in each iteration according to its particular mathematical model, which is generally non-linear. Results are presented with a 30-node test system. The computation time of the proposed algorithm is compared with the conventional methodology to include alternative energy sources in power flows studies. (author)

  12. Detuning Minimization of Induction Motor Drive System for Alternative Energy Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibur Rehman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates different types of AC machines and various control techniques for their suitability for the drive system of Alternative Energy Vehicles (AEV. An Indirect Field Oriented (IFO drive system for the AEV application is chosen and its major problem of detuning is addressed by designing an offline and an online rotor resistance adaptation technique. The offline scheme sets the slip gain at various operating conditions based on the fact that if the rotor resistance is set correctly and field orientation is achieved, then there should be a linear relationship between the torque current and the output torque. The online technique is designed using Model Reference Adaptive System (MRAS for the rotor resistance adaptation. For an ideal field oriented machine, the rotor flux along the q-axis should be zero. This condition acts as a reference model for the proposed MRAS scheme. The current model flux observer in the synchronous frame of reference is selected as an adjustable model and its rotor resistance is tuned so that the flux along the q-axis becomes zero. The effectiveness of the offline tuning scheme is evident through performance validation of the drive system, which is implemented in a real Ford vehicle. The experimental results obtained while driving the test vehicle are included in the paper while the proposed online scheme is validated on a 3.75 kW prototype induction motor.

  13. The rural energy alternatives project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffstatter, L.; Panetti, C.; DeWein, M.

    1993-01-01

    A cooperative survey by the New York State Energy Office (SEO) and Office of Rural Affairs (ORA) identified hundreds of residences without utility electric power due to excessive line extension costs. SEO selected several of these residences for feasibility studies which compared site specific options for electricity generation, including existing fossil fuel generator(s), generator/battery sets, photovoltaic (PV) hybrid and micro-hydroelectric systems as well as utility provided electric service. Comprehensive reports included examination of a range of energy conservation measures. Alternatives to present fossil fuel systems were assessed for domestic hot water, refrigeration, and water pumping. Results included electric load data, solar and hydroelectric potential, life cycle cost estimates for electricity, and estimated system sizing information based on energy cost considerations. In addition to providing useful information to individual homeowners, these studies served as the basis for cooperative efforts to install and monitor stand-alone prototype PV hybrid systems

  14. Electrical Supply System for the Experimental Zero-Energy Building (of 300 m2 Based on Renewable and Alternative Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basok, B.I.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The results of the development and implementation of the power supply system of the experimental zero-energy building based on renewable and alternative energy sources are presented. CDF-model to determine the optimal conditions for the deployment of wind energy installations within the building limits is developed.

  15. Potential of renewable and alternative energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalov, V.; Pogharnitskaya, O.; Rostovshchikova, A.; Matveenko, I.

    2015-11-01

    The article deals with application potential of clean alternative renewable energy sources. By means of system analysis the forecast for consumption of electrical energy in Tomsk Oblast as well as main energy sources of existing energy system have been studied up to 2018. Engineering potential of renewable and alternative energy sources is evaluated. Besides, ranking in the order of their efficiency descending is performed. It is concluded that Tomsk Oblast has high potential of alternative and renewable energy sources, among which the most promising development perspective is implementation of gasification stations to save fuel consumed by diesel power stations as well as building wind-power plants.

  16. Alternative energy and environmental concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The New Brunswick Market Design Committee will address environmental concerns within the context of the new energy policy and market rules for the newly restructured electric power industry. The new rules that come with power restructuring will in some ways facilitate environmental protection but they can also complicate it. With open access markets, it will be possible to coordinate evolving energy frameworks with current environmental objectives. Restructuring provides an opportunity to create incentives and guidelines to operate in an environmentally sustainable manner, as suggested in the New Brunswick Energy Policy, White Paper which outlines green pricing, the development of a provincial Climate Change Action Plan, and promotion of alternative energy. The Market Design Committee examined the environmental concerns listed within the White Paper that pertain to the generation and transmission of electricity. These include the integration of energy and environmental policy. Other issues addressed in this report were trans-boundary and global air emissions, the development of a provincial climate change action plan, and a federal-provincial climate change framework agreement. New Brunswick will encourage the development of pilot studies that demonstrate the benefits of renewable and alternative technologies and that help promote the market to manufacture, sell and maintain renewable and alternative technologies in small-scale on-site power generation. This report also discussed the 4 key air pollutants for which specific treatment has been defined, including sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, mercury and carbon dioxide. Recommendations for reducing these emissions include the use of renewable energy sources, the use of lower carbon fuels, increased efficiency of power transmission/generation/distribution systems, reducing power demand by the industrial sector, and promoting energy efficient building codes. 34 refs., 1 tab

  17. Decision support tool to evaluate alternative policies regulating wind integration into autonomous energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouros, N.; Contaxis, G.C.; Kabouris, J.

    2005-01-01

    Integration of wind power into autonomous electricity systems strongly depends on the specific technical characteristics of these systems; the regulations applied should take into account physical system constraints. Introduction of market rules makes the issue even more complicated since the interests of the market participants often conflict each other. In this paper, an integrated tool for the comparative assessment of alternative regulatory policies is presented along with a methodology for decision-making, based on alternative scenarios analysis. The social welfare concept is followed instead of the traditional Least Cost Planning

  18. Experimental analysis of a diffusion absorption refrigeration system used alternative energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soezen, A.; Oezbas, E.

    2009-01-01

    The continuous-cycle absorption refrigeration device is widely used in domestic refrigerators, and recreational vehicles. It is also used in year-around air conditioning of both homes and larger buildings. The unit consists of four main parts the boiler, condenser, evaporator and the absorber. When the unit operates on kerosene or gas, the heat is supplied by a burner. This element is fitted underneath the central tube. When operating on electricity, the heat is supplied by an element inserted in the pocket. No moving parts are employed. The operation of the refrigerating mechanism is based on Dalton's law. In this study, experimental analysis was performed of a diffusion absorption refrigeration system (DARS) used alternative energy sources such as solar, liquid petroleum gas (LPG) sources. Two basic DAR cycles were set up and investigated: i) In the first cycle (DARS-1), the condensate is sub-cooled prior to the evaporator entrance by the coupled evaporator/gas heat exchanger similar with manufactured by Electrolux Sweden. ii) In the second cycle (DARS-2), the condensate is not sub-cooled prior to the evaporator entrance and gas heat exchanger is separated from the evaporator. (author)

  19. Comparing Whole Building Energy Implications of Sidelighting Systems with Alternate Manual Blind Control Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Dyke

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is no manual blind control guideline used consistently throughout the energy modeling community. This paper identifies and compares five manual blind control algorithms with unique control patterns and reports blind occlusion, rate of change data, and annual building energy consumption. The blind control schemes detailed here represent five reasonable candidates for use in lighting and energy simulation based on difference driving factors. This study was performed on a medium-sized office building using EnergyPlus with the internal daylight harvesting engine. Results show that applying manual blind control algorithms affects the total annual consumption of the building by as much as 12.5% and 11.5% for interior and exterior blinds respectively, compared to the Always Retracted blinds algorithm. Peak demand was also compared showing blind algorithms affected zone load sizing by as much as 9.8%. The alternate algorithms were tested for their impact on American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE Guideline 14 calibration metrics and all models were found to differ from the original calibrated baseline by more than the recommended ±15% for coefficient of variance of the mean square error (CVRMSE and ±5% for normalized mean bias error (NMBE. The paper recommends that energy modelers use one or more manual blind control algorithms during design stages when making decisions about energy efficiency and other design alternatives.

  20. Energy alternatives in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, V.S.

    1996-01-01

    Since 1973, the oil prices have increased tenfold. Currently we are already short by 7% in energy demand which is increasing in an exponential order. Also environmental problems associated with conventional energy generation need a serious consideration as a concept of clean energy. Various sources available are as follows. 1) coal energy 2) hydroelectric 3) nuclear energy. In India, thermal power obtained from amounts to 72.8%, hydroelectric amounts to 25.3% and nuclear about 2 to 3%. Non-conventional energy sources are mostly non-polluting except for the fact that no economically viable methods are invented to harness the power effectively. Following are the non-conventional energy resources. 1) solar energy:- this can be applied in different ways. 1) photothermal, 2) photovoltaics, 3) photosynthesis, 4) bio-energy. ii) wind energy, iii) ocean energy iv) geothermal energy. It can be concluded that nuclear energy is the only way out to current situation. Energy conservation and energy consciousness should also be implemented. (author)

  1. Catching lightning for alternative energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helman, D.S. [California State University, Long Beach, 1250 Bellflower Blvd., Long Beach, CA 90840 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    The article reviews the current literature related to lightning and makes a case for using lightning as an alternative source of energy. Objections to using lightning as an alternative source of energy are listed. Current literature is reviewed and articles are suggested as useful for building a tower, or using rockets or lasers to target a strike, or for quantifying a lightning strike. (author)

  2. DESIGN OF ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popa Stefania

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available By energy sources we understand technologies and materials used to obtain various forms of energy necessary for the development of society. These sources must be in adequate quantities and be conveniently exploited in terms of technical, economic and sustainable perspective. Alternative energy uses the inherent power of natural sources like wind, tides, the sun. Alternative energy is a term used for some energy sources and energy storage technologies. Generally it indicates energies that are nontraditional and have low impact to the environment. The alternative energy term is used in contrast with the term fossil fuel according to some sources, while other sources use it with the meaning of renewable energy purposes.

  3. Alternative energies. Updates on progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, German (ed.) [CIRCE - Centre of Research for Energy Resources and Consumption, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    Presents fundamental and applied research of alternative energies. Address key pillars in the alternative energy field, such as: biomass energy, hydrogen energy, solar energy, wind energy, hydroelectric power, geothermal energy and their environmental implications, with the most updated progress. Includes the life cycle assessment and thermoeconomic analysis as tools for evaluating and optimising environmental and cost subjects. This book presents nine chapters based on fundamental and applied research of alternative energies. At the present time, the challenge is that technology has to come up with solutions that can provide environmentally friendly energy supply options that are able to cover the current world energy demand. Experts around the world are working on these issues for providing new solutions that will break the existing technological barriers. This book aims to address key pillars in the alternative energy field, such as: biomass energy, hydrogen energy, solar energy, wind energy, hydroelectric power, geothermal energy and their environmental implications, with the most updated progress for each pillar. It also includes the life cycle assessment (LCA) and thermoeconomic analysis (TA) as tools for evaluating and optimising environmental and cost subjects. Chapters are organized into fundamental research, applied research and future trends; and written for engineers, academic researches and scientists.

  4. Alternate energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrei, L.

    1996-01-01

    The paper is a pleading in favor of hydroelectric power which in Romania originated more than 100 y ago. The hydroelectric potential of this country amounts to about 40 TWh / year. The hydroelectric yield is currently 15.5 TWh / year, 11.5 TWh / year of which being supplied by the Danube Power Plants. The hydroelectric power has a number of advantages: it is renewable, can be stocked and distributed according to the daily, weekly or seasonal energy demand, the energetic output is 82-89 %, if the project is carefully worked out the hydroelectric system has a small environmental impact, the service life can reach over 80 years, while the maintaining and operation costs are low. Some drawbacks are listed: the problems related to the population relocation, the environmental effects, especially the forest clearing, salt enrichment of affected soils. Arguments are presented from the economic point of view, backed up by ecological and technological advantages in favor of developing the micro hydroelectric power facilities

  5. Alternative Energy Development and China's Energy Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David

    2011-06-15

    In addition to promoting energy efficiency, China has actively pursued alternative energy development as a strategy to reduce its energy demand and carbon emissions. One area of particular focus has been to raise the share of alternative energy in China’s rapidly growing electricity generation with a 2020 target of 15% share of total primary energy. Over the last ten years, China has established several major renewable energy regulations along with programs and subsidies to encourage the growth of non-fossil alternative energy including solar, wind, nuclear, hydro, geothermal and biomass power as well as biofuels and coal alternatives. This study thus seeks to examine China’s alternative energy in terms of what has and will continue to drive alternative energy development in China as well as analyze in depth the growth potential and challenges facing each specific technology. This study found that despite recent policies enabling extraordinary capacity and investment growth, alternative energy technologies face constraints and barriers to growth. For relatively new technologies that have not achieved commercialization such as concentrated solar thermal, geothermal and biomass power, China faces technological limitations to expanding the scale of installed capacity. While some alternative technologies such as hydropower and coal alternatives have been slowed by uneven and often changing market and policy support, others such as wind and solar PV have encountered physical and institutional barriers to grid integration. Lastly, all alternative energy technologies face constraints in human resources and raw material resources including land and water, with some facing supply limitations in critical elements such as uranium for nuclear, neodymium for wind and rare earth metals for advanced solar PV. In light of China’s potential for and barriers to growth, the resource and energy requirement for alternative energy technologies were modeled and scenario analysis

  6. Alternative Energy Busing

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFee, Scott

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, school districts have converted portions of their bus fleets to cleaner-burning, sometimes cheaper, alternative fossil fuels, such as compressed natural gas or propane. Others have adopted biodiesel, which combines regular diesel with fuel derived from organic sources, usually vegetable oils or animal fats. The number of biodiesel…

  7. Integration Workshop on Alternative Fuels in the EU Energy System, Petten, 22-23 November 2004. Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzimas, E.; Peteves, S.D.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the title Workshop was to: (a) provide information on the related Commission actions and policies, (b) assess key technological developments and describe the state of the art of alternative fuel technologies, and, (c) identify the techno-economic barriers associated with the introduction of alternative fuels in the EU energy system and more specifically, in its new Member States and Candidate Countries. The Workshop attracted a specialised audience of delegates from most of the New Member States and the Candidate Countries, who are directly involved with the preparation, development, implementation and monitoring of policies relevant to alternative fuels, as well as with related applied research and development. The Workshop facilitated the exchange of experiences and views among the participants on the optimal approaches that could lead to the successful introduction of alternative fuels in the energy system of each country. To this end, short informal presentations were solicited from each participating country about the prospective introduction of alternative fuels in their national energy system. These presentations were coupled by longer presentations made by experts on the following topics: The European Commission perspective on alternative fuels; A well-to-wheels assessment of alternative fuels; The European biomass potential, the prospects for biogas, and a review of advanced production methods for biofuels; An assessment of the European natural gas market, and a description of the state-of-the-art of natural gas vehicle technology. This report summarises the main points made by the participants, the outcome of the discussions and some thoughts on future actions that may be implemented by the JRC in support of initiatives taken by the New Member States and Candidate Countries concerning alternative fuels

  8. Alternative Energy Workshop Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, J. [Dovetail Consulting Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    This conference brought together individuals and representatives from businesses and governments to discuss renewable energy opportunities and barriers in British Columbia regarding the development of low-impact, renewable energy production in the province. Another objective was to identify potential policy initiatives to encourage broader production. Barriers were defined as being market failures which result in sub-optimal allocation of resources by prohibiting the installation of renewable energy technologies (RET) for a particular application or by causing an economical RET application to become uneconomic. The three main categories of barriers were described as being information barriers, financial barriers and institutional barriers. Barriers can be met at various stages of a RET project, including preconception, feasibility studies, design, construction and operation. Some of the barriers that were highlighted during the presentations were: (1) a lack of access to market, (2) lack of access to capital, (3) playing field not level, (4) no renewable energy provincial strategy, (5) lack of public education, and (6) externalities not accounted for in the rate structure. The Green Energy Program at BC Hydro was also discussed with reference to the utility's action plan which includes green and eco-efficient energy, greenhouse gas reductions, hydrogen, eco-efficient improvements to existing generation and transmission, defining a green energy market, a new resource plan, and various Power Smart programs. Some other topics that were raised during the conference were the need for priority policy tools to encourage broader renewable energy production. Recommendations for tools for change were included with these proceedings.

  9. Experiences in mainstreaming alternative energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabraal, A.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses efforts by the Asia Alternative Energy Unit (ASTAE) of the World Bank in supporting alternative energy source projects in Asia. Energy growth rates have been as high as 18% per year, with power capacity doubling each decade in the 1960`s, 70`s and 80`s. Much of this has come from fossil fuel projects coupled with major hydroelectric projects. One consequence is developing air pollution loads originating in Asia. ASTAE has been supporting pilot programs in applying alternative energy sources. The goal has been to mainstream renewable energy sources in World Bank operations, by working with managers from different countries to: include renewable energy in country assistance strategies and sectorial development plans; provide assistance to renewable energy initiatives; expand initiatives to new countries, sectors and technologies.

  10. Alternative energies updates on progress

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Germán

    2013-01-01

    This book examines the key pillars of alternative energy, including biomass, hydrogen, solar and geothermal. It features life cycle assessment and thermoeconomic analysis as tools for evaluating and optimising environmental and cost subjects.

  11. Policies for the setting up of alternative energy systems in European SMEs: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarpellini, S.; Romeo, L.M.

    1999-01-01

    SMEs--which provide two-thirds of all jobs in the european Union--have proven to be particularly dynamic vehicles for innovation so they must be given easy access to available advanced energy systems. In this scenario, renewable energies represent the most adequate resource to supply SMEs, included in rural areas, assuring continuity and without dependence to the fluctuations of energy market. SMEnergy project results have to be taken into account because the project, specially designed for the Spanish Region of Aragon, can be implemented to specific European Areas needs and integrated at a wider key synergy's project. (Author)

  12. Alternative energy sources: ECC report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renwick, Lord; Stoddart, Lord; Lauderdale, Earl of

    1988-01-01

    The European Communities Committee Report on Alternative Energy Resources was debated. Six alternative energy sources were first described - wind power, biomass, geothermal energy, solar energy, wave and tidal power. Combined heat and power was also mentioned. General questions concerning alternative energy sources were then considered. In particular, their potential contribution to the energy demand was assessed. The evidence presented to the committee suggested that they would only make a small contribution in the near future and could not be considered as a substitute for coal and nuclear power. However, by the year 2030 it would be possible for 18% of the national electricity demand to be met by alternative energy sources. The economic and environmental issues were assessed briefly and the report's conclusions were summarized. An independent review of wave power was called for in view of conflicting evidence presented to the committee. The debate which followed lasted three hours and is reported verbatim. Other issues raised included energy conservation, public attitudes to energy, the environment, government and private funding of research and development of nuclear power, including fusion. (U.K.)

  13. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 3: Energy conversion system characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Six current and thirty-six advanced energy conversion systems were defined and combined with appropriate balance of plant equipment. Twenty-six industrial processes were selected from among the high energy consuming industries to serve as a frame work for the study. Each conversion system was analyzed as a cogenerator with each industrial plant. Fuel consumption, costs, and environmental intrusion were evaluated and compared to corresponding traditional values. The advanced energy conversion technologies indicated reduced fuel consumption, costs, and emissions. Fuel energy savings of 10 to 25 percent were predicted compared to traditional on site furnaces and utility electricity. With the variety of industrial requirements, each advanced technology had attractive applications. Fuel cells indicated the greatest fuel energy savings and emission reductions. Gas turbines and combined cycles indicated high overall annual savings. Steam turbines and gas turbines produced high estimated returns. In some applications, diesels were most efficient. The advanced technologies used coal derived fuels, or coal with advanced fluid bed combustion or on site gasifications. Data and information for both current and advanced energy conversion technology are presented. Schematic and physical descriptions, performance data, equipment cost estimates, and predicted emissions are included. Technical developments which are needed to achieve commercialization in the 1985-2000 period are identified.

  14. System analysis and assessment of technological alternatives for Nordic H{sub 2} energy foresight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koljonen, T.; Pursiheimo, E. [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Gether, K. [NTNU, Trondheim (Norway); Joergensen, K. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark)

    2004-12-01

    The hydrogen scenarios developed during the Nordic Hydrogen Foresight project was analysed using a energy system model, which was developed during the project. The aim of the systems analysis was to analyse the technical and economical potential of hydrogen society in the Nordic countries in quantitative terms as well as the competitiveness of the selected hydrogen based systems. Visions and scenarios of the future energy systems in the Nordic area were defined in the workshops of the project. As a result of these workshops three scenarios were selected to outline the future of Nordic energy. The scenarios included different energy policies; scenarios for fossil fuel prices; and hydrogen energy demands, which varied from 6% to 18% of the total energy demand in 2030 for transport sector, and from 3% to 9% in heat and power production. In the roadmap workshops, the most important hydrogen based systems were selected, which were also included in the model. These include steam reforming of natural gas, electrolysis with renewable electricity, and biomass gasification for hydrogen production. For stationary applications, fuel cells and gas engines were selected for power and heat production. In our scenario calculations, biomass gasification and steam reforming seem to be the most competitive technologies for hydrogen production. The competitiveness of biomass gasification is greatly affected by the biomass fuel price, which is a local energy source. Electrolysis seems to be most competitive in decentralized systems, if the electricity price is low enough. For stationary applications, CHP fuel cells seem to be the most competitive in the long term, if the technological development and the decrease in investment costs follow the assumed scenario. The approximated Nordic market sizes in 2030 for the base scenarios varied from 1000 ME to 3000 MEuro for hydrogen production, from 1000 to 4000 MEuro for stationary applications and 4000 MEuro to 12.000 MEuro for hydrogen

  15. Alternative energy technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.B.; Khan, M.Z.; Javed, A.; Bahadur, A.; Hussain, T.

    2011-01-01

    The paper cites three practical propositions to furnish viable green energy in the Biofuels, Clean Coal Processes, and Windmill sectors. We share our experience on indigenous fabrication of 500 W, 1.5 m windmill rotors with a hub height of 6.0 m above ground level as part of NUST-AERO-Fiber Tech outreach industrial link project. Mirror process with matching receptacles is used to fabricate the windmill rotors according to NACA aero foil profile. Full scale load-deflection/bending stiffness tests are conducted using simulated aerodynamic load with incremental loading. An avg. bending stiffness of 14.85 KN/m and mean displacement of 21.17 mm for the maximum applied load of 0.35 KN is recorded at a loading rate of 0.05 KN/sec. for a full scale load range of 25 KN. These results demonstrate that the manufactured composite rotors had adequate structural integrity, subsequently verified in actual windmill operation at 400 rpm. The installed windmill now adorns the skyline of NUST. Fast Track liquid bio fuels are produced from non-edible crop oil using bimodal nano materials. In a process developed at SCME NUST, a conversion to bio diesel time of 5 min. at 25 deg. C is achieved compared to 90 min. at 70 deg. C for the conventional hydroxide catalyst route. The process parameters, characterization and evaluation testing are presented. (author)

  16. Health and safety: Preliminary comparative assessment of the Satellite Power System (SPS) and other energy alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habegger, L. J.; Gasper, J. R.; Brown, C.

    1980-01-01

    Data readily available from the literature were used to make an initial comparison of the health and safety risks of a fission power system with fuel reprocessing; a combined-cycle coal power system with a low-Btu gasifier and open-cycle gas turbine; a central-station, terrestrial, solar photovoltaic power system; the satellite power system; and a first-generation fusion system. The assessment approach consists of the identification of health and safety issues in each phase of the energy cycle from raw material extraction through electrical generation, waste disposal, and system deactivation; quantitative or qualitative evaluation of impact severity; and the rating of each issue with regard to known or potential impact level and level of uncertainty.

  17. Community Energy: A Social Architecture for an Alternative Energy Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Steven M.; High-Pippert, Angela

    2005-01-01

    Community energy based on a mix of distributed technologies offers a serious alternative to the current energy system. The nature of community energy and the role that such initiatives might play in the general fabric of civic life is not, however, well understood. Community energy initiatives might involve only those citizens who prefer to be…

  18. Net fossil energy savings for alternative mixes in various electric supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essam, P.; Stocks, K.J.

    1978-11-01

    The actual and projected electric power station building programs of several countries and regions have been examined to determine what effect the introduction of nuclear power has on fossil fuel usage by the electricity system. It was found that (1) nuclear power leads directly to savings in fossil fuel usage, a larger nuclear component leading to larger savings; (2) individual nuclear stations rapidly wipe out the energy 'debt' incurred during building; and (3) the relatively short periods of consolidation in the early stages of a nation's building program usually prevent the nuclear component from going into energy 'debt'. Assessments of the energy requirements to build and run various types of power station have been made from the available literature

  19. A water system model for exploring electric energy alternatives in southeastern US basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores-López, F; Yates, D

    2013-01-01

    Electric power generation often involves the use of water for power plant cooling and steam generation, which typically involves the release of cooling water to nearby rivers and lakes. The resulting thermal pollution may negatively impact the ecosystems of these water bodies. Water resource systems models enable the examination of the implications of alternative electric generation on regional water resources. This letter documents the development, calibration, and validation of a climate-driven water resource systems model of the Apalachicola–Chattahoochee–Flint, the Alabama–Coosa–Tallapoosa, and the Tombigbee River basins in the states of Georgia, Alabama, and Florida, in the southeastern US. The model represents different water users, including power plants, agricultural water users, and municipal users. The model takes into account local population, per-capita use estimates, and changes in population growth. The water resources planning model was calibrated and validated against the observed, managed flows through the river systems of the three basins. Flow calibration was performed on land cover, water capacity, and hydraulic conductivity of soil horizons; river water temperature calibration was performed on channel width and slope properties. Goodness-of-fit statistics indicate that under 1980–2010 levels of water use, the model robustly represents major features of monthly average streamflow and water temperatures. The application of this integrated electricity generation–water resources planning model can be used to explore alternative electric generation and water implications. The implementation of this model is explored in the companion paper of this focus issue (Yates et al 2013 Environ. Res. Lett. 8 035042). (letter)

  20. An Alternative Derivation of the Energy Levels of the "Particle on a Ring" System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Alan

    1996-10-01

    All acceptable wave functions must be continuous mathematical functions. This criterion limits the acceptable functions for a particle in a linear 1-dimensional box to sine functions. If, however, the linear box is bent round into a ring, acceptable wave functions are those which are continuous at the 'join'. On this model some acceptable linear functions become unacceptable for the ring and some unacceptable cosine functions become acceptable. This approach can be used to produce a straightforward derivation of the energy levels and wave functions of the particle on a ring. These simple wave mechanical systems can be used as models of linear and cyclic delocalised systems such as conjugated hydrocarbons or the benzene ring. The promotion energy of an electron can then be used to calculate the wavelength of absorption of uv light. The simple model gives results of the correct order of magnitude and shows that, as the chain length increases, the uv maximum moves to longer wavelengths, as found experimentally.

  1. Greenhouse gas mitigation potential of biomass energy technologies in Vietnam using the long range energy alternative planning system model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Amit; Bhattacharya, S.C.; Pham, H.L.

    2003-01-01

    The greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation potentials of number of selected Biomass Energy Technologies (BETs) have been assessed in Vietnam. These include Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (BIGCC) based on wood and bagasse, direct combustion plants based on wood, co-firing power plants and Stirling engine based on wood and cooking stoves. Using the Long-range Energy Alternative Planning (LEAP) model, different scenarios were considered, namely the base case with no mitigation options, replacement of kerosene and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) by biogas stove, substitution of gasoline by ethanol in transport sector, replacement of coal by wood as fuel in industrial boilers, electricity generation with biomass energy technologies and an integrated scenario including all the options together. Substitution of coal stoves by biogas stove has positive abatement cost, as the cost of wood in Vietnam is higher than coal. Replacement of kerosene and LPG cookstoves by biomass stove also has a positive abatement cost. Replacement of gasoline by ethanol can be realized after a few years, as at present the cost of ethanol is more than the cost of gasoline. The replacement of coal by biomass in industrial boiler is also not an attractive option as wood is more expensive than coal in Vietnam. The substitution of fossil fuel fired plants by packages of BETs has a negative abatement cost. This option, if implemented, would result in mitigation of 10.83 million tonnes (Mt) of CO 2 in 2010

  2. Looking for alternative energy sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Michael

    2012-02-21

    With unrest in oil-exporting countries, backlashes against biofuels and photovoltaics, and a nuclear incident in Japan, the year 2011 rattled confidence in future energy supplies. The search for alternatives is all the more urgent, but some of the solutions investigated hark back to fossil fuels that we can't afford to burn.

  3. Energy analysis of alternative CO2 refrigeration system configurations for retail food applications in moderate and warm climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsamos, K.M.; Ge, Y.T.; Santosa, IDewa; Tassou, S.A.; Bianchi, G.; Mylona, Z.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Alternative CO 2 refrigeration technologies are compared for temperate and warm climates. • The CO 2 booster system with parallel compression was found to be the most energy efficient system. • Parallel compression can offer efficiency advantages of 3.6% in moderate and 5.0% in warm climates. • Parallel compression in booster CO 2 systems is economically attractive in warm climates. - Abstract: Refrigeration systems are crucial in retail food stores to ensure appropriate merchandising of food products. This paper compares four different CO 2 refrigeration system configurations in terms of cooling performance, environmental impact, power consumption and annual running costs. The systems studied were the conventional booster refrigeration system with gas bypass (reference system), the all CO 2 cascade system with gas bypass, a booster system with a gas bypass compressor, and integrated cascade all CO 2 system with gas bypass compressor. The weather conditions of London, UK, and Athens, Greece, were used for the modelling of energy consumption and environmental impacts to represent moderate and warm climatic conditions respectively. The control strategies for the refrigeration systems were derived from experimental tests in the laboratory on a conventional booster refrigeration system. The results from the analysis showed that the CO 2 booster system with gas bypass compressor can provide best performance with 5.0% energy savings for the warm climate and 3.65% for the moderate climate, followed by the integrated cascade all CO 2 system with gas bypass compressor, with 3.6% and 2.1% savings over the reference system for the warm and moderate climates respectively.

  4. Nuclear energy: a sensible alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, K.O.; Spinrad, B.I.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents information on energy futures; energy demand, energy supplies; exclusive paths and difficult choices--hard, soft, and moderate energy paths; an energy-deficient society; energy shortages; economics of light-water reactors; fast breeder reactor economics; international cooperation in the nuclear field; nuclear recycling; alternative fuels, fuel cycles, and reactors; the nuclear weapons proliferation issue; paths to a world with more reliable nuclear safeguards; the homemade bomb issue; LWR risk assessment; accident analysis and risk assessment; the waste disposal risk; radon problems; risks in our society; health effects of low-level radiation; routine releases of radioactivity from the nuclear industry; low-level radioactivity and infant mortality; the myth of plutonium toxicity; myths about high-level radioactive waste; the aging reactor myth; the police state myth; insurance and nuclear power--the Price-Anderson Act; and solar and nuclear power as partners

  5. Renewable energies, alternative or complement?; Energie renouvelables, alternative ou complement?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-05-01

    This meeting deals with the place of the renewable energies in the future. Many subjects were discussed during this meeting: the renewable energies part in in the heating systems and in the bio-fuels, the development of the solar and the wind power energies, the choice of a sector to assist, the renewable energies and the economic development. The full texts of the presentations are provided. (A.L.B.)

  6. Alternative Energy for Higher Education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Cherney, PhD

    2012-02-22

    This project provides educational opportunities creating both a teaching facility and center for public outreach. The facility is the largest solar array in Nebraska. It was designed to allow students to experience a variety of technologies and provide the public with opportunities for exposure to the implementation of an alternative energy installation designed for an urban setting. The project integrates products from 5 panel manufacturers (including monocrystalline, polycrystalline and thin film technologies) mounted on both fixed and tracking structures. The facility uses both micro and high power inverters. The majority of the system was constructed to serve as an outdoor classroom where panels can be monitored, tested, removed and replaced by students. As an educational facility it primarily serves students in the Creighton University and Metropolitan Community College, but it also provides broader educational opportunities. The project includes a real-time dashboard and a historical database of the output of individual inverters and the corresponding meteorological data for researcher and student use. This allows the evaluation of both panel types and the feasibility of installation types in a region of the country subject to significant temperature, wind and precipitation variation.

  7. Engineering economics of alternative energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denno, K.

    1990-01-01

    This textbook presents a comprehensive picture of the economic aspects, feasibility and adaptability of alternative energy sources and their interconnections. The author intends for this treatment of energy sources to be total and complete. It therefore includes such topics as low temperature and high temperature fuel cells, rechargeable storage batteries (including lead acid, nickel-cadmium, lithium, and sodium-sulfur), Redox flows cells energy system in compatibility with fuel cells and storage batteries, MHD energy systems using non-fossil renewable fuels, solar energy system using direct thermal units and photovoltaic generators, wind energy conversion systems, tidal ocean wave energy converters, geothermal energy, and ocean thermal energy conversion systems. The book is structured so that each major energy source is given one chapter. Each chapter begins with a discussion of the basic structural components of the energy source, as well as operational and fuel characteristics. This is followed by an economic analysis, which includes incremental energy cost curves and economic coordination equations for each possible system of operation. Where appropriate, economic scheduling of generation is applied to several modes of system consumption (e.g., localized dispersed systems, interconnected load centers, and central systems)

  8. Alternate Energy for National Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Bhakta

    2010-02-01

    Recent price fluctuations at the gas pump have brought our attention to the phenomenal increase of global energy consumption in recent years. It is now evident that we have almost reached a peak in global oil production. Several projections indicate that total world consumption of oil will rise by nearly 60 per cent between 1999 and 2020. In 1999 consumption was equivalent to 86 million barrels of oil per day, which has reached a peak of production extracted from most known oil reserves. These projections, if accurate, will present an unprecedented crisis to the global economy and industry. As an example, in the US, nearly 40 per cent of energy usage is provided by petroleum, of which nearly a third is used in transportation. The US Department of Defense (DOD) is the single largest buyer of fuel, amounting to, on the average, 13 million gallons per day. Additionally, these fuels have to meet different requirements that prevent use of ethanol additives and biodiesel. An aggressive search for alternate energy sources, both renewable and nonrenewable, is vital. The presentation will review national and DOD perspectives on the exploration of alternate energy with a focus on energy derivable from the ocean. )

  9. Analysis of technological alternatives and energy to the Metroplus system under an integrated assessment, Energy, Environment, Economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzate, Juan M; Builes, Luis A; Rave, Claudia C; Smith, Ricardo A; Cadena, Angela I

    2007-01-01

    Using a multi-period optimization model based on lineal programming, which integrates energy, economy and environment dimensions (MARKAL - Standard version), some economic and environmental impacts due to five different technological choices for the omnibus fleet of the Rapid Bus Transit (Metroplus System) which will operate at the metropolitan area of the Aburra Valley (Medellin - Colombia) were estimated. The technological choices compared are: (1) a fleet powered by compressed natural gas, (2) powered by diesel, (3) powered by Euro diesel III imported from the Mexican Gulf, (4) powered by a mixed fleet 50% compressed natural gas and 50% diesel, and (5) a fleet powered by hybrid diesel vehicles. Results out stand the economic and environmental benefits associated to the use of an omnibus fleet powered by compressed natural gas

  10. A concept of cartographic support for alternative energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олена Агапова

    2016-10-01

    Internet services. The article presents a list of maps for alternative energy in Ukraine and the algorithm of their compilation. The regional cartographic products system comprises a series of alternative energy resources maps (wind, solar, small hydro, biomass and geothermal energy; map series of natural, social, economic, technical and environmental conditions and factors that affect the placement of objects belonging to different branches of alternative energy; a series of maps showing the level of alternative energy development in Ukraine, including an inventory of existing in Ukraine thermal and power plants that use alternative energy sources, as well as enterprises for the production of alternative fuels. In addition, the cartographic system includes a recommendation and forecast maps showing perspective regions of alternative energy industries development and projected production of energy from alternative sources.

  11. Health and safety. Preliminary comparative assessment of the satellite power system (SPS) and other energy alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habegger, L.J.; Gasper, J.R.; Brown, C.D.

    1980-04-01

    Existing data on the health and safety risks of a satellite power system and four electrical generation systems are analyzed: a combined-cycle coal power system with a low-Btu gasifier and open-cycle gas turbine, a fission power system with fuel reprocessing, a central-station, terrestrial, solar-photovoltaic power system, and a first-generation design for a fusion power system. The systems are compared on the basis of expected deaths and person-days lost per year associated with 1000 MW of average electricity generation and the number of health and safety risks that are identified as potentially significant but unquantifiable. The appendices provide more detailed information on risks, uncertainties, additional research needed, and references for the identified impacts of each system

  12. Philippine survey of public attitudes towards alternative energy systems (Pilot Study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savellano, R.A.; Leonin, T.V. Jr.; Bulaon, C.A.; Leon, G.C. de.

    1980-01-01

    The methodology designed by the Joint IAEA/IIASA Project Team on Risk Assessment based on the work of Fishbein and his associates is utilized in this study, in order to determine its applicability in measuring of attitudes of Philippine sample groups. This pilot study was conducted on a group composed of individuals affiliated with a government agency engaged in nuclear energy research. The study demonstrates the applicability and usefulness of the model for attitude measurement under Philippine conditions. (author)

  13. Progress on alternative energy resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, H. T.

    1982-03-01

    Progress in the year 1981 toward the development of energy systems suitable for replacing petroleum products combustion and growing in use to fulfill a near term expansion in energy use is reviewed. Coal is noted to be a potentially heavy pollution source, and the presence of environmentally acceptable methods of use such as fluidized-bed combustion and gasification and liquefaction reached the prototype stage in 1981, MHD power generation was achieved in two U.S. plants, with severe corrosion problems remaining unsolved for the electrodes. Solar flat plate collectors sales amounted to 20 million sq ft in 1981, and solar thermal electric conversion systems with central receivers neared completion. Solar cells are progressing toward DOE goals of $.70/peak W by 1986, while wind energy conversion sales were 2000 machines in 1981, and the industry is regarded as maturing. Finally, geothermal, OTEC, and fusion systems are reviewed.

  14. The Final Report: 1975 Energy Resource Alternatives Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Mark L.; And Others

    This publication describes the projects entered in the Energy Resource Alternatives competition in 1975. Teams of engineering students were given a year to develop non-conventional or alternative energy systems that produced useful energy outputs. Besides an overview of energy sources and uses and discussions of the competitions development, the…

  15. Using energy scenarios to explore alternative energy pathways in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanadan, Rebecca; Koomey, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    This paper develops and analyzes four energy scenarios for California that are both exploratory and quantitative. The business-as-usual scenario represents a pathway guided by outcomes and expectations emerging from California's energy crisis. Three alternative scenarios represent contexts where clean energy plays a greater role in California's energy system: Split Public is driven by local and individual activities; Golden State gives importance to integrated state planning; Patriotic Energy represents a national drive to increase energy independence. Future energy consumption, composition of electricity generation, energy diversity, and greenhouse gas emissions are analyzed for each scenario through 2035. Energy savings, renewable energy, and transportation activities are identified as promising opportunities for achieving alternative energy pathways in California. A combined approach that brings together individual and community activities with state and national policies leads to the largest energy savings, increases in energy diversity, and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. Critical challenges in California's energy pathway over the next decades identified by the scenario analysis include dominance of the transportation sector, dependence on fossil fuels, emissions of greenhouse gases, accounting for electricity imports, and diversity of the electricity sector. The paper concludes with a set of policy lessons revealed from the California energy scenarios

  16. Alternative Immune Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Cadavid Gutierrez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The immune system in animals is a complex network of molecules, cells and tissues that coordinately maintain the physiological and genetic integrity of the organism. Traditionally, two classes of immunity have been considered, the innate immunity and the adaptive immunity. The former is ancestral, with limited variability and low discrimination. The latter is highly variable, specific and limited to jawed vertebrates. Adaptive immunity is based on antigen receptors that rearrange somatically to generate a nearly unlimited diversity of molecules. Likely, this mechanism of somatic recombination arose as a consequence of a horizontal transfer of transposons and transposases from bacterial genomes in the ancestor of jawed vertebrates. The recent discovery in jawless vertebrates and invertebrates of alternative adaptive immune mechanisms, suggests during evolution different animal groups have found alternative solutions to the problem of immune recognition.

  17. Cost benefit indicators associated with the integration of alternative energy sources: A systems approach for Carinthia, Austria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlgemuth, N.

    1999-01-01

    Studies on how to promote the use of alternative energy sources (AES) typically focus on the relative efficiency and effectiveness of alternative subsidising mechanisms. Positive externalities of an increased AES utilisation are in general not explicitly taken into account. This paper analyses...... of AES use. Analysis of two strategies, "Subsidy" and "High Tax", shows that none of these strategies is dominant with respect to all indicators, i.e., there are conflicting objectives. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  18. Economics of alternative energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryle, M.

    1977-01-01

    It is stated that an important part of the oil and natural gas at present consumed in the UK is used for the heating of buildings, a demand which shows large diurnal, day-to-day and annual fluctuations. The replacement of this energy by nuclear-generated electricity, as at present envisaged, would require the construction of some 250 GW of additional capacity by the end of the century, a programme which does not seem feasible. By incorporating relatively cheap short term storage in the form of low-grade heat, the generating capacity required to fulfil peak demand could be reduced by more than 50%. As soon as such storage is provided, however, other sources of energy should become viable and attractive alternatives, and the UK is well situated to make use of wind, wave, and tidal power. It seems likely that the value of North Sea oil/gas reserves as feedstock to the chemical industry will rise sufficiently to make an early reduction in their consumption as fuel of great economic importance. (author)

  19. Economics of alternative energy sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryle, M

    1977-05-12

    An important part of the oil and natural gas at present consumed in the UK is used for the heating of buildings, a demand which shows large diurnal, day-to-day and annual fluctuations. The replacement of this energy by nuclear-generated electricity, as at present envisaged, would require the construction of some 250 GW of additional capacity by the end of the century, a progamme which does not seem feasible. By incorporating relatively cheap, short term storage in the form of low-grade heat, the generating capacity required to fulfil peak demand could be reduced by more than 50%. As soon as such storage is provided, however, other sources of energy become viable and attractive alternatives, and the UK is well situated to make use of wind, wave, and tidal power. It seems likely that the value of North Sea oil/gas reserves as feedstock to the chemical industry will rise sufficiently to make an early reduction in their consumption as fuel of great economic importance.

  20. Alternative Energy Lessons in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Julie

    2010-05-01

    In Scotland the new science curriculum for pupils aged 12 to 15 shall include the following outcomes: "Using my knowledge and understanding, I can express an informed view on a national or global environmental issue;" "I have participated in constructing a model to harness a renewable source of energy and can investigate how to optimise the output;" and "I can discuss why it is important to me and to the future of the world that alternatives to fossil fuels are developed." There will be an emphasis on creating lessons that will nurture responsible citizens, improve pupil engagement and allow students to develop their team working skills. To help teachers plan lessons to address this, the Scottish Schools Equipment Research Centre and Edinburgh University made teaching materials on four renewable energy resources. This poster describes how their suggested activities on solar cells, wind turbines, hydroelectric power stations and wave power were used in science lessons with twelve year old students. After an initial class discussion based on issues related to climate change and diminishing fossil fuel supplies, a workshop activity was carried out in three stages. The students were issued with a fact sheet about one of four imaginary islands (Skisdale, Cloudy Island, Surfsville and Sun City) and they were asked to work in teams to choose the most suitable method of generating electricity for their island. Issues such as costs, where it will be sited and environmental implications were considered. They were then asked to conduct practical activities by constructing and testing models for these forms of renewable energy. To conclude, they presented their proposal to the rest of the class with reasoned explanations. The kits used in the lessons can be purchased from Anderson Scientific (sales@andersonscientific.co.uk). The solar cells were simply connected to a voltmeter. The wind and hydroelectric groups used the same basic equipment. This was made using a small water

  1. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    ECAS compared various advanced energy conversion systems that can use coal or coal-derived fuels for baseload electric power generation. It was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 consisted of parametric studies. From these results, 11 concepts were selected for further study in Phase 2. For each of the Phase 2 systems and a common set of ground rules, performance, cost, environmental intrusion, and natural resource requirements were estimated. In addition, the contractors defined the state of the associated technology, identified the advances required, prepared preliminary research and development plans, and assessed other factors that would affect the implementation of each type of powerplant. The systems studied in Phase 2 include steam systems with atmospheric- and pressurized-fluidized-bed boilers; combined cycle gas turbine/steam systems with integrated gasifiers or fired by a semiclean, coal derived fuel; a potassium/steam system with a pressurized-fluidized-bed boiler; a closed-cycle gas turbine/organic system with a high-temperature, atmospheric-fluidized-bed furnace; a direct-coal-fired, open- cycle magnetohydrodynamic/steam system; and a molten-carbonate fuel cell/steam system with an integrated gasifier. The sensitivity of the results to changes in the ground rules and the impact of uncertainties in capital cost estimates were also examined.

  2. 77 FR 31756 - Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternative Rating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ...-AC46 Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternative Rating... regulations authorizing the use of alternative methods of determining energy efficiency or energy consumption... alternative methods of determining energy efficiency or energy consumption of various consumer products and...

  3. Emerging Energy Alternatives for the Southeastern States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanakos, E. K. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    The proceedings of the first symposium on emerging energy alternatives for the Southeastern States are presented. Some topics discussed are: (1) solar energy, (2) wood energy, (3) novel energy sources, (4) agricultural and industrial process heat, (5) waste utilization, (6) energy conservation and (7) ocean thermal energy conversion.

  4. Remote operation systems and development cooperation, future couple in alternative energy sources; Telegestion y cooperacion al desarrollo, binomio de futuro en energias renovables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borge Diez, D.

    2008-07-01

    Despite of the rising in the fuel and its by-products, alternative energy sources have not vet developed specially in small plants for local generation. Thermal solar energy and biomass could provide most of the thermal energy required in the residential and commercial buildings and provide new solutions such as solar cooling, but people usually distrust because of its difficulties to be operated by no expert staff. In this situation remote operation systems are necessary to increase the number of installations and increase the sales. In the same way these kinds of systems could increase the technology exports to development countries where alternative energy sources can provide energy generation solutions that would improve the quality of life. (Author) 6 refs.

  5. Alternative energy companies : a financier's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aitken, J.

    2002-01-01

    The Canadian energy technology sector can be divided into 2 categories: (1) alternative energy generators which include small hydro, wind, biomass, solar energy and fuel cells, and (2) energy technology services. This presentation focused on publicly traded entities and how financing alternatives are limited to project finance, and venture capital. This situation may change as the long term winners emerge and various segments are recognized as not requiring special regulatory and price incentives. Case studies were presented of financing renewable energy projects and the commitment of the Royal Bank of Canada's (RBC) Financial Group to provide financing for alternative energy projects that impact the transportation sector. 15 figs

  6. Conservation as an alternative energy source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, D. E.

    1978-01-01

    A speech is given outlining the energy situation in the United States. It is warned that the existing energy situation cannot prevail and the time is fast running out for continued growth or even maintenance of present levels. Energy conservation measures are given as an aid to decrease U.S. energy consumption, which would allow more time to develop alternative sources of energy.

  7. Alternate Energy Report, Koleda Childress and Company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-11-01

    This is a NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) report on alternate energy dated November 1, 1988, based on a Koleda Childress and Company of EPA report. As for moves in the US Government, Congress approved an additional budget of $575 million for the Clean Coal Technology Program. President Reagan has signed it and the appropriation will be available in fiscal 1990. The Department of Energy selected sixteen projects for negotiations. It earmarked $382 million for fiscal 1989 for research on fossil fuels with emphasis laid on coal liquefaction, coal combustion systems, heat engines, EOR (enhanced oil recovery), etc. The U.S. Congress has extended for one year the production tax credit for synthetic fuel projects using coal and oil shale as raw materials. The development status is described for the Dow Syngas project and IGCC (integrated gasification combined cycle) technology. The President signed into law the Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988, which covers ethanol, methanol, and natural gas. Enactment of an acid rain control act will be put off until 1989. Alternative fuels for the transportation sector are also taken up. Direct methane-to-liquids conversion is an interesting technology. (NEDO)

  8. The capabilities and constraints of the LEAP (Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System) for development of energy matrix; As potencialidades e restricoes do LEAP (Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System) para o desenvolvimento de matriz energetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Afonso Henriques Moreira [MS Consultoria Ltda, Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil); Cruz, Ricardo Alexandre Passos da; Magalhaes, Ricardo Nogueira [IX Consultoria e Representacoes Ltda, Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This paper seeks to introduce and discuss the main features of the LEAP model preparing energy matrixes, in the medium and long term energy planning context. These characteristics are analyzed and compared to other known simulation models used worldwide, checking potentialities and existing barriers of using the LEAP program (author)

  9. Alternative energy resources for MoDOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    This research investigates environmentally friendly alternative energy sources that could be used by MoDOT in various areas, and develops applicable and sustainable strategies to implement those energy sources.

  10. Wind energy: A viable alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soin, R.S.

    1991-01-01

    This article examines the economic feasibility of wind energy in the current economic and political environment. The article specifically addresses the wind farm application to India, with asides to Europe and the US. Topics discussed include cost of energy generation for a 10 MW wind farm, cost comparison for captive energy options (diesel, coal, wind), environmental impacts, and social benefits

  11. Global Energy Issues and Alternate Fueling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Robert C.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes world energy issues and alternate fueling effects on aircraft design. The contents include: 1) US Uses about 100 Quad/year (1 Q = 10(exp 15) Btu) World Energy Use: about 433 Q/yr; 2) US Renewable Energy about 6%; 3) Nuclear Could Grow: Has Legacy Problems; 4) Energy Sources Primarily NonRenewable Hydrocarbon; 5) Notes; 6) Alternate Fuels Effect Aircraft Design; 7) Conventional-Biomass Issue - Food or Fuel; 8) Alternate fuels must be environmentally benign; 9) World Carbon (CO2) Emissions Problem; 10) Jim Hansen s Global Warming Warnings; 11) Gas Hydrates (Clathrates), Solar & Biomass Locations; 12) Global Energy Sector Response; 13) Alternative Renewables; 14) Stratospheric Sulfur Injection Global Cooling Switch; 15) Potential Global Energy Sector Response; and 16) New Sealing and Fluid Flow Challenges.

  12. Alternative Fuel Guidelines for Alternative Transportation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    The Volpe Center documented the increased use of alternative fuels on vehicles owned and operated by federal land management agencies. For each alternative fuel type, the Volpe Center documented the availability of vehicles, fueling mechanisms and pr...

  13. Implementation of the fuzzy theory in control of alternative energy generation system; Aplicacao da teoria fuzzy no controle de sistemas de geracao de energias alternativas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caneppele, Fernando de Lima [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Energia na Agricultura], E-mail: fernando@itapeva.unesp.br; Seraphim, Odivaldo Jose [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Engenharia Rural], E-mail: seraphim@fca.unesp.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents the application and use of a methodology based on fuzzy theory and simulates its use in intelligent control of a hybrid system for generating electricity, using solar energy, photovoltaic and wind. When using a fuzzy control system, it reached the point of maximum generation of energy, thus shifting all energy generated from the alternative sources-solar photovoltaic and wind, cargo and / or batteries when its use not immediately. The model uses three variables used for entry, which are: wind speed, solar radiation and loading the bank of batteries. For output variable has to choose which of the batteries of the battery bank is charged. For the simulations of this work is used MATLAB software. In this environment mathematical computational are analyzed and simulated all mathematical modeling, rules and other variables in the system described fuzzy. This model can be used in a system of control of hybrid systems for generating energy, providing the best use of energy sources, sun and wind, so we can extract the maximum energy possible these alternative sources without any prejudice to the environment. (author)

  14. A New Challenge for Alternative Energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Editorial Department of China Power Enterprise Management

    2009-01-01

    @@ The year 2008 sees a turning point in China's strategy of promoting energy saving and emissions reduction,as well as development of renewable energy.Oil price breaking US$140 and large area in China suffering from ice and snow disaster,a result of global warming,have both stressed the importance of developing alternative energy.Today,alterative energy accounts for a very small portion in China's power industry.Therefore,it is imminently required to speed up energy restructuring,to vigorously develop power generation with alternative energy such as nuclear energy,hydroenergy,wind energy,solar energy,biomass energy,geothermic energy,thus to realize sustainable development.

  15. Energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haefele, W.

    1974-01-01

    Up to the present the production, transmission and distribution of energy has been considered mostly as a fragmented problem; at best only subsystems have been considered. Today the scale of energy utilization is increasing rapidly, and correspondingly, the reliance of societies on energy. Such strong quantitative increases influence the qualitative nature of energy utilization in most of its aspects. Resources, reserves, reliability and environment are among the key words that may characterize the change in the nature of the energy utilization problem. Energy can no longer be considered an isolated technical and economical problem, rather it is embedded in the ecosphere and the society-technology complex. Restraints and boundary conditions have to be taken into account with the same degree of attention as in traditional technical problems, for example a steam turbine. This results in a strong degree of interweaving. Further, the purpose of providing energy becomes more visible, that is, to make survival possible in a civilized and highly populated world on a finite globe. Because of such interweaving and finiteness it is felt that energy should be considered as a system and therefore the term 'energy systems' is used. The production of energy is only one component of such a system; the handling of energy and the embedding of energy into the global and social complex in terms of ecology, economy, risks and resources are of similar importance. he systems approach to the energy problem needs more explanation. This paper is meant to give an outline of the underlying problems and it is hoped that by so doing the wide range of sometimes confusing voices about energy can be better understood. Such confusion starts already with the term 'energy crisis'. Is there an energy crisis or not? Much future work is required to tackle the problems of energy systems. This paper can only marginally help in that respect. But it is hoped that it will help understand the scope of the

  16. Energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haefele, W [Nuclear Research Centre, Applied Systems Analysis and Reactor Physics, Karlsruhe (Germany); International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria)

    1974-07-01

    Up to the present the production, transmission and distribution of energy has been considered mostly as a fragmented problem; at best only subsystems have been considered. Today the scale of energy utilization is increasing rapidly, and correspondingly, the reliance of societies on energy. Such strong quantitative increases influence the qualitative nature of energy utilization in most of its aspects. Resources, reserves, reliability and environment are among the key words that may characterize the change in the nature of the energy utilization problem. Energy can no longer be considered an isolated technical and economical problem, rather it is embedded in the ecosphere and the society-technology complex. Restraints and boundary conditions have to be taken into account with the same degree of attention as in traditional technical problems, for example a steam turbine. This results in a strong degree of interweaving. Further, the purpose of providing energy becomes more visible, that is, to make survival possible in a civilized and highly populated world on a finite globe. Because of such interweaving and finiteness it is felt that energy should be considered as a system and therefore the term 'energy systems' is used. The production of energy is only one component of such a system; the handling of energy and the embedding of energy into the global and social complex in terms of ecology, economy, risks and resources are of similar importance. he systems approach to the energy problem needs more explanation. This paper is meant to give an outline of the underlying problems and it is hoped that by so doing the wide range of sometimes confusing voices about energy can be better understood. Such confusion starts already with the term 'energy crisis'. Is there an energy crisis or not? Much future work is required to tackle the problems of energy systems. This paper can only marginally help in that respect. But it is hoped that it will help understand the scope of the

  17. Energy: the solar hydrogen alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocheris, J O.M.

    1977-01-01

    The author argues that nuclear and solar energy should begin replacing conventional fossil sources as soon as possible because oil, gas and even coal supplies will be depleted within decades. A hydrogen economy would introduce major technical problems but its chief benefits are that it permits energy storage in a post fossil fuel era when electricity is expected to play a major role. It can be converted to electricity, cleanly and efficiently with fuel cells and in liquid form can be burnt as jet fuel. Hydrogen can also be burnt in internal combustion engines although less efficiently in fuel cells. However, although hydrogen is clean and efficient, technical development is still needed to reduce its cost and to cope with safety problems. The book contains a wealth of technical information and is a valuable reference on a topic of growing importance.

  18. Project finance for alternative energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, S.J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper is intended to provide general advice to sponsors of renewable energy projects who expect to raise project-based financing from commercial banks to fund the development of their projects. It will set out, for the benefit of such sponsors, how bankers typically approach the analysis of these undertakings and in particular the risk areas on which they concentrate. By doing so it should assist sponsors to maximise their prospects of raising bank finance. (author)

  19. Multi-Criteria Analysis of Alternative Energy Supply Solutions to Public Nearly Zero Energy Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giedrius Šiupšinskas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes energy supply alternatives for modernised public nearly zero energy buildings. The paper examines alternative energy production systems such as heat pumps (air-water and ground-water, solar collectors, adsorption cooling, biomass boiler, solar photovoltaic, wind turbines and combinations of these systems. The simulation of the analysed building energy demand for different energy production alternatives has been performed using TRNSYS modelling software. In order to determine an optimal energy supply variant, the estimated results of energy, environmental, and economic evaluation have been converted into non-dimensional variables (3E using multi-criteria analysis.Article in Lithuanian

  20. Comparison of swimming pools alternative passive and active heating systems based on renewable energy sources in Southern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsaprakakis, Dimitris Al.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines different passive and active heating systems for swimming pools. The passive systems introduced in this article are: * The swimming pools' enclosure. * The placement of floating insulating covers on the pools' surfaces whenever they are not used. The examined active systems in this article are: * A biomass heater. * A biomass heater and solar collectors combi-system. * Vertical geothermal heat exchangers (GHE) co-operating with geothermal heat pumps (GHP). The methodology employed for the introduced systems' evaluation is the arithmetic computational simulation of the swimming pools' annual heating, using annual time series of averaged hourly values for the available solar radiation and the calculated pools' thermal power demand (heating loads). The dimensioning of the active systems aims at the maximisation of the heating production from R.E.S. (renewable energy sources). and the optimisation of the corresponding investments' economic indexes. The examined systems are evaluated technically and economically versus fundamental criteria. It is proved that significant reduction of the heating loads is achieved with the introduced passive systems. The reduced swimming pools' heating loads can be successfully covered by the proposed R.E.S. active systems. The fossil fuels consumption is eliminated. The corresponding investments' payback periods can be lower than 5 years. - Highlights: • The passive solar systems reduce the swimming pools heating loads more than 90%. • The examined active heating system exhibit payback periods lower than 3.5 years. • The energy saving is maximised with a biomass heater – solar collectors system. • Single biomass heaters exhibits the shortest payback period. • GHE–GHP can be used in cases of low solar radiation and lack of biomass fuels

  1. An energy Btu tax alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nan, Gehuang D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper extends the Ramsey tax rule and develops a tax rate by minimizing total excess burden, subject to government tax revenues. This tax rate is a function of its own and other fuels' price elasticities of compensated demand and supply, its own price and consumption level, other fuels' prices and consumption levels, and government revenues. It is this proposed tax rate, not the Ramsey tax ratio, that guides a government to levy a tax efficiently through a minimization of total excess burden. In the case of an energy tax, this tax rate provides direct guidance for taxation on various fuels. Moreover, total excess burden generated by the proposed tax rate is significantly less than that produced by the Clinton Administration's proposal

  2. Environmental impacts of energy alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, P.K.

    1998-01-01

    Indian society today is concerned about the health and environmental risks of technologies. The major environmental issues of concern for technologies available for electricity generation are air emissions, management of wastes generated and land requirements. The production of electricity in India is primarily composed of a mix of thermal and hydroelectric power plants with nuclear energy currently contributing to an extent of slightly above 2.0%. For maintaining a decent living standard the present electricity generation has to be increased manifold and with the existing commercially available technologies this can lead to a greater impact on the environment in the immediate vicinity of plant unless a judicious mix is chosen. India which hardly contributed 1 of the global pollution in the year 1950 contributes about 20% now and with the growth in electricity generation its contribution will also be slightly increasing and hence environment will have to be one of the guiding factors in future choice of technologies for the growth of electric power generation. Indian coal has a very high ash content (30 - 50 %) and hence the fly ash problem in India can be severe. During the year 1993-94 approximately 33 million tonnes of fly ash was generated in India from the coal fired thermal power stations. The land requirement for disposal of this ash is continuously increasing. The disposal of fly ash near water bodies will also create difficulties as in addition to radionuclides, toxic trace elements may also get washed out. Pollution from the use of coal will have a definite effect on the environment in addition to depletion of the energy source

  3. ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF ENERGY - ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF POLLUTION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius-Razvan SURUGIU

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In many countries of the world investments are made for obtaining energy efficiency, pursuing to increase the generation of non-polluting fuels due to the fact that energy is vital for any economy. The increase in non-polluting fuels and in renewable energy generation might lead to diminishing the dependence of countries less endowed with conventional energy resources on oil and natural gas from Russia or from Arab countries. Nevertheless, environmental issues represent serious questions facing the mankind, requiring the identification, prevention, and why not, their total solving.European Union countries depend on imports of energy, especially on oil imports. At the same time, the European Union countries record a high volume of greenhouse gas emissions, substances adding to global warming. The transport sector is the main consumer of fossil fuels and generator of greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, diversifying the energy supply used in the transport sector with less polluting sources is an essential objective of the European Union policy in the transport, energy and environment sector. Road transports’ is the sector recording the highest consumption of energy and the highest volume of greenhouse gas emissions.The use of ecologic fuels in the transport sector is an important factor for achieving the objectives of European policies in the field. It is yet to be seen to what extent alternative energy sources are damaging to the environment, as it is a known fact that even for them is recorded a certain level of negative externalities.

  4. Energy efficiency and CO_2 mitigation potential of the Turkish iron and steel industry using the LEAP (long-range energy alternatives planning) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ates, Seyithan A.

    2015-01-01

    With the assistance of the LEAP (long-range energy alternatives planning) energy modeling tool, this study explores the energy efficiency and CO_2 emission reduction potential of the iron and steel industry in Turkey. With a share of 35%, the steel and iron industry is considered as the most energy-consuming sector in Turkey. The study explores that the energy intensity rate can be lowered by 13%, 38% and 51% in SEI (slow-speed energy efficiency improvement), AEI (accelerating energy efficiency improvement) and CPT (cleaner production and technology scenario) scenarios, respectively. Particularly the projected aggregated energy savings of the scenarios CPT and AES are very promising with saving rates of 33.7% and 23% respectively. Compared to baseline scenarios, energy efficiency improvements correspond to economic potential of 0.1 billion dollars for SEI, 1.25 dollars for AEI and 1.8 billion dollars for CPT scenarios annually. Concerning GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions, in 2030 the iron and steel industry in Turkey is estimated to produce 34.9 MtCO_2 in BAU (business-as-usual scenario), 32.5 MtCO_2 in SEI, 24.6 MtCO_2 in AEI and 14.5 MtCO_2 in CPT a scenario which corresponds to savings of 9%–39%. The study reveals that energy consumption and GHG emissions of the iron and steel industry can be lowered significantly if the necessary measures are implemented. It is expected that this study will fill knowledge gaps pertaining to energy efficiency potential in Turkish energy intensive industries and help stakeholders in energy intensive industries to realize the potential for energy efficiency and GHG mitigation. - Highlights: • This paper explores energy efficiency potential of iron and Steel industry in Turkey. • We applied the LEAP modeling to forecast future developments. • Four different scenarios have been developed for the LEAP modeling. • There is a huge potential for energy efficiency and mitigation of GHG emissions.

  5. Management alternatives of energy wood thinning stands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkilae, Jani; Siren, Matti; Aeijaelae, Olli

    2007-01-01

    Energy wood thinning has become a feasible treatment alternative of young stands in Finland. Energy wood thinnings have been carried out mainly in stands where precommercial thinning has been neglected and the harvesting conditions for industrial wood thinning are difficult. Despite of its positive effects on harvesting costs and on renewable energy potential, whole-tree harvesting has been constantly criticized for causing growth loss. In this paper, the profitability of energy wood thinning was studied in 20 Scots pine-dominated stands where energy wood thinning was carried out. The growth of the stands after thinning was predicted with the help of Motti-stand simulator. Entire rotation time of the stands was simulated with different management alternatives. The intensity of first thinning and recovery level of logging residues varied between alternatives. In order to attain acceptable harvesting conditions, industrial wood thinning had to be delayed. The effect of energy wood thinning on subsequent stem wood growth was almost the same as in conventional thinning. Whole-tree harvesting for energy proved to be profitable alternative if the stumpage price is around 3EUR m -3 , the interest rate is 3% or 5% and the removal of pulpwood is less than 20 m 3 ha -1 . If the harvestable pulpwood yield is over 20 m 3 ha -1 , integrated harvesting of industrial and energy wood or delayed industrial wood harvesting becomes more profitable. (author)

  6. A search for space energy alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbreath, W. P.; Billman, K. W.

    1978-01-01

    This paper takes a look at a number of schemes for converting radiant energy in space to useful energy for man. These schemes are possible alternatives to the currently most studied solar power satellite concept. Possible primary collection and conversion devices discussed include the space particle flux devices, solar windmills, photovoltaic devices, photochemical cells, photoemissive converters, heat engines, dielectric energy conversion, electrostatic generators, plasma solar collectors, and thermionic schemes. Transmission devices reviewed include lasers and masers.

  7. Sustainable electric energy supply by decentralized alternative energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahedi, A., E-mail: Ahmad.Zahedi@jcu.edu.au [James Cook University, Queensland (Australia). School of Engineering and Physical Sciences

    2010-07-01

    The most available and affordable sources of energy in today's economic structure are fossil fuels, namely, oil, gas, and coal. Fossil fuels are non-renewable, have limited reserves, and have serious environmental problems associated with their use. Coal and nuclear energy are used in central and bulky power stations to produce electricity, and then this electricity is delivered to customers via expensive transmission lines and distribution systems. Delivering electric power via transmission and distribution lines to the electricity users is associated with high electric power losses. These power losses are costly burdens on power suppliers and users. One of the advantages of decentralized generation (DG) is that DG is capable of minimizing power losses because electric power is generated at the demand site. The world is facing two major energy-related issues, short term and long term. These issues are (i) not having enough and secure supplies of energy at affordable prices and (ii) environmental damages caused by consuming too much energy in an unsustainable way. A significant amount of the current world energy comes from limited resources, which when used, cannot be replaced. Hence the energy production and consumption do not seem to be sustainable, and also carries the threat of severe and irreversible damages to the environment including climate change.The price of energy is increasing and there are no evidences suggesting that this trend will reverse. To compensate for this price increase we need to develop and use high energy efficient technologies and focusing on energy technologies using renewable sources with less energy conversion chains, such as solar and wind. The world has the potential to expand its capacity of clean, renewable, and sustainable energy to offset a significant amount of greenhouse gas emissions from conventional power use. The increasing utilization of alternative sources such as hydro, biomass, geothermal, ocean energy, solar and

  8. Harvesting alternate energies from our planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Bhakta B.

    2009-04-01

    Recent price fluctuations have focused attention on the phenomenal increase of global energy consumption in recent years. We have almost reached a peak in global oil production. Total world consumption of oil will rise by nearly 60% between 1999 and 2020. In 1999 consumption was 86 million barrels of oil per day, which has reached a peak of production extracted from most known oil reserves. These projections, if accurate, will present an unprecedented crisis to the global economy and industry. As an example, in the United States, nearly 40% of energy usage is provided by petroleum, of which nearly a third is used in transportation. An aggressive search for alternate energy sources, both renewable and nonrenewable, is vital. This article will review national and international perspectives on the exploration of alternate energies with a focus on energy derivable from the ocean.

  9. Alternative energy sources in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    The hereby presented report was elaborated for the Royal Netherlands Embassy in Prague, Czech Republic by the Netherlands Chamber of Commerce in Prague from July to October 1999. The report is constituted so as to provide a complete introductory overview of the situation in the Czech Republic relating to alternative energy sources. For the purposes of this report, the term alternative energy sources is conceived as renewable energy sources and combined generation of heat and electricity. Renewable energy sources comprise sun, water, wind, geothermal energy and energy generated from biomass or waste. The report features a glimpse at the history of alternative energy sources' utilisation in the Czech Republic, a description of the current state and an extrapolation of existing trends into expectable medium- and long-run developments. The report also includes an insight into the relevant legal framework and a general scan of market opportunities. The objective of the report is to prepare a solid starting platform for Dutch companies which specialise in renewable energy sources and/or cogeneration and which may be interested in extending their scope of activities to the Czech Republic

  10. Alternative trading systems in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Mosionek-Schweda

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The first Polish alternative trading system – called NewConnect – was opened on 30 August 2007. It has the status of an organized market, but it is operated by the Warsaw Stock Exchange outside the regulated market. Two years later, on 30 September 2009, the WSE launched another market – Catalyst – which consists of four segments including: two regular markets and two alternative trading platforms. The present paper aims to describe fundamental rules of the Polish alternative trading platforms as well as to depict a short overview of their trading indicators and basic statistics.

  11. Ethanol as an alternative source of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haroon, M.; Benjamin, S.E.

    2011-01-01

    Pakistan, at present facades huge shortage of energy that has disabled several industries and has worsened the living standards of a common man. Its economy mainly depends upon agriculture but relies heavily on imported petroleum to meet the necessities. The importance of national resources as an alternative energy resource is thus greatly felt. The sugar cane industry of Pakistan holds a potential to provide such an alternative fuel as bio ethanol that can be produced entirely from molasses. This paper looks deeper into scope of ethanol as one replacement that can reduce the financial and environmental cost of petroleum based fuels. (author)

  12. Public concerns and alternative nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayo, L.H.

    1980-02-01

    The basic task undertaken in this study was to assess the relative public acceptability of three general types of nuclear power systems as alternatives to the existing Light Water Reactor (LWR) system. Concerns registered toward nuclear power constituted the basic data for this assessment. The primary measure adopted for determining the significance of concerns was the degree of difficulty posed by the concern to the nuclear power decisional structure in the establishment and maintenance of norms to control risks or to advance intended energy objectives. Alleviations or exacerbations of concern resulting from particular attributes of alternative systems were measured from an LWR baseline

  13. Energy Sharing for Interconnected Microgrids with a Battery Storage System and Renewable Energy Sources Based on the Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nian Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to facilitate the local sharing of renewable energy, an energy sharing management method of multiple microgrids (MGs with a battery energy storage system (BESS and renewable energy sources (RESs is developed. First, a virtual entity named the energy sharing provider (ESP, which acts as an agent for MGs, is introduced to minimize the power loss cost. Second, a distributed optimal model and a two-level iterative algorithm for the MGs and ESP are proposed, which minimize the total operation cost including purchasing electricity cost, energy storage cost and power loss cost. Based on the energy sharing framework, considering the local objectives of MGs and the objective of ESP, the optimal scheduling can be achieved through the bidirectional interaction between MGs and ESP. During the optimization, the shared information between MGs and ESP is limited to expected exchange power, which protects the privacy of MGs and ESP. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed model and algorithm in different scenarios is verified through a case study.

  14. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), General Electric Phase 1. Volume 2: Advanced energy conversion systems. Part 1: Open-cycle gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. H.; Corman, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    Ten energy conversion systems are defined and analyzed in terms of efficiency. These include: open-cycle gas turbine recuperative; open-cycle gas turbine; closed-cycle gas turbine; supercritical CO2 cycle; advanced steam cycle; liquid metal topping cycle; open-cycle MHD; closed-cycle inert gas MHD; closed-cycle liquid metal MHD; and fuel cells. Results are presented.

  15. Development perspectives of alternative energy projects before the new energy regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencia V; Jaime A; Perez O, Jaime A; Moreno O, German

    2000-01-01

    Large electric energy generation systems are dominant in the energy markets. This has been like that, because the economic balances have not included yet some parameters, and specifically environmental variables, that started being considered in the international markets. Colombian generation and transmission expanding plans are commented and the possibilities for the developing of alternative energy projects are referred to those plans. Additionally, a regional experience in the definition of criteria for electric energy service coverage enlargement allowing for alternative energy inclusion is presents, remarking their successful application as a competitive alternative for rural energizing

  16. Alternatives sources of energy in the Czech energy mix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Lisy; Marek, Balas; Zdenek, Skala

    2010-09-15

    The paper features a basic outline of the situation in the energy sector of the Czech Republic. It brings information about the current state of the country's energy mix and indicative targets of the State Energy Policy. Though coal and nuclear energy will remain the country's energy staples, great stress is also put on the growth of share of renewable and alternative energy sources. Out of these, the greatest potential in the Czech Republic is that of biomass and waste. To make the use of these sources cost-effective, it is necessary to put stress on heat and power cogeneration.

  17. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 1: Introduction and summary and general assumptions. [energy conversion systems for electric power plants using coal - feasibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beecher, D. T.

    1976-01-01

    Nine advanced energy conversion concepts using coal or coal-derived fuels are summarized. They are; (1) open-cycle gas turbines, (2) combined gas-steam turbine cycles, (3) closed-cycle gas turbines, (4) metal vapor Rankine topping, (5) open-cycle MHD; (6) closed-cycle MHD; (7) liquid-metal MHD; (8) advanced steam; and (9) fuel cell systems. The economics, natural resource requirements, and performance criteria for the nine concepts are discussed.

  18. Water use alternatives for Navajo energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbey, D.

    1979-01-01

    The Navajo have substantial resources of coal and uranium, and water use is certain to accompany development of these resources. A variety of supplies, however, are available--water in storage in Navajo Reservoir, water in existing uses which may be transferred, and groundwater. Furthermore, the quantity of water use varies over a wide range depending on the use of water conservation technologies such as dry coolers and wastewater treatment units. Joint management of energy and water resources requires a basic understanding of the water supply and demand alternatives available to the energy industry. Thus, the uses of water for key energy activities--coal and uranium mining, coal transportation (slurry pipelines), and coal conversion (electricity and synthetic gas production) are reviewed. For those activities for which water conservation is feasible, the technologies and estimate costs ($/af saved) are described. The range of water requirements are then compared to energy and water resource estimates. Finally, alternative (not necessarily exclusive) criteria for energy and water resource management are discussed: a) promote energy activities with the lowest minimum water requirements; b) require industry to use low-quality water resources and the most effective water conservation technology; and c) maximize the economic return on Navajo water resources

  19. Outlook for alternative energy sources. [aviation fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    Predictions are made concerning the development of alternative energy sources in the light of the present national energy situation. Particular emphasis is given to the impact of alternative fuels development on aviation fuels. The future outlook for aircraft fuels is that for the near term, there possibly will be no major fuel changes, but minor specification changes may be possible if supplies decrease. In the midterm, a broad cut fuel may be used if current development efforts are successful. As synfuel production levels increase beyond the 1990's there may be some mixtures of petroleum-based and synfuel products with the possibility of some shale distillate and indirect coal liquefaction products near the year 2000.

  20. Elk Valley Rancheria Energy Efficiency and Alternatives Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ed Wait, Elk Valley Rancheria; Frank Ziano & Associates, Inc.

    2011-11-30

    Elk Valley Rancheria; Tribe; renewable energy; energy options analysis. The Elk Valley Rancheria, California ('Tribe') is a federally recognized Indian tribe located in Del Norte County, California, in the northwestern corner of California. The Tribe, its members and Tribal enterprises are challenged by increasing energy costs and undeveloped local energy resources. The Tribe currently lacks an energy program. The Tribal government lacked sufficient information to make informed decisions about potential renewable energy resources, energy alternatives and other energy management issues. To meet this challenge efficiently, the Tribe contracted with Frank Zaino and Associates, Inc. to help become more energy self-sufficient, by reducing their energy costs and promoting energy alternatives that stimulate economic development. Frank Zaino & Associates, Inc. provided a high level economic screening analysis based on anticipated electric and natural gas rates. This was in an effort to determine which alternative energy system will performed at a higher level so the Tribe could reduce their energy model by 30% from alternative fuel sources. The feasibility study will identify suitable energy alternatives and conservation methods that will benefit the Tribe and tribal community through important reductions in cost. The lessons learned from these conservation efforts will yield knowledge that will serve a wider goal of executing energy efficiency measures and practices in Tribal residences and business facilities. Pacific Power is the provider of electrical power to the four properties under review at $ 0.08 per Kilowatt-hour (KWH). This is a very low energy cost compared to alternative energy sources. The Tribe used baseline audits to assess current and historic energy usage at four Rancheria owned facilities. Past electric and gas billing statements were retained for review for the four buildings that will be audited. A comparative assessment of the various

  1. Alternate Energy Report, Koleda Childress and Company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-07-15

    This is a NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) report on alternate energy dated July 15, 1989 (based on a Koleda Childress and Company of EPA analysis). Development of fossil and synthetic fuels in the United States is stated. President Bush on July 12 proposed amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1970. The amendments involve acid rain, urban air pollution, and toxic air pollutants. The proposal will greatly influence the development of new energies, especially in relation to clean coal technology and increase in the use of methanol as alternate automobile fuel. The power and coal industries will be requested, with attention paid to the SOx and NOx emissions reduction schedule, to operate scrubbers, burn low-sulfur coal, convert to natural gas, and to close old facilities. Long-term clean fuel programs will be amalgamated with the proposal of President Bush, and production of methanol-driven automobiles and their fuel will be given a boost. Such will be effected in nine heavily-polluted cities for an increase from 500,000 automobiles in 1995 to 8,250,000 in 2004. Reference is also made to the budget. (NEDO)

  2. Impact of alternative energy forms on public utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, F. W., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The investigation of alternative energy sources by the electric utility industry is discussed. Research projects are reviewed in each of the following areas; solar energy, wind energy conversion, photosynthesis of biomass, ocean thermal energy conversion, geothermal energy, fusion, and the environmental impact of alternative energy sources.

  3. Alternate Energy Report, Koleda Childress and Company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-01-01

    This is a NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) report of January 1990, based on a Koleda Childress and Company of EPA report. Comments are made on the development status of fossil and synthetic fuels in the U.S. In the Department of Energy budget, emphasis is placed on environments, science, and national security, and the budget for fiscal 1991 is 17.5 times 1 billion dollars which is 6% higher than the ordinary level. In Round 3 of the Clean Coal Technology Program, the Department of Energy has selected 13 programs for negotiations. NEDO has completed its national energy strategy draft. What attracts attention is the synthetic fuel as an alternative fuel. It is expected that coal, oil shale, and tar sand will be the raw materials. Combined cycle power generation is recommended for coal gasification. As for indirect coal liquefaction, technology of conversion to syngas will be accelerated. In the future, the direct coal liquefaction product will compete with oil in terms of cost. Oil shale retorting and tar sand processing are taken up. Recent global warming measures and energy forecast into 2010 are shown. (NEDO)

  4. Energy demand modelling: pointing out alternative energy sources. The example of industry in OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renou, P.

    1992-01-01

    This thesis studies energy demand and alternative energy sources in OECD countries. In the first part, the principle models usually used for energy demand modelling. In the second part, the author studies the flexible functional forms (translog, generalized Leontief, generalized quadratic, Fourier) to obtain an estimation of the production function. In the third part, several examples are given, chosen in seven countries (Usa, Japan, Federal Republic of Germany, France, United Kingdom, Italy, Canada). Energy systems analysis in these countries, can help to choose models and gives informations on alternative energies. 246 refs., 24 figs., 27 tabs

  5. State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets Alternative Compliance; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    The final rule of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and its associated regulations enable covered state and alternative fuel provider fleets to obtain waivers from the alternative fuel vehicle (AFV)-acquisition requirements of Standard Compliance. Under Alternative Compliance, covered fleets instead meet a petroleum-use reduction requirement. This guidance document is designed to help fleets better understand the Alternative Compliance option and successfully complete the waiver application process.

  6. Exploring some Australian energy alternatives using MARKAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musgrove, A.R.D.; Stocks, K.J.; Essam, P.; Le, D.; Hoetzl, J.V.

    1983-01-01

    MARKAL is a linear programming model for the optimisation of the technologies associated with energy supply and demand within the complete energy system of a country as it evolves over a given time period. It was developed in the course of a project sponsored by the International Energy Agency, which was carried out at two main centres: Kernforschungsanlage, Juelich, FRG, and Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York, USA, Australia's participation in the Project has enabled the latest version of MARKAL to be installed on the computer at the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories together with the necessary supporting software programs.

  7. Mitochondrial energy-dissipating systems (alternative oxidase, uncoupling proteins, and external NADH dehydrogenase) are involved in development of frost-resistance of winter wheat seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabelnych, O I; Borovik, O A; Tauson, E L; Pobezhimova, T P; Katyshev, A I; Pavlovskaya, N S; Koroleva, N A; Lyubushkina, I V; Bashmakov, V Yu; Popov, V N; Borovskii, G B; Voinikov, V K

    2014-06-01

    Gene expression, protein synthesis, and activities of alternative oxidase (AOX), uncoupling proteins (UCP), adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT), and non-coupled NAD(P)H dehydrogenases (NDex, NDPex, and NDin) were studied in shoots of etiolated winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings after exposure to hardening low positive (2°C for 7 days) and freezing (-2°C for 2 days) temperatures. The cold hardening efficiently increased frost-resistance of the seedlings and decreased the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during further cold shock. Functioning of mitochondrial energy-dissipating systems can represent a mechanism responsible for the decrease in ROS under these conditions. These systems are different in their response to the action of the hardening low positive and freezing temperatures. The functioning of the first system causes induction of AOX and UCP synthesis associated with an increase in electron transfer via AOX in the mitochondrial respiratory chain and also with an increase in the sensitivity of mitochondrial non-phosphorylating respiration to linoleic and palmitic acids. The increase in electron transfer via AOX upon exposure of seedlings to hardening freezing temperature is associated with retention of a high activity of NDex. It seems that NDex but not the NDPex and NDin can play an important role in maintaining the functional state of mitochondria in heterotrophic tissues of plants under the influence of freezing temperatures. The involvement of the mitochondrial energy-dissipating systems and their possible physiological role in the adaptation of winter crops to cold and frost are discussed.

  8. Evolution of competition in energy alternative pathway and the influence of energy policy on economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Honglin; Wang, Lin; Tian, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    This work is devoted to the evolution of the competition of energy alternative pathway in China, and the influence of energy policy on economic growth by using a dynamical system method. Firstly, the relation between energy and economic growth is taken into account, and a dynamic evolution model is established. It is observed that Hopf bifurcation and chaotic behavior occurs with the varying investment in renewable energy production. Secondly, when there is no policy intervention in energy market, the evolution of competition in energy alternative pathway is also investigated. Thirdly, the system parameters are also identified by using an artificial neural network method on the basis of certain empirical statistical data in China, and the dynamics of the parameters-identified system are studied. Finally, the influences of energy policy on economic growth are empirically analyzed, and some policy recommendations are given based on the results of empirical analysis. - Highlights: • Modeling the energy economy system via the method of dynamic system. • Attaining the chaotic attractor of the energy production and economic system. • Discovering the Hopf bifurcation when the investment changes. • Proposing the alternative pathway of free competition in energy production. • Determining the turning points of parameters related to policy regulation

  9. Alternative air-conditioning with the use of solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algarbi, N. M.

    2006-01-01

    The paper concerns the investigation of the alternative air condition systems on the basis of the open absorbtion cycle with the use of solar energy as a heat source. Schematic solution of systems has been carried. The design analysis of working characteristics was performed for a wide rang of initial parameters (teperature and humidity of ambient air, the type and concentration of liquid sorbents, etc.) and construction features of heat and mass transfer.(Author)

  10. Energy efficiency - an alternative to grid reinforcement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2003-12-01

    A shortage of electrical distribution capacity can be approached either by reinforcing the existing distribution network or by using demand side management (DSM) to match consumption to existing capacity. Oslo-based E-CO Partner and network owner Viken Nett have recently completed a project on implementing DSM in Oslo. The results of this project are being used in another, ongoing, project, 'New technology for controlling power load in Oslo', which started in 2001. The two projects evaluate the potential for peak load power reduction amongst residential and commercial customers, as well as the potential for saving energy and for selecting alternative energy carriers to electricity. The consequences and limitations of implementing DSM were studied in greater depth in three pilot studies: these included the analysis of metered data, model simulations and comprehensive surveys to map key motivational factors and behaviour amongst a wide selection of end-users. The projects have shown that it is possible, over a 3-4 year period, to reduce or curb the peak load in a city area by 10-15%. This potential is related to a wide type of measures, among them installation of new equipment, replacement of electrical energy carriers, renovation of buildings and installation of smart house solutions. For network owners, the project has shown that DSM measures in a certain city area can be achieved at a cost 30% below that for grid reinforcement. (UK)

  11. Expert systems: an alternative paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, M.; Alty, J.

    1984-01-01

    There has recently been a significant effort by the AI community to interest industry in the potential of expert systems. However, this has resulted in far fewer substantial applications projects than might be expected. This article argues that this is because human experts are rarely required to perform the role that computer-based experts are programmed to adopt. Instead of being called in to answer well-defined problems, they are more often asked to assist other experts to extend and refine their understanding of a problem area at the junction of their two domains of knowledge. This more properly involves educational rather than problem-solving skills. An alternative approach to expert system design is proposed based upon guided discovery learning. The user is provided with a supportive environment for a particular class of problem, the system predominantly acting as an adviser rather than directing the interaction. The environment includes a database of domain knowledge, a set of procedures for its application to a concrete problem, and an intelligent machine-based adviser to judge the user's effectiveness and advise on strategy. The procedures focus upon the use of user generated explanations both to promote the application of domain knowledge and to expose understanding difficulties. Simple database PROLOG is being used as the subject material for the prototype system which is known as MINDPAD. 30 references.

  12. Caribbean alternative energy programme project proposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-03-01

    This is the third report to follow the Project Group Meeting on ALTERNATIVE ENERGY RESOURCES, Barbados, September, 1977. It consists of summaries of projects proposals identified at the Meeting. The first two reports have been previously circulated. The first CSC(77)AER-1 covers the background, proceedings and recommendations resulting from the meeting as well as containing a brief outline of the project proposals. The country papers and technical papers that were presented at the meeting or served as background material, form the second report, CSC(77)AER-2. Copies of the first two reports can be obtained on request to the Commonwealth Science Council. Projects with potential for making significant progress in the short term have been marked with an asterisk

  13. Long-term alternative energy R and D strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Within the coming decades a transition must be initiated from oil and gas to 'unlimited' primary energy sources, i.e., nuclear and solar energy. Ever more expensive fossil energy forms will have to provide for an intermediary solution to the growing global energy demand. While a rather clear-cut picture of the energy problem has emerged on the global level, a straightforward translation to the national or even to the company level is not available. The current study contract between the European Economic Community and the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) is a first exercice designed to transfer the global results to the intermediary level of the ''Subregion'' of the European Community. In operational terms the contract aims at identifying long-term (up to 2030) alternative energy R and D strategies for twelve European countries that would be consistent with the global scenarios, identified by IIASA

  14. Environmental effects of alternative energy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsinghorst, D.

    1975-06-01

    The exponential increase of the energy consumption has reduced the possibility to pollute air and land so much that the detrimental external effects of economic activities must be regarded in energy modelling. That means to analyse the interdependent connections between the economic system and the environment and to picture the structure of the real system on a mathematical model. To do this, System Dynamics models were developed. Beside the relevant technical variables also sociological variables such as 'public pressure' or 'lobby pressure' were regarded. So it was possible to break open the 'ceteris paribus' assumption of the constant sociological and political influences. The environmental effect of various policies to meet the energy demand were critically examined in simulation runs. It was demonstrated that the pollution of the atmosphere will decrease in the beginning of the 80ies. This is based on the implementation of a new energy technology with a lower pollution and, on the other side, on the increasing amount of pollution control. (orig.) [de

  15. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 11: Advanced steam systems. [energy conversion efficiency for electric power plants using steam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    A parametric analysis was made of three types of advanced steam power plants that use coal in order to have a comparison of the cost of electricity produced by them a wide range of primary performance variables. Increasing the temperature and pressure of the steam above current industry levels resulted in increased energy costs because the cost of capital increased more than the fuel cost decreased. While the three plant types produced comparable energy cost levels, the pressurized fluidized bed boiler plant produced the lowest energy cost by the small margin of 0.69 mills/MJ (2.5 mills/kWh). It is recommended that this plant be designed in greater detail to determine its cost and performance more accurately than was possible in a broad parametric study and to ascertain problem areas which will require development effort. Also considered are pollution control measures such as scrubbers and separates for particulate emissions from stack gases.

  16. Wind energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, R.D.; McNerney, G.M.

    1993-01-01

    Wind energy has matured to a level of development where it is ready to become a generally accepted utility generation technology. A brief discussion of this development is presented, and the operating and design principles are discussed. Alternative designs for wind turbines and the tradeoffs that must be considered are briefly compared. Development of a wind energy system and the impacts on the utility network including frequency stability, voltage stability, and power quality are discussed. The assessment of wind power station economics and the key economic factors that determine the economic viability of a wind power plant are presented

  17. Alternative breeder and near-breeder systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Critoph, E.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear power reactor systems have been developed over the last three decades to the point where they are economically competitive, safe and reliable sources of electrical energy. However, with our present knowledge of fissile resources, there is no assurance that the commercially proven reactor systems, using their current fuel cycles, could play a major role in supplying the total world energy needs of the next, and subsequent, centuries. There is a wide consensus that such assurance requires development of reactor systems with very significantly improved fuel resource utilization. The best known of these, and the one currently receiving the lion's share of attention and effort, is the fast breeder reactor (FBR). This paper reviews the characteristics, development status and planned programmes for alternative concepts to the FBR that meet the requirement for large improvement in fuel resource utilization, i.e. alternative breeder and near-breeder systems. These include: heavy-water reactors operating on thorium fuel cycles, light-water high-conversion and breeder reactors, high-temperature gas-cooled reactors operating on thorium fuel cycles, molten salt reactors and heavy-water suspension reactors. Any attempt to make a logical choice for exploitation among these various alternatives involves a consideration of the interplay between reactor system characteristics on the one hand and a forecast of political and economic environments on the other. The reactor breeding (or conversion) ratio has received a great deal of emphasis, but an optimum choice depends also on a consideration of several other factors, including out- and in-reactor specific fuel inventories, fuel fabrication and reprocessing costs, reactor capital cost and load factor, fuel resources and demand growth rate of capacity. Possible variations in this optimum choice with time and regional location are discussed

  18. USD Catalysis Group for Alternative Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoefelmeyer, James D.; Koodali, Ranjit; Sereda, Grigoriy; Engebretson, Dan; Fong, Hao; Puszynski, Jan; Shende, Rajesh; Ahrenkiel, Phil

    2012-03-13

    The South Dakota Catalysis Group (SDCG) is a collaborative project with mission to develop advanced catalysts for energy conversion with two primary goals: (1) develop photocatalytic systems in which polyfunctionalized TiO2 are the basis for hydrogen/oxygen synthesis from water and sunlight (solar fuels group), (2) develop new materials for hydrogen utilization in fuel cells (fuel cell group). In tandem, these technologies complete a closed chemical cycle with zero emissions.

  19. Research and development in alternative energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamptey, J.; Moo-Young, M.; Sullivan, H.F.

    1990-01-01

    This paper comprehensively discusses the various bioconversion and thermochemical processes. It recommends that the most urgent research and development issues should relate to direct microbial conversion systems for starch and cellulosic material and to basic biomass combustion rates and mechanisms. An overview of some of the major renewable energy resources and conversion technologies along with the potentials and problems associated with these are also presented.(author). 235 refs., 2 tabs

  20. Energy infrastructure: hydrogen energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veziroglu, T N

    1979-02-01

    In a hydrogen system, hydrogen is not a primary source of energy, but an intermediary, an energy carrier between the primary energy sources and the user. The new unconventional energy sources, such as nuclear breeder reactors, fusion reactors, direct solar radiation, wind energy, ocean thermal energy, and geothermal energy have their shortcomings. These shortcomings of the new sources point out to the need for an intermediary energy system to form the link between the primary energy sources and the user. In such a system, the intermediary energy form must be transportable and storable; economical to produce; and if possible renewable and pollution-free. The above prerequisites are best met by hydrogen. Hydrogen is plentiful in the form of water. It is the cheapest synthetic fuel to manufacture per unit of energy stored in it. It is the least polluting of all of the fuels, and is the lightest and recyclable. In the proposed system, hydrogen would be produced in large plants located away from the consumption centers at the sites where primary new energy sources and water are available. Hydrogen would then be transported to energy consumption centers where it would be used in every application where fossil fuels are being used today. Once such a system is established, it will never be necessary to change to any other energy system.

  1. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 6: Closed-cycle gas turbine systems. [energy conversion efficiency in electric power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, D. J.; Fentress, W. K.; Stahl, W. F.

    1976-01-01

    Both recuperated and bottomed closed cycle gas turbine systems in electric power plants were studied. All systems used a pressurizing gas turbine coupled with a pressurized furnace to heat the helium for the closed cycle gas turbine. Steam and organic vapors are used as Rankine bottoming fluids. Although plant efficiencies of over 40% are calculated for some plants, the resultant cost of electricity was found to be 8.75 mills/MJ (31.5 mills/kWh). These plants do not appear practical for coal or oil fired plants.

  2. Rural and Renewable Energy Project: Renewable and Alternative Energy Devices and Viable Alternatives to Fuelwood and Kerosene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    The need for conservation of the nation's trees and other forestry resources so as to make the Government's reafforestation, soil erosion and desertification control programs successful, is a matter that requires serious attention. This is because the bulk of the people of this country, who are in the rural areas, depend massively on fuelwood as their source of energy for cooking. For a large percentage of the urban dwellers, the situation is not much different since the recent increases in the prices of kerosene and liquefied petroleum gas has forced many to opt for fuelwood for cooking. Viable renewable and alternative energy systems like solar cookers, biogas plants, improved wood burning stoves, briquetted biomass and smokeless coal briquettes and stoves are essential for the provision of alternative cooking fuels and methodologies. Furthermore, the inefficient open-to-sun drying method is prevalent, while the rural areas are particularly starved of petroleum products and grid electricity. Modern solar dryers, solar-PV, wind and hydropower can be used to meet some of the energy needs of the rural population. This paper discusses these renewable and alternative devices and how they can be integrated into the Nigerian rural energy system. (author)

  3. Understanding and accepting fusion as an alternative energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerz, D.A.

    1987-12-10

    Fusion, the process that powers our sun, has long promised to be a virtually inexhaustible source of energy for mankind. No other alternative energy source holds such bright promise, and none has ever presentd such formidable scientific and engineering challenges. Serious research efforts have continued for over 30 years in an attempt to harness and control fusion here on earth. Scientists have made considerable progress in the last decade toward achieving the conditions required for fusion power, and recent experimental results and technological progress have made the scientific feasibility of fusion a virtual certainty. With this knowledge and confidence, the emphasis can now shift toward developing power plants that are practical and economical. Although the necessary technology is not in hand today, the extension to an energy producing system in 20 years is just as attainable as was putting a man on the moon. In the next few decades, the world's population will likely double while the demand for energy will nearly quadruple. Realistic projections show that within the next generation a significant fraction of our electric power must come from alternative energy sources. Increasing environmental concerns may further accelerate this timetable in which new energy sources must be introduced. The continued development of fusion systems to help meet the energy needs of the future will require greater public understanding and support of this technology. The fusion community must do more to make the public aware of the fact that energy is a critical international issue and that fusion is a viable and necessary energy technology that will be safe and economical. 12 refs., 8 figs.

  4. Understanding and accepting fusion as an alternative energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goerz, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Fusion, the process that powers our sun, has long promised to be a virtually inexhaustible source of energy for mankind. No other alternative energy source holds such bright promise, and none has ever presentd such formidable scientific and engineering challenges. Serious research efforts have continued for over 30 years in an attempt to harness and control fusion here on earth. Scientists have made considerable progress in the last decade toward achieving the conditions required for fusion power, and recent experimental results and technological progress have made the scientific feasibility of fusion a virtual certainty. With this knowledge and confidence, the emphasis can now shift toward developing power plants that are practical and economical. Although the necessary technology is not in hand today, the extension to an energy producing system in 20 years is just as attainable as was putting a man on the moon. In the next few decades, the world's population will likely double while the demand for energy will nearly quadruple. Realistic projections show that within the next generation a significant fraction of our electric power must come from alternative energy sources. Increasing environmental concerns may further accelerate this timetable in which new energy sources must be introduced. The continued development of fusion systems to help meet the energy needs of the future will require greater public understanding and support of this technology. The fusion community must do more to make the public aware of the fact that energy is a critical international issue and that fusion is a viable and necessary energy technology that will be safe and economical. 12 refs., 8 figs

  5. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 10: Liquid-metal MHD systems. [energy conversion efficiency of electric power plants using liquid metal magnetohydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, R. R.; Lippert, T. E.

    1976-01-01

    Electric Power Plant costs and efficiencies are presented for two basic liquid-metal cycles corresponding to 922 and 1089 K (1200 and 1500 F) for a commercial applications using direct coal firing. Sixteen plant designs are considered for which major component equipment were sized and costed. The design basis for each major component is discussed. Also described is the overall systems computer model that was developed to analyze the thermodynamics of the various cycle configurations that were considered.

  6. Wind energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, H. J.

    1978-01-01

    A discussion on wind energy systems involved with the DOE wind energy program is presented. Some of the problems associated with wind energy systems are discussed. The cost, efficiency, and structural design of wind energy systems are analyzed.

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Krug Energy Opens Natural Gas Fueling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Station in Arkansas Krug Energy Opens Natural Gas Fueling Station in Arkansas to someone by E -mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Krug Energy Opens Natural Gas Fueling Station in Arkansas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Krug Energy Opens Natural Gas Fueling Station in

  8. The Time-Inconsistency of Alternative Energy Policy

    OpenAIRE

    D'ARTIGUES, Agnès; PERCEBOIS, Jacques; VIGNOLO, Thierry

    2007-01-01

    Time-inconsistency can arise when a government attempts to convince private sector to use a particular alternative energy (gas, green electricity...) rather than petroleum products. By introducing taxes and feed-in prices, a government would encourage firms and households to switch to an alternative energy rather than use petroleum products. However, even if a government is in favor of increasing alternative energy consumption, it can benefit from considerable financial resources resulting fr...

  9. What's Next for Alternative Energy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balagopal, B.; Paranikas, P.; Rose, J.

    2010-11-15

    Conventional energy sources will remain the bulk of the world's energy mix for at least the next few decades. Yet there are several alternative-energy technologies that are approaching inflection points in their development and could have an impact on the global energy landscape far sooner than commonly assumed. Other alternative-energy technologies, meanwhile, will remain largely vision and promise for the foreseeable future. This report looks at the prospects for a range of alternative-energy technologies, including wind and solar.

  10. Proceedings of the International conference on energy alternatives/risk education V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marx, Gyoergy

    1990-02-01

    This Proceedings volume on Energy and Risk within the context of the International Conference on Energy Alternatives/Risk Education contains papers on Nuclear Energy, on Background Radiation and on Risks of Energy Alternatives. 15 papers concerning safety of nuclear reactors, case stories of reactor and radiation accidents, monitoring low-level indoor radiation, educational tods, comparison of energy system risks, and catalyzed fusion were indexed and abstracted separately for the INIS database. (R.P.)

  11. Workshop on power conditioning for alternative energy technologies. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    As various alternative energy technologies such as photovoltaics, wind, fuel cells, and batteries are emerging as potential sources of energy for the future, the need arises for development of suitable power-conditioning systems to interface these sources to their respective loads. Since most of these sources produce dc electricity and most electrical loads require ac, an important component of the required power-conditioning units is a dc-to-ac inverter. The discussions deal with the development of power conditioners for each alternative energy technology. Discussion topics include assessments of current technology, identification of operational requirements with a comparison of requirements for each source technology, the identification of future technology trends, the determination of mass production and marketing requirements, and recommendations for program direction. Specifically, one working group dealt with source technology: photovoltaics, fuel cells and batteries, and wind followed by sessions discussing system size and application: large grid-connected systems, small grid-connected systems, and stand alone and dc applications. A combined group session provided an opportunity to discuss problems common to power conditioning development.

  12. Nuclear energy such as an alternative energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domingos, D.B.; Stecher, L.C.; Menzel, F.; Coelho, T.S.; Giariola, R.S

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear power is still an unknown subject to many and ends up being left out when it comes to alternative energy sources and environmental preservation. Unfamiliarity and the disclosures information that are not always correct end up not to show the public the true risks and benefits of this source. The strength of public opinion is the main barrier to the advancement of this technology. So, this paper aims to demystify the villain aspect of nuclear energy that could become a major source for power generation. For this, will be made a historical retrospective of the theories that enabled the field of nuclear fission, the authors and key points, such as will be described how nuclear fission reaction is produced, controlled and sustained and how energy is produced, will be also made an argument on key facts that lead public opinion to stand up against nuclear power, as the generation of radioactive waste and nuclear weapons. Are presented possible solutions beyond the learning and improvements resulting from the occurred accidents. After these analyzes was observed that, besides being a potentially clean source for power generation, it can be safe in order that the waste generated are already safely managed and intelligence groups also monitor terrorist groups, seeking to ensure global security in relation to nuclear weapons and, at the issue of accidents, each event has brought learning and became the nuclear industry today, one of the safest. (author)

  13. Nuclear energy such as an alternative energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingos, D.B.; Stecher, L.C.; Menzel, F.; Coelho, T.S.; Giariola, R.S, E-mail: douglasborgesdomingos@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear power is still an unknown subject to many and ends up being left out when it comes to alternative energy sources and environmental preservation. Unfamiliarity and the disclosures information that are not always correct end up not to show the public the true risks and benefits of this source. The strength of public opinion is the main barrier to the advancement of this technology. So, this paper aims to demystify the villain aspect of nuclear energy that could become a major source for power generation. For this, will be made a historical retrospective of the theories that enabled the field of nuclear fission, the authors and key points, such as will be described how nuclear fission reaction is produced, controlled and sustained and how energy is produced, will be also made an argument on key facts that lead public opinion to stand up against nuclear power, as the generation of radioactive waste and nuclear weapons. Are presented possible solutions beyond the learning and improvements resulting from the occurred accidents. After these analyzes was observed that, besides being a potentially clean source for power generation, it can be safe in order that the waste generated are already safely managed and intelligence groups also monitor terrorist groups, seeking to ensure global security in relation to nuclear weapons and, at the issue of accidents, each event has brought learning and became the nuclear industry today, one of the safest. (author)

  14. Strategies of an alternative energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauerschmidt, R.; Stroebele, W.

    1977-01-01

    The demands made on the energy policy of the Federal Republic within the next decades are investigated: Determination of the energy demand not by means of global indicators like the growth of the national product but rather by means of energetic functions such as heat, illumination, transportation, etc. Stopping nuclear technology; instead, utilisation of natural energy sources such as solar energy, geothermal energy, and the long-term energy source coal: A drastic reduction of the growth rates of energy production with the aid of a structural programme for a more efficient use of energy is proposed. (orig.) [de

  15. Energy and environmental evaluation of tri-generation energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chicco, G.; Mancarella, P.

    2008-01-01

    Tri generation facilities manufactured with various technologies represent an important alternative solution for the development more efficient energy systems and low environmental impact. Are described the issues related to modelling and energy and environmental evaluation [it

  16. Foster alternate sources of energy or perish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panda, P.C.

    1992-01-01

    With proper planning, load identification and community sharing, the energy requirements of the non-commercial sector can be left to the renewable energy resources. Of course, the day is not far off when the world energy demand shall fully count on the renewable energy resources of the world. (author). 2 refs., 1 tab

  17. Alternative energy resources for the Missouri Department of Transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates environmentally friendly alternative energy sources that could be used by MoDOT in various areas, and develops applicable and sustainable strategies to implement those energy sources.

  18. Oil prices and the stock prices of alternative energy companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriques, Irene; Sadorsky, Perry

    2008-01-01

    Energy security issues coupled with increased concern over the natural environment are driving factors behind oil price movements. While it is widely accepted that rising oil prices are good for the financial performance of alternative energy companies, there has been relatively little statistical work done to measure just how sensitive the financial performance of alternative energy companies are to changes in oil prices. In this paper, a four variable vector autoregression model is developed and estimated in order to investigate the empirical relationship between alternative energy stock prices, technology stock prices, oil prices, and interest rates. Our results show technology stock prices and oil prices each individually Granger cause the stock prices of alternative energy companies. Simulation results show that a shock to technology stock prices has a larger impact on alternative energy stock prices than does a shock to oil prices. These results should be of use to investors, managers and policy makers. (author)

  19. Washoe Tribe Alternative Energy Feasibility Study Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Jennifer [Washoe Tribe of NV and CA

    2014-10-01

    The Washoe Tribe of Nevada and California was awarded funding to complete the Washoe Tribe Alternative Energy Feasibility Study project. The main goal of the project was to complete an alternative energy feasibility study. This study was completed to evaluate “the potential for development of a variety of renewable energy projects and to conduct an alternative energy feasibility study that determines which alternative energy resources have the greatest economic opportunity for the Tribe, while respecting cultural and environmental values” (Baker-Tilly, 2014). The study concluded that distributed generation solar projects are the best option for renewable energy development and asset ownership for the Washoe Tribe. Concentrating solar projects, utility scale wind projects, geothermal, and biomass resource projects were also evaluated during the study and it was determined that these alternatives would not be feasible at this time.

  20. Energy systems transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangerman, A T C Jérôme; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

    2013-02-12

    The contemporary industrial metabolism is not sustainable. Critical problems arise at both the input and the output side of the complex: Although affordable fossil fuels and mineral resources are declining, the waste products of the current production and consumption schemes (especially CO(2) emissions, particulate air pollution, and radioactive residua) cause increasing environmental and social costs. Most challenges are associated with the incumbent energy economy that is unlikely to subsist. However, the crucial question is whether a swift transition to its sustainable alternative, based on renewable sources, can be achieved. The answer requires a deep analysis of the structural conditions responsible for the rigidity of the fossil-nuclear energy system. We argue that the resilience of the fossil-nuclear energy system results mainly from a dynamic lock-in pattern known in operations research as the "Success to the Successful" mode. The present way of generating, distributing, and consuming energy--the largest business on Earth--expands through a combination of factors such as the longevity of pertinent infrastructure, the information technology revolution, the growth of the global population, and even the recent financial crises: Renewable-energy industries evidently suffer more than the conventional-energy industries under recession conditions. Our study tries to elucidate the archetypical traits of the lock-in pattern and to assess the respective importance of the factors involved. In particular, we identify modern corporate law as a crucial system element that thus far has been largely ignored. Our analysis indicates that the rigidity of the existing energy economy would be reduced considerably by the assignment of unlimited liabilities to the shareholders.

  1. Government in energy affairs - perspectives and alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neethling, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    The present role of the South African Government in energy policy formulation and implementation is assessed in the light of its possible future evolvement, particularly with reference to the tabling of a White Paper on Energy policy during 1986. The brief of the Ministry of Mineral and Energy Affairs is firstly assessed with particular reference to the energy-related functions of the Department itself and those of the various parastatal and statutory organisations and institutions. The various executive and regulatory functions which circumscribe the involvement of government in energy procurement, production and distribution, are critically reviewed in the light of possible further deregulation and the establishment of a more market-orientated energy economy in South Africa. Secondly, the administrative and consultative mechanisms are identified which are believed to be appropriate for the successful co-ordination of the energy-related interests of government and the private sector. It is argued that history has shown that energy policy decisions in South Africa have essentially been guided by non-energy priorities, in particular geopolitical and strategic considerations. It is foreseen that although this situation will prevail to a greater or lesser degree depending on the measure of energy self-sufficiency which will be achieved, particularly insofar as import-dependency of crude oil is concerned, that the emphasis would, indeed should, shift to national energy priorities and considerations. 12 refs., 2 figs

  2. Energy efficiency of conventional, organic, and alternative cropping systems for food and fuel at a site in the U.S. Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, Ilya; Snapp, Sieglinde S; Robertson, G Philip

    2010-05-15

    The prospect of biofuel production on a large scale has focused attention on energy efficiencies associated with different agricultural systems and production goals. We used 17 years of detailed data on agricultural practices and yields to calculate an energy balance for different cropping systems under both food and fuel scenarios. We compared four grain and one forage systems in the U.S. Midwest: corn (Zea mays) - soybean (Glycine max) - wheat (Triticum aestivum) rotations managed with (1) conventional tillage, (2) no till, (3) low chemical input, and (4) biologically based (organic) practices, and (5) continuous alfalfa (Medicago sativa). We compared energy balances under two scenarios: all harvestable biomass used for food versus all harvestable biomass used for biofuel production. Among the annual grain crops, average energy costs of farming for the different systems ranged from 4.8 GJ ha(-1) y(-1) for the organic system to 7.1 GJ ha(-1) y(-1) for the conventional; the no-till system was also low at 4.9 GJ ha(-1) y(-1) and the low-chemical input system intermediate (5.2 GJ ha(-1) y(-1)). For each system, the average energy output for food was always greater than that for fuel. Overall energy efficiencies ranged from output:input ratios of 10 to 16 for conventional and no-till food production and from 7 to 11 for conventional and no-till fuel production, respectively. Alfalfa for fuel production had an efficiency similar to that of no-till grain production for fuel. Our analysis points to a more energetically efficient use of cropland for food than for fuel production and large differences in efficiencies attributable to management, which suggests multiple opportunities for improvement.

  3. Climatic impact of alternative energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, J

    1979-01-01

    Detailed evaluations have suggested that the order of magnitude of energy demand 50 yr from the present will be 25-40 TW compared with about 8 TW at the present day. Environmental impacts are discussed of three energy-supply sources that could be developed on a large-enough scale to satisfy a demand of this magnitude: solar and nuclear energy and fossil fuels. 14 refs.

  4. Energy for sustainable development in Malaysia: Energy policy and alternative energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman Mohamed, Abdul; Lee, Keat Teong

    2006-01-01

    Energy is often known as the catalyst for development. Globally, the per capita consumption of energy is often used as a barometer to measure the level of economic development in a particular country. Realizing the importance of energy as a vital component in economic and social development, the government of Malaysia has been continuously reviewing its energy policy to ensure long-term reliability and security of energy supply. Concentrated efforts are being undertaken to ensure the sustainability of energy resources, both depletable and renewable. The aim of this paper is to describe the various energy policies adopted in Malaysia to ensure long-term reliability and security of energy supply. The role of both, non-renewable and renewable sources of energy in the current Five-Fuel Diversification Strategy energy mix will also be discussed. Apart from that, this paper will also describe the various alternative energy and the implementation of energy efficiency program in Malaysia

  5. PARADOX OF ALTERNATIVE ENERGY CONSUMPTION: LEAN OR PROFLIGACY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza Safina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of alternative energy resources is conventionally considered as an implement of lean management, main target of which is use of renewable (in terms of exhaustibility energy resources. However, when it comes to actual consumption of alternative energy resources, the contradiction is arisen between , the caused need of economy of non-renewable energy resources and rational environmental management and "providence" which is caused by cost reduction of energy consumption. What is the factual providence, how substantial is the dilemma between environmental friendliness and cost effectiveness in matters of energy savings, what is the significance of alternative energy consumption in countries with different economic types, what should balanced solution in energy mentioned issues are contemplated in current article.

  6. Energy Efficient Alternatives to Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1993-06-01

    An assessment of the state of the art in refrigeration and insulation technologies is carried out to evaluate the potential for efficient substitutes for CFCs and HCFCs to facilitate the transition to a CFC-free environment. Opportunities for improved efficiency in domestic refrigeration, building chillers, commercial refrigeration and industrial refrigeration are evaluated. Needs for alternate refrigerants, improved components, and/or alternate cycles are identified. A summary of on-going research is presented in each area, and the potential roles of industry and government are considered. The most promising approaches for refrigeration technology fall into these categories: (1) improved vapor compressor cycles with alternate fluids, (2) Stirling cycle development and (3) advances in absorption technology. A summary of on-going research into advanced insulation, focused on vacuum-based insulation technology refrigeration is developed. Insulation applications considered include appliances, transport refrigeration, and buildings. Specific recommendations for a long-term R&D agenda are presented. The potential benefits, research, general approach, and probability of success are addressed.

  7. Analysis of the prospects of solar energy and other alternative energy sources in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Mogylko, O.

    2010-01-01

    The need to develop an alternative energy sources in Ukraine to increase energy efficiency and energy security it is explained in the article. The international experience of development of solar energy are analyzed. The prospects and other alternative energy sources in Ukraine are defined. The conclusions and recommendations to address the problems are identified.

  8. Energy Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Home > Building Energy Information Systems and Performance Monitoring (EIS-PM) Building Energy evaluate and improve performance monitoring tools for energy savings in commercial buildings. Within the and visualization capabilities to energy and facility managers. As an increasing number of

  9. Physical Alternative to the Dark Energy Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapar A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The physical nature of the presently dominating enigmatic dark energy in the expanding universe is demonstrated to be explainable as an excess of the kinetic energy with respect to its potential energy. According to traditional Friedman cosmology, any non-zero value of the total energy integral is ascribed to the space curvature. However, as we show, in the flat universe the total energy also can be different from zero. Initially, a very small excess of kinetic energy originates from the early universe. The present observational data show that our universe has probably a flat space with an excess of kinetic energy. The evolutionary scenario shows that the universe presently is in the transitional stage where its radial coordinate expansion approaches the velocity of light. A possibility of the closed Bubble universe with the local Big Bang and everlasting expansion is demonstrated. Dark matter can be essentially contributed by the non-relativistic massive neutrinos, which have cooled to very low temperatures and velocities thus favoring the formation of the observed broad equipotential wells in galaxies.

  10. Alternate Energy Report, Koleda Childress Inc., dated September 15, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-09-15

    Policies, programs, and current status of alternate energy and global warming concerns in the United States are reported. The Department of Energy has announced the selection of nine projects out of 33 in the fourth phase of its Clean Coal Technology Program. The nine projects include TAMCO Power Partner's 107MW integrated gasification combined cycle demonstration project, Union Carbide Chemicals and Plastics Company, Inc.'s regenerable flue gas desulfurization system, and Custom Coals International's self-scrubbing coal technology. The American Petroleum Institute has announced that government mandated use of alternative transportation fuels would be uneconomical and do little to improve U.S. energy security and environmental quality. The Environmental Protection Agency's Clean Fuels Advisory Committee has forged an agreement between the agency, environmental organizations, and the petroleum industry covering the production and sale of reformulated gasoline. Despite growing international pressure relative to greenhouse gas emission reduction targets and timetables, the Bush Administration is expected to maintain its resistance at an international climate treaty negotiation session to take place in Nairobi, Kenya. (NEDO)

  11. Using energy efficiency and alternative energy to extend fossil resources or what if tomorrow actually comes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, M.C.

    2003-01-01

    This PowerPoint presentation outlined the role of energy in maintaining and advancing society, and what happens if we run out of energy. The author provided a glimpse into the energy world through the display of a series of graphs depicting world energy consumption, world energy production, world population distribution, growth rates in Asia, coal use per capita, the United States energy consumption by source, percent of air emissions in the United States from fossil fuel use, and others. It was argued that alternative energy and energy efficiency diminish growth in demand and peak load, supports portfolio diversity, lowers cost, and diminishes environmental impacts. The advances in wind power and solar power were reviewed, as well as advances in bioenergy and hydrogen. The author also argued the case for energy efficiency and conservation. A discussion of various pricing schemes was offered. The first option examined was time of use price, defined as 3 time blocks published in advance for entire seasons. The second option was critical peak pricing, involving a high price imposed for a few days per year when system conditions are critical or near critical. The third option discussed was real-time prices, implying an hourly real-time marginal cost of a kilowatt hour. It was suggested that the system should be changed, since subsidizing energy consumption distorts demand. Energy efficiency and renewables extend fossil energy availability, helping in the transition to a more sustainable world. refs., tabs., figs

  12. Biomass as an alternative energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Bruyn, M.; Naveau, H.; Declerck, C.; Vanacker, L.; Mahy, D.; Schepens, G.

    The object of this paper is to evaluate the possible production and utilization of biomass as an energy source in Belgium. Four conversion methods are considered - methanation, fermentation, incineration and gasification - from a technological and economic viewpoint.

  13. Alternate Energy Report, Koleda Childress and Company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-10-01

    This is a NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) report of October 1989, based on a Koleda Childress and Company of EPA report. Recent trends in U.S. policies toward the development of fossil and synthetic fuels are stated. President Bush has signed into law an appropriations bill for Round 3 of the Clean Coal Technology Program. The $575 million budget will become available in fiscal 1990. Forty-eight projects are planned to be selected, including the energy repowering and retrofitting programs. The President has further approved a $422 million Department of Energy budget for fiscal 1990 for the development of synthetic fuels by coal liquefaction, coal gasification, etc. The Department of Energy now considers a strategy in which energy security and environmental matters are linked. The amendment of the Clean Air Act proposed by President Bush last summer now activates Congress towards its enactment, which involves acid rain, automobile exhaust, etc. Trends in measures to deal with global warming are stated. Under consideration about tax policy is the extension of tax incentives for new energy technologies. Topics of coal/oil coprocessing, etc., are mentioned. (NEDO)

  14. Analysis of the Reliability of the "Alternator- Alternator Belt" System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Mavrin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Before starting and also during the exploitation of va1ioussystems, it is vety imp011ant to know how the system and itsparts will behave during operation regarding breakdowns, i.e.failures. It is possible to predict the service behaviour of a systemby determining the functions of reliability, as well as frequencyand intensity of failures.The paper considers the theoretical basics of the functionsof reliability, frequency and intensity of failures for the twomain approaches. One includes 6 equal intetvals and the other13 unequal intetvals for the concrete case taken from practice.The reliability of the "alternator- alternator belt" system installedin the buses, has been analysed, according to the empiricaldata on failures.The empitical data on failures provide empirical functionsof reliability and frequency and intensity of failures, that arepresented in tables and graphically. The first analysis perfO!med by dividing the mean time between failures into 6 equaltime intervals has given the forms of empirical functions of fa ilurefrequency and intensity that approximately cotTespond totypical functions. By dividing the failure phase into 13 unequalintetvals with two failures in each interval, these functions indicateexplicit transitions from early failure inte1val into the randomfailure interval, i.e. into the ageing intetval. Functions thusobtained are more accurate and represent a better solution forthe given case.In order to estimate reliability of these systems with greateraccuracy, a greater number of failures needs to be analysed.

  15. Economics of alternative energy supply in New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, B. V.

    1977-10-15

    Alternative means of supplying the main categories of energy demand in New Zealand are examined, using a common economic basis. In this context alternative means are defined to include those not presently in significant large-scale use in New Zealand but which have been demonstrated to be broadly technically feasible. Energy demand is conveniently divided into four categories each corresponding to a grade of energy required and each including all relevant demand in households, commerce, and industry. These categories are called low-grade heat, process heat, transport, and high-grade energy. The high-grade energy market is largely satisfied only by electricity and alternative means of supplying electricity are considered by other authors. The remaining categories are discussed. The comparison of alternatives includes a brief examination of how the comparative economics are affected by the economic criteria used and particularly the cash flow discount rate. The results obtained are of scoping accuracy only but some policy implications are suggested.

  16. Constitutional compatibility of energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossnagel, A.

    1983-01-01

    The paper starts from the results of the Enquiry Commission on 'Future Nuclear Energy Policy' of the 8th Federal German Parliament outlining technically feasible energy futures in four 'pathways'. For the purpose of the project, which was to establish the comparative advantages and disadvantages of different energy systems, these four scenarios were reduced to two alternatives: cases K (= nuclear energy) and S (= solar energy). The question to Ge put is: Which changes within our legal system will be ushered in by certain technological developments and how do these changes relate to the legal condition intended so far. Proceeding in this manner will not lead to the result of a nuclear energy system or a solar energy system being in conformity or in contradiction with the constitutional law, but will provide a catalogue of implications orientated to the aims of legal standards: a person deciding in favour of a nuclear energy system or a solar energy system supports this or that development of constitutional policy, and a person purishing this or that aim of legal policy should be consistent and decide in favour of this or that energy system. The investigation of constitutional compatibility leads to the question what effects different energy systems will have on the forms of political intercourse laid down in the constitutional law, which are orientated to models of a liberal constitutional tradition of citizens. (orig./HSCH) [de

  17. Airports offer unrealized potential for alternative energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVault, Travis L; Belant, Jerrold L; Blackwell, Bradley F; Martin, James A; Schmidt, Jason A; Wes Burger, L; Patterson, James W

    2012-03-01

    Scaling up for alternative energy such as solar, wind, and biofuel raises a number of environmental issues, notably changes in land use and adverse effects on wildlife. Airports offer one of the few land uses where reductions in wildlife abundance and habitat quality are necessary and socially acceptable, due to risk of wildlife collisions with aircraft. There are several uncertainties and limitations to establishing alternative energy production at airports, such as ensuring these facilities do not create wildlife attractants or other hazards. However, with careful planning, locating alternative energy projects at airports could help mitigate many of the challenges currently facing policy makers, developers, and conservationists.

  18. The CEA and alternative energies. 8 April 2010 press conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This document presents the CEA's strategy in terms of alternative energies and the various implemented research programs which mainly concern the building sector and the transport sector. After a recall of the energy and climate context, a presentation of the NTE program (Nouvelles Technologies de l'Energie, new energy technologies), the different topics and projects are presented: photovoltaic solar energy and its integration in building; batteries, hydrogen and fuel cells for applications in transports; second-generation bio-fuels

  19. Electricity storage. The problematic of alternative energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauet, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    After having evoked the increasing share of renewable energies in electricity production in Europe and the associated investments, the author outlines the main problems associated with renewable energy: their intermittency, and the fact that they are submitted to quick and important variations which must be managed by the grid. He also evokes economic and financial problems (high taxes in Germany and in France, mandatory purchase mechanisms leading to absurd situations and having consequences on the electricity market). The author discusses the issue of energy storage: storage is expensive and its cost will increase that of the produced energy. However, storage can be interesting if its cost is covered by the income generated by the provided services. Some solutions already exist: pumped-storage power station (PSPS), remotely controlled electric-storage water heaters. The author presents and comments the services which storage can provide: smoothing, spare energy supply, and supply quality. He outlines the importance of a technical-economic analysis for the choice of the best storage solution, but also the need to change the business model

  20. Integrated Photovoltaic System Used as an Alternative Power Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Laurentiu Alboteanu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a solution to use solar energy as an alternative source of electricity to conventional sources. The solution is to use a compact photovoltaic system integrated into a micro smart grid. The studied photovoltaic system is used into concrete application for the power supply lighting in a didactic laboratory.

  1. Alternative and renewable sources of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifritz, W.

    1983-09-01

    The paper reviews the use of biomass as a source of energy and shows from a number of examples, particularly the growing of sugar beet for the manufacture of ethanol, that this way of producing fuel is not desirable. On a world basis it is possible that there might be a confrontation between the needs for 'food' and 'technological' calories of which there is already a hint in the so-called 'energy crop strategy'. In conclusion, given the present world food supply position, the intensification of food production should be given priority over attempts to produce fuel from biomass and we should not aim to use the photosynthetic process to provide technical calories. Other ways must be found to provide the latter, and it is suggested that nuclear energy should make an increasing contribution even in the developing countries. (Auth.)

  2. Energy systems in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haefele, W.

    1989-01-01

    The principal point of the author was to discuss energy systems (ES) in transition, transition addresses the next 10-25 years, and strategy of the transition. He considers different scenarios of future development of ES. Further he presents considerations elaborated during the last years on the concept of novel horizontally integrated ES which gives promise to be at least an approximation to the desired object of no emissions. The main ideas of the concept are: to decompose and thereby clean all the primary inputs before they are brought to combustion; to develop a network combining all the primary inputs to an integrated supply structure of high absorption, buffer, and storage capacity that resembles in some way the supply and utility functions of the well established electric grid but completes it at best on the basis of mass flows; to achieve a high flexibility in supplying the final energy. The author considers the long run perspective of hydrogen, solar, and nuclear energy with respect to alternative energy sources. 6 refs, 24 figs

  3. Principles of sustainable energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kreith, Frank

    2013-01-01

    … ""This is an ideal book for seniors and graduate students interested in learning about the sustainable energy field and its penetration. The authors provide very strong discussion on cost-benefit analysis and ROI calculations for various alternate energy systems in current use. This is a descriptive book with detailed case-based analyses of various systems and engineering applications. The text book provides real-world case studies and related problems pertaining to sustainable energy systems.""--Dr. Kuruvilla John, University of North Texas""The new edition of ""Principles of Sustainable En

  4. Space solar power - An energy alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    The space solar power concept is concerned with the use of a Space Power Satellite (SPS) which orbits the earth at geostationary altitude. Two large symmetrical solar collectors convert solar energy directly to electricity using photovoltaic cells woven into blankets. The dc electricity is directed to microwave generators incorporated in a transmitting antenna located between the solar collectors. The antenna directs the microwave beam to a receiving antenna on earth where the microwave energy is efficiently converted back to dc electricity. The SPS design promises 30-year and beyond lifetimes. The SPS is relatively pollution free as it promises earth-equivalence of 80-85% efficient ground-based thermal power plant.

  5. USU Alternative and Unconventional Energy Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behunin, Robert [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); Wood, Byard [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); Heaslip, Kevin [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); Zane, Regan [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); Lyman, Seth [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); Simmons, Randy [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); Christensen, David [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States)

    2014-01-29

    The purpose and rationale of this project has been to develop enduring research capabilities at Utah State University (USU) and the Utah State University Research Foundation (USURF) in a number of energy efficient and renewable energy areas including primarily a) algae energy systems, b) solar lighting, c) intuitive buildings, d) electric transportation, 3) unconventional energy environmental monitoring and beneficial reuse technologies (water and CO2), f) wind energy profiling, and g) land use impacts. The long-term goal of this initiative has been to create high-wage jobs in Utah and a platform for sustained faculty and student engagement in energy research. The program’s objective has been to provide a balanced portfolio of R&D conducted by faculty, students, and permanent staff. This objective has been met. While some of the project’s tasks met with more success than others, as with any research project of this scope, overall the research has contributed valuable technical insight and broader understanding in key energy related areas. The algae energy systems research resulted in a highly productive workforce development enterprise as it graduated a large number of well prepared students entering alternative energy development fields and scholarship. Moreover, research in this area has demonstrated both the technological and economic limitations and tremendous potential of algae feedstock-based energy and co-products. Research conducted in electric transportation, specifically in both stationary and dynamic wireless inductive coupling charging technologies, has resulted in impactful advances. The project initiated the annual Conference on Electric Roads and Vehicles (http://www.cervconference.org/), which is growing and attracts more than 100 industry experts and scholars. As a direct result of the research, the USU/USURF spin-out startup, WAVE (Wireless Advanced Vehicle Electrification), continues work in wirelessly charged bus transit systems

  6. Croatian Energy System Defossilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potocnik, V.

    2013-01-01

    Defossilization of an energy system, as primary cause of the actual climate change, means exchange of predominantly imported fossil fuels with climate more convenient energy carriers, facilitating thus the way out of crisis.Overview of the world and Croatian energy system situation is presented as well as the overview of climate change. The most important Croatian energy system defossilization measures-energy efficiency increase, renewable energy inclusion and others - are described.(author)

  7. Energy systems security

    CERN Document Server

    Voeller, John G

    2014-01-01

    Energy Systems Security features articles from the Wiley Handbook of Science and Technology for Homeland Security covering topics related to electricity transmission grids and their protection, risk assessment of energy systems, analysis of interdependent energy networks. Methods to manage electricity transmission disturbances so as to avoid blackouts are discussed, and self-healing energy system and a nano-enabled power source are presented.

  8. Environmental risks resulting from alternative energies use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rancevas, S.

    1990-01-01

    Initially, air pollution and energy resources as well as other concepts are established. The way as air pollution is controlled and monitored is also presented for industrial developed / countries and for the State of Sao Paulo. In this State, the air pollution quality, and the evaluations which is and must be done are commented. Finally, some relationships between air pollution and respiratory diseases are evaluated for some localities in the city of Sao Paulo. (author)

  9. Energy rape seed - Non-food alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sipilae, K.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the project is to evaluate possibilities to use agrobiomass for several energy end use sectors. The reference is common European approach where ethanol and rape seed oil is produced for transportation sector. The production costs are approximately 3 - 4 times higher compared to non taxed refinery price of gasoline and diesel fuel. This is also the case for energy crops compared to peat and coal. For Finnish conditions several other options are studied including technical and economical assessments. Solid fuels in form of energy crops like reed canary grass, salix-SRF and straw are evaluated as a feed to multifuel fluid bed boilers and as a futuristic scenario also for flashpyrolysis oil production. Rape seed oil is tested by Neste Oy as a biocomponent in heating oil and as a biocomponent in diesel fuel in engines by VTT. According to present results about 10 - 20 % rape seed oil can be mixed unprocessed to heating oils. Agrofibre production is studied in a laboratory phase with two advanced cooking methods to produce a high value product as a fraction of a biorefinery. The aim of the project is to identify possible research and development paths for future activities. With present prices no agrobiomass is today economically competitive with other fuels. (author)

  10. Pakistan energy consumption scenario and some alternate energy option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maher, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    Pakistan with its energy-deficient resources is highly dependent on import-oriented energy affected the economy because of repeated energy price hike on international horizon. The energy consumption pattern in Pakistan comprises about two-third in commercial energy and one-third in non-commercial forms. Most of the country's energy requirements are met by oil, gas hydro power, coal, nuclear energy and thermal power. Pakistan meets it's commercial energy requirements indigenously up to 64%. The balance of deficit of 35-40% is met through import. The consumption of various agro-residues and wood as fuel also plays a vital role. The analysis shows that emphasis needs to be placed on new and renewable resources of energy besides adopting technologies for energy conservation. Renewable energy depends on energy income and constitutes the development process. The are several renewable energy options such as biogas technology, micro-hydro power generation, direct solar energy and biomass energy conservation etc. By improving the conservation techniques as designs of solar converters, pre treating the biomass fuel, increasing the effectiveness of carbonization and pyrolysis increases the energy production. (A.B.)

  11. Perspectives of Use of Alternative Energy Sources in Air Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Socha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of environmental load is also reflected in air transport. Usage of fossil fuels, which are dominant nowadays, has a negative impact on the environment and also its resources are limited. Therefore, the article focuses on the prospective of use of other energy sources in aviation, such as alternative fuels (synthetic fuels, biofuels, alcohol, methane, hydrogen, solar energy and the use of fuel cells. Also, the paper briefly summarizes the approach of aircraft manufacturers to the use alternative sources.

  12. Alternative energy and distributed generation: thinking generations ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, P.D.

    2001-01-01

    Alternative Energy will be discussed in the context of Distributed Generation, which is defined as a delivery platform for micro-power generation, close to the end-users, that can also supplement regional electricity grids. Many references in the paper pertain to Alberta. This is for two reasons: First, familiarity by the author, and more importantly, Alberta is the first region in Canada that has de-regulated it's electricity sector. De-regulation allows independent and smaller power generators to enter the market. Focussing on Alberta, with some references to other Canadian provinces and USA, electricity consumption trends will be reviewed and the pressures to decentralize electricity generation discussed. Re-structuring of the electricity sector, convergence of power generation and natural gas industries, advances in technologies, and environmental concerns are collectively contributing to the creation of a new business called 'Distributed Generation'. Efficiency benefits of combined heat and power associated with the more prominent emerging distributed generation technologies like micro-turbines and fuel cells, will be highlighted. Areas of research, development and demonstration that will enable the successful deployment of Distributed Generation will be suggested with respect to Generation Technologies, Systems Controls, Supporting Infrastructure, and Socio-Political Barriers. Estimates of investments in the various alternative energy technologies will be presented. Using current trends and emerging technologies the Paper will conclude with some predictions of future scenarios. (author)

  13. Daemen Alternative Energy/Geothermal Technologies Demonstration Program, Erie County

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiswanger, Robert C. [Daemen College, Amherst, NY (United States)

    2013-02-28

    The purpose of the Daemen Alternative Energy/Geothermal Technologies Demonstration Project is to demonstrate the use of geothermal technology as model for energy and environmental efficiency in heating and cooling older, highly inefficient buildings. The former Marian Library building at Daemen College is a 19,000 square foot building located in the center of campus. Through this project, the building was equipped with geothermal technology and results were disseminated. Gold LEED certification for the building was awarded. 1) How the research adds to the understanding of the area investigated. This project is primarily a demonstration project. Information about the installation is available to other companies, organizations, and higher education institutions that may be interested in using geothermal energy for heating and cooling older buildings. 2) The technical effectiveness and economic feasibility of the methods or techniques investigated or demonstrated. According to the modeling and estimates through Stantec, the energy-efficiency cost savings is estimated at 20%, or $24,000 per year. Over 20 years this represents $480,000 in unrestricted revenue available for College operations. See attached technical assistance report. 3) How the project is otherwise of benefit to the public. The Daemen College Geothermal Technologies Ground Source Heat Pumps project sets a standard for retrofitting older, highly inefficient, energy wasting and environmentally irresponsible buildings that are quite typical of many of the buildings on the campuses of regional colleges and universities. As a model, the project serves as an energy-efficient system with significant environmental advantages. Information about the energy-efficiency measures is available to other colleges and universities, organizations and companies, students, and other interested parties. The installation and renovation provided employment for 120 individuals during the award period. Through the new Center

  14. The Relationship Between Oil and Gas Industry Investment in Alternative Energy and Corporate Social Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konyushikhin, Maxim

    The U.S. Energy Information Administration forecasted energy consumption in the United States to increase approximately 19% between 2006 and 2030, or about 0.7% annually. The research problem addressed in this study was that the oil and gas industry's interest in alternative energy is contrary to its current business objectives and profit goals. The purpose of the quantitative study was to explore the relationship between oil and gas industry investments in alternative energy and corporate social responsibilities. Research questions addressed the relationship between alternative energy investment and corporate social responsibility, the role of oil and gas companies in alternative energy investment, and why these companies chose to invest in alternative energy sources. Systems theory was the conceptual framework, and data were collected from a sample of 25 companies drawn from the 28,000 companies in the oil and gas industry from 2004 to 2009. Multiple regression and correlation analysis were used to answer the research questions and test hypotheses using corporate financial data and company profiles related to alternative energy investment and corporate social responsibility in terms of oil and gas industry financial support of programs that serve the greater social good. Results indicated significant relationships between alternative energy investment and corporate social responsibility. With an increasing global population with energy requirements in excess of what is available using traditional means, the industry should increase investment in alternative sources. The research results may promote positive social change by increasing public awareness regarding the degree to which oil and gas companies invest in developing alternative energy sources, which might, in turn, inspire public pressure on companies in the oil and gas industry to pursue use of alternative energy.

  15. Nanostructured Materials for Renewable Alternative Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons, Gregory [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

    2013-07-24

    This project has been in effect from July 25th, 2008 to July 24th, 2013. It supported 19 graduate students and 6 post-doctoral students and resulted in 23 publications, 7 articles in preparation, 44 presentations, and many other outreach efforts. Two representative recent publications are appended to this report. The project brought in more than $750,000 in cost share from North Carolina State University. The project funds also supported the purchase and installation of approximately 667,000 in equipment supporting solar energy research.

  16. Criteria for evaluating alternative uses of energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogg, R. J.

    1977-10-15

    Criteria that should be considered in evaluating the alternative use of energy resources are examined, e.g., energy policies must be compatible with overall national objectives; the demands of the energy sector must be sustainable; energy supplies must be reliable; resource depletion rates must be minimized; community interests must be protected; and economic costs must be minimized. Case studies using electricity and natural gas for the application of these criteria are presented.

  17. Mini hydraulic energy: An alternative for rural electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agudelo Florez, Sergio; Chamorro, Luis Javier

    1992-01-01

    Within the activities of alternative energy group of the faculty of engineering of the university of Antioquia, the development of prototypes is included, of using the non conventional sources for electrical energy production and then satisfy urgent necessities in rural home isolated from the national energy network. In the eastern region of Antioquia, a great hydraulic resource was found with large rivers, stream and water sources near houses, that don't have possibilities of a rural energy network in a near or faraway future, because of its isolation and low economic capacity. A small hydraulic pico generator was developed for this region with the following characteristics: very small dimensions, low weight, compact and integrated design, easy manufacturing in great volumes with low cost. in its operation it loads one or more stationary batteries that provide electricity to a residence, being used in: illumination, communications and some home appliances. By its operation capacity of 24 hours per day, it would compete in advantage with the photovoltaic panel systems used in isolated regions. Advantages of these plants: It is property of the user; zero expenses in administration and operation, low environmental impact (elimination of dams), protection of micro river basins and automatic operation

  18. Alternative Energy Center, Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillman, Howard D.; Marshall, JaNice C.

    2007-09-07

    The Lansing Community College Alternative Energy Center was created with several purposes in mind. The first purpose was the development of educational curricula designed to meet the growing needs of advanced energy companies that would allow students to articulate to other educational institutions or enter this growing workforce. A second purpose was the professional development of faculty and teachers to prepare them to train tomorrow's workforce and scholars. Still another purpose was to design, construct, and equip an alternative energy laboratory that could be used for education, demonstration, and public outreach. Last, the Center was to engage in community outreach and education to enhance industry partnerships, inform decision makers, and increase awareness and general knowledge of hydrogen and other alternative energy technologies and their beneficial impacts on society. This project has enabled us to accomplish all of our goals, including greater faculty understanding of advanced energy concepts, who are now able to convey this knowledge to students through a comprehensive alternative energy curriculum, in a facility well-equipped with advanced technologies, which is also being used to better educate the public on the advantages to society of exploring alternative energy technologies.

  19. Risk analysis of alternative energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazmer, D.R.

    1982-01-01

    The author explores two points raised by Miller Spangler in a January 1981 issue: public perception of risks involving nuclear power plants relative to those of conventional plants and criteria for evaluating the way risk analyses are made. On the first point, he concludes that translating public attitudes into the experts' language of probability and risk could provide better information and understanding of both the attitudes and the risks. Viewing risk analysis methodologies as filters which help to test historical change, he suggests that the lack of information favors a lay jury approach for energy decisions. Spangler responds that Congress is an example of lay decision making, but that a lay jury, given public disinterest and polarization, would probably not improve social justice on the nuclear issue. 5 references, 4 figures

  20. Kinetic energy storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeggi, M.; Folini, P.

    1983-09-03

    A flywheel system for the purpose of energy storage in decentral solar- or wind energy plants is introduced. The system comprises a rotor made out of plastic fibre, a motor/generator serving as electro-mechanical energy converter and a frequency-voltage transformer serving as electric adapter. The storable energy quantity amounts to several kWh.

  1. Wind Spires as an Alternative Energy Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majid Rashidi, Ph.D., P.E.

    2012-10-30

    This report discloses the design and development of an innovative wind tower system having an axisymmetric wind deflecting structure with a plurality of symmetrically mounted rooftop size wind turbines near the axisymmetric structure. The purpose of the wind deflecting structure is to increase the ambient wind speed that in turn results in an overall increase in the power capacity of the wind turbines. Two working prototypes were constructed and installed in the summer of 2009 and 2012 respectively. The system installed in the Summer of 2009 has a cylindrical wind deflecting structure, while the tower installed in 2012 has a spiral-shape wind deflecting structure. Each tower has 4 turbines, each rated at 1.65 KW Name-Plate-Rating. Before fabricating the full-size prototypes, computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analyses and scaled-down table-top models were used to predict the performance of the full-scale models. The performance results obtained from the full-size prototypes validated the results obtained from the computational models and those of the scaled-down models. The second prototype (spiral configuration) showed at a wind speed of 11 miles per hour (4.9 m/s) the power output of the system could reach 1,288 watt, when a typical turbine installation, with no wind deflecting structure, could produce only 200 watt by the same turbines at the same wind speed. At a wind speed of 18 miles per hour (8 m/sec), the spiral prototype produces 6,143 watt, while the power generated by the same turbines would be 1,412 watt in the absence of a wind deflecting structure under the same wind speed. Four US patents were allowed, and are in print, as the results of this project (US 7,540,706, US 7,679,209, US 7,845,904, and US 8,002,516).

  2. A Brief Review on Recent Trends in Alternative Sources of Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Divya S.; Jibin Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Alternative energy is any energy source that is an alternative to fossil fuel. These alternatives are intended to address concerns about such fossil fuels. Today, because of the variety of energy choices and differing goals of their advocates, defining some energy types as "alternative" is highly controversial. Most of the recent and existing alternative sources of energy are discussed below

  3. Energy alternatives for irrigation pumping: an economic analysis for northern India.

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatia R

    1984-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper presenting an economic analysis of alternative energy sources for irrigation pumping in Northern India - considers economic and technical aspects of photovoltaic pumping systems, solar energy systems, electric power, dual-fuel and diesel engines, Biogas and wind power; discusses economic and social development aspects. Abbreviations, bibliography, glossary and tables.

  4. Enhanced distributed energy resource system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atcitty, Stanley [Albuquerque, NM; Clark, Nancy H [Corrales, NM; Boyes, John D [Albuquerque, NM; Ranade, Satishkumar J [Las Cruces, NM

    2007-07-03

    A power transmission system including a direct current power source electrically connected to a conversion device for converting direct current into alternating current, a conversion device connected to a power distribution system through a junction, an energy storage device capable of producing direct current connected to a converter, where the converter, such as an insulated gate bipolar transistor, converts direct current from an energy storage device into alternating current and supplies the current to the junction and subsequently to the power distribution system. A microprocessor controller, connected to a sampling and feedback module and the converter, determines when the current load is higher than a set threshold value, requiring triggering of the converter to supply supplemental current to the power transmission system.

  5. Policy alternatives in reforming energy utilities in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriele, Alberto

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the policy alternatives faced by developing countries in their endeavor to preserve and develop their electricity and gas systems, two service-oriented industries which--along with oil--provide the bulk of energy supply both in developed and in developing countries. Even in very poor countries, industrially generated energy is indispensable for carrying out most economic activities. Therefore, governments traditionally recognize that the supply of gas and electricity entails a fundamental public service dimension. The Introduction presents the case for reforming of energy utilities, discusses in general terms the pros and cons of privatization, and attempts to locate the reforms in a broader historical framework in which developing countries' governments faced characterized by increasing financial hardship. Section 2 constitutes the core of the paper. It reviews the main features of gas and power sector reforms in the developing world and analyzes specifically the cases of five semi-industrialized countries in Latin America and Asia. Section 3 (Concluding remarks) briefly evaluates the country experiences reviewed above and indicates a few policy lessons which can be learnt from them. The main conclusion is that, in a long-run development perspective, full-scale privatization of gas and power sectors in developing countries entails significant risks, and therefore a flexible policy approach is preferable to a rigid commitment to extensive liberalization

  6. Alternative energy development strategies for China towards 2030

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linwei MA; Zheng LI; Feng FU; Xiliang ZHANG; Weidou NI

    2009-01-01

    The purposes, objectives and technology path-ways for alternative energy development are discussed with the aim of reaching sustainable energy development in China. Special attention has been paid to alternative power and alternative vehicle fuels. Instead of limiting alternative energy to energy sources such as nuclear and renewable energy, the scope of discussion is extended to alternative technologies such as coal power with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS), electric and hydrogen vehicles. In order to take account of the fact that China's sustainable energy development involves many dimen-sions, a six-dimensional indicator set has been established and applied with the aim of comprehensively evaluating different technology pathways in a uniform way. The ana-lysis reaches the following conclusions: (a) in the power sector, wind power, nuclear power and hydro power should be developed as much as possible, while R&D of solar power and coal power with CCS should be strengthened continuously for future deployment. (b) in the transporta-tion sector, there is no foreseeable silver bullet to replace oil on a large scale within the time frame of 20 to 30 years. To ease the severe energy security situation, expedient choices like coal derived fuels could be developed. However, its scale should be optimized in accordance to the trade-off of energy security benefits, production costs and environmental costs. Desirable alternative fuels (or technologies) like 2nd generation biofuels and electrical vehicles should be the subject of intensive R&D with the objective to be cost effective as early as possible.

  7. Development of alternative/renewable sources of energy in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharif, M.

    2005-01-01

    The depleting Conventional Energy Resources and highly raised prices of fuel oil, coal, firewood and such other fossil fuels, have forced the mankind to think about the utilization of Alternative / Renewable Sources of Energy. Alternative / Renewable Energy is very attractive, reliable and cost competitive energy. Sun is readily available to provide a clean, abundant and virtually infinite energy to meet the significant portion of mankind's energy-needs. The possible use of renewable-energy sources is discussed in this paper, in order to fill the estimated gap between the available energy-sources and energy-needs of our country in the near future. Designing, Fabrication and Installation of different renewable-energy devices by PCSIR are also discussed in this paper. Different renewable-energy devices such as, solar water heaters, solar cookers, solar dehydrators, solar water-desalination plants, solar heating and cooling of buildings, solar operated absorption-type chiller, solar furnace, solar architecture, developed by PCSIR are discussed in some detail so that the role of renewable-energy sources for their direct use (as heat and power) can be determined. Various technical aspects are discussed to reduce the unit cost with improved efficiency. (author)

  8. Physical activity recommendations: an alternative approach using energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudd, Lanay M; Rafferty, Ann P; Reeves, Mathew J; Pivarnik, James M

    2008-10-01

    Most adults do not meet the American College of Sports Medicine and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (ACSM/CDC) physical activity recommendations. Even fewer meet the more extreme Institute of Medicine (IOM) physical activity recommendations. Compliance with either recommendation has been conventionally assessed by combining frequencies and durations of self-reported activities. Leisure-time energy expenditure is a cumulative measure of activity that offers an alternative method of defining compliance. To calculate the leisure-time energy expenditure of adults complying with the ACSM/CDC or the IOM physical activity recommendations determined by conventional measures and to reexamine compliance with the IOM recommendation using energy expenditure criteria. National, cross-sectional data from the 2000 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System determined the mode, frequency, and duration of up to two leisure-time activities performed by adults. Four mutually exclusive activity groups (Non-, Low-, ACSM/CDC-, and IOM-Active) were defined on the basis of frequencies and durations of reported activities. Leisure-time energy expenditure (kcal x kg(-1) x wk(-1)) was calculated per respondent. The energy expenditure threshold for meeting the IOM recommendation was calculated as 21 kcal x kg(-1) x wk(-1). Of the 162,669 respondents included in the analyses, 29.9% were Nonactive, whereas 42.3%, 23.3%, and 4.5% were Low-, ACSM/CDC-, and IOM-Active, respectively. Median leisure-time energy expenditure values were 9.0, 27.4, and 63.0 kcal x kg(-1) x wk(-1) for Low-, ACSM/CDC-, and IOM-Active groups, respectively. When using energy expenditure criteria, compliance with the IOM recommendation rose to 27.7% of respondents. Compliance with the IOM physical activity recommendation dramatically increased when assessed by energy expenditure compared with conventional criteria, thereby highlighting the potential bias of conventional methods. A significant proportion of adults

  9. Business System Planning Project, Alternatives Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EVOSEVICH, S.

    2000-01-01

    The CHG Chief Information Officer (CIO) requested a study of alternatives to the current business system computing environment. This Business Systems Planning (BSP) Project Alternatives Analysis document presents an analysis of the current Project Controls, Work Management, and Business Management systems environment and alternative solutions that support the business functions. The project team has collected requirements and priorities from stakeholders in each business area and documented them in the BSP System Requirements Specification (SRS), RPP-6297. The alternatives analysis process identifies and measures possible solutions in each of the business process areas against the requirements as documented in the SRS. The team gathered input from both internal and external sources to identify and grade the possible solutions. This document captures the results of that activity and recommends a suite of software products. This study was to select the best product based on how well the product met the requirements, not to determine the platform or hardware environment that would be used. Additional analysis documentation can be found in BSP project files

  10. Eco-Friendly Alternative Refrigeration Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 10. Eco-Friendly Alternative Refrigeration Systems - Magnetic and ... Author Affiliations. S S Verma1. Deptartment of Physics, Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering and Technology Longowal, District Sangrur, Punjab 148 106, India.

  11. Solar energy conversion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brownson, Jeffrey R S

    2013-01-01

    Solar energy conversion requires a different mind-set from traditional energy engineering in order to assess distribution, scales of use, systems design, predictive economic models for fluctuating solar resources, and planning to address transient cycles and social adoption. Solar Energy Conversion Systems examines solar energy conversion as an integrative design process, applying systems thinking methods to a solid knowledge base for creators of solar energy systems. This approach permits different levels of access for the emerging broad audience of scientists, engineers, architects, planners

  12. Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    2014-01-01

    on the electricity sector, smart energy systems include the entire energy system in its approach to identifying suitable energy infrastructure designs and operation strategies. The typical smart grid sole focus on the electricity sector often leads to the conclusion that transmission lines, flexible electricity......This paper presents the learning of a series of studies that analyse the problems and perspectives of converting the present energy system into a 100 % renewable energy system using a smart energy systems approach. As opposed to, for instance, the smart grid concept, which takes a sole focus...... are to be found when the electricity sector is combined with the heating and cooling sectors and/or the transportation sector. Moreover, the combination of electricity and gas infrastructures may play an important role in the design of future renewable energy systems. The paper illustrates why electricity smart...

  13. Alternative Genres in Information Systems Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avital, Michel; Mathiassen, Lars; Schultze, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    discuss thenature of the academic article genre and the role of alternative ways of writing.We also introduce the six exemplars of alternative genres in the special issue,namely conversation, French new novel, meditation, memoir, allegory, andcrowdsourced research. We highlight key insights....... Furthermore, we wishto encourage Information Systems (IS) scholars to leverage a wider array ofalternative genres to present their research in order to develop new insights onsubject matters of interest to the IS discipline, as well as expand on howcontemporary and emergent phenomena of interest are conceived...... and contemplate theirimplications for current and future IS research....

  14. Contracting of energy services: often a viable alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milic, M.; Bruendler, M.

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses the outsourcing of energy services as a viable alternative to the operation of own energy facilities. The advantages of contracting for enterprises wanting to focus on their core competencies and have their energy infrastructure financed, built, maintained and operated by a third party are discussed. Financial aspects are looked at and examples in connection with the calculation of actual energy costs are given. The article is concluded with tips on the evaluation of offers for contracting services and on the definition of ownership aspects and property boundaries

  15. Health and economic costs of alternative energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Manne, A.S.

    1977-01-01

    National energy policy requires realistic totaling of costs in assessing energy alternatives. The Biomedical and Environmental Assessment Division (BEAD) at Brookhaven is estimating biomedical and environmental costs of energy production and use. All forms of energy, including new technologies, are being considered. Beginning with a compilation of pollutants from the energy system, the various paths to man are traced and health effects evaluated. Excess mortality and morbidity in the U.S. attributable to a total fuel cycle to produce 6.6x10 9 kwh - about a year's production of a 1000-MWe power plant - are being estimated. Where enough information is available, estimates are quantitative. In some instances only the nature of the potential hazard can be described. This assessment aims at providing initial estimates of relative impacts to identify where the important health hazards in each fuel cycle arise, thereby identifying key areas for judging the total costs of alternative energy sources, and those areas of research likely to improve the accuracy of the estimates. It was thus estimated that the production of electric power from all sources in the U.S. in 1975 was associated with between two to nineteen thousand deaths and twenty-nine to fourty-eight thousand disabilities; this is roughly between 0.2 and 2% of total deaths in U.S. ages 1-74. The estimated health effects associated with a total fuel cycle standardized to produce 10 10 kwh electric power were: from coal estimated deaths 20-200, estimated disabilities 300-500; from oil estimated deaths 3-150, estimated disabilities 150-300; from gas estimated deaths 0.2, estimated disabilities 20; from nuclear estimated deaths 1-3, estimated disabilities 8-30. The differences in the year 2000 between health impacts of the U.S. energy system under normal growth expectations and under conditions of a nuclear moratorium were estimated. On the assumption that the nuclear moratorium would require 320 additional 1000-MWe

  16. Wind energy analysis system

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Ing. (Electrical & Electronic Engineering) One of the most important steps to be taken before a site is to be selected for the extraction of wind energy is the analysis of the energy within the wind on that particular site. No wind energy analysis system exists for the measurement and analysis of wind power. This dissertation documents the design and development of a Wind Energy Analysis System (WEAS). Using a micro-controller based design in conjunction with sensors, WEAS measure, calcu...

  17. Industry requirements for introduction of alternative energies with emphasis on hydrogen fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delabbio, F. [Rio Tinto, Canadian Exploration Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada); Starbuck, D. [Newmont Mining Corp., Denver, CO (United States); Akerman, A. [CVRD-Inco, Toronto, ON (Canada); Betournay, M.C. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Mining and Mineral Sciences Laboratories

    2007-07-01

    This paper discussed issues related to the use of alternate sources of energy in underground mining applications. Hydrogen power systems were examined in relation to operational drivers, available commercial supplies, site supplies, health and safety issues, capital and operating costs, mine production, and the role of government. Hydrogen power systems are being considered for mining applications in an effort to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and reduce cooling and ventilation requirements. This article examined a range of issues that must be addressed before alternate energy systems such as hydrogen fuel cell technology can be used in larger-scale underground mining applications. The mining industry supports the development of new technologies. However, the introduction of alternate energy technologies must proceed in steps which include proof of concept testing, the development of generic infrastructure, power systems and regulations, and whole operating system studies. 13 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Alternate Energy Report, Koleda Childress Inc., dated June 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-06-30

    Policies and programs on alternate energy and the status of global warming concerns in the United States are reported. The Senate Energy Committee reported out its National Energy Security Act, which is an attempt to draft a comprehensive national energy strategy to address energy and environmental problems. The House approved $446 million to fund fossil energy programs for fiscal 1992 to implement the Clean Coal Program as scheduled. The Department of Energy has received 33 clean coal technology project proposals, worth more than $6.5 billion, under the fourth round of the Clean Coal Technology Program. Both House and Senate enacted a legislation to grant credit for offsetting CO2 emissions when bringing new plants into operation. The U.S. National Academy of Sciences stated that there were sufficient potential hazards to justify an immediate action in spite of uncertainties in the global warming issue and requested that therefore the Administration prepare a number of promptly practicable policy options. (NEDO)

  19. 2016 TSRC Summer School on Fundamental Science for Alternative Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Victor S. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

    2017-08-25

    The 2016 TSRC Summer School on Fundamental Science for Alternative Energy introduced principles, methods, and approaches relevant to the design of molecular transformations, energy transduction, and current applications for alternative energy. Energy and environment are likely to be key themes that will dominate the way science and engineering develop over the next few decades. Only an interdisciplinary approach with a team-taught structure as presented at the 2016 TSRC Summer School can be expected to succeed in the face of problems of such difficulty. The course inspired a new generation of 24 graduate students and 2 post-docs to continue work in the field, or at least to have something of an insider's point of view as the field develops in the next few decades.

  20. Flexible energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses and analyses diffent national strategies and points out key changes in the energy system in order to achieve a system which can benefit from a high percentage of wind and CHP without having surplus production problems, introduced here as a flexible energy system....

  1. A comparison of hydrogen with alternate energy forms from coal and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, K.E.

    1976-01-01

    Alternate energy forms that can be produced from coal and nuclear energy have been analyzed on efficiency, economic and end-use grounds. These forms include hydrogen, methane, electricity, and EVA-ADAM, a 'chemical heat pipe' approach to energy transmission. The EVA-ADAM system for nuclear heat appears to be economically competitive with the other energy carriers except over very large distances. The cost of hydrogen derived from coal is approximately equal to that of methane derived from the same source when compared on an equal BTU basis. Thermochemically derived hydrogen from nuclear energy shows a break-even range with hydrogen derived from coal at coal costs of from Pound33 to 80/ton depending on the cost of nuclear heat. Electricity and electrolytically derived hydrogen are the most expensive energy carriers and electricity's use should be limited to applications involving work rather than heat. Continued work in thermochemical hydrogen production schemes should be supported as an energy option for the future. (author)

  2. Comparative analysis of traditional and alternative energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Csikósová

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The presented thesis with designation of Comparing analysis of traditional and alternative energy resources includes, on basisof theoretical information source, research in firm, internal data, trends in company development and market, descriptionof the problem and its application. Theoretical information source is dedicated to the traditional and alternative energy resources,reserves of it, trends in using and development, the balance of it in the world, EU and in Slovakia as well. Analysis of the thesisis reflecting profile of the company and the thermal pump market evaluation using General Electric method. While the companyis implementing, except other products, the thermal pumps on geothermal energy base and surround energy base (air, the missionof the comparing analysis is to compare traditional energy resources with thermal pump from the ecological, utility and economic sideof it. The results of the comparing analysis are resumed in to the SWOT analysis. The part of the thesis includes he questionnaire offerfor effectiveness improvement and customer satisfaction analysis, and expected possibilities of alternative energy resources assistance(benefits from the government and EU funds.

  3. Renewable energy delivery systems and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Howard Andrew

    2013-12-10

    A system, method and/or apparatus for the delivery of energy at a site, at least a portion of the energy being delivered by at least one or more of a plurality of renewable energy technologies, the system and method including calculating the load required by the site for the period; calculating the amount of renewable energy for the period, including obtaining a capacity and a percentage of the period for the renewable energy to be delivered; comparing the total load to the renewable energy available; and, implementing one or both of additional and alternative renewable energy sources for delivery of energy to the site.

  4. LCA of Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurent, Alexis; Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2018-01-01

    Energy systems are essential in the support of modern societies’ activities, and can span a wide spectrum of electricity and heat generation systems and cooling systems. Along with their central role and large diversity, these systems have been demonstrated to cause serious impacts on human health...... , ecosystems and natural resources. Over the past two decades, energy systems have thus been the focus of more than 1000 LCA studies, with the aim to identify and reduce these impacts. This chapter addresses LCA applications to energy systems for generation of electricity and heat . The chapter gives insight...

  5. Solar-hydrogen energy as an alternative energy source for mobile robots and the new-age car

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulaiman, A; Inambao, F; Bright, G

    2014-01-01

    The disastrous effects of climate change as witnessed in recent violent storms, and the stark reality that fossil fuels are not going to last forever, is certain to create renewed demands for alternative energy sources. One such alternative source, namely solar energy, although unreliable because of its dependence on available sunlight, can nevertheless be utilised to generate a secondary source of energy, namely hydrogen, which can be stored and thereby provide a constant and reliable source of energy. The only draw-back with hydrogen, though, is finding efficient means for its storage. This study demonstrates how this problem can be overcome by the use of metal hydrides which offers a very compact and safe way of storing hydrogen. It also provides a case study of how solar and hydrogen energy can be combined in an energy system to provide an efficient source of energy that can be applied for modern technologies such as a mobile robot. Hydrogen energy holds out the most promise amongst the various alternative energy sources, so much so that it is proving to be the energy source of choice for automobile manufacturers in their quest for alternative fuels to power their cars of the future

  6. Solar-hydrogen energy as an alternative energy source for mobile robots and the new-age car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, A.; Inambao, F.; Bright, G.

    2014-07-01

    The disastrous effects of climate change as witnessed in recent violent storms, and the stark reality that fossil fuels are not going to last forever, is certain to create renewed demands for alternative energy sources. One such alternative source, namely solar energy, although unreliable because of its dependence on available sunlight, can nevertheless be utilised to generate a secondary source of energy, namely hydrogen, which can be stored and thereby provide a constant and reliable source of energy. The only draw-back with hydrogen, though, is finding efficient means for its storage. This study demonstrates how this problem can be overcome by the use of metal hydrides which offers a very compact and safe way of storing hydrogen. It also provides a case study of how solar and hydrogen energy can be combined in an energy system to provide an efficient source of energy that can be applied for modern technologies such as a mobile robot. Hydrogen energy holds out the most promise amongst the various alternative energy sources, so much so that it is proving to be the energy source of choice for automobile manufacturers in their quest for alternative fuels to power their cars of the future.

  7. Combined solar collector and energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, R. N. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A combined solar energy collector, fluid chiller and energy storage system is disclosed. A movable interior insulated panel in a storage tank is positionable flush against the storage tank wall to insulate the tank for energy storage. The movable interior insulated panel is alternately positionable to form a solar collector or fluid chiller through which the fluid flows by natural circulation.

  8. 1991-92 Canadian directory of efficiency and alternative energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The 1991-1992 Canadian Directory of efficiency and alternative energy technologies. The three main sections cover Alternative Energy Companies, Energy Efficiency Companies and Energy Service Companies. Contact and company information is provided

  9. 1991-92 Canadian directory of efficiency and alternative energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    The 1991-1992 Canadian Directory of efficiency and alternative energy technologies. The three main sections cover Alternative Energy Companies, Energy Efficiency Companies and Energy Service Companies. Contact and company information is provided.

  10. Alternative Forms of Energy Production and Political Reconfigurations: The Sociology of Alternative Energies as a Study of Collective Reorganization Potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumpala, Yannick

    2013-01-01

    Energy choices that are made in a society are also political choices. This article aims to study the extent to which these choices can be reoriented by technological developments related to renewable energies, thus contributing to a redistribution of possibilities and to social reorganization. Three steps are proposed to show that while the development of alternative energies depends on technological advances, it can, in this process, also reveal political potentials: 1) the first step clarifies the theoretical arguments that can be deployed in favour of an approach in terms of 'technological potentialism'; 2) the second step extends this approach by identifying a set of potentials linked to renewable energies and the model that could take shape through these alternative forms; 3) the third step examines how these potentials could find ways of being updated

  11. Alternatives - talk about energy differently. Radioactive waste a societal issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    ''Alternatives'' is an information magazine proposed by the Areva Group, a world nuclear energy leader. It is devoted to the public information on topics of the Group activities. This issue deals with the fusion technology, the strengths and weaknesses of interconnected networks, the undersea tidal power farms, the danish paradox which has the highest levels of CO 2 emissions despite the use of wind energy, the international community renewed commitment to renewable energy, the hydrogen, the low speed wind turbines and the future miniature fuel cells. A special interest is given to the radioactive wastes management. (A.L.B.)

  12. Alternate Energy Report, Koleda Childress Inc., dated August 15, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-08-15

    Policies and current states of alternate energy and global warming concerns in the United States are reported. The House Subcommittee on Energy and Power marking up draft national energy legislation has completed draft titles on the Strategic Petroleum Reserve, energy efficiency, and natural gas, and begun work on an alternate fuel titles. The alternate fuel title includes liquefied petroleum gas, hydrogen, and electricity. A bill on electric vehicles has been approved by the House Science Committee. Under the bill the Department of Energy will establish a cooperative research program of automakers and the electric utility industry to develop advanced batteries for electric vehicles. The bill authorizes a total of $570.5 million for this program for fiscal years 1992 through 1998. At the meeting of the leaders of the seven leading industrialized countries held in London in July, a joint declaration was issued calling for the completion of an effective framework convention on climate change for reducing emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases by the time of United Nations Conference on Environment and Development to be called next June. (NEDO)

  13. Renewable Energy Tracking Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewable energy generation ownership can be accounted through tracking systems. Tracking systems are highly automated, contain specific information about each MWh, and are accessible over the internet to market participants.

  14. Alternative energy as a factor of ecological and energy security: features of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Nikolaevich Porfiryev

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the current situation in the sphere of alternative energy engineering in Russia. On the one hand, the national economy and the population in general do not have problems with energy supply and Russia in general is the world's largest exporter of energy. On the other hand, centralized energy supply covers only one third of its territory and two-thirds are in the area of decentralized and autonomous power supply. In the current situation, energy sources that are independent of centralized networks based on clean technologies are a promising alternative. The paper assesses the current state of alternative energy development in the world and in Russia, its potential and prospects. It was found out that development and qualitative improvement of the regulatory framework should have priority for alternative energy mastering in Russia as well as active joint action of government, business and civic leaders to gradually consolidate in public consciousness and behaviour of a new culture of energy consumption based on the rules of economy and environmental safety. The analysis of the proposals for the development of alternative energy industries in Russia was made. Particular attention is paid to energy saving experience and energy efficiency in housing services and public utilities. Questions on the creation and development of formal and informal institutions of non-conventional energy sources usage are asked.

  15. New secondary energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulten, R.

    1977-01-01

    As an introduction, the FRG's energy industry situation is described, secondary energy systems to be taken into consideration are classified, and appropriate market requirements are analyzed. Dealt with is district heating, i.e. the direct transport of heat by means of circulating media, and long-distance energy, i.e. the long-distance energy transport by means of chemical conversion in closed- or open-cycle systems. In closed-cycle systems heat is transported in the form of chemical latent energy. In contrast to this, chemical energy is transported in open-cycle systems in the form of fuel gases produced by coal gasification or by thermochemical water splitting. (GG) [de

  16. Assateague Island National Seashore alternative transportation systems planning study and business plan for alternative transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    The purpose of this study was to (1) study the potential expansion of existing alternative transportation systems (bicycle facilities) and development of new alternative transportation systems in and around the Maryland District of Assateague Island ...

  17. Alternative energy supply strategies for Pakistan and their economic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalal, A.I.; Khan, A.M.; Khan, S.B.

    1984-01-01

    Pakistan is beset with serious energy supply difficulties arising from a fast growing demand for commercial energy, a poor energy resource base and the high cost of imported energy. The commercial energy requirements are expected to rise from 22.4 million tonnes of coal equivalent (tce) in 1980 to 80 million tce by the year 2000 and to about 200 million tce by 2020, while the country's proven fossil-fuel reserves are only 440 million tce and cannot cope with the demand for long. Pakistan is already dependent on imported energy for 90% of its oil requirements or 30% of the total commercial energy, and is spending 5.5% of its gross domestic product (GDP) on energy imports. The paper analyses the economic implications of a few alternative energy supply strategies. These strategies correspond to two different rates of petroleum exploration and development activity, a high and a low average size of new petroleum finds, and the large-scale use of nuclear power starting in 1990 or after the year 2000. It is found that in the most favourable case (high level of petroleum drilling activity with a high success rate and nuclear power use starting in 1990) Pakistan would be able to achieve self-sufficiency in oil by 2010 and in the total energy supply shortly after 2020. The energy sector's investment requirement will, however, increase gradually from 3% of GDP now to almost 6% of GDP by 2020. (author)

  18. Integrated roof wind energy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moonen S.P.G.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Wind is an attractive renewable source of energy. Recent innovations in research and design have reduced to a few alternatives with limited impact on residential construction. Cost effective solutions have been found at larger scale, but storage and delivery of energy to the actual location it is used, remain a critical issue. The Integrated Roof Wind Energy System is designed to overcome the current issues of urban and larger scale renewable energy system. The system is built up by an axial array of skewed shaped funnels that make use of the Venturi Effect to accelerate the wind flow. This inventive use of shape and geometry leads to a converging air capturing inlet to create high wind mass flow and velocity toward a vertical-axis wind turbine in the top of the roof for generation of a relatively high amount of energy. The methods used in this overview of studies include an array of tools from analytical modelling, PIV wind tunnel testing, and CFD simulation studies. The results define the main design parameters for an efficient system, and show the potential for the generation of high amounts of renewable energy with a novel and effective system suited for the built environment.

  19. Optimal environmental benefits of utilising alternative energy technologies in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrayyan, B.

    2004-01-01

    With rapid population growth and increase in industrial activities, more energy is consumed, resulting in environmental pollution and economic difficulties. Therefore, the need for utilising renewable energy resources has emerged. Although Jordan does not have adequate fuel supplies (90% of its crude oil is imported), it is gifted with alternative resources. Because of the political and economical constraints that hinder the import of crude oil from neighbouring countries and of the fact that Jordan has limited fossil fuel resources, strategies to meet energy demand are being addressed and examined together with their consequences and the ways in which they could be utilised. This paper assesses for the first time, the potential of using alternative energy technologies in Jordan, including the utilisation of solar energy for water heating, for wind towers in rural areas and also for biogas production from waste. Approximately 2% of unconventional renewable energy resources are being utilised. The data and scenarios of this study were presented in a manner that would assist decision makers, funding agencies, researchers and other related parties to establish programmes that will be helpful in meeting the energy demand, while preserving the environment and maintaining sustainability. (author)

  20. Energy Systems Integration Facility News | Energy Systems Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facility | NREL Energy Systems Integration Facility News Energy Systems Integration Facility Energy Dataset A massive amount of wind data was recently made accessible online, greatly expanding the Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has completed technology validation testing for Go

  1. Alternative futures for the Department of Energy National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    This Task Force was asked to propose alternate futures for the Department of Energy laboratories noted in the report. The authors` intensive ten months` study revealed multiple missions and sub-missions--traditional missions and new missions--programs and projects--each with factors of merit. They respectively suggest that the essence of what the Department, and particularly the laboratories, should and do stand for: the energy agenda. Under the overarching energy agenda--the labs serving the energy opportunities--they comment on their national security role, the all important energy role, all related environmental roles, the science and engineering underpinning for all the above, a focused economic role, and conclude with governance/organization change recommendations.

  2. Survey on alternative energy for industrial processes in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masduki, B.; Sukarsono, R.; Wardaya; Suryawan, I.

    1997-01-01

    In consequence of the national industrial development, it is necessary to supply a lot of energy. This paper presented a discussion about the option of supplying nuclear processed heat as alternative energy sources for industry especially in Java island. The electrical energy requirement can be estimated rising. The stock and the requirement of energy in Indonesia is unbalance. If the oil production rate is constant, such as that of today, it can be estimated that the oil stock would be over in 20 years. The country is trying to difertify its source of energy and reduce its dependence on oil. High Temperature Reactor (HTR) produces electric and also heat at various temperature in the form of steam and gas. Heat processes from a high temperature reactor, could be used in industry for supplying heat for coal hidroforming, gasification of coal, metal annealing, petrochemical hydrogenation, distillation, purification of petrochemicals, evaporation, water heat, etc. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig., 5 tabs

  3. Analysis of integrated energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuhashi, Takaharu; Kaya, Yoichi; Komiyama, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Taketo; Yasukawa, Shigeru.

    1988-01-01

    World attention is now attracted to the concept of Novel Horizontally Integrated Energy System (NHIES). In NHIES, all fossil fuels are fist converted into CO and H 2 . Potential environmental contaminants such as sulfur are removed during this process. CO turbines are mainly used to generate electric power. Combustion is performed in pure oxygen produced through air separation, making it possible to completely prevent the formation of thermal NOx. Thus, NHIES would release very little amount of such substances that would contribute to acid rain. In this system, the intermediate energy sources of CO, H 2 and O 2 are integrated horizontally. They are combined appropriately to produce a specific form of final energy source. The integration of intermediate energy sources can provide a wide variety of final energy sources, allowing any type of fossil fuel to serve as an alternative to other types of fossil fuel. Another feature of NHIES is the positive use of nuclear fuel to reduce the formation of CO 2 . Studies are under way in Japan to develop a new concept of integrated energy system. These studies are especially aimed at decreased overall efficiency and introduction of new liquid fuels that are high in conversion efficiency. Considerations are made on the final form of energy source, robust control, acid fallout, and CO 2 reduction. (Nogami, K.)

  4. Small Wind Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simões, Marcelo Godoy; Farret, Felix Alberto; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    considered when selecting a generator for a wind power plant, including capacity of the AC system, types of loads, availability of spare parts, voltage regulation, technical personal and cost. If several loads are likely inductive, such asphase-controlled converters, motors and fluorescent lights......This chapter intends to serve as a brief guide when someone is considering the use of wind energy for small power applications. It is discussed that small wind energy systems act as the major energy source for residential or commercial applications, or how to make it part of a microgrid...... as a distributed generator. In this way, sources and loads are connected in such a way to behave as a renewable dispatch center. With this regard, non-critical loads might be curtailed or shed during times of energy shortfall or periods of high costs of energy production. If such a wind energy system is connected...

  5. Norway cogitates on alternate energies; En Norvege, on cogite sur les energies alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, Th.

    2011-06-15

    The author reports his visit of a Norwegian research centre, expert in offshore technologies, which is currently investigating CO{sub 2} storage. All aspects of storage are considered: carbon capture, separation, transport and storage. A carbon capture and storage facility is already operating to develop a solvent-based extraction process. The main challenge is to reduce energy consumption and to prevent the emission of solvents in the environment. The research centre is also involved in the development of offshore wind energy production. It possesses a pool equipped with wave and current generators where measurements are performed on ship and floating wind turbine mock-ups

  6. Smart energy management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Aniruddha; Singh, Jugdutt

    2010-04-01

    Peak and average energy usage in domestic and industrial environments is growing rapidly and absence of detailed energy consumption metrics is making systematic reduction of energy usage very difficult. Smart energy management system aims at providing a cost-effective solution for managing soaring energy consumption and its impact on green house gas emissions and climate change. The solution is based on seamless integration of existing wired and wireless communication technologies combined with smart context-aware software which offers a complete solution for automation of energy measurement and device control. The persuasive software presents users with easy-to-assimilate visual cues identifying problem areas and time periods and encourages a behavioural change to conserve energy. The system allows analysis of real-time/statistical consumption data with the ability to drill down into detailed analysis of power consumption, CO2 emissions and cost. The system generates intelligent projections and suggests potential methods (e.g. reducing standby, tuning heating/cooling temperature, etc.) of reducing energy consumption. The user interface is accessible using web enabled devices such as PDAs, PCs, etc. or using SMS, email, and instant messaging. Successful real-world trial of the system has demonstrated the potential to save 20 to 30% energy consumption on an average. Low cost of deployment and the ability to easily manage consumption from various web enabled devices offers gives this system a high penetration and impact capability offering a sustainable solution to act on climate change today.

  7. Alternate Energy Report, Koleda Childress Inc., dated March 16, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-03-16

    Policies, programs, and current status of alternate energy and global warming concerns in the United States are reported. The House Energy and Commerce Committee has approved a 12-title comprehensive energy policy bill. The bill includes provisions on energy efficiency, natural gas, octane mislabelling, Strategic Petroleum Reserve, coal policy, alternative fuels, renewable energy, global warming, uranium enrichment, and power policy. The omnibus energy policy bill passed by the Senate last month contains a provision on a program to transfer U.S. clean coal technologies to developing countries. One of the objectives of the program, which will focus on technologies including pressurized fluidized bed and integrated gasification combined cycle, is to reduce the U.S. trade imbalance. As the climate treaty negotiations of the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee on a Framework Climate Convention have evolved for a long time, several groups of nations have formed loose and informal coalitions to advocate common positions, for example, coalition of countries of western Europe, of the U.S. and Saudi Arabia, and of less developed countries. (NEDO)

  8. What Is Energy Systems Integration? | Energy Systems Integration Facility |

    Science.gov (United States)

    NREL What Is Energy Systems Integration? What Is Energy Systems Integration? Energy systems integration (ESI) is an approach to solving big energy challenges that explores ways for energy systems to Research Community NREL is a founding member of the International Institute for Energy Systems Integration

  9. local alternative sources for cogeneration combined heat and power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agll, Abdulhakim Amer

    Global demand for energy continues to grow while countries around the globe race to reduce their reliance on fossil fuels and greenhouse gas emissions by implementing policy measures and advancing technology. Sustainability has become an important issue in transportation and infrastructure development projects. While several agencies are trying to incorporate a range of sustainability measures in their goals and missions, only a few planning agencies have been able to implement these policies and they are far from perfect. The low rate of success in implementing sustainable policies is primarily due to incomplete understanding of the system and the interaction between various elements of the system. The conventional planning efforts focuses mainly on performance measures pertaining to the system and its impact on the environment but seldom on the social and economic impacts. The objective of this study is to use clean and alternative energy can be produced from many sources, and even use existing materials for energy generation. One such pathway is using wastewater, animal and organic waste, or landfills to create biogas for energy production. There are three tasks for this study. In topic one evaluated the energy saving that produced from combined hydrogen, heat, and power and mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by using local sustainable energy at the Missouri S&T campus to reduce energy consumption and fossil fuel usage. Second topic aimed to estimate energy recovery and power generation from alternative energy source by using Rankin steam cycle from municipal solid waste at Benghazi-Libya. And the last task is in progress. The results for topics one and two have been presented.

  10. Utilization of Wastes as an Alternative Energy Source for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2013-04-19

    Apr 19, 2013 ... converting solid waste to energy source, ranging from very simple systems of ... defined by modern systems of waste management, notably: -. Municipal Waste; Household Waste,. Commercial Waste and Demolition Waste.

  11. Prospects of renewable energy sources in India: Prioritization of alternative sources in terms of Energy Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Shibani K.; Puppala, Harish

    2017-01-01

    The growing energy demand in progressing civilization governs the exploitation of various renewable sources over the conventional sources. Wind, Solar, Hydro, Biomass, and waste & Bagasse are the various available renewable sources in India. A reliable nonconventional geothermal source is also available in India but it is restricted to direct heat applications. This study archives the status of renewable alternatives in India. The techno economic factors and environmental aspects associated with each of these alternatives are discussed. This study focusses on prioritizing the renewable sources based on a parameter introduced as Energy Index. This index is evaluated using cumulative scores obtained for each of the alternatives. The cumulative score is obtained by evaluating each alternative over a range of eleven environmental and techno economic criteria following Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process. The eleven criteria's considered in the study are Carbon dioxide emissions (CO 2 ), Sulphur dioxide emissions (SO 2 ), Nitrogen oxide emissions (NO x ), Land requirement, Current energy cost, Potential future energy cost, Turnkey investment, Capacity factor, Energy efficiency, Design period and Water consumption. It is concluded from the study that the geothermal source is the most preferable alternative with highest Energy Index. Hydro, Wind, Biomass and Solar sources are subsequently preferred alternatives. - Highlights: • FAH process is used to obtain cumulative score for each renewable alternative. • Cumulative score is normalized by highest score of ideal source. • Energy Index shows how best a renewable alternative is. • Priority order is obtained for alternatives based on Energy Index. • Geothermal is most preferable source followed by Hydro, Wind, Biomass and Solar.

  12. Study on storage energy devices: supercapacitors, a green alternative

    OpenAIRE

    Rancaño Fernandez, Ariadna

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, it is increasingly common to hear about environmental issues. This fact keep us to continually try to improve energy optimization, either through new storage devices that pollute less or improvements in the environmental energy generation systems. Recent new types of devices under study are those called supercapacitors. Supercapacitors are electronic devices able to store charge in form of electrical energy. This energy is stored as an electric field, so supercapacitors are less pol...

  13. Energy production systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Blair, Thomas Howard

    2017-01-01

    Energy Production Systems Engineering presents IEEE, Electrical Apparatus Service Association (EASA), and International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards of engineering systems and equipment in utility electric generation stations. Electrical engineers that practice in the energy industry must understand the specific characteristics of electrical and mechanical equipment commonly applied to energy production and conversion processes, including the mechanical and chemical processes involved, in order to design, operate and maintain electrical systems that support and enable these processes. To aid this understanding, Energy Production Systems Engineeringdescribes the equipment and systems found in various types of utility electric generation stations. This information is accompanied by examples and practice problems. It also addresses common issues of electrical safety that arise in electric generation stations.

  14. Alternative energy technologies an introduction with computer simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Buxton, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction to Alternative Energy SourcesGlobal WarmingPollutionSolar CellsWind PowerBiofuelsHydrogen Production and Fuel CellsIntroduction to Computer ModelingBrief History of Computer SimulationsMotivation and Applications of Computer ModelsUsing Spreadsheets for SimulationsTyping Equations into SpreadsheetsFunctions Available in SpreadsheetsRandom NumbersPlotting DataMacros and ScriptsInterpolation and ExtrapolationNumerical Integration and Diffe

  15. Activities of electric utilities in alternative energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, D.B. da; Reis Neto, J.L. dos

    1990-01-01

    Since oil crisis, in 1973 and 1979, some electrical utilities in Brazil begun investments in alternative projects for example production of electrolytic hydrogen, peats with energetics goals, steam from electric boiler, and methanol from wood gasification. With oil substitution goals, these projects have not success actually, after attenuated the crisis. However, the results acquired is experience for the development of the brazilian energy patterns. (author)

  16. Performance Evaluation of Lower-Energy Energy Storage Alternatives for Full-Hybrid Vehicles; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J.; Cosgrove, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2014-02-11

    Automakers have been mass producing hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) for well over a decade, and the technology has proven to be very effective at reducing per-vehicle fuel use. However, the incremental cost of HEVs such as the Toyota Prius or Ford Fusion Hybrid remains several thousand dollars higher than the cost of comparable conventional vehicles, which has limited HEV market penetration. The b b b b battery energy storage device is typically the component with the greatest contribution toward this cost increment, so significant cost reductions/performance improvements to the energy storage system (ESS) can correspondingly improve the vehicle-level cost/benefit relationship. Such an improvement would in turn lead to larger HEV market penetration and greater aggregate fuel savings. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Program managers asked the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collaborate with a USABC Workgroup and analyze the trade-offs between vehicle fuel economy and reducing the decade-old minimum energy requirement for power-assist HEVs. NREL’s analysis showed that significant fuel savings could still be delivered from an ESS with much lower energy storage than the previous targets, which prompted USABC to issue a new set of lower-energy ESS (LEESS) targets that could be satisfied by a variety of technologies. With support from DOE, NREL has developed an HEV test platform for in-vehicle performance and fuel economy validation testing of the hybrid system using such LEESS devices. This presentation describes development of the vehicle test platform, and laboratory as well as in-vehicle evaluation results with alternate energy storage configurations as compared to the production battery system. The alternate energy storage technologies considered include lithium-ion capacitors -- i.e., asymmetric electrochemical energy storage devices possessing one electrode with battery

  17. Energy efficiency system development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leman, A. M.; Rahman, K. A.; Chong, Haw Jie; Salleh, Mohd Najib Mohd; Yusof, M. Z. M.

    2017-09-01

    By subjecting to the massive usage of electrical energy in Malaysia, energy efficiency is now one of the key areas of focus in climate change mitigation. This paper focuses on the development of an energy efficiency system of household electrical appliances for residential areas. Distribution of Questionnaires and pay a visit to few selected residential areas are conducted during the fulfilment of the project as well as some advice on how to save energy are shared with the participants. Based on the collected data, the system developed by the UTHM Energy Team is then evaluated from the aspect of the consumers' behaviour in using electrical appliances and the potential reduction targeted by the team. By the end of the project, 60% of the participants had successfully reduced the electrical power consumption set by the UTHM Energy Team. The reasons for whether the success and the failure is further analysed in this project.

  18. Alternate Energy Report, Koleda Childress Inc., dated January 15, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-01-15

    Policies, programs, and current status of alternate energy and global warming concerns in the United States are reported. As the House and Senate convene for the second session of the 102nd Congress this month, there are indications that both bodies will act on national energy policy legislation this year. In the Senate, it is expected that omnibus energy legislation will be reconsidered relating to oil and gas exploration in ANWR (Arctic National Wildlife Refuge) and CAFE (Corporate Average Fuel Economy) efficiency standards for motor vehicles. Several powerful members of the House Energy and Commerce Committee is urging the Ways and Means Committee to establish a renewable energy production tax credit. At the negotiating sessions of the United Nations-sponsored committee charged with drafting a framework climate convention that took place in Geneva on December 9-20, a draft treaty emerged, but there was little agreement over nearly all of the main provisions of the draft. A joint meeting of energy and environment ministers of the European Community nations has endorsed an energy/carbon tax proposal drafted by the European Commission. The proposed tax would be levied half on energy and half on carbon dioxide and is roughly equivalent to $3 per barrel of oil in 1993 and rising to $10 per barrel by the year 2000. (NEDO)

  19. Contextual and psychological factors shaping evaluations and acceptability of energy alternatives : Integrated review and research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perlaviciute, Goda; Steg, Linda

    Sustainable energy transitions will be hampered without sufficient public support. Hence, it is important to understand what drives public acceptability of (sustainable) energy alternatives. Evaluations of specific costs, including risks, and benefits of different energy alternatives have been

  20. Energy Usage Analysis System

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The EUAS application is a web based system which serves Energy Center of Expertise, under the Office of Facilitates Management and Service Programs. EUAS is used for...

  1. The Polyvalent Heat Supply System for Experimental Building of the Passive Type (area of 300 m2 Based on Renewable and Alternative Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basok, B.I.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Results of the development and implementation of heat supply system for experimental building of the passive type are presented, optimal operating conditions are investigated, guidelines for the creation of heat supply systems for passive type buildings are provided.

  2. An energy systems engineering approach to the optimal design of energy systems in commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Pei; Pistikopoulos, Efstratios N. [Centre for Process Systems Engineering (CPSE), Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Li, Zheng [Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-08-15

    Energy consumption in commercial buildings accounts for a significant proportion of worldwide energy consumption. Any increase in the energy efficiency of the energy systems for commercial buildings would lead to significant energy savings and emissions reductions. In this work, we introduce an energy systems engineering framework towards the optimal design of such energy systems with improved energy efficiency and environmental performance. The framework features a superstructure representation of the various energy technology alternatives, a mixed-integer optimization formulation of the energy systems design problem, and a multi-objective design optimization solution strategy, where economic and environmental criteria are simultaneously considered and properly traded off. A case study of a supermarket energy systems design is presented to illustrate the key steps and potential of the proposed energy systems engineering approach. (author)

  3. An energy systems engineering approach to the optimal design of energy systems in commercial buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Pei; Pistikopoulos, Efstratios N.; Li Zheng

    2010-01-01

    Energy consumption in commercial buildings accounts for a significant proportion of worldwide energy consumption. Any increase in the energy efficiency of the energy systems for commercial buildings would lead to significant energy savings and emissions reductions. In this work, we introduce an energy systems engineering framework towards the optimal design of such energy systems with improved energy efficiency and environmental performance. The framework features a superstructure representation of the various energy technology alternatives, a mixed-integer optimization formulation of the energy systems design problem, and a multi-objective design optimization solution strategy, where economic and environmental criteria are simultaneously considered and properly traded off. A case study of a supermarket energy systems design is presented to illustrate the key steps and potential of the proposed energy systems engineering approach.

  4. An energy systems engineering approach to the optimal design of energy systems in commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Pei [Centre for Process Systems Engineering (CPSE), Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Pistikopoulos, Efstratios N., E-mail: e.pistikopoulos@imperial.ac.u [Centre for Process Systems Engineering (CPSE), Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Li Zheng [Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-08-15

    Energy consumption in commercial buildings accounts for a significant proportion of worldwide energy consumption. Any increase in the energy efficiency of the energy systems for commercial buildings would lead to significant energy savings and emissions reductions. In this work, we introduce an energy systems engineering framework towards the optimal design of such energy systems with improved energy efficiency and environmental performance. The framework features a superstructure representation of the various energy technology alternatives, a mixed-integer optimization formulation of the energy systems design problem, and a multi-objective design optimization solution strategy, where economic and environmental criteria are simultaneously considered and properly traded off. A case study of a supermarket energy systems design is presented to illustrate the key steps and potential of the proposed energy systems engineering approach.

  5. Control concepts for integration of alternative supply generation systems in local energy supply grids taking specially into account systems stability; Regelungstechnische Konzepte zur Integration alternativer Erzeugungsanlagen in lokale Energieversorgungsnetze unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung der Systemstabilitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Seta, P.

    2007-03-26

    Local alternative power supply plants will play a decisive role in the development of future power supply systems. The specific advantage of the use of renewable primary energy resources for electricity and heat generation is that it lowers or eliminates fuel costs and CO{sub 2} emission costs. However, due to the high specific investment costs involved, the price of a kilowatt hour of electricity from renewable resources is still very high. For this reason power production from renewable resources still cannot fully compete with that from conventional resources. This study presents the draft of a complete control system for a doubly fed asynchronous motor which improves its dynamic and transient stability. This system is based on machine equations and consists of a number of control circuits which steer the machine's operating conditions according to external characteristics. The control strategy is to generate the maximum permissible power from the wind at any moment rather than achieve the optimal operating point for the entire network. One focus of this study was on ensuring the transient stability of doubly fed asynchronous motors. This was accomplished by means of a new method which is presented in this dissertation. The method consists in supporting the voltage at the intermediate circuit of the rotor rectifier by means of an external voltage source during and briefly after the short circuit. A test based on the stationary-torque-slip characteristic prior to the error and after its resolution shows that machine's stable area shrinks drastically during reduced stator voltage when the rotor windings are shorted with a crowbar as is commonly done today. The proposed method (supporting the intermediate circuit voltage) provides a sufficient stability reserve also when stator voltage is reduced. Simulations with ATP-EMTP were performed on a single wind power plant in a fixed-load 110 kV transmission network as well as in a stand-alone network with two

  6. Depletion of energy or depletion of knowledge alternative use of energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslan, M.

    2011-01-01

    This research paper is about the depletion of Energy resources being a huge problem facing the world at this time. As available energy sources are coming to a shortage and measures are be taken in order to conserve the irreplaceable energy resources that leads to sustainability and fair use of energy sources for future generations. Alternative energy sources are being sought; however no other energy source is able to provide even a fraction of energy as that of fossil fuels. Use of the alternative energy resources like wind corridors (Sindh and Baluchistan), fair use of Hydro energy (past monsoon flooding can produce enough energy that may available for next century). Uranium Resources which are enough for centuries energy production in Pakistan (Dhok Pathan Formation) lying in Siwalick series from Pliocene to Pleistocene. Among all of these, my focus is about energy from mineral fuels like Uranium from Sandstone hosted deposits in Pakistan (Siwalik Series in Pakistan). A number of uranium bearing mineralized horizons are present in the upper part of the Dhok Pathan Formation. These horizons have secondary uranium mineral carnotite and other ores. Uranium mineralization is widely distributed throughout the Siwaliks The purpose of this paper was to introduce the use of alternative energy sources in Pakistan which are present in enough amounts by nature. Pakistan is blessed with wealth of natural resources. Unfortunately, Pakistan is totally depending on non renewable energy resource. There are three main types of fossil fuels: coal, oil and natural gas. After food, fossil fuel is humanity's most important source of energy. Pakistan is among the most gas dependent economies of the world. Use of fossil fuel for energy will not only increase the demand of more fossils but it has also extreme effects on climate as well as direct and indirect effects to humans. These entire remedial thinking can only be possible if you try to use alternative energy resources rather than

  7. Evaluation of alternative future energy scenarios for Brazil using an energy mix model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Maysa Joppert

    The purpose of this study is to model and assess the performance and the emissions impacts of electric energy technologies in Brazil, based on selected economic scenarios, for a time frame of 40 years, taking the year of 1995 as a base year. A Base scenario has been developed, for each of three economic development projections, based upon a sectoral analysis. Data regarding the characteristics of over 300 end-use technologies and 400 energy conversion technologies have been collected. The stand-alone MARKAL technology-based energy-mix model, first developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory, was applied to a base case study and five alternative case studies, for each economic scenario. The alternative case studies are: (1) minimum increase in the thermoelectric contribution to the power production system of 20 percent after 2010; (2) extreme values for crude oil price; (3) minimum increase in the renewable technologies contribution to the power production system of 20 percent after 2010; (4) uncertainty on the cost of future renewable conversion technologies; and (5) model is forced to use the natural gas plants committed to be built in the country. Results such as the distribution of fuel used for power generation, electricity demand across economy sectors, total CO2 emissions from burning fossil fuels for power generation, shadow price (marginal cost) of technologies, and others, are evaluated and compared to the Base scenarios previous established. Among some key findings regarding the Brazilian energy system it may be inferred that: (1) diesel technologies are estimated to be the most cost-effective thermal technology in the country; (2) wind technology is estimated to be the most cost-effective technology to be used when a minimum share of renewables is imposed to the system; and (3) hydroelectric technologies present the highest cost/benefit relation among all conversion technologies considered. These results are subject to the limitations of key input

  8. Flow energy conversion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargsyan, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    A cost-effective hydropower system called here Flow Energy Converter was developed, patented, manufactured and tested for water pumping, electricity generation and other purposes especially useful for the rural communities. The system consists of water-driven turbine with plane-surface blades, power transmission means and pump and/or generator. Working sample of the Flow Energy Converter was designed and manufactured at the Institute of Radio Physics and Electronics

  9. Environmentally-adapted local energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, N; Oefverholm, E [NUTEK, Stockholm (Sweden); Andersson, Owe [EKAN Gruppen (Sweden); Froste, H [Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-10-01

    Energy companies, municipalities, property companies, firms of consultants, environmental groups and individuals are examples of players working locally to shape environmentally adapted energy systems. These players have needed information making them better able to make decisions on cost-efficient, environmentally-adapted energy systems. This book answers many of the questions they have put. The volume is mainly based on Swedish handbooks produced by the Swedish National Board for Industrial and Technical Development, NUTEK, together with the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. These handbooks have been used in conjunction with municipal energy planning, local Agenda 21 work, to provide a basis for deciding on concrete local energy systems. The contents in brief: -The book throws new light on the concept of energy efficiency; -A section on the environment compares how air-polluting emissions vary with different methods of energy production; -A section contains more than 40 ideas for measures which can be profitable, reduce energy consumption and the impact on the environment all at the same time; -The book gives concrete examples of new, alternative and environmentally-adapted local energy systems. More efficient use of energy is included as a possible change of energy system; -The greatest emphasis is laid upon alternative energy systems for heating. It may be heating in a house, block of flats, office building or school; -Finally, there are examples of environmentally-adapted local energy planning.

  10. Solar Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Calibrated in kilowatt hours per square meter, the solar counter produced by Dodge Products, Inc. provides a numerical count of the solar energy that has accumulated on a surface. Solar energy sensing, measuring and recording devices in corporate solar cell technology developed by Lewis Research Center. Customers for their various devices include architects, engineers and others engaged in construction and operation of solar energy facilities; manufacturers of solar systems or solar related products, such as glare reducing windows; and solar energy planners in federal and state government agencies.

  11. Mixed strategies for energy conservation and alternative energy utilization (solar) in buildings. Final report. Volume III. Appendixes. [10 appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-06-01

    This appendix summarizes building characteristics used to determine heating and cooling loads for each of the five building types in each of the four regions. For the selected five buildings, the following data are attached: new and existing construction characteristics; new and existing construction thermal resistance; floor plan and elevation; people load schedule; lighting load schedule; appliance load schedule; ventilation schedule; and hot water use schedule. For the five building types (single family, apartment buildings, commercial buildings, office buildings, and schools), data are compiled in 10 appendices. These are Building Characteristics; Alternate Energy Sources and Energy Conservation Techniques Description, Costs, Fuel Price Scenarios; Life Cycle Cost Model; Simulation Models; Solar Heating/Cooling System; Condensed Weather; Single and Multi-Family Dwelling Characteristics and Energy Conservation Techniques; Mixed Strategies for Energy Conservation and Alternative Energy Utilization in Buildings. An extensive bibliography is given in the final appendix. (MCW)

  12. Alternate Energy Report, Koleda Childress Inc., dated November 15, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-11-15

    Policies, programs, and current status of alternate energy and global warming concerns in the United States are reported. The House and Senate have both approved legislation to fund the Department of Energy's fossil energy program for fiscal 1992. For Department of Energy's fossil energy research and development activities, the final version provides approximately $450 million instead of the $227 million requested by President Bush in February. Of this amount, approximately $57 million is designated to fund coal gasification, coal liquefaction, and oil shale research and development. Last year Congress appropriated $459 million for fossil fuels research and development and $76 million for synthetic fuels. The Environment Ministers of the 12 European Community (EC) member states have given informal approval to a carbon tax proposal drafted last month by the European Commission, the EC's executive body. EC Energy Ministers, however, are less supportive of the approval, and express reluctance to commit EC member states to a carbon tax unless other large energy consumers also agree to limits on CO2 emissions. (NEDO)

  13. Future energy demand in Laos. Scenario alternatives for development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luukkanen, J.; Kouphokham, K.; Panula-Ontto, J. [and others

    2012-07-01

    Energy production in Laos is still dominated by traditional fuels. Fuelwood in the main source of energy and most of the energy is consumed at households for cooking. Increase in the number of cars and motorbikes is rapidly increasing the use of imported petroleum products. Electrification is one of the central targets of the Lao government. The electrification rate has increased fast in Laos and in the year 2010 over 70 % households had electricity supply. The target is to have 90 % access to electricity by the year 2020. The World Bank regards the electrification of Lao PDR to be a success story. This paper deals with the present and future energy consumption in Laos. First the historical trends of energy use in different sectors are analysed. The future scenarios are constructed using LaoLinda model. Four different future alternative development paths are analysed using the model results. The energy use data source for the analysis is from the Ministry of Energy and Mines (MEM) of Lao PDR. Economic and other data is from the Department of Statistics of Lao PDR.

  14. Alternative energy balances for Bulgaria to mitigate climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christov, Christo

    1996-01-01

    Alternative energy balances aimed to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are developed as alternatives to the baseline energy balance. The section of mitigation options is based on the results of the GHG emission inventory for the 1987 1992 period. The energy sector is the main contributor to the total CO2 emissions of Bulgaria. Stationary combustion for heat and electricity production as well as direct end-use combustion amounts to 80% of the total emissions. The parts of the energy network that could have the biggest influence on GHG emission reduction are identified. The potential effects of the following mitigation measures are discussed: rehabilitation of the combustion facilities currently in operation; repowering to natural gas; reduction of losses in thermal and electrical transmission and distribution networks; penetration of new combustion technologies; tariff structure improvement; renewable sources for electricity and heat production; wasteheat utilization; and supply of households with natural gas to substitute for electricity in space heating and cooking. The total available and the achievable potentials are estimated and the implementation barriers are discussed.

  15. Living Systems Energy Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-26

    The Living Systems Energy Module, renamed Voyage from the Sun, is a twenty-lesson curriculum designed to introduce students to the major ways in which energy is important in living systems. Voyage from the Sun tells the story of energy, describing its solar origins, how it is incorporated into living terrestrial systems through photosynthesis, how it flows from plants to herbivorous animals, and from herbivores to carnivores. A significant part of the unit is devoted to examining how humans use energy, and how human impact on natural habitats affects ecosystems. As students proceed through the unit, they read chapters of Voyage from the Sun, a comic book that describes the flow of energy in story form (Appendix A). During the course of the unit, an ``Energy Pyramid`` is erected in the classroom. This three-dimensional structure serves as a classroom exhibit, reminding students daily of the importance of energy and of the fragile nature of our living planet. Interactive activities teach students about adaptations that allow plants and animals to acquire, to use and to conserve energy. A complete list of curricular materials and copies of all activity sheets appear in Appendix B.

  16. 17 CFR 242.301 - Requirements for alternative trading systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... trading systems. 242.301 Section 242.301 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... FUTURES Regulation Ats-Alternative Trading Systems § 242.301 Requirements for alternative trading systems. (a) Scope of section. An alternative trading system shall comply with the requirements in paragraph...

  17. Small Wind Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simoes, Marcelo; Farret, Felix Alberto; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    devices, and a centralized distribution control. In order to establish a small wind energy system it is important to observe the following: (i) Attending the energy requirements of the actual or future consumers; (ii) Establishing civil liabilities in case of accidents and financial losses due to shortage...... or low quality of energy; (iii) Negotiating collective conditions to interconnect the microgrid with the public network or with other sources of energy that is independent of wind resources; (iv) Establishing a performance criteria of power quality and reliability to end-users, in order to reduce costs...... and guaranteeing an acceptable energy supply. This paper discuss how performance is affected by local conditions and random nature of the wind, power demand profiles, turbine related factors, and presents the technical issues for implementing a self-excited induction generator system, or a permanent magnet based...

  18. LNG As an Alternative Energy Supply in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, Jens [Lund Univ., Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Lund (Sweden)

    2008-11-15

    comes to the purchase costs and the railroad and large-scale sea transport costs. It is also worth noticing that the cost estimation models used in this study sometimes contain large steps for the different cost situations. This is the case for small-scale/base-load ships, purchase cost for Norwegian/Algerian LNG and wagon transport/system trains. The results are hence sometimes less accurate. As a side assignment, the costs for peak-shaving by the use of LNG is looked into. 20-30 MW for 24 hours per year need to be cut at Oeresundskraft's combined power and heat plant in Helsingborg. Here, the possibility of utilising portable LNG containers (as used by the Norwegian company Liquiline) is studied. In order to indicate the extent to which some key parameters affect the final cost, sensitivity analysis is carried out on the purchase price and the terminal costs. The results show that the Norwegian LNG costs 560-608 SEK/MWh (road), 570-689 SEK/MWh (railroad) and 537-555 SEK/MWh (sea). Algerian LNG costs 315-324 SEK/MWh (sea). The large difference between Norwegian and Algerian LNG is caused primarily by the much lower purchase costs of Algerian LNG, and also due to the difference in sea shipping costs. The purchase cost is about 80 % of the total cost for all cases. The transport cost is between 3 and 6 % and the terminal costs the balance, making it a larger component in the cases of Algerian than Norwegian LNG. It is shown that LNG could be an alternative to secure the Natural Gas supply after the Danish supply has run out. It has proven safe and the market is getting more and more mature. The fate of base-load LNG is largely determined by the other Natural Gas projects in the Nordic countries. The Natural Gas market price largely follows the oil price and as a consequence from this, LNG prices are also linked to the source of energy which it is primarily supposed to replace. The question is whether the market price is reduced - or at least less increased - due to the

  19. LNG As an Alternative Energy Supply in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, Jens (Lund Univ., Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Lund (Sweden))

    2008-11-15

    comes to the purchase costs and the railroad and large-scale sea transport costs. It is also worth noticing that the cost estimation models used in this study sometimes contain large steps for the different cost situations. This is the case for small-scale/base-load ships, purchase cost for Norwegian/Algerian LNG and wagon transport/system trains. The results are hence sometimes less accurate. As a side assignment, the costs for peak-shaving by the use of LNG is looked into. 20-30 MW for 24 hours per year need to be cut at Oeresundskraft's combined power and heat plant in Helsingborg. Here, the possibility of utilising portable LNG containers (as used by the Norwegian company Liquiline) is studied. In order to indicate the extent to which some key parameters affect the final cost, sensitivity analysis is carried out on the purchase price and the terminal costs. The results show that the Norwegian LNG costs 560-608 SEK/MWh (road), 570-689 SEK/MWh (railroad) and 537-555 SEK/MWh (sea). Algerian LNG costs 315-324 SEK/MWh (sea). The large difference between Norwegian and Algerian LNG is caused primarily by the much lower purchase costs of Algerian LNG, and also due to the difference in sea shipping costs. The purchase cost is about 80 % of the total cost for all cases. The transport cost is between 3 and 6 % and the terminal costs the balance, making it a larger component in the cases of Algerian than Norwegian LNG. It is shown that LNG could be an alternative to secure the Natural Gas supply after the Danish supply has run out. It has proven safe and the market is getting more and more mature. The fate of base-load LNG is largely determined by the other Natural Gas projects in the Nordic countries. The Natural Gas market price largely follows the oil price and as a consequence from this, LNG prices are also linked to the source of energy which it is primarily supposed to replace. The question is whether the market price is reduced - or at least less increased - due to

  20. Development of other oil-alternative energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Development efforts are being given on a large wind power generation system which has high reliability and economy and suits the actual situations in Japan. Verification tests will be conducted to establish control systems to realize load leveling against the increase in maximum power demand and the differences in demands between seasons, days and nights. Development will also be made on technologies for systems to operate devices optimally using nighttime power for household use. Solar light and heat energies will be introduced and used widely in housing to achieve efficient comprehensive energy utilization. Wastes, waste heat and unused energies locally available will be utilized to promote forming environment harmonious type energy communities. Photovoltaic and fuel cell power generation facilities will be installed on a trial basis to promote building a groundwork for full-scale installations. Photovoltaic power generation systems will be installed on actual houses to establish technologies to assess and optimize the load leveling effect. Attempts will be made on practical application of high-efficiency regional heat supply systems which utilize such unutilized energies as those from sea water and river water. Assistance will be given through preparing manuals on introduction of wastes power generation systems by local governments, and introduction of regional energy systems by using new discrete type power generation technologies and consumer-use cogeneration systems. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  1. Energy and global warming impacts of CFC alternative technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, S.K.; Fairchild, P.D.; Hughes, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are used in a number of applications, and volumes of CFCs used grew at a tremendous pace during the 1960s and 1970s. However, in the mid-1980s, it was confirmed that these extremely useful chemicals contribute to the destruction of stratospheric ozone. These chemicals are being phased out of use rapidly to protect the ozone layer and it is very important that the replacements for CFSs do not result in a net increase in global warming by introducing less efficient processes that lead to higher energy use and increased carbon dioxide emissions. A study was conducted to identify those alternative chemicals and technologies that could replace CFCs in energy related applications before the year 2000, and to assess the total potential impact of these alternatives on global warming. The analysis for this project included an estimate of the direct effects from the release of blowing agents, refrigerants, and solvents into the atmosphere and the indirect effects in the form of carbon dioxide emissions resulting from energy use for commercial and residential heating and cooling, household and commercial refrigeration, building and automobile air-conditioning, and general metal and electronics solvent cleaning. The discussion in this paper focuses on those aspects of the study relevant to refrigeration and air-conditioning. In general the use of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) and hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) alternatives for CFCs lead to large and sometimes dramatic reduction in total equivalent warming impact (TEWI), lifetime equivalent CO 2 emission. Most of the reductions result from decreased direct effects without significant changes in energy use. 3 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  2. Energy saving synergies in national energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck; Lund, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In the transition towards a 100% renewable energy system, energy savings are essential. The possibility of energy savings through conservation or efficiency increases can be identified in, for instance, the heating and electricity sectors, in industry, and in transport. Several studies point...... to various optimal levels of savings in the different sectors of the energy system. However, these studies do not investigate the idea of energy savings being system dependent. This paper argues that such system dependency is critical to understand, as it does not make sense to analyse an energy saving...... without taking into account the actual benefit of the saving in relation to the energy system. The study therefore identifies a need to understand how saving methods may interact with each other and the system in which they are conducted. By using energy system analysis to do hourly simulation...

  3. Electrical energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    El-Hawary, Mohamed E

    2007-01-01

    Features discussions ranging from the technical aspects of generation, transmission, distribution, and utilization to power system components, theory, protection, and the energy control center that offer an introduction to effects of deregulating electric power systems, blackouts and their causes, and minimizing their effects.

  4. Alternate Energy Sources for Thermalplastic Binding Agent Consolidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frame, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate microwave and electron beam technologies as alternate energy sources to consolidate fiber coated with a thermoplastic binding agent into preforms for composite molding applications. Bench experiments showed that both microwave and electron beam energy can produce heat sufficient to melt and consolidate a thermoplastic binding agent applied to fiberglass mat, and several two- and three-dimensional fiberglass preforms were produced with each method. In both cases, it is postulated that the heating was accomplished by the effective interaction of the microwave or electron beam energy with the combination of the mat preform and the tooling used to shape the preform. Both methods contrast with conventional thermal energy applied via infrared heaters or from a heated tool in which the heat to melt the thermoplastic binding agent must diffuse over time from the outer surface of the preform toward its center under a thermal gradient. For these reasons, the microwave and electron beam energy techniques have the potential to rapidly consolidate thick fiber preforms more efficiently than the thermal process. With further development, both technologies have the potential to make preform production more cost effective by decreasing cycle time in the preform tool, reducing energy costs, and by enabling the use of less expensive tooling materials. Descriptions of the microwave and electron beam consolidation experiments and a summary of the results are presented in this report.

  5. Alternate Energy Report, Koleda Childress Inc., dated May 15, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-05-15

    Policies, programs, and current status of alternate energy and global warming concerns in the United States are reported. The House Ways and Means Committee has added a number of energy-related tax incentives to the omnibus energy policy bill approved by the Energy and Commerce Committee earlier this year. The U.S. Department of Energy has issued a request for project proposals to participate in Round 5 of the Clean Coal Technology Program, focusing on innovative, high-efficiency combustion technologies that will help meet future generation needs. The Department of Energy, furthermore, will receive proposals to reduce greenhouse gas CO2 and toxic gas emissions as well as SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2} emissions. President George Bush has announced that he will attend the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, next month. President Bush stated last month that he would not sign at the UNCED any agreement that does not protect the environment and the economy of the U.S. Extended negotiations yielded a draft climate framework treaty with no binding greenhouse gas emissions reduction or timetables. (NEDO)

  6. Utilization of Wastes as an Alternative Energy Source for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To meet the rising demand for energy and to address environmental concerns, a conversion from conventional energy systems to renewable resources is essential. For the sustainability of human civilization, an environmentally techno – economically feasible waste treatment method is very important to treat waste. Several ...

  7. Potential alternative energy technologies on the Outer Continental Shelf.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.; Environmental Assessment

    2007-04-20

    This technical memorandum (TM) describes the technology requirements for three alternative energy technologies for which pilot and/or commercial projects on the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) are likely to be proposed within the next five to seven years. For each of the alternative technologies--wind, wave, and ocean current--the TM first presents an overview. After each technology-specific overview, it describes the technology requirements for four development phases: site monitoring and testing, construction, operation, and decommissioning. For each phase, the report covers the following topics (where data are available): facility description, electricity generated, ocean area (surface and bottom) occupied, resource requirements, emissions and noise sources, hazardous materials stored or used, transportation requirements, and accident potential. Where appropriate, the TM distinguishes between pilot-scale (or demonstration-scale) facilities and commercial-scale facilities.

  8. The Smart Energy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurowetzki, Roman; Dyrelund, Anders; Hummelmose, Lars

    Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster has launched a new report, which provides an overview of Danish competencies relating to smart energy systems. The report, which is based on a questionnaire answered by almost 200 companies working with smart energy as well as a number of expert interviews, focuses on...... production, large scale solar heat, fuel cells, heat storage, waste incineration, among others, the report draws a picture of Denmark as a research and development hub for smart energy system solutions.......Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster has launched a new report, which provides an overview of Danish competencies relating to smart energy systems. The report, which is based on a questionnaire answered by almost 200 companies working with smart energy as well as a number of expert interviews, focuses...... on the synergies which are obtained through integration of the district heating and district cooling, gas, and electricity grid into a single smart energy system. Besides documenting the technology and innovation strengths that Danish companies possess particularly relating to wind, district heating, CHP...

  9. An alternative rule for determining demand and energy supply based in marginal cost optimization from interconnected hydrothermal systems, focalizing the individualized plants, applied to the interconnected system from South and Southeast regions of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Bond, P. de; Soares Filho, S.

    1989-01-01

    A methodology for determining optimal strategies of energy supply in the interconnected system from South and Southeast regions of Brazil is presented. The problem was modelled, having as principle the minimization of operation pluri annual cost. The dynamic restrictions of energy and peak flow, the dynamic configuration of hydrothermal park and the hydraulic operation restrictions are also considered. (C.G.C.). 7 refs, 3 tabs

  10. Fundamental characterization of alternate fuel effects in continuous combustion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazowski, W.S.; Edelman, R.B.; Harsha, P.T.

    1978-09-11

    The overall objective of this contract is to assist in the development of fuel-flexible combustion systems for gas turbines as well as Rankine and Stirling cycle engines. The primary emphasis of the program is on liquid hydrocarbons produced from non-petroleum resouces. Fuel-flexible combustion systems will provide for more rapid transition of these alternate fuels into important future energy utilization centers (especially utility power generation with the combined cycle gas turbine). The specific technical objectives of the program are to develop an improved understanding of relationships between alternate fuel properties and continuous combustion system effects, and to provide analytical modeling/correlation capabilities to be used as design aids for development of fuel-tolerant combustion systems. Efforts this past year have been to evaluate experimental procedures for studying alternate fuel combustion effects and to determine current analytical capabilities for prediction of these effects. Jet Stirred Combustor studies during this period have produced new insights into soot formation in strongly backmixed systems and have provided much information for comparison with analytical predictions. The analytical effort included new applications of quasi-global modeling techniques as well as comparison of prediction with the experimental results generated.

  11. Engineered Geothermal Systems Energy Return On Energy Investment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansure, A J

    2012-12-10

    Energy Return On Investment (EROI) is an important figure of merit for assessing the viability of energy alternatives. Too often comparisons of energy systems use efficiency when EROI would be more appropriate. For geothermal electric power generation, EROI is determined by the electricity delivered to the consumer compared to the energy consumed to construct, operate, and decommission the facility. Critical factors in determining the EROI of Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS) are examined in this work. These include the input energy embodied into the system. Embodied energy includes the energy contained in the materials, as well as, that consumed in each stage of manufacturing from mining the raw materials to assembling the finished system. Also critical are the system boundaries and value of the energy heat is not as valuable as electrical energy. The EROI of an EGS depends upon a number of factors that are currently unknown, for example what will be typical EGS well productivity, as well as, reservoir depth, temperature, and temperature decline rate. Thus the approach developed is to consider these factors as parameters determining EROI as a function of number of wells needed. Since the energy needed to construct a geothermal well is a function of depth, results are provided as a function of well depth. Parametric determination of EGS EROI is calculated using existing information on EGS and US Department of Energy (DOE) targets and is compared to the minimum EROI an energy production system should have to be an asset rather than a liability.

  12. Accelerating the commercialization on new technologies. [free market operation of federal alternate energy sources programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, T. J.; Nawrocki, P. M.

    1978-01-01

    It is suggested that federal programs for hastening the adoption of alternative energy sources must operate within the free market structure. Five phases of the free market commercialization process are described. Federal role possibilities include information dissemination and funding to stimulate private sector activities within these five phases, and federally sponsored procedures for accelerating commercialization of solar thermal small power systems are considered.

  13. Understanding renewable energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaschning, Volker

    2005-01-15

    Beginning with an overview of renewable energy sources including biomass, hydroelectricity, geothermal, tidal, wind and solar power, this book explores the fundamentals of different renewable energy systems. The main focus is on technologies with high development potential such as solar thermal systems, photovoltaics and wind power. This text not only describes technological aspects, but also deals consciously with problems of the energy industry. In this way, the topics are treated in a holistic manner, bringing together maths, engineering, climate studies and economics, and enabling readers to gain a broad understanding of renewable energy technologies and their potential. The book also contains a free CD-ROM resource, which includes a variety of specialist simulation software and detailed figures from the book. (Author)

  14. Africa energy future: Alternative scenarios and their implications for sustainable development strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouedraogo, Nadia S.

    2017-01-01

    The long-term forecasting of energy supply and demand is of prime importance in Africa due to the steady increase in energy requirements, the non-availability of sufficient resources, the high dependence on fossil-fuels to meet these requirements, and the global concerns over the energy-induced environmental issues. This paper is concerned with modelling possible future paths for Africa's energy future and the related emissions. Future energy demand is forecasted based on socio-economic variables such as gross domestic product, income per capita, population, and urbanisation. The Long-range Energy Alternative Planning System (LEAP) modelling framework is employed to analyse and project energy demand and the related emissions under alternative strategies for the period of 2010–2040. Results of scenarios including business-as-usual (BAU) policies, moderate energy access and accelerate energy access policies, renewable energies promotion and energy efficiency policies and their environmental implications are provided. The study provides some policy insights and identifies synergies and trade-offs relating to the potential for energy policies to promote universal energy access, enable a transition to renewable energy, and mitigate climate change for a sustainable development. - Highlights: • Possible future paths for Africa's energy future and the related emissions are modelled. • Scenarios using an adaptation of Schwartz's scenario approach, under LEAP are developed. • Under the current energy policies, the universal access to modern energy will not be met by 2030. • Policies to accelerate the changes in energy structure are required for sustainable development. • Investing in Energy efficient strategies has emerged as one of the best solution.

  15. Potential of renewable energy systems in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wen; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Zhang, Xiliang

    2011-01-01

    Along with high-speed economic development and increasing energy consumption, the Chinese Government faces a growing pressure to maintain the balance between energy supply and demand. In 2009, China has become both the largest energy consumer and CO 2 emitting country in the world. In this case, the inappropriate energy consumption structure should be changed. As an alternative, a suitable infrastructure for the implementation of renewable energy may serve as a long-term sustainable solution. The perspective of a 100% renewable energy system has been analyzed and discussed in some countries previously. In this process, assessment of domestic renewable energy sources is the first step. Then appropriate methodologies are needed to perform energy system analyses involving the integration of more sustainable strategies. Denmark may serve as an example of how sustainable strategies can be implemented. The Danish system has demonstrated the possibility of converting into a 100% renewable energy system. This paper discusses the perspective of renewable energy in China firstly, and then analyses whether it is suitable to adopt similar methodologies applied in other countries as China approaches a renewable energy system. The conclusion is that China's domestic renewable energy sources are abundant and show the possibility to cover future energy demand; the methodologies used to analyse a 100% renewable energy system are applicable in China. Therefore, proposing an analysis of a 100% renewable energy system in China is not unreasonable. (author)

  16. Alternative Approaches to Calculate Benefits of an Energy Imbalance Market With Wind and Solar Energy: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, B.; King, J.; Milligan, M.

    2012-06-01

    The anticipated increase in variable generation in the Western Interconnection over the next several years has raised concerns about how to maintain system balance, especially in smaller Balancing Authority Areas (BAAs). Given renewable portfolio standards in the West, it is possible that more than 50 gigawatts of wind capacity will be installed by 2020. Significant quantities of solar generation are likely to be added as well. The consequent increase in variability and uncertainty that must be managed by the conventional generation fleet and responsive loads has resulted in a proposal for an Energy Imbalance Market (EIM). This paper extends prior work to estimate the reserve requirements for regulation, spinning, and non-spinning reserves with and without the EIM. We also discuss alternative approaches to allocating reserve requirements and show that some apparently attractive allocation methods have undesired consequences.

  17. Solar Energy Systems for Ohioan Residential Homeowners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckett, Rickey D.

    Dwindling nonrenewable energy resources and rising energy costs have forced the United States to develop alternative renewable energy sources. The United States' solar energy industry has seen an upsurge in recent years, and photovoltaic holds considerable promise as a renewable energy technology. The purpose of this case study was to explore homeowner's awareness of the benefits of solar energy. Disruptive-innovation theory was used to explore marketing strategies for conveying information to homeowners about access to new solar energy products and services. Twenty residential homeowners were interviewed face-to-face to explore (a) perceived benefits of solar energy in their county in Ohio, and (b) perceptions on the rationale behind the marketing strategy of solar energy systems sold for residential use. The study findings used inductive analyses and coding interpretation to explore the participants' responses that revealed 3 themes: the existence of environmental benefits for using solar energy systems, the expensive cost of equipment associated with government incentives, and the lack of marketing information that is available for consumer use. The implications for positive social change include the potential to enable corporate leaders, small business owners, and entrepreneurs to develop marketing strategies for renewable energy systems. These strategies may promote use of solar energy systems as a clean, renewable, and affordable alternative electricity energy source for the 21st century.

  18. The use of alternative energy sources - the best approach to improving environmental situation in Azerbaijan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliyev, F.G.; Khalilova, H.Kh.; Aliyev, F.F.

    2006-01-01

    Energy supply is essential in the development of Azerbaijan. However, it remains reliant on fossil fuels to supply country's energy demand that leads to the exhaustion of energy resources, while increasing environmental pollution in the region. Analysis of the present situation shows that in order to prevent global disasters we must change the existing energy systems. Azerbaijan must seek new ways of generating energy, which do not sacrifice the natural environment, and which protect the health of the population and which promote sustainable development of the region. International Ecoenergy Academy (IEA) has long been engaged in the development of projects on the use of alternative energy sources. Based on the results of studies we suggested that introduction of modern renewable energy technologies can help reduce the health impacts of air pollution and ecological effects of acid rains, hazards of greenhouse gas emissions and climate changes, while providing people with environmentally clean energy and new job opportunities. (authors)

  19. Alternate Energy Report, Koleda Childress Inc., dated February 15, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-02-15

    Policies, programs, and current status of alternate energy and global warming concerns in the United States are reported. The Bush Administration has released its $1.52 trillion budget request for the operation of the federal government for fiscal year 1993. Included in this request is an allocation of $311 million for fossil energy research and development within the Department of Energy. The Administration requested $227 million for this purpose in fiscal 1992 and the amount actually appropriated by Congress was $444 million. American Electric Power's proposed 340MW advanced demonstration plant in West Virginia has been granted a delay by the Department of Energy. The plant had been selected by the Department of Energy in round 2 of the Clean Coal Technology Program in 1988. American Electric Power explaining the delay cited reduced expectations for electricity demand and impact of the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency allegedly requested the Bush Administration to radically change its policies towards global climate change. The U.K. Government insisted that the EC countries work out their plans to reduce vehicle CO2 emissions. (NEDO)

  20. Biomass - alternative renewable energy source to the fossil fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koruba Dorota

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the fossil fuels combustion effects in terms of the dangers of increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. Based on the bibliography review the negative impact of increased carbon dioxide concentration on the human population is shown in the area of the external environment, particularly in terms of the air pollution and especially the impact on human health. The paper presents biomass as the renewable energy alternative source to fossil fuels which combustion gives a neutral CO2 emissions and therefore should be the main carrier of primary energy in Poland. The paper presents the combustion heat results and humidity of selected dry wood pellets (pellets straw, energy-crop willow pellets, sawdust pellets, dried sewage sludge from two sewage treatment plants of the Holly Cross province pointing their energy potential. In connection with the results analysis of these studies the standard requirements were discussed (EN 14918:2010 “Solid bio-fuels-determination of calorific value” regarding the basic parameters determining the biomass energy value (combustion heat, humidity.

  1. Biogas : Animal Waste That Can be Alternative Energy Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuti Haryati

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Biogas is a renewable energy which can be used as alternative fuel to replace fossil fuel such as oil and natural gas . Recently, diversification on the use of energy has increasingly become an important issue because the oil sources are depleting . Utilization of agricultural wastes for biogas production can minimize the consumption of commercial energy source such as kerosene as well as the use of firewood . Biogas is generated by the process of organic material digestion by certain anaerobe bacteria activity in aerobic digester . Anaerobic digestion process is basically carried out in three steps i.e. hydrolysis, acidogenic and metanogenic . Digestion process needs certain condition such as C : N ratio, temperature, acidity and also digester design . Most anaerobic digestions perform best at 32 - 35°C or at 50 - 55°C, and pH 6 .8 - 8 . At these temperatures, the digestion process essentially converts organic matter in the present of water into gaseous energy . Generally, biogas consists of methane about 60 - 70% and yield about 1,000 British Thermal Unit/ft 3 or 252 Kcal/0.028 m3 when burned . In several developing countries, as well as in Europe and the United States, biogas has been commonly used as a subtitute environmental friendly energy . Meanwhile, potentially Indonesia has abundant potential of biomass waste, however biogas has not been used maximally .

  2. Alternate Energy Report, Koleda Childress Inc., dated February 15, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-02-15

    Policies, programs, and current status of alternate energy and global warming concerns in the United States are reported. The Bush Administration has released its $1.52 trillion budget request for the operation of the federal government for fiscal year 1993. Included in this request is an allocation of $311 million for fossil energy research and development within the Department of Energy. The Administration requested $227 million for this purpose in fiscal 1992 and the amount actually appropriated by Congress was $444 million. American Electric Power's proposed 340MW advanced demonstration plant in West Virginia has been granted a delay by the Department of Energy. The plant had been selected by the Department of Energy in round 2 of the Clean Coal Technology Program in 1988. American Electric Power explaining the delay cited reduced expectations for electricity demand and impact of the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency allegedly requested the Bush Administration to radically change its policies towards global climate change. The U.K. Government insisted that the EC countries work out their plans to reduce vehicle CO2 emissions. (NEDO)

  3. Decentralized Energy from Waste Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Antizar-Ladislao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last five years or so, biofuels have been given notable consideration worldwide as an alternative to fossil fuels, due to their potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by partial replacement of oil as a transport fuel. The production of biofuels using a sustainable approach, should consider local production of biofuels, obtained from local feedstocks and adapted to the socio-economical and environmental characteristics of the particular region where they are developed. Thus, decentralized energy from waste systems will exploit local biomass to optimize their production and consumption. Waste streams such as agricultural and wood residues, municipal solid waste, vegetable oils, and algae residues can all be integrated in energy from waste systems. An integral optimization of decentralized energy from waste systems should not be based on the optimization of each single process, but the overall optimization of the whole process. This is by obtaining optimal energy and environmental benefits, as well as collateral beneficial co-products such as soil fertilizers which will result in a higher food crop production and carbon dioxide fixation which will abate climate change.

  4. Decentralized energy from waste systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antizar-Ladislao, B.; Turrion-Gomez, J. L.

    2010-01-01

    In the last five years or so, biofuels have been given notable consideration worldwide as an alternative to fossil fuels, due to their potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by partial replacement of oil as a transport fuel. The production of biofuels using a sustainable approach, should consider local production of biofuels, obtained from local feedstocks and adapted to the socio-economical and environmental characteristics of the particular region where they are developed. Thus, decentralized energy from waste systems will exploit local biomass to optimize their production and consumption. Waste streams such as agricultural and wood residues, municipal solid waste, vegetable oils, and algae residues can all be integrated in energy from waste systems. An integral optimization of decentralized energy from waste systems should not be based on the optimization of each single process, but the overall optimization of the whole process. This is by obtaining optimal energy and environmental benefits, as well as collateral beneficial co-products such as soil fertilizers which will result in a higher food crop production and carbon dioxide fixation which will abate climate change. (author)

  5. Evolving energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, E.

    1991-04-01

    This thesis presents scenarios of future energy systems, a cost-benefit analysis of measures to avoid greenhouse-gas emissions, an analysis of the effect of energy prices on end-use efficiencies and fuel choices, and an evaluation of financial-incentive programs designed to induce investments in efficient energy use. Twelve integrated energy supply/demand scenarios for the Swedish heat-and-power sector are presented to illustrate the potential for improvements in end-use efficiency and increased utilization of renewable energy sources. The results show that greenhouse-gas emissions could be reduced by 35 per cent from 1987 levels by 2010, with a net economic benefit compared to a business-as-usual scenario. A generalized methodology for calculating the net costs of reducing greenhouse-gas emissions is applied to a variety of fuel choices and energy end-use technologies. A key finding is that a combination of increased end-use efficiencies and use of renewable energy systems is required to achieve maximum cost-effective emissions reductions. End-use efficiencies and inter-fuel competition in Denmark and Sweden are compared during a time period in which real electricity prices were declining in Sweden and increasing in Denmark. Despite these different price environments, efficiencies and choices of heating fuels did not generally develop as expected according to economic theory. The influences of counter-price and non-price factors are important in understanding this outcome. Relying on prices alone injects considerable uncertainty into the energy planning process, and precludes efficiency improvements and fuel choices attainable with other mechanisms. Incentive programs can be used to promote energy-efficient technologies. Utilities in Europe have recently offered financial incentives intended to stimulate the adoption of compact-fluorescent lamps. These programs have been cost-effective in comparison to new electric supply. (au).

  6. The daylight alternative for energy conservation saving in lighting systems; La luz natural alternativa para el ahorro de energia en sistemas de iluminacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escutia Perez, A.; Cruz Mendez, E. P. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Azcapotzalco, Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Buitron Sanchez, H. [Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico, Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    The technological advances generate far reaching changes in all types of installation. The new spaces and the existing ones justify the introduction of new technologies taking into account important economic considerations, mostly when the advantage of daylight is taken into consideration in industrial and commercial lighting. In the daylight design it is necessary to know the solar transit, the atmospheric conditions, the architectural design of the building, the materials and the control elements, etc. to apply with precision the calculation method. The fundamental lighting technic have varied little. In the greatest part of commerces and industries the general lighting is used, that produces an illumination more or less uniform on the working areas, which guarantees a total freedom for the placement of machinery, working benches, racks, exhibitors, clothes racks, etc.. This type of lighting is obtained by means of the use of a more or less regular series of skylights. The adequate localized lighting is used in those zones where because of the presence of obstructions or unfavorable slant of the working plan are not sufficiently well lighted by the general lighting system. The daylight use in accordance with the every moment availability will permit in many working centers a sensible diminution of the artificial lighting time, provided that the characteristics of the control operation of the installation permit it, along with modern controlling devices and the great variety of efficient saving lamps. [Espanol] Los avances tecnologicos generan cambios trascendentes en todo tipo de instalacion. Los nuevos espacios y los ya existentes justifican la introduccion de nuevas tecnologias teniendo consideraciones economicas importantes, sobre todo cuando se aprovecha la luz natural en sistemas de alumbrado industrial y comercial. En el diseno de iluminacion natural, es necesario tener el conocimiento del transito solar, las condiciones atmosfericas, el diseno

  7. The daylight alternative for energy conservation saving in lighting systems; La luz natural alternativa para el ahorro de energia en sistemas de iluminacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escutia Perez, A; Cruz Mendez, E P [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Azcapotzalco, Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Buitron Sanchez, H [Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico, Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    The technological advances generate far reaching changes in all types of installation. The new spaces and the existing ones justify the introduction of new technologies taking into account important economic considerations, mostly when the advantage of daylight is taken into consideration in industrial and commercial lighting. In the daylight design it is necessary to know the solar transit, the atmospheric conditions, the architectural design of the building, the materials and the control elements, etc. to apply with precision the calculation method. The fundamental lighting technic have varied little. In the greatest part of commerces and industries the general lighting is used, that produces an illumination more or less uniform on the working areas, which guarantees a total freedom for the placement of machinery, working benches, racks, exhibitors, clothes racks, etc.. This type of lighting is obtained by means of the use of a more or less regular series of skylights. The adequate localized lighting is used in those zones where because of the presence of obstructions or unfavorable slant of the working plan are not sufficiently well lighted by the general lighting system. The daylight use in accordance with the every moment availability will permit in many working centers a sensible diminution of the artificial lighting time, provided that the characteristics of the control operation of the installation permit it, along with modern controlling devices and the great variety of efficient saving lamps. [Espanol] Los avances tecnologicos generan cambios trascendentes en todo tipo de instalacion. Los nuevos espacios y los ya existentes justifican la introduccion de nuevas tecnologias teniendo consideraciones economicas importantes, sobre todo cuando se aprovecha la luz natural en sistemas de alumbrado industrial y comercial. En el diseno de iluminacion natural, es necesario tener el conocimiento del transito solar, las condiciones atmosfericas, el diseno

  8. Structural basis for energy transduction by respiratory alternative complex III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Joana S; Calisto, Filipa; Langer, Julian D; Mills, Deryck J; Refojo, Patrícia N; Teixeira, Miguel; Kühlbrandt, Werner; Vonck, Janet; Pereira, Manuela M

    2018-04-30

    Electron transfer in respiratory chains generates the electrochemical potential that serves as energy source for the cell. Prokaryotes can use a wide range of electron donors and acceptors and may have alternative complexes performing the same catalytic reactions as the mitochondrial complexes. This is the case for the alternative complex III (ACIII), a quinol:cytochrome c/HiPIP oxidoreductase. In order to understand the catalytic mechanism of this respiratory enzyme, we determined the structure of ACIII from Rhodothermus marinus at 3.9 Å resolution by single-particle cryo-electron microscopy. ACIII presents a so-far unique structure, for which we establish the arrangement of the cofactors (four iron-sulfur clusters and six c-type hemes) and propose the location of the quinol-binding site and the presence of two putative proton pathways in the membrane. Altogether, this structure provides insights into a mechanism for energy transduction and introduces ACIII as a redox-driven proton pump.

  9. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 2: Materials considerations. [materials used in boilers and heat exchangers of energy conversion systems for electric power plants using coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D. E.

    1976-01-01

    Extensive studies are presented which were carried out on materials behavior in nine advanced energy conversion systems employing coal and coal-derived fuels. The areas of materials behavior receiving particular attention in this regard are: (1) fireside corrosion and erosion in boiler and heat exchanger materials, (2) oxidation and hot corrosion of gas turbine materials, (3) liquid metal corrosion and mass transport, (4) high temperature steam corrosion, (5) compatability of materials with coal slag and MHD seed, (6) reaction of materials with impure helium, (7) allowable stresses for boiler and heat exchanger materials, (8) environmental effects on mechanical properties, and (9) liquid metal purity control and instrumentation. Such information was then utilized in recommending materials for use in the critical components of the power systems, and at the same time to identify materials problem areas and to evaluate qualitatively the difficulty of solving those problems. Specific materials recommendations for critical components of the nine advanced systems under study are contained in summary tables.

  10. Mobile liquid VR system: a cost effective alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto, R.; Harkins, R.; HPD, Inc., Naperville, IL)

    1985-01-01

    The need for cost effective alternatives to treat large volumes of liquid radwaste has never been more evident. As part of a continuing effort to introduce such alternatives, HPD, Inc., and Chem-Nuclear Systems, Inc., have integrated two proven state-of-the-art technologies to offer a mobile liquid volume reduction system that satisfies nuclear industry requirements, with respect to liquid radwaste handling. This system optimizes proven technology by employing a crystallizer unit to concentrate the waste liquids to 50 weight percent solids, thereby reducing the volume to be solidified by factors of 40, while using only 20 percent of the energy required by conventional evaporative systems. In addition, the system employs a field proven cement solidification process which has been accepted in a Topical Report by the US NRC and which offers the highest waste to container volume ratios for stable waste forms in the industry. This volume reduction-solidification system is able to reduce over 7000 gallons of liquid waste per day to less than 30 cubic feet of 10CFR61 certified stable solidified waste for ultimate disposal or on-site storage. This document describes the GEODE System; its applicability; economics; volume reduction; scope of responsibility and experience. Major benefits include higher VR factors; assurance of continual regulatory compliance; and no capital investment

  11. Alternate Energy Report, Koleda Childress Inc., dated July 15, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-07-15

    Concerning alternate energy, a report is made on the status of policies and plans, private sector activities, and global warming mitigation measures in the United States. A Clean Coal Technology Efficiency Improvement Act was introduced in the House of Representatives. Ms Linda Stuntz was named acting Assistant Secretary of Fossil Energy, Department of Energy. The Department of Energy has released a status report on the 35 clean coal projects selected for financial assistance. In the private sector, the Atlantic Richfield Company has announced that it has designed a new reformulated gasoline that rivals methanol in its ability to reduce emissions from motor vehicles. The new gasoline reduces hydrocarbon emissions by 28 percent, evaporative emissions by 36 percent, and nitrogen oxide emissions by 26 percent as compared with conventional gasoline. The United Nations-sponsored second negotiating session in Geneva for an international climate treaty was completed in June, but there was no little substantive progress. It is supposed that the British government is ready to step up international pressure on the United States to take decisive steps to cope with global warming. (NEDO)

  12. Wind Energy Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    During the 1920s and 1930s, millions of wind energy systems were used on farms and other locations far from utility lines. However, with passage of the Rural Electrification Act in 1939, cheap electricity was brought to rural areas. After that, the use of wind machines dramatically declined. Recently, the rapid rise in fuel prices has led to a…

  13. Energy Systems Integration Facility Videos | Energy Systems Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facility | NREL Energy Systems Integration Facility Videos Energy Systems Integration Facility Integration Facility NREL + SolarCity: Maximizing Solar Power on Electrical Grids Redefining What's Possible for Renewable Energy: Grid Integration Robot-Powered Reliability Testing at NREL's ESIF Microgrid

  14. Energy Systems Integration Laboratory | Energy Systems Integration Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    | NREL Integration Laboratory Energy Systems Integration Laboratory Research in the Energy Systems Integration Laboratory is advancing engineering knowledge and market deployment of hydrogen technologies. Applications include microgrids, energy storage for renewables integration, and home- and station

  15. Application of long range energy alternative planning (LEAP) model for Thailand energy outlook 2030 : reference case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charusiri, W.; Eua-arporn, B.; Ubonwat, J.

    2008-01-01

    In 2004, the total energy consumption in Thailand increased 8.8 per cent, from 47,806 to 60,260 ktoe. Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) is an accounting tool that simulates future energy scenarios. According to a Business As Usual (BAU) case, the overall energy demand in Thailand is estimated to increase from 61,262 to 254,200 ktoe between 2004 and 2030. Commercial energy consumption, which comprises petroleum products, natural gas, coal and its products, and electricity, increased by 9.0 per cent in Thailand in 2004, and new and renewable energy increased by 7.8 per cent. Nearly 60 per cent of the total commercial energy supply in Thailand was imported and increased for a fifth year in a row. The changes in energy consumption can be attributed to population growth and increase in economic activity and development. 10 refs., 5 tabs., 14 figs

  16. Energy storage connection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Eric L.; Borland, Nicholas P.; Dale, Magdelena; Freeman, Belvin; Kite, Kim A.; Petter, Jeffrey K.; Taylor, Brendan F.

    2012-07-03

    A power system for connecting a variable voltage power source, such as a power controller, with a plurality of energy storage devices, at least two of which have a different initial voltage than the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. The power system includes a controller that increases the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. When such output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a first one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the first one of the energy storage devices. The controller then causes the output voltage of the variable voltage power source to continue increasing. When the output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a second one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the second one of the energy storage devices.

  17. Evaluation of hybrid power system alternatives: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, Andrew L.

    1999-01-01

    Pursuant to executive and statutory policies, the National Park Service (NPS) has been evaluating the use of photovoltaic (PV) hybrid power systems, for many of its remote, off-grid areas. This paper reports the results of a detailed technical and economic evaluation for one such area: the Needles District of Canyonlands National Park. The study evaluates the presented power systems and five alternative power generation configurations, four of which utilise PV. Projections are provided for the generator run-time and fuel use associated with each configuration as well as all initial and future costs. Included in the study are specific recommendations for energy efficiency improvements at the site. Results show that the generation systems presently in use, two full-time diesel generators, has the lowest conventional 20-year life cycle costs (LCC) of the six systems evaluated. However, when emissions costs are included (per NPS guidelines), several of the PV hybrid alternatives attain a lower LCC than the diesel-only systems. General discussion of the effects of initial versus future costs of PV hybrids as they compare with engine generator system is presented. (Author)

  18. Biodiesel and bioethanol production: A sustainable alternative for the energy crisis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Castro Martínez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution intends to give an overview of the current -status of the energy crisis and suggest some sustainable alternatives for energy production. In first place, a brief summary of the history about resources for energy production is presented. The high dependency of fossil combustibles it is well known and has been estimated that more than 90% of the used energy comes from non-renewable resources such as oil, gas and carbon. In the same way, here, it is described that oil is, by far, the main source of energy used to date and as a consequence, this resource is, unavoidably,coming to an end and at the same time is causing and increasing environmental pollution problems. Later in this work, it is suggested that in order to achieve the energetic sustainability, the development of alternative sources that will allow the reduction of toxic greenhouse gas (GHG emissions as well as a decrease of water usage along with a decrease in the energy production costs are needed. One of the alternatives that have been proposed is the production of biofuels, such as biodiesel and bioethanol. Here, some of the main properties at the level of the employed raw materials and production systems are cited. Finally, this work suggests some solutions that are under development worldwide in order to face thiscurrent energy situation.

  19. Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    SatCon Technology Corporation developed the drive train for use in the Chrysler Corporation's Patriot Mark II, which includes the Flywheel Energy Storage (FES) system. In Chrysler's experimental hybrid- electric car, the hybrid drive train uses an advanced turboalternator that generates electricity by burning a fuel; a powerful, compact electric motor; and a FES that eliminates the need for conventional batteries. The FES system incorporates technology SatCon developed in more than 30 projects with seven NASA centers, mostly for FES systems for spacecraft attitude control and momentum recovery. SatCon will continue to develop the technology with Westinghouse Electric Corporation.

  20. Energy Storage and Smart Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Connolly, David

    2016-01-01

    It is often highlighted how the transition to renewable energy supply calls for significant electricity storage. However, one has to move beyond the electricity-only focus and take a holistic energy system view to identify optimal solutions for integrating renewable energy. In this paper......, an integrated cross-sector approach is used to determine the most efficient and least-cost storage options for the entire renewable energy system concluding that the best storage solutions cannot be found through analyses focusing on the individual sub-sectors. Electricity storage is not the optimum solution...... to integrate large inflows of fluctuating renewable energy, since more efficient and cheaper options can be found by integrating the electricity sector with other parts of the energy system and by this creating a Smart Energy System. Nevertheless, this does not imply that electricity storage should...

  1. Energy Storage and Smart Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poul Alberg Østergaard

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is often highlighted how the transition to renewable energy supply calls for significant electricity storage. However, one has to move beyond the electricity-only focus and take a holistic energy system view to identify optimal solutions for integrating renewable energy. In this paper, an integrated cross-sector approach is used to determine the most efficient and least-cost storage options for the entire renewable energy system concluding that the best storage solutions cannot be found through analyses focusing on the individual sub-sectors. Electricity storage is not the optimum solution to integrate large inflows of fluctuating renewable energy, since more efficient and cheaper options can be found by integrating the electricity sector with other parts of the energy system and by this creating a Smart Energy System. Nevertheless, this does not imply that electricity storage should be disregarded but that it will be needed for other purposes in the future.

  2. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume V. Economics and systems analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-06-01

    This NASAP assessment considers the economics of alternative nuclear reactor and fuel-cycle systems in the light of possible patterns of uranium supply and energy demand, as well as the economic implications of improvng the proliferation resistance of the various systems. The assessment focuses on the costs of alternative nuclear technologies and the possible timing of their implementation, based on their economic attractiveness

  3. A Project-Based, STEM-Integrated Alternative Energy Team Challenge for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Allison; Harris, John

    2010-01-01

    The topic of alternative energy is not only relevant to a multitude of issues today, it is also an effective vehicle for developing instruction that applies across a variety of content disciplines and academic standards. Since many of the issues associated with alternative energy are open-ended, alternative energy also lends itself to…

  4. Input-output analysis of alternative policies implemented on the energy activities: An application for Catalonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llop, Maria; Pie, Laia

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the economic impact of alternative policies implemented on the energy activities of the Catalan production system. Specifically, we analyze the effects of a tax on intermediate energy uses, a reduction in intermediate energy demand, and a tax on intermediate uses combined with a reduction in intermediate energy demand. The methodology involves two versions of the input-output price model: a competitive price formulation and a mark-up price formulation. The input-output price framework will make it possible to evaluate how the alternative measures modify production prices, consumption prices, private real income, and intermediate energy uses. The empirical application is for the Catalan economy and uses economic data for the year 2001. The combination of a tax on energy uses and an improvement in the energy efficiency of the production system is a measure that accomplishes both economic and environmental goals, since it has no effects on prices, it has a positive effect on private real income and, finally, energy consumption is considerably reduced. (author)

  5. Energy sales targets: An alternative to White Certificate schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passey, Robert; MacGill, Iain

    2009-01-01

    White Certificate schemes are currently being implemented or proposed in a growing number of jurisdictions as a means to drive greater energy efficiency uptake. After briefly discussing some of the strengths and weaknesses of such schemes, this paper outlines a proposed alternative approach-the use of Energy Sales Targets. This approach essentially involves the imposition of a cap on the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with annual energy sales and, in its simplest version, requires no tradeable certificates or permits. The proposed approach creates a clear measurable link between how compliance is enforced (the retailers' targets) and the desired outcomes of the scheme (measurable reductions in GHG emissions). This drives physical additionality of the scheme, including negation of any rebound effect within the covered sectors. It also avoids the need to define the activities eligible to create certificates, and likewise, no deeming, auditing, monitoring or verification would be required by government beyond ensuring retailer compliance-significantly reducing administration costs. There does not appear to be a clear precedent for this type of scheme anywhere in the world, and so this paper should be seen as a preliminary scoping of options that are deserving of more in-depth assessment.

  6. Hybrid energy systems for rural communities in Zimbabwe

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tazvinga, Henerica

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy sources such as solar photovoltaic (PV) systems have been widely utilized as alternative energy sources to fossil fuels in residential areas in many countries. The PV cell output varies according to many factors including weather...

  7. Techno-Economic aspects on choosing alternative energy sources (sun and wind) compared with generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvolun, Yona.

    1990-11-01

    Independent alternative energy systems, such as wind and solar, need batteries to store produced energy in order to supply a reliable source of electricity when needed. Increasing reliability of these sources automatically influence the quality and availability of this type of power supply. Every solar and wind energy system includes a certain number of principle components : Photovoltaic arrays or wind generator, regulator/control unit to control charge/ discharge of the batteries and power supply to consumers, converters from AC to DC and DC to AC, batteries and load. The mode of system operation for both the independent or combined system is influenced by many complicated factors some of which are stochastic variables, time and location variables or constant. From the above complicated data one must choose the optimal system which answers the following criteria: a. Minimum cost which determines the inter relative array sizes for combined systems (photovoltaic cells wind generator and batteries). b. Reliability of power supply in general. c. Full consumption of power installation by obtaining maximum possible output under existing conditions at any time. This paper deals with the connected problems caused in a combined system of solar/photovoltaic cells, wind generator and batteries and will offer alternative economic and technical alternatives for power supply from fuel operated generators . Inverter components: photovoltaic cells and wind generators, which are the principle components without which solar and/or wind systems cannot exist, are discussed from the theoretical and physical aspects. Also, operation of the attached components, such as batteries, inverters, generators, regulators etc, is discussed. The last part of this paper discusses the choosing of the optimal system in a Techno-economic sense as opposed to energy supplied from generator, The work exhibited on these pages will contribute to better understanding of the different systems while

  8. Energy Efficient Mobile Operating Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Waseem

    2013-01-01

    Energy is an important resource in mobile computers now days. It is important to manage energy in efficient manner so that energy consumption will be reduced. Developers of operating system decided to increase the battery life time of mobile phones at operating system level. So, design of energy efficient mobile operating system is the best way to reduce the energy consumption in mobile devices. In this paper, currently used energy efficient mobile operating system is discussed and compared. ...

  9. Wellons Canada energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Wellons Canada is a British Columbia-based company that specializes in the manufacture and installation of lumber drying and energy conversion equipment. This brochure provided details of the Wellons energy system designed for oriented strand board (OSB) plants. The brochure outlined the system's scope of supply, and provided illustrations of system procedures from the initial wet fuel bin through to the electric precipitator used for air clean-up. During the process, fuel was conveyed from the bin to metering bins into combustors and through a cyclo-blast cell. Forced draft fan systems were then used to provide primary and secondary combustion air. Radiant heaters were then used. A drop-out chamber was supplied to allow for complete combustion of fuel particles and to provide a drop-out of ash. A fan was then used to deliver diluent air to maintain the set point temperature in the hot gas stream. Refractory lined hot gas ducts were used to deliver heat to the dryers. Hot gas was then drawn through a multi-cyclone collector for ash removal. Electrostatic precipitators were used to clean up emissions on a continuous operating basis. An automatic system was used to collect ash from the combustion system grates and other areas. Details of installation services provided by the company were also included. 42 figs.

  10. Energy differently - Booklet supplement to 'Alternatives economiques' journal (no. 54, Feb. 2012)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    This booklet screens the different renewable energy sources and focusses on their ecological advantage and economical maturity aspects. The book is divided in five parts: 1 - the energy transition: energies of yesterday and tomorrow; France: the end of compulsive consumption?; NegaWatt: a transition scenario for France; 2 - consuming less energy: saving energy; will the building industry revolution take place?; electricity: the constantly seeking more attitude can be avoided; smart grids: can they generate energy saving?; is the electric-powered car really ecological?; waste sorting: more effort is needed; is Internet a source of energy saving?; does tele-working reduce pollution?; how to feed people without impacting environment?; should we stop purchasing imported goods?; how can we get rid of trucks?; Is the carbon compensation system useful?; is innovation capable to save us?; 3 - producing energy differently: renewable energies - the French backwardness; hydro-energy; marine energies; thermal solar energy; photovoltaic energy; solar concentration; terrestrial wind power; offshore wind power; geothermal energy; heat pumps; agro-fuels; biomass and wood fuels; biogas; cogeneration; CO 2 capture and sequestration; adapting the power grid to the renewable energies development; 4 - Initiatives: Enercoop, a 100% renewable power supplier; Le Mene (Brittany, France): towards a positive energy territory; local wind turbines: from Montdidier to Issoudun; the eco-districts revolution; interdependent funds for alternate energies; against fossil fuels extraction; Juneau (Alaska) moves to low-consumption; when solidarity and electricity go together: the example of Nicaragua; 5 - energy in debates: 'it is not too late'; a challenge for democracy; is France ready for nuclear phasing out?; reorganizing consumption; a turn to take today; understanding the photovoltaic crisis; how to finance renewable energy sources?; what impact on employment?; should we have to establish a

  11. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems: Challenges and Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Sabharwall; S.B. Sitton; S.J. Yoon; C. Stoots

    2014-07-01

    With growing demand of energy and costs of the fossil fuels, coupled with the environmental concerns have resulted in an increased interest in alternative energy sources. Nuclear hybrid energy systems (NHES) are being considered which incorporates renewable energy sources such as solar and wind energy combined with nuclear reactor and energy storage to meet the peak hours demand imposed on the grid, along with providing process heat for other potential industrial applications. This concept could potentially satisfy various energy demands and improve reliability, robustness and resilience for the entire system as a whole, along with economic and net efficiency gains. This paper provides a brief understanding of potential NHES system and architecture along with the challenges

  12. Wind energy conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longrigg, Paul

    1987-01-01

    The wind energy conversion system includes a wind machine having a propeller connected to a generator of electric power, the propeller rotating the generator in response to force of an incident wind. The generator converts the power of the wind to electric power for use by an electric load. Circuitry for varying the duty factor of the generator output power is connected between the generator and the load to thereby alter a loading of the generator and the propeller by the electric load. Wind speed is sensed electro-optically to provide data of wind speed upwind of the propeller, to thereby permit tip speed ratio circuitry to operate the power control circuitry and thereby optimize the tip speed ratio by varying the loading of the propeller. Accordingly, the efficiency of the wind energy conversion system is maximized.

  13. 21st Century's energy: Hydrogen energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veziroglu, T. Nejat; Sahin, Suemer

    2008-01-01

    Fossil fuels (i.e., petroleum, natural gas and coal), which meet most of the world's energy demand today, are being depleted fast. Also, their combustion products are causing the global problems, such as the greenhouse effect, ozone layer depletion, acid rains and pollution, which are posing great danger for our environment and eventually for the life in our planet. Many engineers and scientists agree that the solution to these global problems would be to replace the existing fossil fuel system by the hydrogen energy system. Hydrogen is a very efficient and clean fuel. Its combustion will produce no greenhouse gases, no ozone layer depleting chemicals, little or no acid rain ingredients and pollution. Hydrogen, produced from renewable energy (e.g., solar) sources, would result in a permanent energy system, which we would never have to change. However, there are other energy systems proposed for the post-petroleum era, such as a synthetic fossil fuel system. In this system, synthetic gasoline and synthetic natural gas will be produced using abundant deposits of coal. In a way, this will ensure the continuation of the present fossil fuel system. The two possible energy systems for the post-fossil fuel era (i.e., the solar-hydrogen energy system and the synthetic fossil fuel system) are compared with the present fossil fuel system by taking into consideration production costs, environmental damages and utilization efficiencies. The results indicate that the solar-hydrogen energy system is the best energy system to ascertain a sustainable future, and it should replace the fossil fuel system before the end of the 21st century

  14. 21st century's energy: hydrogen energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veziroglu, T. N.

    2007-01-01

    Fossil fuels (i.e., petroleum, natural gas and coal), which meet most of the world's energy demand today, are being depleted fast. Also, their combustion products are causing the global problems, such as the greenhouse effect, ozone layer depletion, acid rains and pollution, which are posing great danger for our environment and eventually for the life in our planet. Many engineers and scientists agree that the solution to these global problems would be to replace the existing fossil fuel system by the Hydrogen Energy System. Hydrogen is a very efficient and clean fuel. Its combustion will produce no greenhouse gases, no ozone layer depleting chemicals, little or no acid rain ingredients and pollution. Hydrogen, produced from renewable energy (e.g., solar) sources, would result in a permanent energy system, which we would never have to change. However, there are other energy systems proposed for the post-petroleum era, such as a synthetic fossil fuel system. In this system, synthetic gasoline and synthetic natural gas will be produced using abundant deposits of coal. In a way, this will ensure the continuation of the present fossil fuel system. The two possible energy systems for the post-fossil fuel era (i.e., the solar hydrogen energy system and the synthetic fossil fuel system) are compared with the present fossil fuel system by taking into consideration production costs, environmental damages and utilization efficiencies. The results indicate that the solar hydrogen energy system is the best energy system to ascertain a sustainable future, and it should replace the fossil fuel system before the end of the 21st Century

  15. Hydrogen energy systems studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogden, J.M.; Steinbugler, M.; Dennis, E. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    For several years, researchers at Princeton University`s Center for Energy and Environmental Studies have carried out technical and economic assessments of hydrogen energy systems. Initially, we focussed on the long term potential of renewable hydrogen. More recently we have explored how a transition to renewable hydrogen might begin. The goal of our current work is to identify promising strategies leading from near term hydrogen markets and technologies toward eventual large scale use of renewable hydrogen as an energy carrier. Our approach has been to assess the entire hydrogen energy system from production through end-use considering technical performance, economics, infrastructure and environmental issues. This work is part of the systems analysis activity of the DOE Hydrogen Program. In this paper we first summarize the results of three tasks which were completed during the past year under NREL Contract No. XR-11265-2: in Task 1, we carried out assessments of near term options for supplying hydrogen transportation fuel from natural gas; in Task 2, we assessed the feasibility of using the existing natural gas system with hydrogen and hydrogen blends; and in Task 3, we carried out a study of PEM fuel cells for residential cogeneration applications, a market which might have less stringent cost requirements than transportation. We then give preliminary results for two other tasks which are ongoing under DOE Contract No. DE-FG04-94AL85803: In Task 1 we are assessing the technical options for low cost small scale production of hydrogen from natural gas, considering (a) steam reforming, (b) partial oxidation and (c) autothermal reforming, and in Task 2 we are assessing potential markets for hydrogen in Southern California.

  16. Alternative power supply systems for remote industrial customers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharlamova, N. V.; Khalyasmaa, A. I.; Eroshenko, S. A.

    2017-06-01

    The paper addresses the problem of alternative power supply of remote industrial clusters with renewable electric energy generation. As a result of different technologies comparison, consideration is given to wind energy application. The authors present a methodology of mean expected wind generation output calculation, based on Weibull distribution, which provides an effective express-tool for preliminary assessment of required installed generation capacity. The case study is based on real data including database of meteorological information, relief characteristics, power system topology etc. Wind generation feasibility estimation for a specific territory is followed by power flow calculations using Monte Carlo methodology. Finally, the paper provides a set of recommendations to ensure safe and reliable power supply for the final customers and, subsequently, to provide sustainable development of the regions, located far from megalopolises and industrial centres.

  17. Financial overview of integrated community energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croke, K. G.; Hurter, A. P.; Lerner, E.; Breen, W.; Baum, J.

    1977-01-01

    This report is designed to analyze the commercialization potential of various concepts of community-scale energy systems that have been termed Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). A case analysis of alternative ICES concepts applied to a major metropolitan development complex is documented. The intent of this study is twofold: (1) to develop a framework for comparing ICES technologies to conventional energy supply systems and (2) to identify potential problems in the commercialization of new systems approaches to energy conservation. In brief, the ICES Program of the ERDA Office of Energy Conservation is intended to identify the opportunities for energy conservation in the community context through analysis, development, and/or demonstration of: location and design of buildings, building complexes, and infrastructure links; engineering and systems design of existing, emerging, and advanced energy production and delivery technologies and systems; regulatory designs for public planning, administration, and regulation of energy-conserving community development and energy services; and financial planning for energy-conserving community development and energy supply systems.

  18. Electrical energy alternatives and their effect on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The US has alternated its favored electrical energy sources several times over the past fifty years. It may soon change course again. Fifty years ago, the favored source was hydroelectric power. Electricity demand at the time was relatively small in comparison to today. Many rivers provided excellent, economical sites. In the 1950s, rapid growth in demand shifted interest to gas and oil because they were relatively clean, cheap, and easily transportable. A growing dependency on foreign oil led to the oil embargo and the rapid increase of prices in the 1970s. Use of oil was then discouraged by cost and federal regulation. Natural gas prices rose with oil prices, and federal regulations multiplied. Coal and uranium emerged as the favored fuels. However, nuclear power then came into disfavor in the late 1970s and throughout the 1980s. Emphasis on coal increased. The need for short construction schedules and reduced atmospheric emissions has since returned the emphasis to natural gas. Now pollution concerns are calling all fossil fuels into question. Hydroelectric sites are unavailable. Oil supplies are limited and foreign sourced. Coal is recognized as a major source of pollution. Natural gas is costly and limited. Renewable energy sources are incapable of meeting needs. And nuclear power safety and waste disposal issues still hinder its acceptance. So, where does the US go from here?

  19. Alternate Energy Report, Koleda Childress Inc., dated December 16, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-12-16

    Policies, programs, and current status of alternate energy and global warming concerns in the United States are reported. The U.S. General Accounting Office has issued a report critical of many respects of the Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program. The General Accounting Office points out that 15 of the 32 active projects are behind schedule, over budget, or have been scaled back due to equipment troubles. At a meeting of October 30 on the selection of projects for the round five of the Clean Coal Program, it was asserted that emphasis be placed on longer-term, high efficiency technologies but not on methods that offer near-term reduction of SOx and NOx. The fourth negotiating session of the United Nations-sponsored committee charged with drafting a framework climate convention is taking place in Geneva on December 9-20. With the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Brazil drawing closer, there are indications that a draft treaty should be written in many languages to reflect the concerns of nations opposed to mandating greenhouse gas emissions reductions. (NEDO)

  20. Nuclear power generation alternative for a clean energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simionov, V; Ibadula, R.; Popescu, Ion.; Bobric, Elena

    2001-01-01

    many arguments in favor of nuclear energy as a reliable source such as the large size of the plants, their long periods of operation and the expertise with which they are run. The risks associated with radiation are among the most extensively studied hazards known to man but several factors make preserving public anxiety about radiation. Nuclear energy has, in normal operation, a low impact on health and the environment. In order to meet the sustainable development goals, it is necessary to maintain its high standards of safety in spite of increasing competition in the electricity sector and reactors ageing in order to achieve a higher level of public acceptance. The complex technologies used by nuclear fuel cycle facilities are controlled and regulated by international and national institutions. A framework of regulatory, institutional and technical measures is already in place ensuring that the use of nuclear energy does not significantly modify natural environment. The governments have an important role in making the public to understand social, ethical and political issues related to nuclear energy into perspective with the issues raised by alternatives. The paper presents statistical data concerning the weight of nuclear power in Romania, highlights the environmental problems with fossil fuels, discussed the risks and radiological particularly the environmental protection at nuclear power plant. Also, address are the issues of the spent fuel and radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants. (authors)

  1. Multiple Energy System Analysis of Smart Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck

    2015-01-01

    thermal grids and smart gas grids, Smart Energy Systems moves the flexibility away from the fuel as is the case in current energy systems and into the system itself. However, most studies applying a Smart Energy System approach deals with analyses for either single countries or whole continents......To eliminate the use of fossil fuels in the energy sector it is necessary to transition to future 100% renewable energy systems. One approach for this radical change in our energy systems is Smart Energy Systems. With a focus on development and interaction between smart electricity grids, smart......, but it is unclear how regions, municipalities, and communities should deal with these national targets. It is necessary to be able to provide this information since Smart Energy Systems utilize energy resources and initiatives that have strong relations to local authorities and communities, such as onshore wind...

  2. Alternative energy efficient membrane bioreactor using reciprocating submerged membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, J; Smith, S; Roh, H K

    2014-01-01

    A novel membrane bioreactor (MBR) pilot system, using membrane reciprocation instead of air scouring, was operated at constant high flux and daily fluctuating flux to demonstrate its application under peak and diurnal flow conditions. Low and stable transmembrane pressure was achieved at 40 l/m(2)/h (LMH) by use of repetitive membrane reciprocation. The results reveal that the inertial forces acting on the membrane fibers effectively propel foulants from the membrane surface. Reciprocation of the hollow fiber membrane is beneficial for the constant removal of solids that may build up on the membrane surface and inside the membrane bundle. The membrane reciprocation in the reciprocating MBR pilot consumed less energy than coarse air scouring used in conventional MBR systems. Specific energy consumption for the membrane reciprocation was 0.072 kWh/m(3) permeate produced at 40 LMH flux, which is 75% less than for a conventional air scouring system as reported in literature without consideration of energy consumption for biological aeration (0.29 kWh/m(3)). The daily fluctuating flux test confirmed that the membrane reciprocation is effective to handle fluctuating flux up to 50 LMH. The pilot-scale reciprocating MBR system successfully demonstrated that fouling can be controlled via 0.43 Hz membrane reciprocation with 44 mm or higher amplitude.

  3. 77 FR 48148 - Energy Alternatives Wholesale, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... Energy Alternatives Wholesale, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2413-000] Energy Alternatives Wholesale, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

  4. Enhanced understanding of energy ratepayers: Factors influencing perceptions of government energy efficiency subsidies and utility alternative energy use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, Christopher A.; Allen, Myria W.

    2014-01-01

    This study explores factors related to energy consumers' perceptions of government subsidies for utility provided energy efficiency (EE) programs and for utility providers' use of more clean/alternative energy sources. Demographic factors, attitudes, planned purchases, and perceptions of utility provider motives in relation to governmental and utility provider EE initiatives (i.e. providing discounts and coupons for CFL bulbs), plus the influence of gain- and loss-framed messages are investigated. Over 2000 respondents completed a 16 item phone survey. Hierarchical regression explained 38% of the variance in reactions regarding government subsidies of the cost of utility provided EE programs and 43% of the variance in perceptions involving whether utility companies should use of more clean or alternative forms of energy. Gender and party differences emerged. Loss-framed messages were more important when the issue was government subsidies. Both gain- and loss-framed messages were important when clean/alternative energy was the issue. - Highlights: • Over 2000 ratepayers were surveyed on their attitudes, planned behaviors and perceptions towards energy efficiency programs. • Almost 40% of how ratepayers feel about government subsidies and utility use of clean/alternative energy was explained. • Loss-framed messages were more effective when the dependent variable was ratepayer perception of government subsidies

  5. Health and economic costs of alternative energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L D [Biomedical and Environmental Assessment Division, National Center for Analysis of Energy Systems, Brookhaven National Laboratory (United States); Manne, A S [Department of Operations Research, Stanford University (United States)

    1978-08-15

    Before the United States of America can arrive at a coherent national energy policy, several ongoing debates must be resolved - on environmental hazards, health impacts, and the direct economic consequences of alternative future energy options. No one strategy is obviously correct - or uniquely ethical. Each strategy has its drawbacks, each can be blocked by one or another coalition of interest groups. The public is poorly informed by the media. A single large coal-mine accident is far more extensively reported than a long series of isolated accidents at grade crossings for coal trains, and yet the latter causes more deaths each year. Similarly, the public debate on nuclear issues is focused on low-probability, high-consequence events. It is as though national policy were being framed by a gambler whose motto is 'it's only the stakes and not the odds that matter'. The two authors of this paper come from different disciplines, yet they both believe that the odds do matter. It is essential that the public be well informed about the health risks and the economic consequences of a moratorium on the civilian uses of nuclear energy in the USA. We think that such a moratorium would adversely affect health and the economy. These impacts although small in relation, say, to the overall death rate or to the overall gross national product are not small in an absolute sense The adverse consequences of a moratorium are much more certain, and surely outweigh the impacts of any plausible accident associated with the operation of power reactors.

  6. Health and economic costs of alternative energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Manne, A.S.

    1978-01-01

    Before the United States of America can arrive at a coherent national energy policy, several ongoing debates must be resolved - on environmental hazards, health impacts, and the direct economic consequences of alternative future energy options. No one strategy is obviously correct - or uniquely ethical. Each strategy has its drawbacks, each can be blocked by one or another coalition of interest groups. The public is poorly informed by the media. A single large coal-mine accident is far more extensively reported than a long series of isolated accidents at grade crossings for coal trains, and yet the latter causes more deaths each year. Similarly, the public debate on nuclear issues is focused on low-probability, high-consequence events. It is as though national policy were being framed by a gambler whose motto is 'it's only the stakes and not the odds that matter'. The two authors of this paper come from different disciplines, yet they both believe that the odds do matter. It is essential that the public be well informed about the health risks and the economic consequences of a moratorium on the civilian uses of nuclear energy in the USA. We think that such a moratorium would adversely affect health and the economy. These impacts although small in relation, say, to the overall death rate or to the overall gross national product are not small in an absolute sense The adverse consequences of a moratorium are much more certain, and surely outweigh the impacts of any plausible accident associated with the operation of power reactors

  7. Solar electric power generation photovoltaic energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Krauter, Stefan CW

    2007-01-01

    Solar electricity is a viable, environmentally sustainable alternative to the world's energy supplies. In support, this work examines the various technical parameters of photovoltaic systems. It analyzes the study of performance and yield (including optical, thermal, and electrical parameters and interfaces).

  8. Energy System Analysis of 100 Per cent Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology and results of the overall energy system analysis of a 100 per cent renewable energy system. The input for the systems is the result of a project of the Danish Association of Engineers, in which 1600 participants during more than 40 seminars discussed...... and designed a model for the future energy system of Denmark, putting emphasis on energy efficiency, CO2 reduction, and industrial development. The energy system analysis methodology includes hour by hour computer simulations leading to the design of flexible energy systems with the ability to balance...... the electricity supply and demand and to exchange electricity productions on the international electricity markets. The results are detailed system designs and energy balances for two energy target years: year 2050 with 100 per cent renewable energy from biomass and combinations of wind, wave and solar power...

  9. Methane Hydrate in Confined Spaces: An Alternative Storage System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchardt, Lars; Casco, Mirian Elizabeth; Silvestre-Albero, Joaquin

    2018-03-14

    Methane hydrate inheres the great potential to be a nature-inspired alternative for chemical energy storage, as it allows to store large amounts of methane in a dense solid phase. The embedment of methane hydrate in the confined environment of porous materials can be capitalized for potential applications as its physicochemical properties, such as the formation kinetics or pressure and temperature stability, are significantly changed compared to the bulk system. We review this topic from a materials scientific perspective by considering porous carbons, silica, clays, zeolites, and polymers as host structures for methane hydrate formation. We discuss the contribution of advanced characterization techniques and theoretical simulations towards the elucidation of the methane hydrate formation and dissociation process within the confined space. We outline the scientific challenges this system is currently facing and look on possible future applications for this technology. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Systems impacts of spent fuel disassembly alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    Three studies were completed to evaluate four alternatives to the disposal of intact spent fuel assemblies in a geologic repository. A preferred spent fuel waste form for disposal was recommended on consideration of (1) package design and fuel/package interaction, (2) long-term, in-repository performance of the waste form, and (3) overall process performance and costs for packaging, handling, and emplacement. The four basic alternative waste forms considered were (1) end fitting removal, (2) fission gas venting, (3) disassembly and close packing, and (4) shearing/immobilization. None of the findings ruled out any alternative on the basis of waste package considerations or long-term performance of the waste form. The third alternative offers flexibility in loading that may prove attractive in the various geologic media under consideration, greatly reduces the number of packages, and has the lowest unit cost. These studies were completed in October, 1981. Since then Westinghouse Electric Corporation and the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation have completed studies in related fields. This report is now being published to provide publicly the background material that is contained within. 47 references, 28 figures, 31 tables

  11. Energy Storage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, David

    2017-07-01

    As renewable energy use expands there will be a need to develop ways to balance its variability. Storage is one of the options. Presently the main emphasis is for systems storing electrical power in advanced batteries (many of them derivatives of parallel developments in the electric vehicle field), as well as via liquid air storage, compressed air storage, super-capacitors and flywheels, and, the leader so far, pumped hydro reservoirs. In addition, new systems are emerging for hydrogen generation and storage, feeding fuel cell power production. Heat (and cold) is also a storage medium and some systems exploit thermal effects as part of wider energy management activity. Some of the more exotic ones even try to use gravity on a large scale. This short book looks at all the options, their potentials and their limits. There are no clear winners, with some being suited to short-term balancing and others to longer-term storage. The eventual mix adopted will be shaped by the pattern of development of other balancing measures, including smart-grid demand management and super-grid imports and exports.

  12. Final Technical Report for Alternative Fuel Source Study-An Energy Efficient and Environmentally Friendly Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zee, Ralph [Auburn University, AL (United States); Schindler, Anton [Auburn University, AL (United States); Duke, Steve [Auburn University, AL (United States); Burch, Thom [Auburn University, AL (United States); Bransby, David [Auburn University, AL (United States); Stafford, Don [Lafarge North America, Inc., Alpharetta, GA (United States)

    2010-08-31

    The objective of this project is to conduct research to determine the feasibility of using alternate fuel sources for the production of cement. Successful completion of this project will also be beneficial to other commercial processes that are highly energy intensive. During this report period, we have completed all the subtasks in the preliminary survey. Literature searches focused on the types of alternative fuels currently used in the cement industry around the world. Information was obtained on the effects of particular alternative fuels on the clinker/cement product and on cement plant emissions. Federal regulations involving use of waste fuels were examined. Information was also obtained about the trace elements likely to be found in alternative fuels, coal, and raw feeds, as well as the effects of various trace elements introduced into system at the feed or fuel stage on the kiln process, the clinker/cement product, and concrete made from the cement. The experimental part of this project involves the feasibility of a variety of alternative materials mainly commercial wastes to substitute for coal in an industrial cement kiln in Lafarge NA and validation of the experimental results with energy conversion consideration.

  13. Smart energy and smart energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Connolly, David

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the terms “Smart Energy” and “Smart Energy Systems” have been used to express an approach that reaches broader than the term “Smart grid”. Where Smart Grids focus primarily on the electricity sector, Smart Energy Systems take an integrated holistic focus on the inclusion of more...... sectors (electricity, heating, cooling, industry, buildings and transportation) and allows for the identification of more achievable and affordable solutions to the transformation into future renewable and sustainable energy solutions. This paper first makes a review of the scientific literature within...... the field. Thereafter it discusses the term Smart Energy Systems with regard to the issues of definition, identification of solu- tions, modelling, and integration of storage. The conclusion is that the Smart Energy System concept represents a scientific shift in paradigms away from single-sector thinking...

  14. Energy Systems Integration News | Energy Systems Integration Facility |

    Science.gov (United States)

    the Energy Systems Integration Facility as part of NREL's work with SolarCity and the Hawaiian Electric Companies. Photo by Amy Glickson, NREL Welcome to Energy Systems Integration News, NREL's monthly date on the latest energy systems integration (ESI) developments at NREL and worldwide. Have an item

  15. Energy Systems High-Pressure Test Laboratory | Energy Systems Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facility | NREL Energy Systems High-Pressure Test Laboratory Energy Systems High-Pressure Test Laboratory In the Energy Systems Integration Facility's High-Pressure Test Laboratory, researchers can safely test high-pressure hydrogen components. Photo of researchers running an experiment with a hydrogen fuel

  16. Comparison of the primary energy consumption and the CO2-emission of an urban vehicle with conventional and alternative drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birnbreier, H.

    1992-01-01

    Based on a model car with its basic data corresponding to those of a series-produced small passenger car, conventional and alternative drives were compared. Cars shared the following features: same basic weight without tank, one energy storage system for the same driving range, same acceleration capacity from 0 to 50 km/h. Petrol and diesel were the conventional fuels; methanol, natural gas (pressurized, liquid), hydrogen (pressurized, liquid, hydride) and electric energy (NaS battery) were the alternative fuels. Both primary energy and CO 2 balancings take the different raw materials into account for the production of useful energies. (orig.) [de

  17. Alternative Grading Systems. The Practitioner, Vol. III, No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leonibus, Nancy; Thomson, Scott

    After examining some of the pros and cons of traditional grading, the demands colleges make on grading practices, and the responses of people interested in grading, a number of examples of operating alternative systems are given. The alternatives include a dual (pass/withdraw grading in some courses, traditional grading in others) system, a…

  18. Alternative energy sources: the socio-economic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy Barman, S.

    1998-01-01

    Satisfaction of energy demand in the country especially that of electrical power will depend not only on finding resources but also on appropriate technological choices. As is well known, the supply of electricity itself induces demand. Thus, a scenario of growth of demand chasing the growth of supply will continue for many more years to come. Though conservation measures and increasing share of non-conventional energy supply have their part, coal and hydro based power will have to play the main role in increasing electricity demand in the country. To meet peaking power requirements, regional and national grid would have to use hydro capacity. This would also allow thermal sets to operate at higher PLF. New and upgraded technologies like fluidized bed combustion, coal gasification, gas turbine based combined cycle, power system automation and a number of others in allied fields will be pursued strongly

  19. HYDROKINETIC ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS: PROSPECTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Hydrokinetic energy conversion systems utilize the kinetic energy of flowing water bodies with little or no head to generate ... generator. ... Its principle of operation is analogous to that of wind ..... Crisis-solar and wind power systems, 2009,.

  20. Integrated energy systems and local energy markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Münster, Ebbe

    2006-01-01

    Significant benefits are connected with an increase in the flexibility of the Danish energy system. On the one hand, it is possible to benefit from trading electricity with neighbouring countries, and on the other, Denmark will be able to make better use of wind power and other types of renewable...... energy in the future. This paper presents the analysis of different ways of increasing flexibility in the Danish energy system by the use of local regulation mechanisms. This strategy is compared with the opposite extreme, i.e. trying to solve all balancing problems via electricity trade...

  1. Alternative approach for Article 5. Energie Efficiency Directive; Alternatieve aanpak artikel 5. Energy Efficiency Directive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menkveld, M.; Jablonska, B. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-05-15

    Article 5 of the Energy Efficiency Directive (EED) is an annual obligation to renovate 3% of the building stock of central government. After renovation the buildings will meet the minimum energy performance requirements laid down in Article 4 of the EPBD. The Directive gives room to an alternative approach to achieve the same savings. The Ministry of Interior Affairs has asked ECN to assist with this alternative approach. ECN calculated what saving are achieved with the 3% renovation obligation under the directive. Then ECN looked for the possibilities for an alternative approach to achieve the same savings [Dutch] In artikel 5 van de Energie Efficiency Directive (EED) staat een verplichting om jaarlijks 3% van de gebouwvoorraad van de centrale overheid te renoveren. Die 3% van de gebouwvoorraad moet na renovatie voldoen aan de minimum eisen inzake energieprestatie die door het betreffende lidstaat zijn vastgelegd op grond van artikel 4 in de EPBD. De verplichting betreft gebouwen die in bezit en in gebruik zijn van de rijksoverheid met een gebruiksoppervlakte groter dan 500 m{sup 2}, vanaf juli 2015 groter dan 250 m{sup 2}. De gebouwen die eigendom zijn van de Rijksgebouwendienst betreft kantoren van rijksdiensten, gerechtsgebouwen, gebouwen van douane en politie en gevangenissen. Van de gebouwen van Defensie hoeven alleen kantoren en legeringsgebouwen aan de verplichting te voldoen.

  2. A comparison of mainline and alternate approaches to fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayman, P.W.; Roth, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    The tokamak and tandem mirror concepts are compared with alternate confinement concepts using the criteria established in DOE/ET-0047, ''An Evaluation of Alternate Magnetic Fusion Concepts 1977.'' The concepts are evaluated and rated in each of three broad categories: confidence in physics and technology, and reactor desirability. The STARFIRE and MARS reactors are used as a basis for comparing the mainline tokamak and tandem mirror concepts with the alternate concepts evaluated in DOE/ET-0047. Two recent alternate concepts, the ohmically heated toroidal experiment (OHTE) and the compact reversed field pinch reactor (CRFPR), are also evaluated. Results indicate that the physics of the mainline tokamaks and tandem mirrors is better understood than that of most alternate concepts. Both mainline concepts rank near the middle for technology requirements, and both rank near or at the bottom when compared with the reactor desirability of alternate concepts

  3. The actual role of alternative energies in electricity supply in Brazil in the nineties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prado Junior, Fernando Amaral Almeida; Simoes, Nivaldo Silveira

    1993-01-01

    Starting in the seventies, deep changes have occurred in the electric sector, and alternative energy sources appeared as an option to hydraulic power. Presently, the effective contribution of alternative sources such as solar energy, cogeneration and energy conservation will not be predominant in the short run. Nevertheless, the study of these technologies is fundamental for the utilities' strategies. 4 refs., 5 figs

  4. Characterization of Alternative Hybrid Solar Thermal Electric Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, T.A.

    1999-01-01

    Hybrid power towers offer a number of advantages over solar-only power tower systems for early commercial deployment of the technology. These advantages include enhanced modularity, reduced financial and technical risks, and lower energy costs. With the changes in the domestic and world markets for bulk power, hybrid power towers are likely to have the best opportunities for power projects. This paper discusses issues that are likely to be important to the deployment of hybrid power towers in the near future. A large number of alternative designs are possible, and it is likely that there is no single approach that can be considered best or optimal for all project opportunities. The preferred design will depend on the application, as well as the unique objectives and perspectives of the person evaluating the design

  5. Wind Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Ma, Ke

    2017-01-01

    transmission networks at the scale of hundreds of megawatts. As its level of grid penetration has begun to increase dramatically, wind power is starting to have a significant impact on the operation of the modern grid system. Advanced power electronics technologies are being introduced to improve......Wind power now represents a major and growing source of renewable energy. Large wind turbines (with capacities of up to 6-8 MW) are widely installed in power distribution networks. Increasing numbers of onshore and offshore wind farms, acting as power plants, are connected directly to power...... the characteristics of the wind turbines, and make them more suitable for integration into the power grid. Meanwhile, there are some emerging challenges that still need to be addressed. This paper provides an overview and discusses some trends in the power electronics technologies used for wind power generation...

  6. Assessment of Energy Performance and Emission Control Using Alternative Fuels in Cement Industry through a Process Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azad Rahman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cement manufacturing is one of the most energy intensive processes and is accountable for substantial pollutant emissions. Increasing energy costs compel stakeholders and researchers to search for alternative options to improve energy performance and reduce CO2 emissions. Alternative fuels offer a realistic solution towards the reduction of the usage of fossil fuels and the mitigation of pollutant emissions. This paper developed a process model of a precalciner kiln system in the cement industry using Aspen Plus software to simulate the effect of five alternative fuels on pollutant emissions and energy performance. The alternatives fuels used were tyre, municipal solid waste (MSW, meat and bone meal (MBM, plastic waste and sugarcane bagasse. The model was developed on the basis of energy and mass balance of the system and was validated against data from a reference cement plant. This study also investigated the effect of these alternative fuels on the quality of the clinker. The results indicated that up to a 4.4% reduction in CO2 emissions and up to a 6.4% reduction in thermal energy requirement could be achieved using these alternative fuels with 20% mix in coal. It was also found that the alternative fuels had minimum influence on the clinker quality except in the case of MSW. Overall, MBM was found to be a better option as it is capable on reducing energy requirement and CO2 emissions more than others. The outcomes of the study offer better understanding of the effects of solid alternative fuels to achieve higher energy performance and on mitigating pollutant emissions in cement industry.

  7. Integration and Optimization of Alternative Sources of Energy in a Remote Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berberi, Pellumb; Inodnorjani, Spiro; Aleti, Riza

    2010-01-01

    In a remote coastal region supply of energy from national grid is insufficient for a sustainable development. Integration and optimization of local alternative renewable energy sources is an optional solution of the problem. In this paper we have studied the energetic potential of local sources of renewable energy (water, solar, wind and biomass). A bottom-up energy system optimization model is proposed in order to support planning policies for promoting the use of renewable energy sources. A software, based on multiple factors and constrains analysis for optimization energy flow is proposed, which provides detailed information for exploitation each source of energy, power and heat generation, GHG emissions and end-use sectors. Economical analysis shows that with existing technologies both stand alone and regional facilities may be feasible. Improving specific legislation will foster investments from Central or Local Governments and also from individuals, private companies or small families. The study is carried on the frame work of a FP6 project "Integrated Renewable Energy System."

  8. 3rd Miami international conference on alternative energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nejat Veziroglu, T.

    1980-01-01

    The conference includes sessions on solar energy, ocean thermal energy, wind energy, hydro power, nuclear breeders and nuclear fusion, synthetic fuels from coal or wastes, hydrogen production and uses, formulation of workable policies on energy use and energy conservation, heat and energy storage, and energy education. The volume of the proceedings presents the papers and lectures in condensed format grouped by subject under forty-two sessions for 319 presentations

  9. 3rd Miami international conference on alternative energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nejat Veziroglu, T.

    1980-01-01

    The conference includes sessions on solar energy, ocean thermal energy, wind energy, hydro power, nuclear breeders and nuclear fusion, synthetic fuels from coal or wastes, hydrogen production and uses, formulation of workable policies on energy use and energy conservation, heat and energy storage, and energy education. The volume of the proceedings presents the papers and lectures in condensed format grouped by subject under forty-two sessions for 319 presentations.

  10. Energy Systems Analysis of Waste to Energy Technologies by use of EnergyPLAN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie

    Even when policies of waste prevention, re-use and recycling are prioritised, a fraction of waste will still be left which can be used for energy recovery. This report asks the question: How to utilise waste for energy in the best way seen from an energy system perspective? Eight different Waste......-to-Energy technologies are compared with a focus on fuel efficiency, CO2 reductions and costs. The comparison is made by conducting detailed energy system analyses of the present system as well as a potential future Danish energy system with a large share of combined heat and power and wind power. The study shows...... the potential of using waste for the production of transport fuels such as upgraded biogas and petrol made from syngas. Biogas and thermal gasification technologies are interesting alternatives to waste incineration and it is recommended to support the use of biogas based on manure and organic waste. It is also...

  11. Diagnosing alternative conceptions of Fermi energy among undergraduate students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Sapna; Ahluwalia, Pardeep Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Physics education researchers have scientifically established the fact that the understanding of new concepts and interpretation of incoming information are strongly influenced by the preexisting knowledge and beliefs of students, called epistemological beliefs. This can lead to a gap between what students actually learn and what the teacher expects them to learn. In a classroom, as a teacher, it is desirable that one tries to bridge this gap at least on the key concepts of a particular field which is being taught. One such key concept which crops up in statistical physics/solid-state physics courses, and around which the behaviour of materials is described, is Fermi energy (ε F ). In this paper, we present the results which emerged about misconceptions on Fermi energy in the process of administering a diagnostic tool called the Statistical Physics Concept Survey developed by the authors. It deals with eight themes of basic importance in learning undergraduate solid-state physics and statistical physics. The question items of the tool were put through well-established sequential processes: definition of themes, Delphi study, interview with students, drafting questions, administration, validity and reliability of the tool. The tool was administered to a group of undergraduate students and postgraduate students, in a pre-test and post-test design. In this paper, we have taken one of the themes i.e. Fermi energy of the diagnostic tool for our analysis and discussion. Students’ responses and reasoning comments given during interview were analysed. This analysis helped us to identify prevailing misconceptions/learning gaps among students on this topic. How spreadsheets can be effectively used to remove the identified misconceptions and help appreciate the finer nuances while visualizing the behaviour of the system around Fermi energy, normally sidestepped both by the teachers and learners, is also presented in this paper. (paper)

  12. Developing a Model of the Irish Energy-System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2009-01-01

    to create the model as it accounts for all sectors that need to be considered for integrating large penetrations of renewable energy: the electricity, heat and transport sectors. Before various alternative energy-systems could be investigated for Ireland, a reference model of the existing system needed...... is a vital step due to the scale of the change required for large-scale renewable penetrations. In this paper, a model of the Irish energy system is created to identify how Ireland can transform from a fossil-fuel to a renewable energy-system. The energy-systems-analysis tool, EnergyPLAN, was chosen...... to be created. This paper focuses on the construction of this reference model, in terms of the data gathered, the assumptions made and the accuracy achieved. In future work, this model will be used to investigate alternative energy-systems for Ireland, with the aim to determine the most effective energy system...

  13. Energy Systems Integration News | Energy Systems Integration Facility |

    Science.gov (United States)

    organization and independent system operator settle energy transactions in its real-time markets at the same time interval it dispatches energy, and settle operating reserves transactions in its real-time markets the electric grid. These control systems will enable real-time coordination between distributed energy

  14. Renewable energy covernance systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hvelplund, F.

    2001-01-01

    The 'political quota-/certificate price market' system introduces an inefficient competition between energy robots, and weakens the increasingly important competition between equipment producers. It hampers the competition between investors by making it difficult for neighbours and local investors to invest in wind turbines. Due to its mono price character, it gives too high profits to wind turbine owners at very good wind sites, and not high enough to wind turbine owners at poor wind sites. The 'political quota-/certificate price market' system is very far from being a market model, as the RE amount is politically decided and the certificate market price is also political influenced. The conclusion, therefore, is that it is time to find a RE governance model that considers the specific needs and characteristics of RE technologies. The present analysis strongly indicates that a 'political price-/amount market' model in this connection is far better than the 'political quota-/certificate price market' model. Furthermore, a common EU model, based on the principle of site efficiency, would be much more flexible, cheaper and easier to pursue than the 'political quota-/certificate price market', or mono price model, which is designed for uranium and fossil fuel technologies, and represents a governance model designed for the technologies of yesterday. (EHS)

  15. Demonstration of a free piston Stirling engine driven linear alternator system. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The objective of the program is to develop a 2 kW Free Piston Stirling Engine/Linear Alternator Energy Conversion System for an isotopic heat source with a greater than 30% overall efficiency. The work was broken up into two phases. Phase I demonstrated the feasibility of the energy conversion system through analysis and experimental testing of the individual components. Phase II is a two-year effort to design, fabricate, and test a prototype demonstrator energy conversion system. The reprt documents the work performed during October 1976 through September 1977, the first year of Phase II. Details of the tasks are presented in five major sections: (1) Linear Alternator Development; (2) Engine/Alternator System Demonstration; (3) Demonstrator Preliminary Design; (4) Demonstrator Detailed Design; and (5) Development of Free Piston Stirling Engine Computer Simulation

  16. The Scenario of the Potential Analysis Alternative Energy in Order to Strengthening District's Energy Resilience (The Case Study in South Sumatera Province)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry Muhrom, Muhammad; Ronny Rahman Nitibaskara, Tb; Herdiansyah, Herdis; Sari, Ravita

    2017-10-01

    The current development of fossil energy, which is the driving force of the economy in Indonesia, is a non-renewable energy and is in need to know when it will be exhausted so it may be replaced with renewable energy. Many powerplant systems in Indonesia are still using conventional system that utilizes fossil energy as the primary energy in the process of electricity generation. The occurrence of electrical energy crisis is marked by several electricity blackout phenomenon in some areas in South Sumatera province rotately, which is the proof that the installed power capacity has exceeded the capacity of generation power. Interconnection among several islands, namely Java Island, Sumatera Island, and Bali Island which has been interconnected with closed loop system through transmission network has not been able to overcome the electrical energy crisis. This paper aims to create alternative energy potential scenarios in the province of South Sumatera in sequence/ranking by using quantitative methods with sequential explanatory model formulated in the determination of alternative energy strategies then analyzed by using Analitycal Hierarchy Process(AHP) method. The simulation results from this research indicate that geothermal energy potentials get the highest value so that it becomes the priority of alternative energy strategy in South Sumatera Province.

  17. Performance and sustainability of two alternative rabbit breeding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Theau.Clément

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate 2 alternative breeding systems that differ from the current system in terms of reproduction rhythm, age of females at first insemination and the age of kits at weaning and at slaughter. We measured the performance of 332 females and their offspring over 4 consecutive cycles, as well as the sustainability of the systems. We compared an intensive (group I: reproduction rhythm [RR]=35 d; first insemination [AI1]=20.6 wk of age; weaning age [WA]=32 d; slaughter age [WS]=63 d an extensive (group E: RR=49 d; AI1=16.6 wk; WA=30 d; WS=70 d and a semi-intensive system (group S: RR=42 d; AI1=19.6 wk; WA=35 d; WS=70 d considered as the control system. Sustainability was evaluated using a multicriteria assessment method that takes 14 economic, environmental and social criteria into account, for which 3 to 5 indicators were expressed as the relative score [–1; –0.5; 0; +0.5; +1] for alternative systems compared to the control system. The productivity measured at 28 d (3.5, 4.2 and 4.6 kg/AI, for groups I, S and E, respectively, at 63 d post-partum (30, 38 and 42 kg/female for 4 cycles, respectively, and the total body energy measured 3 d after the 1st and at the 4th insemination (45.4, 46.8 and 49.5 MJ, respectively, were significantly increased when the reproductive rhythm decreased (P<0.001. Before and after weaning, kit mortality decreased when the reproduction rhythm decreased (11.4, 7.3, and 1.9% and 18.3, 15.3 and 10.6% for groups I, S and E, respectively, P<0.05. Carcass quality (weight and dressing percentage was lower in I than in the S and E groups (P<0.001. On this basis, the yearly productivity per doe at weaning could be estimated at 79, 83, and 78 kg for groups I, S and E, respectively. Consequently, the productivity per reproductive cycle increases with the extensification of the breeding system. Nevertheless, compared with the current French system (S, simultaneous changes in several breeding

  18. Energy Systems Integration News | Energy Systems Integration Facility |

    Science.gov (United States)

    grids. In terms of paper sessions, NREL ESI researcher Santosh Veda chaired a session on energy Kroposki chaired a session on advanced renewable energy power systems. While Veda, Muljadi, and Kroposki

  19. An Alternative Front End Analysis Strategy for Complex Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    missile ( ABM ) system . Patriot is employed in the field through a battalion echelon organizational structure. The line battery is the basic building...Research Report 1981 An Alternative Front End Analysis Strategy for Complex Systems M. Glenn Cobb U.S. Army Research Institute...NUMBER W5J9CQ11D0003 An Alternative Front End Analysis Strategy for Complex Systems 5b. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 633007 6

  20. ITER ISS system alternative specification study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kveton, O.K.

    1990-08-01

    Recent comments suggested that the fuel systems, in particular the ISS, could be simplified if the ITER specifications were relaxed from the data specified for ITER. This interim report addresses the first part of the analysis, which considers the impact of design specifications on fuel systems design

  1. Alternatives of ITER vacuum vessel support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmori, Junji; Kitamura, Kazunori; Araki, Masanori; Ohno, Isamu; Shoji, Teruaki

    2002-07-01

    Optional designs of vacuum vessel (VV) support have been performed for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) to reduce stresses and buckling concern of the flexible plate structure in ITER-FDR. One of the optional designs is hanging type VV support concept that consists of top hanging supports at the top of VV and middle radial stoppers in the middle of outboard VV. The hanging supports are located at the toroidal field (TF) coil inboard top region (R∼5400 mm) using the narrow window space surrounded by a poloidal field coil (PF1) and TF coil. The radial stoppers are located inside TF coil cases in the TF coil outboard middle region (R∼9300 mm). The upper flange connection of the radial stoppers should slide in vertical direction to eliminate thermal stress produced by relative thermal displacement between VV wall and TF coil case. Both supports consist of flexible plates and are mounted on 18 locations in toroidal direction. The radial and toroidal reaction forces are shared with the hanging supports and the radial stoppers. However, the vertical force is sustained by only the hanging supports. The others are compressive type support concept that consists of nine VV supports located in alternate divertor port regions in toroidal direction. Two designs have been performed for the VV support concept. One is mounted on TF inter-coil structures (OIS) and the other is on cryostat ring. The compressive support on TF coil OIS is dependent on TF coil movement but that on cryostat is independent. In the optional designs, the bending stress due to the relative thermal displacement between TF coil and VV is classified to primary stress according to ASME Sec. III NF. The stress due to TF coil displacement is also considered as primary stress. The stress due to non-uniform temperature distribution of the flexible plate is classified to secondary stress. The preliminary structural assessments for the optional designs have been performed for all load

  2. Model of complex integrated use of alternative energy sources for highly urbanized areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Elena Ivanovna

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The increase of population and continuous development of highly urbanized territories poses new challenges to experts in the field of energy saving technologies. Only a multifunctional and autonomous system of building engineering equipment formed by the principles of energy efficiency and cost-effectiveness meets the needs of modern urban environment. Alternative energy sources, exploiting the principle of converting thermal energy into electrical power, show lack of efficiency, so it appears to be necessary for reaching a visible progress to skip this middle step. A fuel cell, converting chemical energy straight into electricity, and offering a vast diversity of both fuel types and oxidizing agents, gives a strong base for designing a complex integrated system. Regarding the results of analysis and comparison conducted among the most types of fuel cells proposed by contemporary scholars, a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC is approved to be able to ensure the smooth operation of such a system. While the advantages of this device meet the requirements of engineering equipment for modern civil and, especially, dwelling architecture, its drawbacks do not contradict with the operating regime of the proposed system. The article introduces a model of a multifunctional system based on solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC and not only covering the energy demand of a particular building, but also providing the opportunity for proper and economical operation of several additional sub-systems. Air heating and water cooling equipment, ventilating and conditioning devices, the circle of water supply and preparation of water discharge for external use (e.g. agricultural needs included into a closed circuit of the integrated system allow evaluating it as a promising model of further implementation of energy saving technologies into architectural and building practice. This, consequently, will positively affect both ecological and economic development of urban environment.

  3. Essays on alternative energy policies affecting the US transportation sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rear, Eric G.

    This dissertation encompasses three essays evaluating the impacts of different policies targeting the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, fuel demands, etc. of the transportation sector. Though there are some similarities across the three chapters, each essay stands alone as an independent work. The 2010 US EPA MARKAL model is used in each essay to evaluate policy effects. Essay 1 focuses on the recent increases in Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards, and the implications of a "rebound effect." These increases are compared to a carbon tax generating similar reductions in system-wide emissions. As anticipated, the largest reductions in fuel use by light-duty vehicles (LDV) and emissions are achieved under CAFE. Consideration of the rebound effect does little to distort CAFE benefits. Our work validates many economists' belief that a carbon tax is a more efficient approach. However, because the tax takes advantage of cheaper abatement opportunities in other sectors, reductions in transportation emissions will be much lower than what we observe with CAFE. Essay 2 compares CAFE increases with what some economists suggest would be a much more "efficient" alternative -- a system-wide oil tax internalizing some environmental externalities. Because oil taxes are likely to be implemented in addition to CAFE standards, we consider a combined policy case reflecting this. Our supplementary analysis approximates the appropriate tax rates to produce similar reductions in oil demands as CAFE (CAFE-equivalent tax rates). We discover that taxes result in greater and more cost-effective reductions in system-wide emissions and net oil imports than CAFE. The current fuel tax system is compared to three versions of a national vehicle miles traveled (VMT) tax charged to all LDVs in Essay 3. VMT taxes directly charge motorists for each mile driven and help to correct the problem of eroding tax revenues given the failure of today's fuel taxes to adjust with inflation. Results

  4. National Energy Outlook Modelling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkers, C.M. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-12-15

    For over 20 years, the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) has been developing the National Energy Outlook Modelling System (NEOMS) for Energy projections and policy evaluations. NEOMS enables 12 energy models of ECN to exchange data and produce consistent and detailed results.

  5. Alternative test method to assess the energy performance of frost-free refrigerating appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermes, Christian J.L.; Melo, Cláudio; Knabben, Fernando T.

    2013-01-01

    This paper outlines an alternative test method to evaluate the energy consumption of frost-free refrigerators and freezers for residential applications. While the standardized methods require the refrigerating appliance to be kept running according to its onboard control system, which usually drives the refrigerator through an on–off cycling pattern, the proposed approach assesses the refrigerator energy performance in the steady-state regime, being therefore much faster and more reliable. In this procedure, the cooling capacity is matched to the cooling loads by PID-controlled electrical heaters installed within the refrigerated compartments, so that the compartment temperatures are kept at the desired standardized levels. Comparisons between the experimental results obtained using the steady-state energy test and the standardized procedures showed that the former follows closely the trends observed for the latter. - Highlights: ► An alternative test method to assess the energy consumption of refrigerators is proposed. ► PID-controlled electrical heaters were installed within the compartments. ► Steady-state and ISO energy tests were performed and compared. ► Both proposed and standardized test procedures showed similar trends.

  6. Development of multicriteria models to classify energy efficiency alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neves, Luis Pires; Antunes, Carlos Henggeler; Dias, Luis Candido; Martins, Antonio Gomes

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims at describing a novel constructive approach to develop decision support models to classify energy efficiency initiatives, including traditional Demand-Side Management and Market Transformation initiatives, overcoming the limitations and drawbacks of Cost-Benefit Analysis. A multicriteria approach based on the ELECTRE-TRI method is used, focusing on four perspectives: - an independent Agency with the aim of promoting energy efficiency; - Distribution-only utilities under a regulated framework; - the Regulator; - Supply companies in a competitive liberalized market. These perspectives were chosen after a system analysis of the decision situation regarding the implementation of energy efficiency initiatives, looking for the main roles and power relations, with the purpose of structuring the decision problem by identifying the actors, the decision makers, the decision paradigm, and the relevant criteria. The multicriteria models developed allow considering different kinds of impacts, but avoiding difficult measurements and unit conversions due to the nature of the multicriteria method chosen. The decision is then based on all the significant effects of the initiative, both positive and negative ones, including ancillary effects often forgotten in cost-benefit analysis. The ELECTRE-TRI, as most multicriteria methods, provides to the Decision Maker the ability of controlling the relevance each impact can have on the final decision. The decision support process encompasses a robustness analysis, which, together with a good documentation of the parameters supplied into the model, should support sound decisions. The models were tested with a set of real-world initiatives and compared with possible decisions based on Cost-Benefit analysis

  7. Urban Transportation Planning Short Course: Evaluation of Alternative Transportation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Highway Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This urban transportation pamphlet delves into the roles of policy groups and technical staffs in evaluating alternative transportation plans, evaluation criteria, systems to evaluate, and evaluation procedures. The introduction admits the importance of subjective, but informed, judgment as an effective tool in weighing alternative transportation…

  8. Hawaii Integrated Energy Assessment. Volume V. Rules, regulations, permits and policies affecting the development of alternate energy sources in Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive presentaton of the major permits, regulations, rules, and controls which are likely to affect the development of alternate energy sources in Hawaii is presented. An overview of the permit process, showing the major categories and types of permits and controls for energy alternatives is presented. This is followed by a brief resume of current and projected changes designed to streamline the permit process. The permits, laws, regulations, and controls that are applicable to the development of energy alternatives in Hawaii are described. The alternate energy technologies affected, a description of the permit or control, and the requirements for conformance are presented for each applicable permit. Federal, state, and county permits and controls are covered. The individual energy technologies being considered as alternatives to the State's present dependence on imported fossil fuels are emphasized. The alternate energy sources covered are bioconversion, geothermal, ocean thermal, wind, solar (direct), and solid waste. For each energy alternative, the significant permits are summarized with a brief explanation of why they may be necessary. The framework of policy development at each of the levels of government with respect to the alternate energy sources is covered.

  9. Alternatives to FORTRAN in control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, J.A.; Wright, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    Control system software has traditionally been written in assembly language, FORTRAN, or Basic. Today there exist several high-level languages with features that make them convenient and effective in control systems. These features include bit manipulation, user-defined data types, character manipulation, and high-level logical operations. Some of theses languages are quite different from FORTRAN and yet are easy to read and use. We discuss several languages, their features that make them convenient for control systems, and give examples of their use. We focus particular attention on the language C, developed by Bell Laboratories

  10. Alternative Energy: A Guide to Free Information for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Janet A.

    This guide was compiled to help teachers and students locate free educational materials (both lessons and nontechnical background references) on renewable energy resources and energy conservation. The 214 entries are arranged by these topic areas: (1) energy efficiency and renewables; (2) biomass; (3) hydropower; (4) solar thermal energy; (5)…

  11. Smart Energy Systems and Energy Transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duic, N.

    2016-01-01

    Transition to decarbonized energy systems is becoming more attractive with fall of investment costs of renewables and volatile prices and political insecurity of fossil fuels. Improving energy efficiency, especially of buildings and transport, is important, but due to long life of buildings, it will be a slow way of decarbonization. The renewable energy resources are bountiful, especially wind and solar, while integrating them into current energy systems is proving to be a challenge. Solar has reached grid parity making it cheapest electricity source for retail customers in most of the World, creating new prosumer markets. It has started to reach cost parity in sunny countries, and soon solar energy will be cheapest everywhere. The limit of cheap and easy integration for wind is around 20% of yearly electricity generation, while a combined wind and solar may reach 30%. Going any further asks for implementation of completely free energy markets (involving day ahead, intraday and various reserve and ancillary services markets), demand response, coupling of wholesale and retail energy prices, and it involves integration between electricity, heat, water and transport systems. The cheapest and simplest way of increasing further the penetration of renewables is integrating power and heating/cooling systems through the use of district heating and cooling (which may be centrally controlled and may have significant heat storage capacity), since power to heat technologies are excellent for demand response. District cooling is of particular importance to historic cities that want to remove split systems from their facades. In countries with low heat demand water supply system may be used to increase the penetration of renewables, by using water at higher potential energy as storage media, or in dry climates desalination and stored water may be used for those purposes, and reversible hydro may be used as balancing technology. Electrification of personal car transport allows

  12. Earth land landing alternatives: Lunar transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerson, Robert

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of this study are as follows: (1) develop a landing option such that it is a viable trade option for future NASA missions; (2) provide NASA programs with solid technical support in the landing systems area; (3) develop the technical staff; and (4) advance the state of landing systems technology to apply to future NASA missions. All results are presented in viewgraph format.

  13. Global Renewable Energy-Based Electricity Generation and Smart Grid System for Energy Security

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, M. A.; Hasanuzzaman, M.; Rahim, N. A.; Nahar, A.; Hosenuzzaman, M.

    2014-01-01

    Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for fu...

  14. Financing the alternative: renewable energy in developing and transition countries

    OpenAIRE

    Brunnschweiler, Christa N.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the determinants of credit allocation to renewable energy firms in developing and transition countries. Using a simple en- dogenous growth model, we show that the development of the renewable energy sector, i.e. the diversification of renewable energy resources used in primary energy production, depends on the quality of financial intermedia- tion, debtor information costs to banks, and financing needs of renewable energy firms. Policies should aim at increasing financial ...

  15. Part I. Alternative fuel-cycle and deployment strategies: their influence on long-term energy supply and resource usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.; Rudolph, R.R.

    1980-01-01

    This report examines the implications of alternative fast breeder fuel cycles and deployment strategies on long-term energy supply and uranium resource utilization. An international-aggregate treatment for nuclear energy demand and resource base assumptions was adopted where specific assumptions were necessary for system analyses, but the primary emphasis was placed on understanding the general relationships between energy demand, uranium resource and breeder deployment option. The fast breeder deployment options studied include the reference Pu/U cycle as well as alternative cycles with varying degrees of thorium utilization

  16. Alternative electrical transmission systems and their environmental impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.

    1977-08-01

    A general description is provided of electrical transmission systems as an aid in determining their environmental impacts. Alternating current, direct current, overhead systems, underground systems, and water crossings are treated. The cost, performance, reliability, safety, and environmental impact of these systems are compared.

  17. Polish energy-system modernisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdz, M.

    2003-01-01

    The Polish energy-system needs intensive investments in new technologies, which are energy efficient, clean and cost effective. Since the early 1990s, the Polish economy has had practically full access to modern technological devices, equipment and technologies. Introducing new technologies is a difficult task for project teams, constructors and investors. The author presents a set of principles for project teams useful in planning and energy modernisation. Several essential features are discussed: Energy-efficient appliances and systems; Choice of energy carriers, media and fuels; Optimal tariffs, maximum power and installed power; Intelligent, integrated, steering systems; Waste-energy recovery; Renewable-energy recovery. In practice there are several difficulties connected with planning and realising good technological and economic solutions. The author presents his own experiences of energy-system modernisation of industrial processes and building new objects. (Author)

  18. Solar Energy as an Alternative to Energy Saving and Pollutant Emissions Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arina Negoițescu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the paper is analyzed thermal solar systems efficiency from the point of view of energy savings and pollutant emissions concentrations exhausted during these installations operation. For this purpose were taking into account four versions of solar panel systems combined with different types of conventional heating sources, for which were simulated the operation conditions. As a result of the simulation, there were obtained the values of energy savings and pollutant emissions during the four systems operation. By analyzing these values, the combined thermal system optimum solution was selected.

  19. Design and installation of earth energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loggia, S; Adragna, M; Coyle, S; Foley, C; Hawryn, S; Martin, A; McConnell, J [eds.

    2002-07-01

    This first edition of the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) Standard C448 Series, replaces CSA Standards CAN/CSA-C445-M92 entitled Design and Installation of Earth Energy Heat Pump Systems for Residential and Other Small Buildings, as well as C447-94 entitled Design and Installation of Earth Energy Heat Pump Systems for Commercial and Institutional Buildings. This standard document consists of three parts: (C448.1) Design and installation of earth energy systems for commercial and institutional buildings; (C448.2) Design and installation of earth energy systems for residential and small buildings; and, (C448.3) Design and installation of underground thermal energy storage systems for commercial and institutional buildings. In C448.1, the requirements applicable to any system falling within the scope of the C448 series were included. Alternative requirements for houses and small buildings were added in C448.2. It was noted that either standard may be implemented. The standards applicable to the intentional storage of energy in the earth for later use were presented in C448.3. This latter section includes a brief introduction on underground thermal energy storage (UTES). tabs.

  20. Solar energy as an alternate energy source to mixed oxide fuels in light-water cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertini, H.W.

    1977-01-01

    Supplemental information pertaining to the generic environmental impact statement on the Pu recycling process for mixed oxide light-water cooled reactors (GESMO) was requested from several sources. In particular, the role of alternate sources of energy was to be explored and the implications of these alternate sources to the question of Pu recycle in LWRs were to be investigated. In this vein, solar energy as an alternate source is the main subject of this report, along with other information related to solar energy. The general conclusion is that solar energy should have little effect on the decisions concerning GESMO

  1. Eco-Friendly Alternative Refrigeration Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    frigerants in mechanical refrigeration system has become a subject of great ..... In 1823, Seebeck discovered that a voltage drop appears across a junction (i.e., a .... delta function in the transport distribution centered about 2-3. KT from the ...

  2. Alternative Transportation System Demand Estimation for Federal Land Management Agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    Estimating travel demand for alternative transportation systems (ATS) is challenging in any context, but is even more daunting for Federal Land Management Agencies (FLMAs). Federal public land sites vary widely in their characteristics. Moreover, tra...

  3. Advanced Energy Efficient Roof System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jane Davidson

    2008-09-30

    the study. The market potential is enhanced through construction activity levels in target markets. Southern markets, from Florida to Texas account for 50 percent of the total new construction angled-roof volume. California contributes an additional 13 percent share of market volume. These states account for 28 to 30 million squares (2.8 to 3 billion square feet) of new construction angled roof opportunity. The major risk to implementation is the uncertainty of incorporating new design and construction elements into the construction process. By coordinating efforts to enhance the drivers for adoption and minimize the barriers, the panelized roof system stands to capitalize on a growing market demand for energy efficient building alternatives and create a compelling case for market adoption.

  4. Smart Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2013-01-01

    • To reduce the costs of energy towards 2050 This transition faces many challenges from a variety of different perspectives, including: • Technology: The development of new technologies and infrastructures, which will enable us to utilise renewable energy resources. • Business: The design of new markets...

  5. Energy Systems Integration News | Energy Systems Integration Facility |

    Science.gov (United States)

    , utilities can operate more efficiently and profitably. That can increase the use of renewable energy sources challenge to utility companies, grid operators, and other stakeholders involved in wind energy integration recording is available from the July 16 webinar "Smart Grid Research at NREL's Energy Systems

  6. Assessment of a satellite power system and six alternative technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolsko, T.; Whitfield, R.; Samsa, M.; Habegger, L.S.; Levine, E.; Tanzman, E.

    1981-04-01

    The satellite power system is assessed in comparison to six alternative technologies. The alternatives are: central-station terrestrial photovoltaic systems, conventional coal-fired power plants, coal-gasification/combined-cycle power plants, light water reactor power plants, liquid-metal fast-breeder reactors, and fusion. The comparison is made regarding issues of cost and performance, health and safety, environmental effects, resources, socio-economic factors, and insitutional issues. The criteria for selecting the issues and the alternative technologies are given, and the methodology of the comparison is discussed. Brief descriptions of each of the technologies considered are included. (LEW)

  7. System certification: An alternative to package certification?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna, R.E.; Jefferson, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    One precept of the current radioactive material transportation regulations is that the package is the primary protection for the public. A packaging is chosen to provide containment, shielding, and criticality control suitable to the quantity and characteristics of the radionuclide being transported. Occasionally, radioactive materials requiring transport are not of a mass or size that would allow the materials to be shipped in an appropriate packaging. This is a particular problem for materials that should be shipped in a Type B package, but because such packages are designed and certified for specific contents, the package is usually fairly expensive, available in relatively small numbers, and often requires a fairly long period to achieve certification or amended certification for new contents. Where the shipment to be made is relatively infrequent, there may be economic and time penalties that may hamper shipment or force the shipper into uneconomic or high risk options. However, there is recognition of such situations in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regulations under the provisions for Special Arrangement

  8. Alternative Energy-sources to replace Wood and Coal in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Baert

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the possibility of the use of alternative energy sources (a.e. in Africa is discussed. The authors give some criteria which have to be fulfilled before a.e. sources can succesfully be applicated. KEYWORDS: alternative energy sources, cooking, heating, photovoltaic generators, refrigeration.

  9. 77 FR 41873 - In the Matter of Alternative Energy Sources, Inc., Arlington Hospitality, Inc., Consolidated Oil...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-16

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] In the Matter of Alternative Energy Sources, Inc., Arlington Hospitality, Inc., Consolidated Oil & Gas, Inc., CSMG Technologies, Inc., Dakotah... Alternative Energy Sources, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports since the period ended...

  10. Fusion in the energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusion energy is the fundamental energy source of the Universe, as the energy of the Sun and the stars are produced by fusion of e.g. hydrogen to helium. Fusion energy research is a strongly international endeavor aiming at realizing fusion energy production in power plants on Earth. Reaching...... of integration into the future electricity system and socio-economic studies of fusion energy will be presented, referring to the programme of Socio-Economic Research on Fusion (SERF) under the European Fusion Energy Agreement (EFDA)....

  11. Battery energy storage systems life cycle costs case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan, S.; Miller, N.F.; Sen, R.K. [SENTECH, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1998-08-01

    This report presents a comparison of life cycle costs between battery energy storage systems and alternative mature technologies that could serve the same utility-scale applications. Two of the battery energy storage systems presented in this report are located on the supply side, providing spinning reserve and system stability benefits. These systems are compared with the alternative technologies of oil-fired combustion turbines and diesel generators. The other two battery energy storage systems are located on the demand side for use in power quality applications. These are compared with available uninterruptible power supply technologies.

  12. Renewable energy made easy free energy from solar, wind, hydropower, and other alternative energy sources

    CERN Document Server

    Craddock, David

    2008-01-01

    Studies have shown that the average North American family will spend more than a quarter of a million dollars on energy in a lifetime. What many other countries, including Germany, Spain, France, Denmark, China, Brazil, and even Iceland, have realized is that there is a better way to power our homes, businesses, and cars by using renewable energy sources. Recently, the United States has begun to understand the importance of reducing its reliance on coal, natural gas, nuclear power, and hydropower plants, which comprise the majority of the nation's electricity, due to increasing oil prices.

  13. System certification: An alternative to package certification?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna, R.E.; Jefferson, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    One precept of the current radioactive material transportation regulations is that the package is the primary protection for the public. A packaging is chosen to provide containment, shielding, and criticality control suitable to the quantity and characteristics of the radionuclide being transported. Occasionally, radioactive materials requiring transport are not of a mass or size that would allow the materials to be shipped in an appropriate packaging. Where the shipment to be made is relatively infrequent, there may be economic and time penalties that may hamper shipment or force the shipper into uneconomic or high risk options. However, there is recognition of such situations in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regulations under the provisions for Special Arrangement. The principal paragraphs defining Special Arrangement in Regulations for the Safe of Radioactive Material; Safety Series 6 (SS6) [IAEA, 1990a] are 141, 211, 720, and 727. In the US regulations the applicable term is ''Exemption.'' An exemption is obtained from either the United States Department of Transportation (USDOT) or the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) depending on the character of the needed exemption. The essential concept is that some requirements of the regulations that apply in a given situation are not required if the shipment is subjected to other operational controls that provide an equivalent level of risk to that attained if the regulations were observed fully. This paper deals primarily with changing of packaging requirements in Special Arrangements, but it is also true that operational requirements also may be changed as a result of an Exemption or Special Arrangement approval by a regulatory authority

  14. Direct and indirect economics of wind energy systems relative to fuel based systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, B

    1977-01-01

    It is shown that the addition of an energy-storage system of modest capacity, to a wind energy generator, provides a total-wind-energy electricity-generating system as dependable as current alternative means of producing electricity. It is further shown, based on projections of the mass-production costs of wind-energy generators and energy-storage systems, that such combined systems, as well as fuel-saving generators without storage, appear economically competitive to the alternatives, provided the comparison is made over the entire life cycle of the systems.

  15. Alternativini zpusoby chlazeni budov (Alternative cooling systems for buildings)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lain, M.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2003-01-01

    in the Czech Republic, low energy in buildings and systems usually refers to low energy consumption for heating. However in modern office buildings cooling is becoming more and more important, therefore the associated energy consumption should also be considered. This paper introduces low energy

  16. Distributed energy systems with wind power and energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpaas, Magnus

    2004-07-01

    compare different storage solutions. In chapter 5, energy storage is evaluated as an alternative for increasing the value of wind power in a market-based power system. A method for optimal short-term scheduling of wind power with energy storage has been developed. The basic model employs a dynamic programming algorithm for the scheduling problem. Moreover, different variants of the scheduling problem based on linear programming are presented. During on-line operation, the energy storage is operated to minimize the deviation between the generation schedule and the actual power output of the wind-storage system. It is shown how stochastic dynamic programming can be applied for the on-line operation problem by explicitly taking into account wind forecast uncertainty. The model presented in chapter 6 extends and improves the linear programming model described in chapter 5. An operation strategy based on model predictive control is developed for effective management of uncertainties. The method is applied in a simulation model of a wind-hydrogen system that supplies the local demand for electricity and hydrogen. Utilization of fuel cell heat and electrolytic oxygen as by-products is also considered. Computer simulations show that the developed operation method is beneficial for grid-connected as well as for isolated systems. For isolated systems, the method makes it possible to minimize the usage of backup power and to ensure a secure supply of hydrogen fuel. For grid-connected wind-hydrogen systems, the method could be applied for maximizing the profit from operating in an electricity market. Comprehensive simulation studies of different example systems have been carried out to obtain knowledge about the benefits and limitations of using energy storage in conjunction with wind power. In order to exploit the opportunities for energy storage in electricity markets, it is crucial that the electrical efficiency of the storage is as high as possible. Energy storage combined with

  17. Proceedings of the International conference on energy alternatives/risk education V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marx, Gyoergy

    1990-02-01

    This Proceedings volume on Energy Education within the context of the International Conference on Energy Alternatives/Risk Education contains papers on Energy Education, on Nuclear Education and on Risk Education. Ten papers concerning nuclear science and technology, and nuclear energy, were indexed and abstracted separately for the INIS database. (R.P.)

  18. Energy Systems Integration News - October 2016 | Energy Systems Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facility | NREL October 2016 Energy Systems Integration News A monthly recap of the latest energy systems integration (ESI) developments at NREL and around the world. Subscribe Archives October Integration Facility's main control room. OMNETRIC Group Demonstrates a Distributed Control Hierarchy for

  19. Small Water System Alternatives: Media and Membrane Filtration Alternatives for Small Communities and Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    This webinar presentation will highlight research case studies on innovative drinking water treatment alternatives for small community water systems. Emphasis will be placed on media and membrane filtration technologies capable of meeting the requirements of the Long-Term 2 Enha...

  20. Stochastic Energy Deployment System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-11-30

    SEDS is an economy-wide energy model of the U.S. The model captures dynamics between supply, demand, and pricing of the major energy types consumed and produced within the U.S. These dynamics are captured by including: the effects of macroeconomics; the resources and costs of primary energy types such as oil, natural gas, coal, and biomass; the conversion of primary fuels into energy products like petroleum products, electricity, biofuels, and hydrogen; and lastly the end- use consumption attributable to residential and commercial buildings, light and heavy transportation, and industry. Projections from SEDS extend to the year 2050 by one-year time steps and are generally projected at the national level. SEDS differs from other economy-wide energy models in that it explicitly accounts for uncertainty in technology, markets, and policy. SEDS has been specifically developed to avoid the computational burden, and sometimes fruitless labor, that comes from modeling significantly low-level details. Instead, SEDS focuses on the major drivers within the energy economy and evaluates the impact of uncertainty around those drivers.

  1. Local alternative energy futures: developing economies/building communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Totten, M.; Glass, B.; Freedberg, M.; Webb, L.

    1980-12-01

    A separate abstract was prepared for each of the three parts of the conference. A sufficient range of information is presented to enable interested parties to explore the viable alternatives for community self-sufficiency. The parts are entitled: Financial Incentives and Funding Sources; Standards, Regulations, Mandates, Ordinances, Covenants; and Community/Economic Development. (MCW)

  2. Oil shale energy and some alternatives in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oepik, I.

    2002-01-01

    An academic lecture delivered by prof. Ilmar Oepik at the Thermal Engineering Department of Tallinn Technical University in Dec. 2000 to mark the 120 semesters since the cum laude diploma of a mechanical engineer discusses about ineffective utilization of oil shale and developing renewable resources as an alternative to oil shale

  3. Army Energy and Water Reporting System Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deprez, Peggy C.; Giardinelli, Michael J.; Burke, John S.; Connell, Linda M.

    2011-09-01

    There are many areas of desired improvement for the Army Energy and Water Reporting System. The purpose of system is to serve as a data repository for collecting information from energy managers, which is then compiled into an annual energy report. This document summarizes reported shortcomings of the system and provides several alternative approaches for improving application usability and adding functionality. The U.S. Army has been using Army Energy and Water Reporting System (AEWRS) for many years to collect and compile energy data from installations for facilitating compliance with Federal and Department of Defense energy management program reporting requirements. In this analysis, staff from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory found that substantial opportunities exist to expand AEWRS functions to better assist the Army to effectively manage energy programs. Army leadership must decide if it wants to invest in expanding AEWRS capabilities as a web-based, enterprise-wide tool for improving the Army Energy and Water Management Program or simply maintaining a bottom-up reporting tool. This report looks at both improving system functionality from an operational perspective and increasing user-friendliness, but also as a tool for potential improvements to increase program effectiveness. The authors of this report recommend focusing on making the system easier for energy managers to input accurate data as the top priority for improving AEWRS. The next major focus of improvement would be improved reporting. The AEWRS user interface is dated and not user friendly, and a new system is recommended. While there are relatively minor improvements that could be made to the existing system to make it easier to use, significant improvements will be achieved with a user-friendly interface, new architecture, and a design that permits scalability and reliability. An expanded data set would naturally have need of additional requirements gathering and a focus on integrating

  4. Ireland's pathway towards a 100% renewable energy-system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Leahy, Martin; Lund, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Ireland has an abundant supply of renewable energy, a dangerous reliance on imported fossil fuels, as well as very demanding energy and CO2 targets to reach. All of these indicate that a major alternation to the current energy system is necessary, especially an increase in the utilisation of rene...

  5. Mobile radio alternative systems study traffic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, W. T.; Anderson, R. E.

    1983-06-01

    The markets for mobile radio services in non-urban areas of the United States are examined for the years 1985-2000. Three market categories are identified. New Services are defined as those for which there are different expressed ideas but which are not now met by any application of available technology. The complete fulfillment of the needs requires nationwide radio access to vehicles without knowledge of vehicle location, wideband data transmission from remote sites, one- and two way exchange of short data and control messages between vehicles and dispatch or control centers, and automatic vehicle location (surveillance). The commercial and public services market of interest to the study is drawn from existing users of mobile radio in non-urban areas who are dissatisfied with the geographical range or coverage of their systems. The mobile radio telephone market comprises potential users who require access to the public switched telephone network in areas that are not likely to be served by the traditional growth patterns of terrestrial mobile telephone services. Conservative, likely, and optimistic estimates of the markets are presented in terms of numbers of vehicles that will be served and the radio traffic they will generate.

  6. Environmental assessments of alternative energy strategies in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballou, S.W.; Katz, A.M.

    1979-01-01

    The Regional Issues Identification and Assessment (RIIA) program is an evaluation of the regional impacts of future energy development. These studies are conducted for the Department of Energy. The impacts described in this paper for 1990 are based on a national energy projection (scenario) that assumes medium energy demand and fuel supply through 1990, but does not incorporate the policies of the 1978 National Energy Act. The RIIA study plan uses the predicted fuel mixes derived from the PIES scenario as a starting point for its analysis. County level patterns for utility, industry and mining activities for 1990 were then developed from the federal region totals. Energy sources addressed were coal, nuclear, oil, oil shale, gas, geothermal, hydroelectric, and solar. The impact of these county-level patterns of utility, industry, and mining activities on the air, water, and land resources of the country and on the socioeconomic and health and safety aspects of the nation's welfare are analyzed

  7. MRI device – alternative for electrical energy storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molokáč, Š.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known, that the electrical energy storage in the large scale is basically difficult process. Such a process is marked by the energy losses, as the conversion of electrical energy into another form, is most frequently for example mechanical, and then back to the primary electrical form. Though, the superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES technology offers the energy storage in an unchanged form, which is advantageous primarily in the achieved efficiency. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI devices, commonly used in the medical facilities are based on the application of superconducting magnet. After its rejection from operation, there is possibility of using such devices for energy storage purposes. Additionally, such a technology of storage is also ecological.

  8. Coal, an alternative to nuclear power in Europe's energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paillard, Christophe-Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    The impending demise of nuclear power in several European countries and the projected strong increase in world energy requirements are placing coal in the forefront again. From being the primary energy source in the 19. century, coal is making a quite remarkable come-back in the 21. century with the advent of 'clean coal' and with its dominance in the energy mix of rapidly emerging countries such as China. New mines should open in Europe. In France, the last mine closed in 2004, but there is potential for new ones in the centre of France in areas such as Auvergne and Bourgogne, as well as Midi Pyrenees. These could create new jobs and reduce France's energy dependency. Far from the topical scenes of the past described in books such as Germinal, with its tips and misery, coal is again a promising energy source, with potential to satisfy a rising share of Europe's energy demand. (author)

  9. Raw materials, energy, water. Air pollution, ecological nutrition, alternatives to nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepper, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    ''Ecological cattle breeding: A climate killer''. This was the title of an article in ''Frankfurter Rundschau'' journal, which summarized the findings of a study according to which ecological cattle breeding is more harmful to the environment than conventional cattle breeding, not least because eco-cattle live longer and are kept according to the principles of organic farming. This special issue of OeKO-TEST goes into detail about ecological nutrition. After all, animal farming accounts for 18 percent of the global climate-relevant gaseous emissions. A closer look will show that ecological cattle breeding is not a climate killer but that ecological farming and nutrition may even help in the fight against global climate change. In fact, this has been known all along, as are other strategies to prevent global warming. Thirty years ago, the Oeko-Institut, Freiburg, published a concept to prevent global climate change that is still up to date. It comprises energy conservation, rational energy use, and the utilization of alternative energy sources. If these concepts had been followed then and there, we would not have the problems of global climate change and rising energy cost today. We all know how to save this planet and how to prevent the dying out of species, the pollution of the oceans and air, and the destruction of forests. It is up to us to do it. (orig.)

  10. Research for a database of alternative energy technologies; Miriyo energy ni kansuru data shu sakusei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The paper collects and arranges data on the unused energy in terms of examples of the introduction in Japan and other countries, policies, laws and rules, subsidy systems, etc. In the overview of the system, described was typical heat supply systems utilizing unused energy. As to concrete examples of the introduction in Japan, the examples were arranged by unused energy source, by temperature level, and by region, and a detailed data book of the typical introduction examples was made. As to examples overseas, data were arranged on the introduction mainly in Europe and the U.S. With relation to policies, laws and rules, and subsidy systems in Japan and overseas, investigated were policies, laws and rules, and subsidy systems concerning unused energy mostly in Japan, Europe and the U.S. As to the production quantity, the actual amount of introduction, and the predicted amount of introduction, survey on the effect and arrangement of the data were conducted in terms of typical two heat supply facilities utilizing unused energy. The paper adds information pertaining to the cost, main related companies and groups, the distribution cost, etc.

  11. Air pollution emission from the Swedish energy system 1970-1990. What influence should a nuclear power phaseout have had on the emissions?. An analysis of actual outcome and phaseout alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostroem, C.Aa.; Grennfelt, P.; Johansson, M.; Loevblad, G.

    1994-09-01

    If the Swedish nuclear power plants had been phased out during the 1980s according to any of the two alternatives presented in 1978, the energy sectors emission of sulfur dioxide to air should have been four times greater today. For nitrogen oxides and carbon oxides the emission figures should now have been two to three times higher than the actual present values. The continued operation of nuclear power during 1980-1990 have resulted in a total reduction of sulfur dioxide emission of 500.000 tonnes, which corresponds to four years of the present total yearly emission in Sweden. For nitrogen oxides the difference is 200.000 tonnes and for carbon dioxide approximately 150 million tonnes. 17 refs

  12. Proceedings of condensed papers on alternate energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veziroglu, T.N. (ed.)

    1979-01-01

    The conference covers the results of research and developments which have taken place during the last 2 years. It includes sessions on solar energy, ocean thermal energy, wind energy, hydro power, nuclear breeders and nuclear fusion, synthetic fuels from coal or waste, hydrogen production and uses. The volume of the Proceedings presents the papers and lectures in condensed format grouped by their subjects under 40 technical sessions. Condensed papers are presented for the 336 presentations; abstracts have previously appeared in the DOE Energy Data Base for 33 of the full-length papers.

  13. Energy policies and renewable energy systems monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Nisio, Attilio; Savino, Mario; Spadavecchia, Maurizio [Electrical and Electronic Measurements Laboratory, Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering - Politecnico di Bari, Bari (Italy)], e-mails: dinisio@misure.poliba.it, savino@misure.poliba.it, spadavecchia@misure.poliba.it

    2011-07-01

    Full text: The global energy crisis is forcing every country worldwide to review its policies on energy. The environmental disaster at Japan's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant has accelerated this process. Many people around the world are citing the disaster as evidence that nuclear power would endanger the survival of mankind on earth and should be banned. Today we need to focus more substantially on energy saving, especially using smart devices with low power consumption. We have also to review the approach to the exploitation of energy and move from a philosophy 'from the ground to the subsurface' to another 'from the earth to the sun'. This paper highlights the increasing importance of solar power in meeting energy needs while achieving security of supply and minimising carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. It deals also with the development of solar power plants, which require a supervisory control system that improves their efficiency and reliability. (author)

  14. Nuclear technologies for local energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonnell, F.N.; Lynch, G.F.

    1990-03-01

    If nuclear energy is to realize its full potential as a safe and cost-effective alternative to fossil fuels, applications beyond those that are currently being serviced by large, central nuclear power stations must be identified and appropriate reactors developed. The Canadian program on reactor systems for local energy supply is at the forefront of these developments. This program emphasizes design simplicity, low power density and fuel rating, reliance on natural processes, passive systems, and reduced reliance on operator action. The first product, the SLOWPOKE Energy System, is a 10 MW heat source specifically designed to provide hot water to satisfy the needs of local heating systems for building complexes, institutions and municipal district heating systems. A demonstration heating reactor has been constructed at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment in Manitoba and has been undergoing an extensive test program since first operation in 1987 July. Based on the knowledge learned from the design, construction, licensing and operational testing of this facility, the design of the 10 MW commercial-size unit is well advanced, and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited is prepared to commit the construction of the first commercial unit. Although the technical demonstration of the concept is important, it is recognized that another crucial element is the public and regulatory acceptance of small nuclear systems in urban areas. The decision by a community to commit the construction of a SLOWPOKE Energy System brings to a sharp focus the current public apprehension about nuclear technologies

  15. Sustainable Energy Systems and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dinçer, İbrahim

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable Energy Systems and Applications presents analyses of sustainable energy systems and their applications, providing new understandings, methodologies, models and applications along with descriptions of several illustrative examples and case studies. This textbook aims to address key pillars in the field, such as: better efficiency, cost effectiveness, use of energy resources, environment, energy security, and sustainable development. It also includes some cutting-edge topics, such as hydrogen and fuel cells, renewable, clean combustion technologies, CO2 abatement technologies, and some potential tools for design, analysis and performance improvement. The book also: Discusses producing energy by increasing systems efficiency in generation, conversion, transportation and consumption Analyzes the conversion of fossil fuels to clean fuels for limiting  pollution and creating a better environment Sustainable Energy Systems and Applications is a research-based textbook which can be used by senior u...

  16. Energy management systems in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lush, D. M.

    1979-07-01

    An investigation is made of the range of possibilities available from three types of systems (automatic control devices, building envelope, and the occupants) in buildings. The following subjects are discussed: general (buildings, design and personnel); new buildings (envelope, designers, energy and load calculations, plant design, general design parameters); existing buildings (conservation measures, general energy management, air conditioned buildings, industrial buildings); man and motivation (general, energy management and documentation, maintenance, motivation); automatic energy management systems (thermostatic controls, optimized plant start up, air conditioned and industrial buildings, building automatic systems). (MCW)

  17. Battery energy storage system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, C.S.P.; Evenblij, B.H.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to store electrical energy adds several interesting features to a ships distribution network, as silent power, peak shaving and a ride through in case of generator failure. Modern intrinsically safe Li-ion batteries bring these within reach. For this modern lithium battery applications

  18. Energy systems analysis of waste to energy technologies by use of EnergyPLAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muenster, M.

    2009-04-15

    Even when policies of waste prevention, re-use and recycling are prioritised, a fraction of waste will still be left which can be used for energy recovery. This report asks the question: How to utilise waste for energy in the best way seen from an energy system perspective? Eight different Waste-to-Energy technologies are compared with a focus on fuel efficiency, CO{sub 2} reductions and costs. The comparison is made by conducting detailed energy system analyses of the present system as well as a potential future Danish energy system with a large share of combined heat and power and wind power. The study shows the potential of using waste for the production of transport fuels such as upgraded biogas and petrol made from syngas. Biogas and thermal gasification technologies are interesting alternatives to waste incineration and it is recommended to support the use of biogas based on manure and organic waste. It is also recommended to support research into gasification of waste without the addition of coal and biomass. Together, the two solutions may contribute to an alternate use of one third of the waste which is currently incinerated. The remaining fractions should still be incinerated with priority given to combined heat and power plants with high electrical efficiencies. (author)

  19. Potential of building-scale alternative energy to alleviate risk from the future price of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bristow, David; Kennedy, Christopher A.

    2010-01-01

    The energy used for building operations, the associated greenhouse gas emissions, and the uncertainties in future price of natural gas and electricity can be a cause of concern for building owners and policy makers. In this work we explore the potential of building-scale alternative energy technologies to reduce demand and emissions while also shielding building owners from the risks associated with fluctuations in the price of natural gas and grid electricity. We analyze the monetary costs and benefits over the life cycle of five technologies (photovoltaic and wind electricity generation, solar air and water heating, and ground source heat pumps) over three audience or building types (homeowners, small businesses, large commercial and institutional entities). The analysis includes a Monte Carlo analysis to measure risk that can be compared to other investment opportunities. The results indicate that under government incentives and climate of Toronto, Canada, the returns are relatively high for small degrees of risks for a number of technologies. Ground source heat pumps prove to be exceptionally good investments in terms of their energy savings, emission, reductions, and economics, while the bigger buildings tend also to be better economic choices for the use of these technologies.

  20. Analysis of alternative strategies for energy conservation in new buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, J. M.; Tawil, J.

    1980-12-01

    The policy instruments considered include: greater reliance on market forces; research and development; information, education and demonstration programs; tax incentives and sanctions; mortgage and finance programs; and regulations and standards. The analysis starts with an explanation of the barriers to energy conservation in the residential and commercial sectors. Individual policy instruments are described and evaluated with respect to energy conservation, economic efficiency, equity, political impacts, and implementation and other transitional impacts. Five possible strategies are identified: (1) increased reliance on the market place; (2) energy consumption tax and supply subsidies; (3) Building Energy Performance Standards (BEPS) with no sanctions and no incentives; (4) BEPS with sanctions and incentives (price control); and (5) BEPS with sanctions and incentives (no price controls). A comparative analysis is performed. Elements are proposed for inclusion in a comprehensive strategy for conservation in new buildings.

  1. Evaluation of renewable energy alternatives for highway maintenance facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    A considerable annual energy budget is used for heating, lighting, cooling and operating ODOT : maintenance facilities. Such facilities contain vehicle repair and garage bays, which are large open : spaces with high heating demand in winter. The main...

  2. PERFORMANCE OF ALTERNATIVE COMPONENT PRICING SYSTEMS FOR PORK

    OpenAIRE

    Brorsen, B. Wade; Akridge, Jay T.; Boland, Michael A.; Mauney, Sean; Forrest, John C.

    1998-01-01

    One method of implementing value-based marketing is a component pricing system. This research develops and evaluates alternative component pricing systems for pork. Two electronic technologies for estimating carcass components (optical probe and electromagnetic scanner) were evaluated on two sets of data representing different populations. Model accuracy increased as additional components were added.

  3. Comparing energy technology alternatives from an environmental perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    House, P.W.; Coleman, J.A.; Shull, R.D.; Matheny, R.W.; Hock, J.C.

    1981-02-01

    A number of individuals and organizations advocate the use of comparative, formal analysis to determine which are the safest methods for producing and using energy. Some have suggested that the findings of such analyses should be the basis upon which final decisions are made about whether to actually deploy energy technologies. Some of those who support formal comparative analysis are in a position to shape the policy debate on energy and environment. An opposing viewpoint is presented, arguing that for technical reasons, analysis can provide no definitive or rationally credible answers to the question of overall safety. Analysis has not and cannot determine the sum total of damage to human welfare and ecological communities from energy technologies. Analysis has produced estimates of particular types of damage; however, it is impossible to make such estimates comparable and commensurate across different classes of technologies and environmental effects. As a result of the deficiencies, comparative analysis connot form the basis of a credible, viable energy policy. Yet, without formal comparative analysis, how can health, safety, and the natural environment be protected. This paper proposes a method for improving the Nation's approach to this problem. The proposal essentially is that health and the environment should be considered as constraints on the deployment of energy technologies, constraints that are embodied in Government regulations. Whichever technologies can function within these constraints should then compete among themselves. This competition should be based on market factors like cost and efficiency and on political factors like national security and the questions of equity

  4. Present status on world alternative energy developments to oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddington, J.

    1980-01-01

    The IEA was established about five years ago in the OECD immediately after the oil crisis, and 20 countries have participated in it. Progress was observed in the control of the expansion of energy demand. The energy utilization in IEA member countries became efficient due to the contribution of new technologies, and owing to the improvement of productivity, the growth of energy consumption was less than 1% despite the GDP grew at the yearly rate of 2.5%. The expansion of the utilization of natural gas and coal is promising, but the projects of nuclear power generation are behind schedule. The short term prospect in petroleum market is discussed, and the price of crude oil tends to be stabilized. ''The prospect of energy in the world by 2000'' will be published by the IEA in the latter half of 1980. The scale of the development of nuclear power generation was reduced because the prediction of the rate of power generation growth was changed from 5.2% to 3.1%. The effect of new energy technologies on future energy market has been studied by the support of 15 countries, and it was recommended to give financial aid to heat pumps, coal liquefaction and the efficient recovery of oil and natural gas. Also the techniques for operating existing facilities under strict environment and safety regulations have been studied. (Kako, I.)

  5. Autophagy Deficiency Compromises Alternative Pathways of Respiration following Energy Deprivation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Jessica A S; Cavalcanti, João Henrique F; Medeiros, David B; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Avin-Wittenberg, Tamar; Fernie, Alisdair R; Araújo, Wagner L

    2017-09-01

    Under heterotrophic conditions, carbohydrate oxidation inside the mitochondrion is the primary energy source for cellular metabolism. However, during energy-limited conditions, alternative substrates are required to support respiration. Amino acid oxidation in plant cells plays a key role in this by generating electrons that can be transferred to the mitochondrial electron transport chain via the electron transfer flavoprotein/ubiquinone oxidoreductase system. Autophagy, a catabolic mechanism for macromolecule and protein recycling, allows the maintenance of amino acid pools and nutrient remobilization. Although the association between autophagy and alternative respiratory substrates has been suggested, the extent to which autophagy and primary metabolism interact to support plant respiration remains unclear. To investigate the metabolic importance of autophagy during development and under extended darkness, Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) mutants with disruption of autophagy ( atg mutants) were used. Under normal growth conditions, atg mutants showed lower growth and seed production with no impact on photosynthesis. Following extended darkness, atg mutants were characterized by signatures of early senescence, including decreased chlorophyll content and maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II coupled with increases in dark respiration. Transcript levels of genes involved in alternative pathways of respiration and amino acid catabolism were up-regulated in atg mutants. The metabolite profiles of dark-treated leaves revealed an extensive metabolic reprogramming in which increases in amino acid levels were partially compromised in atg mutants. Although an enhanced respiration in atg mutants was observed during extended darkness, autophagy deficiency compromises protein degradation and the generation of amino acids used as alternative substrates to the respiration. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Decarbonization of Croatian Energy System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potocnik, V.

    2012-01-01

    Energy system decarbonization is reduction of greenhouse gases (CO 2 ) emission, chiefly from the fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gas) combustion. The main objective of an energy system decarbonization is the climate change mitigation, and at the same time development of local industry and employment, better environment and health protection, as well as reduction of the fossil fuels import and foreign debt. Croatia has small fossil fuels reserves and large renewable energy sources (RES) reserves, energy efficiency (ENEF) is relatively low, and energy import, according to the actual Energy strategy 2009, should increase from 50% to 70% until 2020. Croatian energy system participates with about one third in the Croatian foreign trade deficit. The main measures of the Croatian energy system decarbonization should be: increasing ENEF (energy savings), switch from fossil fuels to RES, administrative measures (low carbon development strategy, environmental tax reform, and decoupling income from energy sales). By urgent application of these measures, Croatia could become fossil fuels free until the year 2050.(author)

  7. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume V. Economics and systems analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    This assessment considers the economics of alternative nuclear reactor and fuel-cycle systems in the light of possible patterns of uranium supply and energy demand, as well as the economic implications of improving the proliferation resistance of the various systems. The assessment focuses on the costs of alternative nuclear technologies and the possible timing of their implementation, based on their economic attractiveness. The objectives of this assessment are to identify when economic incentives to deploy advanced nuclear power systems might exist, to estimate the costs of using technologies that would reduce the risk of proliferation, to assess the impact of major economic uncertainties on the transition to new technologies, and to compare the investments required for alternative systems. This information can then be used to assess the potential economic benefits of alternative research, development, and demonstration programs and the timing of those programs

  8. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume V. Economics and systems analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-12-01

    This assessment considers the economics of alternative nuclear reactor and fuel-cycle systems in the light of possible patterns of uranium supply and energy demand, as well as the economic implications of improving the proliferation resistance of the various systems. The assessment focuses on the costs of alternative nuclear technologies and the possible timing of their implementation, based on their economic attractiveness. The objectives of this assessment are to identify when economic incentives to deploy advanced nuclear power systems might exist, to estimate the costs of using technologies that would reduce the risk of proliferation, to assess the impact of major economic uncertainties on the transition to new technologies, and to compare the investments required for alternative systems. This information can then be used to assess the potential economic benefits of alternative research, development, and demonstration programs and the timing of those programs.

  9. Development of alternative energy technologies. Entrepreneurs, new technologies, and social change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, T R

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses the introduction and development of several alternative energy technologies in countries where the innovation process has enjoyed some measure of success: solar water heating (California, Israel), windmills (Denmark), wood and peat for co-generation (Northern New England, Finland) and geo-thermal power (California) as well as heat pumps designed to save energy (West Germany). It is argued that the introduction and development of new technologies - and the socio-technical systems which utilize these technologies - depend on the initiatives of entrepreneurs and social change agents. They engage in adapting and matching technology and social structure (laws, institutions, norms, political and economic forces and social structure generally). Successful developments - as well as blocked or retarded developments - are discussed in terms of such ''compatibility analysis''. Policy implications are also discussed. (orig.).

  10. Controlled soil warming powered by alternative energy for remote field sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Jill F; Henkelman, Jonathan; Allen, Kirsten; Helgason, Warren; Bedard-Haughn, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Experiments using controlled manipulation of climate variables in the field are critical for developing and testing mechanistic models of ecosystem responses to climate change. Despite rapid changes in climate observed in many high latitude and high altitude environments, controlled manipulations in these remote regions have largely been limited to passive experimental methods with variable effects on environmental factors. In this study, we tested a method of controlled soil warming suitable for remote field locations that can be powered using alternative energy sources. The design was tested in high latitude, alpine tundra of southern Yukon Territory, Canada, in 2010 and 2011. Electrical warming probes were inserted vertically in the near-surface soil and powered with photovoltaics attached to a monitoring and control system. The warming manipulation achieved a stable target warming of 1.3 to 2 °C in 1 m(2) plots while minimizing disturbance to soil and vegetation. Active control of power output in the warming plots allowed the treatment to closely match spatial and temporal variations in soil temperature while optimizing system performance during periods of low power supply. Active soil heating with vertical electric probes powered by alternative energy is a viable option for remote sites and presents a low-disturbance option for soil warming experiments. This active heating design provides a valuable tool for examining the impacts of soil warming on ecosystem processes.

  11. Controlled soil warming powered by alternative energy for remote field sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill F Johnstone

    Full Text Available Experiments using controlled manipulation of climate variables in the field are critical for developing and testing mechanistic models of ecosystem responses to climate change. Despite rapid changes in climate observed in many high latitude and high altitude environments, controlled manipulations in these remote regions have largely been limited to passive experimental methods with variable effects on environmental factors. In this study, we tested a method of controlled soil warming suitable for remote field locations that can be powered using alternative energy sources. The design was tested in high latitude, alpine tundra of southern Yukon Territory, Canada, in 2010 and 2011. Electrical warming probes were inserted vertically in the near-surface soil and powered with photovoltaics attached to a monitoring and control system. The warming manipulation achieved a stable target warming of 1.3 to 2 °C in 1 m(2 plots while minimizing disturbance to soil and vegetation. Active control of power output in the warming plots allowed the treatment to closely match spatial and temporal variations in soil temperature while optimizing system performance during periods of low power supply. Active soil heating with vertical electric probes powered by alternative energy is a viable option for remote sites and presents a low-disturbance option for soil warming experiments. This active heating design provides a valuable tool for examining the impacts of soil warming on ecosystem processes.

  12. Integrated energy systems and local energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, Henrik; Muenster, Ebbe

    2006-01-01

    Significant benefits are connected with an increase in the flexibility of the Danish energy system. On the one hand, it is possible to benefit from trading electricity with neighbouring countries, and on the other, Denmark will be able to make better use of wind power and other types of renewable energy in the future. This paper presents the analysis of different ways of increasing flexibility in the Danish energy system by the use of local regulation mechanisms. This strategy is compared with the opposite extreme, i.e. trying to solve all balancing problems via electricity trade on the international market. The conclusion is that it is feasible for the Danish society to include the CHP plants in the balancing of fluctuating wind power. There are major advantages in equipping small CHP plants as well as the large CHP plants with heat pumps. By doing so, it will be possible to increase the share of wind power from the present 20 to 40% without causing significant problems of imbalance between electricity consumption and production. Investment in increased flexibility is in itself profitable. Furthermore, the feasibility of wind power is improved

  13. Lower-Energy Energy Storage System (LEESS) Component Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J.; Cosgrove, J.; Shi, Y.; Saxon, A.; Pesaran, A.

    2014-10-01

    Alternate hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) energy storage systems (ESS) such as lithium-ion capacitors (LICs) and electrochemical double-layer capacitor (EDLC) modules have the potential for improved life, superior cold temperature performance, and lower long-term cost projections relative to traditional battery storage systems. If such lower-energy ESS (LEESS) devices can also be shown to maintain high HEV fuel savings, future HEVs designed with these devices could have an increased value proposition relative to conventional vehicles. NREL's vehicle test platform is helping validate the in-vehicle performance capability of alternative LEESS devices and identify unforeseen issues. NREL created the Ford Fusion Hybrid test platform for in-vehicle evaluation of such alternative LEESS devices, bench testing of the initial LIC pack, integration and testing of the LIC pack in the test vehicle, and bench testing and installation of an EDLC module pack. EDLC pack testing will continue in FY15. The in-vehicle LIC testing results suggest technical viability of LEESS devices to support HEV operation. Several LIC configurations tested demonstrated equivalent fuel economy and acceleration performance as the production nickel-metal-hydride ESS configuration across all tests conducted. The lowest energy LIC scenario demonstrated equivalent performance over several tests, although slightly higher fuel consumption on the US06 cycle and slightly slower acceleration performance. More extensive vehicle-level calibration may be able to reduce or eliminate these performance differences. The overall results indicate that as long as critical attributes such as engine start under worst case conditions can be retained, considerable ESS downsizing may minimally impact HEV fuel savings.

  14. Energy security and climate change: How oil endowment influences alternative vehicle innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Eun

    2014-01-01

    Fast growing global energy needs raise concerns on energy supply security and climate change. Although policies addressing the two issues sometimes benefit one at the expense of the other, technology innovation, especially in alternative energy, provides a win–win solution to tackle both issues. This paper examines the effect of oil endowment on the patterns of technology innovation in the transportation sector, attempting to identify drivers of technology innovation in alternative energy. The analysis employs panel data constructed from patent data on five different types of automobile-related technologies from 1990 to 2002: oil extraction, petroleum refining, fuel cells, electric and hybrid vehicles (EHV) and vehicle energy efficiency. I find that countries with larger oil endowments perform less innovation on refining and alternative technologies. Conversely, higher gasoline prices positively impact the patent counts of alternative technologies and energy efficiency technology. The findings highlight the challenges and importance of policy designs in international climate change agreements. - Highlights: • I examine the effect of oil endowment on technology innovation in the transportation sector. • An empirical model was developed for a cross-country analysis of oil endowments. • A country's oil endowment is a negative driver of alternative technologies. • Energy price is a positive driver of alternative technologies and energy efficiency technology. • Implications for domestic and international climate policy are discussed

  15. Heat-flow properties of systems with alternate masses or alternate on-site potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Emmanuel; Santana, Leonardo M.; Ávila, Ricardo

    2011-07-01

    We address a central issue of phononics: the search of properties or mechanisms to manage the heat flow in reliable materials. We analytically study standard and simple systems modeling the heat flow in solids, namely, the harmonic, self-consistent harmonic and also anharmonic chains of oscillators, and we show an interesting insulating effect: While in the homogeneous models the heat flow decays as the inverse of the particle mass, in the chain with alternate masses it decays as the inverse of the square of the mass difference, that is, it decays essentially as the mass ratio (between the smaller and the larger one) for a large mass difference. A similar effect holds if we alternate on-site potentials instead of particle masses. The existence of such behavior in these different systems, including anharmonic models, indicates that it is a ubiquitous phenomenon with applications in the heat flow control.

  16. The nuclear energy option an alternative for the 90s

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Bernard L

    1990-01-01

    University of Pittsburgh physicist Cohen provides accessible, scientifically sound risk analyses of the energy options that he believes must be exercised in the next 10 years. This update of his work on public energy policy stands opposed to the stack of recent greenhouse effect-oriented titles by proposing more nuclear power plants (including fuel reprocessing plants) as statistically the safest, most environmentally sound solution. Cohen advances the debate on energy policy for all sides by first quantifying the human health costs of coal- and oil-generated electricity, and by debunking solar technology's deus ex machina role. In this context, Cohen looks at issues surrounding nuclear power since Three Mile Island, such as the "unsolved problem" of nuclear waste disposal and the "China Syndrome." Media people especially are urged to re-examine "nuclear hysteria" (no one ever writes about " deadly natural gas," Cohen notes), and even anti-nuclear activists will find the study's appendices and notes a sourceb...

  17. Solid waste as an alternative energy source and a means of solving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents practical ways of generating energy from solid waste as a means of solving the problem of solid waste disposal which is confronting the major cities in Nigeria and also providing alternative energy source to supplement the high cost and fast depleting conventional sources of energy. It also discussed the ...

  18. An initiative towards an energy and environment scheme for Iran: Introducing RAISE (Richest Alternatives for Implementation to Supply Energy) model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eshraghi, Hadi; Ahadi, Mohammad Sadegh

    2016-01-01

    Decision making in Iran's energy and environment-related issues has always been tied to complexities. Discussing these complexities and the necessity to deal with them, this paper strives to help the country with a tool by introducing Richest Alternatives for Implementation to Supply Energy (RAISE), a mixed integer linear programming model developed by the means of GNUMathprog mathematical programming language. The paper fully elaborates authors' desired modeling mentality and formulations on which RAISE is programmed to work and verifies its structure by running a widely known sample case named “UTOPIA” and comparing the results with other works including OSeMOSYS and Temoa. The model applies RAISE model to Iranian energy sector to elicit optimal policy without and with a CO_2 emission cap. The results suggest promotion of energy efficiency through investment on combined cycle power plants as the key to optimal policy in power generation sector. Regarding oil refining sector, investment on condensate refineries and advanced refineries equipped with Residual Fluid Catalytic Cracking (RFCC) units are suggested. Results also undermine the prevailing supposition that climate change mitigation deteriorates economic efficiency of energy system and suggest that there is a strong synergy between them. In the case of imposing a CO_2 cap that aims at maintaining CO_2 emissions from electricity production activities at 2012 levels, a shift to renewable energies occurs. - Highlights: • Combined cycle power plant is the best option to meet base load requirements. • There's synergy between climate change mitigation and economic affordability. • Power sector reacts to an emission cap by moving towards renewable energies. • Instead of being exported, condensates should be refined by condensate refineries • Iran's refining sector should be advanced by shifting to RFCC-equipped refineries.

  19. Effective gravitational wave stress-energy tensor in alternative theories of gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, Leo C.; Yunes, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    The inspiral of binary systems in vacuum is controlled by the stress-energy of gravitational radiation and any other propagating degrees of freedom. For gravitational waves, the dominant contribution is characterized by an effective stress-energy tensor at future null infinity. We employ perturbation theory and the short-wavelength approximation to compute this stress-energy tensor in a wide class of alternative theories. We find that this tensor is generally a modification of that first computed by Isaacson, where the corrections can dominate over the general relativistic term. In a wide class of theories, however, these corrections identically vanish at asymptotically flat, future, null infinity, reducing the stress-energy tensor to Isaacson's. We exemplify this phenomenon by first considering dynamical Chern-Simons modified gravity, which corrects the action via a scalar field and the contraction of the Riemann tensor and its dual. We then consider a wide class of theories with dynamical scalar fields coupled to higher-order curvature invariants and show that the gravitational wave stress-energy tensor still reduces to Isaacson's. The calculations presented in this paper are crucial to perform systematic tests of such modified gravity theories through the orbital decay of binary pulsars or through gravitational wave observations.

  20. Energy system analysis of fuel cells and distributed generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    This chapter introduces Energy System Analysis methodologies and tools, which can be used for identifying the best application of different Fuel Cell (FC) technologies to different regional or national energy systems. The main point is that the benefits of using FC technologies indeed depend...... on the energy system in which they are used. Consequently, coherent energy systems analyses of specific and complete energy systems must be conducted in order to evaluate the benefits of FC technologies and in order to be able to compare alternative solutions. In relation to distributed generation, FC...... technologies are very often connected to the use of hydrogen, which has to be provided e.g. from electrolysers. Decentralised and distributed generation has the possibility of improving the overall energy efficiency and flexibility of energy systems. Therefore, energy system analysis tools and methodologies...

  1. Project on Alternative Systems Study - PASS. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    Alternative repository systems for deep disposal of spent fuel and different types of canisters are studied regarding technical aspects in Project on Alternative System Study (PASS). The objective is to present a ranking of repository systems as well as of canister types for each system. The studies and compared systems are: KBS-3, Medium Long Tunnels (MLH), Long tunnels (VLH) and Deep Boreholes (VDH). For KBS-3 and MLH five canister types are compared (copper/steel, copper/lead, copper (HIP), steel/lead and steel), for VLH two types (copper/steel and steel), and for VDH three types (titanium/concrete with non-consolidated fuel assemblies, titanium/concrete with consolidated assemblies and copper (HIP) with non-consolidated assemblies). The comparison is separated into three sub-comparisons (Technology, Long-term performance and safety, and Costs), which eventually are merged into one ranking. With respect to canister alternatives the result is that the copper/steel canister is ranked first for KBS-3, MLH and VLH, while the titanium/concrete canister is ranked first for VDH (non-consolidated as well as consolidated assemblies. With these canister alternatives the merged ranking of repository systems results in placing KBS-3 slightly in front of MLH. VLH comes thereafter and VDH last. (32 refs.)

  2. The Most Economic, Socially Viable, and Environmentally Sustainable Alternative Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderburg, Willem H.

    2008-01-01

    The strengths and weaknesses of current energy planning can be attributed to the limited economic, social, and environmental contexts taken into account as a result of the current intellectual and professional division of labor. A preventive approach is developed by which the ratio of desired to undesired effects can be substantially improved. It…

  3. Economic Impact of CDM Implementation through Alternate Energy Resource Substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.J. Sreekanth

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the Kyoto protocol agreement, Clean Development Mechanism (CDM hasgarnered large emphasis in terms of certified emission reductions (CER not only amidst the globalcarbon market but also in India. This paper attempts to assess the impact of CDM towardssustainable development particularly in rural domestic utility sector that mainly includes lightingand cooking applications, with electricity as the source of energy. A detailed survey has undertakenin the state of Kerala, in southern part of India to study the rural domestic energy consumptionpattern. The data collected was analyzed that throws insight into the interrelationships of thevarious parameters that influence domestic utility sector pertaining to energy consumption byusing electricity as the source of energy. The interrelationships between the different parameterswere modeled that optimizes the contribution of electricity on domestic utility sector. The resultswere used to estimate the feasible extent of CO2 emission reduction through use of electricity as theenergy resources, vis-à-vis its economic viability through cost effectiveness. The analysis alsoprovides a platform for implementing CDM projects in the sector and related prospects withrespects to the Indian scenario.

  4. Solar energy: a suitable alternative energy source; Energia solar: uma fonte de energia viavel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiros Mattoso e Sousa, K. de; Sousa, R.M.A de [KR Consultoria, Projetos e Edificacoes. Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    The passive solar water heaters systems are highlighted in this paper. The authors show its electrical energy accounting for a 13 stories building with 4 flat unities of 150,00 square meters of area per story, proposed project of hydraulic and electrical system. Reduction of costs due to: reduction of demanded power as a result of the substitution of gas or electrical boilers by the heaters. Data reflecting the designed system are presented in the electric and hydraulic projects in 2 tables. 8 refs., 2 tabs

  5. Energy transfer in plasmonic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustovit, Vitaliy N; Urbas, Augustine M; Shahbazyan, Tigran V

    2014-01-01

    We present our results on energy transfer between donor and acceptor molecules or quantum dots near a plasmonic nanoparticle. In such systems, the Förster resonance energy transfer is strongly modified due to plasmon-mediated coupling between donors and acceptors. The transfer efficiency is determined by a competition between transfer, radiation and dissipation that depends sensitively on system parameters. When donor and accepror spectral bands overlap with dipole surface plasmon resonance, the dominant transfer mechanism is through plasmon-enhanced radiative coupling. When transfer takes place from an ensemble of donors to an acceptor, a cooperative amplification of energy transfer takes place in a wide range of system parameters. (paper)

  6. Study of energy recovery and power generation from alternative energy source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhakim Amer A. Agll

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The energy requirement pattern of world is growing up and developing technology. The available sources, while exhausting and not friendly to the environment, are highly used. Looking at partial supply and different options of environment problems associated with usage, renewable energy sources are getting attention. MSW (Municipal solid waste composition data had been collected from 1997 to 2009, in Benghazi Libya, to evaluate the waste enthalpy. An incinerator with capacity of 47,250 kg/h was confirmed to burn all the quantity of waste generated by the city through the next 15 years. Initial study was performed to investigate energy flow and resource availability to insure sustainable MSW required by the incinerator to work at its maximum capacity during the designated period. The primary purpose of the paper is to discuss the design of Rankin steam cycle for the generation of both power (PG and combined heat power (CHP. In the power generation case, the system was found to be able to generate electrical power of 13.1 MW. Including the combined heat power case, the results showed that the system was able to produce 6.8 million m3/year of desalinated water and generate 11.33 MW of electricity. In conclusion, the CHP designed system has the greatest potential to maximize energy saving, due to the optimal combination of heat production and electricity generation.

  7. Hydrogen energy systems studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogden, J.M.; Kreutz, T.G.; Steinbugler, M. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    In this report the authors describe results from technical and economic assessments carried out during the past year with support from the USDOE Hydrogen R&D Program. (1) Assessment of technologies for small scale production of hydrogen from natural gas. Because of the cost and logistics of transporting and storing hydrogen, it may be preferable to produce hydrogen at the point of use from more readily available energy carriers such as natural gas or electricity. In this task the authors assess near term technologies for producing hydrogen from natural gas at small scale including steam reforming, partial oxidation and autothermal reforming. (2) Case study of developing a hydrogen vehicle refueling infrastructure in Southern California. Many analysts suggest that the first widespread use of hydrogen energy is likely to be in zero emission vehicles in Southern California. Several hundred thousand zero emission automobiles are projected for the Los Angeles Basin alone by 2010, if mandated levels are implemented. Assuming that hydrogen vehicles capture a significant fraction of this market, a large demand for hydrogen fuel could evolve over the next few decades. Refueling a large number of hydrogen vehicles poses significant challenges. In this task the authors assess near term options for producing and delivering gaseous hydrogen transportation fuel to users in Southern California including: (1) hydrogen produced from natural gas in a large, centralized steam reforming plant, and delivered to refueling stations via liquid hydrogen truck or small scale hydrogen gas pipeline, (2) hydrogen produced at the refueling station via small scale steam reforming of natural gas, (3) hydrogen produced via small scale electrolysis at the refueling station, and (4) hydrogen from low cost chemical industry sources (e.g. excess capacity in refineries which have recently upgraded their hydrogen production capacity, etc.).

  8. Research Capabilities Directed to all Electric Engineering Teachers, from an Alternative Energy Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Hugo Ordóñez Navea

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to contemplate research capabilities directed to all electric engineering teachers from an alternative energy model intro the explanation of a semiconductor in the National Training Program in Electricity. Some authors, such as. Vidal (2016, Atencio (2014 y Camilo (2012 point out to technological applications with semiconductor electrical devices. In this way; a diagnostic phase is presented, held on this field research as a descriptive type about: a how to identify the necessities of alternative energies, and b The research competences in the alternatives energies of researcher from a solar cell model, to boost and innovate the academic praxis and technologic ingenuity. Themselves was applied a survey for a group of 15 teachers in the National Program of Formation in electricity to diagnose the deficiencies in the research area of alternatives energies. The process of data analysis was carried out through descriptive statistic. Later the conclusions are presented the need to generate strategies for stimulate and propose exploration of alternatives energies to the development of research competences directed to the teachers of electrical engineering for develop the research competences in the enforcement of the teachers exercise for the electric engineering, from an alternative energy model and boost the technologic research in the renewal energies field.

  9. Alternative Policy Study: Environment and energy in Europe and Central Asia 1990-2010. Energy-related environmental impacts of policy scenarios GEO-2000 alternative policy study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren DP van; Bakkes JA; United Nations Environment; MNV

    2000-01-01

    The GEO-2000 study into alternative policy options for Europe and Central Asia focuses on energy use as an important driver for environmental problems across the region. The problems analyzed are climate change, acidification, summer smog, urban air pollution and risks of reactor accidents

  10. Global Renewable Energy-Based Electricity Generation and Smart Grid System for Energy Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M. A.; Hasanuzzaman, M.; Rahim, N. A.; Nahar, A.; Hosenuzzaman, M.

    2014-01-01

    Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for future energy security is presented. Results show that renewable energy resources are becoming more prevalent as more electricity generation becomes necessary and could provide half of the total energy demands by 2050. To satisfy the future energy demand, the smart grid system can be used as an efficient system for energy security. The smart grid also delivers significant environmental benefits by conservation and renewable generation integration. PMID:25243201

  11. Global renewable energy-based electricity generation and smart grid system for energy security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M A; Hasanuzzaman, M; Rahim, N A; Nahar, A; Hosenuzzaman, M

    2014-01-01

    Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for future energy security is presented. Results show that renewable energy resources are becoming more prevalent as more electricity generation becomes necessary and could provide half of the total energy demands by 2050. To satisfy the future energy demand, the smart grid system can be used as an efficient system for energy security. The smart grid also delivers significant environmental benefits by conservation and renewable generation integration.

  12. Global Renewable Energy-Based Electricity Generation and Smart Grid System for Energy Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Islam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for future energy security is presented. Results show that renewable energy resources are becoming more prevalent as more electricity generation becomes necessary and could provide half of the total energy demands by 2050. To satisfy the future energy demand, the smart grid system can be used as an efficient system for energy security. The smart grid also delivers significant environmental benefits by conservation and renewable generation integration.

  13. Photovoltaic Energy Conversion Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouro, Samir; Wu, Bin; Abu-Rub, Haitham

    2014-01-01

    This chapter presents a comprehensive overview of grid-connected PV systems, including power curves, grid-connected configurations, different converter topologies (both single- and three-phase), control schemes, MPPT, and anti-islanding detection methods. The focus of the chapter has been on the ...

  14. Academic Training: Toward Sustainable Energy Systems?

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2006-01-01

    ACADEMIC TRAINING LECTURE SERIES 28, 29, 30, 31 March from 11:00 to 12:00 - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Toward Sustainable Energy Systems? F. Tellez / CIEMAT, Madrid, E and D.Martinez / CIEMAT-PSA, Almeria, E Recent work on alternative energies go in the direction of proving the feasibility of solar energy as one of the best alternatives into the future. Europe, as everybody else, has understandably vested interests in insourcing energetic demands as far as affordable. The good news is that solar energy may be its deciding straw, because it has remarkable facilities and projects probing the possibilities of this option. Two european research centers are at the leading edge in this area: ENEA, which is leading 'Archimede', a vast solar array project in Sicily, and CIEMAT, with its Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA, www.psa.es), a major solar energy facility at the south of Spain. Both will become basic poles of the planned 'EURO-MED'electricity interconnection, intending to carry solar electricity fro...

  15. Academic Training: Toward Sustainable Energy Systems?

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2006-01-01

    ACADEMIC TRAINING LECTURE SERIES 28, 29, 30, 31 March from 11:00 to 12:00 - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Toward Sustainable Energy Systems? F. Tellez / CIEMAT, Madrid, E and D.Martinez / CIEMAT-PSA, Almeria, E Recent work on alternative energies go in the direction of proving the feasibility of solar energy as one of the best alternatives into the future. Europe, as everybody else, has understandably vested interests in insourcing energetic demands as far as affordable. The good news is that solar energy may be its deciding straw, because it has remarkable facilities and projects probing the possibilities of this option. Two european research centers are at the leading edge in this area: ENEA, which is leading 'Archimede', a vast solar array project in Sicily, and CIEMAT, with its Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA, www.psa.es) ,a major solar energy facility at the south of Spain. Both will become basic poles of the planned 'EURO-MED' electricity interconnection, intending to carry solar electricity f...

  16. Probabilistic Approaches to Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Jan Emil Banning

    of renewable energy generation. Particularly we focus on producing forecasting models that can predict renewable energy generation, single user demand, and provide advanced forecast products that are needed for an efficient integration of renewable energy into the power generation mix. Such forecasts can...... integration of renewable energy.Thus forecast products should be developed in unison with the decision making tool as they are two sides of the same overall challenge.......Energy generation from wind and sun is increasing rapidly in many parts of the world. This presents new challenges on how to integrate this uncertain, intermittent and non-dispatchable energy source. This thesis deals with forecasting and decision making in energy systems with a large proportion...

  17. Secure Automated Microgrid Energy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    O&M Operations and Maintenance PSO Power System Optimization PV Photovoltaic RAID Redundant Array of Independent Disks RBAC Role...elements of the initial study and operational power system model (feeder size , protective devices, generation sources, controllable loads, transformers...EW-201340) Secure Automated Microgrid Energy System December 2016 This document has been cleared for public release; Distribution Statement A

  18. Paul Hill d/b/a Alternative Energy Windows and Siding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Hill d/b/a Alternative Energy Windows and Siding (the Company) is located in Concord, New Hampshire. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at property constructed prior to 1978, located in Concord, New Hampshire.

  19. Electrical Energy Storage for Renewable Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helms, C. R. [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Cho, K. J. [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Ferraris, John [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Balkus, Ken [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Chabal, Yves [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Gnade, Bruce [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Rotea, Mario [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Vasselli, John [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2012-08-31

    This program focused on development of the fundamental understanding necessary to significantly improve advanced battery and ultra-capacitor materials and systems to achieve significantly higher power and energy density on the one hand, and significantly lower cost on the other. This program spanned all the way from atomic-level theory, to new nanomaterials syntheses and characterization, to system modeling and bench-scale technology demonstration. This program not only delivered significant advancements in fundamental understanding and new materials and technology, it also showcased the power of the cross-functional, multi-disciplinary teams at UT Dallas and UT Tyler for such work. These teams are continuing this work with other sources of funding from both industry and government.

  20. Nuclear energy the best alternative in alleviating global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaki Khoshkbijari, M.; Moghadam, M. Kh.

    2008-01-01

    During the last century, the average temperature of the earth has abnormally increased by 0.74 c, causing concern among scientists. Some experts believe that the earth has experienced the warmest years during the last decades of 20 century, to the extent that the last 400 years have been the warmest years. The reports 2007 suggest that the hottest periods recorded occur a 1990 - 2007 which was a record high during the past 150 years. It seems that industrialization has contributed significantly to the global warming. The measurement of earth temperature dates hack to 1880 which has continued up to the present time. It is also predicted that the year 2014 would witness an unprecedented high air temperature. Moreover, scientists have expressed grave concern about the occurrence of severe droughts, scorching heat and formidable storms which are yet to strike the earth in the year 2100. According to the I nternational atomic agency , nuclear energy is by far, the best and safest production source of electricity in the future due to it's low emission rate of carbon dioxide. However , prior to making any commitment, it seem imperative to increase public awareness about the dire consequences of the continued utilization of fossil fuels. Based on research carried out by International atomic agency, nuclear energy is superior to other sources of energy in two major respects: lack of any so-called greenhouse gas emission and the utilization of uranium as the single source the energy production. The study aims at first; probing into the causes of global warming, the outcomes and ultimately provision of a way out of the problem and identifying the means to seriously cope with the problem. 5