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Sample records for alternative disposal methods

  1. Evaluation of the long-term performance of six alternative disposal methods for LLRW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kossik, R.; Sharp, G. [Golder Associates, Inc., Redmond, WA (United States); Chau, T. [Rogers & Associates Engineering Corp., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The State of New York has carried out a comparison of six alternative disposal methods for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW). An important part of these evaluations involved quantitatively analyzing the long-term (10,000 yr) performance of the methods with respect to dose to humans, radionuclide concentrations in the environment, and cumulative release from the facility. Four near-surface methods (covered above-grade vault, uncovered above-grade vault, below-grade vault, augered holes) and two mine methods (vertical shaft mine and drift mine) were evaluated. Each method was analyzed for several generic site conditions applicable for the state. The evaluations were carried out using RIP (Repository Integration Program), an integrated, total system performance assessment computer code which has been applied to radioactive waste disposal facilities both in the U.S. (Yucca Mountain, WIPP) and worldwide. The evaluations indicate that mines in intact low-permeability rock and near-surface facilities with engineered covers generally have a high potential to perform well (within regulatory limits). Uncovered above-grade vaults and mines in highly fractured crystalline rock, however, have a high potential to perform poorly, exceeding regulatory limits.

  2. Assessment of alternative disposal methods to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from municipal solid waste in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedla, Sudhakar; Sindhu, N T

    2016-06-01

    Open dumping, the most commonly practiced method of solid waste disposal in Indian cities, creates serious environment and economic challenges, and also contributes significantly to greenhouse gas emissions. The present article attempts to analyse and identify economically effective ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from municipal solid waste. The article looks at the selection of appropriate methods for the control of methane emissions. Multivariate functional models are presented, based on theoretical considerations as well as the field measurements to forecast the greenhouse gas mitigation potential for all the methodologies under consideration. Economic feasibility is tested by calculating the unit cost of waste disposal for the respective disposal process. The purpose-built landfill system proposed by Yedla and Parikh has shown promise in controlling greenhouse gas and saving land. However, these studies show that aerobic composting offers the optimal method, both in terms of controlling greenhouse gas emissions and reducing costs, mainly by requiring less land than other methods.

  3. Assessment of alternative disposal concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Autio, J.; Saanio, T.; Tolppanen, P. [Saanio and Riekkola Consulting Engineers, Helsinki (Finland); Raiko, H.; Vieno, T. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Salo, J.P. [Posiva Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    Four alternative repository designs for the disposal of spent nuclear in the Finnish crystalline bedrock were assessed in the study. The alternatives were: (1) the basic KBS-3 design in which copper canisters are emplaced in vertical deposition holes bored in the floors of horizontal tunnels, (2) the KBS-3-2C design with two canisters in a deposition hole, (3) Short Horizontal Holes (SHH) in the side walls of the tunnels, and (4) the Medium Long Holes (MLH) concept in which approximately 25 canisters are emplaced in a horizontal deposition hole about 200 metres in length bored between central and side tunnels. In all the alternatives considered, the thickness of the layer of compacted bentonite between copper canister and bedrock is 35 cm. Two different copper canister designs were also assessed. Technical feasibility and flexibility, post-closure safety and repository cost were assessed for each of the alternative canister and repository designs. On the basis of this assessment it is recommended that further development and studies should focus on the vacuum- or inert gas-filled cast insert type copper canister and the basic KBS-3 type repository design with a single canister in a vertical deposition hole. The KBS-3 design is robust and flexible and provides excellent post-closure safety. The transfer, emplacement and sealing operations are technically uncomplicated. The alternative options assessed do not offer any significant benefits in safety or cost over the basic design, but they are technically more complex and also in some respects more vulnerable to malfunction during the emplacement of canisters and buffer, as well as common mode failures. (60 refs.).

  4. Validation of analytical methods in GMP: the disposable Fast Read 102® device, an alternative practical approach for cell counting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunetti Monica

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The quality and safety of advanced therapy products must be maintained throughout their production and quality control cycle to ensure their final use in patients. We validated the cell count method according to the International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use and European Pharmacopoeia, considering the tests’ accuracy, precision, repeatability, linearity and range. Methods As the cell count is a potency test, we checked accuracy, precision, and linearity, according to ICH Q2. Briefly our experimental approach was first to evaluate the accuracy of Fast Read 102® compared to the Bürker chamber. Once the accuracy of the alternative method was demonstrated, we checked the precision and linearity test only using Fast Read 102®. The data were statistically analyzed by average, standard deviation and coefficient of variation percentages inter and intra operator. Results All the tests performed met the established acceptance criteria of a coefficient of variation of less than ten percent. For the cell count, the precision reached by each operator had a coefficient of variation of less than ten percent (total cells and under five percent (viable cells. The best range of dilution, to obtain a slope line value very similar to 1, was between 1:8 and 1:128. Conclusions Our data demonstrated that the Fast Read 102® count method is accurate, precise and ensures the linearity of the results obtained in a range of cell dilution. Under our standard method procedures, this assay may thus be considered a good quality control method for the cell count as a batch release quality control test. Moreover, the Fast Read 102® chamber is a plastic, disposable device that allows a number of samples to be counted in the same chamber. Last but not least, it overcomes the problem of chamber washing after use and so allows a cell count in a clean environment such as that in a

  5. Disposable diapers: a hygienic alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, Maithili; Malkani, Ram

    2003-11-01

    The use of disposable diapers has offered improved health care benefits. Urine and fecal matter leakage from the cloth nappies and the hand-to-mouth behavior in infants leads to many illnesses with a feco-oral mode of transmission. Also, the tender skin of the infant is more prone to nappy rash. The modern age disposable diapers, when compared to cloth nappy, have displayed a superior ability in containment of urine and feces, thereby reducing contamination and transmission of infection. Also disposable diapers contain Super Absorbent Material (SAM) that successfully reduces the incidence of nappy rash.

  6. Alternatives for nuclear fuel disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez S, J. R.; Badillo A, V.; Palacios H, J.; Celis del Angel, L., E-mail: ramon.ramirez@inin.gob.m [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-10-15

    The spent fuel is one of the most important issues in the nuclear industry, currently spent fuel management is been cause of great amount of research, investments in the construction of repositories or constructing the necessary facilities to reprocess the fuel, and later to recycle the plutonium recovered in thermal reactors. What is the best solution? or, What is the best technology for a specific solution? Many countries have deferred the decision on selecting an option, while other works actively constructing repositories and others implementing the reprocessing facilities to recycle the plutonium obtained from nuclear spent fuel. In Mexico the nuclear power is limited to two reactors BWR type and medium size. So the nuclear spent fuel discharged has been accommodated at reactor's spent fuel pools. Originally these pools have enough capacity to accommodate spent fuel for the 40 years of designed plant operation. However, currently is under process an extended power up rate to 20% of their original power and also there are plans to extend operational life for 20 more years. Under these conditions there will not be enough room for spent fuel in the pools. So this work describes some different alternatives that have been studied in Mexico to define which will be the best alternative to follow. (Author)

  7. Nuclear Waste Disposal: Alternatives to Yucca Mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-06

    pr_121508_energysecnom.cfm. 13 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, “Growing energy: Berkeley Lab’s Steve Chu on what termite guts have to do with global warming...does not seem an attractive alternative to the geological 60 Steven Nadis, “The Sub-Seabed Solution...could be done at Yucca Mountain.82 Such “salt creep” occurs more quickly at higher temperatures , which could result from the disposal of high-level waste

  8. Recommendations to the NRC for review criteria for alternative methods of low-level radioactive waste disposal: Task 2a, Below-ground vaults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denson, R.H.; Bennett, R.D.; Wamsley, R.M.; Bean, D.L.; Ainsworth, D.L.

    1987-12-01

    The US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) and the US Army Engineer Division, Huntsville (HNDED) have developed general design criteria and specific design review criteria for the below-ground vault (BGV) alternative method of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal. A BGV is a reinforced concrete vault (floor, walls, and roof) placed underground below the frost line, and above the water table, surrounded by filter blanket and drainage zones and covered with a low permeability earth layer and top soil with vegetation. Eight major review criteria categories have been developed ranging from the loads imposed on the BGV structure through material quality and durability considerations. Specific design review criteria have been developed in detail for seven of the eight major categories. 59 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Recommendations to the NRC for review criteria for alternative methods of low-level radioactive waste disposal: Task 2b: Earth-mounded concrete bunkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denson, R.H.; Bennett, R.D.; Wamsley, R.M.; Bean, D.L.; Ainsworth, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    The US Army Engineers Waterways Experiment Station (WES) and US Army Engineer Division, Huntsville (HNDED) have developed general design criteria and specific design review criteria for the earth-mounded concrete bunker (EMCB) alternative method of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal. An EMCB is generally described as a reinforced concrete vault placed below grade, underneath a tumulus, surrounded by filter-blanket and drainage zones. The tumulus is covered over with a low permeability cover layer and top soil with vegetation. Eight major review criteria categories have been developed ranging from the loads imposed on the EMCB structure through material quality and durability considerations. Specific design review criteria have been developed in detail for each of the eight major categories. 63 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Low-Level Waste Disposal Alternatives Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy Carlson; Kay Adler-Flitton; Roy Grant; Joan Connolly; Peggy Hinman; Charles Marcinkiewicz

    2006-09-01

    This report identifies and compares on-site and off-site disposal options for the disposal of contract-handled and remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Potential disposal options are screened for viability by waste type resulting in a short list of options for further consideration. The most crediable option are selected after systematic consideration of cost, schedule constraints, and risk. In order to holistically address the approach for low-level waste disposal, options are compiled into comprehensive disposal schemes, that is, alternative scenarios. Each alternative scenario addresses the disposal path for all low-level waste types over the period of interest. The alternative scenarios are compared and ranked using cost, risk and complexity to arrive at the recommended approach. Schedule alignment with disposal needs is addressed to ensure that all waste types are managed appropriately. The recommended alternative scenario for the disposal of low-level waste based on this analysis is to build a disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  11. 48 CFR 245.603 - Disposal methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposal methods. 245.603 Section 245.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT... Contractor Inventory 245.603 Disposal methods....

  12. [Composting of poultry carcasses as an alternative method for disposal in case of an outbreak of an epizootic disease: first results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzlose, I; Gerdes, U; Gerlach, G F; Runge, M; Thalmann, G; Nöckler, A; Klarmann, D; Behr, K P; Neumann, U; Seedorf, J; Hartung, J; Jeske, C

    2008-04-01

    Composting of poultry carcasses represents an alternative method for disposal in case of an outbreak of an epizootic disease. Two composting experiments, each with a different construction of the compost pile, were carried out in a stable. In the first experiment two layers of turkey carcasses were formed. This compost pile covered with straw was directly built on the ground. In the second experiment no layers of carcasses were formed, and it was assembled on straw bales covered with plastic foil. One part of this compost pile was covered with straw, the other one was additionally covered with plastic foil. In the first experiment in the upper layers of the compost pile temperatures of up to 54.9 degrees C were reached and the decomposition of carcasses was very advanced with no soft tissues remaining after 30 days. In contrast temperatures of only 45.2 degrees C were reached in the lower layers and decomposition was far less advanced. This difference in decomposition was most likely caused by the temperature difference observed. In the second experiment the near complete decomposition seen in the upper layers of the compost pile at the first trial, was not achieved. Decomposition was more advanced in the straw covered part of this compost pile than in the part covered with straw and plastic foil. On the other hand, higher temperatures of up to 48.4 degrees C were measured in the lower layers of this compost pile most likely as a result of the increased heat insulation in particular to the ground.

  13. 48 CFR 945.603 - Disposal methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposal methods. 945.603 Section 945.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Redistribution, and Disposal of Contractor Inventory 945.603 Disposal methods....

  14. 48 CFR 2845.603 - Disposal methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Disposal methods. 2845.603 Section 2845.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Contract Management GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Redistribution, and Disposal of Contractor Inventory 2845.603 Disposal...

  15. Analysis of alternatives for immobilized low activity waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burbank, D.A.

    1997-10-28

    This report presents a study of alternative disposal system architectures and implementation strategies to provide onsite near-surface disposal capacity to receive the immobilized low-activity waste produced by the private vendors. The analysis shows that a flexible unit strategy that provides a suite of design solutions tailored to the characteristics of the immobilized low-activity waste will provide a disposal system that best meets the program goals of reducing the environmental, health, and safety impacts; meeting the schedule milestones; and minimizing the life-cycle cost of the program.

  16. Remote-Handled Low Level Waste Disposal Project Alternatives Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Duncan

    2010-10-01

    This report identifies, evaluates, and compares alternatives for meeting the U.S. Department of Energy’s mission need for management of remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Each alternative identified in the Mission Need Statement for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Treatment Project is described and evaluated for capability to fulfill the mission need. Alternatives that could meet the mission need are further evaluated and compared using criteria of cost, risk, complexity, stakeholder values, and regulatory compliance. The alternative for disposal of remote-handled low-level waste that has the highest confidence of meeting the mission need and represents best value to the government is to build a new disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  17. Alternative Evaluation Study: Methods to Mitigate/Accommodate Subsidence for the Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County Nevada, with Special Focus on Disposal Cell U-3ax/bl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, L.

    1997-09-01

    An Alternative Evaluation Study is a type of systematic approach to problem identification and solution. An Alternative Evaluation Study was convened August 12-15, 1997, for the purpose of making recommendations concerning closure of Disposal Cell U-3ax/bl and other disposal cells and mitigation/accommodation of waste subsidence at the Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site. This report includes results of the Alternative Evaluation Study and specific recommendations.

  18. Alternatives for managing wastes from reactors and post-fission operations in the LWR fuel cycle. Volume 4. Alternatives for waste isolation and disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-05-01

    Volume IV of the five-volume report contains information on alternatives for final storage and disposal of radioactive wastes. Section titles include: basic concepts for geologic isolation; geologic storage alternatives; geologic disposal alternatives; extraterrestrial disposal; and, transmutation. (JGB)

  19. A Comparison of Distillery Stillage Disposal Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sajbrt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the main stillage disposal methods from the point of view of technology, economics and energetics. Attention is paid to the disposal of both solid and liquid phase. Specifically, the following methods are considered: a livestock feeding, b combustion of granulated stillages, c fertilizer production, d anaerobic digestion with biogas production and e chemical pretreatment and subsequent secondary treatment. Other disposal techniques mentioned in the literature (electrofenton reaction, electrocoagulation and reverse osmosis have not been considered, due to their high costs and technological requirements.Energy and economic calculations were carried out for a planned production of 120 m3 of stillage per day in a given distillery. Only specific treatment operating costs (per 1 m3 of stillage were compared, including operational costs for energy, transport and chemicals. These values were determined for January 31st, 2009. Resulting sequence of cost effectiveness: 1. – chemical pretreatment, 2. – combustion of granulated stillage, 3. – transportation of stillage to a biogas station, 4. – fertilizer production, 5. – livestock feeding. This study found that chemical pretreatment of stillage with secondary treatment (a method developed at the Department of Process Engineering, CTU was more suitable than the other methods. Also, there are some important technical advantages. Using this method, the total operating costs are approximately 1 150 ??/day, i.e. about 9,5 ??/m3 of stillage. The price of chemicals is the most important item in these costs, representing about 85 % of the total operating costs.

  20. Alternate Methods for Disposal of Nitrocellulose Fines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-22

    edition$ are obsolete. UNLSSFE UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY CLASSIPICATION OP THIS PAGE recycled; and, being ubituitous in nature , are not considered...Matrix xomparison of technologies ................. 22 3.4 Ranking and seleccion of technologies ............. 26 4. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 4.1...ubiquitous in nature , are not considered pollutants anyway. There are several "ready technologies" that appear to be capable of removing NC fines more

  1. 48 CFR 45.604-1 - Disposal methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposal methods. 45.604-1 Section 45.604-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Reutilization, and Disposal 45.604-1 Disposal methods. (a) Except as...

  2. Evaluation of alternatives for high-level and transuranic radioactive- waste disposal standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klett, R.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gruebel, M.M. [Tech. Reps., Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1992-12-01

    The remand of the US Environmental Protection Agency`s long-term performance standards for radioactive-waste disposal provides an opportunity to suggest modifications that would make the regulation more defensible and remove inconsistencies yet retain the basic structure of the original rule. Proposed modifications are in three specific areas: release and dose limits, probabilistic containment requirements, and transuranic-waste disposal criteria. Examination of the modifications includes discussion of the alternatives, demonstration of methods of development and implementation, comparison of the characteristics, attributes, and deficiencies of possible options within each area, and analysis of the implications for performance assessments. An additional consideration is the impact on the entire regulation when developing or modifying the individual components of the radiological standards.

  3. Soil Segregation Methods for Reducing Transportation and Disposal Costs - 13544

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frothingham, David; Andrews, Shawn; Barker, Michelle; Boyle, James; Buechi, Stephen; Graham, Marc; Houston, Linda; Polek, Michael; Simmington, Robert; Spector, Harold [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Buffalo District, 1776 Niagara St., Buffalo, NY 14207 (United States); Elliott, Robert ' Dan' [U.S. Army Reserve, 812A Franklin St.,Worcester, MA 01604 (United States); Durham, Lisa [Argonne National Laboratory, Environmental Science Division, 9700 S. Cass Ave., Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    At Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) sites where the selected alternative for contaminated soil is excavation and off-site disposal, the most significant budget items of the remedial action are the costs for transportation and disposal of soil at an off-site facility. At these sites, the objective is to excavate and dispose of only those soils that exceed derived concentration guideline levels. In situ soil segregation using gross gamma detectors to guide the excavation is often challenging at sites where the soil contamination is overlain by clean soil or where the contaminated soil is located in isolated, subsurface pockets. In addition, data gaps are often identified during the alternative evaluation and selection process, resulting in increased uncertainty in the extent of subsurface contamination. In response, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Buffalo District is implementing ex situ soil segregation methods. At the remediated Painesville Site, soils were excavated and fed through a conveyor-belt system, which automatically segregated them into above- and below-cleanup criteria discharge piles utilizing gamma spectroscopy. At the Linde Site and the Shallow Land Disposal Area (SLDA) Site, which are both in the remediation phase, soils are initially segregated during the excavation process using gross gamma detectors and then transported to a pad for confirmatory manual surveying and sampling. At the Linde Site, the ex situ soils are analyzed on the basis of a site-specific method, to establish compliance with beneficial reuse criteria that were developed for the Linde remediation. At the SLDA Site, the ex situ soils are surveyed and sampled based on Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM) final status survey guidance to demonstrate compliance with the derived concentration guideline levels. At all three sites, the ex situ soils that meet the site- specific DCGLs are retained on-site and used as backfill

  4. Disposal of Industrial and Domestic Wastes: Land and Sea Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    recombination of initially rejected alternatives. Because technical questions are best addressed by the technically trained and decisions are best carried...Trichostrongylus Liateria Monocytogenes Eacherichia colt Protozoa Cloatridium botulinus Entsmoeba histolytica Acanthamoeba Giardia SOURC:t Alderslade (1981). of a

  5. Evaluation of healthcare waste treatment/disposal alternatives by using multi-criteria decision-making techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan, Aysun

    2013-02-01

    Healthcare waste should be managed carefully because of infected, pathological, etc. content especially in developing countries. Applied management systems must be the most appropriate solution from a technical, environmental, economic and social point of view. The main objective of this study was to analyse the current status of healthcare waste management in Turkey, and to investigate the most appropriate treatment/disposal option by using different decision-making techniques. For this purpose, five different healthcare waste treatment/disposal alternatives including incineration, microwaving, on-site sterilization, off-site sterilization and landfill were evaluated according to two multi-criteria decision-making techniques: analytic network process (ANP) and ELECTRE. In this context, benefits, costs and risks for the alternatives were taken into consideration. Furthermore, the prioritization and ranking of the alternatives were determined and compared for both methods. According to the comparisons, the off-site sterilization technique was found to be the most appropriate solution in both cases.

  6. Monitoring methods for nuclear fuel waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R.B.; Barnard, J.W.; Bird, G.A. [and others

    1997-11-01

    This report examines a variety of monitoring activities that would likely be involved in a nuclear fuel waste disposal project, during the various stages of its implementation. These activities would include geosphere, environmental, vault performance, radiological, safeguards, security and community socioeconomic and health monitoring. Geosphere monitoring would begin in the siting stage and would continue at least until the closure stage. It would include monitoring of regional and local seismic activity, and monitoring of physical, chemical and microbiological properties of groundwater in rock and overburden around and in the vault. Environmental monitoring would also begin in the siting stage, focusing initially on baseline studies of plants, animals, soil and meteorology, and later concentrating on monitoring for changes from these benchmarks in subsequent stages. Sampling designs would be developed to detect changes in levels of contaminants in biota, water and air, soil and sediments at and around the disposal facility. Vault performance monitoring would include monitoring of stress and deformation in the rock hosting the disposal vault, with particular emphasis on fracture propagation and dilation in the zone of damaged rock surrounding excavations. A vault component test area would allow long-term observation of containers in an environment similar to the working vault, providing information on container corrosion mechanisms and rates, and the physical, chemical and thermal performance of the surrounding sealing materials and rock. During the operation stage, radiological monitoring would focus on protecting workers from radiation fields and loose contamination, which could be inhaled or ingested. Operational zones would be established to delineate specific hazards to workers, and movement of personnel and materials between zones would be monitored with radiation detectors. External exposures to radiation fields would be monitored with dosimeters worn by

  7. Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project Alternatives Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Duncan

    2010-06-01

    This report identifies, evaluates, and compares alternatives for meeting the U.S. Department of Energy’s mission need for management of remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Each alternative identified in the Mission Need Statement for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Treatment Project is described and evaluated for capability to fulfill the mission need. Alternatives that could meet the mission need are further evaluated and compared using criteria of cost, risk, complexity, stakeholder values, and regulatory compliance. The alternative for disposal of remote-handled low-level waste that has the highest confidence of meeting the mission need and represents best value to the government is to build a new disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  8. Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project Alternatives Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Duncan

    2011-03-01

    This report identifies, evaluates, and compares alternatives for meeting the U.S. Department of Energy’s mission need for management of remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Each alternative identified in the Mission Need Statement for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Treatment Project is described and evaluated for capability to fulfill the mission need. Alternatives that could meet the mission need are further evaluated and compared using criteria of cost, risk, complexity, stakeholder values, and regulatory compliance. The alternative for disposal of remote-handled low-level waste that has the highest confidence of meeting the mission need and represents best value to the government is to build a new disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  9. Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project Alternatives Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Duncan

    2011-04-01

    This report identifies, evaluates, and compares alternatives for meeting the U.S. Department of Energy’s mission need for management of remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Each alternative identified in the Mission Need Statement for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Treatment Project is described and evaluated for capability to fulfill the mission need. Alternatives that could meet the mission need are further evaluated and compared using criteria of cost, risk, complexity, stakeholder values, and regulatory compliance. The alternative for disposal of remote-handled low-level waste that has the highest confidence of meeting the mission need and represents best value to the government is to build a new disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  10. Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project Alternatives Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Duncan

    2009-10-01

    This report identifies, evaluates, and compares alternatives for meeting the U.S. Department of Energy’s mission need for management of remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Each alternative identified in the Mission Need Statement for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Treatment Project is described and evaluated for capability to fulfill the mission need. Alternatives that could meet the mission need are further evaluated and compared using criteria of cost, risk, complexity, stakeholder values, and regulatory compliance. The alternative for disposal of remote-handled low-level waste that has the highest confidence of meeting the mission need and represents best value to the government is to build a new disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  11. INEEL Subsurface Disposal Area CERCLA-based Decision Analysis for Technology Screening and Remedial Alternative Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parnell, G. S.; Kloeber, Jr. J.; Westphal, D; Fung, V.; Richardson, John Grant

    2000-03-01

    A CERCLA-based decision analysis methodology for alternative evaluation and technology screening has been developed for application at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory WAG 7 OU13/14 Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). Quantitative value functions derived from CERCLA balancing criteria in cooperation with State and Federal regulators are presented. A weighted criteria hierarchy is also summarized that relates individual value function numerical values to an overall score for a specific technology alternative.

  12. The disposal alternative deep boreholes. Content and scope of R and D programme necessary for comparison with the KBS-3 method; Foervarsalternativet djupa borrhaal. Innehaall och omfattning av FUD-program som kraevs foer jaemfoerelse med KBS-3-metoden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikberg, P. [and others

    2000-08-01

    Deposition of spent fuel elements in {>=} 2000 m deep boreholes is an alternative to the KBS-3 method that has been developed in Sweden for more than 20 years. This report gives an account of the research and development needed in order to bring the deep borehole method to the same level of development as the KBS-3 method. Five majors areas are discussed: Geoscience, Technical issues, Technical barriers, Safety assessment and Time-plans and costs. It is estimated that a full R,D and D programme would need about 30 years to be completed, and the costs would amount to around 4 billion SEK (over 400 million USD)

  13. Alternative disposal options for alpha-mixed low-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loomis, G.G.; Sherick, M.J. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents several disposal options for the Department of Energy alpha-mixed low-level waste. The mixed nature of the waste favors thermally treating the waste to either an iron-enriched basalt or glass waste form, at which point a multitude of reasonable disposal options, including in-state disposal, are a possibility. Most notably, these waste forms will meet the land-ban restrictions. However, the thermal treatment of this waste involves considerable waste handling and complicated/expensive offgas, systems with secondary waste management problems. In the United States, public perception of off gas systems in the radioactive incinerator area is unfavorable. The alternatives presented here are nonthermal in nature and involve homogenizing the waste with cryogenic techniques followed by complete encapsulation with a variety of chemical/grouting agents into retrievable waste forms. Once encapsulated, the waste forms are suitable for transport out of the state or for actual in-state disposal. This paper investigates variances that would have to be obtained and contrasts the alternative encapsulation idea with the thermal treatment option.

  14. A preliminary evaluation of alternatives for disposal of INEL low-level waste and low-level mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, T.H.; Roesener, W.S.; Jorgenson-Waters, M.J.

    1993-07-01

    The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility (MLLWDF) project was established in 1992 by the US Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office to provide enhanced disposal capabilities for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level mixed waste and low-level waste. This Preliminary Evaluation of Alternatives for Disposal of INEL Low-Level Waste and Low-Level Mixed Waste identifies and evaluates-on a preliminary, overview basis-the alternatives for disposal of that waste. Five disposal alternatives, ranging from of no-action`` to constructing and operating the MLLWDF, are identified and evaluated. Several subalternatives are formulated within the MLLWDF alternative. The subalternatives involve various disposal technologies as well as various scenarios related to the waste volumes and waste forms to be received for disposal. The evaluations include qualitative comparisons of the projected isolation performance for each alternative, and facility, health and safety, environmental, institutional, schedule, and rough order-of-magnitude life-cycle cost comparisons. The performance of each alternative is evaluated against lists of ``musts`` and ``wants.`` Also included is a discussion of other key considerations for decisionmaking. The analysis of results indicated further study is necessary to obtain the best estimate of long-term future waste volume and characteristics from the INEL Environmental Restoration activities and the expanded INEL Decontamination and Decommissioning Program.

  15. Potential radiological impacts of upper-bound operational accidents during proposed waste disposal alternatives for Hanford defense waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishima, J.; Sutter, S.L.; Hawley, K.A.; Jenkins, C.E.; Napier, B.A.

    1986-02-01

    The Geologic Disposal Alternative, the In-Place Stabilization and Disposal Alternative, and the Reference Disposal Alternative are being evaluated for disposal of Hanford defense high-level, transuranic, and tank wastes. Environmental impacts associated with disposal of these wastes according to the alternatives listed above include potential doses to the downwind population from operation during the application of the handling and processing techniques comprising each disposal alternative. Scenarios for operational accident and abnormal operational events are postulated, on the basis of the currently available information, for the application of the techniques employed for each waste class for each disposal alternative. From these scenarios, an upper-bound airborne release of radioactive material was postulated for each waste class and disposal alternative. Potential downwind radiologic impacts were calculated from these upper-bound events. In all three alternatives, the single postulated event with the largest calculated radiologic impact for any waste class is an explosion of a mixture of ferri/ferro cyanide precipitates during the mechanical retrieval or microwave drying of the salt cake in single shell waste tanks. The anticipated downwind dose (70-year dose commitment) to the maximally exposed individual is 3 rem with a total population dose of 7000 man-rem. The same individual would receive 7 rem from natural background radiation during the same time period, and the same population would receive 3,000,000 man-rem. Radiological impacts to the public from all other postulated accidents would be less than that from this accident; furthermore, the radiological impacts resulting from this accident would be less than one-half that from the natural background radiation dose.

  16. Treatment, storage, and disposal alternatives for the gunite and associated tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePew, R.E.; Rickett, K. [Advanced Systems Technology, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Redus, K.S. [MACTEC, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); DuMont, S.P. [Hazardous and Medical Waste Services, Inc. (United States); Lewis, B.E.; DePaoli, S.M.; Van Hoesen, S.D. Jr. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The gunite and associated tanks (GAAT) are inactive, liquid low-level waste tanks located in and around the North and South Tank Farms at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These underground tanks are the subject of an ongoing treatability study that will determine the best remediation alternatives for the tanks. As part of the treatability study, an assessment of viable treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) alternatives has been conducted. The report summarizes relevant waste characterization data and statistics obtained to date. The report describes screening and evaluation criteria for evaluating TSD options. Individual options that pass the screening criteria are described in some detail. Order-or-magnitude cost estimates are presented for each of the TSD system alternatives. All alternatives are compared to the baseline approach of pumping all of the GAAT sludge and supernate to the Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) facility for eventual TSD along with the existing MOST waste. Four TSD systems are identified as alternatives to the baseline approach. The baseline is the most expensive of the five identified alternatives. The least expensive alternative is in-situ grouting of all GAAT sludge followed by in-situ disposal. The other alternatives are: (1) ex-situ grouting with on-site storage and disposal at Nevada Test Site (NTS); (2) ex-situ grouting with on-site storage and disposal at NTS and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP); and (3) ex-situ vitrification with on-site storage and disposal at NTS and WIPP.

  17. Selection of disposal contractor by multi criteria decision making methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenker Korkmazer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Hazardous waste is substance that threaten people and environment in case of improper storage, disposal and transport due to its concentration, physical and chemical properties. Companies producing hazardous waste as a result of several activities mostly do not have any own disposal facilities. In addition, they do not pay attention enough to determine the right contractor as a disposal facility. On the other hand, there are various qualitative and quantitative criteria affecting the selection of the contractor and conflicting with each other. The aim of the performed study is to assist one of these companies producing hazardous waste in the selection of the best contractor that eliminates hazardous waste economic and harmless way. In the study, contractor weights in percentage is calculated by using Analytic Network Process (ANP as one of the multi-criteria decision making (MCDM methods and widely used in the literature which considers both qualitative and quantitative criteria. In the next step, by the help of the mathematical model, contractors that will be given which type of hazardous waste are identified. This integrated approach can be used as a guide for similar firms.

  18. Assessment of the impacts of spent fuel disassembly alternatives on the Nuclear Waste Isolation System. [Preparing and packaging spent fuel assemblies for geologic disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-07-01

    The objective of this report was to evaluate four possible alternative methods of preparing and packaging spent fuel assemblies for geologic disposal against the Reference Process of unmodified spent fuel. The four alternative processes were: (1) End fitting removal, (2) Fission gas venting and resealing, (3) Fuel bundle disassembly and close packing of fuel pins, and (4) Fuel shearing and immobilization. Systems analysis was used to develop a basis of comparison of the alternatives. Conceptual processes and facility layouts were devised for each of the alternatives, based on technology deemed feasible for the purpose. Assessments were made of 15 principal attributes from the technical, operational, safety/risk, and economic considerations related to each of the alternatives, including both the surface packaging and underground repository operations. Specific attributes of the alternative processes were evaluated by assigning a number for each that expressed its merit relative to the corresponding attribute of the Reference Process. Each alternative process was then ranked by summing the numbers for attributes in each of the four assessment areas and collectively. Fuel bundle disassembly and close packing of fuel pins was ranked the preferred method of disposal of spent fuel. 63 references, 46 figures, 46 tables.

  19. Choice of method - evaluation of strategies and systems for disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-10-15

    This report deals with the question of how the Swedish spent nuclear fuel is to be disposed of. What are the requirements? What are the alternatives? In the main chapter of the report, an evaluation is made of the KBS-3 method compared with other strategies and systems for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. An appendix to the report presents in general terms how the KBS-3 method has developed from the end of the 1970s up to today. The report is one of a number of supporting documents for SKB's applications for construction and operation of the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. In parallel with and as a basis for the present report, SKB has prepared the reports Principer, strategier och system foer slutligt omhaendertagande av anvaent kaernbraensle ('Principles, strategies and systems for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel') /Grundfelt 2010a/, Jaemfoerelse mellan KBS-3-metoden och deponering i djupa borrhaal foer slutlig foervaring av anvaent kaernbraensle ('Comparison between the KBS-3 method and deposition in deep boreholes for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel') /Grundfelt 2010b/ and Utvecklingen av KBS-3- metoden. Genomgaang av forskningsprogram, saekerhetsanalyser, myndighetsgranskningar samt SKB:s internationella forskningssamarbete ('Development of the KBS-3 method. Review of research programmes, safety assessments, regulatory reviews and SKB's international research cooperation') /SKB 2010a/. The reports are in Swedish, but contain summaries in English. The first report is an update of the comprehensive account of alternative methods presented by SKB in 2000. The second report presents a comparison between the KBS-3 method and the Deep Boreholes concept, plus a status report on research and development in the area of Deep Boreholes. The last report describes how the KBS-3 method has been developed from the end of the 1970s up to today. It further describes how the method has been further developed and

  20. Costs for off-site disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes: Salt caverns versus other disposal methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-09-01

    According to an American Petroleum Institute production waste survey reported on by P.G. Wakim in 1987 and 1988, the exploration and production segment of the US oil and gas industry generated more than 360 million barrels (bbl) of drilling wastes, more than 20 billion bbl of produced water, and nearly 12 million bbl of associated wastes in 1985. Current exploration and production activities are believed to be generating comparable quantities of these oil field wastes. Wakim estimates that 28% of drilling wastes, less than 2% of produced water, and 52% of associated wastes are disposed of in off-site commercial facilities. In recent years, interest in disposing of oil field wastes in solution-mined salt caverns has been growing. This report provides information on the availability of commercial disposal companies in oil-and gas-producing states, the treatment and disposal methods they employ, and the amounts they charge. It also compares cavern disposal costs with the costs of other forms of waste disposal.

  1. 10 CFR 20.2002 - Method for obtaining approval of proposed disposal procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RADIATION Waste Disposal § 20.2002 Method for obtaining approval of proposed disposal procedures. A licensee... licensee's activities. Each application shall include: (a) A description of the waste containing licensed..., and the proposed manner and conditions of waste disposal; and (b) An analysis and evaluation...

  2. Assessment of health-care waste disposal methods using a VIKOR-based fuzzy multi-criteria decision making method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hu-Chen; Wu, Jing; Li, Ping

    2013-12-01

    Nowadays selection of the appropriate treatment method in health-care waste (HCW) management has become a challenge task for the municipal authorities especially in developing countries. Assessment of HCW disposal alternatives can be regarded as a complicated multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) problem which requires consideration of multiple alternative solutions and conflicting tangible and intangible criteria. The objective of this paper is to present a new MCDM technique based on fuzzy set theory and VIKOR method for evaluating HCW disposal methods. Linguistic variables are used by decision makers to assess the ratings and weights for the established criteria. The ordered weighted averaging (OWA) operator is utilized to aggregate individual opinions of decision makers into a group assessment. The computational procedure of the proposed framework is illustrated through a case study in Shanghai, one of the largest cities of China. The HCW treatment alternatives considered in this study include "incineration", "steam sterilization", "microwave" and "landfill". The results obtained using the proposed approach are analyzed in a comparative way.

  3. Methods for Characterization of Alternative RNA Splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Samuel E; Cheng, Chonghui

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of alternative splicing to detect the abundance of differentially spliced isoforms of a gene in total RNA can be accomplished via RT-PCR using both quantitative real-time and semi-quantitative PCR methods. These methods require careful PCR primer design to ensure specific detection of particular splice isoforms. We also describe analysis of alternative splicing using a splicing "minigene" in mammalian cell tissue culture to facilitate investigation of the regulation of alternative splicing of a particular exon of interest.

  4. An environmental LCA of alternative scenarios of urban sewage sludge treatment and disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarantini Mario

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of pollutants that affect wastewater are concentrated by treatment processes in sludge; it is therefore critical to have a suitable evaluation methodology of sludge management options to analyze if pollution is redirected from water to other media, such as air and soil. Life cycle assessment is one of the most widely known and internationally accepted methodologies to compare environmental impacts of processes and systems and to evaluate their sustainability in the entire life cycle. In this study the methodology was applied to assess and compare three scenarios of urban sewage sludge treatment and disposal: sludge anaerobic digestion followed by dedicated incineration, sludge incineration without previous digestion, and sludge anaerobic digestion followed by composting. The potential benefits of spreading the compost to soil were not included in the system boundaries even if, due to its nutrients contents and soil improving features, compost could partially replace the use of commercial products. The study was aimed at finding out the environmental critical points of the treatment alternatives selected and at providing a technical and scientific contribution for further debates with national and local authorities on the environmental optimization of sewage sludge management. Life cycle assessment results confirmed the major contribution of electricity and methane consumption on several environmental impact categories. Incineration contributes more than sludge composting to almost all categories, although the heavy metals content of urban wastewater sludge raises substantial concerns when composted sludge is spread to soil. In this paper the models adopted, the hypotheses assumed and the main findings of the study are presented and discussed. .

  5. Alternative methods in toxicology: pre-validated and validated methods

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The development of alternative methods to animal experimentation has progressed rapidly over the last 20 years. Today, in vitro and in silico methods have an important role in the hazard identification and assessment of toxicology profile of compounds. Advanced alternative methods and their combinations are also used for safety assessment of final products. Several alternative methods, which were scientifically validated and accepted by competent regulatory bodies, can be used for regulatory ...

  6. Methods for Characterization of Alternative RNA Splicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Samuel E.; Cheng, Chonghui

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of alternative splicing to detect the abundance of differentially spliced isoforms of a gene in total RNA can be accomplished via RT-PCR using both quantitative real-time and semi-quantitative PCR methods. These methods require careful PCR primer design to ensure specific detection of particular splice isoforms. We also describe analysis of alternative splicing using a splicing “minigene” in mammalian cell tissue culture to facilitate investigation of the regulation of alternative splicing of a particular exon of interest. PMID:26721495

  7. Alternative methods in toxicology: pre-validated and validated methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandárová, Helena; Letašiová, Silvia

    2011-09-01

    The development of alternative methods to animal experimentation has progressed rapidly over the last 20 years. Today, in vitro and in silico methods have an important role in the hazard identification and assessment of toxicology profile of compounds. Advanced alternative methods and their combinations are also used for safety assessment of final products. Several alternative methods, which were scientifically validated and accepted by competent regulatory bodies, can be used for regulatory toxicology purposes, thus reducing or fully replacing living animals in toxicology experimentation. The acceptance of the alternative methods as valuable tools of modern toxicology has been recognized by regulators, including OECD, FDA and EPA.This paper provides a brief overview of the topic "alternative methods in toxicology" and focuses on pre-validated and validated alternative methods and their position in the modern toxicology.

  8. Comparison of different methods to include recycling in LCAs of aluminium cans and disposable polystyrene cups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Harst, Eugenie; Potting, José; Kroeze, Carolien

    2016-02-01

    Many methods have been reported and used to include recycling in life cycle assessments (LCAs). This paper evaluates six widely used methods: three substitution methods (i.e. substitution based on equal quality, a correction factor, and alternative material), allocation based on the number of recycling loops, the recycled-content method, and the equal-share method. These six methods were first compared, with an assumed hypothetical 100% recycling rate, for an aluminium can and a disposable polystyrene (PS) cup. The substitution and recycled-content method were next applied with actual rates for recycling, incineration and landfilling for both product systems in selected countries. The six methods differ in their approaches to credit recycling. The three substitution methods stimulate the recyclability of the product and assign credits for the obtained recycled material. The choice to either apply a correction factor, or to account for alternative substituted material has a considerable influence on the LCA results, and is debatable. Nevertheless, we prefer incorporating quality reduction of the recycled material by either a correction factor or an alternative substituted material over simply ignoring quality loss. The allocation-on-number-of-recycling-loops method focusses on the life expectancy of material itself, rather than on a specific separate product. The recycled-content method stimulates the use of recycled material, i.e. credits the use of recycled material in products and ignores the recyclability of the products. The equal-share method is a compromise between the substitution methods and the recycled-content method. The results for the aluminium can follow the underlying philosophies of the methods. The results for the PS cup are additionally influenced by the correction factor or credits for the alternative material accounting for the drop in PS quality, the waste treatment management (recycling rate, incineration rate, landfilling rate), and the

  9. COMPARISON OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF DIFFERENT METHODS OF MINING WASTE DISPOSAL TECHNOLOGY USING AHP METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Kubicz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Exploitation of tailing ponds sites for storing all types of waste materials creates multiple problems concerning waste disposal and the environmental impact of the waste. Tailing ponds waste may comprise e.g. flotation tailings from ore enrichment plants. Despite the fact that companies / corporations use state-of-the-art methods of extraction and processing of copper ore, and introduce modern systems of organization and production management, the area located closest to the reservoir is exposed to its negative effects. Many types of waste material are a valuable source of secondary raw materials which are suitable for use by various industries. Examples of such materials are mining waste (flotation tailings, usually neutral to the environment, whose quantities produced in the process of exploitation of minerals is sizeable. The article compares different technological methods of mining waste disposal using AHP method and their environmental impact.

  10. Selection of heat disposal methods for a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, J.R.; Kannberg, L.D.; Ramsdell, J.V.; Rickard, W.H.; Watson, D.G.

    1976-06-01

    Selection of the best method for disposal of the waste heat from a large power generation center requires a comprehensive comparison of the costs and environmental effects. The objective is to identify the heat dissipation method with the minimum total economic and environmental cost. A 20 reactor HNEC will dissipate about 50,000 MWt of waste heat; a 40 reactor HNEC would release about 100,000 MWt. This is a much larger discharge of heat than has occurred from other concentrated industrial facilities and consequently a special analysis is required to determine the permissibility of such a large heat disposal and the best methods of disposal. It is possible that some methods of disposal will not be permissible because of excessive environmental effects or that the optimum disposal method may include a combination of several methods. A preliminary analysis is presented of the Hanford Nuclear Energy Center heat disposal problem to determine the best methods for disposal and any obvious limitations on the amount of heat that can be released. The analysis is based, in part, on information from an interim conceptual study, a heat sink management analysis, and a meteorological analysis.

  11. The alternatives for pot-ale disposal. [Evaporation by waste heat recovery and anaerobic digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriott, S. (UKAEA Harwell Lab. (UK). Energy Technology Div.)

    1990-01-01

    Pot-ale is a by-product of whisky distilling and when concentrated by evaporation can be sold as cattle feed. Examples of energy savings achieved by recovering waste heat from distilleries and using this waste heat to evaporate the water from the pot-ale are described. Another option for pot-ale disposal is anaerobic digestion to biogas. (UK).

  12. Estimating costs of low-level radioactive waste disposal alternatives for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This report was prepared for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, National Low-Level Waste Management Program. It presents planning life-cycle cost (PLCC) estimates for four sizes of in-state low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facilities. These PLCC estimates include preoperational and operational expenditures, all support facilities, materials, labor, closure costs, and long-term institutional care and monitoring costs. It is intended that this report bc used as a broad decision making tool for evaluating one of the several complex factors that must be examined when deciding between various LLRW management options -- relative costs. Because the underlying assumptions of these analyses will change as the Board decides how it will manage Massachusett`s waste and the specific characteristics any disposal facility will have, the results of this study are not absolute and should only be used to compare the relative costs of the options presented. The disposal technology selected for this analysis is aboveground earth-mounded vaults. These vaults are reinforced concrete structures where low-level waste is emplaced and later covered with a multi-layered earthen cap. The ``base case`` PLCC estimate was derived from a preliminary feasibility design developed for the Illinois Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility. This PLCC report describes facility operations and details the procedure used to develop the base case PLCC estimate for each facility component and size. Sensitivity analyses were performed on the base case PLCC estimate by varying several factors to determine their influences upon the unit disposal costs. The report presents the results of the sensitivity analyses for the five most significant cost factors.

  13. Distributed Reconstruction via Alternating Direction Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linyuan Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of compressive sensing theory, image reconstruction from few-view projections has received considerable research attentions in the field of computed tomography (CT. Total-variation- (TV- based CT image reconstruction has been shown to be experimentally capable of producing accurate reconstructions from sparse-view data. In this study, a distributed reconstruction algorithm based on TV minimization has been developed. This algorithm is very simple as it uses the alternating direction method. The proposed method can accelerate the alternating direction total variation minimization (ADTVM algorithm without losing accuracy.

  14. Alternative methods of ophthalmic treatment in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vader, L

    1994-04-01

    Russian ophthalmic nurses and physicians are using alternative methods of treatment to supplement traditional eye care. As acupuncture and iridology become more popular in the United States, ophthalmic nurses need to be more knowledgeable about these treatments and the implications for patients.

  15. Alternative concepts for treatment and disposal of Hanford site high-level waste in tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claghorn, R.D.; Powell, W.J.

    1994-12-01

    Some innovative approaches have recently been proposed that may have significant schedule, cost, or environmental advantages which could improve the current HLW program strategy. Three general categories of alternative concepts are now under consideration: (1) process/product alternatives, (2) facility layout options, and (3) contracting strategies. This report compares the alternate approaches to the current program baseline to illustrate their potential significance and to identify the risks associated with each approach.

  16. Gender Differences in Motivation and Product Disposal Methods in a High Masculinity Collectivistic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Aníbal Cruz-Cárdenas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The disposal of products describes the behavior of consumers who stop using a product that still maintains working capacity. The present study was oriented to examine gender differences within two stages of the disposal process: the motivation and the decision regarding the method of disposal. By means of a survey applied to a sample of 414 individuals in Quito, Ecuador, a significant relationship between personal interests and gender variables was established.  The implications of this relationship are discussed.  DOI: 10.5585/remark.v12i2.2408

  17. Alternative methods for dispoal of low-level radioactive wastes. Task 1. Description of methods and assessment of criteria. [Alternative methods are belowground vaults, aboveground vaults; earth mounded concrete bunkers, mined cavities, augered holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, R.D.; Miller, W.O.; Warriner, J.B.; Malone, P.G.; McAneny, C.C.

    1984-04-01

    The study reported herein contains the results of Task 1 of a four-task study entitled Criteria for Evaluating Engineered Facilities. The overall objective of this study is to ensure that the criteria needed to evaluate five alternative low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal methods are available to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Agreement States. The alternative methods considered are belowground vaults, aboveground vaults, earth mounded concrete bunkers, mined cavities, and augered holes. Each of these alternatives is either being used by other countries for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal or is being considered by other countries or US agencies. In this report the performance requirements are listed, each alternative is described, the experience gained with its use is discussed, and the performance capabilities of each method are addressed. Next, the existing 10 CFR Part 61 Subpart D criteria with respect to paragraphs 61.50 through 61.53, pertaining to site suitability, design, operations and closure, and monitoring are assessed for applicability to evaluation of each alternative. Preliminary conclusions and recommendations are offered on each method's suitability as an LLW disposal alternative, the applicability of the criteria, and the need for supplemental or modified criteria.

  18. Purification of Carbon Nanotubes: Alternative Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Files, Bradley; Scott, Carl; Gorelik, Olga; Nikolaev, Pasha; Hulse, Lou; Arepalli, Sivaram

    2000-01-01

    Traditional carbon nanotube purification process involves nitric acid refluxing and cross flow filtration using surfactant TritonX. This is believed to result in damage to nanotubes and surfactant residue on nanotube surface. Alternative purification procedures involving solvent extraction, thermal zone refining and nitric acid refiuxing are used in the current study. The effect of duration and type of solvent to dissolve impurities including fullerenes and P ACs (polyaromatic compounds) are monitored by nuclear magnetic reasonance, high performance liquid chromatography, and thermogravimetric analysis. Thermal zone refining yielded sample areas rich in nanotubes as seen by scanning electric microscopy. Refluxing in boiling nitric acid seem to improve the nanotube content. Different procedural steps are needed to purify samples produced by laser process compared to arc process. These alternative methods of nanotube purification will be presented along with results from supporting analytical techniques.

  19. FINAL DISPOSAL OF SOLID URBAN WASTE: ALTERNATIVES FOR THE CITY OF SÃO PAULO BY MEANS OF SUCCESS CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Karolina Tanaka Seara

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article studies public sanitation services - in as much as solid domestic waste is concerned - within the municipality of São Paulo and employs as base year, that of 2010. Highlights include issues related to the current waste management model in the region and solutions are proposed to those deemed most critical, utilizing as benchmarks, adequate treatments conducted at other globalized cities. The bibliographical review seeks to elucidate concepts that are most aligned with the theme under study. Information concerning the management of solid domestic waste and reverse logistics in the private sector was gathered, whilst findings as to impairments observed in the municipality are listed. Local and international success cases concerning waste disposal were studied with views to encountering sources of potential improvements. It is understood that the adequate destination of residues, by means of recycling, composting or generation of fuels, calls for the population´s commitment in terms of developing separation and waste disposal habits, municipal administration involvement - in as much as supplying the required resources is concerned to ensure progress of alternatives - and finally, cannot do without reverse logistics actions undertaken by producing companies, in full compliance with existing federal rulings. In the quest to expand discussions concerning solid waste, the article attempts to include this matter - in a more effective manner - within strategic and investment decisions taken by both the public and private sectors.

  20. Intraurban Analysis of Domestic Solid Waste Disposal Methods in a Sub-Sahara African City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwole Samuel Ojewale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the influence of socioeconomic attributes of residents on domestic solid waste disposal methods in Lagos metropolis, Nigeria. Primary data for the study were obtained through questionnaire administered on residents in Eti-Osa, Ikeja, and Mushin Local Government Areas (LGAs representing the low, medium, and high densities, respectively, into which the sixteen LGAs in Lagos metropolis were stratified. One out of every four wards in each LGA was selected for survey. From a total of 15,275 residential buildings in the ten wards, one out of every forty buildings (2.5% was selected using systematic random sampling where a household head was sampled. Information obtained includes the residential characteristics and the disposal methods. Enquiries into the socioeconomic attributes of the residents showed that 59.9% were high income earners and 76.6% had attained tertiary school education. This study concluded that six disposal methods were common in the study area. Furthermore, through multinomial logistic regression, the influence of socioeconomic characteristics of residents (density, income, age of respondents, educational status, and length of stay on domestic solid waste disposal methods varied significantly in Lagos metropolis. The study established that most of the solid waste disposal methods utilized by residents in Lagos metropolis were not environment-friendly.

  1. Alternative parameter determination methods for a PMSG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalogiannis, Theodoros; Malz, Elena; Llano, Enrique Muller

    2014-01-01

    standards. In the other hand a new approach for an alternative stator inductance and inertia measurement is analysed. More precisely, the former is obtained through laboratory work based on the locked rotor test, and the latter through a CAD software based on a 3D model. In order to assess and validate...... the obtained values, an electromechanical model is derived for validation and contribution of the whole project. Finally, small relative errors between measured and simulated values indicate the functionality of the used methods and of the machine....

  2. A method for permanent disposal of CO{sub 2} in solid form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butt, D.P.; Lackner, K.S.; Wendt, C.H. [and others

    1997-02-04

    We describe a method for binding the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide as magnesium carbonate, a thermodynamically stable solid, for safe and permanent disposal, and with minimal environment impact. The technique is based on extracting magnesium hydroxide from common ultramafic rock for thermal carbonation and subsequent disposition. The economics of the method appear to be promising, however, many details of the proposed process have yet to be optimized. Initial estimates indicate that binding and disposal would impose a burden of approximately 3{cents}/kWH onto the cost of electricity. This cost could be reduced significantly in the short term by entering niche markets for various technologies for efficient extraction and thermal carbonation. In this paper, we describe some of the kinetic limitations and opportunities. The proposed disposal technique may be viewed as a sort of insurance policy in case global warming, or the perception of global warming causes severe restrictions on CO{sub 2} emissions.

  3. An Alternative Method to Project Wind Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadillioglu, Cagla; Kiyisuren, I. Cagatay; Collu, Kamil; Turp, M. Tufan; Kurnaz, M. Levent; Ozturk, Tugba

    2016-04-01

    Wind energy is one of the major clean and sustainable energy sources. Beside its various advantages, wind energy has a downside that its performance cannot be projected very accurately in the long-term. In this study, we offer an alternative method which can be used to determine the best location to install a wind turbine in a large area aiming maximum energy performance in the long run. For this purpose, a regional climate model (i.e. RegCM4.4) is combined with a software called Winds on Critical Streamline Surfaces (WOCSS) in order to identify wind patterns for any domains even in a changing climate. As a special case, Çanakkale region is examined due to the terrain profile having both coastal and mountainous features. WOCSS program was run twice for each month in the sample years in a double nested fashion, using the provisional RegCM4.4 wind data between years 2020 and 2040. Modified version of WOCSS provides terrain following flow surfaces and by processing those data, it makes a wind profile output for certain heights specified by the user. The computational time of WOCSS is also in reasonable range. Considering the lack of alternative methods for long-term wind performance projection, the model used in this study is a very good way for obtaining quick indications for wind performance taking the impact of the terrain effects into account. This research has been supported by Boǧaziçi University Research Fund Grant Number 10421.

  4. Phenylbutyrate improves nitrogen disposal via alternative pathway without eliciting an increase in protein breakdown and catabolism in control and ornithine transcarbamylace-deficient patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenylbutyrate (PB) is a drug used in urea cycle disorder patients to elicit alternative pathways for nitrogen disposal. However, PB decreases plasma branched chain amino acid (BCAA) concentrations and prior research suggests that PB may increase leucine oxidation, indicating increased protein degra...

  5. Alternative method of removing otoliths from sturgeon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Dittman, Dawn E.

    2016-01-01

    Extracting the otoliths (ear bones) from fish that have very thick skulls can be difficult and very time consuming. The common practice of making a transverse vertical incision on the top of the skull with a hand or electrical saw may damage the otolith if not performed correctly. Sturgeons (Acipenseridae) are one family in particular that have a very large and thick skull. A new laboratory method entering the brain cavity from the ventral side of the fish to expose the otoliths was easier than other otolith extraction methods found in the literature. Methods reviewed in the literature are designed for the field and are more efficient at processing large quantities of fish quickly. However, this new technique was designed to be more suited for a laboratory setting when time is not pressing and successful extraction from each specimen is critical. The success of finding and removing otoliths using this technique is very high and does not compromise the structure in any manner. This alternative technique is applicable to other similar fish species for extracting the otoliths.

  6. ALTERNATIVE FIELD METHODS TO TREAT MERCURY IN SOIL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernie F. Stine

    2002-08-14

    The Department of Energy (DOE) currently has mercury (Hg) contaminated materials and soils at the various sites. Figure 1-1 (from http://www.ct.ornl.gov/stcg.hg/) shows the estimated distribution of mercury contaminated waste at the various DOE sites. Oak Ridge and Idaho sites have the largest deposits of contaminated materials. The majorities of these contaminated materials are soils, sludges, debris, and waste waters. This project concerns treatment of mercury contaminated soils. The technology is applicable to many DOE sites, in-particular, the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge Tennessee and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). These sites have the majority of the soils and sediments contaminated with mercury. The soils may also be contaminated with other hazardous metals and radionuclides. At the Y12 plant, the baseline treatment method for mercury contaminated soil is low temperature thermal desorption (LTTD), followed by on-site landfill disposal. LTTD is relatively expensive (estimated cost of treatment which exclude disposal cost for the collect mercury is greater than $740/per cubic yard [cy] at Y-12), does not treat any of the metal or radionuclides. DOE is seeking a less costly alternative to the baseline technology. As described in the solicitation (DE-RA-01NT41030), this project initially focused on evaluating cost-effective in-situ alternatives to stabilize or remove the mercury (Hg) contamination from high-clay content soil. It was believed that ex-situ treatment of soil contaminated with significant quantities of free-liquid mercury might pose challenges during excavation and handling. Such challenges may include controlling potential mercury vapors and containing liquid mercury beads. As described below, the focus of this project was expanded to include consideration of ex-situ treatment after award of the contract to International Technology Corporation (IT). After award of the contract, IT became part of Shaw

  7. Evaluation of Dredged Material Disposal Alternatives for U.S. Navy Homeport at Everett, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    procedure described by Levenspiel (1972). This method assumes dispersion within the column to be small, i.e., C12 D -2 < 0.01 (Cl)VL where D = dispersion...56, pp 984-988. Levenspiel , 0. 1972. Chemical Reaction Engineering, John Wiley and Sons, New York. Lowenbach, W. 1978. "Compilation and Evaluation of...bor sediment from the overlying water column, using native sediment as a cap- ping material in a small-scale laboratory test. Large reactor units were

  8. Alternative method for assessing coking coal plasticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzuy Nguyen; Susan Woodhouse; Merrick Mahoney [University of Adelaide (Australia). BHP Billiton Newcastle Technology Centre

    2008-07-15

    Traditional plasticity measurements for coal have a number of limitations associated with the reproducibility of the tests and their use in predicting coking behaviour. This report reviews alternative rheological methods for characterising the plastic behaviour of coking coals. It reviews the application of more fundamental rheological measurements to the coal system as well as reviewing applications of rheology to other physical systems. These systems may act as potential models for the application of fundamental rheological measurements to cokemaking. The systems considered were polymer melts, coal ash melts, lava, bread making and ice cream. These systems were chosen because they exhibit some physically equivalent processes to the processes occurring during cokemaking, eg, the generation of bubbles within a softened system that then resolidifies. A number of recommendations were made; the steady and oscillatory shear squeeze flow techniques be further investigated to determine if the measured rheology characteristics are related to transformations within the coke oven and the characteristics of resultant coke; modification of Gieseler plastometers for more fundamental rheology measurements not be attempted.

  9. Deep boreholes. An alternative for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel? Report from KASAM's question-and-answer session on 14-15 March 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-03-15

    On 14-15 March 2007, KASAM held a hearing for the purpose of thoroughly examining deep boreholes as a method for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Some of the questions that were raised were: What are the technical, geological and hydrological premises and possibilities? What are the risks from different viewpoints and what values underlie different views of the potential and suitability of deep boreholes? This report is a summary of the seminar. KASAM has made a selection of contributions and questions from the debate that took place on the basis of their relevance to the purpose of the seminar. The report generally follows the chronological lecture-and debate format of the seminar, but has been edited according to different issues rather than according to when different persons spoke. Chapter 2 describes a number of premises and criteria in the Environmental Code's and the Nuclear Activities Act's requirements on alternatives reporting. The chapter also contains a description of what the deep borehole concept entails and a discussion of the geoscientific premises. In addition, the chapter describes how different values can influence the choice of final disposal method. Chapters 3-6 describe and discuss technology and long-term safety, the viewpoints of the supervisory authorities on deep boreholes and safety philosophy via lectures followed by questions by KASAM's questioners and the audience. On the evening of 14 March, representatives of the seven parliamentary parties discussed their preparations and standpoints for an upcoming national debate on the final disposal of nuclear waste. This discussion is also reproduced in the report as Chapter 7. The main points from a concluding panel debate and discussion are presented in Chapter 8. In conclusion, Chapter 9 contains some reflections on various arguments proffered during the question-and-answer session, questions on which agreement seems to exist, and where there are differences of

  10. Alternate methods to teach history of anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Manisha S; Desai, Sukumar P

    2014-02-01

    Residency programs in anesthesiology in the United States struggle to balance the conflicting needs of formal didactic sessions, clinical teaching, and clinical service obligations. As a consequence of the explosion in knowledge about basic and applied sciences related to our specialty, residents and fellows are expected to make substantial efforts to supplement formal lectures with self-study. There is strong evidence to suggest that members of the younger generation use nontraditional methods to acquire information. Although training programs are not required to include topics related to history of anesthesia (HOA) in the didactic curriculum, and despite the fact that such knowledge does not directly impact clinical care, many programs include such lectures and discussions. We describe and discuss our experience with 3 alternate modalities of teaching HOA.First, we provide brief descriptions of HOA-related historical narratives and novels within the domain of popular literature, rather than those that might be considered textbooks. Second, we analyze content in movies and videodiscs dealing with HOA and determine their utility as educational resources. Third, we describe HOA tours to sites in close proximity to our institutions, as well as those in locations elsewhere in the United States and abroad.We suggest that informal HOA teaching can be implemented by every residency program without much effort and without taking away from the traditional curriculum. Participating in this unique and enriching experience may be a means of academic advancement. It is our hope and expectation that graduates from programs that incorporate such exposure to HOA become advocates of history and may choose to devote a part of their academic career toward exploration of HOA.

  11. From alternative methods to a new toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Thomas

    2011-04-01

    Mechanistic toxicology has evolved by relying, to a large extent, on methodologies that substitute or complement traditional animal tests. The biotechnology and informatics revolutions of the last decades have made such technologies broadly available and useful, but regulatory toxicology has been slow to embrace these new approaches. Major validation efforts, however, have delivered the evidence that new approaches do not lower safety standards and can be integrated into regulatory safety assessments. Particularly in the EU, political pressures, such as the REACH legislation and the 7th Amendment to the cosmetic legislation, have prompted the need of new approaches. In the US, the NRC vision report calling for a toxicology for the 21st century (and its most recent adaptation by EPA for their toxicity testing strategy) have initiated a debate about how to create a novel approach based on human cell cultures, lower species, high-throughput testing, and modeling. Lessons learned from the development, validation, and acceptance of alternative methods support the creation of a new approach based on identified toxicity pathways. Conceptual steering and an objective assessment of current practices by evidence-based toxicology (EBT) are required. EBT is modeled on evidence-based medicine, which has demonstrated that rigorous systematic reviews of current practices and meta-analyses of studies provide powerful tools to provide health care professionals and patients with the current best scientific evidence. Similarly, a portal for high-quality reviews of toxicological approaches and tools for the quantitative meta-analyses of data promise to serve as door opener for a new regulatory toxicology.

  12. Co-disposição de lodo centrifugado de Estação de Tratamento de Água (ETA em matriz de concreto: método alternativo de preservação ambiental Disposal of centrifuged sludge from Water Treatment Plant (WTP in concrete matrix: an alternative method for environmental protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hoppen

    2005-06-01

    âmetro primordial, como contrapisos, calçadas e pavimentos residenciais.The increase in the demand for drinking water implies in an increase in sludge production in Water Treatment Plants (WTP. Despite the fact that this residue is generated by soil erosion in upstream locations, the required chemical treatment for its removal compels to correct disposal in order not to induce negative impact on the environment. So far, the common destination for the sludge is the river courses, even though it is classified as solid residue. In this work, an alternative disposal of the humid sludge in concrete matrixes is proposed, partially replacing fine aggregates (sand and cement, whose extraction and application also cause environmental impact. Initially, the materials used in concrete (filler-modified Portland cement, fine and coarse aggregates were characterized, as well as the sludge obtained from Passaúna WTP, located in Curitiba's metropolitan area. For the materials research, a reference concrete (with no addition of sludge and four concrete mixtures with sludge contents of 3, 5, 7 and 10 wt.% (replacing fine aggregate were produced. The properties of fresh and hardened concretes, including the compressive strength, were evaluated. The sludge is composed by Si, Fe and Al compounds, and by clay minerals of kaolinite group, and its moisture content is about 87%. In compressive strength testing, the mixtures containing up to 5% of sludge presented a f c28 higher than 25 MPa. For sludge contents over 5%, f c28 was lower, especially for the concrete with 10% waste. It could be concluded that the mixtures with up to 5% sludge from WTP can be employed in applications ranging from the manufacture of concrete artifacts and bricks to the construction of Portland cement concrete floors. On the order hand, the use of more than 5% sludge in concrete is restricted to applications where the workability of concrete is not a required parameter, such as residential pavements, sidewalks and floors.

  13. Disposal of post-consumer polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles: comparison of five disposal alternatives in the small island state of Mauritius using a life cycle assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foolmaun, Rajendra Kumar; Ramjeeawon, Toolseeram

    2012-01-01

    Used polyethylene terephthalate bottles (PET) dumped indiscriminately onto bare lands and water bodies constitute an eyesore. This problem is viewed as a serious impediment to the flourishing tourism industry in Mauritius. Currently, over 100 million PET bottles are generated annually and the only fully operational disposal route is through the sole sanitary landfill. There is no formal segregation of waste and therefore used PET bottles are disposed of commingled with domestic waste. Despite a satisfactory waste collection system, a considerable amount of used PET bottles unfortunately end up in water bodies and on bare lands. An appreciable amount of PET bottles is now being collected separately for flake production prior to export to South Africa. This paper investigated the environmental impact of five waste management scenarios (100% landfill; 100% incineration with energy recovery; 50% incineration and 50% landfill; 34% flake production and 66% landfill; 100% flake production) for used PET bottles in Mauritius. Comparison of the five scenarios was based on the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology described in ISO 14040 and ISO 14044. SimaPro 7.1 software was used to analyse the data. Comparison of the five scenarios showed that the highest environmental impacts occurred when 100% of used PET bottles were sent to the landfill. The comparison also indicated that there were least impacts on the environment when all used PET bottles were incinerated with energy recovery.

  14. Methods for generating hydroelectric power development alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Shoou-yuh; Liaw, Shu-liang; Sale, M.J.; Railsback, S.F.

    1989-01-01

    Hydropower development on large rivers can result in a number of environmental impacts, including potential reductions in dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations. This study presents a methodology for generating different hydropower development alternatives for evaluation. This methodology employs a Streeter-Phelps model to simulate DO, and the Bounded Implicit Enumeration algorithm to solve an optimization model formulated to maximize hydroelectric energy production subject to acceptable DO limits. The upper Ohio River basin was used to illustrate the use and characteristics of the methodology. The results indicate that several alternatives which meet the specified DO constraints can be generated efficiently, meeting both power and environmental objectives. 17 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Medical Waste Disposal Method Selection Based on a Hierarchical Decision Model with Intuitionistic Fuzzy Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuyong Qian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Although medical waste usually accounts for a small fraction of urban municipal waste, its proper disposal has been a challenging issue as it often contains infectious, radioactive, or hazardous waste. This article proposes a two-level hierarchical multicriteria decision model to address medical waste disposal method selection (MWDMS, where disposal methods are assessed against different criteria as intuitionistic fuzzy preference relations and criteria weights are furnished as real values. This paper first introduces new operations for a special class of intuitionistic fuzzy values, whose membership and non-membership information is cross ratio based ]0, 1[-values. New score and accuracy functions are defined in order to develop a comparison approach for ]0, 1[-valued intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. A weighted geometric operator is then put forward to aggregate a collection of ]0, 1[-valued intuitionistic fuzzy values. Similar to Saaty’s 1–9 scale, this paper proposes a cross-ratio-based bipolar 0.1–0.9 scale to characterize pairwise comparison results. Subsequently, a two-level hierarchical structure is formulated to handle multicriteria decision problems with intuitionistic preference relations. Finally, the proposed decision framework is applied to MWDMS to illustrate its feasibility and effectiveness.

  16. Medical Waste Disposal Method Selection Based on a Hierarchical Decision Model with Intuitionistic Fuzzy Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Wuyong; Wang, Zhou-Jing; Li, Kevin W

    2016-09-09

    Although medical waste usually accounts for a small fraction of urban municipal waste, its proper disposal has been a challenging issue as it often contains infectious, radioactive, or hazardous waste. This article proposes a two-level hierarchical multicriteria decision model to address medical waste disposal method selection (MWDMS), where disposal methods are assessed against different criteria as intuitionistic fuzzy preference relations and criteria weights are furnished as real values. This paper first introduces new operations for a special class of intuitionistic fuzzy values, whose membership and non-membership information is cross ratio based ]0, 1[-values. New score and accuracy functions are defined in order to develop a comparison approach for ]0, 1[-valued intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. A weighted geometric operator is then put forward to aggregate a collection of ]0, 1[-valued intuitionistic fuzzy values. Similar to Saaty's 1-9 scale, this paper proposes a cross-ratio-based bipolar 0.1-0.9 scale to characterize pairwise comparison results. Subsequently, a two-level hierarchical structure is formulated to handle multicriteria decision problems with intuitionistic preference relations. Finally, the proposed decision framework is applied to MWDMS to illustrate its feasibility and effectiveness.

  17. DEVELOPMENT QUALIFICATION AND DISPOSAL OF AN ALTERNATIVE IMMOBILIZED LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE FORM AT THE HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAMS TL; EDGE JA; SWANBERG DJ; ROBBINS RA

    2011-01-13

    Demonstrating that a waste form produced by a given immobilization process is chemically and physically durable as well as compliant with disposal facility acceptance criteria is critical to the success of a waste treatment program, and must be pursued in conjunction with the maturation of the waste processing technology. Testing of waste forms produced using differing scales of processing units and classes of feeds (simulants versus actual waste) is the crux of the waste form qualification process. Testing is typically focused on leachability of constituents of concern (COCs), as well as chemical and physical durability of the waste form. A principal challenge regarding testing immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) forms is the absence of a standard test suite or set of mandatory parameters against which waste forms may be tested, compared, and qualified for acceptance in existing and proposed nuclear waste disposal sites at Hanford and across the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. A coherent and widely applicable compliance strategy to support characterization and disposal of new waste forms is essential to enhance and accelerate the remediation of DOE tank waste. This paper provides a background summary of important entities, regulations, and considerations for nuclear waste form qualification and disposal. Against this backdrop, this paper describes a strategy for meeting and demonstrating compliance with disposal requirements emphasizing the River Protection Project (RPP) Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) at the Hanford Site and the fluidized bed steam reforming (FBSR) mineralized low-activity waste (LAW) product stream.

  18. Alternatives to radioimmunoassay: labels and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schall, R.F. Jr.; Tenoso, H.J.

    1981-07-01

    The following labels used as substitutes for radioisotopes in immunoassay systems are reviewed bacteriophages, chemiluminescence precursors, fluorochromes, fluorogens, fluorescence quenchers, enzymes, coenzymes, inhibitors, substrates, various particulates, metal atoms, and stable free radicals. New methods for performing immunoassays with these labels are described where appropriate. Methods that require no separation steps and offer special promise for easy automation are noted. 69 references cited.

  19. Alternative Inspection Methods for Single Shell Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Timothy J.; Alzheimer, James M.; Hurley, David E.

    2010-01-19

    This document was prepared to provide evaluations and recommendations regarding nondestructive evaluation methods that might be used to determine cracks and bowing in the ceiling of waste storage tanks on the Hanford site. The goal was to determine cracks as small as 1/16 in. wide in the ceiling, and bowing as small as 0.25 in. This report describes digital video camera methods that can be used to detect a crack in the ceiling of the dome, and methods for determining the surface topography of the ceiling in the waste storage tanks to detect localized movements in the surface. A literature search, combined with laboratory testing, comprised this study.

  20. PID Techniques: Alternatives to RICH Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Va'vra, Jerry

    2016-01-01

    In this review article we discuss new updates on PID techniques, other than the Cherenkov method. In particular, we discuss recent efforts to develop high resolution timing, placing an emphasis on small scale test results.

  1. Alternative Therapy of Animals – Homeopathy and Other Alternative Methods of Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Løken Torleiv

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Alternative therapy of animals is described, in the meaning of alternatives to veterinary therapy traditionally accepted by veterinary faculties and schools and included in their curricula. Alternative therapy composes of different disciplines, of which homeopathy is emphasised in this presentation. Information is given on the use and interest of such therapy among veterinarians and animal owners. Homeopathy as other alternative therapies, may offer great advances, if they induce any effect. Some of the disciplines are based on a scientifically accepted documentation. Others, and homeopathy in particular, are missing such a documentation of effect. The justification of including alternative therapy in treating animals is discussed. Research in alternative therapy of animals is greatly needed, in particular to evaluate therapeutic methods which are in extensive use without any documented effect. An ongoing research project in Norway on the effect of homeopathic treatment of mastitis in cows is shortly presented.

  2. 40 CFR 146.15 - Class I municipal disposal well alternative authorization in certain parts of Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ground water monitoring data generated pursuant to regulatory requirements governing operation of Class I... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Class I municipal disposal well... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL...

  3. HERBAL MEDICINE AMONG COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE METHODS

    OpenAIRE

    A. Ruban; Rodioniva, T.

    2012-01-01

    Alternative medicine methods may incorporate or base themselves on traditional medicine [1], folk knowledge [2], spiritual beliefs, or newly conceived approaches to healing. The major complementary and alternative medicine systems have many common characteristics, treating the whole person, including a focus on individualizing treatments, promoting self-care and self-healing, and recognizing the spiritual nature of each individual. Complementary and alternative medicine often lacks or has onl...

  4. Alternative methods for characterization of extracellular vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh eMomen-Heravi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles are nano-sized vesicles released by all cells in vitro as well as in vivo. Their role has been implicated mainly in cell-cell communication, but also in disease biomarkers and more recently in gene delivery. They represent a snapshot of the cell status at the moment of release and carry bioreactive macromolecules such as nucleic acids, proteins and lipids. A major limitation in this emerging new field is the availability/awareness of techniques to isolate and properly characterize Extracellular vesicles. The lack of gold standards makes comparing different studies very difficult and may potentially hinder some Extracellular vesicles -specific evidence. Characterization of Extracellular vesicles has also recently seen many advances with the use of Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA, flow cytometry, cryo-EM instruments and proteomic technologies. In this review, we discuss the latest developments in translational technologies involving characterization methods including the facts in their support and the challenges they face.

  5. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krummel, J.R.; Policastro, A.J.; Olshansky, S.J.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1990-10-01

    As part of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program mandated by Public Law 99--145 (Department of Defense Authorization Act), an independent review is presented of the US Army Phase I environmental report for the disposal program at the Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) in Arkansas. The Phase I report addressed new and additional concerns not incorporated in the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS). Those concerns were addressed by examining site-specific data for the PBA and by recommending the scope and content of a more detailed site- specific study. This dependent review evaluates whether the new site-specific data presented in the Phase I report would alter the decision in favor of on-site disposal that was reached in the FPEIS, and whether the recommendations for the scope and content of the site-specific study are adequate. Based on the methods and assumptions presented in the FPEIS, the inclusion of more detailed site-specific data in the Phase I report does not change the decision reached in the FPEIS (which favored on-site disposal at PBA). It is recommended that alternative assumptions about meteorological conditions be considered and that site-specific data on water, ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural resources, and emergency planning and preparedness be considered explicitly in the site-specific EIS decision-making process. 13 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krummel, J.R.; Policastro, A.J.; Olshansky, S.J.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1990-10-01

    As part of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program mandated by Public Law 99--145 (Department of Defense Authorization Act), an independent review is presented of the US Army Phase I environmental report for the disposal program at the Umatilla Depot Activity (UMDA) in Hermiston, Oregon. The Phase I report addressed new and additional concerns not incorporated in the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS). Those concerns were addressed by examining site-specific data for the Umatilla Depot Activity and by recommending the scope and content of a more detailed site-specific study. This independent review evaluates whether the new site-specific data presented in the Phase I report would alter the decision in favor of on-site disposal that was reached in the FPEIS, and whether the recommendations for the scope and content of the site-specific study are adequate. Based on the methods and assumptions presented in the FPEIS, the inclusion of more detailed site-specific data in the Phase I report does not change the decision reached in the FPEIS (which favored on-site disposal at UMDA). It is recommended that alternative assumptions about meteorological conditions be considered and that site-specific data on water, ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural resources; seismicity; and emergency planning and preparedness be considered explicitly in the site-specific EIS decision-making process. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  7. 30 CFR 817.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement...

  8. 30 CFR 816.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement...

  9. A quantitative method for evaluating alternatives. [aid to decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forthofer, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    When faced with choosing between alternatives, people tend to use a number of criteria (often subjective, rather than objective) to decide which is the best alternative for them given their unique situation. The subjectivity inherent in the decision-making process can be reduced by the definition and use of a quantitative method for evaluating alternatives. This type of method can help decision makers achieve degree of uniformity and completeness in the evaluation process, as well as an increased sensitivity to the factors involved. Additional side-effects are better documentation and visibility of the rationale behind the resulting decisions. General guidelines for defining a quantitative method are presented and a particular method (called 'hierarchical weighted average') is defined and applied to the evaluation of design alternatives for a hypothetical computer system capability.

  10. Some vegetable oil with your rock chips? Alternative to diesel-based drilling fluids means cheaper cuttings disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, P.

    2009-07-15

    Oil-based drilling fluids have generally provided more advantages over water-based muds but at a higher cost, including the cost of disposing massive amounts of oil-stained cuttings. There are also health and safety considerations associated with diesel-based drilling fluids. Water-based drilling muds can be mixed with other materials and buried on the lease site. Louisiana-based Rapid Energy Services has developed a drilling fluid that uses water and vegetable oil instead of hydrocarbons. The fluid is reusable and the cuttings do not require special disposal sites. The product known as Quantum EF is also targeting potassium silicate drilling fluids. Rapid Energy Services licensed the Canadian rights to the technology to Calgary-based Mud Master Drilling Fluid Services Ltd. The new drilling fluid was first tested in a field trial in northwestern Alberta by Calgary-based Amarone Oil and Gas Ltd. The product provided good shale inhibition while drilling as well as good hole cleaning. The greatest advantage is the Quantum product does not require chloride for inhibition and can be disposed of through land spreading or mixing and burying. Quantum EF is a water-external phase, notably 85 per cent water and 15 per cent oil from seeds such as canola. A water-external phase does not produce oil-wet cuttings. The drilling fluid has low levels of potassium and the additives are considered to be bio-nutrients. In the event of a spill, the soil will be fully naturally remediated within 28 days. Precautions must be taken during winter drilling to ensure the fluid does not freeze. 1 ref.

  11. Methods of using structures including catalytic materials disposed within porous zeolite materials to synthesize hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Harry W.; Petkovic, Lucia M.; Ginosar, Daniel M.

    2011-02-01

    Catalytic structures include a catalytic material disposed within a zeolite material. The catalytic material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of methanol from carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide, and the zeolite material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of hydrocarbon molecules from methanol. The catalytic material may include copper and zinc oxide. The zeolite material may include a first plurality of pores substantially defined by a crystal structure of the zeolite material and a second plurality of pores dispersed throughout the zeolite material. Systems for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules also include catalytic structures. Methods for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules include contacting hydrogen and at least one of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with such catalytic structures. Catalytic structures are fabricated by forming a zeolite material at least partially around a template structure, removing the template structure, and introducing a catalytic material into the zeolite material.

  12. Disposal configuration options for future uses of greater confinement disposal at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, L. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for disposing of a variety of radioactive and mixed wastes, some of which are considered special-case waste because they do not currently have a clear disposal option. The DOE`s Nevada Field Office contracted with Sandia National Laboratories to investigate the possibility of disposing of some of this special-case waste at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). As part of this investigation, a review of a near-surface and subsurface disposal options that was performed to develop alternative disposal configurations for special-case waste disposal at the NTS. The criteria for the review included (1) configurations appropriate for disposal at the NTS; (2) configurations for disposal of waste at least 100 ft below the ground surface; (3) configurations for which equipment and technology currently exist; and (4) configurations that meet the special requirements imposed by the nature of special-case waste. Four options for subsurface disposal of special-case waste are proposed: mined consolidated rock, mined alluvium, deep pits or trenches, and deep boreholes. Six different methods for near-surface disposal are also presented: earth-covered tumuli, above-grade concrete structures, trenches, below-grade concrete structures, shallow boreholes, and hydrofracture. Greater confinement disposal (GCD) in boreholes at least 100 ft deep, similar to that currently practiced at the GCD facility at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the NTS, was retained as the option that met the criteria for the review. Four borehole disposal configurations are proposed with engineered barriers that range from the native alluvium to a combination of gravel and concrete. The configurations identified will be used for system analysis that will be performed to determine the disposal configurations and wastes that may be suitable candidates for disposal of special-case wastes at the NTS.

  13. Coal from the waste disposal site of the Siersza mine (Trzebinia, Poland and its properties as a possible alternative fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosa Beata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors recovered bituminous coal from the dump of the closed down Siersza mine in Trzebinia, determined its properties and evaluated a possibility of applying it as an alternative fuel for the cement industry. The dump material was enriched in a laboratory using the gravity (jigs, shaking tables and flotation methods of coal cleaning. The gross calorific value of the processing products, measured with a calorimetric bomb, ranges from 13.588 to 22.543 MJ·kg−1. The contents of heavy metals, determined with XRF, are as follows: Fe 3.76–5.25 mg·kg−1, Mn 0.037–0.132 mg·kg−1, Ti 0.325–0.493 mg·kg−1 and Zn 0.113–0.329 mg·kg−1, while of Hg (determined with ASA from 0.02689 to 0.21870 mg·kg−1. The content of sulphur is 0.7349–1.0484 wt.% and of chlorine Cl 0.131–0.135 wt.%, the net calorific value of 13.446–22.538 MJ·kg−1. The results indicate that the laboratory jigging and flotation provide products that meet the parameters of the solid fuels selected by applicable to the needs of cement plants.

  14. Nucleic acid amplification: Alternative methods of polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakruddin, Md; Mannan, Khanjada Shahnewaj Bin; Chowdhury, Abhijit; Mazumdar, Reaz Mohammad; Hossain, Md Nur; Islam, Sumaiya; Chowdhury, Md Alimuddin

    2013-10-01

    Nucleic acid amplification is a valuable molecular tool not only in basic research but also in application oriented fields, such as clinical medicine development, infectious diseases diagnosis, gene cloning and industrial quality control. A comperehensive review of the literature on the principles, applications, challenges and prospects of different alternative methods of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed. PCR was the first nucleic acid amplification method. With the advancement of research, a no of alternative nucleic acid amplification methods has been developed such as loop mediated isothermal amplification, nucleic acid sequence based amplification, strand displacement amplification, multiple displacement amplification. Most of the alternative methods are isothermal obviating the need for thermal cyclers. Though principles of most of the alternate methods are relatively complex than that of PCR, they offer better applicability and sensitivity in cases where PCR has limitations. Most of the alternate methods still have to prove themselves through extensive validation studies and are not available in commercial form; they pose the potentiality to be used as replacements of PCR. Continuous research is going on in different parts of the world to make these methods viable technically and economically.

  15. Low-level waste inventory, characteristics, generation, and facility assessment for treatment, storage, and disposal alternatives considered in the US Department of Energy waste management programmatic environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyette, M.L.; Dolak, D.A.

    1996-12-01

    This report provides technical support information for use in analyzing environmental impacts associated with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) low-level radioactive waste (LLW) management alternatives in the Waste-Management (WM) Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). Waste loads treated and disposed of for each of the LLW alternatives considered in the DOE WM PEIS are presented. Waste loads are presented for DOE Waste Management (WM) wastes, which are generated from routine operations. Radioactivity concentrations and waste quantities for treatment and disposal under the different LLW alternatives are described for WM waste. 76 refs., 14 figs., 42 tabs.

  16. Alternate Location Method of a Robot Team in Unknown Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-zhong; LIU Jing-jing

    2008-01-01

    The alternate location method of a robot team is proposed. Three of the robots are kept still as beacon robots, not always the same ones, while the others are regarded as mobile robots. The mobile robots alternatively measure the distance between one of them and three beacon robots with ultrasonic measurement module. The distance data are combined with its dead-reckoning information using iterated extended Kalman filter(IEKF) to realize the optimal estimate of its position. According to the condition the future beacon robots positions should be desired ones, the target function and the nonlinear constrain equations are set up which are used by nonlinear optimization algorithm to estimate the position of the future beacon robots. By alternately changing the robots roles as active beacon, the alternate location in unknown environment can be realized. Process and result of the simulation test are given and the position estimation error is within±10mm, which proves the validity of this method.

  17. Alternative methods in toxicity testing: the current approach

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo,Gabrielle Luck de; Campos,Maria Augusta Amaral; Valente,Maria Anete Santana; Silva,Sarah Cristina Teixeira; França,Flávia Dayrell; Chaves,Miriam Martins; Tagliati, Carlos Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Alternative methods are being developed to reduce, refine, and replace (3Rs) animals used in experiments, aimed at protecting animal welfare. The present study reports alternative tests which are based on the principles of the 3Rs and the efforts made to validate these tests. In Europe, several methodologies have already been implemented, such as tests of irritability, cell viability, and phototoxicity as well as in vitro mathematical models together with the use of in silico tools. This is a...

  18. Alternative methods for top quark mass measurements at the CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Ji Hyun

    2016-01-01

    The top quark mass is a fundamental parameter of the standard model and together with the W boson mass and the Higgs boson mass it provides a strong self-consistency check of the electroweak theory. Recently several new measurements of the top quark mass using alternative observables and reconstruction methods are performed by the CMS collaborations at the CERN LHC. Alternative methods can give a insight by providing different systematic sensitivities while standard ones are currently limited by jet energy uncertainties. We introduce various results from new methods including the one using a charmed meson, which are found to be consistent with what is obtained in standard measurements.

  19. A novel method for harmless disposal and resource reutilization of steel wire rope sludges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Liu, Yang-Sheng

    2016-10-01

    Rapid development of steel wire rope industry has led to the generation of large quantities of pickling sludge, which causes significant ecological problems and considerable negative environmental effects. In this study, a novel method was proposed for harmless disposal and resource reutilization of the steel wire rope sludge. Based on the method, two steel wire rope sludges (the Pb sludge and the Zn sludge) were firstly extracted by hydrochloric or sulfuric acid and then mixed with the hydrochloride acid extracting solution of aluminum skimmings to produce composite polyaluminum ferric flocculants. The optimum conditions (acid concentration, w/v ratio, reaction time, and reaction temperature) for acid extraction of the sludges were studied. Results showed that 97.03 % of Pb sludge and 96.20 % of Zn sludge were extracted. Leaching potential of the residues after acid extraction was evaluated, and a proposed treatment for the residues had been instructed. The obtained flocculant products were used to purify the real domestic wastewater and showed an equivalent or better performance than the commercial ones. This method is environmental-friendly and cost-effective when compared with the conventional sludge treatments.

  20. Evaluation on radioactive waste disposal amount of Kori Unit 1 reactor vessel considering cutting and packaging methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yu Jong; Lee, Seong Cheol; Kim, Chang Lak [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants has become a big issue in South Korea as some of the nuclear power plants in operation including Kori unit 1 and Wolsung unit 1 are getting old. Recently, Wolsung unit 1 received permission to continue operation while Kori unit 1 will shut down permanently in June 2017. With the consideration of segmentation method and disposal containers, this paper evaluated final disposal amount of radioactive waste generated from decommissioning of the reactor pressure vessel in Kori unit 1 which will be decommissioned as the first in South Korea. The evaluation results indicated that the final disposal amount from the top and bottom heads of the reactor pressure vessel with hemisphere shape decreased as they were cut in smaller more effectively than the cylindrical part of the reactor pressure vessel. It was also investigated that 200 L and 320 L radioactive waste disposal containers used in Kyung-Ju disposal facility had low payload efficiency because of loading weight limitation.

  1. Study on disposal method of graphite blocks and storage of spent fuel for modular gas-cooled reactor. Joint research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumita, Junya; Sawa, Kazuhiro; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Tsuchie, Yasuo; Urakami, Masao [Japan Atomic Power Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    This report describes the result of study on disposal method of graphite blocks in future block-type reactor. Present study was carried out within a framework of joint research, ''Research of Modular High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (No. 3)'', between Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and the Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPCO), in 2000. In this study, activities in fuel and reflector graphite blocks were evaluated and were compared with the disposal limits defined as low-level of radioactive waste. As a result, it was found that the activity for only C-14 was higher than disposal limits for the low-level of radioactive waste and that the amount of air in the graphite is important to evaluate precisely of C-14 activity. In addition, spent fuels can be stored in air-cooled condition at least after two years cooling in the storage pool. (author)

  2. An Alternative Surgical Method for Treatment of Osteoid Osteoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökalp, Mehmet Ata; Gözen, Abdurrahim; Ünsal, Seyyid Şerif; Önder, Haci; Güner, Savaş

    2016-02-22

    BACKGROUND An osteoid osteoma is a benign bone tumor that tends to be osteoma can be treated with various conservative and surgical methods, but these have some risks and difficulties. The purpose of the present study was to present an alternative treatment method for osteoid osteoma and the results we obtained. MATERIAL AND METHODS In the period from 2010 to 2014, 10 patients with osteoid osteoma underwent nidus excision by using a safe alternative method in an operating room (OR) with no computed tomography (CT). The localization of the tumor was determined by use of a CT-guided Kirschner wire in the radiology unit, then, in the OR the surgical intervention was performed without removing the Kirschner wire. RESULTS Following the alternative intervention, all the patients were completely relieved of pain. In the follow-up, no recurrence or complication occurred. CONCLUSIONS The presented alternative method for treating osteoid osteoma is an efficient and practical procedure for surgeons working in clinics that lack specialized equipment.

  3. An Alternative Surgical Method for Treatment of Osteoid Osteoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökalp, Mehmet Ata; Gözen, Abdurrahim; Ünsal, Seyyid Şerif; Önder, Haci; Güner, Savaş

    2016-01-01

    Background An osteoid osteoma is a benign bone tumor that tends to be osteoma can be treated with various conservative and surgical methods, but these have some risks and difficulties. The purpose of the present study was to present an alternative treatment method for osteoid osteoma and the results we obtained. Material/Methods In the period from 2010 to 2014, 10 patients with osteoid osteoma underwent nidus excision by using a safe alternative method in an operating room (OR) with no computed tomography (CT). The localization of the tumor was determined by use of a CT-guided Kirschner wire in the radiology unit, then, in the OR the surgical intervention was performed without removing the Kirschner wire. Results Following the alternative intervention, all the patients were completely relieved of pain. In the follow-up, no recurrence or complication occurred. Conclusions The presented alternative method for treating osteoid osteoma is an efficient and practical procedure for surgeons working in clinics that lack specialized equipment. PMID:26898923

  4. Prediction of skin sensitizers using alternative methods to animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Henrik; Lindstedt, Malin

    2014-07-01

    Regulatory frameworks within the European Union demand that chemical substances are investigated for their ability to induce sensitization, an adverse health effect caused by the human immune system in response to chemical exposure. A recent ban on the use of animal tests within the cosmetics industry has led to an urgent need for alternative animal-free test methods that can be used for assessment of chemical sensitizers. To date, no such alternative assay has yet completed formal validation. However, a number of assays are in development and the understanding of the biological mechanisms of chemical sensitization has greatly increased during the last decade. In this MiniReview, we aim to summarize and give our view on the recent progress of method development for alternative assessment of chemical sensitizers. We propose that integrated testing strategies should comprise complementary assays, providing measurements of a wide range of mechanistic events, to perform well-educated risk assessments based on weight of evidence.

  5. 40 CFR 35.6315 - Alternative methods for obtaining property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternative methods for obtaining property. 35.6315 Section 35.6315 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions...

  6. Innovative Teaching Practice: Traditional and Alternative Methods (Challenges and Implications)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurutdinova, Aida R.; Perchatkina, Veronika G.; Zinatullina, Liliya M.; Zubkova, Guzel I.; Galeeva, Farida T.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the present issue is caused be the strong need in alternative methods of learning foreign language and the need in language training and retraining for the modern professionals. The aim of the article is to identify the basic techniques and skills in using various modern techniques in the context of modern educational tasks. The…

  7. Alternative method of retesting UF{sub 6} cylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ, R. [Nuclear Crago + Service GmbH, Hanau (Germany)

    1991-12-31

    The paper describes an alternative method to perform the periodic inspection of UF{sub 6} cylinders. The hydraulic test is replaced by ultrasonic checking of wall thickness and by magnetic particle testing of all the weld seams. Information about the legal background, the air leak test and the qualification of inspectors is also given.

  8. 27 CFR 24.22 - Alternate method or procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alternate method or procedure. 24.22 Section 24.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions...

  9. A fast alternating projection method for complex frequency estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, Fredrik; Ivert, Per-Anders

    2011-01-01

    The problem of approximating a sampled function using sums of a fixed number of complex exponentials is considered. We use alternating projections between fixed rank matrices and Hankel matrices to obtain such an approximation. Convergence, convergence rates and error estimates for this technique are proven, and fast algorithms are developed. We compare the numerical results obtain with the MUSIC and ESPRIT methods.

  10. Alternating Anderson-Richardson method: An efficient alternative to preconditioned Krylov methods for large, sparse linear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Suryanarayana, Phanish; Pask, John E

    2016-01-01

    We generalize the recently proposed Alternating Anderson-Jacobi (AAJ) method (Pratapa et al., J. Comput. Phys. (2016), 306, 43--54) to include preconditioning, and demonstrate its efficiency and scaling in the solution of large, sparse linear systems on parallel computers. The resulting preconditioned Alternating Anderson-Richardson (AAR) method reduces to the AAJ method for a particular choice of preconditioner. The AAR method employs Anderson extrapolation at periodic intervals within a preconditioned Richardson iteration to accelerate convergence. In this work, we develop a version of the method that is particularly well suited for scalable high-performance computing. In applications to Helmholtz and Poisson equations, we show that the strong and weak parallel scaling of AAR is superior to both Generalized Minimal Residual (GMRES) and Conjugate Gradient (CG) methods, using the same preconditioning, in large-scale parallel calculations employing up to 110,592 computational cores. Moreover, we find that the ...

  11. Burn or bury? A social cost comparison of final waste disposal methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijkgraaf, Elbert; Vollebergh, Herman R.J. [Department of Economics, Erasmus University and OCFEB, P.O. Box 1738, Rotterdam H 7-23, Rotterdam DR 3000 (Netherlands)

    2004-10-01

    This paper evaluates the two well-known final waste disposal methods, incineration and landfilling. In particular we compare the social cost of two best-available technologies using a point estimate based on private and environmental cost data for the Netherlands. Not only does our comparison allow for Waste-to-Energy incineration plants but for landfills as well. The data provide support for the widespread policy preference for incineration over landfilling only if the analysis is restricted to environmental costs alone and includes savings of both energy and material recovery. Gross private costs, however, are so much higher for incineration, that landfilling is the social cost minimizing option at the margin even in a densely populated country such as the Netherlands. Furthermore, we show that our result generalizes to other European countries and probably to the USA. Implications for waste policy are discussed as well. Proper treatment of and energy recovery from landfills seem to be the most important targets for waste policy. Finally, WTE plants are a very expensive way to save on climate change emissions.

  12. DETERMINATION OF HEAVY METALS IN THE PHYTOMASS AND THE METHOD OF ITS DISPOSAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkachenko A. V.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The need for constant monitoring of the environmental situation due to the fact that at the present time almost all the ecosystems of our planet suffer in one way or another degradation under the influence of the anthropogenic factor. In the present work we summarize the results of 6 years of monitoring to determine heavy metals in the air. Industries and domestic waste and, in particular, road transport is the main source of pollution. The share of vehicles to air pollution in cities reaches 70-90%. The greatest danger to public health is compounds of lead, cadmium and mercury relate to 1 class of danger. We have studied the dynamics of accumulation of heavy metals and carbon monoxide in the atmosphere of Krasnodar on the streets with different intensity of car traffic. The data obtained indicate a significant excess compared to the control of the content of such metals as lead, iron, cadmium, and copper in all samples; chromium and zinc at three positions of the four. We pay due attention to the increase in the concentration of cadmium compared with data from previous years. It is established that the dynamics of accumulation of heavy metals in the atmosphere of the city is well correlated with population, the intensity of traffic and has a steady tendency to increase the content of these toxic substances. We have proposed a way of disposal of the biomass of fallen leaves by the method of their biological degradation under anaerobic conditions

  13. Tank Waste Disposal Program redefinition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grygiel, M.L.; Augustine, C.A.; Cahill, M.A.; Garfield, J.S.; Johnson, M.E.; Kupfer, M.J.; Meyer, G.A.; Roecker, J.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Holton, L.K.; Hunter, V.L.; Triplett, M.B. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1991-10-01

    The record of decision (ROD) (DOE 1988) on the Final Environmental Impact Statement, Hanford Defense High-Level, Transuranic and Tank Wastes, Hanford Site, Richland Washington identifies the method for disposal of double-shell tank waste and cesium and strontium capsules at the Hanford Site. The ROD also identifies the need for additional evaluations before a final decision is made on the disposal of single-shell tank waste. This document presents the results of systematic evaluation of the present technical circumstances, alternatives, and regulatory requirements in light of the values of the leaders and constitutents of the program. It recommends a three-phased approach for disposing of tank wastes. This approach allows mature technologies to be applied to the treatment of well-understood waste forms in the near term, while providing time for the development and deployment of successively more advanced pretreatment technologies. The advanced technologies will accelerate disposal by reducing the volume of waste to be vitrified. This document also recommends integration of the double-and single-shell tank waste disposal programs, provides a target schedule for implementation of the selected approach, and describes the essential elements of a program to be baselined in 1992.

  14. Alternative methods for the control of postharvest citrus diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talibi, I; Boubaker, H; Boudyach, E H; Ait Ben Aoumar, A

    2014-07-01

    The postharvest diseases of citrus fruit cause considerable losses during storage and transportation. These diseases are managed principally by the application of synthetic fungicides. However, the increasing concern for health hazards and environmental pollution due to chemical use has required the development of alternative strategies for the control of postharvest citrus diseases. Management of postharvest diseases using microbial antagonists, natural plant-derived products and Generally Recognized As Safe compounds has been demonstrated to be most suitable to replace the synthetic fungicides, which are either being banned or recommended for limited use. However, application of these alternatives by themselves may not always provide a commercially acceptable level of control of postharvest citrus diseases comparable to that obtained with synthetic fungicides. To provide more effective disease control, a multifaceted approach based on the combination of different postharvest treatments has been adopted. Actually, despite the distinctive features of these alternative methods, several reasons hinder the commercial use of such treatments. Consequently, research should emphasize the development of appropriate tools to effectively implement these alternative methods to commercial citrus production.

  15. Alternative statistical methods for cytogenetic radiation biological dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Fornalski, Krzysztof Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents alternative statistical methods for biological dosimetry, such as the Bayesian and Monte Carlo method. The classical Gaussian and robust Bayesian fit algorithms for the linear, linear-quadratic as well as saturated and critical calibration curves are described. The Bayesian model selection algorithm for those curves is also presented. In addition, five methods of dose estimation for a mixed neutron and gamma irradiation field were described: two classical methods, two Bayesian methods and one Monte Carlo method. Bayesian methods were also enhanced and generalized for situations with many types of mixed radiation. All algorithms were presented in easy-to-use form, which can be applied to any computational programming language. The presented algorithm is universal, although it was originally dedicated to cytogenetic biological dosimetry of victims of a nuclear reactor accident.

  16. AN ALTERNATIVE GREEN SCREEN KEYING METHOD FOR FILM VISUAL EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Zhi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on a green screen keying method developed especially for film visual effects. There are a series of ways of using existing tools for creating mattes from green or blue screen plates. However, it is still a time-consuming process, and the results vary especially when it comes to retaining tiny details, such as hair and fur. This paper introduces an alternative concept and method for retaining edge details of characters on a green screen plate, also, a number of connected mathematical equations are explored. At the end of this study, a simplified process of applying this method in real productions is also tested.

  17. ALTERNATING DIRECTION FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR SOME REACTION DIFFUSION MODELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江成顺; 刘蕴贤; 沈永明

    2004-01-01

    This paper is concerned with some nonlinear reaction - diffusion models. To solve this kind of models, the modified Laplace finite element scheme and the alternating direction finite element scheme are established for the system of patrical differential equations. Besides, the finite difference method is utilized for the ordinary differential equation in the models. Moreover, by the theory and technique of prior estimates for the differential equations, the convergence analyses and the optimal L2- norm error estimates are demonstrated.

  18. Projection of Environmental Pollutant Emissions From Different Final Waste Disposal Methods Based on Life Cycle Assessment Studies in Qazvin City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Torkashvand

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, the life cycle assessment (LCA method was used to expect the emissions of different environmental pollutants through qualitative and quantitative analyses of solid wastes of Qazvin city in different final disposal methods. Therefore, four scenarios with the following properties considering physical analysis of Qazvin’s solid wastes, the current status of solid waste management in Iran, as well as the future of solid waste management of Qazvin were described. In order to detect the quantity of the solid wastes, the volume-weighted analysis was used and random sampling method was used for physical analysis. Of course, regarding the method of LCA, it contains all stages from solid wastes generation to its disposal. However, since the main aim of this study was final disposal stage, the emissions of pollutants of these stages were ignored. Next, considering the mixture of the solid waste, the amount of pollution stemming from each of final disposal methods from other cities having similar conditions was estimated. The findings of the study showed that weight combination of Qazvin solid wastes is entirely similar to that of other cities. Thus, the results of this study can be applied by decision makers around the country. In scenarios 1 and 2, emission of leachate containing high amounts of COD and BOD is high and also the highest content of nitrate, which can contaminate water and soil resulting in high costs for their management. In scenarios 3 and 4, the amounts of gaseous pollutants, particularly CO2, as well as nitrogen oxides are very high. In conclusion, the LCA methods can effectively contribute to the management of municipal solid wastes (MSW to control environmental pollutants with least expenses.

  19. Hypoplastic thumb type IIIB: An alternative method for surgical repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih Onur Basat

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Hypoplastic thumb is the second most common congenital deformity of the thumb. Thumb hypoplasia is characterized by diminished thumb size, metacarpal adduction, metacarpophalangeal joint instability, and thenar muscle hypoplasia. In the literature, different classification types of hypoplastic thumb have been used and different treatment methods described. In this case we presented an alternative palliative treatment method for a ten-year-old patient with modified Blauth's classification type IIIB hypoplastic thumb and one-year follow-up results. [Hand Microsurg 2014; 3(2.000: 59-61

  20. Osmotic shock as alternative method to control Acanthaster planci

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jairo Rivera-Posada; Leigh Owens

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To test six osmotic stressors as alternative methods to control Acanthaster planci (A. planci) outbreaks by exploiting their incapacity to tolerate drastic changes in osmolarity. Finding more effective ways to control A. planci outbreaks is one of the most immediate and effective ways by which to reverse rapid declines in the abundance of live coral cover in the Indo-Pacific. Methods: A total of 10 mL of each of the following chemicals: sodium chloride, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, sodium carbonate, sodium cholate, sodium deoxycholate, urea and mannitol were injected into individual healthy sea stars to examine which chemicals induced disease and death. Results:Four out of six chemicals used in this study induced disease. Sodium chloride, sodium cholate, sodium deoxycholate and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid are capable of inducing death in injected sea stars offering an alternative option to control A. planci outbreaks. Conclusions: Hyperosmotic stress is a viable alternative to control A. planci outbreaks as massive cell death results when acute hypertonicity exceeds a certain level.

  1. Hysterectomy—Current Methods and Alternatives for Benign Indications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michail S. Papadopoulos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hysterectomy is the commonest gynecologic operation performed not only for malignant disease but also for many benign conditions such as fibroids, endometrial hyperplasia, adenomyosis, uterine prolapse, dysfunctional uterine bleeding, and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. There are many approaches to hysterectomy for benign disease: abdominal hysterectomy, vaginal hysterectomy, laparoscopic assisted vaginal hysterectomy (LAVH where a vaginal hysterectomy is assisted by laparoscopic procedures that do not include uterine artery ligation, total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH where the laparoscopic procedures include uterine artery ligation, and subtotal laparoscopic hysterectomy (STLH where there is no vaginal component and the uterine body is removed using a morcelator. In the last decades, many new techniques, alternative to hysterectomy with conservation of the uterus have been developed. They use modern technologies and their results are promising and in many cases comparable with hysterectomy. This paper is a review of all the existing hysterectomy techniques and the alternative methods for benign indications.

  2. A novel temperature control method for shortening thermal cycling time to achieve rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a disposable polymer microfluidic device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bu, Minqiang; R. Perch-Nielsen, Ivan; Sørensen, Karen Skotte

    We present a new temperature control method capable of effectively shortening the thermal cycling time of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a disposable polymer microfluidic device with external heater and temperature sensor. The method employs optimized temperature overshooting and undershooting...

  3. 48 CFR 32.503-9 - Liquidation rates-alternate method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-alternate method. 32.503-9 Section 32.503-9 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Liquidation rates—alternate method. (a) The liquidation rate determined under 32.503-8 shall apply throughout... the alternate method in this 32.503-9. The objective of the alternate liquidation rate method is...

  4. Nonequilibrium relaxation method – An alternative simulation strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nobuyasu Ito

    2005-06-01

    One well-established simulation strategy to study the thermal phases and transitions of a given microscopic model system is the so-called equilibrium method, in which one first realizes the equilibrium ensemble of a finite system and then extrapolates the results to infinite system. This equilibrium method traces over the standard theory of the thermal statistical mechanics, and over the idea of the thermodynamic limit. Recently, an alternative simulation strategy has been developed, which analyzes the nonequilibrium relaxation (NER) process. It is called the NER method. NER method has some advantages over the equilibrium method. The NER method provides a simpler analyzing procedure. This implies less systematic error which is inevitable in the simulation and provides efficient resource usage. The NER method easily treats not only the thermodynamic limit but also other limits, for example, non-Gibbsian nonequilibrium steady states. So the NER method is also relevant for new fields of the statistical physics. Application of the NER method have been expanding to various problems: from basic first- and second-order transitions to advanced and exotic phases like chiral, KT spin-glass and quantum phases. These studies have provided, not only better estimations of transition point and exponents, but also qualitative developments. For example, the universality class of a random system, the nature of the two-dimensional melting and the scaling behavior of spin-glass aging phenomena have been clarified.

  5. Incineration: why this may be the most environmentally sound method of renal healthcare waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Ray

    2010-09-01

    The environment and 'green' issues are currently being promoted in the healthcare sector through recently launched initiatives. This paper considers aspects of healthcare waste management, with particular reference to waste generated in dialysis units. With dialysis being dependent upon large amounts of disposables, it generates considerable volumes of waste. This paper focuses upon a typical haemodialysis unit, evaluating and quantifying the volumes and categories of waste generated. Each haemodialysis patient on thrice weekly dialysis generates some 323 kg per year of waste, of which 271 kg is classified as clinical. This equates to 1626 kg of (solid) clinical waste per dialysis bed, which is around three times the volume of clinical waste generated per general hospital bed. Waste disposal routes are considered and this suggests that present healthcare waste paradigms are outmoded. They do not allow for flexible approaches to solving what is a dynamic problem, and there is a need for new thinking models in terms of managing the unsustainable situation of disposal in constantly growing landfills. Healthcare waste management must be considered not only in terms of the environmental impact and potential long-term health effects, but also in terms of society's future energy requirements.

  6. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Methods in Chronic Renal Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Erdogan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite its long history, use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM methods has increased dramatically only after 1990s. Up to 57% of patients with chronic renal use CAM methods.These patienys use CAM methods to overcome hypertension, fatigue, constipation, leg edema, pain, cramps, anxiety, depression, sleep disorders, to cope with symptoms such as itching, to stop the progression of kidney disease and to improve their quality of life. Methods used are herbal products and food supplements, acupressure, acupuncture, homeopathy, exercise, aromatherapy, yoga and reflexology. Nephrotoxic effect of several CAM therapies used in patients with renal impairment could disturb hemodynamics by reducing the glomerular filtration rate. For this reason, health care providers should question patients about used of CAM, methods. Communication with patients should be clear and should not act judgmental. Health care personnel should learn more about CAM methods in order to avoid unwanted situations that could develop after the application of CAM methods. Patients should be informed correctly and scientifically about these methods to avoid harmful and unnecessary uses. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2014; 23(4.000: 770-786

  7. Fast alternating projection methods for constrained tomographic reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Han, Yongxin; Jin, Mingwu

    2017-01-01

    The alternating projection algorithms are easy to implement and effective for large-scale complex optimization problems, such as constrained reconstruction of X-ray computed tomography (CT). A typical method is to use projection onto convex sets (POCS) for data fidelity, nonnegative constraints combined with total variation (TV) minimization (so called TV-POCS) for sparse-view CT reconstruction. However, this type of method relies on empirically selected parameters for satisfactory reconstruction and is generally slow and lack of convergence analysis. In this work, we use a convex feasibility set approach to address the problems associated with TV-POCS and propose a framework using full sequential alternating projections or POCS (FS-POCS) to find the solution in the intersection of convex constraints of bounded TV function, bounded data fidelity error and non-negativity. The rationale behind FS-POCS is that the mathematically optimal solution of the constrained objective function may not be the physically optimal solution. The breakdown of constrained reconstruction into an intersection of several feasible sets can lead to faster convergence and better quantification of reconstruction parameters in a physical meaningful way than that in an empirical way of trial-and-error. In addition, for large-scale optimization problems, first order methods are usually used. Not only is the condition for convergence of gradient-based methods derived, but also a primal-dual hybrid gradient (PDHG) method is used for fast convergence of bounded TV. The newly proposed FS-POCS is evaluated and compared with TV-POCS and another convex feasibility projection method (CPTV) using both digital phantom and pseudo-real CT data to show its superior performance on reconstruction speed, image quality and quantification.

  8. Self-assessment: an alternative method of assessing speaking skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterini Chalkia

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on self-assessment as an alternative method of assessing the speaking skills of a group of sixth graders of a Greek State Primary School. The paper consists of two parts. In the first part, traditional and alternative assessment approaches are compared and a literature review on self-assessment is presented. In the second part the methodology and the findings of the study are presented. The study was carried out by means of a questionnaire and observation notes. This was done in order to draw conclusions on the benefits of self-assessment, the difficulties students faced while carrying out self-assessment as well as to reveal the extent to which students improved their speaking skills after being involved in self-assessment. The findings revealed that the students were positive towards self-assessment. Although self-assessment was of limited duration, it turned out to be a worthwhile activity as it fostered motivation and sensitized the students to take a more active role in the learning process. It also enabled them to notice their strengths and weaknesses and improve their speaking skills. The study also revealed the practical difficulties the students faced in carrying out their self-assessment. Finally, the study concludes with recommendations for further research into this specific assessment method.

  9. An alternative method to specify the degree of resonator stability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jogy George; K Ranganathan; T P S Nathan

    2007-04-01

    We present an alternative method to specify the stability of real stable resonators. We introduce the degree of optical stability or the parameter, which specify the stability of resonators in a numerical scale ranging from 0 to 100%. The value of zero corresponds to marginally stable resonator and < 0 corresponds to unstable resonator. Also, three definitions of the S parameter are provided: in terms of &, & R0 and 12. It may be noticed from the present formalism that the maximum degree of stability with = 1 automatically corresponds to 12 = 1/2. We also describe the method to measure the parameter from the output beam characteristics and parameter. A possible correlation between the parameter and the misalignment tolerance is also discussed.

  10. Outcome modelling strategies in epidemiology: traditional methods and basic alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenland, Sander; Daniel, Rhian; Pearce, Neil

    2016-04-01

    Controlling for too many potential confounders can lead to or aggravate problems of data sparsity or multicollinearity, particularly when the number of covariates is large in relation to the study size. As a result, methods to reduce the number of modelled covariates are often deployed. We review several traditional modelling strategies, including stepwise regression and the 'change-in-estimate' (CIE) approach to deciding which potential confounders to include in an outcome-regression model for estimating effects of a targeted exposure. We discuss their shortcomings, and then provide some basic alternatives and refinements that do not require special macros or programming. Throughout, we assume the main goal is to derive the most accurate effect estimates obtainable from the data and commercial software. Allowing that most users must stay within standard software packages, this goal can be roughly approximated using basic methods to assess, and thereby minimize, mean squared error (MSE).

  11. An Alternating Iterative Method and Its Application in Statistical Inference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning Zhong SHI; Guo Rong HU; Qing CUI

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies non-convex programming problems. It is known that, in statistical inference, many constrained estimation problems may be expressed as convex programming problems. However, in many practical problems, the objective functions are not convex. In this paper, we give a definition of a semi-convex objective function and discuss the corresponding non-convex programming problems. A two-step iterative algorithm called the alternating iterative method is proposed for finding solutions for such problems. The method is illustrated by three examples in constrained estimation problems given in Sasabuchi et al. (Biometrika, 72, 465–472 (1983)), Shi N. Z. (J. Multivariate Anal.,50, 282–293 (1994)) and El Barmi H. and Dykstra R. (Ann. Statist., 26, 1878–1893 (1998)).

  12. Alternative Testing Methods for Predicting Health Risk from Environmental Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Colacci

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Alternative methods to animal testing are considered as promising tools to support the prediction of toxicological risks from environmental exposure. Among the alternative testing methods, the cell transformation assay (CTA appears to be one of the most appropriate approaches to predict the carcinogenic properties of single chemicals, complex mixtures and environmental pollutants. The BALB/c 3T3 CTA shows a good degree of concordance with the in vivo rodent carcinogenesis tests. Whole-genome transcriptomic profiling is performed to identify genes that are transcriptionally regulated by different kinds of exposures. Its use in cell models representative of target organs may help in understanding the mode of action and predicting the risk for human health. Aiming at associating the environmental exposure to health-adverse outcomes, we used an integrated approach including the 3T3 CTA and transcriptomics on target cells, in order to evaluate the effects of airborne particulate matter (PM on toxicological complex endpoints. Organic extracts obtained from PM2.5 and PM1 samples were evaluated in the 3T3 CTA in order to identify effects possibly associated with different aerodynamic diameters or airborne chemical components. The effects of the PM2.5 extracts on human health were assessed by using whole-genome 44 K oligo-microarray slides. Statistical analysis by GeneSpring GX identified genes whose expression was modulated in response to the cell treatment. Then, modulated genes were associated with pathways, biological processes and diseases through an extensive biological analysis. Data derived from in vitro methods and omics techniques could be valuable for monitoring the exposure to toxicants, understanding the modes of action via exposure-associated gene expression patterns and to highlight the role of genes in key events related to adversity.

  13. Evaluation of alternative methods for the disinfection of toothbrushes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Yukio Komiyama

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate alternative methods for the disinfection of toothbrushes considering that most of the previously proposed methods are expensive and cannot be easily implemented. Two-hundred toothbrushes with standardized dimensions and bristles were included in the study. The toothbrushes were divided into 20 experimental groups (n = 10, according to microorganism considered and chemical agent used. The toothbrushes were contaminated in vitro by standardized suspensions of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus or Candida albicans. The following disinfectants were tested: 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate, 50% white vinegar, a triclosan-containing dentifrice solution, and a perborate-based tablet solution. The disinfection method was immersion in the disinfectant for 10 min. After the disinfection procedure, the number of remaining microbial cells was evaluated. The values of cfu/toothbrush of each group of microorganism after disinfection were compared by Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA and Dunn's test for multiple comparisons (5%. The chlorhexidine digluconate solution was the most effective disinfectant. The triclosan-based dentifrice solution promoted a significant reduction of all microorganisms' counts in relation to the control group. As to the disinfection with 50% vinegar, a significant reduction was observed for all the microorganisms, except for C. albicans. The sodium perborate solution was the less effective against the tested microorganisms. Solutions based on triclosan-containing dentifrice may be considered effective, nontoxic, cost-effective, and an easily applicable alternative for the disinfection of toothbrushes. The vinegar solution reduced the presence of S. aureus, S. mutans and S. pyogenes on toothbrushes.

  14. Alternative sorptive extraction method for gas chromatography determination of halogenated anisoles in water and wine samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, R. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Instituto de Investigacion y Analisis Alimentario, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela 15782 (Spain); Rodriguez, I. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Instituto de Investigacion y Analisis Alimentario, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela 15782 (Spain)], E-mail: qnisaac@usc.es; Rubi, E.; Bollain, M.H.; Cela, R. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Instituto de Investigacion y Analisis Alimentario, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela 15782 (Spain)

    2007-09-05

    An alternative sorptive microextraction method for the determination of five halogenated anisoles in water and wine matrices is proposed. Analytes were concentrated in an inexpensive and disposable piece of bulk polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), desorbed with a small volume of organic solvent, and determined by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD) or tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The influence of several factors on the efficiency of extraction and desorption steps was investigated in detail and the observed behaviour justified on the basis of thermodynamics and kinetics of the solid-phase microextraction technique. Under optimised conditions, analytes were first extracted in the headspace (HS) mode, at room temperature, for 2.5 h and then desorbed with 1 mL of n-pentane. This extract was further evaporated to 50 {mu}L. The overall extraction yield of the procedure ranged from 40 to 55% and the limits of quantification remained between 0.5 and 20 ng L{sup -1}, depending on the compound considered and the detection technique. Precision and linearity of the method were excellent for all species with both GC-ECD and GC-MS/MS detection. Matrix effects were evaluated with different water and wine samples; moreover, the suitability of the PDMS sorbent for storage of analytes, under different conditions, was demonstrated.

  15. An alternative method for order tracking using autopower spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido R Guercioni

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Order tracking is a method of analysis used by engineers in the diagnosis of rotating machinery. In many applications, order analysis of non-stationary signals is required. The direct extraction of the amplitude information from the short-time Fourier transform may lead to inaccurate vibration-level estimation in the case of fast changes in the signal frequency content. This article discusses spectral smearing, which is the main reason of the problem, and its sensitivity to the characteristics of the signal (frequency and amplitude variations and to the input parameters of discrete Fourier transform analysis (window size and type. Through the years, many different approaches to perform order analysis have been developed; this article introduces a novel method for order tracking based on the short-time Fourier transform, which applies a compensation of the smearing effect based on an invariant information contained in autopower spectrum. The limitations and capabilities of the proposed method with respect to other existing techniques are discussed: considering the accuracy of the results, low requirements of computational resources, and ease of implementation, this method proves a valid alternative to currently used techniques.

  16. Constructivist Pedagogy and Alternative Teaching Methods for Intercultural Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Lupu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Our research proposes to underline the role of the constructivist pedagogy in the formative accomplishing of the intercultural education objectives, starting from the premise that the intuitive learning and the use of active-participative teaching-learning methods cover in a greater measure this discipline‟s cognitive, affective and psychomotor dimensions. The research design is made up of: 2 homogenous lots of intentionality composed of 70 and 60 students. There were used quantitative and qualitative research methods: structured questionnaire, semi-structured interview, focus-group method, evaluative techniques and statistics applied on a 2 years period. The discovery theory applied in teaching and learning increases the acknowledgement degree regarding the existence of ethnic groups and possible discriminatory actions; the mediator role assumed by the professor stimulates the formation and sedimentation of attitudes envisaged by the intercultural education, respecting with great fidelity the principle of conscious appropriation of knowledge; the use of alternative evaluative methods illustrate an increase of the students‟ school efficaciousness at this discipline and in the same time of their enthusiasm; the principles underlined by the constructivist pedagogy apply with great success in intercultural education.

  17. Sparse Inverse Covariance Selection via Alternating Linearization Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Scheinberg, Katya; Goldfarb, Donald

    2010-01-01

    Gaussian graphical models are of great interest in statistical learning. Because the conditional independencies between different nodes correspond to zero entries in the inverse covariance matrix of the Gaussian distribution, one can learn the structure of the graph by estimating a sparse inverse covariance matrix from sample data, by solving a convex maximum likelihood problem with an $\\ell_1$-regularization term. In this paper, we propose a first-order method based on an alternating linearization technique that exploits the problem's special structure; in particular, the subproblems solved in each iteration have closed-form solutions. Moreover, our algorithm obtains an $\\epsilon$-optimal solution in $O(1/\\epsilon)$ iterations. Numerical experiments on both synthetic and real data from gene association networks show that a practical version of this algorithm outperforms other competitive algorithms.

  18. An Alternate Approach to Alternating Sums: A Method to DIE for

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Arthur T.; Quinn, Jennifer J.

    2008-01-01

    Positive sums count. Alternating sums match. Alternating sums of binomial coefficients, Fibonacci numbers, and other combinatorial quantities are analyzed using sign-reversing involutions. In particular, we describe the quantity being considered, match positive and negative terms through an Involution, and count the Exceptions to the matching rule…

  19. Study on the post-closure surveillance methods at low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Joo Ho; Shin, Jin Seong; Lee, Jae Min; Choi, Won Cheol; Cheon, Tae Hoon [Kyunghee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-02-15

    Presidential decree, of atomic energy act of Korea, number 233.3.9 requires that the repository, after closure, of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste be controlled and monitored an Ministry of Science and Technology decides. This study emphasizes on establishing a direction of technical guides, considering rock cavern disposal as a domestic project. Other types of repositories will also be referred to for their technical matter. Review of domestic and foreign requirements, review of the objectives of post-closure surveillance, suggestion of surveillance methods and technical guides.

  20. ALTERNATIVE FIELD METHODS TO TREAT MERCURY IN SOIL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest F. Stine Jr; Steven T. Downey

    2002-08-14

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) used large quantities of mercury in the uranium separating process from the 1950s until the late 1980s in support of national defense. Some of this mercury, as well as other hazardous metals and radionuclides, found its way into, and under, several buildings, soil and subsurface soils and into some of the surface waters. Several of these areas may pose potential health or environmental risks and must be dealt with under current environmental regulations. DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) awarded a contract ''Alternative Field Methods to Treat Mercury in Soil'' to IT Group, Knoxville TN (IT) and its subcontractor NFS, Erwin, TN to identify remedial methods to clean up mercury-contaminated high-clay content soils using proven treatment chemistries. The sites of interest were the Y-12 National Security Complex located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, the David Witherspoon properties located in Knoxville, Tennessee, and at other similarly contaminated sites. The primary laboratory-scale contract objectives were (1) to safely retrieve and test samples of contaminated soil in an approved laboratory and (2) to determine an acceptable treatment method to ensure that the mercury does not leach from the soil above regulatory levels. The leaching requirements were to meet the TC (0.2 mg/l) and UTS (0.025 mg/l) TCLP criteria. In-situ treatments were preferred to control potential mercury vapors emissions and liquid mercury spills associated with ex-situ treatments. All laboratory work was conducted in IT's and NFS laboratories. Mercury contaminated nonradioactive soil from under the Alpha 2 building in the Y-12 complex was used. This soils contained insufficient levels of leachable mercury and resulted in TCLP mercury concentrations that were similar to the applicable LDR limits. The soil was spiked at multiple levels with metallic (up to 6000 mg/l) and soluble mercury compounds (up to 500 mg/kg) to

  1. RD and D-Programme 2004. Programme for research, development and demonstration of methods for the management and disposal of nuclear waste, including social science research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-09-01

    SKB (the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co), which is owned by the companies that operate the Swedish nuclear power plants, has been assigned the task of managing and disposing of the spent nuclear fuel from the reactors. The Nuclear Activities Act requires a programme of comprehensive research and development and other measures that are needed to manage and dispose of nuclear waste in a safe manner and to decommission and dismantle the nuclear power plants. SKB is now presenting RD and D-Programme 2004 in fulfilment of this requirement. The programme describes SKB's plans for the period 2005-2010. The period of immediate concern is 2005-2007. The level of detail for the three subsequent years is naturally lower.The programme provides a basis for designing systems for safe management and disposal of the radioactive waste from the nuclear power plants. SKB's plan is to implement deep disposal of the spent fuel in accordance with the KBS-3 method. In the RD and D-Programme we describe our activities and planning for this line of action and the work that is being conducted on alternative methods. Review of the programme can contribute valuable outside viewpoints. The regulatory authorities and the Government can clarify how they look upon different parts of the programme and stipulate guidelines for the future. Municipalities and other stakeholders can, after studying the programme, offer their viewpoints to SKB, the regulatory authorities or the Government.The goal for the period up to the end of 2008 is to be able to submit permit applications for the encapsulation plant and the deep repository. This RD and D-Programme therefore differs from the preceding ones in that it concentrates on questions relating to technology development for these facilities. The programmes for safety assessment and research on the long-term processes that take place in the deep repository are then linked together with the programmes for technology development. Another

  2. Development of standard test methods for evaluating defibrillation recovery characteristics of disposable ECG electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, A A; Booth, H E; Lyon, P C

    1979-01-01

    A clinically relevant test for the measurement of defibrillation overload recovery of prefilled disposable ECG electrodes was developed and is proposed for use in an ECG electrode standard under development by AAMI. Defibrillation overload voltages and currents, as well as electrode polarization recovery voltages, were first measured in animal tests on 12 types of electrodes to allow correlation with various bench tests using a capacitor discharge at 10, 200, or 1000 V. Current overloads absorbed by the electrodes under worst conditions in animal tests were in the range of 2 percent of the defibrillation current flowing through the chest. These overloads were absorbed by most Ag-AgCl electrodes without excessive polarization. However, stainless steel, brass, and tin electrodes tended to polarize to levels that would saturate many ECG monitors. A standard bench test using a 200-V 10-muF capacitor was recommended for inclusion in the AAMI standard to determine whether electrodes are acceptable for use during defibrillation.

  3. Advances in poultry litter disposal technology--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, B P; Leahy, J J; Henihan, A M; O'Dwyer, T F; Sutton, D; Leahy, M J

    2002-05-01

    The land disposal of waste from the poultry industry and subsequent environmental implications has stimulated interest into cleaner and more useful disposal options. The review presented here details advances in the three main alternative disposal routes for poultry litter, specifically in the last decade. Results of experimental investigations into the optimisation of composting, anaerobic digestion and direct combustion are summarised. These technologies open up increased opportunities to market the energy and nutrients in poultry litter to agricultural and non-agricultural uses. Common problems experienced by the current technologies are the existence and fate of nitrogen as ammonia, pH and temperature levels, moisture content and the economics of alternative disposal methods. Further advancement of these technologies is currently receiving increased interest, both academically and commercially. However, significant financial incentives are required to attract the agricultural industry.

  4. Understanding Alternative Education: A Mixed Methods Examination of Student Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, Susan Glassett; Daniels, Erika

    2014-01-01

    Alternative education plays a critical role in the opportunity gap that persists in the US public education system. However, there has been little research on alternative schools. Scaffolded by a theoretical framework constructed from critical theory, self-determination theory (SDT) and student voice, this research examined how well students in…

  5. The European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA): promoting alternative methods in Europe and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozigou, Gwenole; Crozier, Jonathan; Hendriksen, Coenraad; Manou, Irene; Ramirez-Hernandez, Tzutzuy; Weissenhorn, Renate

    2015-03-01

    Here in we introduce the European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA) and its activities, which are focused on international cooperation toward alternative methods. The EPAA is one of the leading organizations in Europe for the promotion of alternative approaches to animal testing. Its innovative public-private partnership structure enables a consensus-driven dialogue across 7 industry sectors to facilitate interaction between regulators and regulated stakeholders. Through a brief description of EPAA's activities and organizational structure, we first articulate the value of this collaboration; we then focus on 2 key projects driven by EPAA. The first project aims to address research gaps on stem cells for safety testing, whereas the second project strives for an approach toward demonstration of consistency in vaccine batch release testing. We highlight the growing need for harmonization of international acceptance and implementation of alternative approaches and for increased international collaboration to foster progress on nonanimal alternatives.

  6. Alternative production methods to face global molybdenum-99 supply shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyra, Maria; Charalambatou, Paraskevi; Roussou, Eirini; Fytros, Stavros; Baka, Irini

    2011-01-01

    The sleeping giant of molybdenum-99 ((99)Mo) production is grinding to a halt and the world is wondering how this happened. Fewer than 10 reactors in the world are capable of producing radio nuclides for medicine; approximately 50% of the world's supply of raw material comes from National Research Universal (NRU) reactor in Canada. Many of these reactors, like the NRU, are old and aging. No one of these reactors, and probably not even all of them in combination, can replace the production of NRU. As the healthcare industry faces an aging population and the demand for diagnostic services using (99m)Tc continues to rise, the need for a consistent, reliable supply of (99)Mo has become increasingly important, so alternative methods to produce (99)Mo or even directly (99m)Tc had to be considered to avoid a supply shortage in the coming years. This need guides to the production of (99)Mo by replacing the Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) target in a nuclear reactor with Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) and furthermore to the use of accelerators for manufacturing (99)Mo or for directly producing (99m)Tc.

  7. Assessing Partnership Alternatives in an IT Network Employing Analytical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Reza Salamat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main critical success factors for the companies is their ability to build and maintain an effective collaborative network. This is more critical in the IT industry where the development of sustainable competitive advantage requires an integration of various resources, platforms, and capabilities provided by various actors. Employing such a collaborative network will dramatically change the operations management and promote flexibility and agility. Despite its importance, there is a lack of an analytical tool on collaborative network building process. In this paper, we propose an optimization model employing AHP and multiobjective programming for collaborative network building process based on two interorganizational relationships’ theories, namely, (i transaction cost theory and (ii resource-based view, which are representative of short-term and long-term considerations. The five different methods were employed to solve the formulation and their performances were compared. The model is implemented in an IT company who was in process of developing a large-scale enterprise resource planning (ERP system. The results show that the collaborative network formed through this selection process was more efficient in terms of cost, time, and development speed. The framework offers novel theoretical underpinning and analytical solutions and can be used as an effective tool in selecting network alternatives.

  8. An alternative calibration method for counting P-32 reactor monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirk, T.J. [Applied Nuclear Technologies, Sandia National Laboratories, MS 1143, PO Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1143 (United States); Vehar, D.W. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1143 (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Radioactivation of sulfur is a common technique used to measure fast neutron fluences in test and research reactors. Elemental sulfur can be pressed into pellets and used as monitors. The {sup 32}S(n, p) {sup 32}P reaction has a practical threshold of about 3 MeV and its cross section and associated uncertainties are well characterized [1]. The product {sup 32P} emits a beta particle with a maximum energy of 1710 keV [2]. This energetic beta particle allows pellets to be counted intact. ASTM Standard Test Method for Measuring Reaction Rates and Fast-Neutron Fluences by Radioactivation of Sulfur-32 (E265) [3] details a method of calibration for counting systems and subsequent analysis of results. This method requires irradiation of sulfur monitors in a fast-neutron field whose spectrum and intensity are well known. The resultant decay-corrected count rate is then correlated to the known fast neutron fluence. The Radiation Metrology Laboratory (RML) at Sandia has traditionally performed calibration irradiations of sulfur pellets using the {sup 252}Cf spontaneous fission neutron source at the National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST) [4] as a transfer standard. However, decay has reduced the intensity of NIST's source; thus lowering the practical upper limits of available fluence. As of May 2010, neutron emission rates have decayed to approximately 3 e8 n/s. In practice, this degradation of capabilities precludes calibrations at the highest fluence levels produced at test reactors and limits the useful range of count rates that can be measured. Furthermore, the reduced availability of replacement {sup 252}Cf threatens the long-term viability of the NIST {sup 252}Cf facility for sulfur pellet calibrations. In lieu of correlating count rate to neutron fluence in a reference field the total quantity of {sup 32}P produced in a pellet can be determined by absolute counting methods. This offers an attractive alternative to extended {sup 252}Cf exposures because

  9. Some thoughts on alternative methods and their scientific implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mansvelt, van J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Reflections upon our agricultural problems cannot be limitated to those problems itself, but should incorporate a reflection upon our social and scientific traditions. An alternative agriculture asks for participating nature research

  10. The Budget Scoring Alternatives Financing Methods for Defense Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-30

    programs, the Department of Defense (DoD) must consider alternative forms of financing, including leases and public - private partnerships (PPPs), to...Åèìáëáíáçå=oÉëÉ~êÅÜW=`ob^qfkd=pvkbodv=clo=fkclojba=`e^kdb====- 4 - = = leases, share-in-savings contracts, and public private partnerships (PPPs), have...to meet the requirements. Alternative Financing Agreements: Public - private Partnerships In August 2003, the Government Accountability Office (GAO

  11. Alternative methods for the treatment of post-menopausal troubles [Alternative Methoden zur Behandlung postmenopausaler Beschwerden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasem, Jürgen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available [english] Menopause is described as the transition from the reproductive phase of a women to the non reproductive. Changes in hormone levels might lead to complaints and health consequences especially during peri- and postmenopause. Hormone therapy has a potential damaging health risk profile and is recommended for temporal limited therapy for acute vasomotor symptoms only.The present HTA-report aims to assess the effectiveness and the cost-effectiveness of alternative treatment methods for women with postmenopausal symptoms in Germany regarding patient relevant endpoints (reduction of symptoms and frequency of adverse events and improvement of quality of life.A systematic literature search was carried out in 33 relevant databases in September 2010. Citations were selected according to pre-defined criteria and were extracted and evaluated.In the systematic research 22 studies are identified for the effectiveness evaluation, 22 primary studies and one review.High doses of isolated genistein reduce the frequency/intensity of hot flashes while low doses of genistein show no significant effect. Intake of isoflavone extract such as genistein, daidzein, glycitein in various combinations does not have an effect on improvement of cognitive function or vaginal dryness. The effect of black cohosh and hop extract for menopausal complaints cannot be determined since results are heterogenous. The combination of isoflavone, black cohosh, monk’s pepper, valerian and vitamin E has a positive effect on menopause symptoms. Ginkgo biloba shows no significant effect on menopause symptoms and cognitive improvement beside mental flexibility. Acupuncture has a significant influence on hot flashes especially in severe cases.No final statement can be drawn regarding the effectiveness of alter­ne treatment methods due to qualitative shortcomings of included studies and a general limited availability of studies in this field. Furthermore, the generalization of the

  12. High-level waste inventory, characteristics, generation, and facility assessment for treatment, storage, and disposal alternatives considered in the US Department of Energy eenvironmental management programmatic environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folga, S.M.; Conzelmann, G.; Gillette, J.L.; Kier, P.H.; Poch, L.A.

    1996-12-01

    This report provides data and information needed to support the risk and impact assessments of high-level waste (HLW) management alternatives in the U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management (WM) Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). Available data on the physical form, chemical and isotopic composition, storage locations, and other waste characteristics of interest are presented. High-level waste management follows six implementation phases: current storage, retrieval, pretreatment, treatment, interim canister storage, and geologic repository disposal; pretreatment, treatment, and repository disposal are outside the scope of the WM PEIS. Brief descriptions of current and planned HLW management facilities are provided, including information on the type of waste managed in the facility, costs, product form, resource requirements, emissions, and current and future status. Data sources and technical and regulatory assumptions are identified. The range of HLW management alternatives (including decentralized, regionalized, and centralized approaches) is described. The required waste management facilities include expanded interim storage facilities under the various alternatives. Resource requirements for construction (e.g., land and materials) and operation (e.g., energy and process chemicals), work force, costs, effluents, design capacities, and emissions are presented for each alternative.

  13. Which alternative methods to the iridium gamma-graphy?; Quelles methodes alternatives a la gammagraphie a l'iridium?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatsch, J.; Chauveau, D.; Blettner, A. [Institut de Soudure, 93 - Villepinte (France)

    2009-05-15

    Gamma-graphy is a very widely used process for testing welded steel constructions, pipings, pressure vessels, frameworks and particularly welds in them. The major disadvantage of this NDT method lies in the risks due to ionizing radiations requiring the setting up of a safety perimeter being a constraint to the owner or involving a shift system for the personnel and thus heavy indirect expenditures. In addition, the recent French regulatory pressure as for transport, storage, and radioactive sources management make their use still more complicated under industrial conditions and their setting up more and more expensive. It seems difficult that only one NDT technique could a substitute for gamma-graphy. Various alternative solutions are possible. Their setting up depends on the type of component to be inspected, on the nature of material, on the type of welding (butt weld, nozzle), on the orientation and position of the defects to be detected as well as their environment. This conference surveys the techniques liable to substitute for gamma-graphy as well as their scope of application and the hindrances limiting their development. (authors)

  14. An Alternative Method for Identifying Interplanetary Magnetic Cloud Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda-Gonzalez, A.; Mendes, O.; Calzadilla, A.; Domingues, M. O.; Prestes, A.; Klausner, V.

    2017-03-01

    Spatio-temporal entropy (STE) analysis is used as an alternative mathematical tool to identify possible magnetic cloud (MC) candidates. We analyze Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) data using a time interval of only 10 days. We select a convenient data interval of 2500 records moving forward by 200 record steps until the end of the time series. For every data segment, the STE is calculated at each step. During an MC event, the STE reaches values close to zero. This extremely low value of STE is due to MC structure features. However, not all of the magnetic components in MCs have STE values close to zero at the same time. For this reason, we create a standardization index (the so-called Interplanetary Entropy, IE, index). This index is a worthwhile effort to develop new tools to help diagnose ICME structures. The IE was calculated using a time window of one year (1999), and it has a success rate of 70% over other identifiers of MCs. The unsuccessful cases (30%) are caused by small and weak MCs. The results show that the IE methodology identified 9 of 13 MCs, and emitted nine false alarm cases. In 1999, a total of 788 windows of 2500 values existed, meaning that the percentage of false alarms was 1.14%, which can be considered a good result. In addition, four time windows, each of 10 days, are studied, where the IE method was effective in finding MC candidates. As a novel result, two new MCs are identified in these time windows.

  15. METHODS FOR THE SAFE STORAGE, HANDLING, AND DISPOSAL OF PYROPHORIC LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS IN THE LABORATORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, F.; Kuntamukkula, M.; Alnajjar, M.; Quigley, D.; Freshwater, D.; Bigger, S.

    2010-02-02

    to performing the experimental task. The purpose of this article is three fold: (1) to provide guidelines and general safety precautions to avoid accidents, (2) describe proper techniques on how to successfully handle, store, and dispose of pyrophoric liquids and solids, and (3) illustrate best practices for working with this class of reactants in a laboratory environment.

  16. Alternative modeling methods for plasma-based Rf ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veitzer, Seth A., E-mail: veitzer@txcorp.com; Kundrapu, Madhusudhan, E-mail: madhusnk@txcorp.com; Stoltz, Peter H., E-mail: phstoltz@txcorp.com; Beckwith, Kristian R. C., E-mail: beckwith@txcorp.com [Tech-X Corporation, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Rf-driven ion sources for accelerators and many industrial applications benefit from detailed numerical modeling and simulation of plasma characteristics. For instance, modeling of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) internal antenna H{sup −} source has indicated that a large plasma velocity is induced near bends in the antenna where structural failures are often observed. This could lead to improved designs and ion source performance based on simulation and modeling. However, there are significant separations of time and spatial scales inherent to Rf-driven plasma ion sources, which makes it difficult to model ion sources with explicit, kinetic Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulation codes. In particular, if both electron and ion motions are to be explicitly modeled, then the simulation time step must be very small, and total simulation times must be large enough to capture the evolution of the plasma ions, as well as extending over many Rf periods. Additional physics processes such as plasma chemistry and surface effects such as secondary electron emission increase the computational requirements in such a way that even fully parallel explicit PIC models cannot be used. One alternative method is to develop fluid-based codes coupled with electromagnetics in order to model ion sources. Time-domain fluid models can simulate plasma evolution, plasma chemistry, and surface physics models with reasonable computational resources by not explicitly resolving electron motions, which thereby leads to an increase in the time step. This is achieved by solving fluid motions coupled with electromagnetics using reduced-physics models, such as single-temperature magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), extended, gas dynamic, and Hall MHD, and two-fluid MHD models. We show recent results on modeling the internal antenna H{sup −} ion source for the SNS at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the fluid plasma modeling code USim. We compare demonstrate plasma temperature equilibration in two

  17. Alternative modeling methods for plasma-based Rf ion sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitzer, Seth A.; Kundrapu, Madhusudhan; Stoltz, Peter H.; Beckwith, Kristian R. C.

    2016-02-01

    Rf-driven ion sources for accelerators and many industrial applications benefit from detailed numerical modeling and simulation of plasma characteristics. For instance, modeling of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) internal antenna H- source has indicated that a large plasma velocity is induced near bends in the antenna where structural failures are often observed. This could lead to improved designs and ion source performance based on simulation and modeling. However, there are significant separations of time and spatial scales inherent to Rf-driven plasma ion sources, which makes it difficult to model ion sources with explicit, kinetic Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulation codes. In particular, if both electron and ion motions are to be explicitly modeled, then the simulation time step must be very small, and total simulation times must be large enough to capture the evolution of the plasma ions, as well as extending over many Rf periods. Additional physics processes such as plasma chemistry and surface effects such as secondary electron emission increase the computational requirements in such a way that even fully parallel explicit PIC models cannot be used. One alternative method is to develop fluid-based codes coupled with electromagnetics in order to model ion sources. Time-domain fluid models can simulate plasma evolution, plasma chemistry, and surface physics models with reasonable computational resources by not explicitly resolving electron motions, which thereby leads to an increase in the time step. This is achieved by solving fluid motions coupled with electromagnetics using reduced-physics models, such as single-temperature magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), extended, gas dynamic, and Hall MHD, and two-fluid MHD models. We show recent results on modeling the internal antenna H- ion source for the SNS at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the fluid plasma modeling code USim. We compare demonstrate plasma temperature equilibration in two-temperature MHD models

  18. Comparison of alternative improved perturbative methods for nonlinear oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amore, Paolo [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal Diaz del Castillo 340, Colima (Mexico)]. E-mail: paolo@ucol.mx; Raya, Alfredo [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal Diaz del Castillo 340, Colima (Mexico); Fernandez, Francisco M. [INIFTA (Conicet, UNLP), Diag. 113 y 64 S/N, Sucursal 4, Casilla de Correo 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2005-06-06

    We discuss and compare two alternative perturbation approaches for the calculation of the period of nonlinear systems based on the Lindstedt-Poincare technique. As illustrative examples we choose one-dimensional anharmonic oscillators and the Van der Pol equation. Our results show that each approach is better for just one type of model considered here.

  19. A temperature control method for shortening thermal cycling time to achieve rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a disposable polymer microfluidic device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bu, Minqiang; Perch-Nielsen, Ivan R.; Sørensen, Karen Skotte

    2013-01-01

    We present a temperature control method capable of effectively shortening the thermal cycling time of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a disposable polymer microfluidic device with an external heater and a temperature sensor. The method employs optimized temperature overshooting and undershooting...

  20. Treatment of paint manufacturing wastewater by coagulation/electrochemical methods: Proposals for disposal and/or reuse of treated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Larissa F; Barbosa, Andreia D; de Paula, Heber M; Romualdo, Lincoln L; Andrade, Leonardo S

    2016-09-15

    This paper describes and discusses an investigation into the treatment of paint manufacturing wastewater (water-based acrylic texture) by coagulation (aluminum sulfate) coupled to electrochemical methods (BDD electrode). Two proposals are put forward, based on the results. The first proposal considers the feasibility of reusing wastewater treated by the methods separately and in combination, while the second examines the possibility of its disposal into water bodies. To this end, parameters such as toxicity, turbidity, color, organic load, dissolved aluminum, alkalinity, hardness and odor are evaluated. In addition, the proposal for water reuse is strengthened by the quality of the water-based paints produced using the wastewater treated by the two methods (combined and separate), which was evaluated based on the typical parameters for the quality control of these products. Under optimized conditions, the use of the chemical coagulation (12 mL/L of Al2(SO4)3 dosage) treatment, alone, proved the feasibility of reusing the treated wastewater in the paint manufacturing process. However, the use of the electrochemical method (i = 10 mA/cm(2) and t = 90 min) was required to render the treated wastewater suitable for discharge into water bodies.

  1. Geological disposal system development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Chul Hyung; Kuh, J. E.; Kim, S. K. and others

    2000-04-01

    Spent fuel inventories to be disposed of finally and design base spent fuel were determined. Technical and safety criteria for a geological repository system in Korea were established. Based on the properties of spent PWR and CANDU fuels, seven repository alternatives were developed and the most promising repository option was selected by the pair-wise comparison method from the technology point of view. With this option preliminary conceptual design studies were carried out. Several module, e.g., gap module, congruent release module were developed for the overall assessment code MASCOT-K. The prominent overseas databases such as OECD/NEA FEP list were are fully reviewed and then screened to identify the feasible ones to reflect the Korean geo-hydrological conditions. In addition to this the well known scenario development methods such as PID, RES were reviewed. To confirm the radiological safety of the proposed KAERI repository concept the preliminary PA was pursued. Thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis for the near field of repository were performed to verify thermal and mechanical stability for KAERI repository system. The requirements of buffer material were analyzed, and based on the results, the quantitative functional criteria for buffer material were established. The hydraulic and swelling property, mechanical properties, and thermal conductivity, the organic carbon content, and the evolution of pore water chemistry were investigated. Based on the results, the candidate buffer material was selected.

  2. Safer Transportation and Disposal of Remote Handled Transuranic Waste - 12033

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas, Vicente; Timm, Christopher M.; Fox, Jerry V. [PECOS Management Services, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Since disposal of remote handled (RH) transuranic (TRU) waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) began in 2007, the Department of Energy (DOE) has had difficulty meeting the plans and schedule for disposing this waste. PECOS Management Services, Inc. (PECOS) assessed the feasibility of proposed alternate RH-TRU mixed waste containerisation concepts that would enhance the transportation rate of RH-TRU waste to WIPP and increase the utilization of available WIPP space capacity for RH-TRU waste disposal by either replacing or augmenting current and proposed disposal methods. In addition engineering and operational analyses were conducted that addressed concerns regarding criticality, heat release, and worker exposure to radiation. The results of the analyses showed that the concept, development, and use of a concrete pipe based design for an RH-TRU waste shipping and disposal container could be potentially advantageous for disposing a substantial quantity of RHTRU waste at WIPP in the same manner as contact-handled RH waste. Additionally, this new disposal method would eliminate the hazard associated with repackaging this waste in other containers without the requirement for NRC approval for a new shipping container. (authors)

  3. Alternative Methods for Field Corrections in Helical Solenoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, M. L. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Krave, S. T. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Tompkins, J. C. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Yonehara, K. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Flanagan, G. [Muons Inc., Batavia, IL (United States); Kahn, S. A. [Muons Inc., Batavia, IL (United States); Melconian, K. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Helical cooling channels have been proposed for highly efficient 6D muon cooling. Helical solenoids produce solenoidal, helical dipole, and helical gradient field components. Previous studies explored the geometric tunability limits on these main field components. In this paper we present two alternative correction schemes, tilting the solenoids and the addition of helical lines, to reduce the required strength of the anti-solenoid and add an additional tuning knob.

  4. Alternative and Efficient Extraction Methods for Marine-Derived Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Clara Grosso; Patrícia Valentão; Federico Ferreres; Paula B. Andrade

    2015-01-01

    Marine ecosystems cover more than 70% of the globe’s surface. These habitats are occupied by a great diversity of marine organisms that produce highly structural diverse metabolites as a defense mechanism. In the last decades, these metabolites have been extracted and isolated in order to test them in different bioassays and assess their potential to fight human diseases. Since traditional extraction techniques are both solvent- and time-consuming, this review emphasizes alternative extracti...

  5. Entry Debris Field Estimation Methods and Application to Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrozinski, Richard B.

    2001-01-01

    For public safety reasons, the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) was intentionally deorbited on June 4, 2000. This deorbit was NASA's first intentional controlled deorbit of a satellite, and more will come including the eventual deorbit of the International Space Station. To maximize public safety, satellite deorbit planning requires conservative estimates of the debris footprint size and location. These estimates are needed to properly design a deorbit sequence that places the debris footprint over unpopulated areas, including protection for deorbit contingencies. This paper details a method for estimating the length (range), width (crossrange), and location of entry and breakup debris footprints. This method utilizes a three degree-of-freedom Monte Carlo simulation incorporating uncertainties in all aspects of the problem, including vehicle and environment uncertainties. The method incorporates a range of debris characteristics based on historical data in addition to any vehicle-specific debris catalog information. This paper describes the method in detail, and presents results of its application as used in planning the deorbit of the CGRO.

  6. Social and institutional evaluation report for Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, T.L.; Lewis, B.E.; Turner, K.H.; Rozelle, M.A. [Dames and Moore, Denver, CO (United States)

    1993-10-01

    This report identifies and characterizes social and institutional issues that would be relevant to the siting, licensing, construction, closure, and postclosure of a Greater-Than-Class-C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) disposal facility. A historical perspective of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and LLW disposal programs is provided as an overview of radioactive waste disposal and to support the recommendations and conclusions in the report. A characterization of each issue is provided to establish the basis for further evaluations. Where applicable, the regulatory requirements of 10 CFR 60 and 61 are incorporated in the issue characterizations. The issues are used to compare surface, intermediate depth, and deep geologic disposal alternatives. The evaluation establishes that social and institutional issues do not significantly discriminate among the disposal alternatives. Recommendations are provided for methods by which the issues could be considered throughout the lifecycle of a GTCC LLW disposal program.

  7. Disposable rabbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Leroy C.; Trammell, David R.

    1986-01-01

    A disposable rabbit for transferring radioactive samples in a pneumatic transfer system comprises aerated plastic shaped in such a manner as to hold a radioactive sample and aerated such that dissolution of the rabbit in a solvent followed by evaporation of the solid yields solid waste material having a volume significantly smaller than the original volume of the rabbit.

  8. Disposal rabbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, L.C.; Trammell, D.R.

    1983-10-12

    A disposable rabbit for transferring radioactive samples in a pneumatic transfer system comprises aerated plastic shaped in such a manner as to hold a radioactive sample and aerated such that dissolution of the rabbit in a solvent followed by evaporation of the solid yields solid waste material having a volume significantly smaller than the original volume of the rabbit.

  9. An Alternate Method for Computation of Transfer Function Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Appukuttan K. K.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A direct and simple numerical method is presented for calculating the transfer function matrix of a linear time invariant multivariable system (A, B, C. The method is based on the matrix-determinant identity, and it involves operations with an auxiliary vector on the matrices. The method is computationally faster compared to Liverrier and Danilevsky methods.

  10. Standard test method for static leaching of monolithic waste forms for disposal of radioactive waste

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method provides a measure of the chemical durability of a simulated or radioactive monolithic waste form, such as a glass, ceramic, cement (grout), or cermet, in a test solution at temperatures <100°C under low specimen surface- area-to-leachant volume (S/V) ratio conditions. 1.2 This test method can be used to characterize the dissolution or leaching behaviors of various simulated or radioactive waste forms in various leachants under the specific conditions of the test based on analysis of the test solution. Data from this test are used to calculate normalized elemental mass loss values from specimens exposed to aqueous solutions at temperatures <100°C. 1.3 The test is conducted under static conditions in a constant solution volume and at a constant temperature. The reactivity of the test specimen is determined from the amounts of components released and accumulated in the solution over the test duration. A wide range of test conditions can be used to study material behavior, includin...

  11. 77 FR 43827 - International Workshop on Alternative Methods for Leptospira

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... testing. The goal is to promote development of innovative testing methods and approaches that may provide... and technology that can be applied to the development of new methods and approaches for Leptospira vaccine potency testing. These new methods and approaches may provide improved accuracy, efficiency,...

  12. Alternative microbial methods: An overview and selection criteria.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jasson, V.; Jacxsens, L.; Luning, P.A.; Rajkovic, A.; Uyttendaele, M.

    2010-01-01

    This study provides an overview and criteria for the selection of a method, other than the reference method, for microbial analysis of foods. In a first part an overview of the general characteristics of rapid methods available, both for enumeration and detection, is given with reference to relevant

  13. Alternative and Efficient Extraction Methods for Marine-Derived Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Grosso

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Marine ecosystems cover more than 70% of the globe’s surface. These habitats are occupied by a great diversity of marine organisms that produce highly structural diverse metabolites as a defense mechanism. In the last decades, these metabolites have been extracted and isolated in order to test them in different bioassays and assess their potential to fight human diseases. Since traditional extraction techniques are both solvent- and time-consuming, this review emphasizes alternative extraction techniques, such as supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized solvent extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, pulsed electric field-assisted extraction, enzyme-assisted extraction, and extraction with switchable solvents and ionic liquids, applied in the search for marine compounds. Only studies published in the 21st century are considered.

  14. Alternative and efficient extraction methods for marine-derived compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Clara; Valentão, Patrícia; Ferreres, Federico; Andrade, Paula B

    2015-05-01

    Marine ecosystems cover more than 70% of the globe's surface. These habitats are occupied by a great diversity of marine organisms that produce highly structural diverse metabolites as a defense mechanism. In the last decades, these metabolites have been extracted and isolated in order to test them in different bioassays and assess their potential to fight human diseases. Since traditional extraction techniques are both solvent- and time-consuming, this review emphasizes alternative extraction techniques, such as supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized solvent extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, pulsed electric field-assisted extraction, enzyme-assisted extraction, and extraction with switchable solvents and ionic liquids, applied in the search for marine compounds. Only studies published in the 21st century are considered.

  15. LAMP using a disposable pocket warmer for anthrax detection, a highly mobile and reliable method for anti-bioterrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, Ben; Maki, Takayuki; Obara, Takeyuki; Fukumoto, Hitomi; Hagisawa, Kohsuke; Matsushita, Yoshitaro; Okutani, Akiko; Bazartseren, Boldbaastar; Inoue, Satoshi; Sata, Tetsutaro; Katano, Harutaka

    2010-01-01

    A quick, reliable detection system is necessary to deal with bioterrorism. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a DNA amplification method that can amplify specific DNA fragments in isothermal conditions. We developed a new highly mobile and practical LAMP anthrax detection system that uses a disposable pocket warmer without the need for electricity (pocket-warmer LAMP). In our tests, the detection limit of the pocket-warmer LAMP was 1,000 copies of Bacillus anthracis pag and capB gene fragments per tube. The pocket-warmer LAMP also detected B. anthracis genes from DNA extracted from 0.1 volume of a B. anthracis colony. The lower detection limit of the pocket-warmer LAMP was not significantly different from that of a conventional LAMP using a heat block, and was not changed under cold (4 degrees C) or warm (37 degrees C) conditions in a Styrofoam box. The pocket-warmer LAMP could be useful against bioterrorism, and as a sensitive, reliable detection tool in areas with undependable electricity infrastructures.

  16. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container. type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3). nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.). building concerned. details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting o...

  17. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container; type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3); nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.); building concerned; details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting...

  18. Effectiveness of Alternative Extension Methods through Radio Broadcasting in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Bokar; Otoo, Miriam; Fulton, Joan; Lowenberg-DeBoer, James

    2011-01-01

    There is an urgent need to quantify which extension methods are most effective in Africa. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of alternative extension methods on adoption of the triple bagging cowpea storage technology in Niger and Burkina Faso. This study was designed as a quasi-experiment with two alternative extension…

  19. 77 FR 17457 - Work Group on Alternative Test Methods for Commercial Measuring Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Work Group on Alternative Test Methods for Commercial...: The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is forming a Work Group (WG) to examine alternative methods for testing the accuracy of commercial measuring devices including, but not limited...

  20. 76 FR 50221 - International Workshop on Alternative Methods for Human and Veterinary Rabies Vaccine Testing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES International Workshop on Alternative Methods for Human and Veterinary Rabies Vaccine... ``International Workshop on Alternative Methods for Human and Veterinary Rabies Vaccine Testing: State of the... approaches that may reduce, refine, or replace animal use in human and veterinary rabies vaccine...

  1. Evaluating an alternative method for rapid urinary creatinine determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creatinine (CR) is an endogenously-produced chemical routinely assayed in urine specimens to assess kidney function, sample dilution. The industry-standard method for CR determination, known as the kinetic Jaffe (KJ) method, relies on an exponential rate of a colorimetric change,...

  2. Methods Matter: Tracking Health Disparities in Alternative High Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Karen E; Goyal, Mohit; Simonton, Amanda J; Richardson, Rebecca; Morris, Marian; Rew, Lynn

    2017-02-09

    Alternative high school (AHS) students are at-risk for school dropout and engage in high levels of health-risk behaviors that should be monitored over time. They are excluded from most public health surveillance efforts (e.g., Youth Risk Behavior Survey; YRBS), hindering our ability to monitor health disparities and allocate scarce resources to the areas of greatest need. Using active parental consent, we recruited 515 students from 14 AHSs in Texas to take a modified YRBS. We calculated three different participation rates, tracked participation by age of legal consent (≥18 and <18 years), and identified other considerations for obtaining quality data. Being required to use active consent resulted in a much lower cooperation rate among students <18 years (32%) versus those who were ≥18 years and could provide their own consent (57%). Because chronic truancy is prevalent in AHS students, cooperation rates may be more accurate than participation rates based off of enrollment or attendance. Requiring active consent and not having accurate participation rates may result in surveillance data that are of disparate quality. This threatens to mask the needs of AHS students and perpetuate disparities because we are likely missing the highest-risk students within a high-risk sample and cannot generalize findings.

  3. Alternative Methods to Treat Nausea and Vomiting from Cancer Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Sheikhi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy Induced Nausea and Vomiting (CINV is among the most intensive side effects and critical concerns for patients with cancer. Most of these patients experience nausea and vomiting after chemotherapy. Sometimes, this is so annoying that it may prevent them from continuing the therapy. With the recent advances, a variety of therapeutic methods are innovated and applied to control CINV. Among them, the main methods include medicinal therapy, relaxation, and herbal therapy. Yet, using dexamethasone together with massage therapy and ginger is identified as the most effective method.

  4. Alternative method for reconstruction of antihydrogen annihilation vertices

    CERN Document Server

    Amole, C; Andresen , G B; Baquero-Ruiz, M; Bertsche, W; Bowe, P D; Butler, E; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Deller, A; Eriksson, S; Fajans, J; Friesen, T; Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D R; Gutierrez, A; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayano, R S; Hayden, M E; Humphries, A J; Hydomako, R; Jonsell, S; Kurchaninov, L; Madsen, N; Menary, S; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Pusa, P; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Silveira, D M; So, C; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S; Yamazaki,Y

    2012-01-01

    The ALPHA experiment, located at CERN, aims to compare the properties of antihydrogen atoms with those of hydrogen atoms. The neutral antihydrogen atoms are trapped using an octupole magnetic trap. The trap region is surrounded by a three layered silicon detector used to reconstruct the antiproton annihilation vertices. This paper describes a method we have devised that can be used for reconstructing annihilation vertices with a good resolution and is more efficient than the standard method currently used for the same purpose.

  5. Feasibility and acceptability of alternate methods of postnatal data collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Lacey A; Friedrich, Christa; Fahrenwald, Nancy; Specker, Bonny

    2014-05-01

    This study was done in preparation for the launch of the National Children's Study (NCS) main study. The goal of this study was to examine the feasibility (completion rates and completeness of data), acceptability, staff time and cost-effectiveness of three methods of data collection for the postnatal 3- and 9-month questionnaires completed as part of NCS protocol. Eligible NCS participants who were scheduled to complete a postnatal questionnaire at three and nine months were randomly assigned to receive either: (a) telephone data collection (b) web-based data collection, or (c) self-administered (mailed) questionnaires. Event completion rates and satisfaction across the three data collection methods were compared and the influence of socio-demographic factors on completion rates and satisfaction rates was examined. Cost data were compared to data for completion and satisfaction for each of the delivery methods. Completion rates and satisfaction did not differ significantly by method, but completeness of data did, with odds of data completeness higher among web than phone (p data collection methods were seen. Mail and phone data collection were the least complete of the three methods and were the most expensive. Mailed data collection was neither complete nor exceptionally economical. Web-based data collection was the least costly and provided the most complete data. Participants without web access could complete the questionnaire over the phone.

  6. Alternative sample preparation methods for MALDI-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, G.B.; Buchanan, M.V. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Czartoski, T.J. [Kenyon College, Gambier, OH (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Since the introduction of matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization (MALDI), sample preparation has been a limiting step in the applicability of this important technique for mass spectrometric analysis of biomolecules. A number of variations on the original sample preparation method for have been described. The {open_quotes}standard{close_quotes} method of MALDI sample preparation requires mixing a solution containing the analyte and a large excess of matrix, and allowing a small volume of this solution to dry on a probe tip before insertion into the mass spectrometer. The resulting sample can fairly inhomogeneous. As a result, the process of aiming the desorption laser at a favorable spot on the dried sample can be tedious and time-consuming. The authors are evaluating several approaches to MALDI sample preparation, with the goal of developing a faster and more reproducible method.

  7. Conceptual Approaches to Alternate Methods in Toxicological Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan M. Goldberg

    1987-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to public pressure, in vivo methods of toxicity testing is being attempted to be replaced by in vitro methods, such as cell and organ culture, computer modelling and modified LD50 tests using lesser number of animals. Specifically in the case of Draize eye irritancy test using rabbits, a number of refinements have been incorporated by different workers, mainly use of a local anaesthetic which will reduce animal distress without vitiating the test results. The author recommends exploration of new avenues for testing based on the advances in cell biology.

  8. Alternative correction equations in the Jacobi-Davidson method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genseberger, M.; Sleijpen, G.L.G.

    2001-01-01

    The correction equation in the Jacobi-Davidson method is effective in a subspace orthogonal to the current eigenvector approximation, whereas for the continuation of the process only vectors orthogonal to the search subspace are of importance. Such a vector is obtained by orthogonalizing the (approx

  9. ALTERNATIVE METHODS FOR CONDUCTING COMPARATIVE ANALYSES OF CADASTRAL SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The conception of an efficient cadastral system is an important element in the development of each coun-try. It is crucial for the efficient operation of the real estate market-the security and liberty of making transactions, register-ing a property, planning operations, the introduction of an ad valorem tax on property and more rational use of space. InEurope there are different types of cadastral systems, because the countries in Europe have different cultural back-grounds, different economical and social backgrounds. Through the centuries, many types of cadastral systems evolvedand their differences often depend upon local cultural heritage, physical geography, land use, technology, etc. Compara-tive analyses of cadastral systems have been the subjects of many publications and studies in world literature. It was as-sessed that the useful tools in conducting comparative analyses of various cadastral systems include the procedures of statisti-cal inference. This paper presents the results of a project to compare the performance of ten cadastral systems international-ly by creating appropriate integrated indicators of a cadastral system using statistical technique. Such indicators willmake it possible to compare different cadastral systems and present them hierarchically in relation to their quality, struc-ture, as well as legal, organizational and technological solutions. From a good number of methods available, techniquesoriginating from two spheres of statistic inference were selected: distribution free methods and multivariate analysis meth-ods. For analyses with the distribution free methods, FRIEDMAN's test (FRIENDMAN's non-parametric variance analy-sis) as well as KENDALL's test (KENDALL's compatibility ratio) were selected. For analyses with the multivariate analy-sis methods, factor analysis was selected.

  10. An Accelerated Linearized Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Obozinski, and J.-P. Vert. Group lasso with overlap and graph lasso. In Proceedings of the 26th Annual International Conference on Machine Learning...the 30th International Conference on Machine Learning (ICML-13), pages 80–88, 2013. [43] J. Pena. Nash equilibria computation via smoothing techniques...Optima, 78:12–13, 2008. [44] M. J. D. Powell. A method for nonlinear constraints in minimization problems. In Optimization (Sympos., Univ. Keele

  11. Alternative method for quantification of alfa-amylase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DF. Farias

    Full Text Available A modification of the sensitive agar diffusion method was developed for macro-scale determination of alfa-amylase. The proposed modifications lower costs with the utilisation of starch as substrate and agar as supporting medium. Thus, a standard curve was built using alfa-amylase solution from Aspergillus oryzae, with concentrations ranging from 2.4 to 7,500 U.mL-1. Clear radial diffusion zones were measured after 4 hours of incubation at 20 °C. A linear relationship between the logarithm of enzyme activities and the area of clear zones was obtained. The method was validated by testing α-amylase from barley at the concentrations of 2.4; 60; 300 and 1,500 U.mL-1. The proposed method turned out to be simpler, faster, less expensive and able to determine on a macro-scale α-amylase over a wide range (2.4 to 7,500 U.mL-1 in scientific investigation as well as in teaching laboratory activities.

  12. Proximal Alternating Direction Method with Relaxed Proximal Parameters for the Least Squares Covariance Adjustment Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghua Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of seeking a symmetric positive semidefinite matrix in a closed convex set to approximate a given matrix. This problem may arise in several areas of numerical linear algebra or come from finance industry or statistics and thus has many applications. For solving this class of matrix optimization problems, many methods have been proposed in the literature. The proximal alternating direction method is one of those methods which can be easily applied to solve these matrix optimization problems. Generally, the proximal parameters of the proximal alternating direction method are greater than zero. In this paper, we conclude that the restriction on the proximal parameters can be relaxed for solving this kind of matrix optimization problems. Numerical experiments also show that the proximal alternating direction method with the relaxed proximal parameters is convergent and generally has a better performance than the classical proximal alternating direction method.

  13. OZONE: ALTERNATIVE METHOD FOR MITE CONTROL ON SPECK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Cantoni

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at the development of a method for integrated mite control in the industrial production of speck. The investigation were carried out on the premises of five factories in the north-east of Italy. Tyrophagus putrescentiae and T. longior were predominant. The gaseous ozone treatment at low level (0.4 ppm was able to kill mites in a period within 15 days and 1 month. The characteristic layer of mould on the product surface reappears within 1 month from the end of treatment with ozone.

  14. Alternative method for direct measurement of tibial slope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stijak Lazar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The tibial slope is one of the most frequently cited anatomical causes of anterior cruciate ligament trauma. The aim of this study was to determine the possibility of direct measuring of the tibial slope of the knee without prior soft tissue dissection in cadavers. Methods. Measurement was performed on the two groups of samples: osteological and cadaveric. The osteological group consisted of 102 matured tibiae and measurement was performed: indirectly by sagittal photographing of the tibia, and directly by a set of parallel bars. The cadaveric group consisted of 50 cadaveric knees and measurement was performed directly by a set of parallel bars. The difference and correlation between indirect and the direct measurements were observed, which included also measuring of the difference and correlation of the tibial slope on the medial and lateral condyles. Results. A statistically significant difference between the direct and indirect method of measuring (p 0.05. However, the slope on the medial condyle, as well as indirect measurement showed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.01. Conclusion. By the use of a set of parallel bars it is possible to measure the tibial slope directly without removal of the soft tissue. The results of indirect, photographic measurement did not statistically differ from the results of direct measurement of the tibial slope.

  15. An alternative method for smartphone input using AR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuna Kang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available As smartphones came into wide use recently, it has become increasingly popular not only among young people, but among middle-aged people as well. Most smartphones adopt capacitive full touch screen, so touch commands are made by fingers unlike the PDAs in the past that use touch pens. In this case, a significant portion of the smartphone’s screen is blocked by the finger so it is impossible to see the screens around the finger touching the screen; this causes difficulties in making precise inputs. To solve this problem, this research proposes a method of using simple AR markers to improve the interface of smartphones. A marker is placed in front of the smartphone camera. Then, the camera image of the marker is analyzed to determine the position of the marker as the position of the mouse cursor. This method can enable click, double-click, drag-and-drop used in PCs as well as touch, slide, long-touch-input in smartphones. Through this research, smartphone inputs can be made more precise and simple, and show the possibility of the application of a new concept of smartphone interface.

  16. An alternative method for the measurement of neutron flux

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rupa Sarkar; Prasanna Kumar Mondal; Barun Kumar Chatterjee

    2015-10-01

    A simple and easy method for measuring the neutron flux is presented. This paper deals with the experimental verification of neutron dose rate–flux relationship for a non-dissipative medium. Though the neutron flux cannot be obtained from the dose rate in a dissipative medium, experimental result shows that for non-dissipative medium one can obtain the neutron flux from dose rate. We have used a 241 AmBe neutron source for neutron irradiation, and the neutron dose rate and count rate were measured using a NM2B neutron monitor and R-12 superheated droplet detector (SDD), respectively. Here, the neutron flux inferred from the neutron count rate obtained with R-12 SDD shows an excellent agreement with the flux inferred from the neutron dose rate in a non-dissipative medium.

  17. Alternative Method for Solving Traveling Salesman Problem by Evolutionary Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Čičková

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the application of Self Organizing Migrating Algorithm (SOMA to the well-known optimization problem - Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP. SOMA is a relatively new optimization method that is based on Evolutionary Algorithms that are originally focused on solving non-linear programming problems that contain continuous variables. The TSP has model character in many branches of Operation Research because of its computational complexity; therefore the use of Evolutionary Algorithm requires some special approaches to guarantee feasibility of solutions. In this article two concrete examples of TSP as 8 cities set and 25 cities set are given to demonstrate the practical use of SOMA. Firstly, the penalty approach is applied as a simple way to guarantee feasibility of solution. Then, new approach that works only on feasible solutions is presented.

  18. ALTERNATING METHOD STUDY ON STRESS ANALYSIS OF SURROUNDING ROCK FOR TWO RANDOM GEOMETRY TUNNELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕爱钟; 张路青

    1997-01-01

    The stress analysis of surrounding rock for two random geometry tunnels is studied inthis paper by using Schwarz's alternating method. The simple and effective alternating algorithm is found, in which the surplus surface force is approximated by Fourier series, thus the iteration derivation can be conducted according to the precision required, finally, the stress results with high precision are obtained.

  19. A von Neumann Alternating Method for Finding Common Solutions to Variational Inequalities

    CERN Document Server

    Censor, Yair; Reich, Simeon

    2012-01-01

    Modifying von Neumann's alternating projections algorithm, we obtain an alternating method for solving the recently introduced Common Solutions to Variational Inequalities Problem (CSVIP). For simplicity, we mainly confine our attention to the two-set CSVIP, which entails finding common solutions to two unrelated variational inequalities in Hilbert space.

  20. Alternative sintering methods compared to conventional thermal sintering for inkjet printed silver nanoparticle ink

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niittynen, J.; Abbel, R.; Mäntysalo, M.; Perelaer, J.; Schubert, U.S.; Lupo, D.

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution several alternative sintering methods are compared to traditional thermal sintering as high temperature and long process time of thermal sintering are increasing the costs of inkjet-printing and preventing the use of this technology in large scale manufacturing. Alternative sint

  1. Innovative Solutions for Words with Emphasis: Alternative Methods of Braille Transcription

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei-Hannan, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    The author of this study proposed two alternative methods for transcribing words with emphasis into braille and compared the use of the symbols for emphasis with the current braille code. The results showed that students were faster at locating words presented in one of the alternate formats, but that there was no difference in students' accuracy…

  2. NEW POSSIBILITIES OF RAISING RABBIT YOUNG BY ALTERNATIVE NURSING METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tünde Gyarmati

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In the first experiment 360 Pannon White kits from 45 litters were divided into 3 groups. The kits in group SS were suckled once a day during the first 35 days of life (traditional method of nursing. Group DD was raised by 2 does and the kits were suckled both in the morning and in the evening until 35 days of age. The kits of the 3 rd group (D0 were suckled twice a day for 23 days, after which they were weaned. Rabbits which were suckled twice a day consumed 89 % more milk until 23 days of age than those of the SS kits. In the second experiment authors used different management systems, to investigate the possibilities of “double-suckling”. Both nulliparous as multiparous does were treated to induce pseudopregnancy (by means of GnRH. They were used as second doe and suckled the kits in the afternoon. Pseudopregnant does produced milk (nulliparous does less than does which had previously produced litters, but in conditions of controlled suckling they were not willing to suckle the young. In a third experiment, does (n=44 were inseminated 11 days after kindling. Weaning was performed at the age of 21 days and does could systematically serve as second mother for the litters born at the same day. The “additional” does that nursed the young in the afternoon produced 65 % of the milk quantity produced by the natural mother between days 0 and 21.

  3. 27 CFR 22.22 - Alternate methods or procedures; and emergency variations from requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF TAX-FREE ALCOHOL Administrative Provisions Authorities § 22.22 Alternate methods or procedures..., conditions or limitations set forth in the approval, authority for the variation from requirements...

  4. 27 CFR 20.22 - Alternate methods or procedures; and emergency variations from requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Administrative Provisions Authorities § 20.22 Alternate methods or... forth in the approval, authority for the variation from requirements is automatically terminated and...

  5. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Pine Bluff, Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensminger, J.T.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.D.; Morrisey, J.A.; Staub, W.P.; Boston, C.R.; Hunsaker, D.B.; Leibsch, E.; Rickert, L.W.; Tolbert, V.R.; Zimmerman, G.P.

    1991-09-01

    The Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) near Pine Bluff, Arkansas, is one of eight continental United States (CONUS) Army installations where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at PBA consists of approximately 12%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts). The purpose of this report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at PBA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those on which the FPEIS is based. New population data were used to compute fatalities using the same computation methods and values for all other parameters as in the FPEIS. Results indicate that all alternatives are indistinguishable when the potential health impacts to the PBA community are considered. However, risks from on-site disposal are in all cases equal to or less than risks from other alternatives. Furthermore, no unique resources with the potential to prevent or delay implementation of on-site disposal at PBA have been identified.

  6. Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Ophthalmic Medications: Relevant Allergens and Alternative Testing Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, Katherine R; Warshaw, Erin M

    Allergic contact dermatitis is an important cause of periorbital dermatitis. Topical ophthalmic agents are relevant sensitizers. Contact dermatitis to ophthalmic medications can be challenging to diagnose and manage given the numerous possible offending agents, including both active and inactive ingredients. Furthermore, a substantial body of literature reports false-negative patch test results to ophthalmic agents. Subsequently, numerous alternative testing methods have been described. This review outlines the periorbital manifestations, causative agents, and alternative testing methods of allergic contact dermatitis to ophthalmic medications.

  7. Delineation of soil and groundwater contamination using geophysical methods at a waste disposal site in Canakkale, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, M Ali; Ozürlan, Gülçin; Sengül, Ebru

    2007-12-01

    Direct current (DC) resistivity, self potential (SP) and very low frequency electromagnetic (VLF-EM) measurements are carried out to detect the spread of groundwater contamination and to locate possible pathways of leachate plumes, that resulted from an open waste disposal site of Canakkale municipality. There is no proper management of the waste disposal site in which industrial and domestic wastes were improperly dumped. Furthermore, because of the dumpsite is being located at the catchment area borders of a small creek and is being topographically at a high elevation relative to the urban area, the groundwater is expected to be hazardously contaminated. Interpretations of DC resistivity geoelectrical data showed a low resistivity zone (geophysical investigations and the results of previously collected geochemical and hydrochemical measurements.

  8. NordVal: A Nordic system for validation of alternative microbiological methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Sven

    2007-01-01

    NordVal was created in 1999 by the Nordic Committee of Senior Officials for Food Issues under the Nordic Council of Ministers. The Committee adopted the following objective for NordVal: NordVal evaluates the performance and field of application of alternative microbiological methods. This includes...... analyses of food, water, feed, animal faeces and food environmental samples in the Nordic countries. NordVal is managed by a steering group, which is appointed by the National Food Administrations in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The background for creation of NordVal was a Danish......Val validated and certified methods for meat intended for Finland and Sweden. NordVal has at present 25 validated and certified alternative microbiological methods registered. The methods comprise ELISA, PCR and DNA based methods for Salmonella, Listeria and Campylobacter. Alternative culture based methods...

  9. The Continuized Log-Linear Method: An Alternative to the Kernel Method of Continuization in Test Equating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianyou

    2008-01-01

    Von Davier, Holland, and Thayer (2004) laid out a five-step framework of test equating that can be applied to various data collection designs and equating methods. In the continuization step, they presented an adjusted Gaussian kernel method that preserves the first two moments. This article proposes an alternative continuization method that…

  10. Korean Reference HLW Disposal System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Heui Joo; Lee, J. Y.; Kim, S. S. (and others)

    2008-03-15

    This report outlines the results related to the development of Korean Reference Disposal System for High-level radioactive wastes. The research has been supported around for 10 years through a long-term research plan by MOST. The reference disposal method was selected via the first stage of the research during which the technical guidelines for the geological disposal of HLW were determined too. At the second stage of the research, the conceptual design of the reference disposal system was made. For this purpose the characteristics of the reference spent fuels from PWR and CANDU reactors were specified, and the material and specifications of the canisters were determined in term of structural analysis and manufacturing capability in Korea. Also, the mechanical and chemical characteristics of the domestic Ca-bentonite were analyzed in order to supply the basic design parameters of the buffer. Based on these parameters the thermal and mechanical analysis of the near-field was carried out. Thermal-Hydraulic-Mechanical behavior of the disposal system was analyzed. The reference disposal system was proposed through the second year research. At the final third stage of the research, the Korean Reference disposal System including the engineered barrier, surface facilities, and underground facilities was proposed through the performance analysis of the disposal system.

  11. Optimal Alternative to the Akima's Method of Smooth Interpolation Applied in Diabetology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Paul

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available It is presented a new method of cubic piecewise smooth interpolation applied to experimental data obtained by glycemic profile for diabetics. This method is applied to create a soft useful in clinical diabetology. The method give an alternative to the Akima's procedure of the derivatives computation on the knots from [Akima, J. Assoc. Comput. Mach., 1970] and have an optimal property.

  12. Alternative sintering methods compared to conventional thermal sintering for inkjet printed silver nanoparticle ink

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niittynen, Juha, E-mail: juha.niittynen@tut.fi [Department of Electronics and Communications Engineering, Tampere University of Technology, Korkeakoulunkatu 3, 33720 Tampere (Finland); Abbel, Robert [Holst Centre, High Tech Campus 31, 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands); Mäntysalo, Matti [Department of Electronics and Communications Engineering, Tampere University of Technology, Korkeakoulunkatu 3, 33720 Tampere (Finland); Perelaer, Jolke; Schubert, Ulrich S. [Laboratory of Organic and Macromolecular Chemistry (IOMC), Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Humboldtstrasse 10, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Jena Center for Soft Matter (JCSM), Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Humboldtstrasse 10, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Lupo, Donald [Department of Electronics and Communications Engineering, Tampere University of Technology, Korkeakoulunkatu 3, 33720 Tampere (Finland)

    2014-04-01

    In this contribution several alternative sintering methods are compared to traditional thermal sintering as high temperature and long process time of thermal sintering are increasing the costs of inkjet-printing and preventing the use of this technology in large scale manufacturing. Alternative sintering techniques are evaluated based on the electrical and mechanical performance they enable on inkjet-printed structures as well as their potential feasibility for large scale manufacturing. Photonic sintering was identified as the most promising alternative to thermal sintering. - Highlights: • Comparison of alternative sintering techniques for large-scale electronics manufacturing • Laser, plasma and photonic sintering of nanoparticle silver ink tested • Electrical and mechanical properties of sintered inks tested • Microstructure analysis used to explain the different electrical and mechanical properties • Photonic sintering identified as the most promising alternative technique.

  13. PROBLEMS CONCERNING ALTERNATIVE EVALUATION METHODS: THE CASE OF SCIENCE AND TEHNOLOGY TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin DEVECİOĞLU-KAYMAKÇI

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent changes on the Science and Tehnology (ST curriculum have required using alternative evaluation methods in learning and teaching process. The aim of this study is to determine the ST teachers’ problems while using the alternative evaluation methods during their courses. To achieve this, semi-structured interviews have been conducted with 10 ST teachers from different parts of Trabzon during the academic year 2008-2009. The data, analyzed qualitatively, reveals that the teachers have important difficulties in determining, using and evaluating these methods. At the end of the research, it has been concluded that besides the lack of physical infrastructure, labs and libraries, computer and other technologies in their schools, most of the teachers lack the knowledge and skills to implement these methods. The result of the study has shown that ST teachers need an adaptation process to appropriate the aims and importance of alternative evaluation methods effectively.

  14. Comparison between the KBS-3 method and the deep borehole for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel; Jaemfoerelse mellan KBS-3-metoden och deponering i djupa borrhaal foer slutligt omhaendertagande av anvaent kaernbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grundfelt, Bertil (Kemakta Konsult AB (Sweden))

    2010-09-15

    In this report a comparison is made between disposal of spent nuclear fuel according to the KBS-3 method with disposal in very deep boreholes. The objective has been to make a broad comparison between the two methods, and by doing so to pinpoint factors that distinguish them from each other. The ambition has been to make an as fair comparison as possible despite that the quality of the data of relevance is very different between the methods

  15. Unfolding the mystery of alternative splicing through a unique method of in vivo selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ravindra N

    2007-05-01

    Alternative splicing of pre-messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) is a fundamental mechanism of gene regulation in higher eukaryotes. In addition to creating protein diversity, alternative splicing provides the safest mode of gene evolution. Of late, more and more forms of alternatively spliced transcripts (mRNAs) are being discovered for key genes. Some of the alternatively spliced transcripts are also associated with major human diseases. This has created a sense of urgency to find the methods by which regulation of alternative splicing of specific exons could be best understood. Here I review a powerful in vivo selection method that uses a combinatorial library of partially random sequences. Several advantages of this method include in vivo analysis of large sequences, identification of unique sequence motifs, determination of relative strength of splice sites and identification of long-distance interactions including role of RNA structures. This unique method could be applied to identify tissue-specific cis-elements. Similarly, the method is suitable to find cis-elements that become active in response to specific treatments of cells. Considering this unbiased method uses in vivo conditions, it has potential to identify critical regulatory elements as therapeutic targets for a growing number of splicing-associated diseases.

  16. Biodiesel production by biocatalysis using alternative method for lipase immobilization in hydrogel

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Marder; Mariéli Milanesi Ceolin; Mariele da Silva Mazuim; Rosana de Cassia de Souza Schneider; Marilda Teixeira Macagnan; Valeriano Antonio Corbellini

    2009-01-01

    The society has been looking for alternatives in order to stop the process of environmental destruction installed in the world, however, starting from last century, a new vision on the indiscriminate use of the environmental resources started to be discussed leading to the use of new technologies of production of cleaner fuel, as the biodiesel, produced from vegetable oils. The enzymatic processes are a production alternative, for they are methods with losses reduction and larger efficiency, ...

  17. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Anniston Army Depot, Anniston, Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Zimmerman, G.P.; Hillsman, E.L.; Miller, R.L.; Schoepfle, G.M.; Johnson, R.O.; Tolbert, V.R.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Rickert, L.W.; Rogers, G.O.; Staub, W.P.

    1990-09-01

    The purpose of this Phase I report is to examined the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at Anniston Army Depot (ANAD) in light of more detailed and more recent data than those included in the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EPEIS). Two principal issues are addressed: (1) whether or not the new data would result in identification of on-site disposal at ANAD as the environmentally preferred alternative (using the same selection method and data analysis tools as in the FPEIS), and (2) whether or not the new data indicate the presence of significant environmental resources that could be affected by on-site disposal at ANAD. In addition, a status report is presented on the maturity of the disposal technology (and now it could affect on-site disposal at ANAD). Inclusion of these more recent data into the FPEIS decision method resulted in confirmation of on-site disposal for ANAD. No unique resources with the potential to prevent or delay implementation of on-site disposal at ANAD have been identified. A review of the technology status identified four principal technology developments that have occurred since publication of the FPEIS and should be of value in the implementation of on-site disposal at ANAD: the disposal of nonlethal agent at Pine Bluff Arsenal, located near Pine Bluff, Arkansas; construction and testing of facilities for disposal of stored lethal agent at Johnston Atoll, located about 1300 km (800 miles) southwest of Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean; lethal agent disposal tests at the chemical agent pilot plant operations at Tooele Army Depot, located near Salt Lake City, Utah; and equipment advances. 18 references, 13 figs., 10 tabs.

  18. THE ANALYSIS OF WASTES LEFT AFTER OIL SEEDS CLEANING AND THE METHODS OF THEIR DISPOSAL AND PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smychagin E. O.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article cites the data about the amount and productive capacity of oil producing enterprises in the Russian Federation on the whole, as well as in Krasnodar region and the Republic of Adygeya. It is shown, that innovations in the field of waste disposal and waste recycling left after oil production are the most effective, as they contribute to the cost reduction on disposal of waste on landfill and thus, improve environment considerably. They also provide additional revenue from the sale of new products, received after waste recycling. The authors examined literature data on compositional and chemical analysis of waste left after cleaning main oil-bearing crops, processed by oil-producing industry of the Russian Federation (such as sunflower, rape, soy-beans . The analysis of available technologies of their disposal, such as waste incineration, pyrolysis, worm composting, landfilling, biothermal composting, granulationa of waste and the processing of undersow is submitted to your attention. The analysis of advantages and disadvantages of all available technologies was carried out, and it was noticed that neither of available technologies had become common use. The most prospective direction for the development of efficient technology of waste recycling has been chosen, which includes the use of waste pressing after their rational preparation and isolation of uniform and valuable components. It is shown, that the primary task for the development of such technology is the study of waste composition of raw materials and industrial cleaning of sunflower seeds, soy-beans, and modern sorts of rape and its hybrids

  19. A Web-based Alternative Non-animal Method Database for Safety Cosmetic Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung Won; Kim, Bae-Hwan

    2016-07-01

    Animal testing was used traditionally in the cosmetics industry to confirm product safety, but has begun to be banned; alternative methods to replace animal experiments are either in development, or are being validated, worldwide. Research data related to test substances are critical for developing novel alternative tests. Moreover, safety information on cosmetic materials has neither been collected in a database nor shared among researchers. Therefore, it is imperative to build and share a database of safety information on toxicological mechanisms and pathways collected through in vivo, in vitro, and in silico methods. We developed the CAMSEC database (named after the research team; the Consortium of Alternative Methods for Safety Evaluation of Cosmetics) to fulfill this purpose. On the same website, our aim is to provide updates on current alternative research methods in Korea. The database will not be used directly to conduct safety evaluations, but researchers or regulatory individuals can use it to facilitate their work in formulating safety evaluations for cosmetic materials. We hope this database will help establish new alternative research methods to conduct efficient safety evaluations of cosmetic materials.

  20. 76 FR 23323 - Meeting of the Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods (SACATM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... Methods Report on Peer Review Panel Meeting: Evaluation of an In Vitro Estrogen Receptor Transcriptional... (ICCVAM), the NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM... oral presentation are asked to notify Dr. Lori White, NTP Designated Federal Officer, via...

  1. Validation of Alternative In Vitro Methods to Animal Testing: Concepts, Challenges, Processes and Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesinger, Claudius; Desprez, Bertrand; Coecke, Sandra; Casey, Warren; Zuang, Valérie

    This chapter explores the concepts, processes, tools and challenges relating to the validation of alternative methods for toxicity and safety testing. In general terms, validation is the process of assessing the appropriateness and usefulness of a tool for its intended purpose. Validation is routinely used in various contexts in science, technology, the manufacturing and services sectors. It serves to assess the fitness-for-purpose of devices, systems, software up to entire methodologies. In the area of toxicity testing, validation plays an indispensable role: "alternative approaches" are increasingly replacing animal models as predictive tools and it needs to be demonstrated that these novel methods are fit for purpose. Alternative approaches include in vitro test methods, non-testing approaches such as predictive computer models up to entire testing and assessment strategies composed of method suites, data sources and decision-aiding tools. Data generated with alternative approaches are ultimately used for decision-making on public health and the protection of the environment. It is therefore essential that the underlying methods and methodologies are thoroughly characterised, assessed and transparently documented through validation studies involving impartial actors. Importantly, validation serves as a filter to ensure that only test methods able to produce data that help to address legislative requirements (e.g. EU's REACH legislation) are accepted as official testing tools and, owing to the globalisation of markets, recognised on international level (e.g. through inclusion in OECD test guidelines). Since validation creates a credible and transparent evidence base on test methods, it provides a quality stamp, supporting companies developing and marketing alternative methods and creating considerable business opportunities. Validation of alternative methods is conducted through scientific studies assessing two key hypotheses, reliability and relevance of the

  2. An Exploratory Study of a Subspace Iteration Method as an Alternative to the QR Method for Floquet Eigenanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achar, N. S.; Gaonkar, G. H.

    1994-01-01

    Floquet eigenanalysis requires a few dominant eigenvalues of the Floquet transition matrix (FTM). Although the QR method is used almost exclusively, it is expensive for such partial eigenanalysis; the operation counts and, thereby, the approximate machine-time grow cubically with the matrix order. Accordingly, for Floquet eigenanalysis, the Arnold-Saad method, a subspace iteration method, is investigated as an alternative to the QR method. The two methods are compared for machine-time efficiency and the residual errors of the corresponding eigenpairs. The Arnolds-Saad method takes much less machine-time than the QR method with comparable computational reliability and offers promise fpr large-scale Floquet eigenanalysis.

  3. A methodology to quantify the differences between alternative methods of heart rate variability measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-González, M A; Fernández-Chimeno, M; Guede-Fernández, F; Ferrer-Mileo, V; Argelagós-Palau, A; Álvarez-Gómez, L; Parrado, E; Moreno, J; Capdevila, L; Ramos-Castro, J

    2016-01-01

    This work proposes a systematic procedure to report the differences between heart rate variability time series obtained from alternative measurements reporting the spread and mean of the differences as well as the agreement between measuring procedures and quantifying how stationary, random and normal the differences between alternative measurements are. A description of the complete automatic procedure to obtain a differences time series (DTS) from two alternative methods, a proposal of a battery of statistical tests, and a set of statistical indicators to better describe the differences in RR interval estimation are also provided. Results show that the spread and agreement depend on the choice of alternative measurements and that the DTS cannot be considered generally as a white or as a normally distributed process. Nevertheless, in controlled measurements the DTS can be considered as a stationary process.

  4. Study of alternative strategies and methods for conserving energy. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-04-01

    Objectives of the study were: (1) to identify and analyze alternative methods, means, and techniques, for controlling and moderating the consumption of energy; (2) to evaluate the impact of regulatory actions, taxes, incentives, subsidies or other strategies and methods on alternative physical technologies for energy conservation; and (3) to evaluate, macro- and micro-economic impacts and consequences of alternative energy conservation methods, means and techniques on work, leisure, life styles, and institutions on a local, regional, and national level. The study excludes automobile and related road vehicle energy consumption control strategies, but includes those for residential, commercial, industrial, and other energy end-use sectors. The time frame is from 1973 to 1990/2000, with emphasis on the period 1973-1980.

  5. Depleted uranium disposal options evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.; Otis, M.D. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Waste Management Technology Div.

    1994-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, has chartered a study to evaluate alternative management strategies for depleted uranium (DU) currently stored throughout the DOE complex. Historically, DU has been maintained as a strategic resource because of uses for DU metal and potential uses for further enrichment or for uranium oxide as breeder reactor blanket fuel. This study has focused on evaluating the disposal options for DU if it were considered a waste. This report is in no way declaring these DU reserves a ``waste,`` but is intended to provide baseline data for comparison with other management options for use of DU. To PICS considered in this report include: Retrievable disposal; permanent disposal; health hazards; radiation toxicity and chemical toxicity.

  6. TECHNOLOGICAL WASTE DISPOSAL BY SUBSURFACE INJECTION TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Branimir

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of oilfield and solution mining technology to subsurface disposal of technological wastes has proven to be an environmentally, technically and economically suitable method for the disposal of the waste generated in petroleum industry as well as other industrial branches. This paper describes the subsurface injection technology, the disposal formation characteristics, the waste disposal well design, evaluates the environmental impact of above mentioned technology and proposes a solutions for disposing of technological wastes in Croatia or nerby region by implementing underground injection technology according to the world experience (the paper is published in Croatian.

  7. Disposal unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Ralph

    2004-03-16

    The invention relates to a method and apparatus for separating toxic compounds from gaseous mixtures, and more particularly to a method and a portable apparatus for the continuous removal of fluorine and compounds thereof from gaseous mixtures.

  8. Solution of nonlinear Volterra-Hammerstein integral equations using alternative Legendre collocation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohrab Bazm

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Alternative Legendre polynomials (ALPs are used to approximate the solution of a class of nonlinear Volterra-Hammerstein integral equations. For this purpose, the operational matrices of integration and the product for ALPs are derived. Then, using the collocation method, the considered problem is reduced into a set of nonlinear algebraic equations. The error analysis of the method is given and the efficiency and accuracy are illustrated by applying the method to some examples.

  9. THE ALTERNATING SEGMENT CRANK-NICOLSON METHOD FOR SOLVING CONVECTION-DIFFUSION EQUATION WITH VARIABLE COEFFICIENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文洽

    2003-01-01

    A new discrete approximation to the convection term of the covection-diffusionequation was constructed in Saul' yev type difference scheme, then the alternating segmentCrank-Nicolson( ASC-N) method for solving the convection-diffusion equation with variablecoefficient was developed. The ASC-N method is unconditionally stable. Numericalexperiment shows that this method has the obvious property of parallelism and accuracy. Themethod can be used directly on parallel computers.

  10. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Umatilla Depot Activity, Hermiston, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, G.P.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.O.; Miller, R.L.; Patton, T.G.; Schoepfle, G.M.; Tolbert, V.R.; Feldman, D.L.; Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Morrissey, J.; Rickert, L.W.; Staub, W.P.; West, D.C.

    1993-02-01

    The Umatilla Depot Activity (UMDA) near Hermiston, Oregon, is one of eight US Army installations in the continental United States where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored, and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at UMDA consists of 11.6%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts), using a method based on five measures of risk for potential human health and ecosystem/environmental effects; the effectiveness and adequacy of emergency preparedness capabilities also played a key role in the FPEIS selection methodology. In some instances, the FPEIS included generic data and assumptions that were developed to allow a consistent comparison of potential impacts among programmatic alternatives and did not include detailed conditions at each of the eight installations. The purpose of this Phase 1 report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at UMDA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those included in the FPEIS. Specifically, this Phase 1 report is intended to either confirm or reject the validity of on-site disposal for the UMDA stockpile. Using the same computation methods as in the FPEIS, new population data were used to compute potential fatalities from hypothetical disposal accidents. Results indicate that onsite disposal is clearly preferable to either continued storage at UMDA or transportation of the UMDA stockpile to another depot for disposal.

  11. New Bedford Harbor Superfund Project, Acushnet River Estuary Engineering Feasibility Study of Dredging and Dredged Material Disposal Alternatives. Report 5. Evaluation of Leachate Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-01

    silver-specific ion probe. From these data the dispersion coefficient was computed using the F-curve method described by Levenspiel (1972). Additional...Neely and G. E. Blaw, eds., CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, Vol I, pp 49-64. Levenspiel , 0. 1972. Chemical Reaction Engineering, John Wiley and Sons, New York...described in Levenspiel (1972) were used to reduce the bromide data. Bromide concentrations in leachate collected at the permeameter exit and sample

  12. Modeling alternatives for basin-level hydropower development: 1. Optimization methods and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shoou-Yuh; Liaw, Shu-Liang; Railsback, Steven F.; Sale, Michael J.

    1992-10-01

    Development of multiple hydroelectric projects at navigation dams on large river systems can result in a number of environmental impacts, including potential reductions in dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations. This study presents a method for generating hydropower development alternatives for evaluation by planners by quantifying the trade-offs between water quality and power generation. This method employs a Streeter-Phelps model to simulate DO and the bounded implicit enumeration algorithm to solve an optimization model formulated to maximize hydroelectric energy production. A portion of the upper Ohio River basin was selected to illustrate the methodology. The results indicate that various alternatives that meet the specified DO constraints can be generated efficiently. These alternatives are nearly optimal solutions with respect to the modeled objectives but are different with respect to decision variables.

  13. An Alternative Method to Compute the Bit Error Probability of Modulation Schemes Subject to Nakagami- Fading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeiro Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents an alternative method for determining exact expressions for the bit error probability (BEP of modulation schemes subject to Nakagami- fading. In this method, the Nakagami- fading channel is seen as an additive noise channel whose noise is modeled as the ratio between Gaussian and Nakagami- random variables. The method consists of using the cumulative density function of the resulting noise to obtain closed-form expressions for the BEP of modulation schemes subject to Nakagami- fading. In particular, the proposed method is used to obtain closed-form expressions for the BEP of -ary quadrature amplitude modulation ( -QAM, -ary pulse amplitude modulation ( -PAM, and rectangular quadrature amplitude modulation ( -QAM under Nakagami- fading. The main contribution of this paper is to show that this alternative method can be used to reduce the computational complexity for detecting signals in the presence of fading.

  14. 36 CFR 228.57 - Types of disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Types of disposal. 228.57... Disposal of Mineral Materials Types and Methods of Disposal § 228.57 Types of disposal. Except as provided... qualified bidder after formal advertising and other appropriate public notice; (b) Sale by...

  15. Report to the Congress on alternative methods for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to fulfill the requirements of Public Law No. 101-46, approved June 30, 1989. The study describes and evaluates alternative methods for financing the future expansion of the Strategic petroleum Reserve (SPR), both to the current target level of 750 million barrels and to potential future levels of up to one billion barrels.

  16. Comparison of DNA Pyrosequencing with Alternative Methods for Identification of Mycobacteria▿

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Identification of mycobacterial clinical isolates by pyrosequencing within the hypervariable A region of the 16S rRNA gene was compared to other identification methods. For >90% of isolates, these identifications correlated to the level of complex or species. For identification of many mycobacteria, pyrosequencing offers an inexpensive alternative to traditional sequencing.

  17. Method and apparatus for detecting cyber attacks on an alternating current power grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEachern, Alexander; Hofmann, Ronald

    2017-04-11

    A method and apparatus for detecting cyber attacks on remotely-operable elements of an alternating current distribution grid. Two state estimates of the distribution grid are prepared, one of which uses micro-synchrophasors. A difference between the two state estimates indicates a possible cyber attack.

  18. Communicative Approach: An Alternative Method Used in Improving Students' Academic Reading Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irmawati, Noer Doddy

    2012-01-01

    Academic reading is a difficult subject to be mastered. It is needed because most of books or references are written in English. The emphasis is on academic reading which becomes a compulsory subject that must be taught and understood in Faculty of Letters UAD Yogyakarta. Communicative approach is used and applied as an alternative method in the…

  19. Consequences for welfare and pension buffers of alternative methods of discounting future pensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Bucciol; R.M.W.J. Beetsma

    2011-01-01

    We explore the implications of alternative methods of discounting future pension outlays for the valuation of funded pension liabilities. Measured liabilities affect the asset-liability ratio of pension funds and, thereby, their policies. Our framework for analysis is an applied many-generation OLG

  20. The Duplicate-Replacement System: An Alternative Method of Handling Book Duplicates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Russell T.

    This report studied the alternative method of using book duplicates as replacement copies for worn or missing stack items. The simple operational procedure which is proposed and evaluated could be adapted to virtually any library setting. When tested in Brigham Young University's Lee Library, it was found that such a procedure cost an estimated…

  1. Alternating Renewal Process Models for Behavioral Observation: Simulation Methods, Software, and Validity Illustrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustejovsky, James E.; Runyon, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Direct observation recording procedures produce reductive summary measurements of an underlying stream of behavior. Previous methodological studies of these recording procedures have employed simulation methods for generating random behavior streams, many of which amount to special cases of a statistical model known as the alternating renewal…

  2. Accelerating the Use of Weblogs as an Alternative Method to Deliver Case-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Charlie; Wu, Jiinpo; Yang, Samuel C.

    2008-01-01

    Weblog technology is an alternative medium to deliver the case-based method of learning business concepts. The social nature of this technology can potentially promote active learning and enhance analytical ability of students. The present research investigates the primary factors contributing to the adoption of Weblog technology by students to…

  3. Record-keeping as an Alternative Method οf Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Androniki Kouvdou

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The basic topic of this chapter is the description of an alternative method of assessment which supplements traditional objective techniques (i.e. testing, while counterbalancing their limitations. This alternative method, known as ‘record-keeping’, involves the systematic collection and recording of information about learner progress and aims at providing a more complete and valid formative assessment of their developmental abilities in specified areas. More particularly, this chapter presents a small-scale case study, which was carried out in the sixth grade of a primary school and lasted three months. The subjects of this case study were four twelve-year-old learners and its purpose was to investigate the potential of ‘record-keeping’ as an alternative method of assessing oracy skills in the foreign language. The data that derived from the case study reinforce the usefulness and validity of the particular method of assessment. The goals of the experimental assessment design, which entailed the recording and gradual development of learner oracy skills as well as the enhancement of motivation and awareness of their relevant sub-skills, were accomplished to a considerable degree. Additionally, the learners responded positively to the implemented assessment project, while being actively involved in it, which further substantiates its effectiveness. Alternative assessment, however, is a large area, whose full potential of implementation calls for further investigation.

  4. Using a Forensic Research Method for Establishing an Alternative Method for Audience Measurement in Print Advertising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Marcus; Krause, Niels; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe

    2012-01-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of the survey approach are discussed. It is hypothesized that observational methods sometimes constitute reasonable and powerful substitute to traditional survey methods. Under certain circumstances, unobtrusive methods may even outperform traditional techniques. Non-...

  5. Surveying immigrants without sampling frames - evaluating the success of alternative field methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichel, David; Morales, Laura

    2017-01-01

    This paper evaluates the sampling methods of an international survey, the Immigrant Citizens Survey, which aimed at surveying immigrants from outside the European Union (EU) in 15 cities in seven EU countries. In five countries, no sample frame was available for the target population. Consequently, alternative ways to obtain a representative sample had to be found. In three countries 'location sampling' was employed, while in two countries traditional methods were used with adaptations to reach the target population. The paper assesses the main methodological challenges of carrying out a survey among a group of immigrants for whom no sampling frame exists. The samples of the survey in these five countries are compared to results of official statistics in order to assess the accuracy of the samples obtained through the different sampling methods. It can be shown that alternative sampling methods can provide meaningful results in terms of core demographic characteristics although some estimates differ to some extent from the census results.

  6. An evaluation of alternative cleaning methods for removing an organic contaminant from a stainless steel part

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, J.L.

    1996-08-01

    As of December 1995, the manufacture of Freon, along with many other chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), was prohibited by the Clean Air Act of 1990 (CAA). The ban of CFC solvents has forced manufacturers across the country to search for alternative metal cleaning techniques. The objective of this study was to develop a thorough, scientific based approach for resolving one specific manufacturer`s problem of removing organic contamination from a stainless steel part. This objective was accomplished with an approach that involved: (1) defining the problem, (2) identifying the process constraints, (3) researching alternate cleaning methods, (4) researching applicable government regulations, (5) performing a scientific evaluation and (6) drawing conclusions.

  7. An alternative method for modeling the size distribution of top wealth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanjun; You, Shibing

    2016-09-01

    The Pareto distribution has been widely applied in modeling the distribution of wealth, as well as top incomes, cities and firms. However, recent evidence has shown that the Pareto distribution is not consistent with many situations in which it was previously considered applicable. We propose an alternative method for estimating the upper tail distribution of wealth and suggest a new Lorenz curve for building models to provide such estimates. Applying our new models to the Forbes World's Billionaire Lists, we show that they significantly outperform the Pareto Lorenz curve as well as some other popular alternatives.

  8. The Worldsheet Formulation as an Alternative Method for Simulating Dynamical Fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Fort, H

    1998-01-01

    The recently proposed worldsheet formulation of lattice fermions is tested for the first time carrying out a simulation for the simplest model: the one-flavor, strictly massless lattice Schwinger model. A main advantage of this alternative method for simulating dynamical fermions consists in its economy: it involves many fewer degrees of freedom than the ordinary Kogut-Susskind formulation. The known continuum limit is reproduced by the method for relatively small lattices.

  9. An Alternating Direction Method for Convex Quadratic Second-Order Cone Programming with Bounded Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Xuewen Mu; Yaling Zhang

    2015-01-01

    An alternating direction method is proposed for convex quadratic second-order cone programming problems with bounded constraints. In the algorithm, the primal problem is equivalent to a separate structure convex quadratic programming over second-order cones and a bounded set. At each iteration, we only need to compute the metric projection onto the second-order cones and the projection onto the bound set. The result of convergence is given. Numerical results demonstrate that our method is ...

  10. A temperature control method for shortening thermal cycling time to achieve rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a disposable polymer microfluidic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Minqiang; Perch-Nielsen, Ivan R.; Sørensen, Karen S.; Skov, Julia; Sun, Yi; Duong Bang, Dang; Pedersen, Michael E.; Hansen, Mikkel F.; Wolff, Anders

    2013-07-01

    We present a temperature control method capable of effectively shortening the thermal cycling time of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a disposable polymer microfluidic device with an external heater and a temperature sensor. The method employs optimized temperature overshooting and undershooting steps to achieve a rapid ramping between the temperature steps for DNA denaturation, annealing and extension. The temperature dynamics within the microfluidic PCR chamber was characterized and the overshooting and undershooting parameters were optimized using the temperature-dependent fluorescence signal from Rhodamine B. The method was validated with the PCR amplification of mecA gene (162 bp) from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacterium (MRSA), where the time for 30 cycles was reduced from 50 min (without over- and undershooting) to 20 min.

  11. Sacolas plásticas: destinações sustentáveis e alternativas de substituição Plastic bags: sustainable disposal and alternative routes to their substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélia S. F. e Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Independentemente do material adotado como melhor estratégia para uso em sacolas, cada um tem um destino final ideal que pode ser: compostagem, reciclagem mecânica, reciclagem energética, aterros sanitários, entre outros. Assim, a infra-estrutura de coleta, identificação e disposição do resíduo pós-consumo desse material deve estar associada à escolha feita para garantir sua sustentabilidade sócio-econômica. Além disso, soluções ainda controversas com relação ao real impacto no meio ambiente, não podem ser condenadas, nem incentivadas, mas devem sim ser avaliadas. Nesse sentido, cabe à comunidade científica fornecer bases sólidas e confiáveis, para que as avaliações sejam baseadas em uma visão global do problema. Foi com esse objetivo que elaboramos o presente trabalho, expondo questões críticas e relatando as diferentes soluções adotadas no mundo, inclusive sobre avaliações de impactos ambientais das diferentes alternativas para minimizar e/ou solucionar os problemas relacionados ao uso de sacolas plásticas.Regardless of the material adopted as the best strategy for use in plastic bags, each material has an ideal final disposal, which may be composting, mechanical recycling, energy recycling, sanitary landfills, and others. Therefore, the infrastructure of collection, identification and disposal of post-consumer waste of this material should be tied to the choice made to ensure its socio-economic sustainability. Moreover, solutions that are still controversial in terms of their real environmental impact should be neither condemned nor encouraged - rather, they should be evaluated. In this context, it is up to the scientific community to provide solid and reliable foundations to ensure that such evaluations are based on a global vision of the problem. This was the objective that guided the present work, with an analysis of critical issues and description of the diverse solutions adopted around the world

  12. Biodiesel production by biocatalysis using alternative method for lipase immobilization in hydrogel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Marder

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The society has been looking for alternatives in order to stop the process of environmental destruction installed in the world, however, starting from last century, a new vision on the indiscriminate use of the environmental resources started to be discussed leading to the use of new technologies of production of cleaner fuel, as the biodiesel, produced from vegetable oils. The enzymatic processes are a production alternative, for they are methods with losses reduction and larger efficiency, presenting however, high production cost. With the objective of reducing costs and increasing the efficiency we have searched the enzymes immobilization through alternative method and to use them as biocatalysts in the biodiesel production. The immobilization of the lipase PS Amano was accomplished in spheres formed by the hydration of commercial hydrogel in aqueous solution containing the enzyme. With the immobilized enzyme it was accomplished the transesterification, in which it was obtained conversions in methyl esters of up to 70%, in organic solvent, with 24h, 55°C, 100 rpm and 40 hydrogel spheres with immobilized enzyme. The method comes as a promising alternative technology for the biodiesel obtaining.

  13. Direct PCR: Alternative Diagnostic Method for Diagnosis of Diphtheria Rapidly, Easily and Cost Effective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunarno Sunarno

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Some diseases require immediate and appropriate treatment to decrease the fatality risk patients incident, for example diphtheria. Time to help patients is very crucial since delay of therapy may increase the mortality cases up to 20 times. In other hands, conventional diagnostic methods (the gold standard for diagnosis of diphtheria is time consuming and laborious. Therefore, an alternative diagnostic method which is rapid, easy and inexpensive is needed. In this case, direct PCR has been proved to reduce time and cost in laboratory examination. This study aimed to develop direct PCR as alternative diagnostic method for diagnosis of diphtheria rapidly, easily, and inexpensive. Fifteen samples include 10 isolates of Corynebacterium diphtheriae (toxigenic and 3 isolates of Corynebacterium non- diphtheriae (nontoxigenic and 2 clinical specimens (throat swab was examined by performing direct PCR method and a standard PCR method was used for optimizing the protocols. Result showed that direct PCR can be used to amplify target genes correctly as well as standard PCR. All of C. diphtheriae samples showed bands at 168 bp (dtxR gene marker and 551 bp (tox gene marker while no band appeared in others. Direct PCR detected at least 71 CFU/uL of bacterial cells in samples. We concluded that direct PCR can be used for alternative diagnostic method for diagnosis of diphtheria which is rapid, easy and cost effective.

  14. Method for exploiting bias in factor analysis using constrained alternating least squares algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Michael R.

    2008-12-30

    Bias plays an important role in factor analysis and is often implicitly made use of, for example, to constrain solutions to factors that conform to physical reality. However, when components are collinear, a large range of solutions may exist that satisfy the basic constraints and fit the data equally well. In such cases, the introduction of mathematical bias through the application of constraints may select solutions that are less than optimal. The biased alternating least squares algorithm of the present invention can offset mathematical bias introduced by constraints in the standard alternating least squares analysis to achieve factor solutions that are most consistent with physical reality. In addition, these methods can be used to explicitly exploit bias to provide alternative views and provide additional insights into spectral data sets.

  15. An evaluation of alternate production methods for Pu-238 general purpose heat source pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Borland; Steve Frank

    2009-06-01

    For the past half century, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has used Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) to power deep space satellites. Fabricating heat sources for RTGs, specifically General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHSs), has remained essentially unchanged since their development in the 1970s. Meanwhile, 30 years of technological advancements have been made in the applicable fields of chemistry, manufacturing and control systems. This paper evaluates alternative processes that could be used to produce Pu 238 fueled heat sources. Specifically, this paper discusses the production of the plutonium-oxide granules, which are the input stream to the ceramic pressing and sintering processes. Alternate chemical processes are compared to current methods to determine if alternative fabrication processes could reduce the hazards, especially the production of respirable fines, while producing an equivalent GPHS product.

  16. Use of Biosensors as Alternatives to Current Regulatory Methods for Marine Biotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. Botana

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Marine toxins are currently monitored by means of a bioassay that requires the use of many mice, which poses a technical and ethical problem in many countries. With the exception of domoic acid, there is a legal requirement for the presence of other toxins (yessotoxin, saxitoxin and analogs, okadaic acid and analogs, pectenotoxins and azaspiracids in seafood to be controlled by bioassay, but other toxins, such as palytoxin, cyclic imines, ciguatera and tetrodotoxin are potentially present in European food and there are no legal requirements or technical approaches available to identify their presence. The need for alternative methods to the bioassay is clearly important, and biosensors have become in recent years a feasible alternative to animal sacrifice. This review will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using biosensors as alternatives to animal assays for marine toxins, with particular focus on surface plasmon resonance (SPR technology.

  17. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Pine Bluff, Arkansas. Final phase 1, Environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensminger, J.T.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.D.; Morrisey, J.A.; Staub, W.P.; Boston, C.R.; Hunsaker, D.B.; Leibsch, E.; Rickert, L.W.; Tolbert, V.R.; Zimmerman, G.P.

    1991-09-01

    The Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) near Pine Bluff, Arkansas, is one of eight continental United States (CONUS) Army installations where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at PBA consists of approximately 12%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts). The purpose of this report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at PBA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those on which the FPEIS is based. New population data were used to compute fatalities using the same computation methods and values for all other parameters as in the FPEIS. Results indicate that all alternatives are indistinguishable when the potential health impacts to the PBA community are considered. However, risks from on-site disposal are in all cases equal to or less than risks from other alternatives. Furthermore, no unique resources with the potential to prevent or delay implementation of on-site disposal at PBA have been identified.

  18. Prediction-correction alternating direction method for a class of constrained rain-max problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Min; HE Bingsheng

    2007-01-01

    The problems concerned in this paper are a class of constrained min-max problems. By introducing the Lagrange multipliers to the linearconstraints, such problems can be solved by some projection type prediction-correction methods. However, to obtain components of the predictor one by one, we use an alternating direction method. And then the new iterate is generated by a minor correction. Global convergence of the proposed method is proved. Finally, numerical results for a constrained single-facility location problem are provided to verify that the new method is effective for some practical problems.

  19. Parents' attitude toward multiple vaccinations at a single visit with alternative delivery methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaaijk, Patricia; Kleijne, Deborah E; Knol, Mirjam J; Harmsen, Irene A; Ophorst, Olga J A E; Rots, Nynke Y

    2014-01-01

    Last decades, the number of routine childhood vaccinations has increased considerably, which consequently has led to multiple vaccine injections per consultation. Implementation of additional vaccines will probably lead to more than 2 vaccine injections per consult, which might be a barrier for parents to vaccinate their child. A decrease in vaccination coverage, however, increases the risk of disease outbreaks. Less stressful alternative methods for vaccine delivery might lead to an increased acceptance of multiple childhood vaccinations by parents. The present questionnaire study was set up to explore the maximum number of vaccine injections per visit that is acceptable for parents, as well as to gauge parents' attitude toward alternative needle-free methods for vaccine delivery. For this purpose, the parents' opinion toward a jet injector, a patch, a microneedle system, and nasal spray device as methods for vaccine delivery was assessed. The majority of the 1154 participating parents indicated that 3 vaccine injections per visit was perceived as too much. Most participants had a positive attitude with respect to the jet injector and the patch as alternative vaccine delivery method, whereas the microneedle device and an intranasal spray device were not perceived as better than the conventional syringe by the parents. Parents indicated that both the jet injector and the patch might increase their acceptance of giving their children more than 2 vaccinations at the same time. This should encourage vaccine developers and manufacturers to put efforts in developing these delivery methods for their vaccines.

  20. Interim radiological safety standards and evaluation procedures for subseabed high-level waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klett, R.D.

    1997-06-01

    The Seabed Disposal Project (SDP) was evaluating the technical feasibility of high-level nuclear waste disposal in deep ocean sediments. Working standards were needed for risk assessments, evaluation of alternative designs, sensitivity studies, and conceptual design guidelines. This report completes a three part program to develop radiological standards for the feasibility phase of the SDP. The characteristics of subseabed disposal and how they affect the selection of standards are discussed. General radiological protection standards are reviewed, along with some new methods, and a systematic approach to developing standards is presented. The selected interim radiological standards for the SDP and the reasons for their selection are given. These standards have no legal or regulatory status and will be replaced or modified by regulatory agencies if subseabed disposal is implemented. 56 refs., 29 figs., 15 tabs.

  1. Fast acquisition of multidimensional NMR spectra of solids and mesophases using alternative sampling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesot, Philippe; Kazimierczuk, Krzysztof; Trébosc, Julien; Amoureux, Jean-Paul; Lafon, Olivier

    2015-11-01

    Unique information about the atom-level structure and dynamics of solids and mesophases can be obtained by the use of multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments. Nevertheless, the acquisition of these experiments often requires long acquisition times. We review here alternative sampling methods, which have been proposed to circumvent this issue in the case of solids and mesophases. Compared to the spectra of solutions, those of solids and mesophases present some specificities because they usually display lower signal-to-noise ratios, non-Lorentzian line shapes, lower spectral resolutions and wider spectral widths. We highlight herein the advantages and limitations of these alternative sampling methods. A first route to accelerate the acquisition time of multidimensional NMR spectra consists in the use of sparse sampling schemes, such as truncated, radial or random sampling ones. These sparsely sampled datasets are generally processed by reconstruction methods differing from the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). A host of non-DFT methods have been applied for solids and mesophases, including the G-matrix Fourier transform, the linear least-square procedures, the covariance transform, the maximum entropy and the compressed sensing. A second class of alternative sampling consists in departing from the Jeener paradigm for multidimensional NMR experiments. These non-Jeener methods include Hadamard spectroscopy as well as spatial or orientational encoding of the evolution frequencies. The increasing number of high field NMR magnets and the development of techniques to enhance NMR sensitivity will contribute to widen the use of these alternative sampling methods for the study of solids and mesophases in the coming years.

  2. Testing alternative ground water models using cross-validation and other methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foglia, L.; Mehl, S.W.; Hill, M.C.; Perona, P.; Burlando, P.

    2007-01-01

    Many methods can be used to test alternative ground water models. Of concern in this work are methods able to (1) rank alternative models (also called model discrimination) and (2) identify observations important to parameter estimates and predictions (equivalent to the purpose served by some types of sensitivity analysis). Some of the measures investigated are computationally efficient; others are computationally demanding. The latter are generally needed to account for model nonlinearity. The efficient model discrimination methods investigated include the information criteria: the corrected Akaike information criterion, Bayesian information criterion, and generalized cross-validation. The efficient sensitivity analysis measures used are dimensionless scaled sensitivity (DSS), composite scaled sensitivity, and parameter correlation coefficient (PCC); the other statistics are DFBETAS, Cook's D, and observation-prediction statistic. Acronyms are explained in the introduction. Cross-validation (CV) is a computationally intensive nonlinear method that is used for both model discrimination and sensitivity analysis. The methods are tested using up to five alternative parsimoniously constructed models of the ground water system of the Maggia Valley in southern Switzerland. The alternative models differ in their representation of hydraulic conductivity. A new method for graphically representing CV and sensitivity analysis results for complex models is presented and used to evaluate the utility of the efficient statistics. The results indicate that for model selection, the information criteria produce similar results at much smaller computational cost than CV. For identifying important observations, the only obviously inferior linear measure is DSS; the poor performance was expected because DSS does not include the effects of parameter correlation and PCC reveals large parameter correlations. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.

  3. The Status and Disposal Methods of E-waste%电子废物的现状与处置途径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓明; 林楚娟

    2012-01-01

    The paper analyzed the generation status of e-waste and its hazard to the environment, discussed the e-waste management and disposal methods, and how to minimize the e-waste pollution on the environment according to the e-waste disposal technology of domestic and international, realize "reduce, reuse, recycle", and ultimate turn waste to treasure.%文章主要通过分析电子废物的现状及其对环境的危害。结合国内外电子废物处置回用技术,论述电子废物的管理与处置途径及技术,讨论如何能够最大程度地减少电子废物对环境的污染,变废为宝,实现电子废物的“减量化、资源化、无害化”。

  4. Alternative methods for the use of non-human primates in biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burm, Saskia M; Prins, Jan-Bas; Langermans, Jan; Bajramovic, Jeffrey J

    2014-01-01

    The experimental use of non-human primates (NHP) in Europe is tightly regulated and is only permitted when there are no alternatives available. As a result, NHP are most often used in late, pre-clinical phases of biomedical research. Although the impetus for scientists, politicians and the general public to replace, reduce and refine NHP in biomedical research is strong, the development of 3Rs technology for NHP poses specific challenges. In February 2014 a workshop on "Alternative methods for the use of NHP in biomedical research" was organized within the international exchange program of EUPRIM-Net II, a European infrastructure initiative that links biomedical primate research centers. The workshop included lectures by key scientists in the field of alternatives as well as by experts from governmental and non-governmental organizations. Furthermore, parallel sessions were organized to stimulate discussion on the challenges of advancing the use of alternative methods for NHP. Subgroups voted on four statements and together composed a list with opportunities and priorities. This report summarizes the presentations that were held, the content of the discussion sessions and concludes with recommendations on 3Rs development for NHP specifically. These include technical, conceptual as well as political topics.

  5. Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Treated non-hazardous and non-radioactive liquid wastes are collected and then disposed of through the systems at the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). More...

  6. Evaluation of Alternatives to the Ontario Hydro Method as a Reference Method for CAMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis L. Laudal

    2007-03-31

    In June 2005, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) finalized the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR). As part of the rule, all coal-fired power plants will be required to do continuous mercury measurements. To complete the required relative accuracy test assessment (RATA), the only reference methods allowed are the wet-chemistry methods: the Ontario Hydro (OH) mercury speciation method (ASTM International D6784-02) and EPA Method 29. Either method will be a challenge and expensive. It would be much more desirable to use an instrumental reference method (IRM) or use sorbent traps as a reference method so that the results can be obtained quickly and cheaply. This report presents the results from testing at Reliant Energy, Inc.'s, Portland Station. The project was designed to compare mercury concentrations measured using sorbent traps to those obtained using the OH method. The tests were done using a RATA scenario and at three different conditions. In addition, as part of the project, limited IRM testing was also completed. The results from the testing show that the sorbent traps compared very well with the OH method and, therefore, must be considered as a potential reference method. Although the IRM testing using manual injection of elemental and oxidized mercury for dynamic spiking showed some promise, it was clear that additional testing was needed. However, this method of dynamic spiking may not be acceptable to EPA, as it does not consider vapor pressure curves for elemental mercury a National Institute of Standards Technology traceable standard.

  7. Performance of two alternative methods for Listeria detection throughout Serro Minas cheese ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardênia Márcia Silva Campos Mata

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The ability of pathogens to survive cheese ripening is a food-security concern. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the performance of two alternative methods of analysis of Listeria during the ripening of artisanal Minas cheese. These methods were tested and compared with the conventional method: Lateral Flow System™, in cheeses produced on laboratory scale using raw milk collected from different farms and inoculated with Listeria innocua; and VIDAS®-LMO, in cheese samples collected from different manufacturers in Serro, Minas Gerais, Brazil. These samples were also characterized in terms of lactic acid bacteria, coliforms and physical-chemical analysis. In the inoculated samples, L. innocua was detected by Lateral Flow System™ method with 33% false-negative and 68% accuracy results. L. innocua was only detected in the inoculated samples by the conventional method at 60-days of cheese ripening. L. monocytogenes was not detected by the conventional and the VIDAS®-LMO methods in cheese samples collected from different manufacturers, which impairs evaluating the performance of this alternative method. We concluded that the conventional method provided a better recovery of L. innocua throughout cheese ripening, being able to detect L. innocua at 60-day, aging period which is required by the current legislation.

  8. Performance of two alternative methods for Listeria detection throughout Serro Minas cheese ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Gardênia Márcia Silva Campos; Martins, Evandro; Machado, Solimar Gonçalves; Pinto, Maximiliano Soares; de Carvalho, Antônio Fernandes; Vanetti, Maria Cristina Dantas

    2016-01-01

    The ability of pathogens to survive cheese ripening is a food-security concern. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the performance of two alternative methods of analysis of Listeria during the ripening of artisanal Minas cheese. These methods were tested and compared with the conventional method: Lateral Flow System™, in cheeses produced on laboratory scale using raw milk collected from different farms and inoculated with Listeria innocua; and VIDAS(®)-LMO, in cheese samples collected from different manufacturers in Serro, Minas Gerais, Brazil. These samples were also characterized in terms of lactic acid bacteria, coliforms and physical-chemical analysis. In the inoculated samples, L. innocua was detected by Lateral Flow System™ method with 33% false-negative and 68% accuracy results. L. innocua was only detected in the inoculated samples by the conventional method at 60-days of cheese ripening. L. monocytogenes was not detected by the conventional and the VIDAS(®)-LMO methods in cheese samples collected from different manufacturers, which impairs evaluating the performance of this alternative method. We concluded that the conventional method provided a better recovery of L. innocua throughout cheese ripening, being able to detect L. innocua at 60-day, aging period which is required by the current legislation.

  9. Input-constrained model predictive control via the alternating direction method of multipliers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Leo Emil; Frison, Gianluca; Andersen, Martin S.;

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm, based on the alternating direction method of multipliers, for the convex optimal control problem arising in input-constrained model predictive control. We develop an efficient implementation of the algorithm for the extended linear quadratic control problem (LQCP......) with input and input-rate limits. The algorithm alternates between solving an extended LQCP and a highly structured quadratic program. These quadratic programs are solved using a Riccati iteration procedure, and a structure-exploiting interior-point method, respectively. The computational cost per iteration...... is quadratic in the dimensions of the controlled system, and linear in the length of the prediction horizon. Simulations show that the approach proposed in this paper is more than an order of magnitude faster than several state-of-the-art quadratic programming algorithms, and that the difference in computation...

  10. Design of Optimal Sparse Feedback Gains via the Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Fu; Jovanović, Mihailo R

    2011-01-01

    We design sparse and block sparse feedback gains that minimize the $H_2$ norm of distributed systems. Our approach consists of two steps. First, we identify sparsity patterns of the feedback gains by incorporating sparsity-promoting penalty functions into the $H_2$ problem, where the added terms penalize the number of communication links in the distributed controller. Second, we optimize the state feedback gains subject to the structural constraints determined by the identified sparsity patterns. This polishing step improves the $H_2$ performance of the distributed controllers. In the first step, we identify sparsity structure of the feedback gains using the alternating direction method of multipliers, which is a powerful algorithm well-suited to large optimization problems. This method alternates between optimizing the sparsity and optimizing the closed-loop $H_2$ norm, which allows us to exploit the structure of the corresponding objective functions. In particular, we take advantage of the separability of t...

  11. Alternative (non-animal) methods for cosmetics testing: current status and future prospects-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler, Sarah; Basketter, David; Creton, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    The 7th amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive prohibits to put animal-tested cosmetics on the market in Europe after 2013. In that context, the European Commission invited stakeholder bodies (industry, non-governmental organisations, EU Member States, and the Commission's Scientific Committee...... methods would not be available in time. The selected experts were asked to analyse the status and prospects of alternative methods and to provide a scientifically sound estimate of the time necessary to achieve full replacement of animal testing. In summary, the experts confirmed that it will take...... on Consumer Safety) to identify scientific experts in five toxicological areas, i.e. toxicokinetics, repeated dose toxicity, carcinogenicity, skin sensitisation, and reproductive toxicity for which the Directive foresees that the 2013 deadline could be further extended in case alternative and validated...

  12. Facile fabrication of controllable zinc oxide nanorod clusters on polyacrylonitrile nanofibers via repeatedly alternating immersion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Li, Xia; Yu, Hou-Yong; Hu, Guo-Liang; Yao, Ju-Ming

    2016-12-01

    Polyacrylonitrile/zinc oxide (PAN/ZnO) composite nanofiber membranes with different ZnO morphologies were fabricated by repeatedly alternating hot-cold immersion and single alternating hot-cold immersion methods. The influence of the PAN/ZnCl2 ratio and different immersion methods on the morphology, microstructure, and properties of the nanofiber membranes was investigated by using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. A possible mechanism for different morphologies of PAN/ZnO nanofiber membranes with different PAN/ZnCl2 ratio through different immersion processes was presented, and well-dispersed ZnO nanorod clusters with smallest average dimeter of 115 nm and hexagonal wurtzite structure were successfully anchored onto the PAN nanofiber surface for R-7/1 nanofiber membrane. Compared to S-5/1 prepared by single alternating hot-cold immersion method, the PAN/ZnO nanofiber membrane fabricated by repeatedly alternating hot-cold immersion method (especially for R-7/1) showed improved thermal stability and high photocatalytic activity for methylene blue (MB). Compared to S-5/1, decomposition temperature at 5% weight loss ( T 5%) was increased by 43 °C from 282 to 325 °C for R-7/1; meanwhile, R-7/1 showed higher photocatalytic degradation ratio of approximately 100% (after UV light irradiation for 8 h) than 65% for S-5/1 even after irradiation for 14 h. Moreover, the degradation efficiency of R-7/1 with good reuse stability remained above 94% after 3 cycles.

  13. An alternative method to estimate WiP inventory for cultivated assets

    OpenAIRE

    野村, 浩二

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are to describe the problems with the current estimates for WiP inventories of cultivated assets in Japan's system of national accounts and to propose an alternative method of dealing with these assets. There is a huge di erence between inventory stock measurement that are compiled according to the 1968 SNA versus the 1993 SNA for Japan's national accounts. This leads to non-negligible di erences for productivity measures when inventories are treated as a capital ...

  14. The viability of alternative assessment methods in the Greek upper secondary school: the oral portfolio

    OpenAIRE

    Angeliki Daphni

    2012-01-01

    Τhe final examination of the English language subject, in the context of the Greek state upper secondary education, is a traditional paper-and-pencil test which does not include any assessment of oracy skills. This article explores the viability of the oral portfolio as an alternative assessment and pedagogic method that can facilitate the assessment of speaking and listening skills and create a more motivating learning environment. To this effect, three methodological tools were designed, na...

  15. Measurement of the resistivity of porous materials with an alternating air-flow method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragonetti, Raffaele; Ianniello, Carmine; Romano, Rosario A

    2011-02-01

    Air-flow resistivity is a main parameter governing the acoustic behavior of porous materials for sound absorption. The international standard ISO 9053 specifies two different methods to measure the air-flow resistivity, namely a steady-state air-flow method and an alternating air-flow method. The latter is realized by the measurement of the sound pressure at 2 Hz in a small rigid volume closed partially by the test sample. This cavity is excited with a known volume-velocity sound source implemented often with a motor-driven piston oscillating with prescribed area and displacement magnitude. Measurements at 2 Hz require special instrumentation and care. The authors suggest an alternating air-flow method based on the ratio of sound pressures measured at frequencies higher than 2 Hz inside two cavities coupled through a conventional loudspeaker. The basic method showed that the imaginary part of the sound pressure ratio is useful for the evaluation of the air-flow resistance. Criteria are discussed about the choice of a frequency range suitable to perform simplified calculations with respect to the basic method. These criteria depend on the sample thickness, its nonacoustic parameters, and the measurement apparatus as well. The proposed measurement method was tested successfully with various types of acoustic materials.

  16. The examination of the spread of the leachates coming out of a solid waste disposal area on the ground with geophysical and geochemical methods (Sivas, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özel, Sevda; Yılmaz, Ali; Emin Candansayar, M.

    2017-03-01

    This study has been conducted in the irregular solid waste disposal area in the city of Sivas. The pollution spread formed by the leachates coming out of the disposal area has been examined with geophysical and geochemical works in this study. For this reason, the spread of the leachate pollution expanding in different geological units at both sides of a creek on the ground has been examined. For this purpose, the pollution spread has been examined with the methods of Direct Current Resistivity (DCR) and Electromagnetic Conductivity (EMC) and soil analyses. In the DCR method, 2D inversion of each sounding-profile datum measured alongside the lines parallel to each other and 3D inversion of the data measured in all the lines have been used in the interpretations. Apparent conductivity map has been attained from EMC measurements. The results of heavy metal analyses in the soil samples taken alongside the Haçin Creek have been assessed with the Spider diagram method. It has been determined that the flow of the leachate from geophysical models is in a SE direction and towards Kızılırmak and it continues vertically deeper than 4 m. In addition, it has been understood that the flow direction of the leachate is inspected by the geological structures. It has been understood from the geochemical results that the pollution in the soil stems from the leachate. In this way, it has been observed that the underground and surface water resources in the territory are under the threat of the pollution occurring due to the leachate.

  17. An analytic network process model for municipal solid waste disposal options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sheeba; Faisal, Mohd Nishat

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present an evaluation method that can aid decision makers in a local civic body to prioritize and select appropriate municipal solid waste disposal methods. We introduce a hierarchical network (hiernet) decision structure and apply the analytic network process (ANP) super-matrix approach to measure the relative desirability of disposal alternatives using value judgments as the input of the various stakeholders. ANP is a flexible analytical program that enables decision makers to find the best possible solution to complex problems by breaking down a problem into a systematic network of inter-relationships among the various levels and attributes. This method therefore may not only aid in selecting the best alternative but also helps decision makers to understand why an alternative is preferred over the other options.

  18. Growth, Structural and Optical Characterization of ZnO Nanotubes on Disposable-Flexible Paper Substrates by Low-Temperature Chemical Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Soomro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the synthesis of vertically aligned ZnO nanotubes (NTs on paper substrates by low-temperature hydrothermal method. The growth of ZnO NTs on the paper substrate is discussed; further, the structural and optical properties are investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, and cathodoluminescence (CL, and it was found that the ZnO NTs on paper substrate fulfill the structural and optical properties of ZnO NTs grown on other conventional substrates. This will be more beneficial in future usage of ZnO NTs in different fields and applications. Particularly, this approach opens the ways in research and development for high volume manufacturing of low-cost, flexible optoelectronics devices on disposable paper substrates and can be used in the future miniaturization trends.

  19. Comparative life cycle assessment and life cycle costing of four disposal scenarios for used polyethylene terephthalate bottles in Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foolmaun, Rajendra Kumar; Ramjeeawon, Toolseeram

    2012-09-01

    The annual rise in population growth coupled with the flourishing tourism industry in Mauritius has lead to a considerable increase in the amount of solid waste generated. In parallel, the disposal of non-biodegradable wastes, especially plastic packaging and plastic bottles, has also shown a steady rise. Improper disposal of used polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles constitutes an eyesore to the environmental landscape and is a threat to the flourishing tourism industry. It is of utmost importance, therefore, to determine a suitable disposal method for used PET bottles which is not only environmentally efficient but is also cost effective. This study investigated the environmental impacts and the cost effectiveness of four selected disposal alternatives for used PET bottles in Mauritius. The four disposal routes investigated were: 100% landfilling; 75% incineration with energy recovery and 25% landfilling; 40% flake production (partial recycling) and 60% landfilling; and 75% flake production and 25% landfilling. Environmental impacts of the disposal alternatives were determined using ISO standardized life cycle assessment (LCA) and with the support of SimaPro 7.1 software. Cost effectiveness was determined using life cycle costing (LCC). Collected data were entered into a constructed Excel-based model to calculate the different cost categories, Net present values, damage costs and payback periods. LCA and LCC results indicated that 75% flake production and 25% landfilling was the most environmentally efficient and cost-effective disposal route for used PET bottles in Mauritius.

  20. Alternating Direction Finite Volume Element Methods for Three-Dimensional Parabolic Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tongke

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents alternating direction finite volume element methods for three-dimensional parabolic partial differential equations and gives four computational schemes, one is analogous to Douglas finite difference scheme with second-order splitting error, the other two schemes have third-order splitting error, and the last one is an extended LOD scheme. The L2 norm and H1 semi-norm error estimates are obtained for the first scheme and second one, respectively. Finally, two numerical examples are provided to illustrate the efficiency and accuracy of the methods.

  1. Method of estimation of selected hens welfare elements in an alternative maintenance system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Domagalski

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Broody hens welfare in an alternative maintenance system was the focus of the undertaken attempt. Both behavioural and health aspects, as well as numerous physiological indicators are taken into consideration while applying animal welfare estimation methods. The described evaluation complies with the EU recommendations for the applied spot method TG-200. It serves to evaluate the conformity of both buildings and technology of breeding with the requirements of regulations and those defined in the process of the carried out hens research. The following functional areas were focused on while assessing the welfare: terms of mobility, feed intake, herding behaviour, resting conditions, comfort of living, nesting conditions, herd health and care.

  2. ALTERNATING PROJECTION BASED PREDICTION-CORRECTION METHODS FOR STRUCTURED VARIATIONAL INEQUALITIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing-sheng He; Li-zhi Liao; Mai-jian Qian

    2006-01-01

    The monotone variational inequalities Ⅵ(Ω, F) have vast applications, including optimal controls and convex programming. In this paper we focus on the Ⅵ problems that have a particular splitting structure and in which the mapping F does not have an explicit form, therefore only its function values can be employed in the numerical methods for solving such problems. We study a set of numerical methods that are easily implementable.Each iteration of the proposed methods consists of two procedures. The first (prediction) procedure utilizes alternating projections to produce a predictor. The second (correction) procedure generates the new iterate via some minor computations. Convergence of the proposed methods is proved under mild conditions. Preliminary numerical experiments for some traffic equilibrium problems illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  3. Alternative additives; Alternative additiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-08-15

    In this project a number of industrial and agricultural waste products have been characterised and evaluated in terms of alkali-getter performance. The intended use is for biomass-fired power stations aiming at reducing corrosion or slagging related problems. The following products have been obtained, characterised and evaluated: 1) Brewery draff 2) Danish de-gassed manure 3) Paper sludge 4) Moulding sand 5) Spent bleaching earth 6) Anorthosite 7) Sand 8) Clay-sludge. Most of the above alternative additive candidates are deemed unsuitable due to insufficient chemical effect and/or expensive requirements for pre-treatment (such as drying and transportation). 3 products were selected for full-scale testing: de-gassed manure, spent bleaching earth and clay slugde. The full scale tests were undertaken at the biomass-fired power stations in Koege, Slagelse and Ensted. Spent bleaching earth (SBE) and clay sludge were the only tested additive candidates that had a proven ability to react with KCl, to thereby reduce Cl-concentrations in deposits, and reduce the deposit flux to superheater tubes. Their performance was shown to nearly as good as commercial additives. De-gassed manure, however, did not evaluate positively due to inhibiting effects of Ca in the manure. Furthermore, de-gassed manure has a high concentration of heavy metals, which imposes a financial burden with regard to proper disposal of the ash by-products. Clay-sludge is a wet clay slurring, and drying and transportation of this product entails substantial costs. Spent bleaching does not require much pre-treatment and is therefore the most promising alternative additive. On the other hand, bleaching earth contains residual plant oil which means that a range of legislation relating to waste combustion comes into play. Not least a waste combustion fee of 330 DKK/tonne. For all alternative (and commercial) additives disposal costs of the increase ash by-products represents a significant cost. This is

  4. Analytical methods for the determination of DEHP plasticizer alternatives present in medical devices: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, L; Décaudin, B; Lecoeur, M; Richard, D; Bourdeaux, D; Cueff, R; Sautou, V

    2014-11-01

    Until 2010, diethylhexylphthalate (DEHP) was the plasticizer most commonly used to soften PVC medical devices (MDs), because of a good efficiency/cost ratio. In flexible plasticized PVC, phthalates are not chemically bound to PVC and they are released into the environment and thus may come into contact with patients. The European Directive 2007/47/CE, classified DEHP as a product with a toxicity risk and restricted its use in MDs. MD manufacturers were therefore forced to quickly find alternatives to DEHP to maintain the elasticity of PVC nutrition tubings, infusion sets and hemodialysis lines. Several replacement plasticizers, so-called "alternative to DEHP plasticizers" were incorporated into the MDs. Nowadays, the risk of exposure to these compounds for hospitalized patients, particularly in situations classified "at risk", has not yet been evaluated, because migrations studies, providing sufficient exposure and human toxicity data have not been performed. To assess the risk to patients of DEHP plasticizer alternatives, reliable analytical methods must be first developed in order to generate data that supports clinical studies being conducted in this area. After a brief introduction of the characteristics and toxicity of the selected plasticizers used currently in MDs, this review outlines recently analytical methods available to determine and quantify these plasticizers in several matrices, allowing the evaluation of potential risk and so risk management.

  5. A framework program for the teaching of alternative methods (replacement, reduction, refinement) to animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshian, Mardas; Akbarsha, Mohammad A; Blaauboer, Bas; Caloni, Francesca; Cosson, Pierre; Curren, Rodger; Goldberg, Alan; Gruber, Franz; Ohl, Frauke; Pfaller, Walter; van der Valk, Jan; Vinardell, Pilar; Zurlo, Joanne; Hartung, Thomas; Leist, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Development of improved communication and education strategies is important to make alternatives to the use of animals, and the broad range of applications of the 3Rs concept better known and understood by different audiences. For this purpose, the Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing in Europe (CAAT-Europe) together with the Transatlantic Think Tank for Toxicology (t(4)) hosted a three-day workshop on "Teaching Alternative Methods to Animal Experimentation". A compilation of the recommendations by a group of international specialists in the field is summarized in this report. Initially, the workshop participants identified the different audience groups to be addressed and also the communication media that may be used. The main outcome of the workshop was a framework for a comprehensive educational program. The modular structure of the teaching program presented here allows adaptation to different audiences with their specific needs; different time schedules can be easily accommodated on this basis. The topics cover the 3Rs principle, basic research, toxicological applications, method development and validation, regulatory aspects, case studies and ethical aspects of 3Rs approaches. This expert consortium agreed to generating teaching materials covering all modules and providing them in an open access online repository.

  6. Short communication: appropriate and alternative methods to determine viable bacterial counts in cow milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss, G; Apprich, S; Kneifel, W; von Mutius, E; Genuneit, J; Braun-Fahrländer, C

    2012-06-01

    Farm milk consumption is reported to be inversely related to the development of asthma and atopy in children and it has been hypothesized that microorganisms in milk might contribute to this protective effect. The GABRIEL study was designed to investigate this hypothesis in a large population of European children, calling for a rapid alternative to classical culture techniques to determine bacteriological properties of milk samples. One objective was to evaluate 2 different rapid methods to determine bacteriological properties in a large number of cow milk samples collected under field conditions. BactoScan (Foss Analytical, Hillerød, Denmark), an automated standard flow cytometric method utilized for routine testing of milk quality, and TEMPO (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France), an automated most-probable-number method, were used to assess the total viable bacterial count in farm and commercial milk samples. Both methods were compared with standard plate count method and each other. Measurements based on the TEMPO method were in good agreement with the standard plate count method and showed reliable results, whereas BactoScan results did not correlate with standard plate count measurements and yielded higher bacteria counts in heat-treated milk samples compared with raw milk samples. Most likely, these discrepant results were due to inferences with staining reactions and detection of bacteria in heat-treated milk samples. We conclude that, in contrast to the routinely used BactoScan method, the TEMPO method is an inexpensive and rapid alternative to standard culture methods suitable to assess total bacterial counts in processed and raw milk samples.

  7. TREATMENT BY ALTERNATIVE METHODS OF REGRESSION GAS CHROMATOGRAPHIC RETENTION INDICES OF 35 PYRAZINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatiha Mebarki

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The study treated two closer alternative methods of which the principal characteristic: a non-parametric method (the least absolute deviation (LAD and a traditional method of diagnosis OLS.This was applied to model, separately, the indices of retention of the same whole of 35 pyrazines (27 pyrazines with 8 other pyrazines in the same unit eluted to the columns OV-101 and Carbowax-20M, by using theoretical molecular descriptors calculated using the software DRAGON. The detection of influential observations for non-parametric method (LAD is a problem which has been extensively studied and offers alternative dicapproaches whose main feature is the robustness.here is presented and compared with the standard least squares regression .The comparison between methods LAD and OLS is based on the equation of the hyperplane, in order to confirm the robustness thus to detect by the meaningless statements and the points of lever and validated results in the state approached by the tests statistics: Test of Anderson-Darling, shapiro-wilk, Agostino, Jarque-Bera, graphic test (histogram of frequency and the confidence interval thanks to the concept of robustness to check if the distribution of the errors is really approximate.

  8. Alternative normalization methods demonstrate widespread cortical hypometabolism in untreated de novo Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berti, Valentina; Polito, C; Borghammer, Per

    2012-01-01

    , recent studies suggested that conventional data normalization procedures may not always be valid, and demonstrated that alternative normalization strategies better allow detection of low magnitude changes. We hypothesized that these alternative normalization procedures would disclose more widespread...... metabolic alterations in de novo PD. METHODS: [18F]FDG PET scans of 26 untreated de novo PD patients (Hoehn & Yahr stage I-II) and 21 age-matched controls were compared using voxel-based analysis. Normalization was performed using gray matter (GM), white matter (WM) reference regions and Yakushev...... normalization. RESULTS: Compared to GM normalization, WM and Yakushev normalization procedures disclosed much larger cortical regions of relative hypometabolism in the PD group with extensive involvement of frontal and parieto-temporal-occipital cortices, and several subcortical structures. Furthermore...

  9. An alternative method of gas boriding applied to the formation of borocarburized layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulka, M., E-mail: michal.kulka@put.poznan.pl; Makuch, N.; Pertek, A.; Piasecki, A.

    2012-10-15

    The borocarburized layers were produced by tandem diffusion processes: carburizing followed by boriding. An alternative method of gas boriding was proposed. Two-stage gas boronizing in N{sub 2}-H{sub 2}-BCl{sub 3} atmosphere was applied to the formation of iron borides on a carburized substrate. This process consisted in two stages, which were alternately repeated: saturation by boron and diffusion annealing. The microstructure and microhardness of produced layer were compared to those-obtained in case of continuous gas boriding in H{sub 2}-BCl{sub 3} atmosphere, earlier used. The first objective of two-stage boronizing, consisting in acceleration of boron diffusion, has been efficiently implemented. Despite the lower temperature and shorter duration of boronizing, about 1.5 times larger iron borides' zone has been formed on carburized steel. Second objective, the absolute elimination of brittle FeB phase, has failed. However, the amount of FeB phase has been considerably limited. Longer diffusion annealing should provide the boride layer with single-phase microstructure, without FeB phase. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alternative method of gas boriding in H{sub 2}-N{sub 2}-BCl{sub 3} atmosphere was proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The process consisted in two stages: saturation by boron and diffusion annealing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These stages of short duration were alternately repeated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The acceleration of boron diffusion was efficiently implemented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The amount of FeB phase in the boride zone was limited.

  10. 29 CFR 2520.104-48 - Alternative method of compliance for model simplified employee pensions-IRS Form 5305-SEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternative method of compliance for model simplified employee pensions-IRS Form 5305-SEP. 2520.104-48 Section 2520.104-48 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor... Provisions Applicable to Both Reporting and Disclosure Requirements § 2520.104-48 Alternative method...

  11. Report and recommendations of the international workshop "Retrieval approaches for information on alternative methods to animal experiments".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grune, Barbara; Fallon, Michael; Howard, Carol; Hudson, Vera; Kulpa-Eddy, Jodie A; Larson, Jean; Leary, Sue; Roi, Annett; van der Valk, Jan; Wood, Mary; Dörendahl, Antje; Köhler-Hahn, Dorothea; Box, Rainer; Spielmann, Horst

    2004-01-01

    In the member states of the EU and in the USA, scientists are obliged by animal welfare legislation not to conduct an animal experiment if another scientifically satisfactory method is reasonably and practicably available. To meet the regulatory obligation to use alternatives to animal experiments, scientists should consult literature and other relevant sources on alternatives prior to any experimental study on laboratory animals. It is the responsibility of the individual scientist to select the most appropriate database to obtain information on alternatives, which have been defined as methods that refine, reduce or replace animal experiments (the 3 Rs concept of Russell and Burch (1959)). Specialised information services provide support to scientists searching for publications on alternative methods. On occasion of a workshop in Berlin in November 2003, representatives of animal welfare information centres discussed currently available information sources on alternative methods, index terms for alternative methods, and search strategies based on index terms for alternative methods. ZEBET presented an investigation on the current status of indexing systems on alternative methods in established literature databases. The project analysed how the results of a search for publications on alternatives was influenced by the indexing procedure. The results of the study were exemplified by a typical search result. The results of the study indicated that the current indexing systems do not provide the required information, since not all of the relevant information is indexed under "alternative methods". The workshop participants developed recommendations for ad hoc working groups and research projects, e.g. development of suitable search strategies on alternative methods for scientists.

  12. Geobacter strains that use alternate organic compounds, methods of making, and methods of use thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovley, Derek R; Summers, Zarath Morgan; Haveman, Shelley Annette; Izallalen, Mounir

    2013-12-03

    In preferred embodiments, the present invention provides new isolated strains of Geobacter species that are capable of using a carbon source that is selected from C.sub.3 to C.sub.12 organic compounds selected from pyruvate or metabolic precursors of pyruvate as an electron donor in metabolism and in subsequent energy production. In other aspects, other preferred embodiments of the present invention include methods of making such strains and methods of using such strains. In general, the wild type strain of the microorganisms has been shown to be unable to use these C.sub.3 to C.sub.12 organic compounds as electron donors in metabolic steps such as the reduction of metallic ions. The inventive strains of microorganisms are useful improving bioremediation applications, including in situ bioremediation (including uranium bioremediation and halogenated solvent bioremediation), microbial fuel cells, power generation from small and large-scale waste facilities (e.g., biomass waste from dairy, agriculture, food processing, brewery, or vintner industries, etc.) using microbial fuel cells, and other applications of microbial fuel cells, including, but not limited to, improved electrical power supplies for environmental sensors, electronic sensors, and electric vehicles.

  13. An alternative method based on enzymatic fat hydrolysis to quantify volatile compounds in wheat bread crumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pico, Joana; Nozal, María Jesús; Gómez, Manuel; Bernal, José Luis

    2016-09-01

    An alternative method to quantify 40 volatile compounds in wheat bread crumb is proposed. It consists of a Soxhlet extraction with a mixture of dichloromethane and diethyl ether containing lipases and a subsequent concentration with Vigreux column. It is the first time that lipases are added to transform the fat into free fatty acids and glycerol, which elute at the end of the chromatogram after the analytes, avoiding problems in the chromatography due to fat residues, such as dirtiness in the injector, column clogging or overlapping peaks. The extract is most easily analysed by GC/MS, using a standard addition method to correct matrix effect. The method was fully validated, with extraction efficiencies between 70% and 100% and precision RSD lower than 15%. The method was applied to a commercial crumb, with acetoin, phenylethyl alcohol and acetic acid as highly abundant compounds, which are considered main volatiles in crumb.

  14. L0-based sparse approximation: two alternative methods and some applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portilla, Javier; Mancera, Luis

    2007-09-01

    We propose two methods for sparse approximation of images under l II error metric. First one performs an approximation error minimization given a l p-norm of the representation through alternated orthogonal projections onto two sets. We study the cases p = 0 (sub-optimal) and p = 1 (optimal), and find that the l 0-AP method is neatly superior, for typical images and overcomplete oriented pyramids. Given that l I-AP is optimal, this shows that it is not equivalent in practical image processing conditions to minimize one or the other norm, contrarily to what is often assumed. The second method is more powerful, and it performs gradient descent onto decreasingly smoothed versions of the sparse approximation cost function, yielding a method previously proposed as a heuristic. We adapt these techniques for being applied to image restoration, with very positive results.

  15. DEVELOPMENT, VALIDATION AND FIELD USE OF NOVEL METHOD FOR EXTRACTING AND ANALYZING ORGANOPHOSPHATE (OP) AND PYRETHROID PESTICIDE METABOLITES AND CREATININE FROM COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE DISPOSABLE DIAPERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability to efficiently extract urine from disposable diapers ensures an easy to use urine collection protocol and ready compliance for caregivers of very young children. The use of disposable diapers is also desirable because of their high capacity- urine is retained effecti...

  16. Alternative (non-animal) methods for cosmetics testing: current status and future prospects-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Sarah; Basketter, David; Creton, Stuart; Pelkonen, Olavi; van Benthem, Jan; Zuang, Valérie; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Angers-Loustau, Alexandre; Aptula, Aynur; Bal-Price, Anna; Benfenati, Emilio; Bernauer, Ulrike; Bessems, Jos; Bois, Frederic Y; Boobis, Alan; Brandon, Esther; Bremer, Susanne; Broschard, Thomas; Casati, Silvia; Coecke, Sandra; Corvi, Raffaella; Cronin, Mark; Daston, George; Dekant, Wolfgang; Felter, Susan; Grignard, Elise; Gundert-Remy, Ursula; Heinonen, Tuula; Kimber, Ian; Kleinjans, Jos; Komulainen, Hannu; Kreiling, Reinhard; Kreysa, Joachim; Leite, Sofia Batista; Loizou, George; Maxwell, Gavin; Mazzatorta, Paolo; Munn, Sharon; Pfuhler, Stefan; Phrakonkham, Pascal; Piersma, Aldert; Poth, Albrecht; Prieto, Pilar; Repetto, Guillermo; Rogiers, Vera; Schoeters, Greet; Schwarz, Michael; Serafimova, Rositsa; Tähti, Hanna; Testai, Emanuela; van Delft, Joost; van Loveren, Henk; Vinken, Mathieu; Worth, Andrew; Zaldivar, José-Manuel

    2011-05-01

    The 7th amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive prohibits to put animal-tested cosmetics on the market in Europe after 2013. In that context, the European Commission invited stakeholder bodies (industry, non-governmental organisations, EU Member States, and the Commission's Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety) to identify scientific experts in five toxicological areas, i.e. toxicokinetics, repeated dose toxicity, carcinogenicity, skin sensitisation, and reproductive toxicity for which the Directive foresees that the 2013 deadline could be further extended in case alternative and validated methods would not be available in time. The selected experts were asked to analyse the status and prospects of alternative methods and to provide a scientifically sound estimate of the time necessary to achieve full replacement of animal testing. In summary, the experts confirmed that it will take at least another 7-9 years for the replacement of the current in vivo animal tests used for the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients for skin sensitisation. However, the experts were also of the opinion that alternative methods may be able to give hazard information, i.e. to differentiate between sensitisers and non-sensitisers, ahead of 2017. This would, however, not provide the complete picture of what is a safe exposure because the relative potency of a sensitiser would not be known. For toxicokinetics, the timeframe was 5-7 years to develop the models still lacking to predict lung absorption and renal/biliary excretion, and even longer to integrate the methods to fully replace the animal toxicokinetic models. For the systemic toxicological endpoints of repeated dose toxicity, carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity, the time horizon for full replacement could not be estimated.

  17. Timing of Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Yield: Comparison of Alternative Methods with the Classic Method for CD34+ Cell Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Fatorova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs, still represent a certain mystery in biology, have a unique property of dividing into equal cells and repopulating the hematopoietic tissue. This potential enables their use in transplantation treatments. The quality of the HSC grafts for transplantation is evaluated by flow cytometric determination of the CD34+ cells, which enables optimal timing of the first apheresis and the acquisition of maximal yield of the peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs. To identify a more efficient method for evaluating CD34+ cells, we compared the following alternative methods with the reference method: hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC enumeration (using the Sysmex XE-2100 analyser, detection of CD133+ cells, and quantification of aldehyde dehydrogenase activity in the PBSCs. 266 aphereses (84 patients were evaluated. In the preapheretic blood, the new methods produced data that were in agreement with the reference method. The ROC curves have shown that for the first-day apheresis target, the optimal predictive cut-off value was 0.032 cells/mL for the HPC method (sensitivity 73.4%, specificity 69.3%. HPC method exhibited a definite practical superiority as compared to other methods tested. HPC enumeration could serve as a supplementary method for the optimal timing of the first apheresis; it is simple, rapid, and cheap.

  18. A modified method for COD determination of solid waste, using a commercial COD kit and an adapted disposable weighing support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, L; Pauss, A; Ribeiro, T

    2017-03-01

    The chemical oxygen demand (COD) is an essential parameter in waste management, particularly when monitoring wet anaerobic digestion processes. An adapted method to determine COD was developed for solid waste (total solids >15%). This method used commercial COD tubes and did not require sample dilution. A homemade plastic weighing support was used to transfer the solid sample into COD tubes. Potassium hydrogen phthalate and glucose used as standards showed an excellent repeatability. A small underestimation of the theoretical COD value (standard values around 5% lower than theoretical values) was also observed, mainly due to the intrinsic COD of the weighing support and to measurement uncertainties. The adapted COD method was tested using various solid wastes in the range of 1-8 mgCOD, determining the COD of dried and ground cellulose, cattle manure, straw and a mixed-substrate sample. This new adapted method could be used to monitor and design dry anaerobic digestion processes.

  19. Medications at School: Disposing of Pharmaceutical Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taras, Howard; Haste, Nina M.; Berry, Angela T.; Tran, Jennifer; Singh, Renu F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This project quantified and categorized medications left unclaimed by students at the end of the school year. It determined the feasibility of a model medication disposal program and assessed school nurses' perceptions of environmentally responsible medication disposal. Methods: At a large urban school district all unclaimed…

  20. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Umatilla Depot Activity, Hermiston, Oregon. Final Phase 1 environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, G.P.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.O.; Miller, R.L.; Patton, T.G.; Schoepfle, G.M.; Tolbert, V.R.; Feldman, D.L.; Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Morrissey, J.; Rickert, L.W.; Staub, W.P.; West, D.C.

    1993-02-01

    The Umatilla Depot Activity (UMDA) near Hermiston, Oregon, is one of eight US Army installations in the continental United States where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored, and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at UMDA consists of 11.6%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts), using a method based on five measures of risk for potential human health and ecosystem/environmental effects; the effectiveness and adequacy of emergency preparedness capabilities also played a key role in the FPEIS selection methodology. In some instances, the FPEIS included generic data and assumptions that were developed to allow a consistent comparison of potential impacts among programmatic alternatives and did not include detailed conditions at each of the eight installations. The purpose of this Phase 1 report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at UMDA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those included in the FPEIS. Specifically, this Phase 1 report is intended to either confirm or reject the validity of on-site disposal for the UMDA stockpile. Using the same computation methods as in the FPEIS, new population data were used to compute potential fatalities from hypothetical disposal accidents. Results indicate that onsite disposal is clearly preferable to either continued storage at UMDA or transportation of the UMDA stockpile to another depot for disposal.

  1. Alternative remedies for insomnia: a proposed method for personalized therapeutic trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero K

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Kate Romero,1,2 Balaji Goparaju,1,2 Kathryn Russo,1,2 M Brandon Westover,1 Matt T Bianchi1,2 1Neurology Department, Massachusetts General Hospital, 2Division of Sleep Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Insomnia is a common symptom, with chronic insomnia being diagnosed in 5–10% of adults. Although many insomnia patients use prescription therapy for insomnia, the health benefits remain uncertain and adverse risks remain a concern. While similar effectiveness and risk concerns exist for herbal remedies, many individuals turn to such alternatives to prescriptions for insomnia. Like prescription hypnotics, herbal remedies that have undergone clinical testing often show subjective sleep improvements that exceed objective measures, which may relate to interindividual heterogeneity and/or placebo effects. Response heterogeneity can undermine traditional randomized trial approaches, which in some fields has prompted a shift toward stratified trials based on genotype or phenotype, or the so-called n-of-1 method of testing placebo versus active drug in within-person alternating blocks. We reviewed six independent compendiums of herbal agents to assemble a group of over 70 reported to benefit sleep. To bridge the gap between the unfeasible expectation of formal evidence in this space and the reality of common self-medication by those with insomnia, we propose a method for guided self-testing that overcomes certain operational barriers related to inter- and intraindividual sources of phenotypic variability. Patient-chosen outcomes drive a general statistical model that allows personalized self-assessment that can augment the open-label nature of routine practice. The potential advantages of this method include flexibility to implement for other (nonherbal insomnia interventions. Keywords: insomnia, over the counter, alternative remedy, herbal, supplement

  2. Gene expression in human skeletal muscle: alternative normalization method and effect of repeated biopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, Carsten; Nordsborg, Nikolai; Kusuhara, K.

    2005-01-01

    . Specifically, we investigated (1) a new normalization method based on determining the cDNA content by the flourophores PicoGreen and OliGreen, (2) effect of repeated muscle biopsies on mRNA gene expression, and (3) the spatial heterogeneity in mRNA expression across the muscle. Standard curves using oligo.......99. The present determination of cDNA content in reversed transcribed human skeletal muscle RNA samples by both PicoGreen and OliGreen analyses suggests that these fluorophores provide a potential alternative normalization procedure for human gene expression studies. In addition, the present study shows...

  3. Potential Use of Lime as Nitric Acid Source for Alternative Electrolyte Fuel-Cell Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianto, V.; Smarandache, Florentin

    2011-04-01

    Despite growing popularity for the use of biofuel and other similar methods to generate renewable energy sources from natural plantation in recent years, there is also growing concern over its disadvantage, i.e. that the energy use of edible plants may cause unwanted effects, because the plantation price tends to increase following the oil price. Therefore an alternative solution to this problem is to find `natural plantation' which have no direct link to `food chain' (for basic foods, such as palm oil etc.).

  4. Acoustic rhinometry (AR): An Alternative Method to Image Nasal Airway Geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straszek, Sune; Pedersen, O.F.

      ACOUSTIC RHINOMETRY (AR): AN ALTERNATIVE METHOD TO IMAGE NASAL AIRWAY GEOMETRY.  INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND:  In human studies the acoustic reflection technique was first applied to describe the area-distance relationship of the lower airways, but later the acoustic reflection technique appeared...... studies in laboratory animals more reliable. To accomplish this we hope to receive new input from adjacent fields of research.  [OFP1] Det er ikke nogen piezoelektrisk mikrofon. Det er en ganske billig kondensator mikrofon. [OFP2] Jeg tror du kan nøjes med små figurer1) Indfaldende og reflekteret kurve...

  5. A simple DNA recombination screening method by RT-PCR as an alternative to Southern blot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Eliene; Sbroggiò, Mauro; Martin-Gonzalez, Javier; Avram, Alexandra; Munk, Stephanie; Lopez-Contreras, Andres J

    2017-01-19

    The generation of genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs), including knock-out (KO) and knock-in (KI) models, often requires genomic screening of many mouse ES cell (mESC) clones by Southern blot. The use of large targeting constructs facilitates the recombination of exogenous DNA in a specific genomic locus, but limits the detection of its correct genomic integration by standard PCR methods. Genomic Long Range PCR (LR-PCR), using primers adjacent to the homology arms, has been used as an alternative to radioactive-based Southern blot screenings. However, LR-PCRs are often difficult and render many false positive and false negative results. Here, we propose an alternative screening method based on the detection of a genetic modification at the mRNA level, which we successfully optimized in two mouse models. This screening method consists of a reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) using primers that match exons flanking the targeting construct. The detection of the expected modification in this PCR product confirms the integration at the correct genomic location and shows that the mutant mRNA is expressed. This is a simple and sensitive strategy to screen locus-specific recombination of targeting constructs which can also be useful to screen KO and KI mutant mice or cell lines including those generated by CRISPR/Cas9.

  6. Limitations in small artisanal gold mining addressed by educational components paired with alternative mining methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolnikov, Tara R

    2012-03-01

    Current solutions continue to be inadequate in addressing the longstanding, worldwide problem of mercury emissions from small artisanal gold mining. Mercury, an inexpensive and easily accessible heavy metal, is used in the process of extracting gold from ore. Mercury emissions disperse, affecting human populations by causing adverse health effects and environmental and social ramifications. Many developing nations have sizable gold ore deposits, making small artisanal gold mining a major source of employment in the world. Poverty drives vulnerable, rural populations into gold mining because of social and economic instabilities. Educational programs responding to this environmental hazard have been implemented in the past, but have had low positive results due to lack of governmental support and little economic incentive. Educational and enforced intervention programs must be developed in conjunction with governmental agencies in order to successfully eliminate this ongoing problem. Industry leaders offered hopeful suggestions, but revealed limitations when trying to develop encompassing solutions to halt mercury emissions. This research highlights potential options that have been attempted in the past and suggests alternative solutions to improve upon these methods. Some methods include buyer impact recognition, risk assessment proposals exposing a cost-benefit analysis and toxicokinetic modeling, public health awareness campaigns, and the education of miners, healthcare workers, and locals within hazardous areas of mercury exposure. These methods, paired with the implementation of alternative mining techniques, propose a substantial reduction of mercury emissions.

  7. Comprehensive Review of Foam Application during Foam Assisted Water Alternating Gas (FAWAG Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shabib-asl

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, much focus has been placed on enhancing oil recovery from existing fields. This is accomplished by the study and application of various methods. As for recent cases, the Study of fluid mobility control and sweep efficiency in gas injection process as well as Water Alternating Gas (WAG method have demonstrated positive results on oil recovery and thus gained wide interest in petroleum industry. WAG injection application results in an increased oil recovery. Its mechanism consists in reduction of Gas Oil Ratio (GOR. However, there are some problems associated with this which includes poor volumetric sweep efficiency due to its low density and high mobility when compared with oil. This has led to the introduction of Foam Assisted Water Alternating Gas (FAWAG technique, which in contrast with WAG injection, acts in improving the sweep efficiency and reducing the gas oil ration therefore maximizing the production rate from the producer wells. This study presents a comprehensive review of FAWAG process from perspective of Snorre field experience. In addition some comparative results between FAWAG and the other EOR methods are presented including their setbacks. The main aim is to provide a solid background for future laboratory research and successful field application-extend.

  8. Use of nicarbazin, salinomycin and zinc oxide as alternative molting methods for commercial laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C H de F Domingues

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to evaluate the performance, egg quality and morphometry of the reproductive tract, liver, pancreas and tongue of laying hens submitted to different molting methods. Two hundred and eighty eight 72-week-old Isa brown layers were distributed according to a completely randomized design with six treatments (molting methods and six replicates of eight birds each. Layers were fed diets containing 3000 ppm zinc oxide, 60 ppm or 120 ppm nicarbazin, 30 ppm or 60 ppm salinomycin, or were submitted to feed fasting. Data were submitted to analysis of variance and means were compared by the test of Tukey at 5% probability level. Molting methods alternative to feed fasting were effective to induce molting in layer and provided good performance results in the second laying cycle.

  9. Linearized Alternating Direction Method with Adaptive Penalty for Low-Rank Representation

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Zhouchen; Su, Zhixun

    2011-01-01

    Low-rank representation (LRR) is an effective method for subspace clustering and has found wide applications in computer vision and machine learning. The existing LRR solver is based on the alternating direction method (ADM). It suffers from $O(n^3)$ computation complexity due to the matrix-matrix multiplications and matrix inversions, even if partial SVD is used. Moreover, introducing auxiliary variables also slows down the convergence. Such a heavy computation load prevents LRR from large scale applications. In this paper, we generalize ADM by linearizing the quadratic penalty term and allowing the penalty to change adaptively. We also propose a novel rule to update the penalty such that the convergence is fast. With our linearized ADM with adaptive penalty (LADMAP) method, it is unnecessary to introduce auxiliary variables and invert matrices. The matrix-matrix multiplications are further alleviated by using the skinny SVD representation technique. As a result, we arrive at an algorithm for LRR with comple...

  10. Common Methods for Carcass Disposal in Some Countries%有关国家常用病死动物无害化处理方法应用情况研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋建德; 黄保续; 袁丽萍; 姜雯; 王媛媛; 孙淑芳; 魏荣

    2013-01-01

    在研究美国《动物无害化处理操作手册》、《动物尸体无害化处理评估报告》,澳大利亚《动物无害化处理操作程序手册(第3版)》和欧盟《动物副产品处理规定》等相关文件的基础上,本文总结出了深埋、焚烧、化制、堆肥、碱化水解等5种常用无害化处理方法在这些国家的应用情况及其优缺点。研究发现,在处置动物疫情时,各国通常根据所处理动物尸体数量、可用资源等实际情况,合理选择无害化处理方法,且这些方法通常同时应用、互为补充。%By studying some documents including USDA Operational Guidelines on Disposal,a Comprehensive Review of Carcass Disposal,Australian Operational Procedures Manual on Disposal and EU rules on animal by-products,this article summarizes applications of 5 common methods of disposal in these countries,such as burial, incineration,rendering,composting and alkaline hydrolysis,and analyzes their advantages and disadvantages(of these methods). The results indicate these countries usually choose suitable methods for disposal of animal carcass according to actual situation such as quantity of animal carcass to be disposed and available resources,etc. Moreover, these methods are often used together and are complementary to each other.

  11. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Pueblo Depot Activity, Colorado. Final, Phase 1: Environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry, J.W.; Blasing, T.J.; Ensminger, J.T.; Johnson, R.O.; Schexnayder, S.M.; Shor, J.T.; Staub, W.P.; Tolbert, V.R.; Zimmerman, G.P.

    1995-04-01

    Under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), the US Army proposes to dispose of lethal chemical agents and munitions stored at eight existing Army installations in the continental United States. In 1988, the US Army issued the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP. The FPEIS and the subsequent Record of Decision (ROD) identified an on-site disposal process as the preferred method for destruction of the stockpile. That is, the FPEIS determined the environmentally preferred alternative to be on-site disposal in high-temperature incinerators, while the ROD selected this alternative for implementation as the preferred method for destruction of the stockpile. In this Phase I report, the overall CSDP decision regarding disposal of the PUDA Stockpile is subjected to further analyses, and its validity at PUDA is reviewed with newer, more detailed data than those providing the basis for the conclusions in the FPEIS. The findings of this Phase I report will be factored into the scope of a site-specific environmental impact statement to be prepared for the destruction of the PUDA stockpile. The focus of this Phase I report is on those data identified as having the potential to alter the Army`s previous decision regarding disposal of the PUDA stockpile; however, several other factors beyond the scope of this Phase I report must also be acknowledged to have the potential to change or modify the Army`s decisions regarding PUDA.

  12. Single-Case Research Methods: History and Suitability for a Psychological Science in Need of Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado-Parrado, Camilo; López-López, Wilson

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a historical and conceptual analysis of a group of research strategies known as the Single-Case Methods (SCMs). First, we present an overview of the SCMs, their history, and their major proponents. We will argue that the philosophical roots of SCMs can be found in the ideas of authors who recognized the importance of understanding both the generality and individuality of psychological functioning. Second, we will discuss the influence that the natural sciences' attitude toward measurement and experimentation has had on SCMs. Although this influence can be traced back to the early days of experimental psychology, during which incipient forms of SCMs appeared, SCMs reached full development during the subsequent advent of Behavior Analysis (BA). Third, we will show that despite the success of SCMs in BA and other (mainly applied) disciplines, these designs are currently not prominent in psychology. More importantly, they have been neglected as a possible alternative to one of the mainstream approaches in psychology, the Null Hypothesis Significance Testing (NHST), despite serious controversies about the limitations of this prevailing method. Our thesis throughout this section will be that SCMs should be considered as an alternative to NHST because many of the recommendations for improving the use of significance testing (Wilkinson & the TFSI, 1999) are main characteristics of SCMs. The paper finishes with a discussion of a number of the possible reasons why SCMs have been neglected.

  13. An alternative method to determine maximal accumulated O2 deficit in runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, D W; Ferguson, C S; Ehler, K L

    1998-12-01

    An accepted measure of anaerobic capacity is the maximal O2 deficit. But it is not feasible to use O2 deficit if > or =10 submaximal runs are needed to extrapolate the O2 demand of high velocity running (Medbø et al. 1988). Recently, an alternative method to determine O2 deficit was proposed (Hill 1996) using only results of supramaximal cycle ergometer tests. The purpose of this study was to evaluate this alternative method with data from treadmill tests. Twenty-six runners ran at 95%, 100%, 105%, and 110% of their velocity at VO2max. Times to exhaustion, velocity, and accumulated oxygen uptake (VO2) from each individual's four tests were fit to the following equation using iterative nonlinear regression: accumulated VO2 = (O2 demand x velocity x time)-O2 deficit. The mean value s derived for O2 demand and O2 deficit were 0.198+/-0.031 ml x kg(-1) x m(-1) and 42+/-22 ml x kg(-1). SEE for the parameters were 0.007+/-0.007 ml x kg(-1) x m(-1) and 8+/-10 ml x kg(-1), respectively. Mean R2 was 0.998+/-0.003. It was concluded that O2 deficit can be determined from all-out treadmill tests without the need to perform submaximal tests.

  14. Low Rank Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers Reconstruction for MR Fingerprinting

    CERN Document Server

    Assländer, Jakob; Knoll, Florian; Sodickson, Daniel K; Hennig, Jürgen; Lattanzi, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The proposed reconstruction framework addresses the reconstruction accuracy, noise propagation and computation time for Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (MRF). Methods Based on a singular value decomposition (SVD) of the signal evolution, MRF is formulated as a low rank inverse problem in which one image is reconstructed for each singular value under consideration. This low rank approximation of the signal evolution reduces the computational burden by reducing the number of Fourier transformations. Also, the low rank approximation improves the conditioning of the problem, which is further improved by extending the low rank inverse problem to an augmented Lagrangian that is solved by the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM). The root mean square error and the noise propagation are analyzed in simulations. For verification, an in vivo example is provided. Results The proposed low rank ADMM approach shows a reduced root mean square error compared to the original fingerprinting reconstructi...

  15. USAGE OF PICTOGRAMS TO INTRODUCE MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS TO EDUCABLE MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN AS AN ALTERNATIVE METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunsu YILMA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine and investigate the perception ability of musical instruments of educable mentally retarded children with the support of visual elements. The research is conducted for every children individually in a special education and rehabilitation centre. The problematic of this research is the level of perception ability of musical instruments with visual support on mild mentally retarded children. In this research, perception ability of defining pictograms by music is introduced as an alternative method. It is researched that how educable mentally retarded children perceive pictograms by music tools. In this case, it is aimed to introduce musical instruments to educable mentally retarded children by pictograms with music. The research is applied with a qualitative approach. Data were obtained with the recorder, then they were turned into texts and analyzed with content analysis method.

  16. An alternative method of constructing axisymmetric toroidal equilibria with nonparallel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiroukidis, Ap; Throumoulopoulos, G. N.

    2016-11-01

    An alternative method based on an inverse aspect ratio (ɛ) expansion which reduces the axisymmetric equilibrium problem to a set of ODEs containing terms of arbitrary order in ɛ is employed to solve a generalized Grad-Shafranov equation with incompressible sheared flow nonparallel to the magnetic field. The method is applied to construct equilibria with either circular magnetic surfaces and reversed magnetic shear or D-shaped magnetic surfaces and normal magnetic shear. From the former equilibrium, it turns out that the electric field results in an increase of the reversed magnetic shear, thus indicating potential synergetic effects of the sheared flow and the magnetic shear in the formation of an internal transport barrier in consistent with experimental evidence.

  17. Medical savings accounts - in search of an alternative method of health care financing in European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Borda

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In times of increasing health care expenditure and insufficient cover provided by publicly financed health systems additional, alternative methods of health care financing become more and more considerable. The purpose of the paper is to present the concept of Medical Savings Accounts (MSAs and possibilities of their application in the health care systems of European countries. First, the author describes the idea of MSAs and reviews positive and negative findings about the effects of implementing this method into the health systems. Next, two main approaches to the application of MSAs in health care financing are considered. In the last part of the paper, the possibilities of introducing MSAs into health care systems in European countries are discussed. The author takes into consideration the existing health care financing conditions and other specific institutional, socio-economic and cultural factors as the main determinants for successful designing and implementation of the MSA scheme in a given country.

  18. Fast gain calibration in radio astronomy using alternating direction implicit methods: Analysis and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Salvini, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Context. Modern radio astronomical arrays have (or will have) more than one order of magnitude more receivers than classical synthesis arrays, such as the VLA and the WSRT. This makes gain calibration a computationally demanding task. Several alternating direction implicit (ADI) approaches have therefore been proposed that reduce numerical complexity for this task from $\\mathcal{O}(P^3)$ to $\\mathcal{O}(P^2)$, where $P$ is the number of receive paths to be calibrated. Aims. We present an ADI method, show that it converges to the optimal solution, and assess its numerical, computational and statistical performance. We also discuss its suitability for application in self-calibration and report on its successful application in LOFAR standard pipelines. Methods. Convergence is proved by rigorous mathematical analysis using a contraction mapping. Its numerical, algorithmic, and statistical performance, as well as its suitability for application in self-calibration, are assessed using simulations. Results. Our simu...

  19. Method of Disposing Closing Spool in Lined Pipe%衬里管调整段的设置方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易志丹

    2015-01-01

    对衬里管的设置目的及其分类、不同衬里管直管的最大长度、现场制作调整段的方法一一详细阐述,进而对比国内项目和国外项目中不同衬里管的调整段设置方法,找出其差异,最终目的为日后其他设计项目提供多种衬里管调整段的设置方法。%In this article, the application objective and classification of lined pipe, the determination of the maximum length of straight lined pipe and the method of fabricating closing spool in lined pipe werefirst depicted in detail. Then, the differences in disposition of closing spool in lined pipe used in home projects and in abroad projects were found from the comparison, so that multiple methods in disposition of closingspool in lined pipe were provide for reference in later design projects.

  20. RDandD Programme 2007. Programme for research, development and demonstration of methods for the management and disposal of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-09-15

    The programme describes in general terms the planned measures and the facilities that are needed for the task, with a focus on the plans for the period 2008-2013. The period of immediate concern is 2008-2010. The level of detail for the three subsequent years is naturally lower. The programme provides a basis for designing systems to manage and dispose of the radioactive waste from the nuclear power plants. SKB intends to dispose of the spent nuclear fuel in accordance with the KBS-3 method. In the RDandD Programme we describe our activities and the planning for it. We also deal with societal research and other methods for disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The planning for low- and intermediate-level waste, as well as for the societal research, is presented in separate parts. The upcoming review of the programme can contribute valuable outside viewpoints. The regulatory authorities and the Government can clarify how they view different parts of the activity. Municipalities and other stakeholders can, after studying the programme, offer their viewpoints to SKB, the regulatory authorities or the Government. The most important milestone during the coming three-year period is to submit applications under the Nuclear Activities Act for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel and under the Environmental Code for the final repository system. RDandD programme 2007 therefore focuses on the technology development that is needed to realize the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The site investigations in Forsmark and Laxemar will be concluded in 2007. The work of compiling the applications for the final repository is under way. In contrast to the immediately preceding programmes, RDandD Programme 2007 therefore also contains a summary of the site investigation phase and a look ahead at the steps that remain before the final repository can be put into operation. RDandD Programme 2007 consists of six parts: Part I SKB's plan of action; Part II Final repository for

  1. Alternative sanitization methods for minimally processed lettuce in comparison to sodium hypochlorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Lígia Biazotto Bachelli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Lettuce is a leafy vegetable widely used in industry for minimally processed products, in which the step of sanitization is the crucial moment for ensuring a safe food for consumption. Chlorinated compounds, mainly sodium hypochlorite, are the most used in Brazil, but the formation of trihalomethanes from this sanitizer is a drawback. Then, the search for alternative methods to sodium hypochlorite has been emerging as a matter of great interest. The suitability of chlorine dioxide (60 mg L-1/10 min, peracetic acid (100 mg L-1/15 min and ozonated water (1.2 mg L-1 /1 min as alternative sanitizers to sodium hypochlorite (150 mg L-1 free chlorine/15 min were evaluated. Minimally processed lettuce washed with tap water for 1 min was used as a control. Microbiological analyses were performed in triplicate, before and after sanitization, and at 3, 6, 9 and 12 days of storage at 2 ± 1 ºC with the product packaged on LDPE bags of 60 µm. It was evaluated total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., psicrotrophic and mesophilic bacteria, yeasts and molds. All samples of minimally processed lettuce showed absence of E. coli and Salmonella spp. The treatments of chlorine dioxide, peracetic acid and ozonated water promoted reduction of 2.5, 1.1 and 0.7 log cycle, respectively, on count of microbial load of minimally processed product and can be used as substitutes for sodium hypochlorite. These alternative compounds promoted a shelf-life of six days to minimally processed lettuce, while the shelf-life with sodium hypochlorite was 12 days.

  2. Update and Improve Subsection NH –– Alternative Simplified Creep-Fatigue Design Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tai Asayama

    2009-10-26

    This report described the results of investigation on Task 10 of DOE/ASME Materials NGNP/Generation IV Project based on a contract between ASME Standards Technology, LLC (ASME ST-LLC) and Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). Task 10 is to Update and Improve Subsection NH -- Alternative Simplified Creep-Fatigue Design Methods. Five newly proposed promising creep-fatigue evaluation methods were investigated. Those are (1) modified ductility exhaustion method, (2) strain range separation method, (3) approach for pressure vessel application, (4) hybrid method of time fraction and ductility exhaustion, and (5) simplified model test approach. The outlines of those methods are presented first, and predictability of experimental results of these methods is demonstrated using the creep-fatigue data collected in previous Tasks 3 and 5. All the methods (except the simplified model test approach which is not ready for application) predicted experimental results fairly accurately. On the other hand, predicted creep-fatigue life in long-term regions showed considerable differences among the methodologies. These differences come from the concepts each method is based on. All the new methods investigated in this report have advantages over the currently employed time fraction rule and offer technical insights that should be thought much of in the improvement of creep-fatigue evaluation procedures. The main points of the modified ductility exhaustion method, the strain range separation method, the approach for pressure vessel application and the hybrid method can be reflected in the improvement of the current time fraction rule. The simplified mode test approach would offer a whole new advantage including robustness and simplicity which are definitely attractive but this approach is yet to be validated for implementation at this point. Therefore, this report recommends the following two steps as a course of improvement of NH based on newly proposed creep-fatigue evaluation

  3. Methods for environmental monitoring of DOE waste disposal and storage sites. Semiannual progress report, April 1, 1988--September 30, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadden, C.T.; Benson, S.B.; Osborne, T.R.; Revis, N.W.

    1988-12-31

    Perchloroethylene (PCE) is a persistent environmental contaminant whose chemical stability and hydrophobicity have made it difficult to remove from contaminated groundwater. PCE is also toxic and has been implicated as a carcinogen. This study was aimed at assessing methods for biological degradation of PCE. As a part of the study, the authors have characterized possible products of the degradation of PCE, and have determined the effects of detergents and solvents on the water solubility of PCE and on the toxic effects of PCE on bacteria. The authors have also isolated PCE-resistant microorganisms from monitoring wells at Y-12. To date all of the PCE-resistant bacteria isolated from the monitoring wells have been of the genus Bacillus. One of these isolates appears to be able to degrade PCE, as indicated by the disappearance of PCE from cultures of growing cells. The organism does not grow on PCE as the sole carbon source, so degradation of the solvent must occur by cometabolism.

  4. Disposable Diapers Are OK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poore, Patricia

    1992-01-01

    A personal account of measuring the pros and cons of disposable diaper usage leads the author to differentiate between a garbage problem and environmental problem. Concludes the disposable diaper issue is a political and economic issue with a local environmental impact and well within our abilities to manage. (MCO)

  5. Musical training as an alternative and effective method for neuro-education and neuro-rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Clément; Grau-Sánchez, Jennifer; Duarte, Esther; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, important advances in the field of cognitive science, psychology, and neuroscience have largely contributed to improve our knowledge on brain functioning. More recently, a line of research has been developed that aims at using musical training and practice as alternative tools for boosting specific perceptual, motor, cognitive, and emotional skills both in healthy population and in neurologic patients. These findings are of great hope for a better treatment of language-based learning disorders or motor impairment in chronic non-communicative diseases. In the first part of this review, we highlight several studies showing that learning to play a musical instrument can induce substantial neuroplastic changes in cortical and subcortical regions of motor, auditory and speech processing networks in healthy population. In a second part, we provide an overview of the evidence showing that musical training can be an alternative, low-cost and effective method for the treatment of language-based learning impaired populations. We then report results of the few studies showing that training with musical instruments can have positive effects on motor, emotional, and cognitive deficits observed in patients with non-communicable diseases such as stroke or Parkinson Disease. Despite inherent differences between musical training in educational and rehabilitation contexts, these results favor the idea that the structural, multimodal, and emotional properties of musical training can play an important role in developing new, creative and cost-effective intervention programs for education and rehabilitation in the next future.

  6. Social Benefits of Energy Conservation in Hungary. An examination of alternative methods of evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaheim, H.A.; Aunan, K.; Seip, H.M.

    1997-12-31

    This report compares alternative methods for valuation of the social benefits of less air pollution. One can estimate such benefits by the economic consequences of less damage caused by pollution or by the willingness to pay for less pollution. As a case study, the report examines an energy conservation programme in Hungary, in which 64 PJ of fossil energy was conserved per year. According to the damage cost approach, the benefits corresponds to 75 million USD per year, divided into 41 mill for health and 33 mill in material damage. The willingness to pay approach yielded a value of 1.9 bill. USD. Most of the difference is attributed to different estimates for chronic distresses and early death. One should not regard the results of the different approaches as alternative answers to the same question. Instead, damage cost and willingness to pay assessments can be considered as necessary components of a macro economic study of environmental policy. 23 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Optimizing tridiagonal solvers for alternating direction methods on Boolean cube multiprocessors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, C.T. (IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA (US)); Johnsson, S.L. (Dept. of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering, Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (US))

    1990-05-01

    Sets of tridiagonal systems occur in many applications. Fast Poisson solvers and Alternate Direction Methods make use of tridiagonal system solvers. Network-based multiprocessors provide a cost-effective alternative to traditional supercomputer architectures. The complexity of concurrent algorithms for the solution of multiple tridiagonal systems on Boolean-cube-configured multiprocessors with distributed memory are investigated. Variations of odd-even cyclic reduction, parallel cyclic reduction, and algorithms making use of data transposition with or without substructuring and local elimination, or pipelined elimination, are considered. A simple performance model is used for algorithm comparison, and the validity of the model is verified on an Intel iPSC/1. For many combinations of machine and system parameters, pipelined elimination, or equation transposition with or without substructuring is optimum. Hybrid algorithms that at any stage choose the best algorithm among the considered ones for the remainder of the problem are presented. It is shown that the optimum partitioning of a set of independent tridiagonal systems among a set of processors yields the embarrassingly parallel case.

  8. MUSICAL TRAINING AS AN ALTERNATIVE AND EFFECTIVE METHOD FOR NEURO-EDUCATION AND NEURO-REHABILITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément eFrançois

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, important advances in the field of cognitive science, psychology and neuroscience have largely contributed to improve our knowledge on brain functioning. More recently, a line of research has been developed that aims at using musical training and practice as alternative tools for boosting specific perceptual, motor, cognitive and emotional skills both in healthy population and in neurologic patients. These findings are of great hope for a better treatment of language-based learning disorders or motor impairment in chronic non-communicative diseases. In the first part of this review, we highlight several studies showing that learning to play a musical instrument can induce substantial neuroplastic changes in cortical and subcortical regions of motor, auditory and speech processing networks in healthy population. In a second part, we provide an overview of the evidence showing that musical training can be an alternative, low-cost and effective method for the treatment of language-based learning impaired populations. We then report results of the few studies showing that training with musical instruments can have positive effects on motor, emotional and cognitive deficits observed in patients with noncommunicable diseases such as stroke or Parkinson Disease. Despite inherent differences between musical training in educational and rehabilitation contexts, these results favour the idea that the structural, multimodal and emotional properties of musical training can play an important role in developing new, creative and cost-effective intervention programs for education and rehabilitation in the next future.

  9. Feeling blue, going green and finding other attractive alternatives: a case of biphasic anaphylaxis to patent blue and a literature review of alternative sentinel node localisation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Fahad Mujtaba; Basit, Abdul; Salem, Fathi; Vidya, Raghavan

    2015-12-15

    Patent blue dye is used for sentinel lymph node localisation in order to stage the axilla in patients with breast cancer. Patent blue is one of the most common dyes used across the UK, however, the incidence of adverse effects seems to be increasing. This case highlights our experience of a biphasic anaphylactic reaction to patent blue dye, and we conduct a brief literature review of alternative and more novel methods to adequately visualise the lymphatics for sentinel lymph node biopsy.

  10. An alternative empirical likelihood method in missing response problems and causal inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Kaili; Drummond, Christopher A; Brewster, Pamela S; Haller, Steven T; Tian, Jiang; Cooper, Christopher J; Zhang, Biao

    2016-11-30

    Missing responses are common problems in medical, social, and economic studies. When responses are missing at random, a complete case data analysis may result in biases. A popular debias method is inverse probability weighting proposed by Horvitz and Thompson. To improve efficiency, Robins et al. proposed an augmented inverse probability weighting method. The augmented inverse probability weighting estimator has a double-robustness property and achieves the semiparametric efficiency lower bound when the regression model and propensity score model are both correctly specified. In this paper, we introduce an empirical likelihood-based estimator as an alternative to Qin and Zhang (2007). Our proposed estimator is also doubly robust and locally efficient. Simulation results show that the proposed estimator has better performance when the propensity score is correctly modeled. Moreover, the proposed method can be applied in the estimation of average treatment effect in observational causal inferences. Finally, we apply our method to an observational study of smoking, using data from the Cardiovascular Outcomes in Renal Atherosclerotic Lesions clinical trial. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Nonlinear projection trick in kernel methods: an alternative to the kernel trick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Nojun

    2013-12-01

    In kernel methods such as kernel principal component analysis (PCA) and support vector machines, the so called kernel trick is used to avoid direct calculations in a high (virtually infinite) dimensional kernel space. In this brief, based on the fact that the effective dimensionality of a kernel space is less than the number of training samples, we propose an alternative to the kernel trick that explicitly maps the input data into a reduced dimensional kernel space. This is easily obtained by the eigenvalue decomposition of the kernel matrix. The proposed method is named as the nonlinear projection trick in contrast to the kernel trick. With this technique, the applicability of the kernel methods is widened to arbitrary algorithms that do not use the dot product. The equivalence between the kernel trick and the nonlinear projection trick is shown for several conventional kernel methods. In addition, we extend PCA-L1, which uses L1-norm instead of L2-norm (or dot product), into a kernel version and show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  12. Robust fluence map optimization via alternating direction method of multipliers with empirical parameter optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hao

    2016-04-01

    For the treatment planning during intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), beam fluence maps can be first optimized via fluence map optimization (FMO) under the given dose prescriptions and constraints to conformally deliver the radiation dose to the targets while sparing the organs-at-risk, and then segmented into deliverable MLC apertures via leaf or arc sequencing algorithms. This work is to develop an efficient algorithm for FMO based on alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM). Here we consider FMO with the least-square cost function and non-negative fluence constraints, and its solution algorithm is based on ADMM, which is efficient and simple-to-implement. In addition, an empirical method for optimizing the ADMM parameter is developed to improve the robustness of the ADMM algorithm. The ADMM based FMO solver was benchmarked with the quadratic programming method based on the interior-point (IP) method using the CORT dataset. The comparison results suggested the ADMM solver had a similar plan quality with slightly smaller total objective function value than IP. A simple-to-implement ADMM based FMO solver with empirical parameter optimization is proposed for IMRT or VMAT.

  13. Effective Alternating Direction Optimization Methods for Sparsity-Constrained Blind Image Deblurring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Naixue; Liu, Ryan Wen; Liang, Maohan; Wu, Di; Liu, Zhao; Wu, Huisi

    2017-01-18

    Single-image blind deblurring for imaging sensors in the Internet of Things (IoT) is a challenging ill-conditioned inverse problem, which requires regularization techniques to stabilize the image restoration process. The purpose is to recover the underlying blur kernel and latent sharp image from only one blurred image. Under many degraded imaging conditions, the blur kernel could be considered not only spatially sparse, but also piecewise smooth with the support of a continuous curve. By taking advantage of the hybrid sparse properties of the blur kernel, a hybrid regularization method is proposed in this paper to robustly and accurately estimate the blur kernel. The effectiveness of the proposed blur kernel estimation method is enhanced by incorporating both the L 1 -norm of kernel intensity and the squared L 2 -norm of the intensity derivative. Once the accurate estimation of the blur kernel is obtained, the original blind deblurring can be simplified to the direct deconvolution of blurred images. To guarantee robust non-blind deconvolution, a variational image restoration model is presented based on the L 1 -norm data-fidelity term and the total generalized variation (TGV) regularizer of second-order. All non-smooth optimization problems related to blur kernel estimation and non-blind deconvolution are effectively handled by using the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM)-based numerical methods. Comprehensive experiments on both synthetic and realistic datasets have been implemented to compare the proposed method with several state-of-the-art methods. The experimental comparisons have illustrated the satisfactory imaging performance of the proposed method in terms of quantitative and qualitative evaluations.

  14. Effective Alternating Direction Optimization Methods for Sparsity-Constrained Blind Image Deblurring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naixue Xiong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Single-image blind deblurring for imaging sensors in the Internet of Things (IoT is a challenging ill-conditioned inverse problem, which requires regularization techniques to stabilize the image restoration process. The purpose is to recover the underlying blur kernel and latent sharp image from only one blurred image. Under many degraded imaging conditions, the blur kernel could be considered not only spatially sparse, but also piecewise smooth with the support of a continuous curve. By taking advantage of the hybrid sparse properties of the blur kernel, a hybrid regularization method is proposed in this paper to robustly and accurately estimate the blur kernel. The effectiveness of the proposed blur kernel estimation method is enhanced by incorporating both the L 1 -norm of kernel intensity and the squared L 2 -norm of the intensity derivative. Once the accurate estimation of the blur kernel is obtained, the original blind deblurring can be simplified to the direct deconvolution of blurred images. To guarantee robust non-blind deconvolution, a variational image restoration model is presented based on the L 1 -norm data-fidelity term and the total generalized variation (TGV regularizer of second-order. All non-smooth optimization problems related to blur kernel estimation and non-blind deconvolution are effectively handled by using the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM-based numerical methods. Comprehensive experiments on both synthetic and realistic datasets have been implemented to compare the proposed method with several state-of-the-art methods. The experimental comparisons have illustrated the satisfactory imaging performance of the proposed method in terms of quantitative and qualitative evaluations.

  15. Cluster detection of diseases in heterogeneous populations: an alternative to scan methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Ramis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cluster detection has become an important part of the agenda of epidemiologists and public health authorities, the identification of high- and low-risk areas is fundamental in the definition of public health strategies and in the suggestion of potential risks factors. Currently, there are different cluster detection techniques available, the most popular being those using windows to scan the areas within the studied region. However, when these areas are heterogeneous in populations’ sizes, scan window methods can lead to inaccurate conclusions. In order to perform cluster detection over heterogeneously populated areas, we developed a method not based on scanning windows but instead on standard mortality ratios (SMR using irregular spatial aggregation (ISA. Its extension, i.e. irregular spatial aggregation with covariates (ISAC, includes covariates with residuals from Poisson regression. We compared the performance of the method with the flexible shaped spatial scan statistic (FlexScan using mortality data for stomach and bladder cancer for 8,098 Spanish towns. The results show a collection of clusters for stomach and bladder cancer similar to that detected by ISA and FlexScan. However, in general, clusters detected by FlexScan were bigger and include towns with SMR, which were not statistically significant. For bladder cancer, clusters detected by ISAC differed from those detected by ISA and FlexScan in shape and location. The ISA and ISAC methods could be an alternative to the traditional scan window methods for cluster detection over aggregated data when the areas under study are heterogeneous in terms of population. The simplicity and flexibility of the methods make them more attractive than methods based on more complicated algorithms.

  16. Effective Alternating Direction Optimization Methods for Sparsity-Constrained Blind Image Deblurring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Naixue; Liu, Ryan Wen; Liang, Maohan; Wu, Di; Liu, Zhao; Wu, Huisi

    2017-01-01

    Single-image blind deblurring for imaging sensors in the Internet of Things (IoT) is a challenging ill-conditioned inverse problem, which requires regularization techniques to stabilize the image restoration process. The purpose is to recover the underlying blur kernel and latent sharp image from only one blurred image. Under many degraded imaging conditions, the blur kernel could be considered not only spatially sparse, but also piecewise smooth with the support of a continuous curve. By taking advantage of the hybrid sparse properties of the blur kernel, a hybrid regularization method is proposed in this paper to robustly and accurately estimate the blur kernel. The effectiveness of the proposed blur kernel estimation method is enhanced by incorporating both the L1-norm of kernel intensity and the squared L2-norm of the intensity derivative. Once the accurate estimation of the blur kernel is obtained, the original blind deblurring can be simplified to the direct deconvolution of blurred images. To guarantee robust non-blind deconvolution, a variational image restoration model is presented based on the L1-norm data-fidelity term and the total generalized variation (TGV) regularizer of second-order. All non-smooth optimization problems related to blur kernel estimation and non-blind deconvolution are effectively handled by using the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM)-based numerical methods. Comprehensive experiments on both synthetic and realistic datasets have been implemented to compare the proposed method with several state-of-the-art methods. The experimental comparisons have illustrated the satisfactory imaging performance of the proposed method in terms of quantitative and qualitative evaluations. PMID:28106764

  17. Comparison of marine spatial planning methods in Madagascar demonstrates value of alternative approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allnutt, Thomas F; McClanahan, Timothy R; Andréfouët, Serge; Baker, Merrill; Lagabrielle, Erwann; McClennen, Caleb; Rakotomanjaka, Andry J M; Tianarisoa, Tantely F; Watson, Reg; Kremen, Claire

    2012-01-01

    The Government of Madagascar plans to increase marine protected area coverage by over one million hectares. To assist this process, we compare four methods for marine spatial planning of Madagascar's west coast. Input data for each method was drawn from the same variables: fishing pressure, exposure to climate change, and biodiversity (habitats, species distributions, biological richness, and biodiversity value). The first method compares visual color classifications of primary variables, the second uses binary combinations of these variables to produce a categorical classification of management actions, the third is a target-based optimization using Marxan, and the fourth is conservation ranking with Zonation. We present results from each method, and compare the latter three approaches for spatial coverage, biodiversity representation, fishing cost and persistence probability. All results included large areas in the north, central, and southern parts of western Madagascar. Achieving 30% representation targets with Marxan required twice the fish catch loss than the categorical method. The categorical classification and Zonation do not consider targets for conservation features. However, when we reduced Marxan targets to 16.3%, matching the representation level of the "strict protection" class of the categorical result, the methods show similar catch losses. The management category portfolio has complete coverage, and presents several management recommendations including strict protection. Zonation produces rapid conservation rankings across large, diverse datasets. Marxan is useful for identifying strict protected areas that meet representation targets, and minimize exposure probabilities for conservation features at low economic cost. We show that methods based on Zonation and a simple combination of variables can produce results comparable to Marxan for species representation and catch losses, demonstrating the value of comparing alternative approaches during

  18. Comparison of marine spatial planning methods in Madagascar demonstrates value of alternative approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F Allnutt

    Full Text Available The Government of Madagascar plans to increase marine protected area coverage by over one million hectares. To assist this process, we compare four methods for marine spatial planning of Madagascar's west coast. Input data for each method was drawn from the same variables: fishing pressure, exposure to climate change, and biodiversity (habitats, species distributions, biological richness, and biodiversity value. The first method compares visual color classifications of primary variables, the second uses binary combinations of these variables to produce a categorical classification of management actions, the third is a target-based optimization using Marxan, and the fourth is conservation ranking with Zonation. We present results from each method, and compare the latter three approaches for spatial coverage, biodiversity representation, fishing cost and persistence probability. All results included large areas in the north, central, and southern parts of western Madagascar. Achieving 30% representation targets with Marxan required twice the fish catch loss than the categorical method. The categorical classification and Zonation do not consider targets for conservation features. However, when we reduced Marxan targets to 16.3%, matching the representation level of the "strict protection" class of the categorical result, the methods show similar catch losses. The management category portfolio has complete coverage, and presents several management recommendations including strict protection. Zonation produces rapid conservation rankings across large, diverse datasets. Marxan is useful for identifying strict protected areas that meet representation targets, and minimize exposure probabilities for conservation features at low economic cost. We show that methods based on Zonation and a simple combination of variables can produce results comparable to Marxan for species representation and catch losses, demonstrating the value of comparing alternative

  19. Evaluation of Alternate Materials and Methods for Strontium and Alpha Removal from Savannah River Site High-Level Waste Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D.T.

    2000-11-07

    A literature survey indicated a number of alternate materials and methods for the removal of strontium and alpha-emitting radionuclides (actinides). We evaluated the use of alternate materials versus proposed flowsheets for salt processing at the Savannah River Site (SRS). From this evaluation we recommend the following materials for further testing to determine the rate and extent of removal. We do not recommend testing of liquid/liquid extraction and polymer filtration methods at this time.

  20. Designing Alternative Transport Methods for the Distributed Data Collection of ATLAS EventIndex Project

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez Casani, Alvaro; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    One of the key and challenging tasks of the ATLAS EventIndex project is to index and catalog all the produced events not only at CERN but also at hundreds of worldwide grid sites, and convey the data in real time to a central Hadoop instance at CERN. While this distributed data collection is currently operating correctly in production, there are some issues that might impose performance bottlenecks in the future, with an expected rise in the event production and reprocessing rates. In this work, we first describe the current approach based on a messaging system, which conveys the data from the sources to the central catalog, and we identify some weaknesses of this system. Then, we study a promising alternative transport method based on an object store, presenting a performance comparison with the current approach, and the architectural design changes needed to adapt the system to the next run of the ATLAS experiment at CERN.

  1. Valuation of imaging centers: alternative methods and detailed description of the discounted cash flow approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Philip J

    2007-01-01

    Medical imaging centers are an increasingly integral part of the medical services landscape in America. There are many instances in which owners and potential buyers of these enterprises want to ascertain the value of the businesses. There is an industry of professionals who provide expert valuation services for many types of businesses using various recognized alternative methods, some of which are more appropriate than others when valuing an imaging center. The federal government has prescribed parameters for all valuations if they lead to transactions in which fair market value is mandated, and it also expects transactions to adhere to more generalized laws relating to entities that provide services to Medicare patients. Radiologists who own, or who are contemplating ownership of, imaging center operations need to understand the principles of valuation, specifically the factors that are involved in a discounted cash flow determination of fair market value.

  2. Using Writing Portfolios as an Alternative Assessment Method in the Greek Primary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeliki Panou

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to present and analyze the use of writing portfolios as an alternative method of assessing the writing skill in a group of young learners who attend the 6th grade of a Greek State Primary School. In order for this research to be carried out successfully and to provide enlightening results, a systematic and purposeful collection and observation of these learners’ writing samples was conducted over a period of 4 months and further data was basically collected by means of questionnaires before, during and after the completion of the study. There are two major parts in this paper: the theoretical and the practical one. In the first one the following issues are considered: contrasts between traditional testing and alternative assessment and reasons for the selection of the latter as more preferable concerning the positive and very promising outcomes it provides to learners; current portfolio pedagogy and the benefits deriving in relation to the most profound theories underpinning young learners’ cognitive and linguistic development; and the process-writing approach in combination with the use of writing portfolios. The second part presents the actual implementation of the research, analyzing the whole process of the portfolio stages followed from the very beginning of the ‘journey’ to the end. Τhe outcomes and results of this research are discussed and evaluated, whether positive or even negative, and the implications of the present classroom-based study are outlined. Finally, the study concludes with suggestions for further research in order for possible revisions and/or improvements to the specific assessment method to be looked into in future.

  3. Full-vectorial finite-difference beam propagation method based on the modified alternating direction implicit method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Jin-Biao; Sun Xiao-Han

    2006-01-01

    A modified alternating direction implicit algorithm is proposed to solve the full-vectorial finite-difference beam propagation method formulation based on H fields. The cross-coupling terms are neglected in the first sub-step, but evaluated and doubly used in the second sub-step. The order of two sub-steps is reversed for each transverse magnetic field component so that the cross-coupling terms are always expressed in implicit form, thus the calculation is very efficient and stable. Moreover, an improved six-point finite-difference scheme with high accuracy independent of specific structures of waveguide is also constructed to approximate the cross-coupling terms along the transverse directions. The imaginary-distance procedure is used to assess the validity and utility of the present method. The field patterns and the normalized propagation constants of the fundamental mode for a buried rectangular waveguide and a rib waveguide are presented. Solutions are in excellent agreement with the benchmark results from the modal transverse resonance method.

  4. Alternative technical summary report for immobilized disposition in deep boreholes: Immobilized disposal of plutonium in coated ceramic pellets in grout without canisters, Version 4.0. Fissile materials disposition program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijesinghe, A.M.

    1996-08-23

    This paper summarizes and compares the immobilized and direct borehole disposition alternatives previously presented in the alternative technical summary. The important design concepts, facility features and operational procedures are first briefly described. This is followed by a discussion of the issues that affect the evaluation of each alternative against the programmatic assessment criteria that have been established for selecting the preferred alternatives for plutonium disposition.

  5. A novel method to assist the detection of the Cyclic Alternating Pattern (CAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenorio, J M; Alba, A; Mendez, M O; Bianchi, A M; Grassi, A; Arce-Santana, E; Chouvarda, I; Mariani, S; Rosso, V; Terzano, M G; Parrino, L

    2012-01-01

    This study proposes a novel method to assist the detection of the components that build up the Cyclic Alternating Pattern (CAP). CAP is a sleep phenomenon formed by consecutive sequences of activations (A1, A2, A3) and non-activations during nonREM sleep. The main importance of CAP evaluation is the possibility of defining the sleep process more accurately. Ten recordings from healthy and good sleepers were included in this study. The method is based on inferential statistics to define the initial and ending points of the CAP components based only on an initialization point given by the expert. The results show concordance up to 95% for A1, 85% for A2 and 60% for A3, together with an overestimation of 1.5 s in A1, 1.3 s in A2 and 0 s in A3. The total CAP rate presents a total underestimation of 7 min. Those results suggest that the method is able to accurately detect the initial and ending points of the activations, and may be helpful for the physicians by reducing the time dedicated to the manual inspection task.

  6. Between Contemporary Art and Cultural Analysis: Alternative Methods for Knowledge Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billy Ehn

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Artistic research suggests alternative methods for producing various kinds of knowledge, whether within or without the confines of academe. These methods may involve either the production of investigative artworks or the writing by the artist of a doctoral dissertation about his or her own work. For cultural researchers, the methods employed by artists engaged in these processes are both familiar and challenging, as conventional ethnography is mixed with more unpredictable experiments. This article presents several contemporary artworks, including sculpture, film, dance, installation and performance that explore various aspects of reality. What can be learnt from these works? And what could be achieved by an open exchange between artists and academic researchers? Four methodological approaches are highlighted as being of particular interest. The first relates to artists’ tendency to live experimentally, using themselves both as actors and as research objects. The second arises from the very tangible ways in which contemporary artworks approach the theme of materiality. The third relates to the emotional nature of much of contemporary art – even when it is categorised as conceptual – in its creation, forms of presentation, and influence on the spectator. Finally, many artists are gifted with the ability to find and communicate surprising meanings in ordinary life. How do they do this? Part of the answer seems to be that although artists are open to the implementation of “wild whims”, they exploit their spontaneity in a highly professional manner.

  7. PHOTOPROBER® Biotin: An Alternative Method for Labeling Archival DNA for Comparative Genomic Hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Korinth

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH represents a powerful method for screening the entire genome of solid tumors for chromosomal imbalances. Particularly it enabled the molecular cytogenetic analysis of archival, formalin‐fixed, paraffin‐embedded (FFPE tissue. A well‐known dilemma, however, is the poor DNA quality of this material with fragment sizes below 1000 bp. Nick translation, the conventionally used enzymatic DNA labeling method in CGH, leads to even shorter fragments often below a critical limit for successful analysis. In this study we report the alternative application of non‐enzymatic, PHOTOPROBE® biotin labeling for conjugation of the hapten to the DNA prior to in situ hybridization and fluorescence detection. We analyzed 51 FFPE tumor samples mainly from the upper respiratory tract by both labeling methods. In 19 cases, both approaches were successful. The comparison of hybridized metaphases showed a distinct higher fluorescence signal of the PHOTOPROBE® samples sometimes with a discrete cytoplasm background which however did not interfere with specificity and sensitivity of the detected chromosomal imbalances. For further 32 cases characterized by an average DNA fragment size below 1000 bp, PHOTOPROBE® biotin was the only successful labeling technique thus offering a new option for CGH analysis of highly degraded DNA from archival material.

  8. USING COMPUTER-BASED TESTING AS ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT METHOD OF STUDENT LEARNING IN DISTANCE EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia SAPRIATI

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the use of computer-based testing in distance education, based on the experience of Universitas Terbuka (UT, Indonesia. Computer-based testing has been developed at UT for reasons of meeting the specific needs of distance students as the following: Ø students’ inability to sit for the scheduled test, Ø conflicting test schedules, and Ø students’ flexibility to take examination to improve their grades. In 2004, UT initiated a pilot project in the development of system and program for computer-based testing method. Then in 2005 and 2006 tryouts in the use of computer-based testing methods were conducted in 7 Regional Offices that were considered as having sufficient supporting recourses. The results of the tryouts revealed that students were enthusiastic in taking computer-based tests and they expected that the test method would be provided by UT as alternative to the traditional paper and pencil test method. UT then implemented computer-based testing method in 6 and 12 Regional Offices in 2007 and 2008 respectively. The computer-based testing was administered in the city of the designated Regional Office and was supervised by the Regional Office staff. The development of the computer-based testing was initiated with conducting tests using computers in networked configuration. The system has been continually improved, and it currently uses devices linked to the internet or the World Wide Web. The construction of the test involves the generation and selection of the test items from the item bank collection of the UT Examination Center. Thus the combination of the selected items compromises the test specification. Currently UT has offered 250 courses involving the use of computer-based testing. Students expect that more courses are offered with computer-based testing in Regional Offices within easy access by students.

  9. Modeling the impacts of alternative fertilization methods on nitrogen loading in rice production in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zheng; Sha, Zhimin; Liu, Yibo; Wu, Shuhang; Zhang, Hanlin; Li, Changsheng; Zhao, Qi; Cao, Linkui

    2016-10-01

    Nitrogen (N) loss from paddy fields is an important source of agricultural non-point source pollution that leads to eutrophication of water bodies and degradation of water quality. The impacts of alternative N fertilizer management practices on N loading (N loss through runoff and leaching) from paddy fields in Shanghai were assessed using a process-based biogeochemical model, DNDC. The results indicated that the current fertilization rate in paddy fields of Shanghai (300kgN/ha) exceeds the actual rice demand and has led to substantial N loading of 1142±276kg. The combined application of urea at 150kgN/ha and organic manure at 100kgN/ha was identified as the best fertilization method for rice cultivation in Shanghai; this application maintained optimal rice yields and significantly reduced N loading to 714±151kg in comparison with the current fertilization rate. A sensitivity test was conducted with various input parameters, and the results indicated that fertilization, precipitation and soil properties were the most sensitive factors that regulate N loss from paddy fields. The variability of soil properties, especially SOC led to high uncertainties in the simulated results. Therefore, the local climate conditions and soil properties should be taken into account in the identification of the best management practice (BMP) for rice cultivation, given the high spatially heterogeneous N loading values across all towns used in the simulation. The DNDC model is an effective approach for simulating and predicting N loading in paddy fields under alternative agricultural management practices.

  10. Alternative Chemical Cleaning Methods for High Level Waste Tanks: Simulant Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudisill, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); King, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hay, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jones, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-11-19

    Solubility testing with simulated High Level Waste tank heel solids has been conducted in order to evaluate two alternative chemical cleaning technologies for the dissolution of sludge residuals remaining in the tanks after the exhaustion of mechanical cleaning and sludge washing efforts. Tests were conducted with non-radioactive pure phase metal reagents, binary mixtures of reagents, and a Savannah River Site PUREX heel simulant to determine the effectiveness of an optimized, dilute oxalic/nitric acid cleaning reagent and pure, dilute nitric acid toward dissolving the bulk non-radioactive waste components. A focus of this testing was on minimization of oxalic acid additions during tank cleaning. For comparison purposes, separate samples were also contacted with pure, concentrated oxalic acid which is the current baseline chemical cleaning reagent. In a separate study, solubility tests were conducted with radioactive tank heel simulants using acidic and caustic permanganate-based methods focused on the “targeted” dissolution of actinide species known to be drivers for Savannah River Site tank closure Performance Assessments. Permanganate-based cleaning methods were evaluated prior to and after oxalic acid contact.

  11. The convergence rate of the proximal alternating direction method of multipliers with indefinite proximal regularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The proximal alternating direction method of multipliers (P-ADMM is an efficient first-order method for solving the separable convex minimization problems. Recently, He et al. have further studied the P-ADMM and relaxed the proximal regularization matrix of its second subproblem to be indefinite. This is especially significant in practical applications since the indefinite proximal matrix can result in a larger step size for the corresponding subproblem and thus can often accelerate the overall convergence speed of the P-ADMM. In this paper, without the assumptions that the feasible set of the studied problem is bounded or the objective function’s component θ i ( ⋅ $\\theta_{i}(\\cdot$ of the studied problem is strongly convex, we prove the worst-case O ( 1 / t $\\mathcal{O}(1/t$ convergence rate in an ergodic sense of the P-ADMM with a general Glowinski relaxation factor γ ∈ ( 0 , 1 + 5 2 $\\gamma\\in(0,\\frac{1+\\sqrt{5}}{2}$ , which is a supplement of the previously known results in this area. Furthermore, some numerical results on compressive sensing are reported to illustrate the effectiveness of the P-ADMM with indefinite proximal regularization.

  12. Alternative method for design and optimization of the ring resonator used in micro-optic gyro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kunbo; Feng, Lishuang; Wang, Junjie; Lei, Ming

    2013-03-01

    The ring resonator is one of the key elements in the micro-optic gyro system, but there is not a uniform method for designing the parameters of a ring resonator, especially for its size. In this paper, an alternative method is presented for designing the ring resonator used in micro-optic gyro. Maximization of the resonator output is proposed to be the principle in design and optimization for the first time to our knowledge. The scale factor accuracy and the full range of the gyro system are taken into account to obtain the optimum diameter of the ring. A theoretical optimal diameter of 0.25 m is achieved for SiO(2) waveguide resonator with a dynamic range of ±500°/s by analyzing the influence of resonator parameters on the output in detail, and the corresponding sensitivity of the gyro is less than 1.28°/h, which can meet the demands of a tactical inertia system.

  13. AFCI Storage & Disposal FY-06 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsey, W G; Wigeland, R; Dixon, B

    2006-09-27

    AFCI Storage and Disposal participants at LLNL, ANL and INL provide assessment of how AFCI technology can optimize the future evolution of the fuel cycle, including optimization of waste management. Evaluation of material storage and repository disposal technical issues provides feedback on criteria and metrics for AFCI, and evaluation of AFCI waste streams provides technical alternatives for future repository optimization. LLNL coordinates this effort that includes repository analysis at ANL and incorporation of repository impacts into AFCI criteria at INL. Cooperative evaluation with YMP staff is pursued to provide a mutually agreed technical base. Cooperation with select international programs is supported.

  14. Approach to underground characterization of a disposal vault in granite; Methode de caracterisation souterraine d`une enceinte de stockage dans la roche granitique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everitt, R.A.; Martin, C.D.; Thompson, P.M.

    1994-12-01

    The concept of disposing of nuclear fuel waste by sealing it in a disposal vault in the Canadian Shield is being investigated as part of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. Engineered and natural barriers would isolate the waste from the biosphere. Underground characterization and testing have been under way since 1983 at the Underground Research Laboratory in support of this program. This report draws on experience gained at the URL to recommend an approach to underground characterization to obtain information to optimize the design of the excavation and the engineered barriers, and to provide a baseline against which to monitor the performance of the facility during and following its operation.

  15. Integrated Disposal Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located near the center of the 586-square-mile Hanford Site is the Integrated Disposal Facility, also known as the IDF.This facility is a landfill similar in concept...

  16. Alternate calibration method of radiochromic EBT3 film for quality assurance verification of clinical radiotherapy treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soah; Kang, Sei-Kwon; Cheong, Kwang-Ho; Hwang, Taejin; Yoon, Jai-Woong; Koo, Taeryool; Han, Tae Jin; Kim, Haeyoung; Lee, Me Yeon; Bae, Hoonsik; Kim, Kyoung Ju

    2016-07-01

    EBT3 film is utilized as a dosimetry quality assurance tool for the verification of clinical radiotherapy treatments. In this work, we suggest a percentage-depth-dose (PDD) calibration method that can calibrate several EBT3 film pieces together at different dose levels because photon beams provide different dose levels at different depths along the axis of the beam. We investigated the feasibility of the film PDD calibration method based on PDD data and compared the results those from the traditional film calibration method. Photon beams at 6 MV were delivered to EBT3 film pieces for both calibration methods. For the PDD-based calibration, the film pieces were placed on solid phantoms at the depth of maximum dose (dmax) and at depths of 3, 5, 8, 12, 17, and 22 cm, and a photon beam was delivered twice, at 100 cGy and 400 cGy, to extend the calibration dose range under the same conditions. Fourteen film pieces, to maintain their consistency, were irradiated at doses ranging from approximately 30 to 400 cGy for both film calibrations. The film pieces were located at the center position on the scan bed of an Epson 1680 flatbed scanner in the parallel direction. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans were created, and their dose distributions were delivered to the film. The dose distributions for the traditional method and those for the PDD-based calibration method were evaluated using a Gamma analysis. The PDD dose values using a CC13 ion chamber and those obtained by using a FC65-G Farmer chamber and measured at the depth of interest produced very similar results. With the objective test criterion of a 1% dosage agreement at 1 mm, the passing rates for the four cases of the three IMRT plans were essentially identical. The traditional and the PDD-based calibrations provided similar plan verification results. We also describe another alternative for calibrating EBT3 films, i.e., a PDD-based calibration method that provides an easy and time-saving approach

  17. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP-strings: an alternative method for assessing genetic associations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas S Goodin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS identify disease-associations for single-nucleotide-polymorphisms (SNPs from scattered genomic-locations. However, SNPs frequently reside on several different SNP-haplotypes, only some of which may be disease-associated. This circumstance lowers the observed odds-ratio for disease-association. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we develop a method to identify the two SNP-haplotypes, which combine to produce each person's SNP-genotype over specified chromosomal segments. Two multiple sclerosis (MS-associated genetic regions were modeled; DRB1 (a Class II molecule of the major histocompatibility complex and MMEL1 (an endopeptidase that degrades both neuropeptides and β-amyloid. For each locus, we considered sets of eleven adjacent SNPs, surrounding the putative disease-associated gene and spanning ∼200 kb of DNA. The SNP-information was converted into an ordered-set of eleven-numbers (subject-vectors based on whether a person had zero, one, or two copies of particular SNP-variant at each sequential SNP-location. SNP-strings were defined as those ordered-combinations of eleven-numbers (0 or 1, representing a haplotype, two of which combined to form the observed subject-vector. Subject-vectors were resolved using probabilistic methods. In both regions, only a small number of SNP-strings were present. We compared our method to the SHAPEIT-2 phasing-algorithm. When the SNP-information spanning 200 kb was used, SHAPEIT-2 was inaccurate. When the SHAPEIT-2 window was increased to 2,000 kb, the concordance between the two methods, in both of these eleven-SNP regions, was over 99%, suggesting that, in these regions, both methods were quite accurate. Nevertheless, correspondence was not uniformly high over the entire DNA-span but, rather, was characterized by alternating peaks and valleys of concordance. Moreover, in the valleys of poor-correspondence, SHAPEIT-2 was also inconsistent with itself

  18. A Comprehensive Study of Internal Distraction Plating, an Alternative Method for Distal Radius Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavani, Kinjal J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The management of highly comminuted distal radius fractures still remains a major treatment challenge. Articular comminution and compromised bone quality are the culprits. One novel approach is the technique of Internal Distraction Plating which involves “bridging” the fracture with the use of a standard 3.5mm plate applied dorsally in distraction from the radius, proximal to the fracture, to the long finger metacarpal distally, bypassing the comminuted segment. The plate is removed once fracture union has been achieved. Aim The present study was conducted with the aim to evaluate the role of internal dorsal distraction plating as an alternative method in the treatment of fracture distal radius in terms of special indications, technique and outcome. Materials and Methods This study was a prospective longitudinal study on 20 patients (mean age 62 years) treated with internal distraction plating for comminuted distal radius fractures with specific indications. Regular follow-ups with standard radiographs and analysis were done upto 24 months. Functional outcome were assessed by DASH Score and the Gartland and Werley demerit score. Results At final follow-up, all fractures had united and X-rays showed mean palmar tilt of 7°, positive ulnar variance of 0.5mm, radial inclination of 18° and average loss of 2mm of radial height. Mean range of motion values for wrist flexion 46°, extension 50°, pronation 79° and supination 77° At final follow-up, the mean DASH score was 32. 85% patient had excellent to good result as per Gartland and Werley demerit score. This construct has yield satisfactory clinical and radiographic results with these very challenging injuries. Conclusion The purpose of this study was to report the radiographic and the functional outcomes of treatment with this technique. External fixator and volar plating in communited distal end radius fractures are not always satisfactory in old age with osteoporotic bone because of

  19. Dental movement acceleration: Literature review by an alternative scientific evidence method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Angela Domínguez; Cujar, Sergio Andres Velásquez

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the majority of publications using effective methods to speed up orthodontic treatment and determine which publications carry high evidence-based value. The literature published in Pubmed from 1984 to 2013 was reviewed, in addition to well-known reports that were not classified under this database. To facilitate evidence-based decision making, guidelines such as the Consolidation Standards of Reporting Trials, Preferred Reporting items for systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses, and Transparent Reporting of Evaluations with Non-randomized Designs check list were used. The studies were initially divided into three groups: local application of cell mediators, physical stimuli, and techniques that took advantage of the regional acceleration phenomena. The articles were classified according to their level of evidence using an alternative method for orthodontic scientific article classification. 1a: Systematic Reviews (SR) of randomized clinical trials (RCTs), 1b: Individual RCT, 2a: SR of cohort studies, 2b: Individual cohort study, controlled clinical trials and low quality RCT, 3a: SR of case-control studies, 3b: Individual case-control study, low quality cohort study and short time following split mouth designs. 4: Case-series, low quality case-control study and non-systematic review, and 5: Expert opinion. The highest level of evidence for each group was: (1) local application of cell mediators: the highest level of evidence corresponds to a 3B level in Prostaglandins and Vitamin D; (2) physical stimuli: vibratory forces and low level laser irradiation have evidence level 2b, Electrical current is classified as 3b evidence-based level, Pulsed Electromagnetic Field is placed on the 4th level on the evidence scale; and (3) regional acceleration phenomena related techniques: for corticotomy the majority of the reports belong to level 4. Piezocision, dentoalveolar distraction, alveocentesis, monocortical tooth dislocation and ligament

  20. Verification of Sulfate Attack Penetration Rates for Saltstone Disposal Unit Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-05-12

    Recent Special Analysis modeling of Saltstone Disposal Units consider sulfate attack on concrete and utilize degradation rates estimated from Cementitious Barriers Partnership software simulations. This study provides an independent verification of those simulation results using an alternative analysis method and an independent characterization data source. The sulfate penetration depths estimated herein are similar to the best-estimate values in SRNL-STI-2013-00118 Rev. 2 and well below the nominal values subsequently used to define Saltstone Special Analysis base cases.

  1. Application of sensitivity analysis for assessment of de-desertification alternatives in the central Iran by using Triantaphyllou method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi Ravesh, Mohammad Hassan; Ahmadi, Hassan; Zehtabian, Gholamreza

    2011-08-01

    Desertification, land degradation in arid, semi-arid, and dry sub-humid regions, is a global environmental problem. With respect to increasing importance of desertification and its complexity, the necessity of attention to the optimal de-desertification alternatives is essential. Therefore, this work presents an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method to objectively select the optimal de-desertification alternatives based on the results of interviews with experts in Khezr Abad region, central Iran as the case study. This model was used in Yazd Khezr Abad region to evaluate the efficiency in presentation of better alternatives related to personal and environmental situations. Obtained results indicate that the criterion "proportion and adaptation to the environment" with the weighted average of 33.6% is the most important criterion from experts viewpoints. While prevention alternatives of land usage unsuitable of reveres and conversion with 22.88% mean weight and vegetation cover development and reclamation with 21.9% mean weight are recognized ordinarily as the most important de-desertification alternatives in region. Finally, sensitivity analysis is performed in detail by varying the objective factor decision weight, the priority weight of subjective factors, and the gain factors. After the fulfillment of sensitivity analysis and determination of the most sensitive criteria and alternatives, the former classification and ranking of alternatives does not change so much, and it was observed that unsuitable land use alternative with the preference degree of 22.7% was still in the first order of priority. The final priority of livestock grazing control alternative was replaced with the alternative of modification of ground water harvesting.

  2. Estimating Rumen Degradable Protein in Forage Legume Hays and Silages by In Situ Disappearance Kinetics vs. Alternative Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currently, the in situ kinetic method is considered the “gold standard” for estimating rumen degradable protein (RDP) in forages. When such estimates are impractical (e.g. numerous samples, limited sample quantities, or lack of ruminally fistulated cattle) alternative RDP methods are used, but their...

  3. Alternative Methods of Classifying Eating Disorders: Models Incorporating Comorbid Psychopathology and Associated Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildes, Jennifer E.; Marcus, Marsha D.

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing recognition of the limitations of current approaches to psychiatric classification. Nowhere is this more apparent than in the eating disorders (EDs). Several alternative methods of classifying EDs have been proposed, which can be divided into two major groups: 1) those that have classified individuals on the basis of disordered eating symptoms; and, 2) those that have classified individuals on the basis of comorbid psychopathology and associated features. Several reviews have addressed symptom-based approaches to ED classification, but we are aware of no paper that has critically examined comorbidity-based systems. Thus, in this paper, we review models of classifying EDs that incorporate information about comorbid psychopathology and associated features. Early approaches are described first, followed by more recent scholarly contributions to comorbidity-based ED classification. Importantly, several areas of overlap among the classification schemes are identified that may have implications for future research. In particular, we note similarities between early models and newer studies in the salience of impulsivity, compulsivity, distress, and inhibition versus risk taking. Finally, we close with directions for future work, with an emphasis on neurobiologically-informed research to elucidate basic behavioral and neuropsychological correlates of comorbidity-based ED classes, as well as implications for treatment. PMID:23416343

  4. Skills based evaluation of alternative input methods to command a semi-autonomous electric wheelchair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Mario; Ponce, Pedro; Molina, Arturo

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents the evaluation, under standardized metrics, of alternative input methods to steer and maneuver a semi-autonomous electric wheelchair. The Human-Machine Interface (HMI), which includes a virtual joystick, head movements and speech recognition controls, was designed to facilitate mobility skills for severely disabled people. Thirteen tasks, which are common to all the wheelchair users, were attempted five times by controlling it with the virtual joystick and the hands-free interfaces in different areas for disabled and non-disabled people. Even though the prototype has an intelligent navigation control, based on fuzzy logic and ultrasonic sensors, the evaluation was done without assistance. The scored values showed that both controls, the head movements and the virtual joystick have similar capabilities, 92.3% and 100%, respectively. However, the 54.6% capacity score obtained for the speech control interface indicates the needs of the navigation assistance to accomplish some of the goals. Furthermore, the evaluation time indicates those skills which require more user's training with the interface and specifications to improve the total performance of the wheelchair.

  5. Equine tracheal epithelial membrane strips - An alternate method for examining epithelial cell arachidonic acid metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, P.R.; Derksen, F.J.; Robinson, N.E.; Peter-Golden, M.L. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (United States) Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (United States))

    1990-02-26

    Arachidonic acid metabolism by tracheal epithelium can be studied using enzymatically dispersed cell suspensions or cell cultures. Both techniques require considerable tissue disruption and manipulation and may not accurately represent in vivo activity. The authors have developed an alternate method for obtaining strips of equine tracheal epithelium without enzymatic digestion. In the horse, a prominent elastic lamina supports the tracheal epithelium. By physical splitting this lamina, they obtained strips ({le}12 x 1.5 cm) of pseudostratified columnar epithelium attached to a layer of elastic tissue 30-100 {mu}m thick. Epithelial strips (1.2 x 0.5 cm) were attached to plexiglass rods and incubated with ({sup 3}H)arachidonic acid in M199 medium (0.5 {mu}Ci/ml) for 24 hours at 37C. The strips incorporated 36{+-}4% (mean {+-} SEM) of the total radioactivity and released 8.0{+-}1.2% of incorporated radioactivity when stimulated by 5.0 {mu}M calcium ionophore A23187. The extracted supernatant was processed using HPLC, resulting in peaks of radioactivity that co-eluted with authentic PGE{sub 2}, PGF{sub 2}{alpha}, and 12-HETE standards. The greatest activity corresponded to the PGE{sub 2} and PGF{sub 2}{alpha} standards, which is a similar pattern to that reported for cultured human tracheal epithelium.

  6. Relationship between DAPI-fluorescence fading and nuclear DNA content: An alternative method to DNA quantification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian; Alvarez-Borrego, Josué; Von Brand, Elisabeth; Dupré, Enrique; Del Río-Portilla, Miguel Angel

    2007-01-01

    In observations by confocal or conventional fluorescence microscopy, important factors should be considered in order to obtain accurate images. One of them, such as the fluorescence bleaching from highest intensity to lowest signal of fluorescence is a common problem with several DNA fluorochromes and especially for DAPI stain. The fluorescence of DAPI fades rapidly when it is exposed to UV light, under optimal conditions of observation. Although the fading process can be retarded using a mounting medium with antifading reagents, the photochemical process underlying the fluorescence decay has not yet been fully explained. In addition, no relationship between fluorescence fading and nuclear DNA content has been tested. In order to test this relationship, we measured by means of image analysis the DAPI-fluorescence intensity in several cellular types (spermatozoa, erythrocytes and haemocytes) during their fluorescence bleaching. An algorithm specifically built in MATLAB software was used for this approach. The correlation coefficient between nuclear DNA content and DAPI-fluorescence fading was found equal to 99%. This study demonstrates the feasibility to measure nuclear DNA content by fluorescence fading quantification, as an alternative method concurrently with image analysis procedures.

  7. The viability of alternative assessment methods in the Greek upper secondary school: the oral portfolio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeliki Daphni

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Τhe final examination of the English language subject, in the context of the Greek state upper secondary education, is a traditional paper-and-pencil test which does not include any assessment of oracy skills. This article explores the viability of the oral portfolio as an alternative assessment and pedagogic method that can facilitate the assessment of speaking and listening skills and create a more motivating learning environment. To this effect, three methodological tools were designed, namely, a questionnaire addressing upper secondary English teachers in Greek state schools, a case study involving an oral portfolio implementation and finally, a questionnaire for students to record their experience. The study demonstrates that implementation of the portfolio contributed to a successful assessment of oracy skills and that it was a stimulating experience for students. The results of the study also showed that the pedagogical value of the portfolio counterbalanced its practical constraints. The paper concludes by putting forward recommendations for the future application of this assessment technique in state school education.

  8. Alternative method of highway traffic safety analysis for developing countries using delphi technique and Bayesian network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbakwe, Anthony C; Saka, Anthony A; Choi, Keechoo; Lee, Young-Jae

    2016-08-01

    Highway traffic accidents all over the world result in more than 1.3 million fatalities annually. An alarming number of these fatalities occurs in developing countries. There are many risk factors that are associated with frequent accidents, heavy loss of lives, and property damage in developing countries. Unfortunately, poor record keeping practices are very difficult obstacle to overcome in striving to obtain a near accurate casualty and safety data. In light of the fact that there are numerous accident causes, any attempts to curb the escalating death and injury rates in developing countries must include the identification of the primary accident causes. This paper, therefore, seeks to show that the Delphi Technique is a suitable alternative method that can be exploited in generating highway traffic accident data through which the major accident causes can be identified. In order to authenticate the technique used, Korea, a country that underwent similar problems when it was in its early stages of development in addition to the availability of excellent highway safety records in its database, is chosen and utilized for this purpose. Validation of the methodology confirms the technique is suitable for application in developing countries. Furthermore, the Delphi Technique, in combination with the Bayesian Network Model, is utilized in modeling highway traffic accidents and forecasting accident rates in the countries of research.

  9. a Study on the Alternative Technology Using Unsm Instead of the Presetting Method for Torsion Bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Chang-Min; Kim, Min-Ho; Baek, Un-Bong; Pyoun, Young-Sik; Kim, Chang-Sik; Chi, Chong-Ho

    The torsion bar must be changed periodically due to its lack of durability and a phenomenon related to stress relaxation. Therefore technical development regarding the torsion bar's durability is urgently needed. In order to improve the fatigue life and durability of the dynamic components, new surface treatment technology such as ultrasonic shot peening, deep rolling, laser shock peening, etc. are developing widely. In this study, Ultrasonic Nanocrystal Surface Modification (UNSM) technology is applied as an advanced one to replace the presetting method (PM). UNSM and PM technology also induced the compressive residual stress on the surface layer of the torsion bar, which is the main improvement factor of fatigue life. DIN17221 material as a new MIL specification of torsion bar and SCM440 (as an alternative one to a old MIL-DTL-62567C) were processed with the UNSM technology to obtain the basic data and compare it between two, and then torsion fatigue tests of two materials were carried out to obtain the characteristics of torsion fatigue in this study.

  10. Hepatotoxic microcystin removal using pumice embedded monolithic composite cryogel as an alternative water treatment method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurbuz, Fatma; Ceylan, Şeyda; Odabaşı, Mehmet; Codd, Geoffrey A

    2016-03-01

    Microcystins are the most commonly encountered water-borne cyanotoxins which present short- and long-term risks to human health. Guidelines at international and national level, and legislation in some countries, have been introduced for the effective health risk management of these potent hepatotoxic, tumour-promoters. The stable cyclic structure of microcystins and their common production by cyanobacteria in waterbodies at times of high total dissolved organic carbon content presents challenges to drinking water treatment facilities, with conventional, advanced and novel strategies under evaluation. Here, we have studied the removal of microcystins using three different forms of pumice particles (PPs), which are embedded into macroporous cryogel columns. Macroporous composite cryogel columns (MCCs) are a new generation of separation media designed to face this challenging task. Three different MCCs were prepared by adding plain PPs, Cu(2+)-attached PPs and Fe(3+)-attached PPs to reaction media before the cryogelation step. Column studies showed that MCCs could be successfully used as an alternative water treatment method for successful microcystin removal.

  11. Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste (RHLLW) Disposal Project Code of Record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.L. Austad, P.E.; L.E. Guillen, P.E.; C. W. McKnight, P.E.; D. S. Ferguson, P.E.

    2010-10-01

    The Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project addresses an anticipated shortfall in remote-handled LLW disposal capability following cessation of operations at the existing facility, which will continue until it is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of fiscal year 2015). Development of a new onsite disposal facility, the highest ranked alternative, will provide necessary remote handled LLW disposal capability and will ensure continuity of operations that generate remote-handled LLW. This report documents the Code of Record for design of a new LLW disposal capability.

  12. Alternative Therapeutic Method for Type Two Diabetes: Whole Body Vibration Therapy: A Mini-Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika L Simmerman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Context As the prevalence of obesity and diabetes continues to increase there is a need for new interventions to control this epidemic. Multiple alternative treatment methods exist for type 2 diabetes mellitus such as acupuncture, bariatric surgery, yoga, aromatherapy, herbal remedies, etc. Whole Body Vibration is a relatively new area of interest recently utilized as an adjunctive therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus, representing a potentially new and novel treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Objective The primary objective of this study was to summarize current literature regarding the effects of whole body vibration on type 2 diabetes mellitus. This review details the effect of whole body vibration on areas of high clinical impact in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus such as glycemic control, body composition, renal function, inflammatory indices, peripheral neuropathy, and wound healing. Methods Reviewers independently screened abstracts and full texts in journal articles and books to extract data from multiple studies and literature to compile a current review on the topic of whole body vibration and diabetes mellitus. Results Current literature in murine and human models reported an overall improvement in glycemic control, renal function, inflammatory indices, and peripheral neuropathy following whole body vibration therapy. Whole body vibration effect on body mass composition is controversial with inconsistent reports of the effect on lean mass, bone density, and fat mass. Conclusions Whole body vibration has demonstrated significant promise in improving multiple systems related to the sequela of type 2 diabetes mellitus, thereby suggesting a new and novel treatment modification in this patient population. Subsequent studies are needed to further analyze the effect of whole body vibration on type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  13. HIPPOTHERAPY SIMULATOR AS ALTERNATIVE METHOD FOR HIPPOTHERAPY TREATMENT IN HEMIPLEGIC CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ali Elshafey

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hippotherapy considered as worldwide techniques used in rehabilitation of children with neurological disorders as it improved gait pattern, balance, postural control, strengthen, range of motion and gross and fine motor skills development but it encounter some technical problems. Purpose: The purpose of the current study was to compare between hippotherapy and hippotherapy simulators effect on back geometry and balance in hemiplegic children. Materials and Methods: Thirty ambulant hemiplegic children, their age ranges from four to six years old participated in this study. They were randomly divided into two matched groups (control and study. The control group treated with hippotherapy for half hour in addition to the selected physical therapy program, while the study group treated with hippotherapy simulators for half hour in addition to the selected physical therapy program also. All children received the treatment three times weekly for three successive months. Spinal geometry were evaluated by Formatric instrumentation systems and balance were evaluated by pediatric balance scale before and after treatment Results: There was significant improvement in all the measured variables for both groups after comparing of their pre and post-treatment mean values with non-significant difference between both groups post treatment. Conclusion: Hippotherapy simulators is an alternative method for hippotherapy could be used for modulation of back geometry and for improving balance in hemiplegic children. Brief summary and potential implication: Hippotherapy simulator was used in treatment of back geometry and balance in hemiplegic children, all the measurements were compared with hippotherapy. The results were nearly the same in both groups.

  14. Geophysical investigation using resistivity and GPR methods: a case study of a lubricant oil waste disposal area in the city of Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago, Alexandre Lisboa; Elis, Vagner Roberto; Borges, Welitom Rodrigues; Penner, Giovanni Chaves

    2009-07-01

    Geophysics has been shown to be effective in identifying areas contaminated by waste disposal, contributing to the greater efficiency of soundings programs and the installation of monitoring wells. In the study area, four trenches were constructed with a total volume of about 25,000 m3. They were almost totally filled with re-refined lubricating oil waste for approximately 25 years. No protection liners were used in the bottoms and laterals of the disposal trenches. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the potential of the resistivity and ground penetrating radar (GPR) methods in characterizing the contamination of this lubricant oil waste disposal area in Ribeirão Preto, SP, situated on the geological domain of the basalt spills of the Serra Geral Formation and the sandstones of the Botucatu Formation. Geophysical results were shown in 2D profiles. The geophysical methods used enabled the identification of geophysical anomalies, which characterized the contamination produced by the trenches filled with lubricant oil waste. Conductive anomalies (smaller than 185 Ωm) immediately below the trenches suggest the action of bacteria in the hydrocarbons, as has been observed in several sites contaminated by hydrocarbons in previously reported cases in the literature. It was also possible to define the geometry of the trenches, as evidenced by the GPR method. Direct sampling (chemical analysis of the soil and the water in the monitoring well) confirmed the contamination. In the soil analysis, low concentrations of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were found, mainly naphthalene and phenanthrene. In the water samples, an analysis verified contamination of the groundwater by lead (Pb). The geophysical methods used in the investigation provided an excellent tool for environmental characterization in this study of a lubricant oil waste disposal area, and could be applied in the study of similar areas.

  15. A method for the evaluation of a system for the disposal and use of biogenic wastes and farm manure; Vorstudie fuer eine Methode zur Bewertung der Entsorgungs- und Nutzungsverfahren von biogenen Abfaellen und Hofduenger. Entwicklung der Methodik und Anwendung auf ausgewaehlte Technologien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baettig, M.; Klingler, G.; Dettli, R. [econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Frischknecht, R.; Tuchschmid, M. [ESU-Services Ltd., fair consulting in sustainability, Uster (Switzerland)

    2009-06-15

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) deals with the evaluation of a system for the disposal and use of biogenic wastes and farm dung. The principle aim of the study was to develop a method for the evaluation of the various methods for the disposal and use of biogenic wastes and the manure produced in agriculture. A further aim was the exemplary use of the method on a selection of waste disposal methods and the drawing of initial conclusions from the ecological, economic and social points of view. The report provides details on the biomass fractions examined and their energy content. The fundamentals on which the development of the methods used are based are described. Test use of the multi-criterion analysis developed is discussed as is sensitivity analysis. Finally conclusions concerning the evaluation are presented and recommendations are made. The appendix to the report contains details on the comprehensive questionnaire used to collect information and the results of an on-line survey on the weighting of the criteria. Also, fact sheets on the 24 disposal and usage variants examined and an overview of disposal and collection costs are presented. The appendix also contains result tables on the use of the method for biogenic wastes, sewage sludge, farm manure, wood wastes and scrap wood.

  16. The disposal of radioactive waste on land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1957-09-01

    A committee of geologists and geophysicists was established by the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council at the request of the Atomic Energy Commission to consider the possibilities of disposing of high level radioactive wastes in quantity within the continental limits of the United States. The group was charged with assembling the existing geologic information pertinent to disposal, delineating the unanswered problems associated with the disposal schemes proposed, and point out areas of research and development meriting first attention; the committee is to serve as continuing adviser on the geological and geophysical aspects of disposal and the research and development program. The Committee with the cooperation of the Johns Hopkins University organized a conference at Princeton in September 1955. After the Princeton Conference members of the committee inspected disposal installations and made individual studies. Two years consideration of the disposal problems leads to-certain general conclusions. Wastes may be disposed of safely at many sites in the United States but, conversely, there are many large areas in which it is unlikely that disposal sites can be found, for example, the Atlantic Seaboard. Disposal in cavities mined in salt beds and salt domes is suggested as the possibility promising the most practical immediate solution of the problem. In the future the injection of large volumes of dilute liquid waste into porous rock strata at depths in excess of 5,000 feet may become feasible but means of rendering, the waste solutions compatible with the mineral and fluid components of the rock must first be developed. The main difficulties, to the injection method recognized at present are to prevent clogging of pore space as the solutions are pumped into the rock and the prediction or control of the rate and direction of movement.

  17. 78 FR 45253 - National Toxicology Program Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Toxicology Program Scientific Advisory Committee... (ICCVAM), the National Toxicology Program (NTP) Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative... . Dated: July 17, 2013. John R. Bucher, Associate Director, National Toxicology Program. BILLING CODE...

  18. An alternant method to the traditional NASA hindlimb unloading model in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, J Andries; Crissey, Jacqueline M; Brown, Marybeth

    2011-03-10

    The Morey-Holton hindlimb unloading (HU) method is a widely accepted National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) ground-based model for studying disuse-atrophy in rodents. Our study evaluated an alternant method to the gold-standard Morey-Holton HU tail-traction technique in mice. Fifty-four female mice (4-8 mo.) were HU for 14 days (n=34) or 28 days (n=20). Recovery from HU was assessed after 3 days of normal cage ambulation following HU (n=22). Aged matched mice (n=76) served as weight-bearing controls. Prior to HU a tail ring was formed with a 2-0 sterile surgical steel wire that was passed through the 5(th), 6(th), or 7(th) inter-vertebral disc space and shaped into a ring from which the mice were suspended. Vertebral location for the tail-ring was selected to appropriately balance animal body weight without interfering with defecation. We determined the success of this novel HU technique by assessing body weight before and after HU, degree of soleus atrophy, and adrenal mass following HU. Body weight of the mice prior to HU (24.3 ± 2.9g) did not significantly decline immediately after 14d of HU (22.7 ± 1.9g), 28d of HU (21.3 + 2.1g) or after 3 days recovery (24.0 ± 1.8g). Soleus muscle mass significantly declined (-39.1%, and -46.6%) following HU for 14 days and 28 days respectively (pmaintenance of animal body weight, comparable adrenal gland weights, and soleus atrophy following HU, corresponding to expected literature values. The primary advantages of this HU method include: 1) ease of tail examination during suspension; 2) decreased likelihood of cyanotic, inflamed, and/or necrotic tails frequently observed with tail-taping and HU; 3) no possibility of mice chewing the traction tape and coming out of the suspension apparatus; and 4) rapid recovery and normal cage activity immediately after HU.

  19. Friction stir welding - an alternative method for sealing nuclear waste storage canisters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, R.E. [TWI Ltd, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2004-12-01

    When welding 50 mm thick copper a very high heat input is required to combat the high thermal diffusivity and only the Electron Beam Welding (EBW) process had this capability when this copper canister concept was conceived. Despite the encouraging results achieved using EBW with thick section copper, SKB felt that it would be prudent to assess other joining methods. This assessment concluded that friction welding, could also provide very high quality welds to satisfy the service life requirements of the SKB canister design. A friction welding variant called Friction Stir Welding (FSW) was shown to have the capability of welding 3 mm thick copper sheet with excellent integrity and reproducibility. This later provided sufficient encouragement for SKB to consider the potential of FSW as a method for joining thick section copper, using relatively simple machine tool based technology. It was thought that FSW might provide an alternative or complementary method for welding lids, or bases to canisters. In 1997 an FSW development programme started at TWI, focussed on the feasibility of welding 10 mm thick copper plate. Once this task was successfully completed, work continued to demonstrate that progressively thicker plate, up to 50 mm thick, could be joined. At this stage, with process viability established, a full size experimental FSW canister machine was designed and built. Work with this machine finished in January 2003, when it had been shown that FSW could definitely be used to weld lids to full size canisters. This report summarises the TWI development of FSW for SKB from 1997 to January 2003. It also highlights the important aspects of the process and the project milestones that will help to ensure that SKB has a welding technology that can be used with confidence for production fabrication of copper waste storage canisters in the future. The overall conclusion to this FSW development is that there is no doubt that the FSW process could be used to produce full

  20. Disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    This report addresses the topic of the mined geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel from Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) and Boiling Water Reactors (BWR). Although some fuel processing options are identified, most of the information in this report relates to the isolation of spent fuel in the form it is removed from the reactor. The characteristics of the waste management system and research which relate to spent fuel isolation are discussed. The differences between spent fuel and processed HLW which impact the waste isolation system are defined and evaluated for the nature and extent of that impact. What is known and what needs to be determined about spent fuel as a waste form to design a viable waste isolation system is presented. Other waste forms and programs such as geologic exploration, site characterization and licensing which are generic to all waste forms are also discussed. R and D is being carried out to establish the technical information to develop the methods used for disposal of spent fuel. All evidence to date indicates that there is no reason, based on safety considerations, that spent fuel should not be disposed of as a waste.

  1. Earnings Management of Firms Reporting Long Term Debt: An Alternative Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulius Jogi Christiawan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to apply an alternative detection model to prove that the earnings management will be occured when a company has long-term debts as well as the pressure of operating income. Generally, the literature study of earnings management indicates that the detection of earnings management can be grouped into two objectives, 1] to find variables for detecting earnings management (accruals, real activity and classification shifting and 2] to use some advanced statistical or mathematical models to detect earnings management. This study applies a quantitative approach using secondary data of financial statements. The study was conducted on 50 companies with the largest market capitalization, 50 of the most active companies based on trading volume, 50 of the most active companies based on the value of trade and 50 of the most active companies by frequency trading. All of them are 200  public company (listed in the Indonesia Stock Exchange-ID based on IDX statistical report 2013. The results of this study are expected to provide a new method to detect earnings management and its application in the context of positive accounting theory (PAT. The results of the study proves that the model is able to detect earnings management by utilizing foreign exchange transaction losses and use these models to support PAT (particularly on debt covenant hypothesis. These results contribute that earnings management can be done by using the foreign exchange gain / loss. However, the limitation of this study is the model has not been able to capture the phenomenon of earnings management if a company does not report any long-term debt nor foreign exchange gain/ loss.

  2. Establishment of alternative culture method for spermatogonial stem cells using knockout serum replacement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Aoshima

    Full Text Available Since spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs are capable of both self-renewal and differentiation to daughter cells for subsequent spermatogenesis, the development of an efficient in vitro culture system is essential for studies related to spermatogenesis. Although the currently available system is serum-free and contains only chemically-defined components, it highly relies upon bovine serum albumin (BSA, a component with batch-to-batch quality variations similar to those of fetal bovine serum. Thus, we searched for an alternative BSA-free culture system that preserved the properties of SSCs. In this study, we utilized Knockout Serum Replacement (KSR in the SSC culture medium, as a substitute for BSA. The results demonstrated that KSR supported the continuous growth of SSCs in vitro and the SSC activity in vivo without BSA, in a feeder-cell combination with mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The addition of BSA to KSR further facilitated cell cycle progression, whereas a transplantation assay revealed that the addition of BSA did not affect the number of SSCs in vivo. The combination of KSR with BSA also allowed the elimination of GFRA1 and FGF2, and the reduction of the GDNF concentration from 20 ng/ml to 5 ng/ml, while maintaining the growth rate and the expression of SSC markers. Furthermore, KSR was also useful with SSCs from non-DBA/2 strains, such as C57BL/6 and ICR. These results suggested that KSR is an effective substitute for BSA for long-term in vitro cultures of SSCs. Therefore, this method is practical for various studies related to SSCs, including spermatogenesis and germ stem cell biology.

  3. "Tectonic Petrameter," An Alternative Method to Teaching the Geologic Time Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, E. S.

    2011-12-01

    I have over a decade of experience as a performance poet and am now a graduate student in the geosciences. I have created a performance poem / play script, "Tectonic Petrameter," as an alternative method of teaching the geologic time scale. "The Archean came next and it was a blast. Tectonic plates were smaller and they moved pretty fast. In an enthusiastic flash of ash, volcanic islands smashed together." The use of rhyme and rhythm presents a different and interdisciplinary approach to teaching Earth history that appeals to a wide range of learning styles and makes science fun, while clearly describing important concepts in geology and events in Earth history. "Now it's time to get down with the Coal Swamp Stomp! Tap your feet to the beat of the formation of peat like a plant plantation soaking up the bright heat." "Tectonic Petrameter" by itself is an illustrated spoken-word poem that leads audiences from all levels of scientific background on an excitingly educational journey through geologic time. I will perform my 10-minute memorized poem and present results from my ongoing study to assess the effectiveness of "Tectonic Petrameter" as a teaching tool in K-12 and introductory undergraduate classroom curricula. I propose that using "Tectonic Petrameter" as a performance piece and theatrical play script in K-12 and introductory undergraduate classrooms, as well as in broader community venues, may be an avenue for breaking down barriers related to teaching about Earth's long and complex history. Digital copies of "Tectonic Petrameter" will be made available to interested parties.

  4. Geological Disposal Options for the Radioactive Wastes from a Recycling Process of Spent Nuclear Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. Y.; Choi, H. J.; Lee, M. S.; Jeong, J. T.; Choi, J. W.; Kim, S. K.; Cho, D. K.; Kuk, D. H.; Cha, J. H

    2008-10-15

    The electricity from the nuclear power plants is around 40 % of total required electricity in Korea and according to the energy development plan, the proportion will be raised about 60 % in near future. To implement this plan, the most important factor is the back-end fuel cycle, namely the safe management of the spent fuel or high level radioactive wastes from the nuclear power plants. Various researches are being carried out to manage the spent fuel effectively in the world. In our country, as one of the management alternatives which is more effective and non-proliferation, pyro-processing method is being developed actively to retrieve reusable uranium and TRU, and to reduce the volume of high level waste from a Nuclear power plant. This is a new dry recycling process. In this report, the amount of various wastes and their characteristics are estimated in a Pyro-process. Based on these information, the geological disposal alternatives are developed. According to the amount and the characteristics of each waste, the concepts of waste packages and the disposal container are developed. And also from the characteristics of the radioactivity and the heat generation, multi-layer of the depth is considered to dispose these wastes. The proposed various alternatives in this report can be used as input data for design of the deep geological disposal system. And they will be improved through the application of the real site data and safety assessment in the future. After then, the final disposal concept will be selected with various assessment and the optimization will be carried out.

  5. Recommendations to the NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) for Review Criteria for Alternative Methods of Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal. Task 2B. Earth-Mounded Concrete Bunkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    even . under extremely large hydraulic gradients (Winterkorn and Fang 1975; Bertram 1940; Cedergren 1967; and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 1941...Department of the Army Technical Manual TM 5-818-5, "Dewatering and Groundwater Control" (November 1983)and by Cedergren (1967). 2.7-3 e /.~\\ ~J.. . . , ,I I... Cedergren , 1967, Seepage, Drainage and Flow Nets, 2nd Edition,: , John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 3-I Code of Federal Regulations, 1987, Title 10

  6. Recommendations to the NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) for Review Criteria for Alternative Methods of Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal. Task 2A. Below-Ground Vaults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    1940; Cedergren 1967; and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 1941). Further guidance is provided in Department of the Army Engineer Manual EM 1910-2-1901...34 (November 1983) and by Cedergren (1967). 2.7.2.1.2 Drainage or Permeability To ensure that all of the liquid reaching the drainage layer can be safely...Resources Investigations of the United States Geological Survey," Book 5, Chapter Al. H. R. Cedergren , 1967, Seepage, Drainage and Flow Nets, 2nd Edition

  7. An alternative method for calibration of narrow band radiometer using a radiative transfer model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvador, J; Wolfram, E; D' Elia, R [Centro de Investigaciones en Laseres y Aplicaciones, CEILAP (CITEFA-CONICET), Juan B. de La Salle 4397 (B1603ALO), Villa Martelli, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Zamorano, F; Casiccia, C [Laboratorio de Ozono y Radiacion UV, Universidad de Magallanes, Punta Arenas (Chile) (Chile); Rosales, A [Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia San Juan Bosco, UNPSJB, Facultad de Ingenieria, Trelew (Argentina) (Argentina); Quel, E, E-mail: jsalvador@citefa.gov.ar [Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia Austral, Unidad Academica Rio Gallegos Avda. Lisandro de la Torre 1070 ciudad de Rio Gallegos-Sta Cruz (Argentina) (Argentina)

    2011-01-01

    city of Punta Arenas, Chile using the sun as a source. These results show us that the proposed method is a viable alternative for developing countries that use instrumentation of this type and find it difficult to apply calibration programs on a regular basis.

  8. Analysis of an alternative method for the study of bromeliad-associated fauna in plants with different foliar organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Gerson A; Name, Fernando T; Pacheco, Frederico C L; Marcondes, Carlos B

    2010-12-01

    The efficiency of an alternative method of collection (by suction of water) for the study of Culicidae and Chironomidae (Diptera), Scirtidae (Coleoptera) and Coenagrionidae (Odonata) in bromeliads with different foliar architecture in a restinga at Florianópolis, SC, Brazil, was studied. The alternative method was less efficient to collect Culicidae and Chironomidae (Wilcoxon test p 0.05) from Aechmea lindenii. This method was less efficient to collect insects of all groups from Vriesea friburgensis (Wilcoxon test p insects in both species of bromeliads. The higher mobility of immature forms of beetles and dragonflies, and the availability of only one tank in Aechea lindenii, contrasting to several tanks in Vriesea friburgensis that help the suction of these immature, probably influenced the results, which indicated that the suction method should not replace the dismantling in the study of Culicidae and Chironomidae. This method can be useful to get immature forms of Scirtidae and Coenagrionidae in one-tank bromeliads.

  9. Exploring alternative wind vulnerability and loss modeling methods - application to Europe extra-tropical cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiris, N.

    2009-04-01

    Catastrophe models are used to assess the economic and insured loss to the built environment due to natural hazards such as earthquakes, windstorms, floods, storm surges, tsunamis, etc. A conventional catastrophe model estimating direct economic loss could be divided into three basic components; hazard, vulnerability and exposure. For a single event, the hazard component represents the best estimate realization of the hazard footprint over a region at the modeling resolution, i.e. variable grid, postalcode, cresta, etc. The vulnerability component represents the response of the buildings or any modeled structure to the hazard, quantified in terms of a loss ratio. The exposure component represents the value of the buildings in a portfolio covering a region or those underwritten by an insurer or a re-insurer. The exposure together with the vulnerability functions produces the expected economic loss of the hazard footprint for a given hazard event. In the case of estimating indirect economic losses and insured losses financial models are utilized with various financial structures applied on the economic loss estimates. The commonly used method of characterizing wind vulnerability of buildings is to develop functions of mean loss ratio or mean damage ratio (MDR) vs wind speed where the wind speed is often defined as the peak gust measured at a height of 10m above the ground elevation. The uncertainty associated with MDR due to the likelihood of the building experiencing a range of damage states and hence loss ratios at a given wind speed is quantified by a continuous statistical distribution with a mean (which is the MDR) and a standard deviation, SD. For a given event footprint a conventional catastrophe model calculates an MDR and associated SD for each location of a building portfolio. This together with the location exposure or insured value results in the location loss. The location losses are then aggregated together with their SDs to obtain the total expected

  10. Treatment for chronic daily headache by using auxiliary and alternative methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Golovacheva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic daily headache (CDH is one of the top 10 causes of adult disability and one of the 5 most common causes of female disability. To treat patients with CDH is one of the most difficult tasks in neurological practice. Difficulties in managing patients with CHD are associated with the high prevalence of comorbid mental disorders, analgesic abuse, pain syndromes at another site, and misconceptions of a patient about his/her disease. A combination of drug and non-drug therapies is the mainstay of the current approach to treating patients with CDH. Standard, alternative, and auxiliary therapies are identified. The paper describes different types of current auxiliary and alternative therapy used in the world’s leading headache centers and clinics. It describes experience with cerebrolysin used as auxiliary and alternative pharmacotherapies for CDH.

  11. Pre-Service Mathematics Teachers' Views on the Use of Portfolios in Their Education as an Alternative Assessment Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgin, Osman

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the views of pre-service mathematics (PSM) teachers on the use of portfolios as an alternative assessment method. This study was conducted with 146 Turkish PSM teachers participating in a semester-long portfolio assessment application. Data were collected with a questionnaire comprising 34 items on a…

  12. 77 FR 2064 - Availability of the Report on the International Workshop on Alternative Methods To Reduce, Refine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... Science and Future Directions.'' The report was published as an issue of the journal Procedia in Vaccinology, and is available on the journal's Web site at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal..., identification and promotion of alternative methods that ] can reduce, refine, or replace the use of animals...

  13. An Alternate Method for Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopic Determination of Soil Nitrate Using Derivative Analysis and Sample Treatments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choe, E.; Meer, van der F.; Rossiter, D.; Salm, van der C.; Kim, K.W.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed at examining effective sample treatments and spectral processing for an alternate method of soil nitrate determination using the attenuated total reflectance (ATR) of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Prior to FTIR measurements, soil samples were prepared as paste to e

  14. 49 CFR 375.511 - May I use an alternative method for shipments weighing 3,000 pounds or less?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... weighing 3,000 pounds or less? 375.511 Section 375.511 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... alternative method for shipments weighing 3,000 pounds or less? For shipments weighing 3,000 pounds or less (1,362 kilograms or less), you may weigh the shipment upon a platform or warehouse certified scale...

  15. SU-E-J-35: Using CBCT as the Alternative Method of Assessing ITV Volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Y; Turian, J; Templeton, A; Redler, G; Chu, J [Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose To study the accuracy of Internal Target Volumes (ITVs) created on cone beam CT (CBCT) by comparing the visible target volume on CBCT to volumes (GTV, ITV, and PTV) outlined on free breathing (FB) CT and 4DCT. Methods A Quasar Cylindrical Motion Phantom with a 3cm diameter ball (14.14 cc) embedded within a cork insert was set up to simulate respiratory motion with a period of 4 seconds and amplitude of 2cm superioinferiorly and 1cm anterioposteriorly. FBCT and 4DCT images were acquired. A PTV-4D was created on the 4DCT by applying a uniform margin of 5mm to the ITV-CT. PTV-FB was created by applying a margin of the motion range plus 5mm, i.e. total of 1.5cm laterally and 2.5cm superioinferiorly to the GTV outlined on the FBCT. A dynamic conformal arc was planned to treat the PTV-FB with 1mm margin. A CBCT was acquired before the treatment, on which the target was delineated. During the treatment, the position of the target was monitored using the EPID in cine mode. Results ITV-CBCT and ITV-CT were measured to be 56.6 and 62.7cc, respectively, with a Dice Coefficient (DC) of 0.94 and disagreement in center of mass (COM) of 0.59 mm. On the other hand, GTV-FB was 11.47cc, 19% less than the known volume of the ball. PTV-FB and PTV-4D were 149 and 116 cc, with a DC of 0.71. Part of the ITV-CT was not enclosed by the PTV-FB despite the large margin. The cine EPID images have confirmed geometrical misses of the target. Similar under-coverage was observed in one clinical case and captured by the CBCT, where the implanted fiducials moved outside PTV-FB. Conclusion ITV-CBCT is in good agreement with ITV-CT. When 4DCT was not available, CBCT can be an effective alternative in determining and verifying the PTV margin.

  16. Waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M.J.

    1985-06-19

    This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.

  17. Alternative methods for skin irritation testing: the current status : ECVAM skin irritation task force report 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botham, P.A.; Earl, L.K.; Fentem, J.H.; Roguet, R.; Sandt, J.J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The ECVAM Skin Irritation Task Force was established in November 1996, primarily to prepare a report on the current status of the development and validation of alternative tests for skin irritation and corrosion and, in particular, to identify any appropriate non-animal tests for predicting human sk

  18. Enzyme-linked immunospot: an alternative method for the detection of interferon gamma in Johne's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Begg, Douglas J.; de Silva, Kumudika; Bosward, Katrina;

    2009-01-01

    To date, the sensitivity of the interferon gamma (IFN-) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect Johne's disease (JD) has been poor, especially in the early stages of disease. To improve the sensitivity of IFN- detection in the early stages of infection, an alternate assay needs...

  19. The Correlation Function of Multiple Dependent Poisson Processes Generated by the Alternating Renewal Process Method

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Don H

    2008-01-01

    We derive conditions under which alternating renewal processes can be used to construct correlated Poisson processes. The pairwise correlation function is also derived, showing that the resulting correlations can be negative. The technique and the analysis can be extended to the generation of two or more dependent renewal processes.

  20. Mechanical pipe couplings. The alternative jointing method for PE gas pipes up to 10 bar; Mechanische Rohrkupplungen. Die alternative Verbindung fuer PE-Gas-Rohre bis 10 bar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroeger, Axel; Johnson, Alexander [PSI Products GmbH, Moessingen (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Increasing competition nowadays obliges natural gas suppliers to adopt continuous cost-optimization. Many utilities are therefore rethinking their existing methods for jointing of plastic pipes. Around the world, mechanical pipe couplings are becoming established in this field as a rational-cost, safe and easy-to-install alternative to conventional welding methods. For this project, PSI Products GmbH and Elster Perfection are pursuing new routes for the development of solutions to problems in plastic-pipe jointing technology. As a specialist in accessories for the field of pipeline engineering, PSI Products GmbH has now also unveiled, in the form of the Permasert {sup registered} and PermaLock {sup registered} pipe-coupling and jointing systems, a complete product range, with DVGW approval, for mechanical jointing of gas supply pipelines for the German natural gas market. This system has proven its capabilities since its market launch in the USA more than thirty years ago, and is now one of the world's most widely used mechanical PE-pipe jointing methods. Simple and fast installation is the basis of this success. More than 45 million Permasert {sup registered} couplings and PermaLock {sup registered} tapping valves are now in use under virtually all conceivable climatic and soil conditions, and not only in North America and Europe, but also in Asia, Australia, the Middle East, and Central and South America. (orig.)

  1. Transuranic advanced disposal systems: preliminary /sup 239/Pu waste-disposal criteria for Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Aaberg, R.L.; Napier, B.A.; Soldat, J.K.

    1982-09-01

    This report contains the draft results of a study sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to determine preliminary /sup 239/Pu waste disposal criteria for the Hanford Site. The purpose of this study is to provide a preliminary evaluation of the feasibility of various defense TRU advanced disposal options at the Hanford Site. Advanced waste disposal options include those developed to provide greater confinement than provided by shallow-land burial. They will be used to complement the waste geologic disposal in achieving permanent disposal of selected TRU wastes. An example systems analysis is discussed with assumed performance objectives and Hanford-specific disposal conditions, waste forms, site characteristics, and engineered barriers. Preliminary waste disposal criteria for /sup 239/Pu are determined by applying the Allowable Residual Contamination Level (ARCL) method. This method is based on compliance with a radiation dose rate limit through a site-specific analysis of the potential for radiation exposure to individuals. A 10,000-year environmental performance period is assumed, and the dose rate limit for human intrusion is assumed to be 500 mrem/yr to any exposed individual. Preliminary waste disposal criteria derived by this method for /sup 239/Pu in soils at the Hanford Site are: 0.5 nCi/g in soils between the surface and a depth of 1 m, 2200 nCi/g of soil at a depth of 5 m, and 10,000 nCi/g of soil at depths 10 m and below. These waste disposal criteria are based on exposure scenarios that reflect the dependence of exposure versus burial depth. 5 figures, 7 tables.

  2. State of the art on alternative methods to animal testing from an industrial point of view: ready for regulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Rachel; De Wever, Bart; Fuchs, Horst W; Gaca, Marianna; Hill, Erin; Krul, Cyrille; Poth, Albrecht; Roggen, Erwin L

    2014-01-01

    Despite changing attitudes towards animal testing and current legislation to protect experimental animals, the rate of animal experiments seems to have changed little in recent years. On May 15-16, 2013, the In Vitro Testing Industrial Platform (IVTIP) held an open meeting to discuss the state of the art in alternative methods, how companies have, can, and will need to adapt and what drives and hinders regulatory acceptance and use. Several key messages arose from the meeting. First, industry and regulatory bodies should not wait for complete suites of alternative tests to become available, but should begin working with methods available right now (e.g., mining of existing animal data to direct future studies, implementation of alternative tests wherever scientifically valid rather than continuing to rely on animal tests) in non-animal and animal integrated strategies to reduce the numbers of animals tested. Sharing of information (communication), harmonization and standardization (coordination), commitment and collaboration are all required to improve the quality and speed of validation, acceptance, and implementation of tests. Finally, we consider how alternative methods can be used in research and development before formal implementation in regulations. Here we present the conclusions on what can be done already and suggest some solutions and strategies for the future.

  3. 极低放废物近地表处置的环境安全评价方法研究%Technical Methods of Evaluation of Near-surface Disposal of Very Low Level Radioactive Waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕彦国; 左锐; 王金生

    2011-01-01

    放射性废物处置是当前严峻的环保问题之一,从经济、安全和高效角度出发,将极低放废物从中、低放废物中分离出来单独处置,对核废物的管理与处置具有重要意义.本文以我国西南某极低放废物备选处置场为研究对象,系统分析了处置的相关技术方法,重点研究了屏障技术和环境安全评价方法及其应用.针对拟建在古泥石流体山区山顶上的处置场.选取核素Sr作为处置对象,选用盆状屏障式处置库,估算产生的核素Sr的总活度和比活度.选用筛分的颗粒dSr的吸附效果明显;模拟计算结果显示核素Sr在50 a内被完全阻滞在包气带中,可以达到安全处置废物的要求.%Radioactive waste disposal is one of the most difficult environmental problems worldwide, and has been a hotspot in the field of pollution control and remediation. In order to economically and efficiently dispose radioactive wastes, very low level radioactive waste (VLLW) is separated from low and intermediate levels waste, and the bulk VLLW could be disposed in the disposal site without any special engineering barrier. This approach not only substantially saves disposal costs but also meets the public laws on the environment. Therefore, it is very important for disposal and management of radioactive waste. This paper developed and systemically analyzed several relevant techniques at a VLI.W disposal site in the southwestern China, and carefully studied the barrier and technical methods of evaluation. The disposal site is sited on a hilltop of debris flow. In this study, a repository with barrier was selected, 90Sr was selected as a typical nuclide, and the releasing concentration was calculated by a given model.The fine particle (d<1 mm) was used as barrier material of the repository with the thickness of 0.5 m. The sorption and migration characteristics were measured by batch and column experiments, and the results reflected the material has a good

  4. 基于无害化的海上废弃钻井液处理方法分析%Analysis of Disposal Method of Marine Waste Drilling Fluid Based on Harmless

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾彦波

    2016-01-01

    In offshore oil exploitation of abandoned water-based drilling fluid composition and environmental hazards as the object of study , with reference to the domestic and international relevant standards and application of technology , the application status of disposal methods , biological disposal methods , plant-microbial remediation method technology was analyzed.From the perspective of environmental protection , biological remediation and disposal methods of plant microbe bioremediation should be used as drilling fluid harmless treatment of waste water base first .In addition, the state and oil exploitation enterprises should establish a drilling fluid treatment discharge standards , regulate waste emissions , to reduce environmental pollution caused by waste drilling fluid .%分析了海洋石油开采产生的废弃水基钻井液的构成和环境危害,以无害化处置方法为研究对象,参照国内外有关标准和应用技术,分析了理化处置方法、生物处置方法、植物-微生物联合修复方法等技术的应用现状。从环境保护的角度出发,生物处置方法以及植物-微生物联合修复方法应作为废弃水基钻井液生物修复无害化处理的首先。国家和石油开采企业应尽快形成废钻井液的处理规范和标准,以减少废弃钻井液的有害排放。

  5. Diaper area and disposable diapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasala, G N; Romain, C; Merlay, I

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1960s, cloth diapers have been replaced by disposable diapers. The evolution of healthier skin in the diaper area has been demonstrated in parallel to that of disposable diapers. The improvements of disposable diapers--fit, dryness, comfort--have been based on the understanding of factors playing a role in the development of diaper dermatitis.

  6. Geological disposal of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Fourteen papers dealing with disposal of high-level radioactive wastes are presented. These cover disposal in salt deposits, geologic deposits and marine disposal. Also included are papers on nuclear waste characterization, transport, waste processing technology, and safety analysis. All of these papers have been abstracted and indexed. (AT)

  7. An alternative method of OBT measurement for the limited quantity of environmental samples using a combustion bomb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Bog; Stuart, Marilyne

    2013-12-01

    The measurement of organically bound tritium (OBT) in environmental samples is much more difficult than the measurement of tritiated water (HTO). This study describes an alternative method for OBT determination in plant materials in which tritium-free polyethylene beads are added to the plant sample prior to combustion in a combustion bomb. It is not always possible to collect large enough amounts of some plants (e.g. algae, plankton, grass) within a specific area or specific period. Excellent water recovery is achieved when dry plant materials are combusted with polyethylene beads. When Ultima Gold AB is used as the scintillation cocktail, it is possible to measure the combustion water directly without distillation. Correction factors were derived for the plants used in the study to account for the dilution of the combustion water due to addition of the polyethylene beads. The alternative method has a number of advantages, including an increased yield of combustion water for liquid scintillation counting, less color quenching, reduced sample size and decreased analysis time. Finally, accuracy tests comparing results of the conventional method with those of the alternative method were carried out using environmental samples.

  8. An alternative method to record rising temperatures during dental implant site preparation: a preliminary study using bovine bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenica Laurito

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Overheating is constantly mentioned as a risk factor for bone necrosis that could compromise the dental implant primary stability. Uncontrolled thermal injury can result in a fibrous tissue, interpositioned at the implant-bone interface, compromising the long-term prognosis. The methods used to record temperature rise include either direct recording by thermocouple instruments or indirect estimating by infrared thermography. This preliminary study was carried out using bovine bone and a different method of temperatures rising estimation is presented. Two different types of drills were tested using fluoroptic thermometer and the effectiveness of this alternative temperature recording method was evaluated.

  9. State university preparatory class EFL instructors' attitudes towards assessment methods used at their institutions and portfolios as a method of alternative assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Oğuz, Şebnem

    2003-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. The purpose of this study was to investigate preparatory class instructors’ attitudes towards the methods of assessment they are currently using at their institutions, and their knowledge about and attitudes towards portfolios as an alternative method of assessment. The study was conducted with 386 English instructors from the preparatory class programs of 14 Turkish state universities. Data were collected through a fourpart questio...

  10. An alternative sensor fusion method for object orientation using low-cost MEMS inertial sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, Joshua L.

    This thesis develops an alternative sensor fusion approach for object orientation using low-cost MEMS inertial sensors. The alternative approach focuses on the unique challenges of small UAVs. Such challenges include the vibrational induced noise onto the accelerometer and bias offset errors of the rate gyroscope. To overcome these challenges, a sensor fusion algorithm combines the measured data from the accelerometer and rate gyroscope to achieve a single output free from vibrational noise and bias offset errors. One of the most prevalent sensor fusion algorithms used for orientation estimation is the Extended Kalman filter (EKF). The EKF filter performs the fusion process by first creating the process model using the nonlinear equations of motion and then establishing a measurement model. With the process and measurement models established, the filter operates by propagating the mean and covariance of the states through time. The success of EKF relies on the ability to establish a representative process and measurement model of the system. In most applications, the EKF measurement model utilizes the accelerometer and GPS-derived accelerations to determine an estimate of the orientation. However, if the GPS-derived accelerations are not available then the measurement model becomes less reliable when subjected to harsh vibrational environments. This situation led to the alternative approach, which focuses on the correlation between the rate gyroscope and accelerometer-derived angle. The correlation between the two sensors then determines how much the algorithm will use one sensor over the other. The result is a measurement that does not suffer from the vibrational noise or from bias offset errors.

  11. Evaluation of alternative age-based methods for estimating relative abundance from survey data in relation to assessment models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Casper Willestofte; Nielsen, Anders; Kristensen, Kasper

    2014-01-01

    Indices of abundance from fishery-independent trawl surveys constitute an important source of information for many fish stock assessments. Indices are often calculated using area stratified sample means on age-disaggregated data, and finally treated in stock assessment models as independent...... observations. We evaluate a series of alternative methods for calculating indices of abundance from trawl survey data (delta-lognormal, delta-gamma, and Tweedie using Generalized Additive Models) as well as different error structures for these indices when used as input in an age-based stock assessment model...... the different indices produced. The stratified mean method is found much more imprecise than the alternatives based on GAMs, which are found to be similar. Having time-varying index variances is found to be of minor importance, whereas the independence assumption is not only violated but has significant impact...

  12. THE MURINE LOCAL LYMPH NODE ASSAY: AN ALTERNATIVE TEST METHOD FOR THE EVALUATION OF THE POTENTIAL FOR CHEMICALS TO ELICIT ALLERGIC CONTACT DERMATITIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACTThe process that a new toxicology test method must undergo to attain acceptance and regulatory implementation may seem daunting. As the first test method to undergo Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) review, the local...

  13. Space disposal of nuclear wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, C. C.; Nixon, R. F.; Rice, E. E.

    1980-01-01

    The DOE has been studying several options for nuclear waste disposal, among them space disposal, which NASA has been assessing. Attention is given to space disposal destinations noting that a circular heliocentric orbit about halfway between Earth and Venus is the reference option in space disposal studies. Discussion also covers the waste form, showing that parameters to be considered include high waste loading, high thermal conductivity, thermochemical stability, resistance to leaching, fabrication, resistance to oxidation and to thermal shock. Finally, the Space Shuttle nuclear waste disposal mission profile is presented.

  14. Advanced disposal systems for transuranic waste: Preliminary disposal criteria for Plutonium-239 at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, W.E.; Napier, B.A.; Soldat, J.K.

    1983-01-01

    An evaluation of the feasibility and potential application of advanced disposal systems is being conducted for defense transuranic (TRU) wastes at the Hanford site. The advanced waste disposal options include those developed to provide ''greater confinement'' than provided by shallow-land burial. An example systems analysis is discussed with assumed performance objectives and various Hanford-specific disposal conditions, waste forms, site characteristics, and engineered barriers. Preliminary waste disposal criteria for /sup 239/Pu are determined by applying the allowable residual contamination level (ARCL) method. This method is based on compliance with a radiation dose rate limit through a site specific analysis of the potential for radiation exposure to individuals. A 10,000-year environmental performance period is assumed, and the dose rate limit for human intrusion is assumed to be 500 mrem/yr to any exposed individual. Preliminary waste disposal criteria derived by this method for /sup 239/Pu in soils at the Hanford Site are 0.5 nCi/g in soils between the surface and a depth of 1 m, 2200 nCi/g of soil at a depth of 5 m, and 10,000 nCi/g of soil at depths 10 m and below. These waste disposal criteria are based on exposure scenarios that reflect the dependence of exposure versus burial depth.

  15. Transuranic advanced disposal systems: preliminary /sup 239/Pu waste-disposal criteria for Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Napier, B.A.; Soldat, J.K.

    1982-08-01

    An evaluation of the feasibility and potential application of advanced disposal systems is being conducted for defense transuranic (TRU) wastes at the Hanford Site. The advanced waste disposal options include those developed to provide greater confinement than provided by shallow-land burial. An example systems analysis is discussed with assumed performance objectives and various Hanford-specific disposal conditions, waste forms, site characteristics, and engineered barriers. Preliminary waste disposal criteria for /sup 239/Pu are determined by applying the Allowable Residual Contamination Level (ARCL) method. This method is based on compliance with a radiation dose rate limit through a site-specific analysis of the potential for radiation exposure to individuals. A 10,000 year environmental performance period is assumed, and the dose rate limit for human intrusion is assumed to be 500 mrem/y to any exposed individual. Preliminary waste disposal criteria derived by this method for /sup 239/Pu in soils at the Hanford Site are: 0.5 nCi/g in soils between the surface and a depth of 1 m, 2200 nCi/g of soil at a depth of 5 m, and 10,000 nCi/g of soil at depths 10 m and below. These waste disposal criteria are based on exposure scenarios that reflect the dependence of exposure versus burial depth. 2 figures, 5 tables.

  16. Mechanical Color Reading of Wood-Staining Fungal Pigment Textile Dyes: An Alternative Method for Determining Colorfastness

    OpenAIRE

    Eric M. Hinsch; Robinson, Sara C

    2016-01-01

    Colorfastness to washing and crocking (color loss due to rubbing) are essential qualities for any dye/fabric combination that will be used for garments or upholstery. In this study, colorfastness to washing and crocking of fabrics dyed with wood-staining fungal pigments was compared to colorfastness of commercial dyes using an alternative mechanical testing method. Overall, wood-staining fungal pigments out performed commercial dyes for colorfastness to washing and wet and dry crocking. Xylin...

  17. Alternative applications of the method of moments: from electromagnetic waves to source synthesis, deconvolution, and data processing in navigation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamas, Razvan; Dumitrascu, Ana; Caruntu, George

    2015-02-01

    The method of moments is mostly used in electromagnetism to solve linear operator equations. In this paper, we present three different, alternative applications of this numerical technique: resolution of the integral equation of convolution i.e., deconvolution, synthesis of electromagnetic radiators optimized to yield a given time-domain or frequency-domain response, and processing of data provided by an inertial navigation system, with the aim to decompose a complex displacement into elementary movements.

  18. Don't spin the pen: two alternative methods for second-stage sampling in urban cluster surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Angela MC

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In two-stage cluster surveys, the traditional method used in second-stage sampling (in which the first household in a cluster is selected is time-consuming and may result in biased estimates of the indicator of interest. Firstly, a random direction from the center of the cluster is selected, usually by spinning a pen. The houses along that direction are then counted out to the boundary of the cluster, and one is then selected at random to be the first household surveyed. This process favors households towards the center of the cluster, but it could easily be improved. During a recent meningitis vaccination coverage survey in Maradi, Niger, we compared this method of first household selection to two alternatives in urban zones: 1 using a superimposed grid on the map of the cluster area and randomly selecting an intersection; and 2 drawing the perimeter of the cluster area using a Global Positioning System (GPS and randomly selecting one point within the perimeter. Although we only compared a limited number of clusters using each method, we found the sampling grid method to be the fastest and easiest for field survey teams, although it does require a map of the area. Selecting a random GPS point was also found to be a good method, once adequate training can be provided. Spinning the pen and counting households to the boundary was the most complicated and time-consuming. The two methods tested here represent simpler, quicker and potentially more robust alternatives to spinning the pen for cluster surveys in urban areas. However, in rural areas, these alternatives would favor initial household selection from lower density (or even potentially empty areas. Bearing in mind these limitations, as well as available resources and feasibility, investigators should choose the most appropriate method for their particular survey context.

  19. The use of alternative preference elicitation methods in complex discrete choice experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hong Il; Doiron, Denise

    2013-12-01

    We analyse stated preference data over nursing jobs collected from two different discrete choice experiments: a multi-profile case best-worst scaling experiment (BWS) prompting selection of the best and worst among alternative jobs, and a profile case BWS wherein the respondents choose the best and worst job attributes. The latter allows identification of additional utility parameters and is believed to be cognitively easier. Results suggest that respondents place greater value on pecuniary over non-pecuniary gains in the multi-profile case. There is little evidence that this discrepancy is induced by the extra cognitive burden of processing several profiles at once in the multi-profile case. We offer thoughts on other likely mechanisms.

  20. Development of an alternative method for testing the immunogenicity of diphtheria vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manghi, M A; Pasetti, M F; Brero, M L; Deluchi, S; di Paola, G; Mathet, V; Eriksson, P V

    1995-04-01

    The immunogenicity of the diphtheria component of 73 commercial vaccines from five different manufacturers was tested by the toxin neutralization test (TNT) and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) developed in our laboratory. A comparison of the antibody levels measured by both assays showed a very good correlation (r = 0.95, p antibody levels as low as 5.5 x 10(-5) IU ml-1. To evaluate the possibility of accelerating the active immunization during the activity test of vaccines, an alternative schedule using one single human dose was assayed. A very good correlation was observed between the IgG antibody response obtained with this schedule and with the traditional programme. Therefore, the cost and the time required to perform the activity test may be considerably reduced when both the rapid immunization schedule and the ELISA are used.

  1. An integrated method for assessing climate-related risks and adaptation alternatives in urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Andersson-Sköld

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The urban environment is a complex structure with interlinked social, ecological and technical structures. Global warming is expected to have a broad variety of impacts, which will add to the complexity. Climate changes will force adaptation, to reduce climate-related risks. Adaptation measures can address one aspect at the time, or aim for a holistic approach to avoid maladaptation. This paper presents a systematic, integrated approach for assessing alternatives for reducing the risks of heat waves, flooding and air pollution in urban settings, with the aim of reducing the risk of maladaptation. The study includes strategies covering different spatial scales, and both the current climate situation and the climate predicted under climate change scenarios. The adaptation strategies investigated included increasing vegetation; selecting density, height and colour of buildings; and retreat or resist (defend against sea-level rise. Their effectiveness was assessed with regard to not only flooding, heat stress and air quality but also with regard to resource use, emissions to air (incl. GHG, soil and water, and people’s perceptions and vulnerability. The effectiveness of the strategies were ranked on a common scale (from −3 to 3 in an integrated assessment. Integrated assessments are recommended, as they help identify the most sustainable solutions, but to reduce the risk of maladaptation they require experts from a variety of disciplines. The most generally applicable recommendation, derived from the integrated assessment here, taking into account both expertise from different municipal departments, literature surveys, life cycle assessments and publics perceptions, is to increase the urban greenery, as it contributes to several positive aspects such as heat stress mitigation, air quality improvement, effective storm-water and flood-risk management, and it has several positive social impacts. The most favourable alternative was compact, mid

  2. COMPILATION OF DISPOSABLE SOLID WASTE CASK EVALUATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    THIELGES, J.R.; CHASTAIN, S.A.

    2007-06-21

    The Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC) is a shielded cask capable of transporting, storing, and disposing of six non-fuel core components or approximately 27 cubic feet of radioactive solid waste. Five existing DSWCs are candidates for use in storing and disposing of non-fuel core components and radioactive solid waste from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell, ultimately shipping them to the 200 West Area disposal site for burial. A series of inspections, studies, analyses, and modifications were performed to ensure that these casks can be used to safely ship solid waste. These inspections, studies, analyses, and modifications are summarized and attached in this report. Visual inspection of the casks interiors provided information with respect to condition of the casks inner liners. Because water was allowed to enter the casks for varying lengths of time, condition of the cask liner pipe to bottom plate weld was of concern. Based on the visual inspection and a corrosion study, it was concluded that four of the five casks can be used from a corrosion standpoint. Only DSWC S/N-004 would need additional inspection and analysis to determine its usefulness. The five remaining DSWCs underwent some modification to prepare them for use. The existing cask lifting inserts were found to be corroded and deemed unusable. New lifting anchor bolts were installed to replace the existing anchors. Alternate lift lugs were fabricated for use with the new lifting anchor bolts. The cask tiedown frame was modified to facilitate adjustment of the cask tiedowns. As a result of the above mentioned inspections, studies, analysis, and modifications, four of the five existing casks can be used to store and transport waste from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell to the disposal site for burial. The fifth cask, DSWC S/N-004, would require further inspections before it could be used.

  3. Method of disposal of dead bodies of victims and disease prevention during disaster relief%海地地震中搜救现场尸体的终末处置与疾病预防

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹力; 侯世科; 樊毫军; 韩伟

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore methods of disposal of dead bodies of victims and disease prevention dur-ing disaster relief. Method After the Haiti earthquake, the Chinese government dispatched a Chinese internation-al rescue team on a chartered plane to help Haiti out of the aftermath of Tuesday' s magnitude - 7.3 earthquake.Rescue personnel implemented the search and rescue activities in Port-an-associated collapse of the ruins. They es-tablished the process of disposal of dead bodies, including identification, disinfection, bagging, mourning, cold storage, transport, and so on. Results Chinese international rescue team duged out 15 bodies. They disposed the dead bodies scientifically, and didn' t cause infectious diseases on the rescue personnel. Conclusions The dis-posal of dead bodies during search is different from that in hospital. Rescue personnel should prevent such disease as blood-borne infectious diseases, intestinal infectious diseases, respiratory diseases, and also carry out the early intervention for psychological crisis.%目的 探讨在灾害救援中遇难者尸体终末处置与疾病预防的方法.方法 2010年1月13日海地地震发生后,中国政府紧急派出中国国际救援队前往赴海地受灾国进行人道主义救援.搜救人员在太子港联海团坍塌废墟现场实施搜救过程,并建立搜救现场状态下的尸体终末处置流程:辨认、消毒、包裹、再消毒、装袋、搬运、转运、悼念、冷藏、运输(转运).结果 中国国际救援队陆续挖掘出15具尸体,科学处置尸体,未造成直接救援人员感染性疾病.结论 在搜救现场尸体终末处置不同与医院内.搜救人员要预防血源性传染病、肠道传染病、呼吸系统疾病等,同时还要进行早期心理危机干预.

  4. EU sales ban on new cosmetics tested on animals: impact on alternative methods, WTO implications and animal welfare aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhdel, Irmela W

    2004-06-01

    In 1993, the European Union (EU) adopted Directive 93/35/EEC, calling for a sales ban on new cosmetic products containing ingredients tested on animals after 1 January, 1998, provided that alternative methods had been developed by then. In May 2000, for the second time, the European Commission postponed that ban. The Commission justified the repeated postponement of the sales ban by saying that no animal-free methods were available, although three in vitro methods were scientifically approved in 1997. With three years delay, these methods have been published and therefore "made available" in the EU. OECD acceptance is still awaited. Another reason for the postponement was the fear of possible World Trade Organisation (WTO) conflicts. However, according to WTO rules, the protection of public morality or animal health could justify a restriction of the free trade principle. From the animal welfare point of view, an unqualified EU sales ban, combined with an animal testing ban, would provide the incentive to further promote the development and acceptance of alternative methods and to prove that ethical standards are legitimate concerns under WTO rules.

  5. A Disposable Microfluidic Device with a Screen Printed Electrode for Mimicking Phase II Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Vasiliadou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Human metabolism is investigated using several in vitro methods. However, the current methodologies are often expensive, tedious and complicated. Over the last decade, the combination of electrochemistry (EC with mass spectrometry (MS has a simpler and a cheaper alternative to mimic the human metabolism. This paper describes the development of a disposable microfluidic device with a screen-printed electrode (SPE for monitoring phase II GSH reactions. The proposed chip has the potential to be used as a primary screening tool, thus complementing the current in vitro methods.

  6. HLW Disposal System Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J. W.; Choi, H. J.; Lee, J. Y. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    A KRS is suggested through design requirement analysis of the buffer and the canister which are the constituent of disposal system engineered barrier and HLW management plans are proposed. In the aspect of radionuclide retention capacity, the thickness of the buffer is determined 0.5m, the shape to be disc and ring and the dry density to be 1.6 g/cm{sup 3}. The maximum temperature of the buffer is below 100 .deg. which meets the design requirement. And bentonite blocks with 5 wt% of graphite showed more than 1.0 W/mK of thermal conductivity without the addition of sand. The result of the thermal analysis for proposed double-layered buffer shows that decrease of 7 .deg. C in maximum temperature of the buffer. For the disposal canister, the copper for the outer shell material and cast iron for the inner structure material is recommended considering the results analyzed in terms of performance of the canisters and manufacturability and the geochemical properties of deep groundwater sampled from the research area with granite, salt water intrusion, and the heavy weight of the canister. The results of safety analysis for the canister shows that the criticality for the normal case including uncertainty is the value of 0.816 which meets subcritical condition. Considering nation's 'Basic Plan for Electric Power Demand and Supply' and based on the scenario of disposing CANDU spent fuels in the first phase, the disposal system that the repository will be excavated in eight phases with the construction of the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) beginning in 2020 and commissioning in 2040 until the closure of the repository is proposed. Since there is close correlation between domestic HLW management plans and front-end/back-end fuel cycle plans causing such a great sensitivity of international environment factor, items related to assuring the non-proliferation and observing the international standard are showed to be the influential factor and acceptability

  7. Analysis on Current Treatment Method of Heavy Metal Pollution in Water Bodies and Emergency Disposal Strategy%水体重金属污染处理方法现状分析与应急处置策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑彤; 杜兆林; 贺玉强; 王鹏

    2013-01-01

    In order to cope with heavy metal pollution accident in water fast and effectively, the current treatment methods of lead, mercury, chromium, cadmium and metalloid arsenic pollutants which are mainly prevented and controlled in the Twelfth Five-Year Plan were reviewed. The applicability of the treatment methods to emergency disposal was analyzed. A research strategy for emergency disposal of heavy metal pollution accident in water was proposed.%为快速有效地应对水体突发性重金属污染事故,对“十二五”规划中重点防控的铅、汞、铬、镉和类金属砷等重金属污染物的处理方法研究现状进行了介绍,并对这些处理方法的应急现场适用性进行了分析,提出了突发性水体重金属污染事故应急处置方法的研究方略.

  8. Land suitability for waste disposal in metropolitan areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiocchi, Valerio; Lelo, Keti; Polettini, Alessandra; Pomi, Raffaella

    2014-08-01

    Site selection for waste disposal is a complex task that should meet the requirements of communities and stakeholders. In this article, three decision support methods (Boolean logic, index overlay and fuzzy gamma) are used to perform land suitability analysis for landfill siting. The study was carried out in one of the biggest metropolitan regions of Italy, with the objective of locating suitable areas for waste disposal. Physical and socio-economic information criteria for site selection were decided by a multidisciplinary group of experts, according to state-of-the-art guidelines, national legislation and local normative on waste management. The geographic information systems (GIS) based models used in this study are easy to apply but require adequate selection of criteria and weights and a careful evaluation of the results. The methodology is arranged in three steps, reflecting the criteria defined by national legislation on waste management: definition of factors that exclude location of landfills or waste treatment plants; classification of the remaining areas in terms of suitability for landfilling; and evaluation of suitable sites in relation to preferential siting factors (such as the presence of quarries or dismissed plants). The results showed that more than 80% of the provincial territory falls within constraint areas and the remaining territory is suitable for waste disposal for 0.72% or 1.93%, according to the model. The larger and most suitable sites are located in peripheral areas of the metropolitan system. The proposed approach represents a low-cost and expeditious alternative to support the spatial decision-making process.

  9. Alternatives to the gravimetric method for quantification of diesel particulate matter near the lower level of detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Jacob; Kittelson, David; Pui, David; Watts, Winthrop

    2010-10-01

    This paper is part of the Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association's 2010 special issue on combustion aerosol measurements. The issue is a combination of papers that synthesize and evaluate ideas and perspectives that were presented by experts at a series of workshops sponsored by the Coordinating Research Council that aimed to evaluate the current and future status of diesel particulate matter (DPM) measurement. Measurement of DPM is a complex issue with many stakeholders, including air quality management and enforcement agencies, engine manufacturers, health experts, and climatologists. Adoption of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2007 heavy-duty engine DPM standards posed a unique challenge to engine manufacturers. The new standards reduced DPM emissions to the point that improvements to the gravimetric method were required to increase the accuracy and the sensitivity of the measurement. Despite these improvements, the method still has shortcomings. The objectives of this paper are to review the physical and chemical properties of DPM that make gravimetric measurement difficult at very low concentrations and to review alternative metrics and methods that are potentially more accurate, sensitive, and specific. Particle volatility, size, surface area, and number metrics are considered, as well as methods to quantify them. Although the authors believe that an alternative method is required to meet the needs of engine manufacturers, the methods reviewed in the paper are applicable to other areas where the gravimetric method detection limit is approached and greater accuracy and sensitivity are required. The paper concludes by suggesting a method to measure active surface area, combined with a method to separate semi-volatile and solid fractions to further increase the specificity of the measurement, has potential for reducing the lower detection limit of DPM and enabling engine manufacturers to reduce DPM emissions in the future.

  10. Development and validation of an alternative to conventional pretreatment methods for residue analysis of butachlor in water, soil, and rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jiaying; Jiang, Wenqing; Liu, Fengmao; Zhao, Huiyu; Wang, Suli; Peng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    A rapid and effective alternative analytical method for residues of butachlor in water, soil, and rice was established. The operating variables affecting performance of this method, including different extraction conditions and cleanup adsorbents, were evaluated. The determination of butachlor residues in soil, straw, rice hull, and husked rice was performed using GC/MS after extraction with n-hexane and cleanup with graphite carbon black. The average recoveries ranged from 81.5 to 102.7%, with RSDs of 0.6-7.7% for all of the matrixes investigated. The limits of quantitation were 0.05 mg/kg in water and rice plant, and 0.01 mg/kg in soil, straw, rice hull, and husked rice. A comparison among this proposed method, the conventional liquid-liquid extraction, the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe method, and Soxhlet extraction indicated that this method was more suitable for analyzing butachlor in rice samples. The further validation of the proposed method was carried out by Soxhlet extraction for the determination of butachlor residues in the husked rice samples, and the residue results showed there was no obvious difference obtained from these two methods. Samples from a rice field were found to contain butachlor residues below the maximum residue limits set by China (0.5 mg/kg) and Japan (0.1 mg/kg). The proposed method has a strong potential for application in routine screening and processing of large numbers of samples. This study developed a more effective alternative to the conventional analytical methods for analyzing butachlor residues in various matrixes.

  11. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 63 - Alternative Validation Procedure for EPA Waste and Wastewater Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EPA Waste and Wastewater Methods D Appendix D to Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Procedure for EPA Waste and Wastewater Methods 1. Applicability This procedure is to be applied exclusively.... For the purposes of this appendix, “waste” means waste and wastewater. 2. Procedure This...

  12. 78 FR 11174 - Recent Postings of Broadly Applicable Alternative Test Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... Oil- emitting EGU Fired Electric (LEE)testing Utility Steam for mercury Generating emissions. Units... Internal Analyzer and Combustion Method 18- Engines. Measurment of Gaseous Organic Compound Emissions by... Municipal Method 18- Solid Waste Measurment of Landfills. Gaseous Organic Compound Emissions by...

  13. Development of alternative methods for the determination of raloxifene hydrochloride in tablet dosage form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Rodrigues Salazar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Three methods are proposed for the quantitative determination of raloxifene hydrochloride in pharmaceutical dosage form: ultraviolet method (UV high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and micellar capillary electrophoresis (MEKC. These methods were developed and validated and showed good linearity, precision and accuracy. Also they demonstrated to be specific and robust. The HPLC and MEKC methods were tested in regards to be stability indicating methods and they showed to have this attribute. The UV method used methanol as solvent and optimal wavelength at 284 nm, obeying Lambert-Beer law in these conditions. The chromatographic conditions for the HPLC method included: NST column C18 (250 x 4.6 mm x 5 µm, mobile phase water:acetonitrile:triethylamine (67:33:0,3 v/v, pH 3.5, flow rate 1.0 mL min-1, injection volume 20.0 µl, UV detection 287 nm and analysis temperature 30 °C. The MEKC method was performed on a fused-silica capillary (40 cm effective length x 50 µm i.d. using as background electrolyte 35.0 mmol L-1 borate buffer and 50.0 mmol L-1 anionic detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS at pH 8.8. The capillary temperature was 32°C, applied voltage 25 kV, UV detection at 280 nm and injection was perfomed at 45 mBar for 4 s, hydrodimanic mode. In this MEKC method, potassium diclofenac (200.0 µg mL-1 was used as internal standard. All these methods were statistically analyzed and demonstrated to be equivalent for quantitative analysis of RLX in tablets and were successfully applied for the determination of the drug.

  14. Calcium oxalate crystallization index (COCI): an alternative method for distinguishing nephrolithiasis patients from healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bowei; Dissayabutra, Thasinas; Ungjaroenwathana, Wattanachai; Tosukhowong, Piyaratana; Srisa-Art, Monpichar; Supaprom, Thavorn; Insin, Numpon; Boonla, Chanchai

    2014-01-01

    Urinary supersaturation triggers lithogenic crystal formation. We developed an alternative test, designated calcium oxalate crystallization index (COCI), to distinguish nephrolithiasis patients from healthy individuals based on their urinary crystallization capability. The effect of urine volume, oxalate, phosphate, citrate, potassium, and sodium on COCI values was investigated. COCI values were determined in 24-hr urine obtained from nephrolithiasis patients (n=72) and matched healthy controls (n=71). Increases in urine oxalate and phosphate and decreases in urine volume and citrate resulted in significantly increased COCI values. The urinary COCI in nephrolithiasis patients was significantly higher than that in healthy individuals. Two healthy subjects who had elevated COCI values were found to have asymptomatic kidney calculi. The receiver operating characteristic analysis showed an area under the curve of the urinary COCI test of 0.9499 (95%CI: 0.9131-0.9868) for distinguishing between nephrolithiasis and healthy subjects. At the cutoff of 165 mg oxalate equivalence/day, the urinary COCI test provided sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy amounts of 83.33%, 97.18%, and 90.21%, respectively. Urinary COCI values were primarily dependent on urine volume, oxalate, and phosphate. The test provided high sensitivity and specificity for clinically discriminating nephrolithiasis patients from healthy controls. It might be used to detect individuals with asymptomatic kidney calculi.

  15. Examination of Submental Space as an Alternative Method of Airway Assessment (Submental Sign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javid Mihan J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Difficult airway especially failed intubation has been associated with a high incidence of mortality and morbidity. Most of mortalities occur when an anaesthesiologist encounters an unanticipated difficult airway. Findings In 1999, a 23 yr. old, 65 kg weight and 170 cm height female patient had been scheduled for arthroscopy. Despite totally normal airway assessment (thyromental distance, mouth opening, jaw and neck movement ... I was astonished by encountering a grade IV Cormack - Lehane laryngoscopic view. Tracheal intubation was impossible and ventilation was very difficult. On attempt to attain a better laryngoscopic view, while manipulating submandibular region I encountered a bulky noncompliant submental space (Submental Sign. This event made me more alert regarding this finding. Thereafter I noted for this sign throughout the past years and I found it very helpful. These findings encouraged me to write this report, and suggest a routine examination of submental space in order to keep the safety of the patient at the heart of the care we provide. Conclusion Evaluation of the submental space is suggested as an alternative predictor of difficult airway and routine examination of the submental space is of value in airway assessment.

  16. Reconciling alternate methods for the determination of charge distributions: A probabilistic approach to high-dimensional least-squares approximations

    CERN Document Server

    Champagnat, Nicolas; Faou, Erwan

    2010-01-01

    We propose extensions and improvements of the statistical analysis of distributed multipoles (SADM) algorithm put forth by Chipot et al. in [6] for the derivation of distributed atomic multipoles from the quantum-mechanical electrostatic potential. The method is mathematically extended to general least-squares problems and provides an alternative approximation method in cases where the original least-squares problem is computationally not tractable, either because of its ill-posedness or its high-dimensionality. The solution is approximated employing a Monte Carlo method that takes the average of a random variable defined as the solutions of random small least-squares problems drawn as subsystems of the original problem. The conditions that ensure convergence and consistency of the method are discussed, along with an analysis of the computational cost in specific instances.

  17. Pectin extraction from quince (Cydonia oblonga) pomace applying alternative methods: effect of process variables and preliminary optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Valeria Anahí; Lozano, Jorge E; Genovese, Diego Bautista

    2014-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to introduce alternative methods in the process of pectin extraction from quince pomace, to determine the effect of selected process variables (factors) on the obtained pectin, and to perform a preliminary optimization of the process. A fractional factorial experimental design was applied, where the factors considered were six: quince pomace pretreatment (washing vs blanching), drying method (hot air vs LPSSD), acid extraction conditions (pH, temperature, and time), and pectin extract concentration method (vacuum evaporation vs ultrafiltration). The effects of these factors and their interactions on pectin yield (Y: 0.2-34.2 mg/g), GalA content (44.5-76.2%), and DM (47.5-90.9%), were determined. For these three responses, extraction pH was the main effect, but it was involved in two and three factors interactions. Regarding alternative methods, LPSSD was required for maximum Y and GalA, and ultrafiltration for maximum GalA and DM. Response models were used to predict optimum process conditions (quince blanching, pomace drying by LPSSD, acid extraction at pH 2.20, 80 , 3 h, and concentration under vacuum) to simultaneously maximize Y (25.2 mg/g), GalA (66.3%), and DM (66.4%).

  18. Estimating the impact of unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene on the global burden of disease: evolving and alternative methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasen, Thomas; Pruss-Ustun, Annette; Mathers, Colin D; Cumming, Oliver; Cairncross, Sandy; Colford, John M

    2014-08-01

    The 2010 global burden of disease (GBD) study represents the latest effort to estimate the global burden of disease and injuries and the associated risk factors. Like previous GBD studies, this latest iteration reflects a continuing evolution in methods, scope and evidence base. Since the first GBD Study in 1990, the burden of diarrhoeal disease and the burden attributable to inadequate water and sanitation have fallen dramatically. While this is consistent with trends in communicable disease and child mortality, the change in attributable risk is also due to new interpretations of the epidemiological evidence from studies of interventions to improve water quality. To provide context for a series of companion papers proposing alternative assumptions and methods concerning the disease burden and risks from inadequate water, sanitation and hygiene, we summarise evolving methods over previous GBD studies. We also describe an alternative approach using population intervention modelling. We conclude by emphasising the important role of GBD studies and the need to ensure that policy on interventions such as water and sanitation be grounded on methods that are transparent, peer-reviewed and widely accepted.

  19. Alternate energy source usage methods for in situ heat treatment processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, Jr., Francis Marion; Goodwin, Charles R; Richard, Jr., James E

    2014-10-14

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for providing power to one or more subsurface heaters is described herein. The method may include monitoring one or more operating parameters of the heaters, the intermittent power source, and a transformer coupled to the intermittent power source that transforms power from the intermittent power source to power with appropriate operating parameters for the heaters; and controlling the power output of the transformer so that a constant voltage is provided to the heaters regardless of the load of the heaters and the power output provided by the intermittent power source.

  20. A scoping review of studies comparing the medication event monitoring system (MEMS) with alternative methods for measuring medication adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Alili, Mohamed; Vrijens, Bernard; Demonceau, Jenny; Evers, Silvia M; Hiligsmann, Mickael

    2016-07-01

    Different methods are available for measuring medication adherence. In this paper, we conducted a scoping review to identify and summarize evidence of all studies comparing the Medication Event Monitoring System (MEMS) with alternative methods for measuring medication adherence. A literature search was performed using the open database www.iAdherence.org that includes all original studies reporting findings from the MEMS. Papers comparing methods for measuring adherence to solid oral formulations were included. Data was extracted using a standardized extraction table. A total of 117 articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria, including 251 comparisons. Most frequent comparisons were against self-report (n = 119) and pill count (n = 59). Similar outcome measures were used in 210 comparisons (84%), among which 78 used dichotomous variables (adherent or not) and 132 used continuous measures (adherence expressed as percentage). Furthermore, 32% of all comparisons did not estimate adherence over the same coverage period and 44% of all comparisons did not use a statistical method or used a suboptimal one. Only eighty-seven (35%) comparisons had similar coverage periods, similar outcome measures and optimal statistical methods. Compared to MEMS, median adherence was grossly overestimated by 17% using self-report, by 8% using pill count and by 6% using rating. In conclusion, among all comparisons of MEMS versus alternative methods for measuring adherence, only a few used adequate comparisons in terms of outcome measures, coverage periods and statistical method. Researchers should therefore use stronger methodological frameworks when comparing measurement methods and be aware that non-electronic measures could lead to overestimation of medication adherence.

  1. A rugged, precise and accurate new gravimetry method for the determination of gold: an alternative to fire assay method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nahar

    2012-01-01

    A new, rugged, precise, accurate and fast primary method of measurement has been proposed for the determination of gold in various gold articles. Precise and accurate measurement of gold is the primary requirement for hall marking and to trade gold internationally, as billions of dollars of gold are trading world wide for the various applications. At present Fire Assay ASTM E 1335-08 is the only Standard Test Method for the determination of Gold, which is accepted internationally. But the method is time consuming, cumbersome and required expertise to perform the test. In the present investigation, a method has been developed gravimetry based on direct determination of gold after reducing gold in zero-valent state by hydroxylamine hydrochloride. Gravimetry is the most reliable technique and having highest metrological qualities in comparison to titremetry and instrumental method and the results of gravimetry are directly traceable to SI unit. The results of gravimetric method are accepted without reference to a standard of the same quantity. Several experiments were carried out with and without impurities and it has been concluded that gold can be determined accurately and precisely in presence of several impurities. Five replicates of approximate 0.2 g gold samples were analyzed following method proposed and percentage purity were found to be 99.993 ± 0.0056 with 95% confidence level (k = 2). The combined uncertainty in gold measurement has also been evaluated using potential sources of the method according to the EURACHEM/GUM guidelines.

  2. Strategy for selecting disposable bags for cell culture media applications based on a root-cause investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Joseph; Mahajan, Ekta; Shiratori, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    The use of disposable bags for cell culture media storage has grown significantly in the past decade. Some of the key advantages of using disposable bags relative to non-disposable containers include increased product throughput, decreased cleaning validation costs, reduced risk of cross contamination and lower facility costs. As the scope of use of disposable bags for cell culture applications increases, problematic bags and scenarios should be identified and addressed to continue improving disposables technologies and meet the biotech industry's needs. In this article, we examine a cell culture application wherein media stored in disposable bags is warmed at 37°C before use for cell culture operations. A problematic bag film was identified through a prospective and retrospective cell culture investigation. The investigation provided information on the scope and variation of the issue with respect to different Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines, cell culture media, and application-specific parameters. It also led to the development of application-specific test methods and enabled a strategy for disposable bag film testing. The strategy was implemented for qualifying an alternative bag film for use in our processes. In this test strategy, multiple lots of 13 bag film types, encompassing eight vendors were evaluated using a three round, cell culture-based test strategy. The test strategy resulted in the determination of four viable bag film options based on the technical data. The results of this evaluation were used to conclude that a volatile or air-quenched compound, likely generated by gamma irradiation of the problematic bag film, negatively impacted cell culture performance.

  3. Performance Analysis of Classification Methods and Alternative Linear Programming Integrated with Fuzzy Delphi Feature Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Izadi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Among various statistical and data mining discriminant analysis proposed so far for group classification, linear programming discriminant analysis have recently attracted the researchers’ interest. This study evaluates multi-group discriminant linear programming (MDLP for classification problems against well-known methods such as neural networks, support vector machine, and so on. MDLP is less complex compared to other methods and does not suffer from local optima. However, sometimes classification becomes infeasible due to insufficient data in databases such as in the case of an Internet Service Provider (ISP small and medium-sized market considered in this research. This study proposes a fuzzy Delphi method to select and gather required data. The results show that the performance of MDLP is better than other methods with respect to correct classification, at least for small and medium-sized datasets.

  4. An alternative computational method for finding the minimum-premium insurance portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsikis, Vasilios N.

    2016-06-01

    In this article, we design a computational method, which differs from the standard linear programming techniques, for computing the minimum-premium insurance portfolio. The corresponding algorithm as well as a Matlab implementation are provided.

  5. mHealth Research: Current Methods, Alternative Approaches, and Issues for Discussion | Smokefree.gov

    Science.gov (United States)

    On December 3, 2015, the National Cancer Institute convened a group of 18 behavioral scientists for a day-long meeting to discuss scientific methods for evaluating technology-mediated behavior change interventions, with an emphasis on mobile smoking cessation interventions. This post contains excerpts from a document provided to participants in advance of the December 3 meeting. The document was used to set context for discussion by providing a high-level overview of the methods most commonly used in published

  6. RESULTS OF THE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT FOR THE CLASSIFIED TRANSURANIC WASTES DISPOSED AT THE NEVADA TEST SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. COCHRAN; ET AL

    2001-02-01

    Most transuranic (TRU) wastes are destined for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). However, the TRU wastes from the cleanup of US nuclear weapons accidents are classified for national security reasons and cannot be disposed in WIPP. The US Department of Energy (DOE) sought an alternative disposal method for these ''special case'' TRU wastes and from 1984 to 1987, four Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes were used to place these special case TRU wastes a minimum of 21 m (70 ft) below the land surface and a minimum of 200 m (650 ft) above the water table. The GCD boreholes are located in arid alluvium at the DOE's Nevada Test Site (NTS). Because of state regulatory concerns, the GCD boreholes have not been used for waste disposal since 1989. DOE requires that TRU waste disposal facilities meet the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) requirements for disposal of TRU wastes, which are contained in 40 CFR 191. This EPA standard sets a number of requirements, including probabilistic limits on the cumulative releases of radionuclides to the accessible environment for 10,000 years. The DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) has contracted with Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) to conduct a performance assessment (PA) to determine if the TRU waste emplaced in the GCD boreholes complies with the EPA's requirements. Sandia has completed the PA using all available information and an iterative PA methodology. This paper overviews the PA of the TRU wastes in the GCD boreholes [1]. As such, there are few cited references in this paper and the reader is referred to [1] and [2] for references. The results of the PA are that disposal of TRU wastes in the GCD boreholes easily complies with the EPA's 40 CFR 191 safety standards for disposal of TRU wastes. The PA is undergoing a DOE Headquarters (DOE/HQ) peer review, and the final PA will be released in FY2001 or FY2002.

  7. Alternative methods for the wool wax extraction from wool scouring wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crespi, M.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Wool fibers have to be properly washed out before being processed into fabrics. This scouring process generates high pollutant wastes in two forms, a liquid phase and a solid phase. Both phases contain a large amount of the grease (wool wax generated by the animal which may be recovered and purified to obtain lanolin, a highly valued product. To evaluate the amount of grease in such wastes, Soxhlet extraction with organic solvent is the technique more widely used in laboratories worldwide as it provides a high grease recovery although it is a time and solvent consuming technique. The present work compares alternative extraction techniques to the Soxhlet extraction (Microwave, automated Soxhlet and Supercritical Fluids recovering 100% of the grease, reducing the time of analysis, the solvent consumption and the waste generation.Las fibras de lana, tras obtenerlas de las ovejas y antes de ser procesadas industrialmente, han de ser lavadas. Este proceso genera residuos altamente contaminantes que pueden obtenerse en dos formas diferentes, una fase líquida y una fase sólida. Ambas fases contienen, entre otros, una gran cantidad de la grasa generada por las ovejas y que se puede recuperar y purificar para obtener lanolina, un producto de alto valor industrial. Para evaluar la cantidad de grasa contenida en dichos efluentes, la técnica más extendida en los laboratorios es la extracción por Soxhlet, la cual consume tiempo y disolventes orgánicos pero obteniendo altos porcentajes de recuperación. En el presente trabajo se compara el porcentaje de recuperación de la cera de lana de efluentes industriales mediante técnicas alternativas a la tradicional (Microondas, Soxhlet automatizado y Fluidos Supercríticos obteniendo recuperaciones del 100%, reduciendo el tiempo de análisis, el consumo de disolvente y la generación de residuos.

  8. An alternate method for estimating the dose-response relationships of neuromuscular blocking drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopman, A F; Klewicka, M M; Neuman, G G

    2000-05-01

    Slopes of the dose-response relationships for all available neuromuscular blocking drugs appear to be essentially parallel and to approximate a log-dose/logit value of 4.75. We tested the possibility of estimating both 50% effective dose (ED(50)) and 95% effective dose (ED(95)) values from a single dose-response data point when that slope is postulated. We compared the ED(50) and ED(95) values of rocuronium and succinylcholine calculated by using traditional log-dose/logit regression analysis with the same values obtained by averaging individual estimates of potency as determined by using the Hill equation. After the induction of anesthesia (propofol/alfentanil), tracheal intubation was accomplished without the administration of neuromuscular blocking drugs. Anesthesia was maintained with nitrous oxide and propofol. The evoked electromyographic response to 0.10-Hz single stimuli was continuously recorded. After baseline stabilization, a single IV bolus of succinylcholine (0.08-0.26 mg/kg, n = 50) or rocuronium (0. 13-0.30 mg/kg, n = 40) was administered and the peak effect noted. By using log-dose/logit regression analysis, we calculated ED(50) and ED(95) values for rocuronium of 0.17 and 0.33 mg/kg and 0.14 and 0.27 mg/kg for succinylcholine. When potency was calculated from the Hill equation, the resultant ED(50) and ED(95) values did not differ by more than +/-4% from those obtained by using regression analysis. Averaging of single-dose estimates of neuromuscular potency provides a useful adjunct and reasonable alternative to conventional regression analysis.

  9. 基于博弈网的武器装备论证多方案分析与评估方法%Analysis & Evaluation Method of Weapon Demonstration Alternatives Based on Games Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗小明; 姚宏林; 刘一

    2013-01-01

    博弈网模型是对超博弈问题进行描述的图模型.基于博弈网的多方案分析方法引入了不确定性和有限理性的处理机制,将武器装备论证多方案生成和评估过程抽象为某个局中人作为决策者的单方博弈网的建立、修正和求解过程.分析了武器装备论证超博弈问题的基本特征,提出了利用博弈网进行超博弈问题建模的基本流程,建立了基于博弈网的武器装备论证多方案分析与评估模型,给出了其综合均衡策略求解、优化可行策略集确定以及优化策略风险评估方法.%Games network model is a graph model which is used to describe super games problem. Indeterminacy and limited rationality disposal mechanism is introduced in analysis of alternatives method based on games network, the analysis and evaluation process of weapon demonstration alternatives are described for someone of the players, who as decision maker, construct, correct and resolve one-way of game network. In this paper, essential character of super games problem is analyzed, essential process of super games problem model is put forward utilizing games network, and alternatives analysis and evaluation model of weapon demonstration based on network of games is constituted. Integrated equilibrium strategy, optimization feasible tactics sets determination and optimization tactics risk assessment method are proposed.

  10. Plant Test of Industrial Waste Disposal in a Cement Kiln

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘阳生; 韩杰; 等

    2003-01-01

    Destruction of industrial waste in cement rotary kilins(CRKs) is an alternative technology for the treatment of certain types of industrial waste(IW).In this paper,three typical types of industrial wastes were co-incinerated in the CRK at Beijing Cement Plant to determine the effects of waste disposal(especially solid waste disposal )on the quality of clinker and the concentration of pollutants in air emission.Experimental results show that(1) waste disposal does not affect the quality of clinker and fly ash,and fly ash after the IW disposal can still be used in the cement production,(2) heavy metals from IW are immobilized and stabilized in the clinker and cement,and (3) concentration of pollutants in air emission is far below than the permitted values in the China National Standard-Air Pollutants Emission Standard(GB 16297-1996).

  11. A deterministic alternative to the full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubman, Norm M.; Lee, Joonho; Takeshita, Tyler Y.; Head-Gordon, Martin; Whaley, K. Birgitta

    2016-07-01

    Development of exponentially scaling methods has seen great progress in tackling larger systems than previously thought possible. One such technique, full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo, is a useful algorithm that allows exact diagonalization through stochastically sampling determinants. The method derives its utility from the information in the matrix elements of the Hamiltonian, along with a stochastic projected wave function, to find the important parts of Hilbert space. However, the stochastic representation of the wave function is not required to search Hilbert space efficiently, and here we describe a highly efficient deterministic method that can achieve chemical accuracy for a wide range of systems, including the difficult Cr2 molecule. We demonstrate for systems like Cr2 that such calculations can be performed in just a few cpu hours which makes it one of the most efficient and accurate methods that can attain chemical accuracy for strongly correlated systems. In addition our method also allows efficient calculation of excited state energies, which we illustrate with benchmark results for the excited states of C2.

  12. Single Alternating Group Explicit (SAGE) Method for Electrochemical Finite Difference Digital Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG,Zhao-Xiang(邓兆祥); LIN,Xiang-Qin(林祥钦); TONG,Zhong-Hua(童中华)

    2002-01-01

    The four different schemes of Group Explicit Method (GEM): GER, GEL, SAGE and DAGE have been claimed to be unstable when employed for electrochemical digital simulations with large model diffusion coefficient DM@ However, in this investigation, in spite of the conditional stability of GER and GEL, the SAGE scheme, which is a combination of GEL and GER, was found to be unconditionally stable when used for simulations of electrochemical reaction-diffusions and had a performance comparable with or even better than the Fast Quasi Explicit Finite Difference Method (FQEFD) in srme aspects. Corresponding differential equations of SAGE scheme for digital simulations of various electrochemical mechanisms with both uniform and exponentially expanded space units were established. The effectiveness of the SAGE method was further demonstrated by the simulations of an EC and a catalytic mechanism with very large homogoneous rate constants.

  13. Aortic blood flow subtraction: an alternative method for measuring total renal blood flow in conscious dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandgaard, N C F; Andersen, J L; Holstein-Rathlou, N-H;

    2002-01-01

    We have measured total renal blood flow (TRBF) as the difference between signals from ultrasound flow probes implanted around the aorta above and below the renal arteries. The repeatability of the method was investigated by repeated, continuous infusions of angiotensin II and endothelin-1 seven...... arterial blood pressure by 49% and decreased TRBF by 12%, providing an increase in renal vascular resistance of 69%. Dynamic analysis showed autoregulation of renal blood flow in the frequency range ... of TRBF by aortic blood flow subtraction is a practical and reliable method that allows direct comparison of excretory function and renal blood flow from two kidneys. The method also allows direct comparison between TRBF and flow in the caudal aorta....

  14. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 1. Data, maps, models and methods used for selection of potential areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-07-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings plus different types of material from the research periods) and radioactive waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The Minister for Health and Prevention presented the background and decision plan for the Danish Parliament in January 2009. All political parties agreed on the plan. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks. Nevertheless, the Tertiary clays were mapped as well. In the present study, the salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included. The present report briefly describes the existing data collections (including databases, maps and models), that are used during the work of selection of ca. 20 potentially suitable areas. Most of the information is stored in GEUS databases: Location of boreholes, borehole data, rock sediment and ground water compounds, maps, geophysical data and much more, but information is also collected from other institutions. The methods are described in more details (chapter 6) and this description is the direct background for the selection process, the characterisation of the 20 areas and for the final selection of the 2 or 3 most potential sites. (LN)

  15. Information related to low-level mixed waste inventory, characteristics, generation, and facility assessment for treatment, storage, and disposal alternatives considered in the U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkins, B.D.; Dolak, D.A.; Wang, Y.Y.; Meshkov, N.K.

    1996-12-01

    This report was prepared to support the analysis of risks and costs associated with the proposed treatment of low-level mixed waste (LLMW) under management of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The various waste management alternatives for treatment of LLMW have been defined in the DOE`s Office of Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement. This technical memorandum estimates the waste material throughput expected at each proposed LLMW treatment facility and analyzes potential radiological and chemical releases at each DOE site resulting from treatment of these wastes. Models have been developed to generate site-dependent radiological profiles and waste-stream-dependent chemical profiles for these wastes. Current site-dependent inventories and estimates for future generation of LLMW have been obtained from DOE`s 1994 Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR-2). Using treatment procedures developed by the Mixed Waste Treatment Project, the MWIR-2 database was analyzed to provide waste throughput and emission estimates for each of the different waste types assessed in this report. Uncertainties in the estimates at each site are discussed for waste material throughputs and radiological and chemical releases.

  16. The analysis of covariance and alternatives statistical methods for experiments, quasi-experiments, and single-case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Huitema, Bradley

    2011-01-01

    A complete guide to cutting-edge techniques and best practices for applying covariance analysis methods The Second Edition of Analysis of Covariance and Alternatives sheds new light on its topic, offering in-depth discussions of underlying assumptions, comprehensive interpretations of results, and comparisons of distinct approaches. The book has been extensively revised and updated to feature an in-depth review of prerequisites and the latest developments in the field. The author begins with a discussion of essential topics relating to experimental design and analysis

  17. High-resolution methods for preserving the sum of mass fractions: improved χ-scheme and an alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syamial, Madhava [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Benyahia, Sofiane [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2013-11-20

    When high resolution convection schemes are used for discretizing chemical species mass balance equations, the mass fractions are not guaranteed to add to one. We show that a proposed remedy called χ-scheme (Darwish and Moukalled, Comput.Methods Appl.Mech. Engrg. 192 (2003): 1711) will degrade to a diffusive first-order scheme when a chemical species vanishes from the mixture, for example, because of chemical reactions. We propose an improvement to the χ-scheme to overcome this problem. Furthermore, a computationally efficient alternative scheme is proposed and evaluated with several examples, to quantify the improvements in the accuracy and the computational time.

  18. Comparison of methods for controlling dental caries in the classical medicine and alternative medical practices and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabbani Khorasgani Mohammad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is a multi-factorial disease and the most common human infection that annually are spent millions dollars to control and treat it. Several methods have been proposed so far to control it. The most important control methods it is now include : dental hygiene, proper nutrition , fluoride therapy , the use of non- cariogenic sweeteners . Also, the use of probiotics , nanomaterials , bacteriophages , antimicrobial peptides and anti- caries vaccines can be considered as new perspective of human in the dental caries control field. In addition, the use of complementary and alternative therapies , especially herbal drug therapy recently has been considered . Demonstrating the efficacy of complementary medicine against dental caries and its use in combination with conventional medicine or trial of new methods for decline of dental caries in the future would be hopeful.

  19. Contingency Space Analysis: An Alternative Method for Identifying Contingent Relations from Observational Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Brian K.; DiGennaro, Florence D.; Reed, Derek D.; Szczech, Frances M.; Rosenthal, Blair D.

    2008-01-01

    Descriptive assessment methods have been used in applied settings to identify consequences for problem behavior, thereby aiding in the design of effective treatment programs. Consensus has not been reached, however, regarding the types of data or analytic strategies that are most useful for describing behavior-consequence relations. One promising…

  20. Assessment of Two Alternative Sample Transport and Fixation Methods in the Microbiological Diagnosis of Bacterial Vaginosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Eason

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The standard method for specimen collection and transport for microbiological diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis is an air-dried smear of vaginal secretions, promptly heat- or alcohol-fixed, Gram-stained and scored by Nugent's criteria.

  1. Multigroup Analysis in Partial Least Squares (PLS) Path Modeling: Alternative Methods and Empirical Results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarstedt, Marko; Henseler, Jörg; Ringle, Christian M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – Partial least squares (PLS) path modeling has become a pivotal empirical research method in international marketing. Owing to group comparisons' important role in research on international marketing, we provide researchers with recommendations on how to conduct multigroup analyses in PLS p

  2. Sampling bee communities using pan traps: alternative methods increase sample size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monitoring of the status of bee populations and inventories of bee faunas require systematic sampling. Efficiency and ease of implementation has encouraged the use of pan traps to sample bees. Efforts to find an optimal standardized sampling method for pan traps have focused on pan trap color. Th...

  3. Fitting Multilevel Models with Ordinal Outcomes: Performance of Alternative Specifications and Methods of Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Daniel J.; Sterba, Sonya K.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has compared methods of estimation for fitting multilevel models to binary data, but there are reasons to believe that the results will not always generalize to the ordinal case. This article thus evaluates (a) whether and when fitting multilevel linear models to ordinal outcome data is justified and (b) which estimator to employ…

  4. Acoustic Rhinometry (AR): An alternative method to image nasal airway geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straszek, Sune

    2007-01-01

    In acoustic rhinometry (AR) a soud pulse enters the nasal cavity, where it is reflected due to changes in the local impedances. From the incident and reflected sound signal we use the Ware-Aki algorithm to calculate an area-distance relationship. The method has been validated in nasal cavity models...

  5. Measurement of interfacial areas with the chemical method for a system with alternating dispersed phases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woezik, van B.A.A.; Westerterp, K.R.

    2000-01-01

    The interfacial area for a liquid–liquid system has been determined by the chemical reaction method. The saponification of butyl formate ester with 8 M sodium hydroxide has been used to this end. A correlation has been derived to describe the mole flux of ester through the interface and the kinetic

  6. 77 FR 11536 - Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... scientific peer review panel in March 2008; the peer review panel report was made available to the public for.... The final BRD, including additional analyses performed by NICEATM as recommended by the peer review... agencies to review ICCVAM test method recommendations and notify ICCVAM in writing of their findings...

  7. 76 FR 9777 - Recent Postings of Broadly Applicable Alternative Test Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ...), flare flow rate Method 2A-- for exit Direct velocity at Measurement of regulated Gas Volume flares as... methane. Emissions by of Performance Gas for Stationary Chromatography. Spark Ignition Internal Combustion... Emissions by Emission Gas Standards for Chromatography. Hazardous Air Pollutants; Site Remediation....

  8. Enhancing Learning Using 3D Printing: An Alternative to Traditional Student Project Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGahern, Patricia; Bosch, Frances; Poli, DorothyBelle

    2015-01-01

    Student engagement during the development of a three-dimensional visual aid or teaching model can vary for a number of reasons. Some students report that they are not "creative" or "good at art," often as an excuse to justify less professional outcomes. Student engagement can be low when using traditional methods to produce a…

  9. An Alternating Direction Method for Convex Quadratic Second-Order Cone Programming with Bounded Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuewen Mu

    2015-01-01

    quadratic programming over second-order cones and a bounded set. At each iteration, we only need to compute the metric projection onto the second-order cones and the projection onto the bound set. The result of convergence is given. Numerical results demonstrate that our method is efficient for the convex quadratic second-order cone programming problems with bounded constraints.

  10. RD and D-Programme 2001. Programme for research, development and demonstration of methods for the management and disposal of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    the Aespoe HRL will contain six deposition holes with canisters, and the test will proceed for 20 years. Material and methods for backfilling, closure and sealing of boreholes are also being developed at Aespoe. KBS-3 is the basis, but we will also examine variants of the concept. Such a variant is Medium Long Holes (MLH), whereby the canisters are deposited horizontally. The encapsulation plant where the spent fuel is to be placed in copper canisters, is still on the drawing board. The technology for welding on the copper lid is being developed at the Canister Laboratory in Oskarshamn. The technology for examining the weld joint is also being developed there. Elsewhere, different fabrication methods for the different parts of the canister are being tested. SKB has decided to monitor the development of the two alternatives partitioning and transmutation and deposition in Very Deep Holes. (abstract truncated)

  11. Rapid and alternative fabrication method for microfluidic paper based analytical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekghasemi, Soheil; Kahveci, Enver; Duman, Memed

    2016-10-01

    A major application of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (µPADs) includes the field of point-of-care (POC) diagnostics. It is important for POC diagnostics to possess properties such as ease-of-use and low cost. However, µPADs need multiple instruments and fabrication steps. In this study, two different chemicals (Hexamethyldisilazane and Tetra-ethylorthosilicate) were used, and three different methods (heating, plasma treatment, and microwave irradiation) were compared to develop µPADs. Additionally, an inkjet-printing technique was used for generating a hydrophilic channel and printing certain chemical agents on different regions of a modified filter paper. A rapid and effective fabrication method to develop µPADs within 10min was introduced using an inkjet-printing technique in conjunction with a microwave irradiation method. Environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used for morphology characterization and determining the surface chemical compositions of the modified filter paper, respectively. Contact angle measurements were used to fulfill the hydrophobicity of the treated filter paper. The highest contact angle value (141°±1) was obtained using the microwave irradiation method over a period of 7min, when the filter paper was modified by TEOS. Furthermore, by using this method, the XPS results of TEOS-modified filter paper revealed Si2p (23%) and Si-O bounds (81.55%) indicating the presence of Si-O-Si bridges and Si(OEt) groups, respectively. The ESEM results revealed changes in the porous structures of the papers and decreases in the pore sizes. Washburn assay measurements tested the efficiency of the generated hydrophilic channels in which similar water penetration rates were observed in the TEOS-modified filter paper and unmodified (plain) filter paper. The validation of the developed µPADs was performed by utilizing the rapid urease test as a model test system. The detection limit of

  12. Model and Solution Method for the Management of City Solid Garbage Disposal under Environment of Polymorphic Uncertainty%多态不确定性环境下城市固废管理模型及求解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万中; 冯燕茹; 梁文冬

    2013-01-01

    The problem of city garbage disposal was investigated under an environment of polymorphic uncertainty.. In some settings, a class of management of solid garbage disposal was formulated as an interval fuzzy optimization model. Possibility degree, operator, for the order of interval numbers was firstly defined in axiomatic method, and for given weight coefficients fend confidence levels, a deterministic equivalent formulation for the original model was obtained on the basis of such a definitioa Then the problem was solved in the ordinary linear programming method. The model and the solution method were applied into a practical management problem, and the results indicate that the model and the solution method are effective.%研究了多态不确定性环境下的城市垃圾处理问题.在一定假设条件下,建立了一类固废管理问题的区间模糊优化模型.提出了区间大小关系可能度算子的公理化定义,并基于这种可能度算子的方法,对给定的权重系数和置信水平,推导了原模型的确定型等价类,从而把区间模糊优化问题转化为普通的线性规划问题求解.将所建立的模型和求解方法用于解决一个实际固废管理问题,结果证实了该模型及其求解方法的有效性.

  13. An alternative preparation method for ion exchanged catalysts: Solid state redox reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, E.; Hagen, A.; Grunwaldt, J.-D.

    2004-01-01

    A new method for modifying zeolites with zinc is proposed. The solid state redox reaction between metallic zinc and ZSM-5 zeolites with different Si/Al ratios was investigated by temperature programmed hydrogen evolution (TPHE), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and diffuse reflectance...... infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS). The evolution of hydrogen was detected at temperatures above 620 K. The source of hydrogen was the solid state redox reaction of the metal with protons of the support. The samples exhibit catalytic activity in ethane aromatization indicating that zinc...... should be located at the same sites as in catalysts prepared by conventional methods. Combination of XANES and catalytic activity point to zinc being mainly present in tetrahedral geometry under reaction conditions....

  14. An alternative treatment method for defective pseudoarthrosis; evaluation of eight patients treated with Artelon+Kryptonite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uraş, Ismail; Yavuz, Osman Yüksel; Uygun, Murat; Paslioglu, Ebubekir; Kömürcü, Mahmut

    2016-03-01

    Pseudoarthrosis with bone loss is one of the most challenging orthopaedic problems for surgeons. Bone loss usually leads to technical difficulties during surgery due to instability in the fracture area. Eight patients with pseudoarthrosis of different long bones were operated on by the same surgeon. The median age was 53 years (25-61), and the median time period after the index operation was 21 months (12-72 months). Radiographic union was achieved in all patients in 3.62 months (2-5 months). Efficient healing with new bone formation was observed in all of the patients. The result of the current case series is promising. This treatment method can be used for the treatment of pseudoarthrosis without increasing morbidity. Long-term follow-up and larger case series are needed for evidence of the adequacy and reliability of this method of treatment.

  15. Calculation of the Gluon Distribution Function Using Alternative Method for the Proton Structure Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N. Ghahramany; G.R. Boroun

    2003-01-01

    A calculation of the proton structure function F2(x,Q2) is reported with an approximation method that relates the reduced cross section derivative and the F2(x, Q2) scaling violation at low x by using quadratic form for the structure function. This quadratic form approximation method can be used to determine the structure function F2 (x, Q2)from the HERA reduced cross section data taken at low x. This new approach can determine the structure functions F2(x,Q2) with reasonable precision even for low x values which have not been investigated. We observe that the Q2 dependence is quadratic over the full kinematic covered range. To test the validity of our new determined structure functions, wefind the gluon distribution function in the leading order approximation with our new calculation for the structure functions and compare them with the QCD parton distribution functions.

  16. Calculation of the Gluon Distribution Function Using Alternative Method for the Proton Structure Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N.Ghahramany; G.R.Boroun

    2003-01-01

    A calculation of the proton structure function F2(x,Q2) is reported with an approximation method that relates the reduced cross section derivative and the F2(x, Q2) scaling violation at low x by using quadratic form for the structure function. This quadratic form approximation method can be used to determine the structure function F2 (x, Q2) from the HERA reduced cross section data taken at low x. This new approach can determine the structure functions F2(x,Q2) with reasonable precision even for low x values which have not been investigated. We observe that the Q2 dependence is quadratic over the full kinematic covered range. To test the validity of our new determined structure functions, we find the gluon distribution function in the leading order approximation with our new calculation for the structure functions and compare them with the QCD parton distribution functions.

  17. Field simulation of axisymmetric plasma screw pinches by alternating-direction-implicit methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, M.A.

    1996-06-01

    An axisymmetric plasma screw pinch is an axisymmetric column of ionized gaseous plasma radially confined by forces from axial and azimuthal currents driven in the plasma and its surroundings. This dissertation is a contribution to detailed, high resolution computer simulation of dynamic plasma screw pinches in 2-d {ital rz}-coordinates. The simulation algorithm combines electron fluid and particle-in-cell (PIC) ion models to represent the plasma in a hybrid fashion. The plasma is assumed to be quasineutral; along with the Darwin approximation to the Maxwell equations, this implies application of Ampere`s law without displacement current. Electron inertia is assumed negligible so that advective terms in the electron momentum equation are ignored. Electrons and ions have separate scalar temperatures, and a scalar plasma electrical resistivity is assumed. Altemating-direction-implicit (ADI) methods are used to advance the electron fluid drift velocity and the magnetic fields in the simulation. The ADI methods allow time steps larger than allowed by explicit methods. Spatial regions where vacuum field equations have validity are determined by a cutoff density that invokes the quasineutral vacuum Maxwell equations (Darwin approximation). In this dissertation, the algorithm was first checked against ideal MM stability theory, and agreement was nicely demonstrated. However, such agreement is not a new contribution to the research field. Contributions to the research field include new treatments of the fields in vacuum regions of the pinch simulation. The new treatments predict a level of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence near the bulk plasma surface that is higher than predicted by other methods.

  18. Field simulation of axisymmetric plasma screw pinches by alternating-direction-implicit methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, Michael Allen [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1996-06-01

    An axisymmetric plasma screw pinch is an axisymmetric column of ionized gaseous plasma radially confined by forces from axial and azimuthal currents driven in the plasma and its surroundings. This dissertation is a contribution to detailed, high resolution computer simulation of dynamic plasma screw pinches in 2-d rz-coordinates. The simulation algorithm combines electron fluid and particle-in-cell (PIC) ion models to represent the plasma in a hybrid fashion. The plasma is assumed to be quasineutral; along with the Darwin approximation to the Maxwell equations, this implies application of Ampere`s law without displacement current. Electron inertia is assumed negligible so that advective terms in the electron momentum equation are ignored. Electrons and ions have separate scalar temperatures, and a scalar plasma electrical resistivity is assumed. Altemating-direction-implicit (ADI) methods are used to advance the electron fluid drift velocity and the magnetic fields in the simulation. The ADI methods allow time steps larger than allowed by explicit methods. Spatial regions where vacuum field equations have validity are determined by a cutoff density that invokes the quasineutral vacuum Maxwell equations (Darwin approximation). In this dissertation, the algorithm was first checked against ideal MM stability theory, and agreement was nicely demonstrated. However, such agreement is not a new contribution to the research field. Contributions to the research field include new treatments of the fields in vacuum regions of the pinch simulation. The new treatments predict a level of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence near the bulk plasma surface that is higher than predicted by other methods.

  19. Roughness measurement as an alternative method in evaluation of cavitation resistance of steels

    OpenAIRE

    Dojčinović Marina

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate possible application of roughness measurement in evaluation of resistance of steels in conditions of cavitation effect where these materials are usually applied. Steels which belong to different classes were selected for testing. Cavitation testing was performed by using the ultrasonic vibratory cavitation test set up (stationary specimen method). Mass loss and surface degradation of investigated samples were monitored during the exposure to ...

  20. Alternative methods of globotrioside production using Vero cells: a microcarrier system procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Miyagawa Atsushi; Kasuya Maria; Hatanaka Kenichi

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Glycolipids are one component of cell membranes, and are found most prevalently at the surface of the plasma membrane. Animal cells take in amphipathic glycosides, which are later glycosylated after assimilation in biosynthetic pathways. Gycosylated glycosides are released outside of cells to the surrounding culture medium. This represents an accessible method of obtaining complex glycosides. Results Vero cells are sensitive to Shiga toxins and are known to express the gly...

  1. Alternative method to determine the bulk etch rate of Lr-115 detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacios, D.; Sajo B, L.; Barros, H.; Greaves, E. D. [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Apdo. Postal 89000, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Palacios, F. [Universidad de Oriente, Santiago de Cuba (Cuba)

    2010-02-15

    The measurements using the Lr-115 solid-state nuclear track detector depend critically on the removed thickness of the active layer during etching. In this work, Lr-115 detectors exposed to alpha particles were etched under no stirring in a 2.5 N NaOH solution at a temperature of 60{+-}1 C and different etching times (from 0.5 to 2.5 hours). The thickness of the removed layer was determined by a variant of the gravimetric method, so that the bulk etch rate could be deduced from mass change measurements of detectors. The bulk etch rate was found to be 3.63 {+-} 0.09 {mu}m.h{sup -}1, which agrees with most of the reported values. Comparisons of our results with the obtained by the optical density method are in correspondence. We propose here a fast, simple, and nondestructive method to determine the active-layer thickness of the Lr-115 solid-state nuclear track detector with good accuracy for routine measurements. (Author)

  2. The Feasibility of Societal Cost Equivalence between Robotic Hysterectomy and Alternate Hysterectomy Methods for Endometrial Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neel T. Shah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We assess whether it is feasible for robotic hysterectomy for endometrial cancer to be less expensive to society than traditional laparoscopic hysterectomy or abdominal hysterectomy. Methods. We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of patient characteristics, operative times, complications, and hospital charges from all (=234 endometrial cancer patients who underwent hysterectomy in 2009 at our hospital. Per patient costs of each hysterectomy method were examined from the societal perspective. Sensitivity analysis and Monte Carlo simulation were performed using a cost-minimization model. Results. 40 (17.1% of hysterectomies for endometrial cancer were robotic, 91 (38.9%, were abdominal, and 103 (44.0% were laparoscopic. 96.3% of the variation in operative cost between patients was predicted by operative time (=0.963, <0.01. Mean operative time for robotic hysterectomy was significantly longer than other methods (<0.01. Abdominal hysterectomy was consistently the most expensive while the traditional laparoscopic approach was consistently least expensive. The threshold in operative time that makes robotic hysterectomy cost equivalent to the abdominal approach is within the range of our experience. Conclusion. It is feasible for robotic hysterectomy to be less expensive than abdominal hysterectomy, but unlikely for robotic hysterectomy to be less expensive than traditional laparoscopy.

  3. Potential contribution of fish restocking to the recovery of deteriorated coral reefs: an alternative restoration method?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uri Obolski

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Counteracting the worldwide trend of coral reef degeneration is a major challenge for the scientific community. A crucial management approach to minimizing stress effects on healthy reefs and helping the recovery of disturbed reefs is reef protection. However, the current rapid decline of the world’s reefs suggests that protection might be insufficient as a viable stand-alone management approach for some reefs. We thus suggest that the ecological restoration of coral reefs (CRR should be considered as a valid component of coral reef management, in addition to protection, if the applied method is economically applicable and scalable. This theoretical study examines the potential applicability and outcomes of restocking grazers as a restoration tool for coral reef recovery—a tool that has not been applied so far in reef restoration projects. We studied the effect of restocking grazing fish as a restoration method using a mathematical model of degrading reefs, and analyzed the financial outcomes of the restocking intervention. The results suggest that applying this restoration method, in addition to protection, can facilitate reef recovery. Moreover, our analysis suggests that the restocking approach almost always becomes profitable within several years. Considering the relatively low cost of this restoration approach and the feasibility of mass production of herbivorous fish, we suggest that this approach should be considered and examined as an additional viable restoration tool for coral reefs.

  4. 基于PSO算法的舰载机舰面布放调度方法研究%Research on Deck-disposed Scheduling Method of Carrier Planes Based on PSO Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司维超; 韩维; 史玮韦

    2012-01-01

    基于智能粒子群(PSO)算法对戴高乐航母舰载机舰面布放调度问题的解决方法进行了研究.首先,分析了舰载机舰面布放调度的必备条件,包括设置舰面战位;测量计算舰载机由各个停机战位分别到2个准备战位的近似移动距离;分析了舰载机正常的出动流程;设计了不同数量舰载机的出动时间计算公式等.其次,将舰载机舰面布放调度问题转换为带有约束条件的多目标函数求最小解问题,并给出了数学模型.再次,分析PSO算法本身的特点、优点,给出其用于解决舰载机舰面布放调度问题的可行性,并具体分析了解决思路.最后,通过编制程序对该解决方法予以实现.实验结果表明,基于PSO算法的舰载机舰面布放调度问题解决方法是可行的,与实际要求也基本一致.%This paper presents a study of the deck-disposed scheduling method of carrier planes on board French aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle based on the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. First, it analyzes the basic conditions of deck-disposed scheduling of carrier planes, which include battle position setting, distance measurement between gate position and preparative position, natural takeoff flow analysis, and takeoff time expressions about different numbers of carrier planes. Second, it transforms the deck-disposed scheduling to a multi-object function with constraints which seeks a minimum solution, and then provides its mathematical model. Third, it analyzes the characteristics and merits of the PSO algorithm to explore the feasibility of using the PSO algorithm to solve deck-disposed scheduling, and then presents an idiographic resolving method. Finally, it realizes the solution of PSO by compiling a program. The experimental result confirms that it is feasible to use the PSO algorithm to resolve the deck-disposed scheduling problem of carrier planes, and it is consistent with the practical demands of aircraft

  5. A simple and cost-effective method, as an appropriate alternative for visible spectrophotometry: development of a dopamine biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaspour, Abdolkarim; Khajehzadeh, Abdolreza; Ghaffarinejad, Ali

    2009-08-01

    In this study, a new, simple, fast and inexpensive method as an alternative to visible spectrophotometry is developed. In this method the cells containing the sample solution were scanned with a scanner, then the color of each cell was analyzed with software written in visual basic (VB 6) media to red, green and blue values. The cells were built by creating holes in the Plexiglas sheet. The dimensions of identical cells were examined by Cr (III) solution with known concentrations. The validity of this new method was studied by determination of dopamine (DA) without using any other reagent. The parameters which affect the system were optimized. The comparison between the current and traditional UV-Vis spectrophotometry methods was studied and the results revealed similar trends in both methods. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of dopamine in serum and urine without using any pretreatment. Finally comparing the results obtained in the developed method showed that microwave irradiation of the solution can decrease the experimental time, increase sensitivity and improve the limit of detection.

  6. Innovation and presentation of RALSPI model: a new method for evaluating alternatives and assessment of development level of settlements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Taghvaei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extended Abstract1- IntroductionIn this paper, Ranking Alternatives by Limiting Substitution Possibilities of Indicators (RALSPI method is proposed as a Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM method. Many MCDM methods have been developed over the years, but little is known about their shortcomings on similar problems. This study explores the main faults of some of the classical MCDM methods including SAW, TOPSIS, AHP, LINMAP, Numerical Taxonomy and Morris. The rationale for such selection has been that most of these are among the most popular and widely used methods in regional studies of classifying the development level of settlements, and each method reflects a different approach to solve MCDM problems. The RALSPI method resolves significant shortcomings of these methods.2- Theoretical basesThe typical MCDM problem is concerned with the task of ranking a finite number of decision alternatives, each of which is explicitly described in terms of different characteristics (also often called attributes, decision criteria, or objectives which have to be taken into account simultaneously. MCDM plays a critical role in many real-life problems; it is hard to accept an MCDM method as being accurate all the time (Wang and Triantaphyllou, 2008. Several methods have been proposed for solving MCDM problems. The major criticism of MCDM methods is that different techniques may yield different results when applied to the same problem, apparently under the same assumptions and by a single DM (Zanakis et al., 1998. Voogd (1983 found that, at least 40% of the time, each technique produced a different result from any other technique. Practitioners seem to prefer simple and transparent methods (Hobbs et al., 1992. According to Hobbs et al. (1992 a good experiment should satisfy the following conditions:Compare methods that are widely used, represent divergent philosophies of decision making or claimed to represent important methodological improvements.Address the

  7. ALTERNATIVE METHODS TO MULTIPLE CORRESPONDENCE ANALYSIS IN RECONSTRUCTING THE RELEVANT INFORMATION IN A BURT'S TABLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Camiz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this work, the reconstruction of the Burt's table, Greenacre (1988's Joint Correspondence Analysis (JCA, and Gower & Hand (1996's Extended Matching Coefficient (EMC are compared to Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA in order to check the quality of the methods. In particular, for the whole table, the ability is considered separately the diagonal, and the off-diagonal tables, that is the ability to describe either each character's distribution or the interaction between pairs of characters, or both. The theoretical aspects are discussed first, and finally the results obtained in an application are shown and discussed.

  8. Alternative Method for Determining the Feynman Propagator of a Non-Relativistic Quantum Mechanical Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Moshinsky

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A direct procedure for determining the propagator associated with a quantum mechanical problem was given by the Path Integration Procedure of Feynman. The Green function, which is the Fourier Transform with respect to the time variable of the propagator, can be derived later. In our approach, with the help of a Laplace transform, a direct way to get the energy dependent Green function is presented, and the propagator can be obtained later with an inverse Laplace transform. The method is illustrated through simple one dimensional examples and for time independent potentials, though it can be generalized to the derivation of more complicated propagators.

  9. An alternative method to achieve one-lung ventilation by surgical pneumothorax in difficult lung isolation patient: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Pin-Hung; Hsu, Po-Kai

    2016-04-01

    It is challenging to establish one-lung ventilation in difficult airway patients. Surgical pneumothorax under spontaneous breathing to obtain well-collapsed lung is a feasible method for thoracic surgery. A 76-year-old man with right empyema was scheduled for decortication. The patient had limited mouth opening due to facial cellulitis extending from the left cheek to neck. Generally, lung isolation is achieved by double-lumen endotracheal tube or bronchial blocker. Double-lumen tube insertion is difficult for patients with limited mouth opening and right-side placement of bronchial blocker usually causes insufficient deflation. We introduce an alternative lung isolation technique by surgical pneumothorax under spontaneous breathing simply with an endotracheal tube placement. This technique has never been applied into the management of difficult one-lung ventilation. By this method, we provide an ideal surgical condition with safer, less time-consuming, and less skill-demanding anesthesia. It would be an alternative choice for management of one-lung ventilation in the difficult lung isolation patient.

  10. An alternative method of chronic cerebrospinal fluid collection via the cisterna magna in conscious rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilberto, David B; Zeoli, Angela H; Szczerba, Peter J; Gehret, John R; Holahan, Marie A; Sitko, Gary R; Johnson, Colena A; Cook, Jacquelynn J; Motzel, Sherri L

    2003-07-01

    Models of chronic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collection previously have been established for nonhuman primates and canines; many of these methods implement stainless-steel cannulas into the lateral or 4th ventricles or catheters into the cerebral or spinal subarachnoid space. These models have proved successful and reliable but unfortunately require invasive techniques to pass through the skull or require a laminectomy to enter the spinal subarachnoid space, involve the use of expensive and highly specialized stereotaxic equipment for the precise placement of the implants, and may require exteriorized hardware which is cumbersome to maintain and unaesthetic. The model we developed for the rhesus monkey allows for direct access to CSF outflow from the cisterna magna by using a 3.5-French fenestrated silicone catheter which was placed 1.0 cm into the cisterna. The catheter was attached to a titanium port placed subcutaneously between the scapulae to permit easy access for sampling CSF in a conscious, chaired rhesus monkey. We currently have instrumented animals from which we have consistently collected CSF for over 18 months. This novel, economical, less-invasive method permits chronic, reliable collection of CSF in conscious rhesus monkeys and has the additional advantages that the model is easier to maintain and more aesthetic.

  11. Alternative method for measurement of albumin/creatinine ratio using spectrophotometric sequential injection analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siangproh, Weena; Teshima, Norio; Sakai, Tadao; Katoh, Shuji; Chailapakul, Orawon

    2009-09-15

    A simple, automatic and practical system for successive determination of albumin and creatinine has been developed by combining sequential injection analysis (SIA) and highly sensitive dye-binding assays. Albumin detection was based on the increase in the absorbance due to complex formation between albumin and eosin Y in acidic media. The absorbance of the complex was monitored at 547 nm. For the creatinine assay, the concentration of creatinine was measured by reaction with alkaline picrate to form a colored product which absorbs at 500 nm. The influences of experimental variables such as effects of pH, reagent concentration, standard/sample volume and interferences were investigated. Under optimal conditions, the automated method showed linearity up to 20 mg L(-1) for albumin and 100 mg L(-1) for creatinine. The 3 sigma detection limits were 0.6 and 3.5 mg L(-1) for albumin and creatinine, respectively, and the relative standard deviations (n=10) were 2.49% for 20 mg L(-1) albumin, and 3.14% for 20 mg L(-1) creatinine. Application of the proposed method to the direct analysis of urinary samples yielded results which agreed with those obtained from the Bradford protein assay and a creatinine enzymatic assay according to a paired t-test. The results obtained should be a step towards developing a fully automated and reliable analytical system for clinical research, which requires direct determination of albumin and creatinine and/or its ratios.

  12. An alternative treatment method for fluorosurfactant-containing wastewater by aerosol-mediated separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersbach, Ina; Ludwig, Svenja M; Constapel, Marc; Kling, Hans-Willi

    2016-09-15

    The treatment of fluorosurfactant-containing wastewater is still challenging nowadays. Here, a method is presented to remove fluorosurfactants from water, amongst others from electroplating wastewater. This elimination technique is based on the generation of gas bubbles in solution, enrichment and scavenging of fluorosurfactants by transport of the gas bubbles to the water surface. Finally the bubbles collapse and release an aerosol which is enriched with fluorosurfactants. By sampling of the released aerosols a mass balance was established for 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonic acid (6:2 FTSA). Thereby 99.8% of the initial amount was revocered in the collected aerosols. Fluorosurfactant concentration in solution decreased exponentially with half-lives ranging from 2 to 6 min for 6:2 FTSA as well as perfluorooctane carboxylate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). Elimination rate in defined matrix (0.2 M H2SO4) within 60 min was 99.6, 99.9 and 99.8% for 6:2 FTSA, PFOA and PFOS, respectively. The removal rate of 6:2 FTSA increased in solutions with higher ionic strength. Different wastewater from an electroplating industry containing 6:2 FTSA was treated with the described method without any sample pre-treatment and elimination of 6:2 FTSA took place with the same effectiveness as in synthetic matrices.

  13. Alternative method to treat oroantral communication and fistula with autogenous bone graft and platelet rich firbin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedzielska, Iwona; Borgiel-Marek, Halina; Różanowski, Bartosz

    2016-01-01

    Background Removing a tooth from the jaw results in the occurrence of oroantral communication in beneficial anatomic conditions or in the case of a iatrogenic effect. Popularized treatments of the oroantral communication have numerous faults. Large bone defect eliminates the chance to introduce an implant. Purpose of this work was assessment of the usefulness of autogenous bone graft and PRF in normal bone regeneration in the site of oroantral communication. Material and Methods Bone regeneration in the site of oroantral communication was assessed in 20 patients. Bone defects were supplemented autogenous bone graft from mental protuberance in 14 cases and from oblique line in 6 cases. The graft was covered with a PRF membrane. Results In the study group in all cases closure of the oroantral communication was observed. The average width of the alveolar was 13 mm and the average height was 12.5 mm. In 3 patients an average increase of alveolar height of 1.5 mm was observed. Conclusions This method may be the best option to prepare alveolar for new implant and prosthetic solutions. Key words:Oroantral communication, oroantral fistula, autogenous bone graft, bone regeneration, platelet rich fibrin. PMID:27475687

  14. Alternative method for estimating the cross-sectional interpolation errors of discharge measurements using the velocity-area method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despax, Aurélien; Perret, Christian; Garçon, Rémy; Hauet, Alexandre; Belleville, Arnaud; Le Coz, Jérôme; Favre, Anne-Catherine

    2016-04-01

    Quantifying the quality of discharge measurements by uncertainty analysis is a challenge in the hydrometric community. Discharge measurements are the first step to produce hydrometric data which are used in many hydrological studies like design of hydraulic structures or calibration of hydrological models for flood forecasting and warning. Thus associated uncertainty has to be estimated carefully. The velocity-area method is a common approach for estimating river discharge. It consists in integrating depths and point velocities through the cross-section. Due to the limited number of point measurements, the quality of the measurement depends mainly on the sampling strategy. Different methods of uncertainty estimation are available in the literature (ISO 748, Q+ and IVE). The main uncertainty component, noted um, is often related to the cross-sectional interpolation errors. However the computation of this term according to these approaches does not evaluate both the sampling strategy and the complexity of the cross-section. The FLAURE method (FLow Analog UnceRtainty Estimation) includes a new methodology to estimate this term. It is based on the study of high-resolution stream-gaugings (i.e. reference stream-gaugings made with a high number of verticals). The high-resolution measurements are first subsampled by reducing the number of verticals to generate a sample of realistic stream-gaugings. A statistical analysis is performed to estimate the um component and then a sampling quality index is defined. For each reference stream-gauging, it leads to a curve of um component as a function of the sampling quality index. This set of curves is finally used to compute the um component of any routine stream-gauging. Curves are then selected according to the similitude between the routine stream-gauging and reference stream-gaugings. The similitude between the routine stream-gauging and reference stream-gaugings is evaluated thanks to the Nash criteria computed on lateral

  15. Ripening of clayey dredged sediments during temporary upland disposal, A Bioremediation technique.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, J.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Joziasse, J.; Rulkens, W.H.

    2003-01-01

    Background and Goal. In the Netherlands about 40 million m3 of sediment has to be dredged annually for both maintenance and environmental reasons. Temporary upland disposal is the most widely adopted alternative for dredged sediments worldwide. For good management of temporary disposal sites, knowle

  16. Facility arrangements, food safety, and the environmental performance of disposable and reusable cups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potting, J.; Harst, van der E.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Conventional disposable cups, made of fossil-based plastic or paper with inner lining of fossil-based plastic, are typically associated with an unnecessary use of scarce resources and a superfluous production of waste. An alternative has become available in disposable cups from bio-based and biodegr

  17. Melter Disposal Strategic Planning Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BURBANK, D.A.

    2000-09-25

    This document describes the proposed strategy for disposal of spent and failed melters from the tank waste treatment plant to be built by the Office of River Protection at the Hanford site in Washington. It describes program management activities, disposal and transportation systems, leachate management, permitting, and safety authorization basis approvals needed to execute the strategy.

  18. Disposable diapers: safe and effective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Namita; Purthi, P K; Sachdev, Anupam; Gupta, Suresh

    2003-09-01

    Nappy rash is a common problem in infants due to their thinner skin, wetness, heat and friction under cloth nappy, fecal enzymes and alkaline urine. The disposable diapers containing Super Absorbent Material (SAM) reduce the incidence of nappy rash. SAM quickly absorbs urine and keeps the skin dry. Also disposable diapers prevent fecal contamination by absorbing the urine and containing stools.

  19. Nuclear waste disposal in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, R. E.; Causey, W. E.; Galloway, W. E.; Nelson, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    Work on nuclear waste disposal in space conducted by the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and contractors are reported. From the aggregate studies, it is concluded that space disposal of nuclear waste is technically feasible.

  20. Mechanical Color Reading of Wood-Staining Fungal Pigment Textile Dyes: An Alternative Method for Determining Colorfastness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M. Hinsch

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Colorfastness to washing and crocking (color loss due to rubbing are essential qualities for any dye/fabric combination that will be used for garments or upholstery. In this study, colorfastness to washing and crocking of fabrics dyed with wood-staining fungal pigments was compared to colorfastness of commercial dyes using an alternative mechanical testing method. Overall, wood-staining fungal pigments out performed commercial dyes for colorfastness to washing and wet and dry crocking. Xylindein was the most colorfast dye. Draconin red yielded inconsistent results, and the yellow pigment required a mordant to achieve any colorfastness. This study showed that the mechanical color reading method, along with statistical analysis, provided an objective, repeatable gauge of colorfastness, although visual inspection is also needed for practical purposes.