WorldWideScience

Sample records for alternative development structures

  1. Dounreay: an alternative development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, K.

    1990-01-01

    With the Government decision to phase out the Fast Reactor at Dounreay there is a need to find alternative employment in the area. Traditionally Caithness is an area of farming, fishing and tourism which could be damaged if Dounreay were to be made a nuclear waste repository. The suggestion is that Dounreay should become a centre for research, development and subsequent manufacture of renewable energy sources and devices to harness renewable energy. The Scottish coastline has potential for wind and wave power developments and this could lead to a whole industry in the future. (UK)

  2. Windpower project ownership and financing: The cost impacts of alternative development structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R.H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper uses traditional financial cash-flow techniques to examine the impact of different ownership and financing structures on the cost of wind energy. While most large-scale wind projects are constructed, operated, and financed by non-utility generators (NUGs) via project financing, investor- and publicly-owned utilities have expressed interest in owning and financing their own facilities rather than purchasing wind energy from independent generators. A primary justification for utility ownership is that, because of financing and tax benefits, windpower may be cheaper when developed in this fashion. The results presented in this paper support that justification, though some of the estimated cost savings associated with utility ownership are found to be a result of shortcomings in utility analysis procedures and implicit risk shifting. This paper also discusses the comparative value of the federal production tax credit and renewable energy production incentive; estimates the financing premium paid by NUG wind owners compared to traditional gas-fired generation facilities; and explores the impact of electricity restructuring on financing.

  3. Use of the FAR Guide in Alternative Teaching Models Developed on Structuring the Topic of Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Hilal Aktamış

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the impact of the use of alternative teaching models, under the leadership of the FAR Guide, on the ability of students to comprehend the topic of energy. After the experiment done related to each subject, modelling was performed to provide the students to configure such an abstract concept as ‘energy’ in their minds. The participants of the research was consisted of ninth grade students (n=52) existing in Aydin Province, Turkey. In the research, th...

  4. Use of the FAR Guide in Alternative Teaching Models Developed on Structuring the Topic of Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilal Aktamış

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine the impact of the use of alternative teaching models, under the leadership of the FAR Guide, on the ability of students to comprehend the topic of energy. After the experiment done related to each subject, modelling was performed to provide the students to configure such an abstract concept as ‘energy’ in their minds. The participants of the research was consisted of ninth grade students (n=52 existing in Aydin Province, Turkey. In the research, the pre-test post-test experimental model with a control group was used. The data collection tools were interview questions about energy, multiple choice energy achievement scale and the role of scientific models scale. At the end of the research, it was found that there is an increase in the physics achievement level and scientific models attitudes of students

  5. The Discontinuous Development Trend of Structuralism: Alternative Tradition of Economic Analysis (R. Prebisch, Y. Yaremenko, G. Mensch, and others

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr A. Orekhovsky

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The main factors of economic growth in the mainstream of the economic theory are capital and labor, and the rates of growth are determined by the rate of savings. Alternative tradition of the economic analyses does accent on the structural changes that are taking place in the economic system. This restructuring is the main factor of development. This paper is a brief outline of the formation and evolution of the structuralist theory of economic growth. Elements of structuralism are standing yet in the concept of expanded reproduction of Marx, theory of comparative costs Ricardo, the model Solow. The characteristic of the concept of unequal exchange in international trade associated with the hypothesis Prebisch – Singer, describes the formation of a global system of «center – periphery». We introduce a distinction between the structuralist and neo-classical theories of economic growth associated with the discussions in the Soviet Union on the role of «extensive» and «intensive» growth factors. Considered in detail the model of «multi-level economy» Yuri Yaremenko as compared to the «economy of shortage» J. Kornai. The heterogeneity of the technological structure is present both in Soviet economy, as in the market, capitalist economy. The last situation was demonstrated by the concept of «technological stalemate» G. Mensch. As the impact of international economic relations on the economic development of the role of structural analysis will increase. The need for industries with increasing and diminishing returns, as well as the establishment of appropriate structural policies in their work justifies E. Reinert. His concept complements views Y. Yaremenko and G. Mensch on economic development.

  6. Renewable energy finance and project ownership. The impact of alternative development structures on the cost of wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiser, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    This paper uses traditional financial cash flow techniques to examine the impact of different ownership and financing structures on the cost of renewable energy, specifically wind power. Most large, non-hydroelectric, renewable energy projects are developed, owned and financed by private non-utility generators. Recently, however, US utilities have begun to consider owning and financing their own wind power facilities rather than purchasing power from independent renewable energy suppliers. Utilities in other countries have also expressed interest in direct renewable energy investments. A primary justification for utility ownership of wind turbine power plants is that utility self-financing and ownership is cheaper than purchasing wind energy from non-utility renewable energy suppliers. The results presented in this paper support that justification, although some of the estimated cost savings associated with utility ownership are a result of suboptimal utility analysis procedures and implicit risk shifting. Financing terms and variables are shown to significantly impact wind power costs. (author)

  7. Structure factors for the alternating Heisenberg chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamer, C.J.; Zheng, W.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: We develop a linked cluster method to calculate the spectral weights of many-particle excitations at zero temperature. The dynamical structure factor, which is measured in neutron scattering experiments, is expressed as a sum of 'exclusive' structure factors, each representing the contribution of a specific excited state. We apply these methods to the alternating Heisenberg chain, where complete wave-vector and frequency dependent spectral weights for one- and two-particle excitations (continuum and bound states) are calculated near the dimerized limit (λ = O). We also examine the variation of the spectral weights as the uniform chain (λ = 1) is approached. In agreement with Schmidt and Uhrig, we find that the spectral weight is dominated by 2-triplet states, even at λ 1, which implies that a description in terms of triplet-pair excitations remains a good quantitative description even for the uniform, undimerized chain

  8. Alternative calcination development status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, R.D.

    1997-12-01

    The Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel and (INEEL) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision, dated June 1, 1995, specifies that high-level waste stored in the underground tanks at the ICPP continue to be calcined while other options to treat the waste are studied. Therefore, the High-Level Waste Program has funded a program to develop new flowsheets to increase the liquid waste processing rate. Simultaneously, a radionuclide separation process, as well as other options, are also being developed, which will be compared to the calcination treatment option. Two alternatives emerged as viable candidates; (1) elevated temperature calcination (also referred to as high temperature calcination), and (2) sugar-additive calcination. Both alternatives were determined to be viable through testing performed in a lab-scale calcination mockup. Subsequently, 10-cm Calciner Pilot Plant scoping tests were successfully completed for both flowsheets. The results were compared to the standard 500 C, high-ANN flow sheet (baseline flowsheet). The product and effluent streams were characterized to help elucidate the process chemistry and to investigate potential environmental permitting issues. Several supplementary tests were conducted to gain a better understanding of fine-particles generation, calcine hydration, scrub foaming, feed makeup procedures, sugar/organic elimination, and safety-related issues. Many of the experiments are only considered to be scoping tests, and follow-up experiments will be required to establish a more definitive understanding of the flowsheets. However, the combined results support the general conclusion that flowsheet improvements for the NWCF are technically viable

  9. Alternative Water Processor Test Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Karen D.; Mitchell, Julie; Vega, Leticia; Adam, Niklas; Flynn, Michael; Wjee (er. Rau); Lunn, Griffin; Jackson, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The Next Generation Life Support Project is developing an Alternative Water Processor (AWP) as a candidate water recovery system for long duration exploration missions. The AWP consists of biological water processor (BWP) integrated with a forward osmosis secondary treatment system (FOST). The basis of the BWP is a membrane aerated biological reactor (MABR), developed in concert with Texas Tech University. Bacteria located within the MABR metabolize organic material in wastewater, converting approximately 90% of the total organic carbon to carbon dioxide. In addition, bacteria convert a portion of the ammonia-nitrogen present in the wastewater to nitrogen gas, through a combination of nitrogen and denitrification. The effluent from the BWP system is low in organic contaminants, but high in total dissolved solids. The FOST system, integrated downstream of the BWP, removes dissolved solids through a combination of concentration-driven forward osmosis and pressure driven reverse osmosis. The integrated system is expected to produce water with a total organic carbon less than 50 mg/l and dissolved solids that meet potable water requirements for spaceflight. This paper describes the test definition, the design of the BWP and FOST subsystems, and plans for integrated testing.

  10. Illinois Walls in alternative market structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schinkel, M.P.; Tuinstra, J.

    2005-01-01

    This note extends on our paper Illinois Walls: How Barring Indirect Purchaser Suits Facilitates Collusion (Schinkel, Tuinstra and Rüggeberg, 2005, henceforth STR). It presents analyses of two alternative, more competitive, market structures to conclude that when the conditions for existence of

  11. The Development of Nonstructural Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-05-01

    particular appeal and benefits for those concerned with environmental issues. However, on reflection it is clear that, almost by definition, easily...peculiar to nonstructural alternatives (that is, the social costs are borne primaqrilv by th,, )ent ficiaries) makes them appealing from the national...Costs Of prId-nt ! loo41p l jotve iopment lie basically in the costs of elevated 111’Z ’’l’i. Pie 1land reqat reti c,- snob dovelIopmeot is loss

  12. Alternative Fuels and Sustainable Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj; Nielsen, Lars Henrik

    1996-01-01

    The main report of the project on Transportation Fuels based on Renewable Energy. The report contains a review of potential technologies for electric, hybrid and hydrogen propulsion in the Danish transport sector, including an assessment of their development status. In addition, the energy...

  13. Are Structural Analogues to Bisphenol A Safe Alternatives?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenmai, Anna Kjerstine; Dybdahl, Marianne; Pedersen, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    Background: Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical with widespread human exposure suspected of causing low-dose effects. Thus, a need for developing alternatives to BPA exists. Structural analogues of BPA have already been detected in foods and humans. Due to the structural analogy of the alternatives......, there is a risk of effects similar to BPA.Objectives: The aim was to elucidate and compare the hazards of bisphenol B (BPB), bisphenol E (BPE), bisphenol F (BPF), bisphenol S (BPS) and 4-cumylphenol (HPP) to BPA.Methods: In vitro studies on steroidogenesis, receptor activity, and biomarkers of effect, as well...

  14. Alternative Splicing in Neurogenesis and Brain Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chun-Hao; D, Dhananjaya; Tarn, Woan-Yuh

    2018-01-01

    Alternative splicing of precursor mRNA is an important mechanism that increases transcriptomic and proteomic diversity and also post-transcriptionally regulates mRNA levels. Alternative splicing occurs at high frequency in brain tissues and contributes to every step of nervous system development, including cell-fate decisions, neuronal migration, axon guidance, and synaptogenesis. Genetic manipulation and RNA sequencing have provided insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of alternative splicing in stem cell self-renewal and neuronal fate specification. Timely expression and perhaps post-translational modification of neuron-specific splicing regulators play important roles in neuronal development. Alternative splicing of many key transcription regulators or epigenetic factors reprograms the transcriptome and hence contributes to stem cell fate determination. During neuronal differentiation, alternative splicing also modulates signaling activity, centriolar dynamics, and metabolic pathways. Moreover, alternative splicing impacts cortical lamination and neuronal development and function. In this review, we focus on recent progress toward understanding the contributions of alternative splicing to neurogenesis and brain development, which has shed light on how splicing defects may cause brain disorders and diseases.

  15. Alternative Splicing in Neurogenesis and Brain Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Hao Su

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing of precursor mRNA is an important mechanism that increases transcriptomic and proteomic diversity and also post-transcriptionally regulates mRNA levels. Alternative splicing occurs at high frequency in brain tissues and contributes to every step of nervous system development, including cell-fate decisions, neuronal migration, axon guidance, and synaptogenesis. Genetic manipulation and RNA sequencing have provided insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of alternative splicing in stem cell self-renewal and neuronal fate specification. Timely expression and perhaps post-translational modification of neuron-specific splicing regulators play important roles in neuronal development. Alternative splicing of many key transcription regulators or epigenetic factors reprograms the transcriptome and hence contributes to stem cell fate determination. During neuronal differentiation, alternative splicing also modulates signaling activity, centriolar dynamics, and metabolic pathways. Moreover, alternative splicing impacts cortical lamination and neuronal development and function. In this review, we focus on recent progress toward understanding the contributions of alternative splicing to neurogenesis and brain development, which has shed light on how splicing defects may cause brain disorders and diseases.

  16. Characterization of alternative FBR development strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boegel, A.J.; Clausen, M.J.

    1981-08-01

    Near-term decisions regarding the nature and place of the FBR development program must be made. This study is part of a larger program designed to provide the Department of Energy (DOE) with imformation that can be used to make strategic programmatic decisions. The focus of this report is the description of alternative approaches for developing the FBR and the quantification of the duration and cost of each alternative. The time frames of the alternative approaches are investigated in companion reports (White 1981 and Fraley 1981). The results of these analyses will be described in a summary report

  17. Alternative Energy Development and China's Energy Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David

    2011-06-15

    In addition to promoting energy efficiency, China has actively pursued alternative energy development as a strategy to reduce its energy demand and carbon emissions. One area of particular focus has been to raise the share of alternative energy in China’s rapidly growing electricity generation with a 2020 target of 15% share of total primary energy. Over the last ten years, China has established several major renewable energy regulations along with programs and subsidies to encourage the growth of non-fossil alternative energy including solar, wind, nuclear, hydro, geothermal and biomass power as well as biofuels and coal alternatives. This study thus seeks to examine China’s alternative energy in terms of what has and will continue to drive alternative energy development in China as well as analyze in depth the growth potential and challenges facing each specific technology. This study found that despite recent policies enabling extraordinary capacity and investment growth, alternative energy technologies face constraints and barriers to growth. For relatively new technologies that have not achieved commercialization such as concentrated solar thermal, geothermal and biomass power, China faces technological limitations to expanding the scale of installed capacity. While some alternative technologies such as hydropower and coal alternatives have been slowed by uneven and often changing market and policy support, others such as wind and solar PV have encountered physical and institutional barriers to grid integration. Lastly, all alternative energy technologies face constraints in human resources and raw material resources including land and water, with some facing supply limitations in critical elements such as uranium for nuclear, neodymium for wind and rare earth metals for advanced solar PV. In light of China’s potential for and barriers to growth, the resource and energy requirement for alternative energy technologies were modeled and scenario analysis

  18. Developing fair compensation structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trousdale, W.J.

    1998-01-01

    The issue of finding an effective way to incorporate Aboriginal values into the process of developing fair compensation structures was discussed. This paper discusses pricing intangible values using dollars, but it was emphasized that 'values' are whatever are important to us. Therefore, in order to achieve fair compensation, creative alternatives that are value-focused should be pursued. In addition to the more straight-forward monetary compensation, compensation could also be about avoiding losses, mitigating adverse impacts, achieving better communication, and promoting cultural understanding. 25 refs., 2 tabs

  19. Modeling Equity for Alternative Water Rate Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, R.; Mjelde, J.

    2011-12-01

    The rising popularity of increasing block rates for urban water runs counter to mainstream economic recommendations, yet decision makers in rate design forums are attracted to the notion of higher prices for larger users. Among economists, it is widely appreciated that uniform rates have stronger efficiency properties than increasing block rates, especially when volumetric prices incorporate intrinsic water value. Yet, except for regions where water market purchases have forced urban authorities to include water value in water rates, economic arguments have weakly penetrated policy. In this presentation, recent evidence will be reviewed regarding long term trends in urban rate structures while observing economic principles pertaining to these choices. The main objective is to investigate the equity of increasing block rates as contrasted to uniform rates for a representative city. Using data from four Texas cities, household water demand is established as a function of marginal price, income, weather, number of residents, and property characteristics. Two alternative rate proposals are designed on the basis of recent experiences for both water and wastewater rates. After specifying a reasonable number (~200) of diverse households populating the city and parameterizing each household's characteristics, every household's consumption selections are simulated for twelve months. This procedure is repeated for both rate systems. Monthly water and wastewater bills are also computed for each household. Most importantly, while balancing the budget of the city utility we compute the effect of switching rate structures on the welfares of households of differing types. Some of the empirical findings are as follows. Under conditions of absent water scarcity, households of opposing characters such as low versus high income do not have strong preferences regarding rate structure selection. This changes as water scarcity rises and as water's opportunity costs are allowed to

  20. Entrepreneurship and development - an alternative perspective

    OpenAIRE

    McCullagh, Ciaran

    1984-01-01

    Abstract: This paper offers an alternative to the more orthodox psychological approach to the study of entrepreneurship. It suggests that an adequate theory of entrepreneurship must consider a country's political and economic history and especially the way in which this history has structured the opportunities for economic gain open to social groups in the society. It further suggests that due to the different historical experience of underdeveloped countries, and especially international mon...

  1. Research requirements for alternative reactor development strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to estimate and compare resource requirements and other fuel cycle quantities for alternative reactor deployment strategies. The paper examines from global and national perspectives the interaction of various fuel cycle alternatives described in the previous U.S. submissions to Working Groups 4, 5, 8 and Subgroup 1A/2A. Nuclear energy forecasts of Subgroup 1A/2A are used in the calculation of uranium demand for each strategy. These uranium demands are then compared to U.S. estimates of annual uranium producibility. Annual rather than cumulative producibility was selected because it does not assume preplanned stockpiling, and is therefore more conservative. The strategies attempt to span a range of nuclear power mixes which could evolve if appropriate commercial and governmental climates develop

  2. Summary: analysis of alternative FBR development strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnham, J.B.

    1981-12-01

    This report summarizes the comparative evaluation of alternative strategies for the development of the commercial fast breeder reactor (FBR) in the United States. For planning purposes, a range of possible FBR development paths called strategies were selected for evaluation. These strategies, designed to be technically and economically feasible, were expressed in terms of the timing and nature of facilities/research and development programs required to reach full power operation of the first commercial FBR. Four of the seven strategies resulted in a large (1457 MWe) FBR as an end point, the other three in a 1000-MWe plant. Probability distributions were calculated for total strategy costs and time to completion. For the seven strategies analyzed, the costs (discounted 1980 dollars) ranged from $1.8 billion to $4.9 billion; the completion times ranged from 24 to 55 years

  3. Evaluation of alternative MGDS development strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberds, W.; Miller, I.; Caldwell, D.

    1991-01-01

    A methodology has been developed to explicitly and quantitatively evaluate acceptable alternative repository development strategies, in terms of the degree to which they are likely to satisfy a specified set of system objectives (e.g., minimizing overall costs through closure, time to initial waste receipt and long-term health effects). An open-quotes acceptableclose quotes strategy is one which has a high likelihood of satisfying specified system functions and requirements. Simple but comprehensive system models have been developed to estimate the relevant consequences of any strategy, explicitly considering system uncertainties and contingencies, including the possibility of finding the site to be unsuitable and having to develop a repository elsewhere. Such open-quotes technical assessments,close quotes which are appropriately developed by technical experts, can then be combined with separate open-quotes value judgementsclose quotes regarding preferences and tradeoffs among the consequences, which are appropriately determined by the decision makers/stake holders (rather than by the technical experts) in order to explicitly determine preferences among the acceptable strategies. Implementation of the methodology has been demonstrated by example

  4. Alternative materials for FDOT sign structures : phase I literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Inspections of tubular sign structures by the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) have : revealed occurrences of premature corrosion on the inside of galvanized steel tubes. As a result, FDOT : engineers are seeking alternative materials that...

  5. Construction of alternative Hamiltonian structures for field equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Mauricio [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Hojman, Sergio A. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Facultad de Educacion, Universidad Nacional Andres Bello, Santiago (Chile); Centro de Recursos Educativos Avanzados, CREA, Santiago (Chile)

    2001-08-10

    We use symmetry vectors of nonlinear field equations to build alternative Hamiltonian structures. We construct such structures even for equations which are usually believed to be non-Hamiltonian such as heat, Burger and potential Burger equations. We improve on a previous version of the approach using recursion operators to increase the rank of the Poisson bracket matrices. Cole-Hopf and Miura-type transformations allow the mapping of these structures from one equation to another. (author)

  6. Space Structure Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The duration of my Summer 2015 Internship Tour at NASA's Johnson Space Center was spent working in the Structural Engineering Division's Structures Branch. One of the two main roles of the Structures Branch, ES2, is to ensure the structural integrity of spacecraft vehicles and the structural subsystems needed to support those vehicles. The other main objective of this branch is to develop the lightweight structures that are necessary to take humans beyond Low-Earth Orbit. Within ES2, my four projects involved inflatable space structure air bladder material testing; thermal and impact material testing for spacecraft windows; structural analysis on a joint used in the Boeing CST-100 airbag system; and an additive manufacturing design project.

  7. A New Globalization Paradigm: World Unity or Alternatives for Development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Shvydanenko

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the conceptual foundations of the modern global economic system of development. It reflects the cyclical nature of changes to and the details of global integration processes. The creation of a global economy from a multi-paradigmatic angle is briefly outlined, taking into account the modern paradigms of globalization and the predominance of alternatives to the future development of a global economic space. The article investigates the development of a new type of world economy, a multi-system with a proven role for linkages and a more consolidated world economy. The article reveals the initial conditions for and main qualitative changes related to the integrated development of a complex network of interdependent national societies and macro-regional geo-economic structures. The article also reveals changes in the configuration of those factors that provide competitiveness for these societies and geo-economic formations.

  8. A Comparison of Five Alternative Approaches to Information Systems Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Hirschheim

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available The field of information systems (IS has grown dramatically over the past three decades. Recent trends have transformed the IS landscape. These trends include: the evolution of implementation technology from centralized mainframe environments towards distributed client-server architectures, embracing the internet and intranets; changes in user interface technology from character-based to graphical user interfaces, multimedia, and the World Wide Web; changes in applications from transaction processing systems towards systems supporting collaborative work; and the use of information technology as an enabler of business process reengineering and redesign. These technology changes coupled with changes in organizations and their operating environment, such as the growth of the network and virtual organization, internationalization and globalization of many organizations, intensified global competition, changes in values such as customer orientation (service quality and Quality of Working Life, have imposed new demands on the development of information systems. These changes have led to an increasing discussion about information systems development (ISO, and in particular, the various methods, tools, methodologies, and approaches for ISD. We believe such discussion has opened the door for new, alternative IS development approaches and methodologies. Our paper takes up this theme by describing five alternative ISD approaches, namely the Interactionist approach, the Speech Act-based approach, Soft Systems Methodology, the Trade Unionist approach, and the Professional Work Practices approach. Despite the fact that most of these approaches have a history of over 15 years, their relevance to IS development is not well recognized in the mainstream of IS practice and research, nor is their institutional status comparable to traditional approaches such as structured analysis and design methods. Therefore we characterize the five approaches as 'alternative' in

  9. Structure of 2,4-Diaminopyrimidine - Theobromine Alternate Base Pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gengeliczki, Zsolt; Callahan, Michael P.; Kabelac, Martin; Rijs, Anouk M.; deVries, Mattanjah S.

    2011-01-01

    We report the structure of clusters of 2,4-diaminopyrimidine with 3,7-dimethylxanthine (theobromine) in the gas phase determined by IR-UV double resonance spectroscopy in both the near-IR and mid-IR regions in combination with ab initio computations. These clusters represent potential alternate nucleobase pairs, geometrically equivalent to guanine-cytosine. We have found the four lowest energy structures, which include the Watson-Crick base pairing motif. This Watson-Crick structure has not been observed by resonant two-photon ionization (R2PI) in the gas phase for the canonical DNA base pairs.

  10. Assessment of Alternative RF Linac Structures for APT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1997-03-26

    The APT program has been examining both normal and superconducting variants of the APT linac for the past two years. A decision on which of the two will be the selected technology will depend upon several considerations including the results of ongoing feasibility experiments, the performance and overall attractiveness of each of the design concepts, and an assessment of the system-level features of both alternatives. The primary objective of the Assessment of Alternative RF Linac Structures for APT study reported herein was to assess and compare, at the system-level, the performance, capital and life cycle costs, reliability/availability/maintainability (RAM) and manufacturing schedules of APT RF linear accelerators based upon both superconducting and normal conducting technologies. A secondary objective was to perform trade studies to explore opportunities for system optimization, technology substitution and alternative growth pathways and to identify sensitivities to design uncertainties.

  11. Assessment of Alternative RF Linac Structures for APT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    1997-01-01

    The APT program has been examining both normal and superconducting variants of the APT linac for the past two years. A decision on which of the two will be the selected technology will depend upon several considerations including the results of ongoing feasibility experiments, the performance and overall attractiveness of each of the design concepts, and an assessment of the system-level features of both alternatives. The primary objective of the Assessment of Alternative RF Linac Structures for APT study reported herein was to assess and compare, at the system-level, the performance, capital and life cycle costs, reliability/availability/maintainability (RAM) and manufacturing schedules of APT RF linear accelerators based upon both superconducting and normal conducting technologies. A secondary objective was to perform trade studies to explore opportunities for system optimization, technology substitution and alternative growth pathways and to identify sensitivities to design uncertainties

  12. Probability model for analyzing fire management alternatives: theory and structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick W. Bratten

    1982-01-01

    A theoretical probability model has been developed for analyzing program alternatives in fire management. It includes submodels or modules for predicting probabilities of fire behavior, fire occurrence, fire suppression, effects of fire on land resources, and financial effects of fire. Generalized "fire management situations" are used to represent actual fire...

  13. PRSEUS Structural Concept Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velicki, Alex; Jegley, Dawn

    2014-01-01

    A lighter, more robust airframe is one of the key technological advancements necessary for the successful launch of any large next-generation transport aircraft. Such a premise dictates that considerable improvements beyond current state-of-the-art aluminum structures is needed, and that improvements of this magnitude will require an extensive use of composite materials that are not only lightweight, but also economical to produce. To address this challenge, researchers at NASA and The Boeing Company are developing a novel structural concept called the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) under the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project. It is an integrally stiffened panel concept that is stitched together and designed to maintain residual load-carrying capabilities under a variety of damage scenarios. In addition to improved structural performance, an important facet of this unique arrangement of stitched carbon fibers is its innovative manufacturing method that has the potential to lower fabrication costs by eliminating fasteners and autoclave cures. The rationale and development status for this new approach forms the basis of the work described in this paper. The test specimens described herein were fabricated, or are currently being fabricated, by The Boeing Company, while the structural analyses and testing tasks are being performed by NASA and Boeing personnel.

  14. Development sustainable as alternative of environment transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Luz Angela

    1999-01-01

    The growth should be conceived from an angle in the one that all and each one of the members of the society takes conscience of its indispensable paper in the sustainable development of the resources of the planet. The present article offers certain key elements, necessary to take into account in the achievement of this development modality, highlighting the necessity to implement political of administration that go of the local plane going by the regional and national until culminating in the all planet

  15. Expert Cold Structure Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, T.; Demuysere, P.

    2011-05-01

    The EXPERT Program is funded by ESA. The objective of the EXPERT mission is to perform a sub-orbital flight during which measurements of critical aero- thermodynamic phenomena will be obtained by using state-of-the-art instrumentation. As part of the EXPERT Flight Segment, the responsibility of the Cold Structure Development Design, Manufacturing and Validation was committed to the Belgian industrial team SONACA/SABCA. The EXPERT Cold Structure includes the Launcher Adapter, the Bottom Panel, the Upper Panel, two Cross Panels and the Parachute Bay. An additional Launcher Adapter was manufactured for the separation tests. The selected assembly definition and manufacturing technologies ( machined parts and sandwich panels) were dictated classically by the mass and stiffness, but also by the CoG location and the sensitive separation interface. Used as support for the various on-board equipment, the Cold Structure is fixed to but thermally uncoupled from the PM 1000 thermal shield. It is protect on its bottom panel by a thermal blanket. As it is a protoflight, analysis was the main tool for the verification. Low level stiffness and modal analysis tests have also been performed on the Cold Structure equipped with its ballast. It allowed to complete its qualification and to prepare SONACA/SABCA support for the system dynamic tests foreseen in 2011. The structure was finally coated with a thermal control black painting and delivered on time to Thales Alenia Space-Italy end of March 201.

  16. Communications for alternative development: towards a paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, R

    1984-01-01

    There is a need to redefine the agenda of politics so as to promote the weak, but growing forces, in society which seek to establish a just, demilitarized, and humane society and to counter the strong prevailing forces in society, which, in the pursuit of affluence, promote social inequality, militarism, and the degradation of the environment. These destructive forces will ultimately lead to the destruction of humanity and civilization either through nuclear war or violent conflict between population seeking to gain control over the world's dwindling resources. The new agenda for politics must redefine development and establish human survival as the major goal of development. The weaker force promoting the establishment of a humane society are evidenced in 1) efforts to assert the rights of the people and to challenge elitist authorities, 2) the rediscovery of the value of cultural tradition and diversity, 3) the development of an ecological conscience, and 4) the trend toward decentralization. These forces are expressed in movements which promote women's rights, human rights for minorities and the disadvantaged, self-determination, democraticization, and the preservation of the environment. The destruction forces evidenced in efforts 1) to integrate the world's economy to ensure the economic well-being of the elite segments of society in both developed and 3rd World nations; 2) to uphold economic progress as the major goal of development; 3) to equate development with the establishment of a world capitalistic economic system; 4) to promote technologies which displace human workers, destroy the environment, and reduce cultural diversity; 5) to destroy trade unions; 6) to support government oppression; 7) to promote militarism: and 8) to counter attempts to redistribute the worlds resources. Development needs to be reconceptualized. The current emphasis on technology transfer and cooperation must be explained in reference to the need to promote self-reliance, to

  17. Medical Countermeasure Product Development - Alternatives Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Maritime Research Laboratory of the Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) in 1995 as a Research Scientist. In January 1997 he was promoted... biosecurity role to supply to the Government and the World Health Organisation (WHO). In the future there may be circumstances where there is no... standards to solve national priority CBR or infectious disease threats. The PPP may enable Government to: • access and grow product development

  18. The Development of Alternative Food Cost Indexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-11-01

    this total effort were to develop a new uniform ration cost system which would be directly related to known consumer preferences and nutritional...usage by all military services. 6. Be easy to understand and use. 7. Provide a BDFA capable of meeting consumer preferences and requirements as well... consumer preferences . in addition, historical usage data cannot help but reflect certain undesirable influences that mi I itary food service has

  19. Research and development in alternative energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamptey, J.; Moo-Young, M.; Sullivan, H.F.

    1990-01-01

    This paper comprehensively discusses the various bioconversion and thermochemical processes. It recommends that the most urgent research and development issues should relate to direct microbial conversion systems for starch and cellulosic material and to basic biomass combustion rates and mechanisms. An overview of some of the major renewable energy resources and conversion technologies along with the potentials and problems associated with these are also presented.(author). 235 refs., 2 tabs

  20. ALTERNATIVE MODELS OF FINANCING REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina, GRADEA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Public financing of infrastructure proved under performing at uneconomic prices, and because of political interference in the management of funds, understanding the problem leading to the adoption of private funding variant, an effective way of private funding being the financing of the project. Project financing is a concept that assessed by means of financing a specific technique. In this context, those granting funds usually through loans typically are only interested in cash flows and project profit, which are a source of funds for repayment of loans; they are less interested in the creditworthiness of those employed in the project (organizations, governments, communities and so on. This approach has led to the emergence of new ways of financing projects, new types of projects, such as regional and rural development.

  1. Structural basis for energy transduction by respiratory alternative complex III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Joana S; Calisto, Filipa; Langer, Julian D; Mills, Deryck J; Refojo, Patrícia N; Teixeira, Miguel; Kühlbrandt, Werner; Vonck, Janet; Pereira, Manuela M

    2018-04-30

    Electron transfer in respiratory chains generates the electrochemical potential that serves as energy source for the cell. Prokaryotes can use a wide range of electron donors and acceptors and may have alternative complexes performing the same catalytic reactions as the mitochondrial complexes. This is the case for the alternative complex III (ACIII), a quinol:cytochrome c/HiPIP oxidoreductase. In order to understand the catalytic mechanism of this respiratory enzyme, we determined the structure of ACIII from Rhodothermus marinus at 3.9 Å resolution by single-particle cryo-electron microscopy. ACIII presents a so-far unique structure, for which we establish the arrangement of the cofactors (four iron-sulfur clusters and six c-type hemes) and propose the location of the quinol-binding site and the presence of two putative proton pathways in the membrane. Altogether, this structure provides insights into a mechanism for energy transduction and introduces ACIII as a redox-driven proton pump.

  2. Development of an alternative reactivity meter for nuclear reactor control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, P.S.B.

    1991-01-01

    This work describes an alternative version of the IPEN-CNEN/SP reactivity-meter. This new version utilizes a programmable electrometer (to realize the data acquisition) and a IBM-PC microcomputer to process the reactivity calculation. The aim of development of this alternative reactivity-meter is to have available a equipment of measurements of reactivity in the case of the later version show any problem during an experiment. (author)

  3. Development of Teachers’ Alternative Certification in the USA

    OpenAIRE

    Pazyura Natalia

    2015-01-01

    The article reveals the prerequisites of appearance of alternative ways to train teachers in the USA at the end of the XX century as main mechanisms to increase qualitative and quantitative characteristics of teaching staff. The author concentrates the attention on the advantages and disadvantages of non-traditional ways to acquire teaching profession. The peculiarities of the development in different states of the country, main characteristics of the training with the help of alternative pro...

  4. Functionality of alternative protein in gluten-free product development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deora, Navneet Singh; Deswal, Aastha; Mishra, Hari Niwas

    2015-07-01

    Celiac disease is an immune-mediated disease triggered in genetically susceptible individuals by ingested gluten from wheat, rye, barley, and other closely related cereal grains. The current treatment for celiac disease is life-long adherence to a strict gluten-exclusion diet. The replacement of gluten presents a significant technological challenge, as it is an essential structure-building protein, which is necessary for formulating high-quality baked goods. A major limitation in the production of gluten-free products is the lack of protein functionality in non-wheat cereals. Additionally, commercial gluten-free mixes usually contain only carbohydrates, which may significantly limit the amount of protein in the diet. In the recent past, various approaches are attempted to incorporate protein-based ingredients and to modify the functional properties for gluten-free product development. This review aims to the highlight functionality of the alternative protein-based ingredients, which can be utilized for gluten-free product development both functionally as well as nutritionally. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Building alternate protein structures using the elastic network model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qingyi; Sharp, Kim A

    2009-02-15

    We describe a method for efficiently generating ensembles of alternate, all-atom protein structures that (a) differ significantly from the starting structure, (b) have good stereochemistry (bonded geometry), and (c) have good steric properties (absence of atomic overlap). The method uses reconstruction from a series of backbone framework structures that are obtained from a modified elastic network model (ENM) by perturbation along low-frequency normal modes. To ensure good quality backbone frameworks, the single force parameter ENM is modified by introducing two more force parameters to characterize the interaction between the consecutive carbon alphas and those within the same secondary structure domain. The relative stiffness of the three parameters is parameterized to reproduce B-factors, while maintaining good bonded geometry. After parameterization, violations of experimental Calpha-Calpha distances and Calpha-Calpha-Calpha pseudo angles along the backbone are reduced to less than 1%. Simultaneously, the average B-factor correlation coefficient improves to R = 0.77. Two applications illustrate the potential of the approach. (1) 102,051 protein backbones spanning a conformational space of 15 A root mean square deviation were generated from 148 nonredundant proteins in the PDB database, and all-atom models with minimal bonded and nonbonded violations were produced from this ensemble of backbone structures using the SCWRL side chain building program. (2) Improved backbone templates for homology modeling. Fifteen query sequences were each modeled on two targets. For each of the 30 target frameworks, dozens of improved templates could be produced In all cases, improved full atom homology models resulted, of which 50% could be identified blind using the D-Fire statistical potential. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Alternative energy development strategies for China towards 2030

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linwei MA; Zheng LI; Feng FU; Xiliang ZHANG; Weidou NI

    2009-01-01

    The purposes, objectives and technology path-ways for alternative energy development are discussed with the aim of reaching sustainable energy development in China. Special attention has been paid to alternative power and alternative vehicle fuels. Instead of limiting alternative energy to energy sources such as nuclear and renewable energy, the scope of discussion is extended to alternative technologies such as coal power with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS), electric and hydrogen vehicles. In order to take account of the fact that China's sustainable energy development involves many dimen-sions, a six-dimensional indicator set has been established and applied with the aim of comprehensively evaluating different technology pathways in a uniform way. The ana-lysis reaches the following conclusions: (a) in the power sector, wind power, nuclear power and hydro power should be developed as much as possible, while R&D of solar power and coal power with CCS should be strengthened continuously for future deployment. (b) in the transporta-tion sector, there is no foreseeable silver bullet to replace oil on a large scale within the time frame of 20 to 30 years. To ease the severe energy security situation, expedient choices like coal derived fuels could be developed. However, its scale should be optimized in accordance to the trade-off of energy security benefits, production costs and environmental costs. Desirable alternative fuels (or technologies) like 2nd generation biofuels and electrical vehicles should be the subject of intensive R&D with the objective to be cost effective as early as possible.

  7. ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVE PAYMENT DESIGNS FOR FARMLAND DEVELOPMENT RIGHTS

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson, Steven D.

    1999-01-01

    Four alternative payment rules were examined to evaluate their ability to accomplish the objectives of the development rights purchase program. Paying the true economic value for the development rights does not allow the program to target high quality agricultural land. Modifying the payment strategy by offering a minimum payment will provide some extra incentive for high quality agricultural land in areas with little development pressure, but will provide little help in areas with high devel...

  8. Alternative financial institutions? Sustainability, development, social reproduction, and gender analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidder, T

    1999-08-01

    This paper proposes a conceptual framework for alternative financial institutions in Nicaragua. The article includes a discussion on innovative services and policies, which differentiate CARUNA (National Savings and Credit Cooperative ¿Caja Rural¿), and other financial institutions from conventional banks. It further examines theories that have altered the way development practitioners think about the economy, poverty reduction, and the positions of men and women in the society. These theories are the feminist economic theory and alternative development theories. Specific ways to incorporate the concepts of alternative and feminist economic theories in the design of financial institutions include open credit, savings, and remittance mechanisms, and coordinating councils. The gender analysis approach was used to evaluate the design of financial institutions.

  9. Environmental quality indexing of large industrial development alternatives using AHP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solnes, Julius

    2003-01-01

    Two industrial development alternatives have been proposed for the East Coast of Iceland in order to strengthen its socio-economic basis. The favoured option is to build a large aluminium smelter, which requires massive hydropower development in the nearby highlands. Another viable option is the construction of a 6-million-ton oil refinery, following the planned exploitation of the Timan Pechora oil reserves in the Russian Arctic. A third 'fictitious' alternative could be general development of existing regional industry and new knowledge-based industries, development of ecotourism, establishment of national parks, accompanied by infrastructure improvement (roads, tunnels, communications, schools, etc.). The three alternatives will have different environmental consequences. The controversial hydropower plant for the smelter requires a large water reservoir as well as considerable land disturbance in this unique mountain territory, considered to be the largest uninhabited wilderness in Western Europe. The aluminium smelter and the oil refinery will give rise to substantial increase of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the country (about 20%). Then there is potential environmental risk associated with the refinery regarding oil spills at sea, which could have disastrous impact on the fisheries industry. However, the oil refinery does not require any hydropower development, which is a positive factor. Finally, the third alternative could be defined as a ''green'' solution whereby the detrimental environmental consequences of the two industrial solutions are mostly avoided. In order to compare the three alternatives in an orderly manner, the analytic hierarchy process methodology of Saaty was applied to calculate the environmental quality index of each alternative, which is defined as a weighted sum of selected environmental and socio-economic factors. These factors are evaluated on a comparison basis, applying the AHP methodology, and the weights in the quality

  10. Local alternative energy futures: developing economies/building communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Totten, M.; Glass, B.; Freedberg, M.; Webb, L.

    1980-12-01

    A separate abstract was prepared for each of the three parts of the conference. A sufficient range of information is presented to enable interested parties to explore the viable alternatives for community self-sufficiency. The parts are entitled: Financial Incentives and Funding Sources; Standards, Regulations, Mandates, Ordinances, Covenants; and Community/Economic Development. (MCW)

  11. Alternative windpower ownership structures: Financing terms and project costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R.; Kahn, E.

    1996-05-01

    Most utility-scale renewable energy projects in the United States are developed and financed by private renewable energy companies. Electric output is then sold to investor-owned and public utilities under long-term contracts. Limited partnerships, sale/leaseback arrangements, and project-financing have historically been the dominant forms of finance in the windpower industry, with project-finance taking the lead more recently. Although private ownership using project-finance is still the most popular form of windpower development, alternative approaches to ownership and financing are becoming more prevalent. U.S. public and investor-owned electric utilities (IOUs) have begun to participate directly in windpower projects by owning and financing their own facilities rather than purchasing windpower from independent non-utility generators (NUGs) through power purchase agreements (PPAs). In these utility-ownership arrangements, the wind turbine equipment vendor/developer typically designs and constructs a project under a turnkey contract for the eventual project owner (the utility). The utility will also frequently sign an operations and maintenance (O&M) contract with the project developer/equipment vendor. There appear to be a number of reasons for utility involvement in recent and planned U.S. wind projects. One important claim is that utility ownership and self-finance provides substantial cost savings compared to contracting with private NUGs to supply wind-generated power. In this report, we examine that assertion.

  12. Development of alternative fuel for pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, P.E.; Ferreira, R.A.N.; Ferraz, W.B.; Lameiras, F.S.; Santos, A.; Assis, G. de; Doerr, W.O.; Wehner, E.L.

    1984-01-01

    The utilization of alternative fuel cycles in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) such as Th/U and Th/Pu cycles can permit a better utilization of uranium reserves without the necessity of developing new power reactor concepts. The development of the technology of alternative fuels for PWR is one of the objectives of the 'Program on Thorium Utilization in Pressurized Water Reactors' carried out jointly by Empresas Nucleares Brasileiras S.A. (NUCLEBRAS), through its Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN) and by German institutions, the Julich Nuclear Research Center (KFA), the Kraftwerk Union A.G. (KWU) and NUKEM GmbH. This paper summarizes the results so far obtained in the fuel technology. The development of a fabrication process for PWR fuel pellets from gel-microspheres is reported as well as the design, the specification, and the fabrication of prototype fuel rods for irradiation tests. (Author) [pt

  13. Is the nuclear power an ethic alternative for the development?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilegan, Constantin Iosif; Chirica, Teodor

    1999-01-01

    Is the nuclear power an ethical alternative for the development of the energy sector? This is the question the authors try to answer. Nuclear power is subject to constant attacks from different opponent groups. They have managed to make negative public opinion, especially after the Chernobyl accident, which tends to minimise the important of that alternative. Unfortunately, nuclear professionals are also the subjects of that propaganda and even some of us are pessimistic about the future of our sector. The public will accept nuclear power if the producer guarantees that he is able to meet three conditions for the electricity supply: generation without risks for public or the environment, as cost-effective as possible and with high availability. In order to keep the confidence of general public for nuclear power, the authors, with total openness, compared the up-to-date power alternatives. The conclusion is, that for the next future, to avoid the global heating effect and to meet the constrains for a 'cleaner world', the humanity must to rely on nuclear power, besides other cleaner conventional alternatives, as ethical sources of energy. (authors)

  14. Synthesis of wood treatment alternatives for timber railroad structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    A wealth of information exists on various wood preservatives, treatment techniques, curing practices, and other engineered : controls, along with alternative materials for replacement. This study was initiated to review and synthesize available : inf...

  15. Evaluation Framework for Alternative Fuel Vehicles: Sustainable Development Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Shang Chang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Road transport accounts for 72.06% of total transport CO2, which is considered a cause of climate change. At present, the use of alternative fuels has become a pressing issue and a significant number of automakers and scholars have devoted themselves to the study and subsequent development of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs. The evaluation of AFVs should consider not only air pollution reduction and fuel efficiency but also AFV sustainability. In general, the field of sustainable development is subdivided into three areas: economic, environmental, and social. On the basis of the sustainable development perspective, this study presents an evaluation framework for AFVs by using the DEMATEL-based analytical network process. The results reveal that the five most important criteria are price, added value, user acceptance, reduction of hazardous substances, and dematerialization. Price is the most important criterion because it can improve the popularity of AFVs and affect other criteria, including user acceptance. Additional, the energy usage criterion is expected to significantly affect the sustainable development of AFVs. These results should be seriously considered by automakers and governments in developing AFVs.

  16. Mechanical Design of an Alternate Structure for LARP Nb$_{3}$Sn Quadrupole Magnets for LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Anerella, M; Kovach, P; Schmalzle, J; Wanderer, P; Ambrosio, G; Lamm, M J; Caspi, S; Felice, H; Ferracin, P; Sabbi, G L

    2011-01-01

    An alternative structure for the 120 mm Nb$_{3}$Sn quadrupole magnet is presently under development for use in the upgrade for LHC at CERN. The design aims to build existing technology developed in LARP with the LQ and HQ magnets and to further optimize the features required for operation in the accelerator. The structure includes features for maintaining mechanical alignment of the coils to achieve the required field quality. It also includes a helium containment vessel and provisions for cooling with 1.9 K helium. The development effort includes the assembly of a six inch model to verify required coil load is achieved. Status of the R&D effort and an update on the magnet design, including its incorporation into the design of a complete one meter cold mass is presented.

  17. Policy alternatives in reforming energy utilities in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriele, Alberto

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the policy alternatives faced by developing countries in their endeavor to preserve and develop their electricity and gas systems, two service-oriented industries which--along with oil--provide the bulk of energy supply both in developed and in developing countries. Even in very poor countries, industrially generated energy is indispensable for carrying out most economic activities. Therefore, governments traditionally recognize that the supply of gas and electricity entails a fundamental public service dimension. The Introduction presents the case for reforming of energy utilities, discusses in general terms the pros and cons of privatization, and attempts to locate the reforms in a broader historical framework in which developing countries' governments faced characterized by increasing financial hardship. Section 2 constitutes the core of the paper. It reviews the main features of gas and power sector reforms in the developing world and analyzes specifically the cases of five semi-industrialized countries in Latin America and Asia. Section 3 (Concluding remarks) briefly evaluates the country experiences reviewed above and indicates a few policy lessons which can be learnt from them. The main conclusion is that, in a long-run development perspective, full-scale privatization of gas and power sectors in developing countries entails significant risks, and therefore a flexible policy approach is preferable to a rigid commitment to extensive liberalization

  18. Probabilistic Structural Analysis Theory Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnside, O. H.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of the Probabilistic Structural Analysis Methods (PSAM) project is to develop analysis techniques and computer programs for predicting the probabilistic response of critical structural components for current and future space propulsion systems. This technology will play a central role in establishing system performance and durability. The first year's technical activity is concentrating on probabilistic finite element formulation strategy and code development. Work is also in progress to survey critical materials and space shuttle mian engine components. The probabilistic finite element computer program NESSUS (Numerical Evaluation of Stochastic Structures Under Stress) is being developed. The final probabilistic code will have, in the general case, the capability of performing nonlinear dynamic of stochastic structures. It is the goal of the approximate methods effort to increase problem solving efficiency relative to finite element methods by using energy methods to generate trial solutions which satisfy the structural boundary conditions. These approximate methods will be less computer intensive relative to the finite element approach.

  19. On the Concept of "Respiration": Biology Student Teachers' Cognitive Structures and Alternative Conceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Hakan; Ekici, Gulay; Aktas, Murat; Aksu, Ozlem

    2013-01-01

    In researches, the subject of respiration has been determined to be among subjects about whom participants from all educational levels struggle to form their cognitive structures and have many alternative conceptions. This research was carried out in order to determine biology student teachers' cognitive structures and alternative conceptions…

  20. Distributive impacts of alternative tax structures. The case of Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Verónica Amarante; Marisa Bucheli; Cecilia Olivieri; Ivone Perazzo

    2011-01-01

    This article considers the distributional impact of different changes in Uruguayan tax system, using a static micro-simulation framework based on the combination of data from household and expenditure surveys. On the indirect taxes side, we consider two alternatives that imply the same reduction in tax revenue: a general reduction of 2 points in the VAT basic rate, and a selective reduction in the VAT rate applied to specific goods that make up a large share of consumption of low income popul...

  1. Development of alternative/renewable sources of energy in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharif, M.

    2005-01-01

    The depleting Conventional Energy Resources and highly raised prices of fuel oil, coal, firewood and such other fossil fuels, have forced the mankind to think about the utilization of Alternative / Renewable Sources of Energy. Alternative / Renewable Energy is very attractive, reliable and cost competitive energy. Sun is readily available to provide a clean, abundant and virtually infinite energy to meet the significant portion of mankind's energy-needs. The possible use of renewable-energy sources is discussed in this paper, in order to fill the estimated gap between the available energy-sources and energy-needs of our country in the near future. Designing, Fabrication and Installation of different renewable-energy devices by PCSIR are also discussed in this paper. Different renewable-energy devices such as, solar water heaters, solar cookers, solar dehydrators, solar water-desalination plants, solar heating and cooling of buildings, solar operated absorption-type chiller, solar furnace, solar architecture, developed by PCSIR are discussed in some detail so that the role of renewable-energy sources for their direct use (as heat and power) can be determined. Various technical aspects are discussed to reduce the unit cost with improved efficiency. (author)

  2. Development of alternate extractant systems for fast reactor fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasudeva Rao, P.R.; Suresh, A.; Venkatesan, K.A.; Srinivasan, T.G.; Raj, Baldev

    2007-01-01

    Due to the limitations of TBP in processing of high burn-up, Pu-rich fast reactor fuels, there is a need to develop alternate extractants for fast reactor fuel processing. In this context, our Centre has been examining the suitability of alternate tri-alkyl phosphates. Third phase formation in the extraction of Th(IV) by TBP, tri-n-amyl phosphate (TAP) and tri-2-methyl-butyl phosphate (T2MBP) from nitric acid media has been investigated under various conditions to derive conclusions on their application for extraction of Pu at macro levels. The chemical and radiolytic degradation of tri-n-amyl-phosphate (TAP) diluted in normal paraffin hydrocarbon (NPH) in the presence of nitric acid has been investigated by the measurement of plutonium retention in organic phase. The potential application of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) for reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel has been explored. Extraction of uranium (VI) and palladium (II) from nitric acid medium by commercially available RTIL and tri-n-butyl phosphate solution in RTIL have been studied and the feasibility of electrodeposition of uranium as uranium oxide (UO 2 ) and palladium (II) as metallic palladium from the loaded organic phase have been demonstrated. This paper describes results of the above studies and discusses the suitability of the systems for fast reactor fuel reprocessing. (authors)

  3. Intragenesis and cisgenesis as alternatives to transgenic crop development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Wendt, Toni; Holm, Preben Bach

    2013-01-01

    One of the major concerns of the general public about transgenic crops relates to the mixing of genetic materials between species that cannot hybridize by natural means. To meet this concern, the two transformation concepts cisgenesis and intragenesis were developed as alternatives to transgenesis...... from cisgenesis by allowing use of new gene combinations created by in vitro rearrangements of functional genetic elements. Several surveys show higher public acceptance of intragenic/cisgenic crops compared to transgenic crops. Thus, although the intragenic and cisgenic concepts were introduced...... internationally only 9 and 7 years ago, several different traits in a variety of crops have currently been modified according to these concepts. Five of these crops are now in field trials and two have pending applications for deregulation. Currently, intragenic/cisgenic plants are regulated as transgenic plants...

  4. Development of alternate paragraphs for the Logical Memory subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale-IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jeri; Swier-Vosnos, Amy; Woodworth, Craig; Umfleet, Laura Glass; Czipri, Sheena; Kopald, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the two studies included in this article was to validate an alternate form, the Morris Revision-Fourth Edition (MR-IV), to the Logical Memory paragraphs of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (LM-IV) for use when retesting of individuals is desired. Study I demonstrated high correlation with the LM-IV paragraphs. Study II was a replication that again demonstrated high correlation between the original LM-IV and the new MR-IV paragraphs. High interrater reliability also was demonstrated. Consequently, the MR-IV paragraphs can be considered an alternate form to the LM-IV paragraphs. Although other attempts have been made to develop alternate stories, these new paragraphs are the only ones that are equivalent in structure, affective tone, and number of scorable units. They have considerable clinical utility and research potential.

  5. TRANSAT-- method for detecting the conserved helices of functional RNA structures, including transient, pseudo-knotted and alternative structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Nicholas J P; Meyer, Irmtraud M

    2010-06-24

    The prediction of functional RNA structures has attracted increased interest, as it allows us to study the potential functional roles of many genes. RNA structure prediction methods, however, assume that there is a unique functional RNA structure and also do not predict functional features required for in vivo folding. In order to understand how functional RNA structures form in vivo, we require sophisticated experiments or reliable prediction methods. So far, there exist only a few, experimentally validated transient RNA structures. On the computational side, there exist several computer programs which aim to predict the co-transcriptional folding pathway in vivo, but these make a range of simplifying assumptions and do not capture all features known to influence RNA folding in vivo. We want to investigate if evolutionarily related RNA genes fold in a similar way in vivo. To this end, we have developed a new computational method, Transat, which detects conserved helices of high statistical significance. We introduce the method, present a comprehensive performance evaluation and show that Transat is able to predict the structural features of known reference structures including pseudo-knotted ones as well as those of known alternative structural configurations. Transat can also identify unstructured sub-sequences bound by other molecules and provides evidence for new helices which may define folding pathways, supporting the notion that homologous RNA sequence not only assume a similar reference RNA structure, but also fold similarly. Finally, we show that the structural features predicted by Transat differ from those assuming thermodynamic equilibrium. Unlike the existing methods for predicting folding pathways, our method works in a comparative way. This has the disadvantage of not being able to predict features as function of time, but has the considerable advantage of highlighting conserved features and of not requiring a detailed knowledge of the cellular

  6. Fuel alternatives for oil sands development - the nuclear option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bock, D [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Mississauga, ON (Canada); Donnelly, J K

    1996-12-31

    Currently natural gas is the fuel of choice in all oil sand developments. Alberta sources of hydrocarbon based fuels are large but limited. Canadian nuclear technology was studied as a possible alternative for providing steam for the deep commercial in situ oil sand projects which were initiated over ten years ago. Because the in situ technology of that time required steam at pressures in excess of 10 MPa, the nuclear option required the development of new reactor technology, or the use of steam compressors, which was not economical. The current SAGD (steam assisted gravity drainage) technology requires steam at pressures of less than 5 MPa, which is in the reach of existing Canadian nuclear technology. The cost of supplying steam for a SAGD in situ project using a CANDU 3 nuclear reactor was developed. The study indicates that for gas prices in excess of $2.50 per gigajoule, replacing natural gas fuel with a nuclear reactor is economically feasible for in situ projects in excess of 123 thousand barrels per day. (author). 9 refs., 3 tabs., 12 figs.

  7. Fuel alternatives for oil sands development - the nuclear option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bock, D.; Donnelly, J.K.

    1995-01-01

    Currently natural gas is the fuel of choice in all oil sand developments. Alberta sources of hydrocarbon based fuels are large but limited. Canadian nuclear technology was studied as a possible alternative for providing steam for the deep commercial in situ oil sand projects which were initiated over ten years ago. Because the in situ technology of that time required steam at pressures in excess of 10 MPa, the nuclear option required the development of new reactor technology, or the use of steam compressors, which was not economical. The current SAGD (steam assisted gravity drainage) technology requires steam at pressures of less than 5 MPa, which is in the reach of existing Canadian nuclear technology. The cost of supplying steam for a SAGD in situ project using a CANDU 3 nuclear reactor was developed. The study indicates that for gas prices in excess of $2.50 per gigajoule, replacing natural gas fuel with a nuclear reactor is economically feasible for in situ projects in excess of 123 thousand barrels per day. (author). 9 refs., 3 tabs., 12 figs

  8. Development of alternative materials for BWR fuel springs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uruma, Y.; Osato, T.; Yamazaki, K.

    2002-01-01

    Major sources of radioactivity introduced into reactor water of BWR were estimated fuel crud and in-core materials (especially, fuel springs). Fuel springs are used for fixation of fuel cladding tubes with spacer grid. Those are small parts (total length is only within 25 mm) and so many numbers are loaded simultaneously and then total surfaces area are calculated up to about 200 m 2 . Fuel springs are located under high radiation field and high oxidative environment. Conventional fuel spring is made of alloy-X750 which is one of nickel-based alloy and is reported to show relatively higher corrosion release rate. 58 Co and 60 Co will be released directly into reactor water from intensely radio-activated fuel springs surface and increase radioactivity concentrations in primary coolant. Corrosion release control from fuel springs is an important technical item and a development of alternative material instead of alloy-X750 for fuel spring is a key subject to achieve ultra low man-rem exposure BWR plant. In present work, alloy-X718 which started usage for PWR fuel springs and stainless steel type 316L which has many mechanical property data are picked up for alternative materials and compared their corrosion behaviors with conventional material. Corrosion experiment was conducted under vapor-water two phases flow which is simulated fuel cladding surface boiling condition. After exposure, corrosion film formed under corrosion test was analyzed in detail and corrosion film amount and corrosion release amount are estimated among three materials. (authors)

  9. Retention of Economics Principles by Undergraduates on Alternative Curricular Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Daniel K. N.; Lybecker, Kristina M.; Taylor, Corrine H.

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated whether the curricular structure of an economics course (semester, trimester, or compressed block schedule) has an effect on an undergraduate's subsequent retention of course material, while controlling for other relevant differences. They tested separately for theoretical or process comprehension and for graphical…

  10. Some considerations in the evaluation of concrete as a structural material for alternative LLW disposal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKenzie, D.R.; Siskind, B.; Bowerman, B.S.; Piciulo, P.L.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop information needed to evaluate the long-term performance of concrete and reinforced concrete as a structural material for alternative LLW disposal methods. The capability to carry out such an evaluation is required for licensing a site which employs one of these alternative methods. The basis for achieving the study objective was the review and analysis of the literature on concrete and its properties, particularly its durability. In carrying out this program characteristics of concrete useful in evaluating its performance and factors that can affect its performance were identified. The factors are both intrinsic, i.e., associated with composition of the concrete (and thus controllable), and extrinsic, i.e., due to external environmental forces such as climatic conditions and aggressive chemicals in the soil. The testing of concrete, using both accelerated tests and long-term non-accelerated tests, is discussed with special reference to its application to modeling of long-term performance prediction. On the basis of the study's results, conditions for acceptance are recommended as an aid in the licensing of disposal sites which make use of alternative methods

  11. USU Alternative and Unconventional Energy Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behunin, Robert [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); Wood, Byard [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); Heaslip, Kevin [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); Zane, Regan [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); Lyman, Seth [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); Simmons, Randy [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); Christensen, David [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States)

    2014-01-29

    The purpose and rationale of this project has been to develop enduring research capabilities at Utah State University (USU) and the Utah State University Research Foundation (USURF) in a number of energy efficient and renewable energy areas including primarily a) algae energy systems, b) solar lighting, c) intuitive buildings, d) electric transportation, 3) unconventional energy environmental monitoring and beneficial reuse technologies (water and CO2), f) wind energy profiling, and g) land use impacts. The long-term goal of this initiative has been to create high-wage jobs in Utah and a platform for sustained faculty and student engagement in energy research. The program’s objective has been to provide a balanced portfolio of R&D conducted by faculty, students, and permanent staff. This objective has been met. While some of the project’s tasks met with more success than others, as with any research project of this scope, overall the research has contributed valuable technical insight and broader understanding in key energy related areas. The algae energy systems research resulted in a highly productive workforce development enterprise as it graduated a large number of well prepared students entering alternative energy development fields and scholarship. Moreover, research in this area has demonstrated both the technological and economic limitations and tremendous potential of algae feedstock-based energy and co-products. Research conducted in electric transportation, specifically in both stationary and dynamic wireless inductive coupling charging technologies, has resulted in impactful advances. The project initiated the annual Conference on Electric Roads and Vehicles (http://www.cervconference.org/), which is growing and attracts more than 100 industry experts and scholars. As a direct result of the research, the USU/USURF spin-out startup, WAVE (Wireless Advanced Vehicle Electrification), continues work in wirelessly charged bus transit systems

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter J. Tijrn

    2003-05-31

    This Final Report for Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC22-95PC93052, the ''Development of Alternative Fuels and Chemicals from Synthesis Gas,'' was prepared by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products), and covers activities from 29 December 1994 through 31 July 2002. The overall objectives of this program were to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture primarily of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and carbon monoxide (CO), to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at the LaPorte, Texas Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). Laboratory work was performed by Air Products and a variety of subcontractors, and focused on the study of the kinetics of production of methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas, the production of DME using the Liquid Phase Dimethyl Ether (LPDME{trademark}) Process, the conversion of DME to fuels and chemicals, and the production of other higher value products from syngas. Four operating campaigns were performed at the AFDU during the performance period. Tests of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Process and the LPDME{trademark} Process were made to confirm results from the laboratory program and to allow for the study of the hydrodynamics of the slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR) at a significant engineering scale. Two campaigns demonstrated the conversion of syngas to hydrocarbon products via the slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process. Other topics that were studied within this program include the economics of production of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), the identification of trace components in coal-derived syngas and the means to economically remove these species, and the study of systems for separation of wax from catalyst in the F-T process. The work performed under this Cooperative Agreement has continued to promote the development of technologies that use clean syngas produced

  13. Structure and location of macronutrients in ancient and alternative crops (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Structure, histochemistry and composition of mature seeds of several ancient or alternative crops were studied by light and electron microscopies to localize specific macronutrients including protein, starch, non-starch carbohydrates and lipid. Botanically, these seeds fall into different classifica...

  14. Quantitative regulation of alternative splicing in evolution and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irimia, Manuel; Rukov, Jakob L; Roy, Scott W

    2009-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) is a widespread mechanism with an important role in increasing transcriptome and proteome diversity by generating multiple different products from the same gene. Evolutionary studies of AS have focused primarily on the conservation of alternatively spliced sequences or o...

  15. Islamic Public Infrastructure Financing: An Analysis of Alternative Financing Instruments with Application in Developing Countries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Islam, Saiful

    2004-01-01

    This project examines the structure of public infrastructure financing in Indonesia and examines whether financing based on Islamic principles is a feasible alternative to current financing mechanisms...

  16. Development of alternative energy technologies. Entrepreneurs, new technologies, and social change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, T R

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses the introduction and development of several alternative energy technologies in countries where the innovation process has enjoyed some measure of success: solar water heating (California, Israel), windmills (Denmark), wood and peat for co-generation (Northern New England, Finland) and geo-thermal power (California) as well as heat pumps designed to save energy (West Germany). It is argued that the introduction and development of new technologies - and the socio-technical systems which utilize these technologies - depend on the initiatives of entrepreneurs and social change agents. They engage in adapting and matching technology and social structure (laws, institutions, norms, political and economic forces and social structure generally). Successful developments - as well as blocked or retarded developments - are discussed in terms of such ''compatibility analysis''. Policy implications are also discussed. (orig.).

  17. Future energy demand in Laos. Scenario alternatives for development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luukkanen, J.; Kouphokham, K.; Panula-Ontto, J. [and others

    2012-07-01

    Energy production in Laos is still dominated by traditional fuels. Fuelwood in the main source of energy and most of the energy is consumed at households for cooking. Increase in the number of cars and motorbikes is rapidly increasing the use of imported petroleum products. Electrification is one of the central targets of the Lao government. The electrification rate has increased fast in Laos and in the year 2010 over 70 % households had electricity supply. The target is to have 90 % access to electricity by the year 2020. The World Bank regards the electrification of Lao PDR to be a success story. This paper deals with the present and future energy consumption in Laos. First the historical trends of energy use in different sectors are analysed. The future scenarios are constructed using LaoLinda model. Four different future alternative development paths are analysed using the model results. The energy use data source for the analysis is from the Ministry of Energy and Mines (MEM) of Lao PDR. Economic and other data is from the Department of Statistics of Lao PDR.

  18. Contactless measurement of alternating current conductance in quantum Hall structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drichko, I. L.; Diakonov, A. M.; Malysh, V. A.; Smirnov, I. Yu.; Ilyinskaya, N. D.; Usikova, A. A. [A. F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Galperin, Y. M. [Department of Physics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1048 Blindern, 0316 Oslo (Norway); A. F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Kummer, M.; Känel, H. von [Laboratorium für Festkörperphysik ETH Zürich, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2014-10-21

    We report a procedure to determine the frequency-dependent conductance of quantum Hall structures in a broad frequency domain. The procedure is based on the combination of two known probeless methods—acoustic spectroscopy and microwave spectroscopy. By using the acoustic spectroscopy, we study the low-frequency attenuation and phase shift of a surface acoustic wave in a piezoelectric crystal in the vicinity of the electron (hole) layer. The electronic contribution is resolved using its dependence on a transverse magnetic field. At high frequencies, we study the attenuation of an electromagnetic wave in a coplanar waveguide. To quantitatively calibrate these data, we use the fact that in the quantum-Hall-effect regime the conductance at the maxima of its magnetic field dependence is determined by extended states. Therefore, it should be frequency independent in a broad frequency domain. The procedure is verified by studies of a well-characterized p-SiGe/Ge/SiGe heterostructure.

  19. Accelerator structure development for NLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoag, H.A.; Deruyter, H.; Pearson, C.; Ruth, R.D.; Wang, J.W.; Schaefer, J.

    1993-04-01

    In the program of work directed towards the development of an X-Band Next Linear Collider accelerator structure, two different test accelerator sections have been completed, and a third is being fabricated. The first is a simple 30-cell constant-impedance section in which no special attention was given to surface finish, pumping, and alignment. The second is an 86-cell section in which the cells were precision diamond-turned by Texas Instruments Inc. The structure has internal water-cooling and vacuum pumping manifolds. Some design details are given for the third section, which is a 206-cell structure with cavities dimensioned to give a Gaussian distribution of dipole mode frequencies. It has conventional-machining surface finishes and external water and pumping manifolds. Component design, fabrication, and assembly brazing are described for the first two experimental sections

  20. Etiology of structural brain asymmetry in schizophrenia, an alternative hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Bracha, HS

    1991-01-01

    During normal development of the fetal brain, the left hemisphere lags behind the right hemisphere in intrauterine growth, causing the left hemisphere to be smaller than the right hemisphere throughout the early and mid-prenatal period. By the end of the second trimester, the right hemisphere has achieved almost full-term size; thus second-trimester injuries affecting neurons, that is, anoxic, ischemic, toxic, or infectious insults that are systemic and bilateral, will affect the left hemisph...

  1. Alternative splicing originates different domain structure organization of Lutzomyia longipalpis chitinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortigão-Farias, João Ramalho; Di-Blasi, Tatiana; Telleria, Erich Loza; Andorinho, Ana Carolina; Lemos-Silva, Thais; Ramalho-Ortigão, Marcelo; Tempone, Antônio Jorge; Traub-Csekö, Yara Maria

    2018-02-01

    BACKGROUND The insect chitinase gene family is composed by more than 10 paralogs, which can codify proteins with different domain structures. In Lutzomyia longipalpis, the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil, a chitinase cDNA from adult female insects was previously characterized. The predicted protein contains one catalytic domain and one chitin-binding domain (CBD). The expression of this gene coincided with the end of blood digestion indicating a putative role in peritrophic matrix degradation. OBJECTIVES To determine the occurrence of alternative splicing in chitinases of L. longipalpis. METHODS We sequenced the LlChit1 gene from a genomic clone and the three spliced forms obtained by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using larvae cDNA. FINDINGS We showed that LlChit1 from L. longipalpis immature forms undergoes alternative splicing. The spliced form corresponding to the adult cDNA was named LlChit1A and the two larvae specific transcripts were named LlChit1B and LlChit1C. The B and C forms possess stop codons interrupting the translation of the CBD. The A form is present in adult females post blood meal, L4 larvae and pre-pupae, while the other two forms are present only in L4 larvae and disappear just before pupation. Two bands of the expected size were identified by Western blot only in L4 larvae. MAIN CONCLUSIONS We show for the first time alternative splicing generating chitinases with different domain structures increasing our understanding on the finely regulated digestion physiology and shedding light on a potential target for controlling L. longipalpis larval development.

  2. Capturing alternative secondary structures of RNA by decomposition of base-pairing probabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagio, Taichi; Sakuraba, Shun; Iwakiri, Junichi; Mori, Ryota; Asai, Kiyoshi

    2018-02-19

    It is known that functional RNAs often switch their functions by forming different secondary structures. Popular tools for RNA secondary structures prediction, however, predict the single 'best' structures, and do not produce alternative structures. There are bioinformatics tools to predict suboptimal structures, but it is difficult to detect which alternative secondary structures are essential. We proposed a new computational method to detect essential alternative secondary structures from RNA sequences by decomposing the base-pairing probability matrix. The decomposition is calculated by a newly implemented software tool, RintW, which efficiently computes the base-pairing probability distributions over the Hamming distance from arbitrary reference secondary structures. The proposed approach has been demonstrated on ROSE element RNA thermometer sequence and Lysine RNA ribo-switch, showing that the proposed approach captures conformational changes in secondary structures. We have shown that alternative secondary structures are captured by decomposing base-paring probabilities over Hamming distance. Source code is available from http://www.ncRNA.org/RintW .

  3. Militias: Exploring Alternative Force Structures for National Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    development in the art of warfare and 15 Mario A. Fumerton, “Rondas Campesinas in the Peruvian Civil War: Peasant Self-defense Organizations in...tr ai ni ng N at io na l l ev el su pp or t N at io na l d riv en id eo lo gy Pr e- ex is tin g ci vi lia n sk ill s Primary category...national framework providing guidance for the militia groups to act. This variable varies within and across cases, and will be discussed further

  4. Development of alternative versions of the Logical Memory subtest of the WMS-R for use in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognani, Silvia Adriana Prado; Miranda, Monica Carolina; Martins, Marjorie; Rzezak, Patricia; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo; de Camargo, Candida Helena Pires; Pompeia, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    The logical memory test of the Wechsler Memory Scale is one of the most frequently used standardized tests for assessing verbal memory and consists of two separate short stories each containing 25 idea units. Problems with practice effects arise with re-testing a patient, as these stories may be remembered from previous assessments. Therefore, alternative versions of the test stimuli should be developed to minimize learning effects when repeated testing is required for longitudinal evaluations of patients. Objective To present three alternative stories for each of the original stories frequently used in Brazil (Ana Soares and Roberto Mota) and to show their similarity in terms of content, structure and linguistic characteristics. Methods The alternative stories were developed according to the following criteria: overall structure or thematic content (presentation of the character, conflict, aggravation or complements and resolution); specific structure (sex of the character, location and occupation, details of what happened); formal structure (number of words, characters, verbs and nouns); and readability. Results The alternative stories and scoring criteria are presented in comparison to the original WMS stories (Brazilian version). Conclusion The alternative stories presented here correspond well thematically and structurally to the Brazilian versions of the original stories. PMID:29213955

  5. Development of alternative versions of the Logical Memory subtest of the WMS-R for use in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Adriana Prado Bolognani

    Full Text Available The logical memory test of the Wechsler Memory Scale is one of the most frequently used standardized tests for assessing verbal memory and consists of two separate short stories each containing 25 idea units. Problems with practice effects arise with re-testing a patient, as these stories may be remembered from previous assessments. Therefore, alternative versions of the test stimuli should be developed to minimize learning effects when repeated testing is required for longitudinal evaluations of patients. OBJECTIVE: To present three alternative stories for each of the original stories frequently used in Brazil (Ana Soares and Roberto Mota and to show their similarity in terms of content, structure and linguistic characteristics. METHODS: The alternative stories were developed according to the following criteria: overall structure or thematic content (presentation of the character, conflict, aggravation or complements and resolution; specific structure (sex of the character, location and occupation, details of what happened; formal structure (number of words, characters, verbs and nouns; and readability. RESULTS: The alternative stories and scoring criteria are presented in comparison to the original WMS stories (Brazilian version. CONCLUSION: The alternative stories presented here correspond well thematically and structurally to the Brazilian versions of the original stories.

  6. Unit Pricing and Alternatives: Developing an Individualized Shopping Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cude, Brenda; Walker, Rosemary

    1985-01-01

    This article offers a new perspective on the teaching of unit pricing in consumer economics classes by identifying ways to teach the costs as well as the benefits of unit pricing and realistic guidelines for suggesting situations in which it is most appropriate. Alternatives to unit pricing will also be explored. (CT)

  7. Synthesis, crystal structure and magnetic properties of an alternating manganese chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos Silva, Manuela; Matos Beja, Ana; Antonio Paixao, Jose; Martin-Gil, Jesus

    2006-01-01

    A new 1D complex has been prepared and characterized. X-ray single crystal structure confirms that the Mn(II) ions assemble in alternating chains with Mn-Mn distances of 3.8432(13) and 4.4428(14) A. A 3D network of hydrogen bonds links the chains together. The temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility reveals that this compound undergoes a magnetic transition and exhibits an antiferromagnetic interaction in the low-temperature phase with two alternating exchange interactions of -2.32(1) and -5.55(1) cm -1 . - Graphical abstract: Portion of the dimeric manganese chain showing the two alternating exchange interactions paths

  8. Technological development with reference to hydro-power, nuclear, and alternative energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, T R; Baumgartner, T

    1985-01-01

    This report outlines a theoretical framework for describing and analyzing the introduction of new technologies and the development of socio-technical systems associated with such innovations. While the report is largely theoretical in nature, it refers to certain strategic aspects of the development of nuclear, hydro-power and alternative energy systems. The ease with which technological innovation and development occur, the directions they take, and the impacts they have on the social and physical environments depend not only on purely technical and economic factors. Barriers, regulators and facilitators are inherent in the socio-political, institutional and cultural structures within which any attempts at innovation and technological development take place. The final section of the report explores some of the implications of the theory for policy and strategy, including consideration of environmental policy.

  9. Alternative Shear Panel Configurations for Light Wood Construction. Development, Seismic Performance, and Design Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcoski, James; Fischer, Chad; Allison, Tim; Malach, Kelly Jo

    2002-04-01

    Shear panels are used in light wood construction to resist lateral loads resulting from earthquakes or strong winds. These panels are typically made of wooden sheathing nailed to building frame members, but this standard panel design interferes with the installation of sheet insulation. A non-insulated shear panel conducts heat between the building interior and exterior wasting considerable amounts of energy. Several alternative shear panel designs were developed to avoid this insulation-mounting problem and sample panels were tested according to standard cyclic test protocols. One of the alternative designs consisted of diagonal steel straps nailed directly to the structural framing. Several others consisted of sheathing nailed to 2 x 4 framing then set into a larger 2 x 6 structural frame in such a way that no sheathing protruded beyond the edge of the 2 x 6 members. Also samples of industry-standard shear panels were constructed and tested in order to establish a performance baseline. Analytical models were developed to size test panels and predict panel behavior. A procedure was developed for establishing design capacities based on both test data and established baseline panel design capacity. The behavior of each panel configuration is documented and recommended design capacities are presented.

  10. Development of multicriteria models to classify energy efficiency alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neves, Luis Pires; Antunes, Carlos Henggeler; Dias, Luis Candido; Martins, Antonio Gomes

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims at describing a novel constructive approach to develop decision support models to classify energy efficiency initiatives, including traditional Demand-Side Management and Market Transformation initiatives, overcoming the limitations and drawbacks of Cost-Benefit Analysis. A multicriteria approach based on the ELECTRE-TRI method is used, focusing on four perspectives: - an independent Agency with the aim of promoting energy efficiency; - Distribution-only utilities under a regulated framework; - the Regulator; - Supply companies in a competitive liberalized market. These perspectives were chosen after a system analysis of the decision situation regarding the implementation of energy efficiency initiatives, looking for the main roles and power relations, with the purpose of structuring the decision problem by identifying the actors, the decision makers, the decision paradigm, and the relevant criteria. The multicriteria models developed allow considering different kinds of impacts, but avoiding difficult measurements and unit conversions due to the nature of the multicriteria method chosen. The decision is then based on all the significant effects of the initiative, both positive and negative ones, including ancillary effects often forgotten in cost-benefit analysis. The ELECTRE-TRI, as most multicriteria methods, provides to the Decision Maker the ability of controlling the relevance each impact can have on the final decision. The decision support process encompasses a robustness analysis, which, together with a good documentation of the parameters supplied into the model, should support sound decisions. The models were tested with a set of real-world initiatives and compared with possible decisions based on Cost-Benefit analysis

  11. Development of annular coupled structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kageyama, T.; Morozumi, Y.; Yoshino, K.; Yamazaki, Y.

    1992-01-01

    A π/2-mode standing-wave linac of an Annular Coupled Structure (ACS) has been developed for the 1-GeV proton linac of the Japanese Hadron Project (JHP). This ACS has four coupling slots between accelerating and coupling cells in order to overcome difficulties in putting the ACS to practical use. Two prototypes of a four-slot ACS (f = 1296 MHz, β = v/c = 0.8) have been constructed and tested: one with a staggered slot-orientation from cell to cell; and the other with a uniform one. The staggered configuration gives a larger coupling constant and a larger shunt impedance than the uniform one with the same size of coupling slot. Both models have been conditioned up to the design input RF power. The four-slot ACS gives a distortion-free accelerating field around the beam axis, while a Side-Coupled Structure cavity gives an accelerating field mixed with a TE111-like mode. (Author) 7 figs., 2 tabs., 9 refs

  12. Present status of development of alternative energy technology from environment protection point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Japan lacks fossil fuel resources. Consequently, almost all fossil fuels are imported from abroad. Therefore, change in international affairs affects on Japan's politics and social life, as learned from experience of economic social life, as learned from experience of economic confusion caused by the oil crisis of 1973. For this reason, research and development (R and D) of alternative energy technologies was initiated in July 1974, which was promoted as one of national energy development programs called Sunshine Project. Presently, their technical developments are being continued to put practical use under this project. However, Japan's dependency of primary energy resources on oil is still high among major advanced countries and energy supply structure is significantly weak. Furthermore, from indetermination of the recent political condition in the Middle East, the importance of security against supply and demand of petroleum in middle and long term is generally recognized with the increasing cost of oil

  13. The Structures of the Alternative Conceptions of Preservice Secondary Teachers on Seasonal Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyoung Oh

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was to understand the components that influence preservice secondary teachers' conceptions about "seasonal changes". We selected 74 university science education students among whom 23 were in the second, 23 in the third, and 28 in the fourth year. The data collected from the paper-pencil test and individual interview with students. The results of this study show that the students had considerable apparent alternative conceptions, and that the 'distance theory' had most important effects on their alternative conceptions. It can be said that preservice secondary teachers' initial models of the seasonal change have their origin in their belief sets (specific theory related to 'seasonal change', on the basis of which they can interpret their observations and cultural information with the constraints of a naive framework of physics. The structures and possible sources of their alternative conceptions for overcoming these alternative conceptions were also discussed. Implications for preservice science teacher education related to the results were discussed.

  14. Experimental Directory Structure (Exdir: An Alternative to HDF5 Without Introducing a New File Format

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svenn-Arne Dragly

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural sciences generate an increasing amount of data in a wide range of formats developed by different research groups and commercial companies. At the same time there is a growing desire to share data along with publications in order to enable reproducible research. Open formats have publicly available specifications which facilitate data sharing and reproducible research. Hierarchical Data Format 5 (HDF5 is a popular open format widely used in neuroscience, often as a foundation for other, more specialized formats. However, drawbacks related to HDF5's complex specification have initiated a discussion for an improved replacement. We propose a novel alternative, the Experimental Directory Structure (Exdir, an open specification for data storage in experimental pipelines which amends drawbacks associated with HDF5 while retaining its advantages. HDF5 stores data and metadata in a hierarchy within a complex binary file which, among other things, is not human-readable, not optimal for version control systems, and lacks support for easy access to raw data from external applications. Exdir, on the other hand, uses file system directories to represent the hierarchy, with metadata stored in human-readable YAML files, datasets stored in binary NumPy files, and raw data stored directly in subdirectories. Furthermore, storing data in multiple files makes it easier to track for version control systems. Exdir is not a file format in itself, but a specification for organizing files in a directory structure. Exdir uses the same abstractions as HDF5 and is compatible with the HDF5 Abstract Data Model. Several research groups are already using data stored in a directory hierarchy as an alternative to HDF5, but no common standard exists. This complicates and limits the opportunity for data sharing and development of common tools for reading, writing, and analyzing data. Exdir facilitates improved data storage, data sharing, reproducible research, and novel

  15. Experimental Directory Structure (Exdir): An Alternative to HDF5 Without Introducing a New File Format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragly, Svenn-Arne; Hobbi Mobarhan, Milad; Lepperød, Mikkel E; Tennøe, Simen; Fyhn, Marianne; Hafting, Torkel; Malthe-Sørenssen, Anders

    2018-01-01

    Natural sciences generate an increasing amount of data in a wide range of formats developed by different research groups and commercial companies. At the same time there is a growing desire to share data along with publications in order to enable reproducible research. Open formats have publicly available specifications which facilitate data sharing and reproducible research. Hierarchical Data Format 5 (HDF5) is a popular open format widely used in neuroscience, often as a foundation for other, more specialized formats. However, drawbacks related to HDF5's complex specification have initiated a discussion for an improved replacement. We propose a novel alternative, the Experimental Directory Structure (Exdir), an open specification for data storage in experimental pipelines which amends drawbacks associated with HDF5 while retaining its advantages. HDF5 stores data and metadata in a hierarchy within a complex binary file which, among other things, is not human-readable, not optimal for version control systems, and lacks support for easy access to raw data from external applications. Exdir, on the other hand, uses file system directories to represent the hierarchy, with metadata stored in human-readable YAML files, datasets stored in binary NumPy files, and raw data stored directly in subdirectories. Furthermore, storing data in multiple files makes it easier to track for version control systems. Exdir is not a file format in itself, but a specification for organizing files in a directory structure. Exdir uses the same abstractions as HDF5 and is compatible with the HDF5 Abstract Data Model. Several research groups are already using data stored in a directory hierarchy as an alternative to HDF5, but no common standard exists. This complicates and limits the opportunity for data sharing and development of common tools for reading, writing, and analyzing data. Exdir facilitates improved data storage, data sharing, reproducible research, and novel insight from

  16. Structure of 2,4-Diaminopyrimidine-Theobromine Alternate Base Pairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gengeliczki, Z.; Callahan, M. P.; Kabelac, M.; Rijs, A. M.; de Vries, M. S.

    2011-01-01

    We report the structure of dusters of 2,4-diaminopyrimidine with 3,7-dimethylxanthine (theobromine) in the gas phase determined by IR-UV double resonance spectroscopy in both the near-IR and mid-IR regions in combination with ab initio computations. These clusters represent potential alternate

  17. 76 FR 72493 - ITS Joint Program Office Webinar on Alternative Organizational Structures for a Certificate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... organizational structures for a certificate management entity (CME) to support a trusted and secure connected... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ITS Joint Program Office Webinar on Alternative Organizational... Adam Hopps at (202) 680-0091. The ITS JPO will present results from an early analysis of organizational...

  18. An Alternative to the Problematic Macro-Micro Structure of Introductory Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinari, Frank D.

    The paper explains an alternative structure to teaching micro and macroeconomic theory and describes the characteristics that make it an effective framework for introductory and principles courses. The teaching of economics principles typically proceeds by separating macroeconomic theory and microeconomic theory. But the use of the macro-micro…

  19. 76 FR 58138 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS); Alternative Line Item Structure (DFARS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ... DoD published a proposed rule in the Federal Register at 76 FR 21847 on April 19, 2011, to add DFARS..., the contract line item may be for a desktop computer, but the actual items delivered, invoiced, and..., Desktop with 20 EA CPU, Monitor, Keyboard and Mouse. Alternative line-item structure offer where monitors...

  20. Kinetic and structural characterization of an alternatively spliced variant of human mitochondrial 5'(3')-deoxyribonucleotidase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pachl, Petr; Fábry, Milan; Veverka, Václav; Brynda, Jiří; Řezáčová, Pavlína

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 1 (2015), 63-68 ISSN 1475-6366 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/0820; GA MŠk(CZ) LK11205 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : 5'(3')-deoxyribonucleotidase * alternative splicing * crystal structure * hydrolase * mitochondria Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.428, year: 2015

  1. 76 FR 21847 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS), Alternative Line-Item Structure (DFARS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ... with CPU, 20 EA Monitor, Keyboard and Mouse. Alternative line-item structure offer where monitors are... CPU, 20 EA Keyboard and Mouse. 0002 Monitor 20 EA (End of provision)] [FR Doc. 2011-8966 Filed 4-18-11... problems in the receipt and acceptance phase for contract deliverables and payments. This group determined...

  2. Synthesis of the project leadership staffing needs for successful development of alternative delivery programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    This research provides a synthesis of practices in organizational structuring and professional staffing of the innovative delivery units in several state DOTs across the nation that are actively utilizing alternative project delivery. Several major c...

  3. Alternate approaches to verifying the structural adequacy of the Defense High Level Waste Shipping Cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, A.; Koploy, M.

    1991-12-01

    In the early 1980s, the US Department of Energy/Defense Programs (DOE/DP) initiated a project to develop a safe and efficient transportation system for defense high level waste (DHLW). A long-standing objective of the DHLW transportation project is to develop a truck cask that represents the leading edge of cask technology as well as one that fully complies with all applicable DOE, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations. General Atomics (GA) designed the DHLW Truck Shipping Cask using state-of-the-art analytical techniques verified by model testing performed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The analytical techniques include two approaches, inelastic analysis and elastic analysis. This topical report presents the results of the two analytical approaches and the model testing results. The purpose of this work is to show that there are two viable analytical alternatives to verify the structural adequacy of a Type B package and to obtain an NRC license. It addition, this data will help to support the future acceptance by the NRC of inelastic analysis as a tool in packaging design and licensing

  4. Soil Retaining Structures : Development of models for structural analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, K.J.

    2000-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is the development of models for the structural analysis of soil retaining structures. The soil retaining structures being looked at are; block revetments, flexible retaining walls and bored tunnels in soft soil. Within this context typical structural behavior of these

  5. Overview on recent developments: alternative isotope production methods in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huynh, K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an update on the Government of Canada's programs in alternative isotope production methods for securing supply of technetium 99m for Canadians. The supply disruptions of isotopes in 2007 and 2009/2010 caused by unplanned outages at AECL's National Research Universal (NRU) reactor highlighted the fragility of the supply chain that delivers medical isotopes, specifically Technetium 99m (Tc99m) to patients in Canada and globally. Tc99m, which is derived from its parent, molybdenum99 (Mo99) is the most widely used medical isotope for imaging, and accounts for 80 percent of nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures. Prior to the outage, nearly all the Mo99 produced for the world market came from five aging government owned research reactors in Canada, France, the Netherlands, Belgium and South Africa. The NRU, the largest of these, produced about 30 to 40 percent of the world supply of isotopes prior to 2009 - since its return to service in 2010, its world market share is estimated at 15 to 20%.

  6. The development of an alternative thermoplastic powder prepregging technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, A. L.; Hyer, M. W.; Wilkes, G. L.; Loos, A. C.

    1992-01-01

    An alternative powder prepregging technique is discussed that is based on the deposition of powder onto carbon fibers that have been moistened using an ultrasonic humidifier. The dry fiber tow is initially spread to allow a greater amount of the fiber surface to be exposed to the powder, thus ensuring a significant amount of intimate contact between the fiber and the matrix. Moisture in the form of ultrafine water droplets is then deposited onto the spread fiber tow. The moisture promotes adhesion to the fiber until the powder can be tacked to the fibers by melting. Powdered resin is then sieved onto the fibers and then tacked onto the fibers by quick heating in a convective oven. This study focuses on the production of prepregs and laminates made with LaRC-TPI (thermoplastic polyimide) using this process. Although the process appears to be successful, early evaluation was hampered by poor interfacial adhesion. The adhesion problem, however, seems to be the result of a material system incompatibility, rather than being influenced by the process.

  7. An alternative approach to financing development in Africa | Adeolu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To make adequate capital available to finance development projects in Africa, several important and innovative ideas became popular in the early and later post-independent years. Much of these ideas included a proposal for International Finance Facility (IFF) to increase development aid substantially for the millennium ...

  8. Rural Tourism - Alternative to the Development of Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina PAIU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rural tourism through its content and its features is a distinct component in the economy of a region, and the sustainable, efficient use of local tourism resources can be an extremely important activity by: adding added value, boosting productivity, employment and increasing the living standard of the population. Rural tourism is considered a lever to mitigate local imbalances and besides attracting touristic areas in the circuit, it also has consequences on territorial development: housing construction, road development, development of public services and the development of small and medium-sized enterprises. Consequently, rural tourism has an impact on a country's economic and social development strategy, but also on a branch level.

  9. Land in the Political Economy of African Development: Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    2008-06-18

    Jun 18, 2008 ... The economic version of the perspective on land reform promotes the ...... Fanon, F., 1961, The Wretched of the Earth, London: Penguin Books. Flintan, F. and ... Development, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Mafeje ...

  10. Alternative methods for developing external travel survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) has a comprehensive on-going travel survey : program that supports the travel demand models being developed for transportation planning efforts in urban : areas throughout Texas. One component of the sur...

  11. Development and In Vitro Toxicity Evaluation of Alternative Sustainable Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novel nanomaterial types are rapidly being developed for the value they may add to consumer products without sufficient evaluation of implications for human health, toxicity, environmental impact and long-term sustainability. Nanomaterials made of metals, semiconductors and vario...

  12. Financing the alternative: renewable energy in developing and transition countries

    OpenAIRE

    Brunnschweiler, Christa N.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the determinants of credit allocation to renewable energy firms in developing and transition countries. Using a simple en- dogenous growth model, we show that the development of the renewable energy sector, i.e. the diversification of renewable energy resources used in primary energy production, depends on the quality of financial intermedia- tion, debtor information costs to banks, and financing needs of renewable energy firms. Policies should aim at increasing financial ...

  13. Tourist load capacity: Alternative for the Sustainable Development of Cozumel

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz, Alejandro Palafox; Pavón, Romano Segrado

    2018-01-01

    From last 50 years, tourism development had been promoted to bring several numbers of visitors to generate lot of millions of dollars. However, the result of this tourism policy has a severe impact on the environment and an important consequence on society, as a result the decadence of the economical model due to the depletion of the natural resources and the increase of poverty. Even though the official discourse looks forward a sustainable development of the tourism activity. Besides, the p...

  14. Theoretical developments for interpreting kernel spectral clustering from alternative viewpoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Peluffo-Ordóñez

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available To perform an exploration process over complex structured data within unsupervised settings, the so-called kernel spectral clustering (KSC is one of the most recommended and appealing approaches, given its versatility and elegant formulation. In this work, we explore the relationship between (KSC and other well-known approaches, namely normalized cut clustering and kernel k-means. To do so, we first deduce a generic KSC model from a primal-dual formulation based on least-squares support-vector machines (LS-SVM. For experiments, KSC as well as other consider methods are assessed on image segmentation tasks to prove their usability.

  15. The development of nuclear power as an alternative energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Mingguang; Ye Cheng; Han Xu

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the world's recent development of nuclear power, which does not seem to achieve what has been anticipated by the groups of experts. In this regard, there is before us a heavy responsibility and a long way to go. Nuclear power is very important for China's environmental protection and economic development. Suggestions are made for longer-term demand for the electricity and long-term nuclear power plan in China.According to the nuclear power strategy adopted by developed nations, we believe that China's nuclear power strategy and nuclear techniques shall be based on advanced PWR, such as AP1000, CAP1000, CAP1400 and CAP1700, which will be the main NPP types in a long time in China, and the latter two shall be highly competitive in the world.For generation IV reactors, the SCWR (Supercritical Water Reactor) is more suitable than others, in terms of the industrial development in PWRs and fossil fuel super critical generator systems in China. In addition,investment should be increased in fast reactors to achieve the fuel closed-cycle, and attentions should be paid to the TWR (Traveling-wave Reactor), and small and medium-sized reactor as well.Finally, conclusions are given for large scale development of nuclear power in China. (authors)

  16. [Alternatives to the drug research and development model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez, Germán

    2015-03-01

    One-third of the global population lacks access to medications; the situation is worse in poor countries, where up to 50% of the population lacks access. The failure of current incentive systems based in intellectual property to offer the necessary pharmaceutical products, especially in the global south, is a call to action. Problems related to drug access cannot be solved solely through improvements or modifications in the existing incentive models. The intellectual property system model does not offer sufficient innovation for developing countries; new mechanisms that effectively promote innovation and drug access simultaneously are needed. A binding international agreement on research and development, negotiated under the auspices of the World Health Organization, could provide an adequate framework for guaranteeing priority-setting, coordination, and sustainable financing of drugs at reasonable prices for developing countries.

  17. Alternative waste form development - low-temperature pyrolytic carbon coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oma, K.H.; Rusin, J.M.; Kidd, R.W.; Browning, M.F.

    1981-01-01

    Although several chemical vapor deposition (CVD) - coated waste forms have been successfully produced, some major disadvantages associated with the high-temperature fluidized-bed CVD coating process exist. To overcome these disadvantages, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory has initiated the development of a pyrolytic carbon CVD coating system to coat large waste-form particles at temperatures ranging from 400 to 500/degree/C. This relatively simple system has been used to coat kilogram quantities of simulated waste-glass marbles. Further development of this system could result in a viable process to coat bulk quantities of both glass and ceramic waste forms. This paper discusses various aspects of the development work, including coating techniques, parametric study, and coater equipment. 10 refs

  18. Alternative oxidase in the branched mitochondrial respiratory network: an overview on structure, function, regulation, and role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sluse F.E.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants and some other organisms including protists possess a complex branched respiratory network in their mitochondria. Some pathways of this network are not energy-conserving and allow sites of energy conservation to be bypassed, leading to a decrease of the energy yield in the cells. It is a challenge to understand the regulation of the partitioning of electrons between the various energy-dissipating and -conserving pathways. This review is focused on the oxidase side of the respiratory chain that presents a cyanide-resistant energy-dissipating alternative oxidase (AOX besides the cytochrome pathway. The known structural properties of AOX are described including transmembrane topology, dimerization, and active sites. Regulation of the alternative oxidase activity is presented in detail because of its complexity. The alternative oxidase activity is dependent on substrate availability: total ubiquinone concentration and its redox state in the membrane and O2 concentration in the cell. The alternative oxidase activity can be long-term regulated (gene expression or short-term (post-translational modification, allosteric activation regulated. Electron distribution (partitioning between the alternative and cytochrome pathways during steady-state respiration is a crucial measurement to quantitatively analyze the effects of the various levels of regulation of the alternative oxidase. Three approaches are described with their specific domain of application and limitations: kinetic approach, oxygen isotope differential discrimination, and ADP/O method (thermokinetic approach. Lastly, the role of the alternative oxidase in non-thermogenic tissues is discussed in relation to the energy metabolism balance of the cell (supply in reducing equivalents/demand in energy and carbon and with harmful reactive oxygen species formation.

  19. Exploring Youth Development in Ethiopia: An Alternative Strength ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Assets Profile measure have also suggested that the youth are indeed endowed with a number of developmental assets and these assets are significantly better for females than they are for males. Key-words: Ethiopian youth, Ethiopian adolescents, developmental assets, positive youth development, youth participation.

  20. Social contention in Denmark over alternative wind power development paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyborg, Sophie; Kirkegaard, Julia Kirch; Clausen, Laura Tolnov

    of Nørrekær Enge in Jutland. The paper traces protracted negotiations between a large energy company acting as wind farm developer who bought up dwellings to make space for extending an existing wind farm, land-owners, a farmers' association, and municipalities, as well as with an emergent coalition...

  1. Trends in the Development of Alternative Work Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Maureen

    1979-01-01

    Flexible scheduling and reduced work time programs can help alleviate some of the pressures on public and private employers to develop innovative solutions to problems caused by inflation, unemployment, the transition in the composition of the workforce, and changes in life-styles. (Author/IRT)

  2. An alternative development strategy for the nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amman, F

    1987-05-01

    Although the risk of a Chernobyl type accident is very low, social risk perception, which is not associated with a measure of probability but with the consequences of core melting, may now hinder the spread of nuclear technology. The Author promotes international cooperation in the development of the high temperature gas reactor, HTGR, which is not subject to large core melting. This type of technological innovation would reduce social risk perception and slow down opposition to nuclear power.

  3. Alternative possibilities of development in the power economy of the FRG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rath-Nagel, S.

    1975-06-01

    In the investigation presented here, problem areas of the energy supply as reserves, reliability of supply, environmental pollution and investment and financial questions are discussed. The author tries to represent quantitatively the boundary conditions of our energy supply system and the cause-effect relations determining the energy market. For the Federal Republic of Germany a simulation model consisting of coupled differential equations is developed, which is able to demonstrate the variations of the energy economic structure of supply and demand under various external conditions. There is in particular a close analysis of the strength of feedback between energy consumption and economic growth, the effects of various modes of supply under abnormal conditions and of realizable alternative supply patterns during the investigatory period. (orig.) [de

  4. The management of Marketing: an alternative in enterprises development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn Bernal Prado

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The company product portfolio has to be review and permanent adjust in order to achieve the given objectives. The present work has as an objective to design and to implement a procedure of specialized cements development at Cement Siguaney's Company in Sancti Spíritus, due to the decline phase in which was the enterprise caused by the dated technologies and the development of other cement companies existing in the country with efficient and a cheap process in the dry way. The implementation of the procedure for the development of new products at Cement Siguaney's Company in Sancti Spíritus made possible that the company became one of its kind dedicated to the production and commercialization of specialized cements. Each of the phases of the procedure is based on the use of investigation techniques (inductive and deductive analytic-synthetic, historical and logicaland empirical-experimental level (document analysis, surveys, observation, experiment and data triangulation The fundamental results of present work are framed in the increment of the specialized cements request, bigger productivity of work, technological efficiency, humanization of work, among others.

  5. Impact of Alternative Rate Structures on Distributed Solar Customer Electricity Bills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, Joyce A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-03-02

    Electric utilities are increasingly proposing changes to residential rate structures, in order to address concerns about their inability to recover fixed system costs from customers with grid connected distributed generation. The most common proposals have been to increase fixed charges, set minimum bills or instigate residential demand charges. This presentation provides results of an analysis to explore how these rate design alternatives impact electricity bills for PV and non-PV customers.

  6. Identification and development of waste management alternatives for Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desmond, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    The European Union Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) Directive (2001/42/EC) requires the assessment of likely significant effects on the environment of implementing plans or programmes and reasonable alternatives. While SEA regulations and guidelines emphasize rigour and objectivity in the assessment of alternatives they have little to say on their actual identification. Therefore, criteria should be developed which would aid decision makers in the identification of alternatives appropriate to the tier of decision-making and which meet the objectives of SEA. A methodology is set out in this paper for identifying SEA alternatives for a proposed waste management plan/programme. Specifically, the methodology describes a set of alternatives identification criteria, which will meet the requirements and objectives of SEA and waste management legislation. The outputs from the methodology will help focus on the identification of more sustainable alternatives for waste management planning in Ireland

  7. Development of other oil-alternative energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Development efforts are being given on a large wind power generation system which has high reliability and economy and suits the actual situations in Japan. Verification tests will be conducted to establish control systems to realize load leveling against the increase in maximum power demand and the differences in demands between seasons, days and nights. Development will also be made on technologies for systems to operate devices optimally using nighttime power for household use. Solar light and heat energies will be introduced and used widely in housing to achieve efficient comprehensive energy utilization. Wastes, waste heat and unused energies locally available will be utilized to promote forming environment harmonious type energy communities. Photovoltaic and fuel cell power generation facilities will be installed on a trial basis to promote building a groundwork for full-scale installations. Photovoltaic power generation systems will be installed on actual houses to establish technologies to assess and optimize the load leveling effect. Attempts will be made on practical application of high-efficiency regional heat supply systems which utilize such unutilized energies as those from sea water and river water. Assistance will be given through preparing manuals on introduction of wastes power generation systems by local governments, and introduction of regional energy systems by using new discrete type power generation technologies and consumer-use cogeneration systems. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  8. 46 CFR 71.50-3 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, underwater survey, and alternate hull exam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., underwater survey, and alternate hull exam intervals. 71.50-3 Section 71.50-3 Shipping COAST GUARD...-3 Drydock examination, internal structural examination, underwater survey, and alternate hull exam... wooden hulls must undergo two drydock and two internal structural examinations within any five year...

  9. Development of alternative ship propulsion in terms of exhaust emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markowski Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of new emission limits for exhaust emissions of ship engines contributes to the development of new powertrain solutions. New solutions in the simplest approach concern the reduction of the concentration of sulfur in motor fuels. Typically, the aforementioned fuels have a lower value of viscosity which causes a number of supply system problems. It is becoming more and more common to use fuel cells in engine rooms of various types of marine vessels. Unlike conventional systems that use internal combustion engines, these systems have zero exhaust emissions. Hydrogen, methanol, methane and other substances may be used as a fuel in fuel cells. However, so far the best operating parameters are manifested by cells powered by hydrogen, which is associated with difficulties in obtaining and storing this fuel. Therefore, the use of turbine engines allows the obtaining of large operating and environmental advantages. The paper presents a comparison of the ecological parameters of turbine and piston engines.

  10. Optimization of oligonucleotide arrays and RNA amplification protocols for analysis of transcript structure and alternative splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, John; Garrett-Engele, Phil; Armour, Christopher D; Duenwald, Sven J; Loerch, Patrick M; Meyer, Michael R; Schadt, Eric E; Stoughton, Roland; Parrish, Mark L; Shoemaker, Daniel D; Johnson, Jason M

    2003-01-01

    Microarrays offer a high-resolution means for monitoring pre-mRNA splicing on a genomic scale. We have developed a novel, unbiased amplification protocol that permits labeling of entire transcripts. Also, hybridization conditions, probe characteristics, and analysis algorithms were optimized for detection of exons, exon-intron edges, and exon junctions. These optimized protocols can be used to detect small variations and isoform mixtures, map the tissue specificity of known human alternative isoforms, and provide a robust, scalable platform for high-throughput discovery of alternative splicing.

  11. CHALLENGES AND ALTERNATIVE OF CREATIVITY DEVELOPMENT IN HIGHER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Yunus

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Creativity is the human ability to think, modify, discover and create something. Creativity in the scientific world and the general public is common term. In reality, creativity and human life are two different things, but inseparable, thus affecting and closely correlated. Life and civilization will stagnate and vacuum without creativity. Creativity always presents and appears in the rhythm of space and time as the level of thinking and the human needs. Problems faced by higher education in Indonesia today is the low creativity of both students and lecturers. Those are caused by: (1 creativity is not taught in higher education, (2 the creativity of students is less supported by parents, (3 the leader of higher education considers creativity as a means of damaging the system or existing products, and (4 the routines of lectures and students. In order to develop creativity in higher education, then the leader and lecturers should eliminate bad habits in destroying the creativity of subordinates and students, parents should continue the natural talent of the child, select the child’s social environment, minimize  punishment, and do not curb excessively  child to “do“ something. Ways that can be taken to intensify creativity in higher education including by the use of creative techniques based practical such as: brainstorming, incubator method, and the method of mapping the mind

  12. Value Chain Development as Alternative Method For Mapping Waste Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Saiful Hakim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid Waste management begin at the household as waste of consumption and ended as a new form of waste product or recycling. Based on its value chain the subsequent process will have distict differences with manufacturing product. Value chain of manufacturing product will characterize as value added chain along the chain, where every side of the chain will generate positive chain. In the other hand, some parties of waste management value chain will negative value existed. Some parties in this chain will generate negative value solely because they must establish some cost for wipe the waste. Dissimilarities between value chain on product and waste will contribute to discrepancy between parties. Main purpose of this research is to identify value chain from solid waste management using value chain development. Another purpose to accomplished is to resolve discrepancy in value chain.  Research results shown that household is the parties that experiences negative value. To minimize the discrepancies there should be an action towards household

  13. Present status on world alternative energy developments to oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddington, J.

    1980-01-01

    The IEA was established about five years ago in the OECD immediately after the oil crisis, and 20 countries have participated in it. Progress was observed in the control of the expansion of energy demand. The energy utilization in IEA member countries became efficient due to the contribution of new technologies, and owing to the improvement of productivity, the growth of energy consumption was less than 1% despite the GDP grew at the yearly rate of 2.5%. The expansion of the utilization of natural gas and coal is promising, but the projects of nuclear power generation are behind schedule. The short term prospect in petroleum market is discussed, and the price of crude oil tends to be stabilized. ''The prospect of energy in the world by 2000'' will be published by the IEA in the latter half of 1980. The scale of the development of nuclear power generation was reduced because the prediction of the rate of power generation growth was changed from 5.2% to 3.1%. The effect of new energy technologies on future energy market has been studied by the support of 15 countries, and it was recommended to give financial aid to heat pumps, coal liquefaction and the efficient recovery of oil and natural gas. Also the techniques for operating existing facilities under strict environment and safety regulations have been studied. (Kako, I.)

  14. Variability of LD50 Values from Rat Oral Acute Toxicity Studies: Implications for Alternative Model Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative models developed for estimating acute systemic toxicity are generally evaluated using in vivo LD50 values. However, in vivo acute systemic toxicity studies can produce variable results, even when conducted according to accepted test guidelines. This variability can ma...

  15. Discrete Institutional Alternatives of Public Administration Reforms in Countries with Developed and Developing Institutional Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny A. Kapoguzov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an approach to evaluation the impact of the level of development of institutional environment on the success of the reforms of public administration. The indicators that characterize the degree of development of the institutional environment, in particular, the level of protection of property rights, the development of political competition, civil society, corruption, and trust in society are shown. Depending on the elements of the political-administrative system, socio-economic features, that determine the trajectories of reforms, showing alternative purposes and characterized some indicators, that characterizing the results of reforms for the OECD-counties. Showing institutional problems is implementing reforms in the transition countries, depending on the elements of the political and administrative systems, and socio-cultural factors that determine the path of reform, showing alternative purposes and characterized by individual indicators characterizing the results of the OECD reform. From the point of view of the classification results, the emphasis is made on quantitative results of the operational type, in particular, the dynamics of the general government expenditure and the level of employment of civil servants in relation to employment in the economy as a whole. Showing institutional problems in the implementation of reforms in the transition countries, in particular the gap of development of the bureaucratic ethos, the weakness of the market environment and the insufficient level of external pressure on the quality of public services. The significance for the success of reform and systemic cultural change within the state apparatus, which affects the quality of citizens' satisfaction with public services is observed. It is noted that the preliminary formalization of the public sector, the formation of Weberian bureaucracy type is essential for successful implementation of the New Public Management. The factors that

  16. Structural development of child's artistic expression

    OpenAIRE

    Sanja Filipović; Milica Vojvodić

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Structural development implies control and capability of the expression usage in terms of independent creative expression and making. Understanding of structural development of child's artistic expression as a phenomenon (which is suitable to child's age) has some implications on methodical acts considering artistic education of children and youngsters. Therefore, it is of unexceptional importance to know these laws as well as methodical acts which encourage the structural develop...

  17. Africa energy future: Alternative scenarios and their implications for sustainable development strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouedraogo, Nadia S.

    2017-01-01

    The long-term forecasting of energy supply and demand is of prime importance in Africa due to the steady increase in energy requirements, the non-availability of sufficient resources, the high dependence on fossil-fuels to meet these requirements, and the global concerns over the energy-induced environmental issues. This paper is concerned with modelling possible future paths for Africa's energy future and the related emissions. Future energy demand is forecasted based on socio-economic variables such as gross domestic product, income per capita, population, and urbanisation. The Long-range Energy Alternative Planning System (LEAP) modelling framework is employed to analyse and project energy demand and the related emissions under alternative strategies for the period of 2010–2040. Results of scenarios including business-as-usual (BAU) policies, moderate energy access and accelerate energy access policies, renewable energies promotion and energy efficiency policies and their environmental implications are provided. The study provides some policy insights and identifies synergies and trade-offs relating to the potential for energy policies to promote universal energy access, enable a transition to renewable energy, and mitigate climate change for a sustainable development. - Highlights: • Possible future paths for Africa's energy future and the related emissions are modelled. • Scenarios using an adaptation of Schwartz's scenario approach, under LEAP are developed. • Under the current energy policies, the universal access to modern energy will not be met by 2030. • Policies to accelerate the changes in energy structure are required for sustainable development. • Investing in Energy efficient strategies has emerged as one of the best solution.

  18. Investigation of SSME alternate high pressure fuel turbopump lift-off seal fluid and structural dynamic interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrod, David A.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) alternate turbopump development program (ATD) high pressure fuel turbopump (HPFTP) design utilizes an innovative lift-off seal (LOS) design that is located in close proximity to the turbine end bearing. Cooling flow exiting the bearing passes through the lift-off seal during steady state operation. The potential for fluid excitation of lift-off seal structural resonances is investigated. No fluid excitation of LOS resonances is predicted. However, if predicted LOS natural frequencies are significantly lowered by the presence of the coolant, pressure oscillations caused by synchronous whirl of the HPFTP rotor may excite a resonance.

  19. Outer space structure and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeldovich, J.; Novikov, I.

    1975-01-01

    A brief account is presented answering the question of what in fact the outer space we observe consists of. The principle of spatial homogeneity of the universe and the idea of non-stationary cosmology are discussed. The origin and the future development of the universe are explained using the two above mentioned and some other hypotheses. (J.K.)

  20. Outer space structure and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeldovich, J; Novikov, I

    1975-10-01

    A brief account is presented answering the question of what in fact the outer space we observe consists of. The principle of spatial homogeneity of the universe and the idea of non-stationary cosmology are discussed. The origin and the future development of the universe are explained using the two above mentioned and some other hypotheses.

  1. Modeling economic implications of alternative treatment strategies for acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revankar, Nikhil; Ward, Alexandra J; Pelligra, Christopher G; Kongnakorn, Thitima; Fan, Weihong; LaPensee, Kenneth T

    2014-10-01

    The economic implications from the US Medicare perspective of adopting alternative treatment strategies for acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs) are substantial. The objective of this study is to describe a modeling framework that explores the impact of decisions related to both the location of care and switching to different antibiotics at discharge. A discrete event simulation (DES) was developed to model the treatment pathway of each patient through various locations (emergency department [ED], inpatient, and outpatient) and the treatments prescribed (empiric antibiotic, switching to a different antibiotic at discharge, or a second antibiotic). Costs are reported in 2012 USD. The mean number of days on antibiotic in a cohort assigned to a full course of vancomycin was 11.2 days, with 64% of the treatment course being administered in the outpatient setting. Mean total costs per patient were $8671, with inpatient care accounting for 58% of the costs accrued. The majority of outpatient costs were associated with parenteral administration rather than drug acquisition or monitoring. Scenarios modifying the treatment pathway to increase the proportion of patients receiving the first dose in the ED, and then managing them in the outpatient setting or prescribing an oral antibiotic at discharge to avoid the cost associated with administering parenteral therapy, therefore have a major impact and lower the typical cost per patient by 11-20%. Since vancomycin is commonly used as empiric therapy in clinical practice, based on these analyses, a shift in treatment practice could result in substantial savings from the Medicare perspective. The choice of antibiotic and location of care influence the costs and resource use associated with the management of ABSSSIs. The DES framework presented here can provide insight into the potential economic implications of decisions that modify the treatment pathway.

  2. Structural optimization of an alternate design for the Space Shuttle solid rocket booster field joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelemy, Jean-Francois M.; Rogers, James L., Jr.; Chang, Kwan J.

    1987-01-01

    A structural optimization procedure is used to determine the shape of an alternate design for the Shuttle's solid rocket booster field joint. In contrast to the tang and clevis design of the existing joint, this alternate design consists of two flanges bolted together. Configurations with 150 studs of 1 1/8 in diameter and 135 studs of 1 3/16 in diameter are considered. Using a nonlinear programming procedure, the joint weight is minimized under constraints on either von Mises or maximum normal stresses, joint opening and geometry. The procedure solves the design problem by replacing it by a sequence of approximate (convex) subproblems; the pattern of contact between the joint halves is determined every few cycles by a nonlinear displacement analysis. The minimum weight design has 135 studs of 1 3/16 in diameter and is designed under constraints on normal stresses. It weighs 1144 lb per joint more than the current tang and clevis design.

  3. Formation and quantification of calcium titanate with the perovskite structure from alternative sources of titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gralik, G.; Raupp-Pereira, F.; Hotza, D.; Labrincha, J.A.; Zanelli, C.; Dondi, M.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate and quantify the formation of calcium titanate (CaTiO3) with perovskite structure from alternative sources of titanium (rutile, ilmenite). Commercial raw materials of the high purity were also characterized as reference. With base in the characterization by X-ray fluorescence of the mineral springs different compositions were formulated and subsequently sintered for 2 h in resistive furnace at temperatures in the range 1000 to 1400°C. After thermal processing the samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and the quantification of phases formed by the Rietveld method obtained. The results show that the formation and the amount of calcium titanate minerals from alternative sources depend on factors related to stages of sintering and impurities. The microstructures of the compositions were analyzed by SEM/EDS and bulk density also measured. (author)

  4. Integrating Complementary and Alternative Medicine Into Conventional Health Care System in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishra, Shiva Raj; Neupane, Dinesh; Kallestrup, Per

    2015-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine has been a part of human life and practices since the beginning of time. The role of complementary and alternative medicine for the health of humans is undisputed particularly in light of its role in health promotion and well-being. This article discusses wa...... through which complementary and alternative medicine can be promoted and sustained as an integrated element of health care in developing countries. We specifically present the exemplary of Amchi traditional doctors of Northern Himalayas......Complementary and alternative medicine has been a part of human life and practices since the beginning of time. The role of complementary and alternative medicine for the health of humans is undisputed particularly in light of its role in health promotion and well-being. This article discusses ways...

  5. Peplau's Theory of Interpersonal Relations: An Alternate Factor Structure for Patient Experience Data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagerty, Thomas A; Samuels, William; Norcini-Pala, Andrea; Gigliotti, Eileen

    2017-04-01

    A confirmatory factor analysis of data from the responses of 12,436 patients to 16 items on the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems-Hospital survey was used to test a latent factor structure based on Peplau's middle-range theory of interpersonal relations. A two-factor model based on Peplau's theory fit these data well, whereas a three-factor model also based on Peplau's theory fit them excellently and provided a suitable alternate factor structure for the data. Though neither the two- nor three-factor model fit as well as the original factor structure, these results support using Peplau's theory to demonstrate nursing's extensive contribution to the experiences of hospitalized patients.

  6. Optimum Criteria for Developing Defined Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion IVAN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Basic aspects concerning distributed applications are presented: definition, particularities and importance. For distributed applications linear, arborescent, graph structures are defined with different versions and aggregation methods. Distributed applications have associated structures which through their characteristics influence the costs of the stages in the development cycle and the exploitation costs transferred to each user. The complexity of the defined structures is analyzed. The minimum and maximum criteria are enumerated for optimizing distributed application structures.

  7. DIAGNOSIS OF ALTERNATIVE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE IN THE CITY OF UBÁ-MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Sperandio Duriguetto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Conventional agriculture uses mechanization practices, remediation and soil fertilization and pesticides to control pests and diseases. The criticism of this farming system grows as studies show that pesticides contaminate food and the environment and cause health damage. Aiming at sustainable development and the pursuit of consolidation between the social, economic and ecological agriculture alternative arises. This work is outlined in order to understand the current status, characteristics, limitations and difficulties for the implementation of alternative agriculture in the municipality of Ubá-MG. Furthermore, we seek to identify the knowledge of agricultural alternative as well as the interest and profile of likely consumers of these products in the municipality. We conducted a quantitative research through the use of two questionnaires with multiple choice questions and dichotomous, by simple random sampling. The results show that there are many difficulties for the development of alternative agriculture in the county, including: a lack of resources for producers, small-scale production, lack of market and consumer knowledge about alternative product in the municipality. Given these difficulties, the alternative system seems advantageous and competitive both economically and environmentally compared to the conventional system. There was a lack of information regarding organic products, alternative, since access to these is restricted to much of the population in the municipality of Ubá and adjacent municipalities. Seeking theoretical basis it was necessary also to perform a literature search in several papers that address the theme.

  8. Structural reliability methods: Code development status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millwater, Harry R.; Thacker, Ben H.; Wu, Y.-T.; Cruse, T. A.

    1991-05-01

    The Probabilistic Structures Analysis Method (PSAM) program integrates state of the art probabilistic algorithms with structural analysis methods in order to quantify the behavior of Space Shuttle Main Engine structures subject to uncertain loadings, boundary conditions, material parameters, and geometric conditions. An advanced, efficient probabilistic structural analysis software program, NESSUS (Numerical Evaluation of Stochastic Structures Under Stress) was developed as a deliverable. NESSUS contains a number of integrated software components to perform probabilistic analysis of complex structures. A nonlinear finite element module NESSUS/FEM is used to model the structure and obtain structural sensitivities. Some of the capabilities of NESSUS/FEM are shown. A Fast Probability Integration module NESSUS/FPI estimates the probability given the structural sensitivities. A driver module, PFEM, couples the FEM and FPI. NESSUS, version 5.0, addresses component reliability, resistance, and risk.

  9. Systematic study of the structure of alternate pyromellitimide-PEO copolymers: Influence of the chain flexibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djurado, David; Curtet, Jean Pierre; Bee, Marc; Michot, Christophe; Armand, Michel

    2007-01-01

    The structure of a family of copolyimides in which are alternating stiff/redox pyromellitimide units and flexible/solvating polyethyleneoxide (PEO) strands were studied by using wide angle and small angle X-ray scattering techniques and is fully discussed. It is shown that the rich variety of structures exhibited by these compounds can be understood by considering the dramatic change of flexibility of the chain induced by the variation of the length of the PEO strand compared to that of the pyromellimide segment. In this respect, concerning the compounds which exhibit fully amorphous structures a better understanding of their structural behavior can be obtained in the framework of Flory's theory of semi-rigid polymers. In this approach, the degree of flexibility of the chain is mainly resulting from the relative amount of flexible units constituting the repetition unit of the polymer chain. The final structural mode adopted by each compound in the solid state is then directly a consequence of this intrinsic property of the chain. The introduction of a lithium salt in contact with the copolymer chains induces some structure changes which can also be explained by the modification of the degree of flexibility of the chain. It is found that the best performances in terms of electroactivity and mixed conduction are precisely obtained with the only compound which keeps full amorphicity in absence and in presence of the lithium salt

  10. Development perspectives of alternative energy projects before the new energy regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencia V; Jaime A; Perez O, Jaime A; Moreno O, German

    2000-01-01

    Large electric energy generation systems are dominant in the energy markets. This has been like that, because the economic balances have not included yet some parameters, and specifically environmental variables, that started being considered in the international markets. Colombian generation and transmission expanding plans are commented and the possibilities for the developing of alternative energy projects are referred to those plans. Additionally, a regional experience in the definition of criteria for electric energy service coverage enlargement allowing for alternative energy inclusion is presents, remarking their successful application as a competitive alternative for rural energizing

  11. MAISTAS: a tool for automatic structural evaluation of alternative splicing products.

    KAUST Repository

    Floris, Matteo; Raimondo, Domenico; Leoni, Guido; Orsini, Massimiliano; Marcatili, Paolo; Tramontano, Anna

    2011-01-01

    MOTIVATION: Analysis of the human genome revealed that the amount of transcribed sequence is an order of magnitude greater than the number of predicted and well-characterized genes. A sizeable fraction of these transcripts is related to alternatively spliced forms of known protein coding genes. Inspection of the alternatively spliced transcripts identified in the pilot phase of the ENCODE project has clearly shown that often their structure might substantially differ from that of other isoforms of the same gene, and therefore that they might perform unrelated functions, or that they might even not correspond to a functional protein. Identifying these cases is obviously relevant for the functional assignment of gene products and for the interpretation of the effect of variations in the corresponding proteins. RESULTS: Here we describe a publicly available tool that, given a gene or a protein, retrieves and analyses all its annotated isoforms, provides users with three-dimensional models of the isoform(s) of his/her interest whenever possible and automatically assesses whether homology derived structural models correspond to plausible structures. This information is clearly relevant. When the homology model of some isoforms of a gene does not seem structurally plausible, the implications are that either they assume a structure unrelated to that of the other isoforms of the same gene with presumably significant functional differences, or do not correspond to functional products. We provide indications that the second hypothesis is likely to be true for a substantial fraction of the cases. AVAILABILITY: http://maistas.bioinformatica.crs4.it/.

  12. MAISTAS: a tool for automatic structural evaluation of alternative splicing products.

    KAUST Repository

    Floris, Matteo

    2011-04-15

    MOTIVATION: Analysis of the human genome revealed that the amount of transcribed sequence is an order of magnitude greater than the number of predicted and well-characterized genes. A sizeable fraction of these transcripts is related to alternatively spliced forms of known protein coding genes. Inspection of the alternatively spliced transcripts identified in the pilot phase of the ENCODE project has clearly shown that often their structure might substantially differ from that of other isoforms of the same gene, and therefore that they might perform unrelated functions, or that they might even not correspond to a functional protein. Identifying these cases is obviously relevant for the functional assignment of gene products and for the interpretation of the effect of variations in the corresponding proteins. RESULTS: Here we describe a publicly available tool that, given a gene or a protein, retrieves and analyses all its annotated isoforms, provides users with three-dimensional models of the isoform(s) of his/her interest whenever possible and automatically assesses whether homology derived structural models correspond to plausible structures. This information is clearly relevant. When the homology model of some isoforms of a gene does not seem structurally plausible, the implications are that either they assume a structure unrelated to that of the other isoforms of the same gene with presumably significant functional differences, or do not correspond to functional products. We provide indications that the second hypothesis is likely to be true for a substantial fraction of the cases. AVAILABILITY: http://maistas.bioinformatica.crs4.it/.

  13. PARTICIPATORY DIAGNOSIS TO DEVELOP TOURISM PROJECT IN THE COMMUNITY ALTERNATIVE AGIABAMPO, HUATABAMPO, SONORA, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adán Guillermo Ramírez-García

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Agiabampo is a fishing community facing the lack of options for productive activities, which puts enormous pressure on natural resources. This paper aims to identify the areas with tourism potential through a participatory diagnosis to assess the relevance of such projects that contribute to sustainable development. It is located at coordinates 26 ° 21 'north latitude and 58''de 109 ° 08' 37 '' west longitude, down from 15 meters altitude. It is within the Ramsar site called "lagoon system Agiabampo-Bacorehuis-Rio Fuerte Old" also form part of the priority terrestrial region "Las Bocas" (RTP-21 and program CONABIO Areas of Importance for the Conservation of Birds (IBA, AICA 131 "Agiabampo". According to the rules of operation of CONAFOR (2009 for the tourist diagnosis proceeded to conduct the inventory and prioritization of natural and cultural resources, also five workshops with community residents and municipal authorities were carried out interviews semi structured with key players in the CONANP and three field trips to community guides. The identified natural attractions are the Horseshoe bay, cove San Lucas, Isla Bocanita Beach Baths, Bamocha Peninsula and Isle of ducks. The identified cultural appeal considered gastronomy, traditional medicine, crafts, customs and traditions. Two paths are proposed by the Laguna maritime lasts 3.5 hours, the Earth is Bamocha Peninsula lasting 3 hours. It is indisputable Agiabampo the potential to develop alternative tourism project due to its geographical location and natural and cultural attractions are there, allowing preserve and create jobs in the community.

  14. Preliminary assessment of the performance of concrete as a structural material for alternative low-level radioactive waste disposal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKenzie, D.R.; Siskind, B.; Bowerman, B.S.; Piciulo, P.L.

    1986-12-01

    The objective of this study was to develop information needed to evaluate the long-term performance of concrete and reinforced concrete as a structural material for alternative LLW disposal methods. The capability to carry out such an evaluation is required for licensing a site which employs one of these alternative methods. The basis for achieving the study objective was the review and analysis of the literature on concrete and its properties, particularly its durability. In carrying out this program, criteria for evaluating performance of concrete and factors that can effect its performance were identified. The factors are both intrinsic, i.e., associated with composition of the concrete (and thus controllable), and extrinsic, i.e., due to external environmental forces such as climatic conditions and aggressive chemicals in the soil. A section of the report is devoted to the properties of coatings and their possible use in protecting concrete from chemical attack and enhancing its useful properties. The testing of concrete, using both accelerated tests and long-term non-accelerated tests, is discussed with special reference to its application to modeling of long-term performance prediction. On the basis of the study's results, minimum acceptance criteria are recommended as an aid in the licensing of disposal sites which make sure use of alternative methods

  15. Numerical study on the effects of the alternative structure geometries on the groundwater flow at the Romuvaara site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koskinen, L.; Meling, K.

    1994-11-01

    The work has two aims. Firstly, it completes the numerical modelling work for the groundwater flow at the Romuvaara site in Finland performed during the preliminary site investigations by varying geometries of the most significant fracture zones. The modified fracture zone geometries are selected within the uncertainties of the structure of the bedrock model. Secondly, the work studies the effects of several potential fracture zones. The locations and geometries of these zones are decided in such a way that either they offer potential or alternative hydrogeologic connections that would explain the anomalies in the results of the earlier field investigations or their existence has been implied by geophysical studies. The field results comprise the measured hydraulic head values under the natural conditions in boreholes KR1 -KRS, and the hydraulic head responses in the pumping test. The work employs the calibrated flow model developed in the preliminary site investigations as the base case, that is modified to correspond to the alternative geometries. Before the simulations with the alternative geometries, the boundary condition for the top of the flow model is partly changed in this work in order to revoke the modification motivated by incorrect field data that were used in the calibration of the flow model. (25 refs., 27 figs., 1 tab.)

  16. Structural and morphological approach of Co-Cr dental alloys processed by alternative manufacturing technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porojan, Sorin; Bîrdeanu, Mihaela; Savencu, Cristina; Porojan, Liliana

    2017-08-01

    The integration of digitalized processing technologies in traditional dental restorations manufacturing is an emerging application. The objective of this study was to identify the different structural and morphological characteristics of Co-Cr dental alloys processed by alternative manufacturing techniques in order to understand the influence of microstructure on restorations properties and their clinical behavior. Metallic specimens made of Co-Cr dental alloys were prepared using traditional casting (CST), and computerized milling (MIL), selective laser sintering (SLS) and selective laser melting (SLM). The structural information of the samples was obtained by X-ray diffraction, the morphology and the topography of the samples were investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscope. Given that the microstructure was significantly different, further differences in the clinical behavior of prosthetic restorations manufactured using additive techniques are anticipated.

  17. Understanding Alternative Food Networks: Exploring the Role of Food Supply Chains in Rural Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renting, H.; Marsden, T.; Banks, J.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we explore the development and incidence of alternative food networks within a European-wide context. By developing a consistent definition of short food supply chains, we address both the morphology and the dynamics of these, and then examine empirical evidence concerning their

  18. Alternative Pathways to Talent Development in Music: The Narrative of an Eminent Filipino Singer-Songwriter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garces-Bacsal, Rhoda Myra

    2014-01-01

    The narrative of an eminent Filipino singer-songwriter, Noel Cabangon, provides a description of an alternative pathway to musical talent development. Most theories on talent development assume that a young artist would have access to the resources required for one to advance in the domain. The results of multiple in-depth interviews suggested…

  19. Timing Childhoods: An Alternative Reading of Children's Development through Philosophy of Time, Temporality, Place and Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesar, Marek

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that the denial of development can be a productive space and a liberating time for children in the current outcomes-driven times. The author offers an alternative reading of childhood, considering children's development differently through various philosophical theorizations of events, which emerge through utilizing philosophy…

  20. Women's labour and economic globalisation: a participatory workshop created by Alternative Women in Development (Alt-WID).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, C; Nazombei, E

    2000-03-01

    This article describes the aims, methods, materials and topics used in a participatory workshop created by Alternative Women in Development. The organization aims to bridge the gaps in analyzing human rights and economic justice in both North and South from a feminist perspective through a workshop. This workshop considers the varied roles that women play in the global economy and features a series of anecdotes to illustrate the diverse ways in which globalization affects women in all regions worldwide. The workshop runs for a minimum of 3 hours and is structured as follows: introduction; plenary: identifying the human rights of the women; small-group work, plenary: building a group analysis and discussion of alternatives to the existing policies; and individual and plenary evaluations. Furthermore, four anecdotes used at the workshop are presented. Among the outcomes of the workshop included the identification of the problem causes and development of strategies for action.

  1. Development of the structural materials information center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oland, C.B.; Naus, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has initiated a Structural Aging Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to identify potential structural safety issues related to continued service of nuclear power plants and to establish criteria for evaluating and resolving these issues. One of the tasks in this program focuses on the establishment of a Structural Materials Information Center where data and information on the time variation of concrete and other structural material properties under the influence of pertinent environmental stressors and aging factors are being collected and assembled into a database. This database will be used to assist in the prediction of potential long-term deterioration of critical structural components in nuclear power plants and to establish limits on hostile environmental exposure for these structures and materials. Two complementary database formats have been developed. The Structural Materials Handbook is an expandable, hard copy handbook that contains complete sets of data and information for selected portland cement concrete, metallic reinforcement, prestressing tendon, and structural steel materials. The Structural Materials Electronic Database is accessible by an IBM-compatible personal computer and provides an efficient means for searching the various database files to locate materials with similar properties. The database formats have been developed to accommodate data and information on the time-variation of concrete and other structural material properties. To date, the database includes information on concrete, reinforcement, prestressing, and structural steel materials

  2. Distance Learning Plan Development: Initiating Organizational Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Poole, Clifton

    1998-01-01

    .... Army distance learning plan managers to examine the DLPs they were directing. The analysis showed that neither army nor civilian distance learning plan managers used formalized requirements for organizational structure development (OSD...

  3. Alternative-fueled truck demonstration natural gas program: Caterpillar G3406LE development and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    In 1990, the California Energy Commission, the South Coast Air Quality Management District, and the Southern California Gas Company joined together to sponsor the development and demonstration of compressed natural gas engines for Class 8 heavy-duty line-haul trucking applications. This program became part of an overall Alternative-Fueled Truck Demonstration Program, with the goal of advancing the technological development of alternative-fueled engines. The demonstration showed natural gas to be a technically viable fuel for Class 8 truck engines.

  4. Major alternatives for government policies, organizational structures, and actions in civilian nuclear reactor emergency management in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to identify and assess major alternatives for governmental policies, organizational structures, and actions in civilian nuclear reactor emergency management in the United States. The National Academy of Public Administration agreed to identify and evaluate alternatives for governmental policies, organizational structures, and actions in civilian nuclear reactor emergency management. It agreed to review present policies and practices in civilian nuclear reactor emergency management, to review selected experiences and practices of governmental agencies other than the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and industries other than the nuclear power industry, and to identify alternatives to the present nuclear emergency system

  5. Alternations of White Matter Structural Networks in First Episode Untreated Major Depressive Disorder with Short Duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Lu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available It is crucial to explore the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD at the early stage for the better diagnostic and treatment strategies. It was suggested that MDD might be involving in functional or structural alternations at the brain network level. However, at the onset of MDD, whether the whole brain white matter (WM alterations at network level are already evident still remains unclear. In the present study, diffusion MRI scanning was adopt to depict the unique WM structural network topology across the entire brain at the early stage of MDD. Twenty-one first episode, short duration (<1 year and drug-naïve depression patients, and 25 healthy control (HC subjects were recruited. To construct the WM structural network, atlas-based brain regions were used for nodes, and the value of multiplying fiber number by the mean fractional anisotropy along the fiber bundles connected a pair of brain regions were used for edges. The structural network was analyzed by graph theoretic and network-based statistic methods. Pearson partial correlation analysis was also performed to evaluate their correlation with the clinical variables. Compared with HCs, the MDD patients had a significant decrease in the small-worldness (σ. Meanwhile, the MDD patients presented a significantly decreased subnetwork, which mainly involved in the frontal–subcortical and limbic regions. Our results suggested that the abnormal structural network of the orbitofrontal cortex and thalamus, involving the imbalance with the limbic system, might be a key pathology in early stage drug-naive depression. And the structural network analysis might be potential in early detection and diagnosis of MDD.

  6. Alternative Splicing in Breast Cancer and the Potential Development of Therapeutic Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Montiel, Nancy; Anaya-Ruiz, Maricruz; Pérez-Santos, Martín; Martínez-Contreras, Rebeca D

    2017-10-05

    Alternative splicing is a key molecular mechanism now considered as a hallmark of cancer that has been associated with the expression of distinct isoforms during the onset and progression of the disease. The leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide is breast cancer, and even when the role of alternative splicing in this type of cancer has been established, the function of this mechanism in breast cancer biology is not completely decoded. In order to gain a comprehensive view of the role of alternative splicing in breast cancer biology and development, we summarize here recent findings regarding alternative splicing events that have been well documented for breast cancer evolution, considering its prognostic and therapeutic value. Moreover, we analyze how the response to endocrine and chemical therapies could be affected due to alternative splicing and differential expression of variant isoforms. With all this knowledge, it becomes clear that targeting alternative splicing represents an innovative approach for breast cancer therapeutics and the information derived from current studies could guide clinical decisions with a direct impact in the clinical advances for breast cancer patients nowadays.

  7. Factors Affecting the Development of Rural Tourism as Alternative Tourism and Its Impact

    OpenAIRE

    ÇEKEN, Hüseyin; DALGIN, Taner; ÇAKIR, Neşe

    2012-01-01

    New tourism trends in the world are developing in the direction of history, health, trekking, cultural and rural tourism depending on the demand. The importance of rural tourism is increasing day by day both in developed and developing countries as being alternative to or complimentary to existing tourism types. There is a great effort in the world to reinforce economies of rural areas by using touristic supply sources for rural tourism purposes. The achievements in the rural tourism applicat...

  8. Application of structured flowsheets to global evaluation of tank waste processing alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, G.; Knutson, B.J.; Niccoli, L.G.; Frank, D.D.

    1994-01-01

    Remediation of the Hanford waste tanks requires integration of chemical technologies and evaluation of alternatives from the perspective of the overall Hanford cleanup purpose. The use of Design/IDEF (R) logic to connect chemical process functions to the overall cleanup mission in the Hanford Strategic Analysis (HSA) and to Aspen Plus (R) process models can show the effect of each process step on global performance measures such as safety, cost, and public perception. This hybrid of chemical process analysis and systems engineering produces structured material balance flowsheets at any level of process aggregation within the HSA. Connectivity and consistent process and stream nomenclature are automatically transferred between detailed process models, the HSA top purpose, and the global material balance flowsheet evaluation. Applications to separation processes is demonstrated for a generic Truex-Sludge Wash flowsheet with many process options and for the aggregation of a Clean Option flowsheet from a detailed chemical process level to a global evaluation level

  9. Interfacial Dirac cones from alternating topological invariant superlattice structures of Bi2Se3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jung-Hwan; Jin, Hosub; Freeman, Arthur J

    2010-08-27

    When the three-dimensional topological insulators Bi2Se3 and Bi2Te3 have an interface with vacuum, i.e., a surface, they show remarkable features such as topologically protected and spin-momentum locked surface states. However, for practical applications, one often requires multiple interfaces or channels rather than a single surface. Here, for the first time, we show that an interfacial and ideal Dirac cone is realized by alternating band and topological insulators. The multichannel Dirac fermions from the superlattice structures open a new way for applications such as thermoelectric and spintronics devices. Indeed, utilizing the interfacial Dirac fermions, we also demonstrate the possible power factor improvement for thermoelectric applications.

  10. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Structure of Statistics Anxiety Measure: An Examination of Four Alternative Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Bevrani, PhD

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to explore the confirmatory factor analysis results of the Persian adaptation of Statistics Anxiety Measure (SAM, proposed by Earp.Method: The validity and reliability assessments of the scale were performed on 298 college students chosen randomly from Tabriz University in Iran. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was carried out to determine the factor structures of the Persian adaptation of SAM.Results: As expected, the second order model provided a better fit to the data than the three alternative models. Conclusions: Hence, SAM provides an equally valid measure for use among college students. The study both expands and adds support to the existing body of math anxiety literature.

  11. Testing Alternative Hypotheses Regarding the Association between Behavioral Inhibition and Language Development in Toddlerhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Ashley K. Smith; Patel, Deepika; Corley, Robin P.; Friedman, Naomi P.; Hewitt, John K.; Robinson, JoAnn L.; Rhee, Soo H.

    2014-01-01

    Studies have reported an inverse association between language development and behavioral inhibition or shyness across childhood, but the direction of this association remains unclear. This study tested alternative hypotheses regarding this association in a large sample of toddlers. Data on behavioral inhibition and expressive and receptive…

  12. Development of an alternative artificial soil for earthworm toxicity testing in tropical countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Silva, M.; van Gestel, C.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The standard soil invertebrate toxicity tests developed by OECD and ISO use an artificial soil as the test substrate, which contains sphagnum peat as a component. This type of peat is not widely available. Investigation of possible alternative substrates using locally available materials therefore

  13. Afghanistan and the development of alternative systems of animal health in the absence of effective government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, B.E.C.; Ward, D.E.

    2004-01-01

    This case study describes the efforts by both non-governmental organisations and United Nations agencies to develop an alternative system for delivering animal health services in Afghanistan, during a period in which there was effectively no government. The authors examine the period from the

  14. 77 FR 22583 - Allocations, Common Application, Waivers, and Alternative Requirements for Community Development...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... Action Plan for Disaster Recovery on the grantee's official web site for no less than 7 calendar days to... Application, Waivers, and Alternative Requirements for Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) Disaster...: This Notice advises the public of the allocation of CDBG disaster recovery funds for the purpose of...

  15. Evaluating WAIS-IV structure through a different psychometric lens: structural causal model discovery as an alternative to confirmatory factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Marjolein J A M; Claassen, Tom; Suwartono, Christiany; van der Veld, William M; van der Heijden, Paul T; Hendriks, Marc P H

    Since the publication of the WAIS-IV in the U.S. in 2008, efforts have been made to explore the structural validity by applying factor analysis to various samples. This study aims to achieve a more fine-grained understanding of the structure of the Dutch language version of the WAIS-IV (WAIS-IV-NL) by applying an alternative analysis based on causal modeling in addition to confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The Bayesian Constraint-based Causal Discovery (BCCD) algorithm learns underlying network structures directly from data and assesses more complex structures than is possible with factor analysis. WAIS-IV-NL profiles of two clinical samples of 202 patients (i.e. patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and a mixed psychiatric outpatient group) were analyzed and contrasted with a matched control group (N = 202) selected from the Dutch standardization sample of the WAIS-IV-NL to investigate internal structure by means of CFA and BCCD. With CFA, the four-factor structure as proposed by Wechsler demonstrates acceptable fit in all three subsamples. However, BCCD revealed three consistent clusters (verbal comprehension, visual processing, and processing speed) in all three subsamples. The combination of Arithmetic and Digit Span as a coherent working memory factor could not be verified, and Matrix Reasoning appeared to be isolated. With BCCD, some discrepancies from the proposed four-factor structure are exemplified. Furthermore, these results fit CHC theory of intelligence more clearly. Consistent clustering patterns indicate these results are robust. The structural causal discovery approach may be helpful in better interpreting existing tests, the development of new tests, and aid in diagnostic instruments.

  16. Development of a multi-criteria evaluation framework for alternative light-duty vehicles technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazeli, R.; Leal, V.; Sousa, J.P.

    2011-07-15

    Multi-Attribute Utility Theory (MAUT) is very popular in the context of multi-criteria decision making because it easily incorporates the decision maker's preferences. The basic goal of MAUT is to replace available information by ''utility values'' allowing the comparison of alternatives. For the basic MCDA problem of choosing the best alternative, it is useful for a DM to start by eliminating those alternatives that do not seem to be interesting. This procedure is often called ''screening''. Screening helps by allowing the DM to concentrate on a smaller set that (very likely) contains the best alternative. In this work we have applied a sequential screening process, starting with a Pareto Optimal (PO) approach, followed by a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) based screening and Trade-off Weights (TW) procedure. To illustrate the approach, Portugal was chosen as a case study. Besides, at this preliminary stage of the research, we just considered alternatives with 100% of one specific fuel/technology combination (alternatives with fleets combining different shares of fuels/technologies will be analyzed in the next phase of the research). MAUT was applied to identify the utility values of each alternative for each group of attributes. Then the sequential screening approach was applied. The final screening set includes DICI-DME, Fuel Cell using Hydrogen, the Fuel Cell with reformer using Methanol, and Hybrid Gasoline. As a conclusion, preliminary results clearly show the potential of the developed approach in setting a framework for supporting better and sounder decision-making on which AFV technologies should be supported. (Author)

  17. Development of the Model of Decision Support for Alternative Choice in the Transportation Transit System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabashkin Igor

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The decision support system is one of the instruments for choosing the most effective decision for cargo owner in constant fluctuated business environment. The objective of this Paper is to suggest the multiple-criteria approach for evaluation and choice the alternatives of cargo transportation in the large scale transportation transit system for the decision makers - cargo owners. The large scale transportation transit system is presented by directed finite graph. Each of 57 alternatives is represented by the set of key performance indicators Kvi and set of parameters Paj. There has been developed a two-level hierarchy system of criteria with ranging expert evaluations based on Analytic Hierarchy Process Method. The best alternatives were suggested according to this method.

  18. Development of an alternating integrator for magnetic measurements for experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, D. M., E-mail: dmliu@live.cn; Zhao, W. Z.; He, Y. G.; Chen, B. [School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Wan, B. N.; Shen, B.; Huang, J.; Liu, H. Q. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2014-11-15

    A high-performance integrator is one of the key electronic devices for reliably controlling plasma in the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak for long pulse operation. We once designed an integrator system of real-time drift compensation, which has a low integration drift. However, it is not feasible for really continuous operations due to capacitive leakage error and nonlinearity error. To solve the above-mentioned problems, this paper presents a new alternating integrator. In the new integrator, the integrator system of real-time drift compensation is adopted as one integral cell while two such integral cells work alternately. To achieve the alternate function, a Field Programmable Gate Array built in the digitizer is utilized. The performance test shows that the developed integrator with the integration time constant of 20 ms has a low integration drift (<15 mV) for 1000 s.

  19. Alternative depreciation policies for promoting combined heat and power (CHP) development in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Jeferson Borghetti; Szklo, Alexandre Salem; Tolmasquim, Mauricio Tiomno

    2006-01-01

    This paper assessed the economic impact of alternative depreciation methods on the development of combined heat-and-power (CHP) systems in the Brazilian industrial sector. Alternative depreciation methods were proposed and the case study of a Brazilian chemical plant showed that the most effective depreciation method for the promotion of CHP plants in Brazil was the Matheson method with an accelerated depreciation schedule of 7 years. This alternative method was then applied to the Brazilian chemical industry as a whole, increasing its installed capacity in CHP systems by 24%. Therefore, fiscal incentives can be an interesting tool for promoting energy efficiency in the Brazilian industrial sector, promoting the expansion of CHP plants. It reduces government fiscal revenues, but it also induces the technological reposition and improves the feasibility of ventures that are not installed without this kind of incentive

  20. Strategic importance of the New Materials in the Sustainable Development and as Alternative of competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez E, Wilken; Bejarano B, Hernan; Villazon A, Hernando

    1999-01-01

    The new materials have a growing importance in the national development, and most of the industrialized countries are investing big supreme in the development of these, due to their great strategic paper in the global economic interaction. The present article seeks to give a general vision of the participation of these materials in the world economy as alternative factor of competition, keeping primarily in mind the conservation of the environment and the permanent search of the total quality

  1. Development of Demonstrably Predictive Models for Emissions from Alternative Fuels Based Aircraft Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Engineering Chemistry Fundamentals, Vol. 5, No. 3, 1966, pp. 356–363. [14] Burns, R. A., Development of scalar and velocity imaging diagnostics...in an Aero- Engine Model Combustor at Elevated Pressure Using URANS and Finite- Rate Chemistry ,” 50th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference...FINAL REPORT Development of Demonstrably Predictive Models for Emissions from Alternative Fuels Based Aircraft Engines SERDP Project WP-2151

  2. Development of the field of structural physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    FUJIYOSHI, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Electron crystallography is especially useful for studying the structure and function of membrane proteins — key molecules with important functions in neural and other cells. Electron crystallography is now an established technique for analyzing the structures of membrane proteins in lipid bilayers that closely simulate their natural biological environment. Utilizing cryo-electron microscopes with helium-cooled specimen stages that were developed through a personal motivation to understand the functions of neural systems from a structural point of view, the structures of membrane proteins can be analyzed at a higher than 3 Å resolution. This review covers four objectives. First, I introduce the new research field of structural physiology. Second, I recount some of the struggles involved in developing cryo-electron microscopes. Third, I review the structural and functional analyses of membrane proteins mainly by electron crystallography using cryo-electron microscopes. Finally, I discuss multifunctional channels named “adhennels” based on structures analyzed using electron and X-ray crystallography. PMID:26560835

  3. Structural development of child's artistic expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Filipović

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Structural development implies control and capability of the expression usage in terms of independent creative expression and making. Understanding of structural development of child's artistic expression as a phenomenon (which is suitable to child's age has some implications on methodical acts considering the artistic education of children and youngsters. Therefore, it is of unexceptional importance to know these laws as well as methodical acts which encourage the structural development of artistic capabilities from an early age. Various experts dealt with this phenomenon, particularly Bogomil Karlavaris. In his methodical research, he has given an unexceptional part to this problem. It has been a starting point for analysis of certain methodical questions which are included in this work.

  4. History of Planning Structure Development in Irkutsk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulakov, A. I.; Ree, A. U.

    2017-11-01

    The development of Irkutsk was spontaneous; the first streets represented a rather complex system of streets, dead ends, lanes. Throughout the history of the city, several general plans and development projects have been implemented (but not completely). Unlike other large Siberian cities (Novosibirsk, Krasnoyarsk), Irkutsk managed to preserve its historical appearance, architecture and initial planning. During its history the city has passed five stages of the planning structure development. The first stage of the city’s history coincides with the formation of the Russian settlements network in Eastern Siberia from the middle of the 17th to the end of the 18th centuries. Like many other Siberian cities, Irkutsk began its evolution from a fortified stockaded town. By the end of the 17th century a trading quarter appeared outside its walls. Currently, the city is developing and growing, so, a relevant issue of the further development direction of the Irkutsk planning structure naturally arises.

  5. Development of Technology for Structural Integrity Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choun, Young Sun; Choi, I. K.; Kim, M. K. and others

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this study is a development of seismic safety and structural integrity evaluation method of the structure in the Nuclear Power plant (NPP). The purpose of 1st sub-Topic is the development and improvement of the seismic safety evaluation methodology for the Nuclear Power Plant structures and safety related equipment. The purpose of 2nd sub-topic is the increasing of structure and equipment seismic capacity through the reducing of seismic force. The purpose of 3rd sub-topic is the development of 3-D nonlinear finite element analysis program for prestressed concrete containment building. The last purpose if the evaluation of the failure mechanism of containment structure and structure capacity and the assessment of integrity of containment through the of leakage test. As a result of this research, there are many research results were produced. The scenario earthquake developing method was developed and the effect of the structures and equipment was analyzed. The effectiveness of isolation system was determined and optimum isolation systems for each equipment were selected. The NUCAS-3D program for the 3 dimensional numerical analysis of containment building using the embedded tendon element and rebar element was developed. The tension behavior of containment building was examined and the leakage rate of the concrete crack was determined. The results of this research can be successfully used for many fields of integrity of NPP site. It can be used for development of design earthquake for the seismic design and safety evaluation and establishment of seismic safety evaluation program and seismic capacity improvement program for existing NPP. In case of seismic isolation part, it can be used for the application to the selection of optimum isolation devices for equipment isolation and to the effective evaluation of each seismic isolation devices. In containment analysis part, it can be used for ultimate pressure capacity evaluation of prestressed concrete

  6. Regulation of Neurexin 1[beta] Tertiary Structure and Ligand Binding through Alternative Splicing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Kaiser C.; Kuczynska, Dorota A.; Wu, Irene J.; Murray, Beverly H.; Sheckler, Lauren R.; Rudenko, Gabby (Michigan)

    2008-08-04

    Neurexins and neuroligins play an essential role in synapse function, and their alterations are linked to autistic spectrum disorder. Interactions between neurexins and neuroligins regulate inhibitory and excitatory synaptogenesis in vitro through a splice-insert signaling code. In particular, neurexin 1{beta} carrying an alternative splice insert at site SS{number_sign}4 interacts with neuroligin 2 (found predominantly at inhibitory synapses) but much less so with other neuroligins (those carrying an insert at site B and prevalent at excitatory synapses). The structure of neurexin 1{beta}+SS{number_sign}4 reveals dramatic rearrangements to the 'hypervariable surface', the binding site for neuroligins. The splice insert protrudes as a long helix into space, triggers conversion of loop {beta}10-{beta}11 into a helix rearranging the binding site for neuroligins, and rearranges the Ca{sup 2+}-binding site required for ligand binding, increasing its affinity. Our structures reveal the mechanism by which neurexin 1{beta} isoforms acquire neuroligin splice isoform selectivity.

  7. Modelling N2O dynamics in the engineered N cycle: Evaluation of alternate model structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smets, Barth F.; Pellicer i Nàcher, Carles; Domingo Felez, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    to minimize the carbon footprint of wastewater treatment plants. The present contribution aims to summarize the recent developments in this field and makes use of standard indentifiability measures to show how the choice of experimental protocols and model structures can potentially impact their calibration....

  8. Evidence for alternative quaternary structure in a bacterial Type III secretion system chaperone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barta, Michael L.; Zhang, Lingling; Picking, Wendy L.; Geisbrecht, Brian V. (UMKC); (OKLU)

    2010-10-05

    Type III secretion systems are a common virulence mechanism in many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. These systems use a nanomachine resembling a molecular needle and syringe to provide an energized conduit for the translocation of effector proteins from the bacterial cytoplasm to the host cell cytoplasm for the benefit of the pathogen. Prior to translocation specialized chaperones maintain proper effector protein conformation. The class II chaperone, Invasion plasmid gene (Ipg) C, stabilizes two pore forming translocator proteins. IpgC exists as a functional dimer to facilitate the mutually exclusive binding of both translocators. In this study, we present the 3.3 {angstrom} crystal structure of an amino-terminally truncated form (residues 10-155, denoted IpgC10-155) of the class II chaperone IpgC from Shigella flexneri. Our structure demonstrates an alternative quaternary arrangement to that previously described for a carboxy-terminally truncated variant of IpgC (IpgC{sup 1-151}). Specifically, we observe a rotationally-symmetric 'head-to-head' dimerization interface that is far more similar to that previously described for SycD from Yersinia enterocolitica than to IpgC1-151. The IpgC structure presented here displays major differences in the amino terminal region, where extended coil-like structures are seen, as opposed to the short, ordered alpha helices and asymmetric dimerization interface seen within IpgC{sup 1-151}. Despite these differences, however, both modes of dimerization support chaperone activity, as judged by a copurification assay with a recombinant form of the translocator protein, IpaB. Conclusions: From primary to quaternary structure, these results presented here suggest that a symmetric dimerization interface is conserved across bacterial class II chaperones. In light of previous data which have described the structure and function of asymmetric dimerization, our results raise the possibility that class II chaperones may

  9. Development of Alternative Power Industry Based on Nanotechnologies: Forecast Effects for Russian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inshakova Elena Ivanovna

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aspiration of countries to achieve sustainable economic growth by reducing the energy dependence of the main suppliers of energy resources and by increasing national energy security induces in the conditions of increasing competition between participants in the global energy market the necessity to intensify the use of internal development resources, including the introduction of energy-saving technologies and development of alternative power industry. The urgency of the problems of international competitiveness achievement based on the energy security strengthening, solution of which largely determines the directions of the energy sector development, is increasingly recognized in many countries, including Russia. Timeliness of preparation to the use of substitute innovative energy resources and energy sources, while the traditional fossil fuels are dwindling, is marked as one of the most important principles of the state policy of Russia. All these factors update the development of domestic alternative energy in accordance with the megatrends of the world energy sector. The prospects for the development of modern energy, especially alternative, are associated by many experts with the use of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials. Nanotechnologies contribute to the new opportunities for the use of renewable energy sources and a significant contribution to the production and conservation of energy. The main directions of the effective use of nanotechnologies in the energy sector are: the use of renewable sources; energy storage; reducing the consumption of materials; the use of alternative materials. On the example of the world and Russian practice of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials use in the sphere of wind and solar energy the basic effects of their application, important for the development of alternative energy and of the Russian national economy as a whole, are identified in the article. The most important effects include strengthening

  10. Exploring Critical Alternatives for Youth Development through Lifestyle Sport: Surfing and Community Development in Aotearoa/New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Belinda Wheaton; Georgina Roy; Rebecca Olive

    2017-01-01

    While competition-based team sports remain dominant in community and sport-for-development programs, researchers are exploring the value of alternative, less “sportized” activities such as lifestyle/action sports. In this paper, we explore the ways in which surfing is being used in development programs in Aotearoa/New Zealand, examining the perceived social benefits and impact. Our methods involved: (a) mapping the range of surfing projects; and (b) 8 in-depth interviews with program personne...

  11. Ecosocial System: Structure, Development Laws and Functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Alekseev

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper substantiates necessity to develop a unified system of socio-ecological knowledge. Ecosophy being a forming component of dialectic-materialistic philosophy has been proposed as such system. Structure, development laws and functioning of eco-social system are considered as a part of ecosophy theory. Standard laws and ecological principles being widely recognized by ecologically orientated theorists are stated in the paper.

  12. Photogrammetry Methodology Development for Gossamer Spacecraft Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappa, Richard S.; Jones, Thomas W.; Black, Jonathan T.; Walford, Alan; Robson, Stuart; Shortis, Mark R.

    2002-01-01

    Photogrammetry--the science of calculating 3D object coordinates from images--is a flexible and robust approach for measuring the static and dynamic characteristics of future ultra-lightweight and inflatable space structures (a.k.a., Gossamer structures), such as large membrane reflectors, solar sails, and thin-film solar arrays. Shape and dynamic measurements are required to validate new structural modeling techniques and corresponding analytical models for these unconventional systems. This paper summarizes experiences at NASA Langley Research Center over the past three years to develop or adapt photogrammetry methods for the specific problem of measuring Gossamer space structures. Turnkey industrial photogrammetry systems were not considered a cost-effective choice for this basic research effort because of their high purchase and maintenance costs. Instead, this research uses mainly off-the-shelf digital-camera and software technologies that are affordable to most organizations and provide acceptable accuracy.

  13. Mechanical Model Development for Composite Structural Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricks, Trenton M.; Lacy, Thomas E., Jr.; Santiago, Diana; Bednarcyk, Brett A.

    2016-01-01

    Novel composite structural supercapacitor concepts have recently been developed as a means both to store electrical charge and to provide modest mechanical load carrying capability. Double-layer composite supercapacitors are often fabricated by impregnating a woven carbon fiber fabric, which serves as the electrodes, with a structural polymer electrolyte. Polypropylene or a glass fabric is often used as the separator material. Recent research has been primarily limited to evaluating these composites experimentally. In this study, mechanical models based on the Multiscale Generalized Method of Cells (MSGMC) were developed and used to calculate the shear and tensile properties and response of two composite structural supercapacitors from the literature. The modeling approach was first validated against traditional composite laminate data. MSGMC models for composite supercapacitors were developed, and accurate elastic shear/tensile properties were obtained. It is envisioned that further development of the models presented in this work will facilitate the design of composite components for aerospace and automotive applications and can be used to screen candidate constituent materials for inclusion in future composite structural supercapacitor concepts.

  14. Nucleon structure in view of recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, A.D.

    1993-01-01

    We review the present knowledge of the parton structure of the proton. We discuss recent developments concerning deep-inelastic scattering and parton distributions at small x, with emphasis on the predictions of perturbative QCD that are relevant to the experiment at HERA. (author). 37 refs, 16 figs, 1 tab

  15. Development and optimization of containment structure concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, H.R.; Whitcraft, J.S. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The development of prestressed concrete containment structures for nuclear power plants designed, constructed, and tested by Bechtel Power Corporation has been divided into three general stages or generations. The distinctions that characterize these generations are: the shape of the dome, the number of buttresses, the size and arrangement of the post-tensioning tendons, and the design level of the prestressing forces. (author)

  16. MOVPE and characterization of GaN-based structures on alternative substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dikme, Y.

    2006-06-20

    This study involves growth experiments of GaN-based layer structures on silicon (Si), lithium aluminate (LiAlO{sub 2}) and the composite substrate SiCOI. Substrate specific preparation and growth procedures were developed. Because of the different lattice constants and thermal expansion coefficients between GaN and the substrate materials and because of the high depositions temperatures (>1000 C) complex interlayers are required to create a crossover from the substrate to the GaN layer and to prevent substrate/layer bowing and cracks developing in the epitaxial layers. Crystallographic, thermal and electronic properties of these materials were investigated and the developed layers were used as buffer layers for electronic and opto electronic devices. On Si AlN/GaN distributed Bragg reflectors (DBR), InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) and AlGaN/GaN HEMT (high electron mobility transistor) were demonstrated. The transistor structures showed high power densities, which were comparable to industrially fabricated devices. As well as the reflection of a certain wavelength region, the DBR layers additionally showed positive influence on succeeding GaN top layer optical properties. For the first time laser emission of an optically pumped InGaN/GaN MQW on Si was demonstrated with low excitation density and a high operating temperature. GaN-based structures were deposited on LiAlO2 in the m-plane crystal orientation; that do not exhibit polarization mechanisms in growth direction. For the deposition of coalesced GaN films a seal-coating of the LiAlO{sub 2} surface was developed and finally LED structures were grown on these substrates. For the first time electroluminescence of LED structures on LiAlO{sub 2} was achieved. The growth on the composite substrate SiCOI was initiated with an HT AlN layer and it was demonstrated that SiCOI is comparable to a bulk SiC substrate for the GaN-based epitaxy. The developed and investigated layer structure served as buffer for the

  17. Alternatives for the treatment and disposal of healthcare wastes in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, L.F.; Savage, G.M.; Eggerth, L.L.

    2005-01-01

    Waste production in healthcare facilities in developing countries has brought about a variety of concerns due to the use of inappropriate methods of managing the wastes. Inappropriate treatment and final disposal of the wastes can lead to adverse impacts to public health, to occupational health and safety, and to the environment. Unfortunately, most economically developing countries suffer a variety of constraints to adequately managing these wastes. Generally in developing countries, few individuals in the staff of the healthcare facility are familiar with the procedures required for a proper waste management program. Furthermore, the management of wastes usually is delegated to poorly educated laborers who perform most activities without proper guidance and insufficient protection. This paper presents some of the most common treatment and disposal methods utilized in the management of infectious healthcare wastes in developing countries. The methods discussed include: autoclave; microwave; chemical disinfection; combustion (low-, medium-, and high-technology); and disposal on the ground (dump site, controlled landfill, pits, and sanitary landfill). Each alternative for treatment and disposal is explained, including a description of the types of wastes that can and cannot be treated. Background information on the technologies also is included in order to provide information to those who may not be familiar with the details of each alternative. In addition, a brief presentation of some of the emissions from each of the treatment and disposal alternatives is presented

  18. Development of the Structural Materials Information Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oland, C.B.; Naus, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has initiated a Structural Aging Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to identify potential structural safety issues related to continued service of nuclear power plants and to establish criteria for evaluating and resolving these issues. One of the tasks in this program focuses on the establishment of a Structural Materials Information Center where data and information on the time variation of concrete and other structural material properties under the influence of pertinent environmental stressors and aging factors are being collected and assembled into a data base. This data base will be used to assist in the prediction of potential long-term deterioration of critical structural components in nuclear power plants and to establish limits on hostile environmental exposure for these structures and materials. Two complementary data base formats have been developed. The Structural Materials Handbook is an expandable, hard-copy reference document that contains complete sets of data and information for selected portland cement concrete, metallic reinforcement, prestressing tendon, and structural steel materials. Baseline data, reference properties and environmental information are presented in the handbook as tables, notes and graphs. The handbook, which will be published in four volumes, serves as the information source for the electronic data base. The Structural Materials Electronic Data Base is accessible by an IBM-compatible personal computer and provides an efficient means for searching the various data base files to locate materials with similar properties. Properties will be reported in the International System of Units (SI) and in customary units whenever possible. 7 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  19. Development and Validation of Linear Alternator Models for the Advanced Stirling Convertor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metscher, Jonathan F.; Lewandowski, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    Two models of the linear alternator of the Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) have been developed using the Sage 1-D modeling software package. The first model relates the piston motion to electric current by means of a motor constant. The second uses electromagnetic model components to model the magnetic circuit of the alternator. The models are tuned and validated using test data and also compared against each other. Results show both models can be tuned to achieve results within 7 of ASC test data under normal operating conditions. Using Sage enables the creation of a complete ASC model to be developed and simulations completed quickly compared to more complex multi-dimensional models. These models allow for better insight into overall Stirling convertor performance, aid with Stirling power system modeling, and in the future support NASA mission planning for Stirling-based power systems.

  20. Development of thermoplastic composite aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renieri, Michael P.; Burpo, Steven J.; Roundy, Lance M.; Todd, Stephanie A.; Kim, H. J.

    1992-01-01

    Efforts focused on the use of thermoplastic composite materials in the development of structural details associated with an advanced fighter fuselage section with applicability to transport design. In support of these designs, mechanics developments were conducted in two areas. First, a dissipative strain energy approach to material characterization and failure prediction, developed at the Naval Research Laboratory, was evaluated as a design/analysis tool. Second, a finite element formulation for thick composites was developed and incorporated into a lug analysis method which incorporates pin bending effects. Manufacturing concepts were developed for an upper fuel cell cover. A detailed trade study produced two promising concepts: fiber placement and single-step diaphragm forming. Based on the innovative design/manufacturing concepts for the fuselage section primary structure, elements were designed, fabricated, and structurally tested. These elements focused on key issues such as thick composite lugs and low cost forming of fastenerless, stiffener/moldine concepts. Manufacturing techniques included autoclave consolidation, single diaphragm consolidation (SDCC) and roll-forming.

  1. European structural materials development for fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaaf, B. van der E-mail: vanderschaaf@nrg-nl.com; Ehrlich, K.; Fenici, P.; Tavassoli, A.A.; Victoria, M

    2000-09-01

    Leading long term considerations for choices in the European Long Term Technology programme are the high temperature mechanical- and compatibility properties of structural materials under neutron irradiation. The degrees of fabrication process freedom are closely investigated to allow the construction of complex shapes. Another important consideration is the activation behaviour of the structural material. The ideal solution is the recycling of the structural materials after a relatively short 'cooling' period. The structural materials development in Europe has three streams. The first serves the design and construction of ITER and is closely connected to the choice made: water cooled austenitic stainless steel. The second development stream is to support the design and construction of DEMO relevant blanket modules to be tested in ITER. The helium cooled pebble bed and the water cooled liquid lithium concept rely both on RAFM steel. The goal of the third stream is to investigate the potential of advanced materials for fusion power reactors beyond DEMO. The major contending materials: SiCSiC composites, vanadium, titanium and chromium alloys hold the promise of high operating temperatures, but RAFM has also a high temperature potential applying oxide dispersion strengthening. The development of materials for fusion power application requires a high flux 14 MeV neutron source to simulate the fusion power environment.

  2. Structural Insights into RNA Recognition by the Alternate-Splicing Regulator CUG-Binding Protein 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M Teplova; J Song; H Gaw; A Teplov; D Patel

    2011-12-31

    CUG-binding protein 1 (CUGBP1) regulates multiple aspects of nuclear and cytoplasmic mRNA processing, with implications for onset of myotonic dystrophy. CUGBP1 harbors three RRM domains and preferentially targets UGU-rich mRNA elements. We describe crystal structures of CUGBP1 RRM1 and tandem RRM1/2 domains bound to RNAs containing tandem UGU(U/G) elements. Both RRM1 in RRM1-RNA and RRM2 in RRM1/2-RNA complexes use similar principles to target UGU(U/G) elements, with recognition mediated by face-to-edge stacking and water-mediated hydrogen-bonding networks. The UG step adopts a left-handed Z-RNA conformation, with the syn guanine recognized through Hoogsteen edge-protein backbone hydrogen-bonding interactions. NMR studies on the RRM1/2-RNA complex establish that both RRM domains target tandem UGUU motifs in solution, whereas filter-binding assays identify a preference for recognition of GU over AU or GC steps. We discuss the implications of CUGBP1-mediated targeting and sequestration of UGU(U/G) elements on pre-mRNA alternative-splicing regulation, translational regulation, and mRNA decay.

  3. Nursing Competency: Definition, Structure and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukada, Mika

    2018-01-01

    Nursing competency includes core abilities that are required for fulfilling one’s role as a nurse. Therefore, it is important to clearly define nursing competency to establish a foundation for nursing education curriculum. However, while the concepts surrounding nursing competency are important for improving nursing quality, they are still not yet completely developed. Thus, challenges remain in establishing definitions and structures for nursing competency, competency levels necessary for nursing professionals, training methods and so on. In the present study, we reviewed the research on definitions and attributes of nursing competency in Japan as well as competency structure, its elements and evaluation. Furthermore, we investigated training methods to teach nursing competency. PMID:29599616

  4. Nursing Competency: Definition, Structure and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukada, Mika

    2018-03-01

    Nursing competency includes core abilities that are required for fulfilling one's role as a nurse. Therefore, it is important to clearly define nursing competency to establish a foundation for nursing education curriculum. However, while the concepts surrounding nursing competency are important for improving nursing quality, they are still not yet completely developed. Thus, challenges remain in establishing definitions and structures for nursing competency, competency levels necessary for nursing professionals, training methods and so on. In the present study, we reviewed the research on definitions and attributes of nursing competency in Japan as well as competency structure, its elements and evaluation. Furthermore, we investigated training methods to teach nursing competency.

  5. Performance and suggested alternative strategies in developing Indonesian cocoa export business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Dradjat

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This research focussed on the export development of cocoa bean with respect to its export growth, values and competitiveness. Based on this deve-lopment, the aim of this research is to propose alternative development strategies of export business for cocoa bean in the future. The Analysis Hierarchie Process (AHP framework of export business of cocoa bean was arranged consecutively from formulation of focuss or goals, identification of affecting factors and actors, deter mination of actor objectives, and recognition of alternative strategies needed. Each component of goals, factors, actors, objectives, and alternative strategies were valued on the basis of their importance using Saaty scales. Results of interviews with experts were analyzed using AHP technique. The development of cocoa bean export from 2000 to 2006 showed the competitiveness position of Indonesia in the world market was fairly good. In order to increase the growth and values of cocoa bean export, the experts consider the role of government as regulators and facilitators is very important. The government became the main actor for the export development through de/regulation related to the cocoa bean commodity. The objectives of actors could be achieved by combining strategies (i provision of fund in national and regional budget, as well as other sources (ii implementation of recomended technologies of cocoa, (iii acceleration of replanting program, (iv improvement of research productivity in producing high yielding plant materials, (v development of transportation facilities from farms to harbours, (vi development of farmers’ organization and partnerships as well as strategic alliance, and (viii pests and diseases control. Key words: Cocoa bean, expor, role of government, objectives and strategies.

  6. Development of structural steels for nuclear application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jun Hwa; Chi, S. H.; Ryu, W. S.; Lee, B. S.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, J. H.; Oh, Y. J.; Byun, T. S.; Yoon, J. H.; Park, D. K.; Oh, J. M.; Cho, H. D.; Kim, H.; Kim, H. D.; Kang, S. S.; Kim, J. W.; Ahn, S. B.

    1997-08-01

    To established the bases of nuclear structural material technologies, this study was focused on the localization and improvement of nuclear structural steels, the production of material property data, and technology developments for integrity evaluation. The important test and analysis technologies for material integrity assessment were developed, and the materials properties of the pressure vessel steels were evaluated systematically on the basis of those technologies, they are microstructural characteristics, tensile and indentation deformation properties, impact properties, and static and dynamic fracture toughness, fatigue and corrosion fatigue etc. Irradiation tests in the research reactors were prepared or completed to obtain the mechanical properties of irradiated materials. The improvement of low alloy steel was also attempted through the comparative study on the manufacturing processes, computer assisted alloy and process design, and application of the inter critical heat treatment. On the other hand, type 304 stainless steels for reactor internals were developed and tested successfully. High strength type 316LN stainless steels for reactor internals were developed and the microstructural characteristics, corrosion resistance, mechanical properties at high temperatures, low cycle fatigue property etc. were tested and analyzed in the view point of the effect of nitrogen. Type 347 stainless steels with high corrosion resistance and toughness for pipings and tubes and low-activated Cr-Mn steels were also developed and their basic properties were evaluated. Finally, the martensitic stainless steels for turbine blade were developed and tests. (author). 242 refs., 100 tabs., 304 figs.

  7. Development of structural steels for nuclear application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Jun Hwa; Chi, S. H.; Ryu, W. S.; Lee, B. S.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, J. H.; Oh, Y. J.; Byun, T. S.; Yoon, J. H.; Park, D. K.; Oh, J. M.; Cho, H. D.; Kim, H.; Kim, H. D.; Kang, S. S.; Kim, J. W.; Ahn, S. B.

    1997-08-01

    To established the bases of nuclear structural material technologies, this study was focused on the localization and improvement of nuclear structural steels, the production of material property data, and technology developments for integrity evaluation. The important test and analysis technologies for material integrity assessment were developed, and the materials properties of the pressure vessel steels were evaluated systematically on the basis of those technologies, they are microstructural characteristics, tensile and indentation deformation properties, impact properties, and static and dynamic fracture toughness, fatigue and corrosion fatigue etc. Irradiation tests in the research reactors were prepared or completed to obtain the mechanical properties of irradiated materials. The improvement of low alloy steel was also attempted through the comparative study on the manufacturing processes, computer assisted alloy and process design, and application of the inter critical heat treatment. On the other hand, type 304 stainless steels for reactor internals were developed and tested successfully. High strength type 316LN stainless steels for reactor internals were developed and the microstructural characteristics, corrosion resistance, mechanical properties at high temperatures, low cycle fatigue property etc. were tested and analyzed in the view point of the effect of nitrogen. Type 347 stainless steels with high corrosion resistance and toughness for pipings and tubes and low-activated Cr-Mn steels were also developed and their basic properties were evaluated. Finally, the martensitic stainless steels for turbine blade were developed and tests. (author). 242 refs., 100 tabs., 304 figs

  8. TRENDS IN OFFICIAL DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE TO DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND POSSIBILITIES OF ALTERNATIVE FINANCING MECHANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talknice Saungweme

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study analyses trends in Official Development Assistance (ODA to developing countries, mainly Africa, and possibilities of new financing instruments. Economies of most developing countries, especially those in Sub-Saharan Africa, are characterised by low investment flows, huge import bills and lower exports. Subsequently, development assistance is the major source of external finance and has taken the form of budget support, humanitarian and development finance. However, the noted fall in ODA in 2005, 2009 and 2012 might adversely impact directly on the attainment of millennium development goals in 2015. This negative trend in ODA is a result of a combination of factors such as economic constraints in the donor countries (for example, the debt crisis and/or a new shift in financing mechanisms to developing countries.

  9. Development of children’s early understanding of numeric structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilyeva, Marina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of the base-10 structure of multi-digit numbers is one of the critical aspects in early mathematics learning. It has been documented that children from different countries vary in their use of base-10 representations. Questions concerning potential sources of this variability have been debated for decades. One commonly posited explanation is that some languages provide explicit cues about the structure of multi-digit numbers, facilitating the development of base-10 representations. In the present study, we tested this view against an alternative view, positing that variability in children’s learning of numeric structure may reflect differences in their experiences with numbers. The study examined kindergartners and first-graders from four countries: Taiwan, South Korea, the USA, and Russia. Results showed that the use of base-10 representations by American first-graders increased dramatically over the last decades, following changes in curricular guidelines. First-graders across the four countries showed some differences in performance (however, not consistent with the language account, whereas kindergartners performed comparably despite the differences in their languages. The results suggest that the nature of early math instruction may be critical for children’s developing understanding of numeric structure.

  10. Designing organizational structures: Key thoughts for development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killingsworth, Patricia; Eschenbacher, Lynn

    2018-04-01

    Current strategies and concepts to consider in developing a system-level organizational structure for the pharmacy enterprise are discussed. There are many different ways to design an organizational structure for the pharmacy enterprise within a health system. The size of the organization, the number of states in which it operates, and the geographic spread and complexity of the pharmacy business lines should be among the key considerations in determining the optimal organizational and decision-making structures for the pharmacy enterprise. The structure needs to support incorporation of the pharmacy leadership (both system-level executives and local leaders) into all strategic planning and discussions at the hospital and health-system levels so that they can directly represent the pharmacy enterprise instead of relying on others to develop strategy on their behalf. It is important that leaders of all aspects of the pharmacy enterprise report through the system's top pharmacy executive, who should be a pharmacist and have a title consistent with those of other leaders reporting at the same organizational level (e.g., chief pharmacy officer). Pharmacy leaders need to be well positioned within an organization to advocate for the pharmacy enterprise and use all resources to the best of their ability. As the scope and complexity of pharmacy services grow, it is critical to ensure that leadership of the pharmacy enterprise is unified under a single pharmacy executive team. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Regularities development of entrepreneurial structures in regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Semenovna Pinkovetskaya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Consider regularities and tendencies for the three types of entrepreneurial structures — small enterprises, medium enterprises and individual entrepreneurs. The aim of the research was to confirm the possibilities of describing indicators of aggregate entrepreneurial structures with the use of normal law distribution functions. Presented proposed by the author the methodological approach and results of construction of the functions of the density distribution for the main indicators for the various objects: the Russian Federation, regions, as well as aggregates ofentrepreneurial structures, specialized in certain forms ofeconomic activity. All the developed functions, as shown by the logical and statistical analysis, are of high quality and well-approximate the original data. In general, the proposed methodological approach is versatile and can be used in further studies of aggregates of entrepreneurial structures. The received results can be applied in solving a wide range of problems justify the need for personnel and financial resources at the federal, regional and municipal levels, as well as the formation of plans and forecasts of development entrepreneurship and improvement of this sector of the economy.

  12. Structured illumination microscopy and its new developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianling Chen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Optical microscopy allows us to observe the biological structures and processes within living cells. However, the spatial resolution of the optical microscopy is limited to about half of the wavelength by the light diffraction. Structured illumination microscopy (SIM, a type of new emerging super-resolution microscopy, doubles the spatial resolution by illuminating the specimen with a patterned light, and the sample and light source requirements of SIM are not as strict as the other super-resolution microscopy. In addition, SIM is easier to combine with the other imaging techniques to improve their imaging resolution, leading to the developments of diverse types of SIM. SIM has great potential to meet the various requirements of living cells imaging. Here, we review the recent developments of SIM and its combination with other imaging techniques.

  13. Financial Structure and Economic Development in Nigieria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph. D. Olusegun Olowe

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study , the measurement of the Nigerian financial interrelation ratio was considered in line with the structure and development of financial system between 1999 and 2008 with a view to examining the incidences of the financial liberalization . The financial intermediation role for Nigeria on current basic prices was computed to determining the extent of stability and /or positive cum negative changes. This is to ensure the involvement of government as well as thedegree of financial institutions’ involvement in the economic growth and development of the country. In essence, the results of this study will be of relevance to formulate and execute policy formulation in its entirety. The result of the study revealed a pure neglect in the country with emphasis on financial intermediation. The earlier we put an enhanced financial structure in place, , the better for the economy.

  14. Simulating the Effects of Alternative Forest Management Strategies on Landscape Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric J. Gustafson; Thomas Crow

    1996-01-01

    Quantitative, spatial tools are needed to assess the long-term spatial consequences of alternative management strategies for land use planning and resource management. We constructed a timber harvest allocation model (HARVEST) that provides a visual and quantitative means to predict the spatial pattern of forest openings produced by alternative harvest strategies....

  15. Nursing Competency: Definition, Structure and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Fukada, Mika

    2018-01-01

    Nursing competency includes core abilities that are required for fulfilling one’s role as a nurse. Therefore, it is important to learly define nursing competency to establish a foundation for nursing education curriculum. However, while the concepts surrounding nursing competency are important for improving nursing quality, they are still not yet completely developed. Thus, challenges remain in establishing finitions and structures for nursing competency, competency levels necessary for nurs...

  16. Recent developments in the way forward for alternative methods: Formation of national consensus platforms in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogiers, Vera

    2005-01-01

    Ecopa, the European Consensus Platform on 3R-Alternatives, is an international not-for-profit organization that wants to stimulate the development of 3R-alternatives, increase awareness among the public, scientists and regulatory bodies, and help their implementation into the different national legislations. This is done by networking and bringing together National Consensus Platforms on 3R-alternatives. Consensus means that all parties concerned are represented, namely, animal welfare, industry, academia, and governmental institutions. Actually, 14 Member State Platforms exist. Fully complying with the criteria, set by ecopa, are the platforms of Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. Under development are the platforms of Denmark, Norway, and Poland. To reach its goals, ecopa uses conventional scientific tools such as workshops and meetings but it also makes scientific-political statements. A recent realization in particular is the involvement of ecopa in several European projects of the Sixth Framework Programme, either as coordinator, research partner, or board member

  17. Evaluating energy-system alternatives in the context of sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.

    1993-01-01

    Growing awareness of the negative social, environmental and economic impacts caused by the production, distribution and end-use consumption of energy has led the search for alternatives to become increasingly urgent and complex. The need for analytical methods and tools for evaluating options and opportunities is particularly acute in rapidly developing countries. The aim of this article is to illustrate the broad range of issues and impacts that are important for evaluating and comparing energy-system alternatives in the context of sustainable development. The feasibility of producing and utilizing biomass-based ethanol as an alternative transportation fuel in Thailand is explored herein to provide examples and a forum for discussion of these issues. Scenarios describe the conditions under which a significant potential for fuel-switching to domestically-produced ethanol appears to exist. Harnessing this potential could lead to important improvements in the energy system's impacts on human health, Thailand's economy, and the environment. Achieving these improvements, however, would require comprehensive and long-term planning and support on the part of the Thai government

  18. LRRTM3 Regulates Excitatory Synapse Development through Alternative Splicing and Neurexin Binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Won Um

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The four members of the LRRTM family (LRRTM1-4 are postsynaptic adhesion molecules essential for excitatory synapse development. They have also been implicated in neuropsychiatric diseases. Here, we focus on LRRTM3, showing that two distinct LRRTM3 variants generated by alternative splicing regulate LRRTM3 interaction with PSD-95, but not its excitatory synapse-promoting activity. Overexpression of either LRRTM3 variant increased excitatory synapse density in dentate gyrus (DG granule neurons, whereas LRRTM3 knockdown decreased it. LRRTM3 also controlled activity-regulated AMPA receptor surface expression in an alternative splicing-dependent manner. Furthermore, Lrrtm3-knockout mice displayed specific alterations in excitatory synapse density, excitatory synaptic transmission and excitability in DG granule neurons but not in CA1 pyramidal neurons. Lastly, LRRTM3 required only specific splice variants of presynaptic neurexins for their synaptogenic activity. Collectively, our data highlight alternative splicing and differential presynaptic ligand utilization in the regulation of LRRTMs, revealing key regulatory mechanisms for excitatory synapse development.

  19. Scientific methods for developing ultrastable structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamble, M.; Thompson, T.; Miller, W.

    1990-01-01

    Scientific methods used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory for developing an ultrastable structure for study of silicon-based elementary particle tracking systems are addressed. In particular, the design, analysis, and monitoring of this system are explored. The development methodology was based on a triad of analytical, computational, and experimental techniques. These were used to achieve a significant degree of mechanical stability (alignment accuracy >1 μrad) and yet allow dynamic manipulation of the system. Estimates of system thermal and vibratory stability and component performance are compared with experimental data collected using laser interferometry and accelerometers. 8 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  20. The human brain. Prenatal development and structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin-Padilla, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    This book is unique among the current literature in that it systematically documents the prenatal structural development of the human brain. It is based on lifelong study using essentially a single staining procedure, the classic rapid Golgi procedure, which ensures an unusual and desirable uniformity in the observations. The book is amply illustrated with 81 large, high-quality color photomicrographs never previously reproduced. These photomicrographs, obtained at 6, 7, 11, 15, 18, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 weeks of gestation, offer a fascinating insight into the sequential prenatal development of neurons, blood vessels, and glia in the human brain. (orig.)

  1. The human brain. Prenatal development and structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin-Padilla, Miguel

    2011-07-01

    This book is unique among the current literature in that it systematically documents the prenatal structural development of the human brain. It is based on lifelong study using essentially a single staining procedure, the classic rapid Golgi procedure, which ensures an unusual and desirable uniformity in the observations. The book is amply illustrated with 81 large, high-quality color photomicrographs never previously reproduced. These photomicrographs, obtained at 6, 7, 11, 15, 18, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 weeks of gestation, offer a fascinating insight into the sequential prenatal development of neurons, blood vessels, and glia in the human brain. (orig.)

  2. Indústrias criativas: alternativa de desenvolvimento regional | Creative industries: regional development alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Sousa Leitão

    2011-10-01

    ção de empreendedores, a formação de gestores, a construção de novas habilidades e competências para os agentes do campo criativo. Trata-se, enfim, de se construir e consolidar uma alternativa de superação do atraso social e econômico pelo viés do fomento a empreendimentos criativos, onde o desenvolvimento regional é compreendido como sendo um processo multidimensional, envolvendo a comunidade impregnada de história, suas relações, suas instituições e capaz de conduzir o seu próprio destino. Palavras-chave desenvolvimento regional. economia criativa. políticas públicas. bacia criativa. Programa Nordeste Criativo Abstract This article aims to describe a proposal to promote the productive chains of the creative industries in northeastern Brazil, in the context of a discussion about alternative models of regional development. To achieve this purpose, we performed a literature search in books, journal articles and electronic documents. The study begins with a reflection on the meanings of development and its connections to creativity and innovation. The research is structured in two main areas: the first one deals with the concept of creative industries and the report of its potential to generate economic, cultural, social and technological leverage the positive domestic and foreign trade of creative goods and services; the second one presents a discussion of local and regional development from the concept of 'creative bassin' with a view to a new territorial approach in northeastern Brazil. From these lines, we propose the creative Northeast Program which consists of two fundamental lines of action: the first one refers to the structure and operation of the Centre for Creative Industries in the Northeast (OICNE facing the production and dissemination of knowledge about the creative economy in the region; the second one concerns the establishment and operation of Creative Business Bureaus (BNC, ie, physical spaces for the promotion of sustainable creative

  3. Scrambling the Nest Egg: How Well Do Teachers Understand Their Pensions, and What Do They Think about Alternative Pension Structures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeArmond, Michael; Goldhaber, Dan

    2010-01-01

    In this article we focus on two questions: How well do teachers understand their current pension plans, and what do they think about alternative plan structures? The data come from administrative records and a 2006 survey of teachers in Washington State. The results suggest that Washington's teachers are fairly knowledgeable about their pensions,…

  4. The transformation of trust in China's alternative food networks: disruption, reconstruction, and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Yu. Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Food safety issues in China have received much scholarly attention, yet few studies systematically examined this matter through the lens of trust. More importantly, little is known about the transformation of different types of trust in the dynamic process of food production, provision, and consumption. We consider trust as an evolving interdependent relationship between different actors. We used the Beijing County Fair, a prominent ecological farmers' market in China, as an example to examine the transformation of trust in China's alternative food networks. We argue that although there has been a disruption of institutional trust among the general public since 2008 when the melamine-tainted milk scandal broke out, reconstruction of individual trust and development of organizational trust have been observed, along with the emergence and increasing popularity of alternative food networks. Based on more than six months of fieldwork on the emerging ecological agriculture sector in 13 provinces across China as well as monitoring of online discussions and posts, we analyze how various social factors - including but not limited to direct and indirect reciprocity, information, endogenous institutions, and altruism - have simultaneously contributed to the transformation of trust in China's alternative food networks. The findings not only complement current social theories of trust, but also highlight an important yet understudied phenomenon whereby informal social mechanisms have been partially substituting for formal institutions and gradually have been building trust against the backdrop of the food safety crisis in China.

  5. Development of an active structure flight experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, R. A.; Wyse, R. E.; Schubert, S. R.

    1993-02-01

    The design and development of the Air Force and TRW's Advanced Control Technology Experiment (ACTEX) flight experiment is described in this paper. The overall objective of ACTEX is to provide an active structure trailblazer which will demonstrate the compatibility of active structures with operational spacecraft performance and lifetime measures. At the heart of the experiment is an active tripod driven by a digitally-programmable analog control electronics subsystem. Piezoceramic sensors and actuators embedded in a graphite epoxy host material provide the sensing and actuation mechanism for the active tripod. Low noise ground-programmable electronics provide a virtually unlimited number of control schemes that can be implemented in the space environment. The flight experiment program provides the opportunity to gather performance, reliability, adaptability, and lifetime performance data on vibration suppression hardware for the next generation of DoD and NASA spacecraft.

  6. STRUCTURAL ALTERNATIVES OF RUSSIAN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES AND ARCHITECTURE OF TECHNOLOGICAL MODERNIZATION. PART 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izryadnova O. I.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Continuing stagnation in the Russian economy makes a compelling case for structural reforms and transition to new technologies in non-financial sector. Given the backdrop of investor choice to wait out the situation and pause their investments, stagnation threatens to remain for longer. The biggest concerns are related to the slowdown in the range of high-tech non-resource manufacturing industries. These industries should become the cornerstone to foster the development of scientific, technical, and innovative potential of the country, overcoming the technical deficit, and implementation of modern technologies of the sixth technological generation. The article assesses the place and role of manufacturing industries in Russia’s economy and presents an analysis of dynamic shifts in their structure during the business cycle. The article demonstrates the results of empirical study of monitoring of innovative receptiveness of manufacturing industries. We discuss the directions of expanded cooperation between business and state. We also outline opportunities for correcting policies and tools directed at activating innovative functioning of the manufacturing sector in the view of the growth of geopolitical tensions, forms and methods of effective institutional management of the modernization of business units. It appears that the issues of investment maneuver to single out some types of economic activities, which manufacture products and services with high added value and increasing competitiveness of the Russian economy, call for the change in the model of economic development.

  7. STRUCTURAL ALTERNATIVES OF RUSSIAN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES AND ARCHITECTURE OF TECHNOLOGICAL MODERNIZATION. PART 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izryadnova O. I.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Continuing stagnation in the Russian economy makes a compelling case for structural reforms and transition to new technologies in non-financial sector. Given the backdrop of investor choice to wait out the situation and pause their investments, stagnation threatens to remain for longer. The biggest concerns are related to the slowdown in the range of high-tech non-resource manufacturing industries. These industries should become the cornerstone to foster the development of scientific, technical, and innovative potential of the country, overcoming the technical deficit, and implementation of modern technologies of the sixth technological generation. The article assesses the place and role of manufacturing industries in Russia’s economy and presents an analysis of dynamic shifts in their structure during the business cycle. The article demonstrates the results of empirical study of monitoring of innovative receptiveness of manufacturing industries. We discuss the directions of expanded cooperation between business and state. We also outline opportunities for correcting policies and tools directed at activating innovative functioning of the manufacturing sector in the view of the growth of geopolitical tensions, forms and methods of effective institutional management of the modernization of business units. It appears that the issues of investment maneuver to single out some types of economic activities, which manufacture products and services with high added value and increasing competitiveness of the Russian economy, call for the change in the model of economic development.

  8. System reliability developments in structural engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, F.

    1982-01-01

    Two major limitations occur in present structural design code developments utilizing reliability theory. The notional system reliabilities may differ significantly from calibrated component reliabilities. Secondly, actual failures are often due to gross errors not reflected in most present code formats. A review is presented of system reliability methods and further new concepts are developed. The incremental load approach for identifying and expressing collapse modes is expanded by employing a strategy to identify and enumerate the significant structural collapse modes. It further isolates the importance of critical components in the system performance. Ductile and brittle component behavior and strength correlation is reflected in the system model and illustrated in several examples. Modal combinations for the system reliability are also reviewed. From these developments a system factor can be addended to component safety checking equations. Values may be derived from system behavior by substituting in a damage model which accounts for the response range from component failure to collapse. Other strategies are discussed which emphasize quality assurance during design and in-service inspection for components whose behavior is critical to the system reliability. (Auth.)

  9. Results of developing and problems of further improvements for WWER-1000 FA of alternative design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molchanov, V.L.; Panyushkin, A.K.; Zheleznyak, V.M.; Samojlov, O.B.; Kuul', V.S.; Kurylev, V.I.

    2001-01-01

    A new fuel assembly of alternative design (FAA) is created for a WWER-1000 reactor which is characteristic of dimensional stability on operation. The FAA includes a frame of 15 alloy Eh-110 spacer grids spot welded to 6 alloy Eh-635 angle sections. In-core tests show that the FAA is stable to form changing. It is concluded that the FAA can serve as a basis for development of promising fuel cycle with high burnups, specifically, for a 4 year cycle with the use of uranium-gadolinium fuel [ru

  10. Nuclear project finance in developing countries: The multi-country financing alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleck, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    It is the basic contention of this paper that, because of certain factors in the financial markets, multi-country financing (MCF) is the new alternative if not the imperative for large scale and turnkey nuclear plant programs in developing countries. The point is made that its successful use depends on the ability of the host country, the credit granting countries and suppliers to both recognize the MCF reality and manage its implicit variables. Those who collectively do so will be successful, and those who cannot will not be states the author. The aspects of MCF are described

  11. A medium-chain fatty acid as an alternative energy source in mouse preimplantation development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Mitsutoshi; Takanashi, Kazumi; Hamatani, Toshio; Hirayama, Akiyoshi; Akutsu, Hidenori; Fukunaga, Tomoko; Ogawa, Seiji; Sugawara, Kana; Shinoda, Kosaku; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Umezawa, Akihiro; Kuji, Naoaki; Yoshimura, Yasunori; Tomita, Masaru

    2012-01-01

    To further optimize the culturing of preimplantation embryos, we undertook metabolomic analysis of relevant culture media using capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOFMS). We detected 28 metabolites: 23 embryo-excreted metabolites including 16 amino acids and 5 media-derived metabolites (e.g., octanoate, a medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA)). Due to the lack of information on MCFAs in mammalian preimplantation development, this study examined octanoate as a potential alternative energy source for preimplantation embryo cultures. No embryos survived in culture media lacking FAs, pyruvate, and glucose, but supplementation of octanoate rescued the embryonic development. Immunoblotting showed significant expression of acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, important enzymes for ß-oxidation of MCFAs, in preimplantation embryo. Furthermore, CE-TOFMS traced [1-(13)C(8)] octanoate added to the culture media into intermediate metabolites of the TCA cycle via ß-oxidation in mitochondria. These results are the first demonstration that octanoate could provide an efficient alternative energy source throughout preimplantation development.

  12. Energy for sustainable development in Malaysia: Energy policy and alternative energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman Mohamed, Abdul; Lee, Keat Teong

    2006-01-01

    Energy is often known as the catalyst for development. Globally, the per capita consumption of energy is often used as a barometer to measure the level of economic development in a particular country. Realizing the importance of energy as a vital component in economic and social development, the government of Malaysia has been continuously reviewing its energy policy to ensure long-term reliability and security of energy supply. Concentrated efforts are being undertaken to ensure the sustainability of energy resources, both depletable and renewable. The aim of this paper is to describe the various energy policies adopted in Malaysia to ensure long-term reliability and security of energy supply. The role of both, non-renewable and renewable sources of energy in the current Five-Fuel Diversification Strategy energy mix will also be discussed. Apart from that, this paper will also describe the various alternative energy and the implementation of energy efficiency program in Malaysia

  13. Intron-Mediated Alternative Splicing of WOOD-ASSOCIATED NAC TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR1B Regulates Cell Wall Thickening during Fiber Development in Populus Species1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunjun; Sun, Jiayan; Xu, Peng; Zhang, Rui; Li, Laigeng

    2014-01-01

    Alternative splicing is an important mechanism involved in regulating the development of multicellular organisms. Although many genes in plants undergo alternative splicing, little is understood of its significance in regulating plant growth and development. In this study, alternative splicing of black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) wood-associated NAC domain transcription factor (PtrWNDs), PtrWND1B, is shown to occur exclusively in secondary xylem fiber cells. PtrWND1B is expressed with a normal short-transcript PtrWND1B-s as well as its alternative long-transcript PtrWND1B-l. The intron 2 structure of the PtrWND1B gene was identified as a critical sequence that causes PtrWND1B alternative splicing. Suppression of PtrWND1B expression specifically inhibited fiber cell wall thickening. The two PtrWND1B isoforms play antagonistic roles in regulating cell wall thickening during fiber cell differentiation in Populus spp. PtrWND1B-s overexpression enhanced fiber cell wall thickening, while overexpression of PtrWND1B-l repressed fiber cell wall thickening. Alternative splicing may enable more specific regulation of processes such as fiber cell wall thickening during wood formation. PMID:24394777

  14. Intron-mediated alternative splicing of WOOD-ASSOCIATED NAC TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR1B regulates cell wall thickening during fiber development in Populus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunjun; Sun, Jiayan; Xu, Peng; Zhang, Rui; Li, Laigeng

    2014-02-01

    Alternative splicing is an important mechanism involved in regulating the development of multicellular organisms. Although many genes in plants undergo alternative splicing, little is understood of its significance in regulating plant growth and development. In this study, alternative splicing of black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) wood-associated NAC domain transcription factor (PtrWNDs), PtrWND1B, is shown to occur exclusively in secondary xylem fiber cells. PtrWND1B is expressed with a normal short-transcript PtrWND1B-s as well as its alternative long-transcript PtrWND1B-l. The intron 2 structure of the PtrWND1B gene was identified as a critical sequence that causes PtrWND1B alternative splicing. Suppression of PtrWND1B expression specifically inhibited fiber cell wall thickening. The two PtrWND1B isoforms play antagonistic roles in regulating cell wall thickening during fiber cell differentiation in Populus spp. PtrWND1B-s overexpression enhanced fiber cell wall thickening, while overexpression of PtrWND1B-l repressed fiber cell wall thickening. Alternative splicing may enable more specific regulation of processes such as fiber cell wall thickening during wood formation.

  15. Puberty and structural brain development in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herting, Megan M; Sowell, Elizabeth R

    2017-01-01

    Adolescence is a transitional period of physical and behavioral development between childhood and adulthood. Puberty is a distinct period of sexual maturation that occurs during adolescence. Since the advent of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), human studies have largely examined neurodevelopment in the context of age. A breadth of animal findings suggest that sex hormones continue to influence the brain beyond the prenatal period, with both organizational and activational effects occurring during puberty. Given the animal evidence, human MRI research has also set out to determine how puberty may influence otherwise known patterns of age-related neurodevelopment. Here we review structural-based MRI studies and show that pubertal maturation is a key variable to consider in elucidating sex- and individual- based differences in patterns of human brain development. We also highlight the continuing challenges faced, as well as future considerations, for this vital avenue of research. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. NEO-INSTITUTIONALISM AND ENDOGENOUS DEVELOPMENT AS REGIONAL ALTERNATIVE. MODERNITY AND SUBJECTIVITY, LINKING AND LOCAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mateo Bastidas-Morales

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The reconstruction of subjectivity involves overcoming criticism of individualism, utilitarianism and immediacy as the basis of society and consumer markets. Elemental is, with the addition of the individual as a subject of social action, the principal actor-oriented definition of welfare, community and local development. Obviously, the formation of human capital development. While it is imperative the state-society relationship in the context of the current modernization must also recover the principles of the community before the stressed relationship between the market-state. We intend here to link opposite the dichotomous thinking of Western rationalism, constitute an important element of social sustantivación. Along with this, the neo-institutionalism and institutional economics that questions the current neoliberal approves the participation of the state and, with new rules, can better confront the neoconservative positions. It is revalued, in the present work, interest in the new dynamics of social change in post-national or cosmopolitan side.

  17. Policy of developing alternate vehicles; La politique de developpement des vehicules alternatifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-15

    In most western cities the present-day car is by far the principal mode of transport. The wrong side of it is that automobile circulation is a source of air-pollution, noise and traffic jam, inconveniences against which public opinion shows itself more and more susceptible. Facing this situation governments in succession have since several years encouraged by different measures the development of fitted or alternative vehicles: electric, natural gas (NG) fuelled and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) vehicles. These vehicles have the advantage of responding both to pollution problem and energy diversification challenge. The present-day regulation system gathers a number of attractive provisions: - maintaining para-fiscal taxes upon gas fuels at a level much lower than for other fuels; - VAT refunding for these gas fuels and electricity consumed by vehicles of this type; - general councils can be totally or partially exonerated from automobile taxation; - assigning future green label allowing these vehicles to be excepted from traffic restrictions applied to cope with pollution peaks. Other additional advantages are provided by the law on air and rational use of energy of 30 December 1996. Merits and drawbacks of each of the mentioned types of alternative vehicles are reviewed. So, although entirely un-polluting the electric cars are not cheap and what is even more hindering is their very limited range which for current batteries does not exceed 80 km. Only little over 3000 electric vehicles were sold, a third of them to EDF. The natural gas is rather pure a fuel at burning of which the release of sulfur and solid particles are practically negligible. Due to its characteristics, the short and medium term development of this alternative seems to reside only in buses and service vehicles, the only able to support the supplementary load of high pressure gas tanks. Being formed of liquefied butane and propane at low pressure, LPG is as attractive as NG, with respect to the

  18. Alternative modelling of brittle structures in a sub-area of the SKB candidate area at Forsmark, eastern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askling, Per; Tiren, Sven A.; Beckholmen, Monica; Straeng, Thomas

    2008-11-01

    One way to test the confidence of a presented model is to construct an alternative model. Such work is cognitive process of skill acquisition and also a process of understanding data in the sense of sorting and classifying data. This is of particular interest for the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) in their technical review of SKB's on-going site investigation programme for potential repository sites. In this study, an alternative brittle deformation model of a selected part of the SKB candidate area in eastern Sweden was constructed. The input data set was obtained from SKB's database SICADA and is a selected set of data from five cored boreholes drilled from two drill-sites and comprises geophysical borehole logs, geological core-logs, hydrological logs (PFL; Posiva Flow Log) and borehole deviation measurements. Statistical cluster analysis applied on the geophysical borehole data were used to obtain the locations of bedrock with contrasting physical characteristics similar to those of brittle deformation zones. The cluster analysis is an objective procedure, contrasting with SKB's more subjective approach to the single-hole interpretation. Thus some differences are expected which could illustrate the effect of methodology that includes subjective 'expert judgement.' and indicate the possibility of alternative interpretations. The information about brittle structures in the geological boreholes logs was sorted and classification was made according to character of the structures (all fractures, open fractures, partly open fractures, frequency, orientate on/identification of fracture sets, sections of crush rock, and alteration). A separate study was performed to relate rock alteration with structures. The resolution applied in the fracture statistics is one metre, i.e. all studied entities were expressed per metre borehole length. All clusters were structurally characterized by the fractures inside the clusters (orientation and density of fractures) and

  19. Alternative modelling of brittle structures in a sub-area of the SKB candidate area at Forsmark, eastern Sweden.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Askling, Per; Tiren, Sven A.; Beckholmen, Monica; Straeng, Thomas (Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2008-11-15

    One way to test the confidence of a presented model is to construct an alternative model. Such work is cognitive process of skill acquisition and also a process of understanding data in the sense of sorting and classifying data. This is of particular interest for the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) in their technical review of SKB's on-going site investigation programme for potential repository sites. In this study, an alternative brittle deformation model of a selected part of the SKB candidate area in eastern Sweden was constructed. The input data set was obtained from SKB's database SICADA and is a selected set of data from five cored boreholes drilled from two drill-sites and comprises geophysical borehole logs, geological core-logs, hydrological logs (PFL; Posiva Flow Log) and borehole deviation measurements. Statistical cluster analysis applied on the geophysical borehole data were used to obtain the locations of bedrock with contrasting physical characteristics similar to those of brittle deformation zones. The cluster analysis is an objective procedure, contrasting with SKB's more subjective approach to the single-hole interpretation. Thus some differences are expected which could illustrate the effect of methodology that includes subjective 'expert judgement.' and indicate the possibility of alternative interpretations. The information about brittle structures in the geological boreholes logs was sorted and classification was made according to character of the structures (all fractures, open fractures, partly open fractures, frequency, orientate on/identification of fracture sets, sections of crush rock, and alteration). A separate study was performed to relate rock alteration with structures. The resolution applied in the fracture statistics is one metre, i.e. all studied entities were expressed per metre borehole length. All clusters were structurally characterized by the fractures inside the clusters (orientation and

  20. Improvement of the organizational and economic mechanism for managing the development of alternative sources of electricity at the territorial level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirillova, Ariadna; Krylova, Anna

    2017-10-01

    The article considers the features of the structure and functioning of energy supply facilities for housing and communal services of municipalities with the identification and analysis of problems, substantiates the main directions of improving the organizational and economic mechanism for the development of alternative sources of electricity supply, taking into account modern innovative energy-efficient technologies. The choice of a rational option for electricity supply to settlements and the region is considered on the basis of an analysis of geographical, climatic and socio-economic conditions, as well as engineering and financial opportunities, the availability of trunk, interregional and other networks, the total installed capacity of regional power plants and a set of other technical and economic Characteristics inherent in the region and its municipalities.

  1. Alternative activation of macrophages and pulmonary fibrosis are modulated by scavenger receptor, macrophage receptor with collagenous structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Shubha; Larson-Casey, Jennifer L; Ryan, Alan J; He, Chao; Kobzik, Lester; Carter, A Brent

    2015-08-01

    Alternative activation of alveolar macrophages is linked to fibrosis following exposure to asbestos. The scavenger receptor, macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO), provides innate immune defense against inhaled particles and pathogens; however, a receptor for asbestos has not been identified. We hypothesized that MARCO acts as an initial signaling receptor for asbestos, polarizes macrophages to a profibrotic M2 phenotype, and is required for the development of asbestos-induced fibrosis. Compared with normal subjects, alveolar macrophages isolated from patients with asbestosis express higher amounts of MARCO and have greater profibrotic polarization. Arginase 1 (40-fold) and IL-10 (265-fold) were higher in patients. In vivo, the genetic deletion of MARCO attenuated the profibrotic environment and pulmonary fibrosis in mice exposed to chrysotile. Moreover, alveolar macrophages from MARCO(-/-) mice polarize to an M1 phenotype, whereas wild-type mice have higher Ym1 (>3.0-fold) and nearly 7-fold more active TGF-β1 in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid (BALF). Arg(432) and Arg(434) in domain V of MARCO are required for the polarization of macrophages to a profibrotic phenotype as mutation of these residues reduced FIZZ1 expression (17-fold) compared with cells expressing MARCO. These observations demonstrate that a macrophage membrane protein regulates the fibrotic response to lung injury and suggest a novel target for therapeutic intervention. © FASEB.

  2. What Do You Know about Alternative Energy? Development and Use of a Diagnostic Instrument for Upper Secondary School Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Irene Poh-Ai; Johari, Marliza; Said, Hardimah; Treagust, David F.

    2015-01-01

    The need for renewable and non-fossil fuels is now recognised by nations throughout the world. Consequently, an understanding of alternative energy is needed both in schools and in everyday life-long learning situations. This study developed a two-tier instrument to diagnose students' understanding and alternative conceptions about alternative…

  3. BIOGAS AS AN ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCE TO PROMOTE INDIGENOUS COMMUNITIES DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos SABORÍO VÍQUEZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The key areas that determine the food and nutrition security are: availability, access, consumption and biological utilization. For this reason it is necessary to promote the health of vulnerable groups, in this case, indigenous communities, protecting and establishing conditions to ensure the human right to food. The initial plan focuses ondeveloping facilities for small swine and poultry farms, familiar, non-commercial. The main objective of the pigs raised at the site will be the production of animal waste in order to implement digesters for the production of biogas as an alternative energy source, the production of meat stays in the background, thinking only about the community consumption and helping to ensure their food source, from this perspective, the technologies applied to rural and indigenous progress are environmentally friendly, socially just, economically viable and culturally acceptable. The theme of rural and indigenous Development is focused on their food security and the use of alternative energies, considering that energy is a key element in achieving sustainable development in all sectors, therefore sought from a broad perspective solidarity and actively promote greater and more rational use of energy and the environment in remote communities, through diversification of supply sources and efficient use, thereby contributing toenvironmental conservation and reduction of health problems through the use of appropriate technologies.

  4. Risk-Informed Decision Making: Application to Technology Development Alternative Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezfuli, Homayoon; Maggio, Gaspare; Everett, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    NASA NPR 8000.4A, Agency Risk Management Procedural Requirements, defines risk management in terms of two complementary processes: Risk-informed Decision Making (RIDM) and Continuous Risk Management (CRM). The RIDM process is used to inform decision making by emphasizing proper use of risk analysis to make decisions that impact all mission execution domains (e.g., safety, technical, cost, and schedule) for program/projects and mission support organizations. The RIDM process supports the selection of an alternative prior to program commitment. The CRM process is used to manage risk associated with the implementation of the selected alternative. The two processes work together to foster proactive risk management at NASA. The Office of Safety and Mission Assurance at NASA Headquarters has developed a technical handbook to provide guidance for implementing the RIDM process in the context of NASA risk management and systems engineering. This paper summarizes the key concepts and procedures of the RIDM process as presented in the handbook, and also illustrates how the RIDM process can be applied to the selection of technology investments as NASA's new technology development programs are initiated.

  5. [Early development of language in small children with autism spectrum disorder using alternative systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortea-Sevilla, M Sol; Escandell-Bermúdez, M Olga; Castro-Sánchez, José Juan; Martos-Pérez, Juan

    2015-02-25

    The latest research findings show the importance of early intervention in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in all areas of development, including language. The use of augmentative and alternative communication systems (AACS) favors linguistic and communicative development. To show the effectiveness of AACS to develop oral language in non-verbal toddlers diagnosed with ASD. Thirty children (25 males and 5 females) diagnosed with ASD when they were between 18 and 30 months of age, through the instruments ADOS and ADIR. None of them displayed oral language development at the time of assessment. An intervention program in the area of language was designed based on the use of total communication by the therapist and training the child in the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS). One year later, the formal aspects of language were assessed with the PLON-R because oral language had been developed. All the children had developed oral language to some extent over a one-year period. Early intervention and the use of AACS with visual props favor the development of oral language in children with ASD in the first years of life.

  6. New era / new solutions: The role of alternative tariff structures in water supply projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, F Silva; Marques, R Cunha

    2017-12-01

    Water utilities face different challenges that may force them to seek prioritized objectives. When doing so, particular projects may have to be developed, being important to understand their impact on water tariffs, and thus, on customers. Such consequences may bear an increased relevance in cases stressed with, e.g., resource scarcity, poverty, and the need for infrastructure investments. The resulting cost and revenue variability demand a comprehensive study. If the first may require a stochastic modeling (in major cost components) in order to consider its inherent uncertainty, the second needs to be modeled following context-specific objectives set by the relevant stakeholders. The solutions achieved will likely promote distinct revenue sources, as well as diversified water tariff structures. A multi-objective optimization model (i.e., a Framework for Suitable Prices) is built to deal with those diversified requirements (e.g., stochastic energy costs, affordability, cost recovery, or administrative simplicity). The model is solved through achievement scalarizing functions with several weighting coefficients for a reference point, so as to provide a significant perception of possible revenue options (and their impact) to the decision makers. The proposed method is applied to a case study, Boa Vista Island in Cabo Verde, in which the background characteristics, namely water sources availability (e.g., the adoption of desalination technologies), economic development and other contextual factors were considered. The key role of tariff structure selection is displayed, instead of assuming it a priori, giving important insights regarding project feasibility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fragment-based drug discovery as alternative strategy to the drug development for neglected diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Juliana da Fonseca Rezende E; Gomes, Renan Augusto; Vital-Fujii, Drielli Gomes; Ferreira, Glaucio Monteiro; Trossini, Gustavo Henrique Goulart

    2017-12-01

    Neglected diseases (NDs) affect large populations and almost whole continents, representing 12% of the global health burden. In contrast, the treatment available today is limited and sometimes ineffective. Under this scenery, the Fragment-Based Drug Discovery emerged as one of the most promising alternatives to the traditional methods of drug development. This method allows achieving new lead compounds with smaller size of fragment libraries. Even with the wide Fragment-Based Drug Discovery success resulting in new effective therapeutic agents against different diseases, until this moment few studies have been applied this approach for NDs area. In this article, we discuss the basic Fragment-Based Drug Discovery process, brief successful ideas of general applications and show a landscape of its use in NDs, encouraging the implementation of this strategy as an interesting way to optimize the development of new drugs to NDs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Development And Testing Of Biogas-Petrol Blend As An Alternative Fuel For Spark Ignition Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awogbemi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This research is on the development and testing of a biogas-petrol blend to run a spark ignition engine. A2080 ratio biogaspetrol blend was developed as an alternative fuel for spark ignition engine test bed. Petrol and biogas-petrol blend were comparatively tested on the test bed to determine the effectiveness of the fuels. The results of the tests showed that biogas petrol blend generated higher torque brake power indicated power brake thermal efficiency and brake mean effective pressure but lower fuel consumption and exhaust temperature than petrol. The research concluded that a spark ignition engine powered by biogas-petrol blend was found to be economical consumed less fuel and contributes to sanitation and production of fertilizer.

  9. Alternative input medium development for wheelchair user with severe spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihsan, Izzat Aqmar; Tomari, Razali; Zakaria, Wan Nurshazwani Wan; Othman, Nurmiza

    2017-09-01

    Quadriplegia or tetraplegia patients have restricted four limbs as well as torso movement caused by severe spinal cord injury. Undoubtedly, these patients face difficulties when operating their powered electric wheelchair since they are unable to control the wheelchair by means of a standard joystick. Due to total loss of both sensory and motor function of the four limbs and torso, an alternative input medium for the wheelchair will be developed to assist the user in operating the wheelchair. In this framework, the direction of the wheelchair movement is determined by the user's conscious intent through a brain control interface (BCI) based on Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal. A laser range finder (LFR) is used to perceive environment information for determining a safety distance of the wheelchair's surrounding. Local path planning algorithm will be developed to provide navigation planner along with user's input to prevent collision during control operation.

  10. The primate fovea: Structure, function and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringmann, Andreas; Syrbe, Steffen; Görner, Katja; Kacza, Johannes; Francke, Mike; Wiedemann, Peter; Reichenbach, Andreas

    2018-03-30

    A fovea is a pitted invagination in the inner retinal tissue (fovea interna) that overlies an area of photoreceptors specialized for high acuity vision (fovea externa). Although the shape of the vertebrate fovea varies considerably among the species, there are two basic types. The retina of many predatory fish, reptilians, and birds possess one (or two) convexiclivate fovea(s), while the retina of higher primates contains a concaviclivate fovea. By refraction of the incoming light, the convexiclivate fovea may function as image enlarger, focus indicator, and movement detector. By centrifugal displacement of the inner retinal layers, which increases the transparency of the central foveal tissue (the foveola), the primate fovea interna improves the quality of the image received by the central photoreceptors. In this review, we summarize ‒ with the focus on Müller cells of the human and macaque fovea ‒ data regarding the structure of the primate fovea, discuss various aspects of the optical function of the fovea, and propose a model of foveal development. The "Müller cell cone" of the foveola comprises specialized Müller cells which do not support neuronal activity but may serve optical and structural functions. In addition to the "Müller cell cone", structural stabilization of the foveal morphology may be provided by the 'z-shaped' Müller cells of the fovea walls, via exerting tractional forces onto Henle fibers. The spatial distribution of glial fibrillary acidic protein may suggest that the foveola and the Henle fiber layer are subjects to mechanical stress. During development, the foveal pit is proposed to be formed by a vertical contraction of the centralmost Müller cells. After widening of the foveal pit likely mediated by retracting astrocytes, Henle fibers are formed by horizontal contraction of Müller cell processes in the outer plexiform layer and the centripetal displacement of photoreceptors. A better understanding of the molecular, cellular

  11. Hawaii Integrated Energy Assessment. Volume V. Rules, regulations, permits and policies affecting the development of alternate energy sources in Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive presentaton of the major permits, regulations, rules, and controls which are likely to affect the development of alternate energy sources in Hawaii is presented. An overview of the permit process, showing the major categories and types of permits and controls for energy alternatives is presented. This is followed by a brief resume of current and projected changes designed to streamline the permit process. The permits, laws, regulations, and controls that are applicable to the development of energy alternatives in Hawaii are described. The alternate energy technologies affected, a description of the permit or control, and the requirements for conformance are presented for each applicable permit. Federal, state, and county permits and controls are covered. The individual energy technologies being considered as alternatives to the State's present dependence on imported fossil fuels are emphasized. The alternate energy sources covered are bioconversion, geothermal, ocean thermal, wind, solar (direct), and solid waste. For each energy alternative, the significant permits are summarized with a brief explanation of why they may be necessary. The framework of policy development at each of the levels of government with respect to the alternate energy sources is covered.

  12. Structural Connectivity of the Developing Human Amygdala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saygin, Zeynep M.; Osher, David E.; Koldewyn, Kami; Martin, Rebecca E.; Finn, Amy; Saxe, Rebecca; Gabrieli, John D.E.; Sheridan, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    A large corpus of research suggests that there are changes in the manner and degree to which the amygdala supports cognitive and emotional function across development. One possible basis for these developmental differences could be the maturation of amygdalar connections with the rest of the brain. Recent functional connectivity studies support this conclusion, but the structural connectivity of the developing amygdala and its different nuclei remains largely unstudied. We examined age related changes in the DWI connectivity fingerprints of the amygdala to the rest of the brain in 166 individuals of ages 5-30. We also developed a model to predict age based on individual-subject amygdala connectivity, and identified the connections that were most predictive of age. Finally, we segmented the amygdala into its four main nucleus groups, and examined the developmental changes in connectivity for each nucleus. We observed that with age, amygdalar connectivity becomes increasingly sparse and localized. Age related changes were largely localized to the subregions of the amygdala that are implicated in social inference and contextual memory (the basal and lateral nuclei). The central nucleus’ connectivity also showed differences with age but these differences affected fewer target regions than the basal and lateral nuclei. The medial nucleus did not exhibit any age related changes. These findings demonstrate increasing specificity in the connectivity patterns of amygdalar nuclei across age. PMID:25875758

  13. Development of all-beryllium riveted structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floyd, D.R.; Leslie, W.W.; Miley, D.V.; Nokes, R.W.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented of a development program aimed at making a full-scale, all-beryllium frustrum by riveted assembly methods. Included are descriptions of the sheet-metal fabrication practices and assembly plans. Results of extensive mechanical testing of both ingot- and powder-source beryllium products that are presented include tensile, notch-tensile, bearing, and shear tests. Although the full-size structure has not been built, examples are given of several conical and cylindrical structures that were made. The largest of these is a 20-in. diameter, 15-in. long cylinder that was roll-formed from one 0.050-in. thick ingot sheet and assembled with 60 countersunk rivets. Tensile testing of riveted flat coupons is also reported as is bulge testing of riveted cylindrical shells. A cost comparison of riveted deep-drawn and powder-source cylinders is made. Results show that when strength and dimensional tolerance requirements are not severe, a riveted assembly approach is warranted. 33 figures, 8 tables

  14. Alternative method of highway traffic safety analysis for developing countries using delphi technique and Bayesian network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbakwe, Anthony C; Saka, Anthony A; Choi, Keechoo; Lee, Young-Jae

    2016-08-01

    Highway traffic accidents all over the world result in more than 1.3 million fatalities annually. An alarming number of these fatalities occurs in developing countries. There are many risk factors that are associated with frequent accidents, heavy loss of lives, and property damage in developing countries. Unfortunately, poor record keeping practices are very difficult obstacle to overcome in striving to obtain a near accurate casualty and safety data. In light of the fact that there are numerous accident causes, any attempts to curb the escalating death and injury rates in developing countries must include the identification of the primary accident causes. This paper, therefore, seeks to show that the Delphi Technique is a suitable alternative method that can be exploited in generating highway traffic accident data through which the major accident causes can be identified. In order to authenticate the technique used, Korea, a country that underwent similar problems when it was in its early stages of development in addition to the availability of excellent highway safety records in its database, is chosen and utilized for this purpose. Validation of the methodology confirms the technique is suitable for application in developing countries. Furthermore, the Delphi Technique, in combination with the Bayesian Network Model, is utilized in modeling highway traffic accidents and forecasting accident rates in the countries of research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Maritime Content in Indonesian History Education: The Development and Alternative Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasino Wasino

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available For a long time ago, Indonesia was identified as maritime country. The collective memory remembered from several islands in Indonesia shows that Indonesia is a large maritime space. The original name of the country was Nusantara, (called archipelago in English. From historical data in some location, there are some evidences about the glorious of the maritime kingdom in the continent. However, maritime perspective is not to be ‘important issue” in the mind of Indonesian people nowadays. History education makes an important rule at the moment. Indonesian independence needs history education based on political perspective, especially to enhance nationalism. The orientation is continued until the New Order, and it is especially focused on the rule of Indonesia military. Reformation since 1998 should make democratization in Indonesian history teaching, but the reality, the tradition of writer in history education, was still stagnant. The content of maritime history in Indonesian History Education still become a big problem. This paper aims to analyze the development of the maritime content in Indonesian History education at school and to give the new alternative in teaching history based on maritime content. The alternative curriculum based on local competitiveness in maritime history related with regional and global region, is the best solution for it.

  16. Analysis of words to development of augmentative and alternative communication boards for disabled student

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Carla Paura

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the contribution of the words used in language assessment instruments and/or the vocabulary used in Brazil for the development of alternative communication boards. Methods: word lists from the selected assessment instruments were analyzed through a protocol designed for this purpose. The frequency of occurrence of each word was verified considering four word lists from the instruments and the frequency of occurrence of these words according to the classification proposed by Comunication Pictu Symbols system - PCS. Results: Results showed that the frequency words occurred only once was of 67.88% and the frequency of occurrence of concrete and abstract nouns in the instruments was 60.04%. The instrument that presented words with more than one occurrence was the Vocabulary Test-PPVT Peabody Picture. Conclusions: The use of tool that are already used and standardized may contribute to the process of evaluation, selection and deployment of augmentative and alternative communication resources for children and youth with disabilities.

  17. Developing a Hierarchical Decision Model to Evaluate Nuclear Power Plant Alternative Siting Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingga, Marwan Mossa

    A strong trend of returning to nuclear power is evident in different places in the world. Forty-five countries are planning to add nuclear power to their grids and more than 66 nuclear power plants are under construction. Nuclear power plants that generate electricity and steam need to improve safety to become more acceptable to governments and the public. One novel practical solution to increase nuclear power plants' safety factor is to build them away from urban areas, such as offshore or underground. To date, Land-Based siting is the dominant option for siting all commercial operational nuclear power plants. However, the literature reveals several options for building nuclear power plants in safer sitings than Land-Based sitings. The alternatives are several and each has advantages and disadvantages, and it is difficult to distinguish among them and choose the best for a specific project. In this research, we recall the old idea of using the alternatives of offshore and underground sitings for new nuclear power plants and propose a tool to help in choosing the best siting technology. This research involved the development of a decision model for evaluating several potential nuclear power plant siting technologies, both those that are currently available and future ones. The decision model was developed based on the Hierarchical Decision Modeling (HDM) methodology. The model considers five major dimensions, social, technical, economic, environmental, and political (STEEP), and their related criteria and sub-criteria. The model was designed and developed by the author, and its elements' validation and evaluation were done by a large number of experts in the field of nuclear energy. The decision model was applied in evaluating five potential siting technologies and ranked the Natural Island as the best in comparison to Land-Based, Floating Plant, Artificial Island, and Semi-Embedded plant.

  18. Weimar Woes and the Authoritarian Alternative: Politico economic Developments in Interbellum Germany.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Riel, A.; Schram, A.J.H.C.; Komlos, J.; Eddie, S.

    1997-01-01

    A politicoeconomic model of the relationship between economic and structural variables and government popularity is developed and applied to the Weimar Republic. We obtained data from decentralized election results in the 1924 to 1933 period, using a weighted panel estimation method. Parameter

  19. Alternative loop rings

    CERN Document Server

    Goodaire, EG; Polcino Milies, C

    1996-01-01

    For the past ten years, alternative loop rings have intrigued mathematicians from a wide cross-section of modern algebra. As a consequence, the theory of alternative loop rings has grown tremendously. One of the main developments is the complete characterization of loops which have an alternative but not associative, loop ring. Furthermore, there is a very close relationship between the algebraic structures of loop rings and of group rings over 2-groups. Another major topic of research is the study of the unit loop of the integral loop ring. Here the interaction between loop rings and group ri

  20. Exploring Critical Alternatives for Youth Development through Lifestyle Sport: Surfing and Community Development in Aotearoa/New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Wheaton

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available While competition-based team sports remain dominant in community and sport-for-development programs, researchers are exploring the value of alternative, less “sportized” activities such as lifestyle/action sports. In this paper, we explore the ways in which surfing is being used in development programs in Aotearoa/New Zealand, examining the perceived social benefits and impact. Our methods involved: (a mapping the range of surfing projects; and (b 8 in-depth interviews with program personnel. Widespread conviction in the positive developmental benefits of surfing was evident, and that surfing had a “special” capacity to reform or heal those who participate in it. However, the ways in which individuals’ self-developments were promoted appear to be following the traditional sport/youth development path. They focus on policies aimed at improved life chances, equipping youth with the tools for self-improvement and self-management, inculcating self-governance and self-reliance. However, a counter narrative co-existed, highlighting surfing as a freeing experience, which, rather than restoring social order, works to instigate a personal transformation or awakening. Despite the range of challenges presented by surfing as a tool for positive development, surfing presents a potentially “critical alternative” which if sport-for-development programs are to be a form of social change, we should remain open to exploring.

  1. DHX9 helicase is involved in preventing genomic instability induced by alternatively structured DNA in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Aklank; Bacolla, Albino; Del Mundo, Imee M; Zhao, Junhua; Wang, Guliang; Vasquez, Karen M

    2013-12-01

    Sequences that have the capacity to adopt alternative (i.e. non-B) DNA structures in the human genome have been implicated in stimulating genomic instability. Previously, we found that a naturally occurring intra-molecular triplex (H-DNA) caused genetic instability in mammals largely in the form of DNA double-strand breaks. Thus, it is of interest to determine the mechanism(s) involved in processing H-DNA. Recently, we demonstrated that human DHX9 helicase preferentially unwinds inter-molecular triplex DNA in vitro. Herein, we used a mutation-reporter system containing H-DNA to examine the relevance of DHX9 activity on naturally occurring H-DNA structures in human cells. We found that H-DNA significantly increased mutagenesis in small-interfering siRNA-treated, DHX9-depleted cells, affecting mostly deletions. Moreover, DHX9 associated with H-DNA in the context of supercoiled plasmids. To further investigate the role of DHX9 in the recognition/processing of H-DNA, we performed binding assays in vitro and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays in U2OS cells. DHX9 recognized H-DNA, as evidenced by its binding to the H-DNA structure and enrichment at the H-DNA region compared with a control region in human cells. These composite data implicate DHX9 in processing H-DNA structures in vivo and support its role in the overall maintenance of genomic stability at sites of alternatively structured DNA.

  2. Alternative nano-structured thin-film materials used as durable thermal nanoimprint lithography templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossard, M.; Boussey, J.; Le Drogoff, B.; Chaker, M.

    2016-02-01

    Nanoimprint templates made of diamond-like carbon (DLC) and amorphous silicon carbide (SiC) thin films and fluorine-doped associated materials, i.e. F-DLC and F-SiC were investigated in the context of thermal nanoimprint lithography (NIL) with respect to their release properties. Their performances in terms of durability and stability were evaluated and compared to those of conventional silicon or silica molds coated with antisticking molecules applied as a self-assembled monolayer. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition parameters were firstly tuned to optimize mechanical and structural properties of the DLC and SiC thin films. The impact of the amount of fluorine dopant on the deposited thin films properties was then analyzed. A comparative analysis of DLC, F-DLC as well as SiC and F-SiC molds was then carried out over multiple imprints, performed into poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) thermo-plastic resist. The release properties of un-patterned films were evaluated by the measurement of demolding energies and surface energies, associated with a systematic analysis of the mold surface contamination. These analyses showed that the developed materials behave as intrinsically easy-demolding and contamination-free molds over series of up to 40 imprints. To our knowledge, it is the first time that such a large number of imprints has been considered within an exhaustive comparative study of materials for NIL. Finally, the developed materials went through standard e-beam lithography and plasma etching processes to obtain nanoscale-patterned templates. The replicas of those patterned molds, imprinted into PMMA, were shown to be of high fidelity and good stability after several imprints.

  3. A Review on the Development of Gravitational Water Vortex Power Plant as Alternative Renewable Energy Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M. M.; Tan, J. H.; Fadzlita, M. T.; Khairul Muzammil, A. R. Wan

    2017-07-01

    Gravitational water vortex power plant is a green technology that generates electricity from alternative or renewable energy source. In the vortex power plant, water is introduced into a circular basin tangentially that creates a free vortex and energy is extracted from the free vortex by using a turbine. The main advantages of this type of power plant is the generation of electricity from ultra-low hydraulic pressure and it is also environmental friendly. Since the hydraulic head requirement is as low as 1m, this type of power plant can be installed at a river or a stream to generate electricity for few houses. It is a new and not well-developed technology to harvest electricity from low pressure water energy sources. There are limited literatures available on the design, fabrication and physical geometry of the vortex turbine and generator. Past researches focus on the optimization of turbine design, inlets, outlets and basin geometry. However, there are still insufficient literatures available for the technology to proceed beyond prototyping stage. The maximum efficiency obtained by the researchers are approximately 30% while the commercial companies claimed about 50% of efficiency with 500W to 20kW of power generated. Hence, the aim of this paper is to determine the gap in the vortex power plant technology development through past works and a set of research recommendations will be developed as efforts to accelerate the development of GWVPP.

  4. Development of pathogen risk assessment models for the evaluation of sludge management alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeager, J.G.; Sheridan, R.E.; Ward, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    The constraints imposed on sewage treatment and disposal by clean air and water legislation make it clear that, in the near future, there will be increasing amounts of sewage sludge and fewer alternatives for its disposal. Additionally, this legislation has encouraged the use of waste management procedures which emphasize the recycling of waste materials. Decisions regarding optimal methods of sludge handling will primarily be controlled by economic considerations including the intrinsic value of the sludge, the cost of transporting sludge and sludge products, and the degree of treatment necessary to make the sludge suitable for particular applications. One principal reason to treat sludge is to inactivate pathogens. However, the actual health risks posed by pathogenic species that result from different methods of sludge utilization and how these risks are affected by different treatment processes are poorly understood. Therefore, computerized models are being developed to describe pathogen transport through environmental pathways and to help predict the risk of certain sludge utilization practices

  5. Challenges and Prospects of Cooperatives, as a real alternative development to Neoliberal Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Alberto Rivera Rodríguez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The experience of the theory and he practices from the cooperativismo to international level, as essential element of the call Social or solidary Sector of the economy, it has demonstrated as the same one it has contributed significantly to shovel the big problems of this global village Latin América and the caribe it has not been unaware to this situation, for such a reason, the present work has as purpose to carry out some reflections about the cooperative process that today is carried aout in the countries of the region, highlighting its main challenges and perspectives before the Neoliberal Globalization in its noble aspiration of transforming into an economic and social real development alternative

  6. Development of some new Aza and Thia complex as alternative tracers for oil reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Lauris L.; Donnici, Claudio L.; Ayala, Jose D.

    2009-01-01

    A promising group of non-sorbing tracers are lanthanide ions complexed to organic anions, which yield a negatively charged complex. Besides, this lanthanide ion could be chosen which, in its non-complexed form, is very insoluble in groundwater and thus no severe background concentrations problem would arise. The lanthanide elements may be used as tracers since they present good solubility in water, when complexed, and the nuclides have high neutron cross sections, they may be used as activable tracers under neutron irradiation in order to evaluate the efficiency of the petroleum production processes. For this purpose, tracers must be soluble in the aqueous phase and be insoluble in the organic phase, they also must not be adsorbed on the internal microporous rock formations and be easily detectable. Lanthanide complexes with DTPA and thiodicarboxylic acid ligands are an alternative to the development of these novel tracers since their properties may be chemically adjusted. (author)

  7. Aspects of Sino-Japan Complementary and Alternative Medicine and Development on the Traditional Uighur Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusup, Abdiryim

    2009-01-01

    Two consecutive conferences on ‘Sino-Japan Complementary and Alternative Medicine and Development on the Traditional Uighur Medicine’ were held in Xinjiang Medical University on July 3 and Kanazawa Medical University on October 6, 2007. The Vice president Halmurat Upur presided over the meeting and gave congratulatory address on holding of the conference. In order to understand mutually and discuss the possibility of the Uighur Medicine as CAM and the situation of medicine in the global sense, specialist scholars of Traditional Uighur Medicine and postgraduates attended this conference. In the meeting of the CAM, the achievements on the research of Traditional Uighur Medicine were exchanged and warmly discussed. Presentations were made in the consecutive conference. PMID:19470524

  8. Alternative approach of developing all-optical Fredkin and Toffoli gates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Dhoumendra; Mandal, Sumana; Garai, Sisir Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Reversible logic gates show potential roles in communication technology, and it has a wide area of applicability such as in sequential and combinational circuit of optical computing, optical signal processing, multi-valued logic operations, etc. because of its advantageous aspects of data-recovering capabilities, low power consumption, least power dissipation, faster speed of processing, less hardware complexity, etc. In a reversible logic gate not only the outputs can be determined from the inputs, but also the inputs can be uniquely recovered from the outputs. In this article an alternative approach has been made to develop three-input-output Fredkin and Toffoli gates using the frequency conversion property of semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) and frequency-based beam routing by optical multiplexers and demultiplexers. Simulation results show the feasibility of our proposed scheme.

  9. An alternative test of the trade-off theory of capital structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Canarella

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the stochastic behavior of corporate debt ratios utilizing a balanced panel of 2,556 publicly traded U.S. firms during the period 1997-2010. We partition the panel into ten economic sectors and perform panel unit root tests on each sector employing book value and market value measures of debt ratio. First-generation panel unit root tests provide consistent evidence that debt ratios are mean reverting, which supports the trade-off theory. However, these tests rely on the assumption that the debt ratios are cross-sectionally independent, but tests of cross-sectional independence fail to uphold this assumption. Thus, utilizing a second-generation panel unit root test that controls for cross-sectional dependence, we uncover evidence showing that debt ratios are not mean reverting, which contradicts the trade-off hypothesis. We find that the recent macroeconomic developments triggered by the financial crisis and the Great Recession have considerable explanatory power over the dynamics of the debt ratios. In fact, when we exclude the years of the recent global financial crisis, the unit root hypothesis is rejected in one half of the sectors. We interpret these results as indicative that the recent global events may have produced in these sectors a structural change in the underlying data generation process (DGP. Overall, then, we find mixed evidence on the stationarity of debt ratios.

  10. What are the alternatives available to Hong Kong in structuring the electricity supply industry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Chi Tak

    2006-01-01

    The Hong Kong (HK) Government is conducting a review on the regulatory and market model of the electricity supply industry (ESI), in light of the expiry of the existing Scheme of Control Agreements with the vertical integrated utilities in 2008. Although the explicit agreements provided a stable regulatory environment to facilitate the past development of the electricity industry, it was found to become inadequate to deal with the increasing demand for economic efficiency and consumer protection. As such, there is an immediate opportunity to review the current situation and, if appropriate, consider changes to the regulatory and market structure of the ESI. The objective of this paper is to examine the desirable sector policy objectives in HK and consider different instruments and strategies to meet these objectives. The first part of the policy analysis suggests that a more balanced set of policy objectives should be pursued to elevate the priority of economic efficiency but recognizing the inherit limitations in local context. The latter part of the paper reviews the regulatory instruments for their applicability and acceptability in HK. They include rate-of-return regulation, performance-based regulation, competitive bidding and wholesale market competition. With the objective of keeping risks and uncertainties to a minimum, the paper devises strategies to pursue these instruments, allowing HK to improve its regulatory framework and at the same time prepare the industry for potential introduction of competition in the future

  11. What are the alternatives available to Hong Kong in structuring the electricity supply industry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, C.T.

    2006-01-01

    The Hong Kong (HK) Government is conducting a review on the regulatory and market model of the electricity supply industry (ESI), in light of the expiry of the existing Scheme of Control Agreements with the vertical integrated utilities in 2008. Although the explicit agreements provided a stable regulatory environment to facilitate the past development of the electricity industry, it was found to become inadequate to deal with the increasing demand for economic efficiency and consumer protection. As such, there is an immediate opportunity to review the current situation and, if appropriate, consider changes to the regulatory and market structure of the ESI. The objective of this paper is to examine the desirable sector policy objectives in HK and consider different instruments and strategies to meet these objectives. The first part of the policy analysis suggests that a more balanced set of policy objectives should be pursued to elevate the priority of economic efficiency but recognizing the inherit limitations in local context. The latter part of the paper reviews the regulatory instruments for their applicability and acceptability in HK. They include rate-of-return regulation, performance-based regulation, competitive bidding and wholesale market competition. With the objective of keeping risks and uncertainties to a minimum, the paper devises strategies to pursue these instruments, allowing HK to improve its regulatory framework and at the same time prepare the industry for potential introduction of competition in the future. (author)

  12. The alternative strategies of the development of the nuclear power industry in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goverdovskii, A. A.; Kalyakin, S. G.; Rachkov, V. I.

    2014-05-01

    This paper emphasizes the urgency of scientific-and-technical and sociopolitical problems of the modern nuclear power industry without solving of which the transition from local nuclear power systems now in operation to a large-scale nuclear power industry would be impossible. The existing concepts of the longterm strategy of the development of the nuclear power industry have been analyzed. On the basis of the scenarios having been developed it was shown that the most promising alternative is the orientation towards the closed nuclear fuel cycle with fast neutron reactors (hereinafter referred to as fast reactors) that would meet the requirements on the acceptable safety. It was concluded that the main provisions of "The Strategy of the Development of the Nuclear Power Industry of Russia for the First Half of the 21st Century" approved by the Government of the Russian Federation in the year 2000 remain the same at present as well, although they require to be elaborated with due regard for new realities in the market for fossil fuels, the state of both the Russian and the world economy, as well as tightening of requirements related to safe operation of nuclear power stations (NPSs) (for example, after the severe accident at the Fukushima nuclear power station, Japan) and nonproliferation of nuclear weapons.

  13. Environmental value considerations in public attitudes about alternative energy development in Oregon and Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Brent S; Pierce, John C; Warner, Rebecca L; Lovrich, Nicholas P

    2015-03-01

    The 2013 Pacific Coast Action Plan on Climate and Energy signed by the Governors of California, Oregon, and Washington and the Premier of British Columbia launched a broadly announced public commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through multiple strategies. Those strategies include the development and increased use of renewable energy sources. The initiative recognized that citizens are both a central component in abating greenhouse gas emissions with regard to their energy use behaviors, and are important participants in the public policymaking process at both state and local levels of government. The study reported here examines whether either support or opposition to state government leadership in the development of alternative energy technologies can be explained by environmental values as measured by the New Ecological Paradigm (NEP). The research results are based on mail surveys of randomly selected households conducted throughout Oregon and Washington in late 2009 and early 2010. Findings suggest that younger and more highly educated respondents are significantly more likely than older and less educated respondents to either support or strongly support government policies to promote bioenergy, wind, geothermal, and solar energy. Those respondents with higher NEP scores are also more supportive of government promotion of wind, geothermal, and solar technologies than are those with lower NEP scores. Support for wave energy does not show a statistical correlation with environmental values, maybe a reflection of this technology's nascent level of development. The paper concludes with a consideration of the implications of these findings for environmental management.

  14. The Relative Effects of Alternative Learning Structures on Attitudes and Achievements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carifio, James

    This study compared two learning structures for an introductory course in tests and measurements in terms of their relative effects on attitudes and achievement. The first structure represented a functionally arranged instructional sequence (FAIS). The second represented a psychologically arranged instructional sequence (PAIS). The instructional…

  15. Mixed Waste Focus Area alternative oxidation technologies development and demonstration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borduin, L.C.; Fewell, T.; Gombert, D.; Priebe, S.

    1998-01-01

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) is currently supporting the development and demonstration of several alternative oxidation technology (AOT) processes for treatment of combustible mixed low-level wastes. The impetus for this support derives from regulatory and political hurdles frequently encountered by traditional thermal techniques, primarily incinerators. AOTs have been defined as technologies that destroy organic material without using open-flame reactions. Whether thermal or nonthermal, the processes have the potential advantages of relatively low-volume gaseous emissions, generation of few or no dioxin/furan compounds, and operation at low enough temperatures that metals (except mercury) and most radionuclides are not volatilized. Technology development and demonstration are needed to confirm and realize the potential of AOTs and to compare them on an equal basis with their fully demonstrated thermal counterparts. AOTs include both thermal and nonthermal processes that oxidize organic wastes but operate under significantly different physical and chemical conditions than incinerators. Nonthermal processes currently being studied include Delphi DETOX and acid digestion at the Savannah River Site, and direct chemical oxidation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. All three technologies are at advanced stages of development or are entering the demonstration phase. Nonflame thermal processes include catalytic chemical oxidation, which is being developed and deployed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and team reforming, a commercial process being supported by Department of Energy. Related technologies include two low-flow, secondary oxidation processes (Phoenix and Thermatrix units) that have been tested at MSE, Inc., in Butte, Montana. Although testing is complete on some AOT technologies, most require additional support to complete some or all of the identified development objectives. Brief descriptions, status, and planned paths forward for each

  16. Alternative management structures for municipal waste collection services: The influence of economic and political factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plata-Díaz, Ana María, E-mail: amplata@ugr.es; Zafra-Gómez, José Luis, E-mail: jlzafra@ugr.es; Pérez-López, Gemma, E-mail: gemmapl@ugr.es; López-Hernández, Antonio Manuel, E-mail: alopezh@ugr.es

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • We analyzed the factors that influence on the restructuring of MSW services. • We evaluated five different alternatives for public and private service. • Our analysis covers a broad time horizon, 2002–2010. • We used a conditional fixed-effects logistic regression as the evaluation method. • Municipalities tend to contract out the MSW service in the presence of high costs and fiscal stress. - Abstract: Identifying and characterising the factors that determine why a local authority opts for a particular way of managing its waste collection service is an important issue, warranting research interest in the field of municipal solid waste (MSW) management. This paper presents empirical evidence spanning a broad time horizon (2002–2010) showing that economic and political factors impact in different ways on the provision of waste management services. We examine five alternatives in this area, including public and private service delivery formulas and, within each field, individual and joint options. Our findings highlight the importance of the service cost and that of the various indicators of fiscal stress as determinant factors of management decisions regarding the provision of MSW management services.

  17. Alternative management structures for municipal waste collection services: The influence of economic and political factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plata-Díaz, Ana María; Zafra-Gómez, José Luis; Pérez-López, Gemma; López-Hernández, Antonio Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyzed the factors that influence on the restructuring of MSW services. • We evaluated five different alternatives for public and private service. • Our analysis covers a broad time horizon, 2002–2010. • We used a conditional fixed-effects logistic regression as the evaluation method. • Municipalities tend to contract out the MSW service in the presence of high costs and fiscal stress. - Abstract: Identifying and characterising the factors that determine why a local authority opts for a particular way of managing its waste collection service is an important issue, warranting research interest in the field of municipal solid waste (MSW) management. This paper presents empirical evidence spanning a broad time horizon (2002–2010) showing that economic and political factors impact in different ways on the provision of waste management services. We examine five alternatives in this area, including public and private service delivery formulas and, within each field, individual and joint options. Our findings highlight the importance of the service cost and that of the various indicators of fiscal stress as determinant factors of management decisions regarding the provision of MSW management services

  18. Development of an Alternative Glass Formulation for Vitrification of Excess Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MARRA, JAMES

    2006-01-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE/EM) plans to conduct the Plutonium Disposition Project at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to disposition excess weapons-usable plutonium. A plutonium glass waste form is a leading candidate for immobilization of the plutonium for subsequent disposition in a geologic repository. A reference glass composition (Lanthanide Borosilicate (La 2 O 3 -B 2 O 3 -SiO 2 (LaBS))-Frit B) was developed and testing with the LaBS Frit B composition is underway to provide data to support the Yucca Mountain License Application process. The objective of this task was to investigate alternative frit compositions and/or processing conditions that may improve the performance of the reference Frit B-LaBS glass in the repository. The current LaBS Frit B composition was used as the baseline for alternative glass formulation development efforts. A review of the literature and past high actinide concentration glass development efforts was conducted to formulate candidate compositions for testing. Glass science principles were also utilized to determine candidate frit components that may meet task objectives. Additionally, glass processing methods (e.g. slow cooling or induced heat treatment) were investigated as potential means to improve the glass durability and/or minimize fissile material and neutron absorber separation. Based on these analyses, a series of candidate surrogate glasses were fabricated and analyzed. One composition was then selected for fabrication with PuO 2 and subsequently analyzed. A phase equilibrium approach, developed from the assessment of previous high lanthanide glass formulations, was used to recommend modifications to the SRNL Frit B composition. A specific recommendation to increase Ln 2 O 3 content with concurrent reduction of Al 2 O 3 and SiO 2 content proved to be successful in improving the melting behavior and component solubility of the glass. This change moved the formulation from a

  19. Development of simplified rotating plug seal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueta, M.; Ichimiya, M.; Kanaoka, T.; Sekiya, H.; Ueda, S.; Ishibashi, S.

    1991-01-01

    We studied a compact and simplified rotating plug seal structure and conducted experiments for key elements of the concept such us the mechanical seal structure and sodium deposit prevention system. Good characteristics were confirmed for the mechanical seal structure, which utilizes an elastomer seal and thin lathe bearing. Applicability of the density barrier concept was also confirmed as the sodium deposit prevention system. This concept can be applied to actual plants. (author)

  20. Development of dose calculation program (DBADOSE) incorporating alternative source term due to design basis accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Young Jig; Nam, Ki Mun; Lee, Yu Jong; Chung, Chan Young

    2003-01-01

    Source terms presented in TID-14844 and Regulatory Guide 1.4 have been used for radiological analysis of design basis accidents for licensing existing pressurized water reactor (PWR). However, more realistic and physically-based source term based on results of study and experiments for about 30 years after the publication of TID-14844 was developed and presented in NUREG-1465 published by U.S NRC in 1995. In addition, ICRP has revised dose concepts and criteria through the publication of ICRP-9, 26, 60 and recommended effective dose concepts rather than critical organ concept since the publication of ICRP-26. Accordingly, multipurpose computer program called DBADOSE incorporating alternative source terms in NUREG-1465 and effective dose concepts in ICRP-60 was developed. Comparison of results of DBADOSE with those of POSTDBA and STARDOSE was performed and verified and no significant difference and inaccuracy were found. DBADOSE will be used to evaluate accidental doses for licensing application according to the domestic laws that are expected to be revised in the near future

  1. Linear programming: an alternative approach for developing formulations for emergency food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibani, Ershad; Dabbagh Moghaddam, Arasb; Sharifan, Anousheh; Afshari, Zahra

    2018-03-01

    To minimize the mortality rates of individuals affected by disasters, providing high-quality food relief during the initial stages of an emergency is crucial. The goal of this study was to develop a formulation for a high-energy, nutrient-dense prototype using linear programming (LP) model as a novel method for developing formulations for food products. The model consisted of the objective function and the decision variables, which were the formulation costs and weights of the selected commodities, respectively. The LP constraints were the Institute of Medicine and the World Health Organization specifications of the content of nutrients in the product. Other constraints related to the product's sensory properties were also introduced to the model. Nonlinear constraints for energy ratios of nutrients were linearized to allow their use in the LP. Three focus group studies were conducted to evaluate the palatability and other aspects of the optimized formulation. New constraints were introduced to the LP model based on the focus group evaluations to improve the formulation. LP is an appropriate tool for designing formulations of food products to meet a set of nutritional requirements. This method is an excellent alternative to the traditional 'trial and error' method in designing formulations. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Evaluation of complementary-alternative medicine (CAM) questionnaire development for Indonesian clinical psychologists: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Andrian; Newcombe, Peter A; Pohlman, Annie

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate questionnaire development to measure the knowledge of Complementary-Alternative Medicine (CAM), attitudes towards CAM, CAM experiences, and CAM educational needs of clinical psychologists in Indonesia. A 26-item questionnaire was developed through an extensive literature search. Data was obtained from provisional psychologists from the Master of Professional Clinical Psychology programs at two established public universities in urban areas of Indonesia. To validate the questionnaire, panel reviews by executive members of the Indonesian Clinical Psychology Association (ICPA), experts in health psychology, and experts in public health and CAM provided their professional judgements. The self-reporting questionnaire consisted of four scales including: knowledge of CAM (6 items), attitudes towards CAM (10 items), CAM experiences (4 items), and CAM educational needs (6 items). All scales, except CAM Experiences, were assessed on a 7-point Likert scale. Sixty provisional psychologists were eligible to complete the questionnaire with a response rate of 73% (N=44). The results showed that the CAM questionnaire was reliable (Cronbach's coefficient alpha range=0.62-0.96; item-total correlation range=0.14-0.92) and demonstrated content validity. Following further psychometric evaluation, the CAM questionnaire may provide the evidence-based information to inform the education and practice of Indonesian clinical psychologists. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Recent technological developments in accelerating structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Y.

    1992-01-01

    A variety of high-β accelerating structures for both proton and electron accelerators are reviewed from modern points of view. Both standing-and traveling-wave structures are discussed. Beam stability is one of the most important factors which must be taken into account regarding modern accelerators in which the beam intensity is an issue. (Author) 3 figs., 3 tabs., 60 refs

  4. Effect of Alternating Current on the Cathodic Protection and Interface Structure of X80 Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiru Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study employs potential-monitoring techniques, cyclic voltammetry tests, alternating current (AC voltammetry methods, and surface characterization to investigate the AC corrosion of cathodically protected X80 pipeline steel. In a non-passive neutral solution at pH 7.2, a sufficiently negative potential completely protects steel at an AC current density of 100 A/m2. In an alkaline solution at pH 9.6, more serious AC corrosion occurs at more negative cathodic protection (CP potential, whereas without CP the steel suffers negligible corrosion. In addition, the interface capacitance increases with AC amplitude. Based on these results, the AC corrosion mechanisms that function under various conditions are analyzed and described.

  5. Generating alternative alignments in terrain suitability studies for environmental impact assessments of linear developments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Deventer, Heidi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available (EIA). Though legislation requires a screening or scoping of alternative options prior to the EIA, the use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) is seldom used in generating alternatives through a Terrain Suitability Study (TSS). The inclusion of a...

  6. Alternative structures and bi-Hamiltonian systems on a Hilbert space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmo, G; Scolarici, G; Simoni, A; Ventriglia, F

    2005-01-01

    We discuss transformations generated by dynamical quantum systems which are bi-unitary, i.e. unitary with respect to a pair of Hermitian structures on an infinite-dimensional complex Hilbert space. We introduce the notion of Hermitian structures in generic relative position. We provide a few necessary and sufficient conditions for two Hermitian structures to be in generic relative position to better illustrate the relevance of this notion. The group of bi-unitary transformations is considered in both the generic and the non-generic case. Finally, we generalize the analysis to real Hilbert spaces and extend to infinite dimensions results already available in the framework of finite-dimensional linear bi-Hamiltonian systems

  7. Structured reactors as alternative to pellets catalyst for propane oxidative steam reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vita, A.; Pino, L.; Cipiti, F.; Lagana, M.; Recupero, V. [CNR - Institute for Advanced Energy Technologies ' ' Nicola Giordano' ' , Via Salita S. Lucia sopra Contesse n. 5, 98126 Messina (Italy)

    2010-09-15

    The performance of a Pt/CeO{sub 2} catalyst as packed bed, coated on monolith and as self-structured bed has been evaluated during C{sub 3}H{sub 8} oxidative steam reforming. Structured bed, prepared by a new aqueous tape casting method, combining high total porosity (80%) with a self-supported channel structure, offers a better and more efficient control of heat and mass transfer along the catalytic bed, showing, especially at high gas hourly space velocity (30 x 10{sup 4} h{sup -1}), better performance in terms of fuel conversion, hydrogen production and low by-products formation coupled with an economy of the catalyst of about to 43% with respect to the traditional packed bed system. (author)

  8. Alternating space charge and ambiguity of quantum states in double-barrier structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashkovskij, A.B.

    2000-01-01

    Solution for nonstationary self-consistent Schroedinger and Poisson equations describing resonance interaction of electrons tunneled through asymmetric double-barrier structures with a high-frequency electric field was obtained by summing perturbation theory series. In case of uniform distribution of electrons by energy the solution is obtained analytically, whereas in case of monoenergy beam, it is reduced to finding the roots of power five algebraic polynomial. It is shown that in some cases the influence of spatial charge gives rise to quite a new effect for the systems: several different electron wave functions will correspond to the same amplitude of high-frequency voltage applied to the structure and, accordingly, the values of high-frequency conductivity, transmission and reflection factors may differ by several times. As a result, instability of current transmission and hysteresis of volt-ampere characteristics may be observed in the structures [ru

  9. THE VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING CENTERS: AN ALTERNATIVE TO LOCAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Palop-Esteban

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an educational proposal of a technical nature but with bases rooted in popular education (Freire, 1970. It aims to provide lights on how vocational education, could have a link to the local development of the territory. Local development has its maximum exponents in the fields of the recovery of the endogenous sources and in the articulation of the associative network (Herrera, 2009, with the consequent benefit of enhancing participatory instruments that improve the democratic exchanges of territory. The educative centers may have a privileged territory view, converge in the same few elements, actors and actresses key, also if the Centre has the role of formative work development from the articulation of the productive elements, we have a resource of excellent characteristics for local development. The proposal is therefore, the linkage of the Centers for education and work with a perspective of local development, especially in areas with low social structuring communities, i.e., high rates of unemployment, schooling, economic difficulties, etc. These scenarios are very common in urban peripheries both in Europe and in America, but these fields, can also be found in certain rural communities, Latin American, although with different characteristics. The incidence in the local promotion, in these cases, will have a special responsibility, since the work by the unfinished schooling and educational inclusion, without doubt, work for community development (Torrent, 2012.

  10. Low-cost solar array structure development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A. H.

    1981-06-01

    Early studies of flat-plate arrays have projected costs on the order of $50/square meter for installed array support structures. This report describes an optimized low-cost frame-truss structure that is estimated to cost below $25/square meter, including all markups, shipping an installation. The structure utilizes a planar frame made of members formed from light-gauge galvanized steel sheet and is supposed in the field by treated-wood trusses that are partially buried in trenches. The buried trusses use the overburden soil to carry uplift wind loads and thus to obviate reinforced-concrete foundations. Details of the concept, including design rationale, fabrication and assembly experience, structural testing and fabrication drawings are included.

  11. Development of cold source moderator structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aso, Tomokaze; Ishikura, Syuichi; Terada, Atsuhiko; Teshigawara, Makoto; Watanabe, Noboru; HIno, Ryutaro

    1999-01-01

    The cold and thermal neutrons generated at the target (which works as a spallation neutron source under a 5MW proton beam condition) is filtered with cold source moderators using supercritical hydrogen. Preliminary structural analysis was carried out to clarify technical problems on the concept of the thin-walled structure for the cold source moderator. Structural analytical results showed that the maximum stress of 1 12MPa occurred on the moderator surface, which exceeded the allowable design stresses of ordinary aluminum alloys. Flow patterns measured by water flow experiments agreed well with hydraulic analytical results, which showed that an impinging jet flow from an inner pipe of the moderator caused a recirculation flow on a large scale. Based on analytical and experimental results, new moderator structures with minute frames, blowing flow holes etc. were proposed to keep its strength and to suppress the recirculation flow. (author)

  12. Wakefield monitor development for CLIC accelerating structure

    CERN Document Server

    Peauger, F; Girardot, P; Andersson, A; Riddone, G; Samoshkin, A; Solodko, A; Zennaro, R; Ruber, R

    2010-01-01

    Abstract To achieve high luminosity in CLIC, the accelerating structures must be aligned to an accuracy of 5 μm with respect to the beam trajectory. Position detectors called Wakefield Monitors (WFM) are integrated to the structure for a beam based alignment. This paper describes the requirements of such monitors. Detailed RF design and electromagnetic simulations of the WFM itself are presented. In particular, time domain computations are performed and an evaluation of the resolution is done for two higher order modes at 18 and 24 GHz. The mechanical design of a prototype accelerating structure with WFM is also presented as well as the fabrication status of three complete structures. The objective is to implement two of them in CTF3 at CERN for a feasibility demonstration with beam and high power rf.

  13. The building of the kitchen table : In search of an alternative model for in-company leadership development programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sigaloff, C.L.; Nabben, E.H. (Iselien); Bergsma, E.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an alternative model of a leadership-development program. Design/methodology/approach: A leadership-development program based on a "closure-type description" instead of an "input-type description" (Varela) was designed and executed for an organization. The

  14. The development of high hydrostatic pressure processes as an alternative to other pathogen reduction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demazeau, G; Rivalain, N

    2011-06-01

    In biology, scientist's interest for high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) has increased over the last 20 years, for both research and industrial developments, mainly because of the low energy associated with its application in liquid phase and its capacity to inactivate pathogens. It is now considered as an interesting alternative to heat treatments for the inactivation of contaminants in many products, from foods to pharmaceutical preparations. This last statement implies different objectives according to the type of product. The therapeutic properties of pharmaceutical preparations or other biological media of physiological importance are in general associated with specific and well-defined molecules such as proteins. Their activity mainly depends on their spatial conformation, maintained by weak chemical bonds that are often pressure sensitive. In this case, the optimization of a HHP process can be more complex than for foods, for which the organoleptic molecules are less pressure sensitive, and the evaluation of their preservation is more subjective and highly dependent on the consumers acceptance. The objective of this review is therefore to underline how, even if the basic concept for the optimization of a pathogen reduction process using HHP is the same whatever the product, major differences arise from the product itself and its final use. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Health, Islam and Alternative Capitalism. Three possible Key Factors in Developing Somaliland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Zizzola

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to investigate the socio, political and economic dynamics that have occurred in Somaliland in the last decades. Even though this country is still unrecognized by the international community, Somaliland’s economy has undertaken an enduring growth, above all in the private entrepreneurial sector. The author argues that religion has had an important role in the Somali cultural and social identification. According to this assumption, the article analyzes the Islamic factor by showing how it has led to the creation of many alternative connections supported by mutual trust and religious solidarity among involved communities. These connections are somehow fulfilling the absence of political legitimacy while progressively substituting conventional routes of intra-national negotiation, like diplomacy. To confirm this tendency, specific arguments are drawn from Somaliland’s health sector. The health care system is considered a preferential index to evaluate the level of national development. Above all, the private non-profit sector gives some evidence of the Somali capacity of running competitive private businesses while multiplying simultaneously their resources and suppliers with a consequent increase in autonomy and efficiency. This successful compromise bears the fruits of Somali engagement and can be identified by their inexhaustible adaptability to adverse conditions and their ability to avoid, not deny, the rational rules imposed by external actors and their ostensible, insurmountable interests.

  16. Alternative splicing at the intersection of biological timing, development, and stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiger, Dorothee; Brown, John W S

    2013-10-01

    High-throughput sequencing for transcript profiling in plants has revealed that alternative splicing (AS) affects a much higher proportion of the transcriptome than was previously assumed. AS is involved in most plant processes and is particularly prevalent in plants exposed to environmental stress. The identification of mutations in predicted splicing factors and spliceosomal proteins that affect cell fate, the circadian clock, plant defense, and tolerance/sensitivity to abiotic stress all point to a fundamental role of splicing/AS in plant growth, development, and responses to external cues. Splicing factors affect the AS of multiple downstream target genes, thereby transferring signals to alter gene expression via splicing factor/AS networks. The last two to three years have seen an ever-increasing number of examples of functional AS. At a time when the identification of AS in individual genes and at a global level is exploding, this review aims to bring together such examples to illustrate the extent and importance of AS, which are not always obvious from individual publications. It also aims to ensure that plant scientists are aware that AS is likely to occur in the genes that they study and that dynamic changes in AS and its consequences need to be considered routinely.

  17. Agrofood chains: a viable alternative for sustainable rural development or consolidation of big business?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Rosa Yumbla

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Beginning in the 90s, following patterns that responded to the global corporate food regime, the government of Ecuador encouraged the formation of agro-food chains, among them, the chain of corn-animal feed- poultry. The food chain includes two service links (SL and four productive links (PL controlled by companies such as Pronaca, Agripac, Ecuaquímica and Supermaxi. These companies implemented horizontal, vertical, financial, and brand integrations, as strategies to consolidate market power and something even more prejudicial –the shaping of decisions regarding what and how to plant, and the available choices of what and how to consume– progressively creating a gap between producers and consumers.This model promotes corn monoculture through contract farming, encourages the use of agrochemicals, and endorses large poultry and swine processing factories which cause air, soil and water pollution from the ‘by products’, gas, feces and urine produced by the animals. Additionally, it promotes, supports an increases the consumption of animal protein, which is energy inefficient.The article discusses the consolidation of the agro-food chain, corn –processed food– poultry, and their links in order to determine if the integration of producers and consumers in this chain is an alternative to equitable development. Or are they part of the business strategies that respond to global food systems?

  18. Cutthroat cooperation : The effects of team role decisions on adaptation to alternative reward structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beersma, Bianca; Hollenbeck, John R.; Conlon, Donald E.; Humphrey, Stephen E.; Moon, Henry; Ilgen, Daniel R.

    Structural Adaptation Theory proposes that it is more difficult for teams to change from competitive to cooperative reward conditions than it is for them to change in the opposite direction, and this has been labeled the cutthroat cooperation effect [Johnson, M. D., Hollenbeck, J. R., Ilgen, D. R.,

  19. Cutthroat cooperation: the effects of team role decisions on adaptation to alternative reward structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beersma, B.; Hollenbeck, J.R.; Conlon, D.E.; Humphrey, S.E.; Moon, H.; Ilgen, D.R.

    2009-01-01

    Structural Adaptation Theory proposes that it is more difficult for teams to change from competitive to cooperative reward conditions than it is for them to change in the opposite direction, and this has been labeled the cutthroat cooperation effect [Johnson, M. D., Hollenbeck, J. R., Ilgen, D. R.,

  20. Office of River Protection, plan for Developing Hanford Tank Waste Processing Alternatives, Revision 1, December 15, 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WODRICH, D.D.

    2000-01-01

    In August 2000, The Department of Energy (DOE) must decide whether to authorize BNFL Inc. (BNFL) to construct and operate tank waste processing facilities as proposed or to take another path. This will be a multi-billion dollar commitment, requiring that the best path forward be chosen. The plan for reaching this decision is described in reference 1. The alternative evaluations in this plan are directed toward acquiring information needed for the August 2000 decision and for preparing an alternate path plan, should an acceptable agreement with BNFL not be reached. Many of the alternatives considered may still be applicable for failures that could occur after the year 2000, however, depending on the cause of later failures, others alternatives may need to be developed

  1. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN ALTERNATIVES TO CAMAC FOR DATA ACQUISITION AT DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KELLMAN, D.H.; CAMPBELL, G.L.; FERRON, J.R.; PIGLOWSKI, D.A.; AUSTIN, M.E.; MCKEE, G.R.

    2004-03-01

    OAK-B135 For over twenty years, data acquisition hardware at DIII-D has been based on the CAMAC platform. These rugged and reliable systems, however, are gradually becoming obsolete due to end-of-life issues, ever-decreasing industry support of older hardware, and the availability of modern alternative hardware with superior performance. Efforts are underway at DIII-D to adopt new data acquisition solutions which exploit modern technologies and surpass the limitations of the CAMAC standard. These efforts have involved the procurement and development of data acquisition systems based on the PCI and Compact-PCI platform standards. These systems are comprised of rack-mount computers containing data acquisition boards (digitizers), Ethernet connectivity, and the drivers and software necessary for control. Each digitizer contains analog-to-digital converters, control circuitry, firmware and memory to collect, store, and transfer waveform data acquired using internal or external triggers and clocks. Software has been developed which allows DIII-D computers to program the operational parameters of the digitizers, as well as to upload acquired data into the DIII-D acquisition database. All communication between host computers and the new acquisition systems occurs via standard Ethernet connections, a vast improvement over the slower, serial loop highways used for control and data transfer with CAMAC systems. In addition, the capabilities available in modern integrated and printed circuit manufacture result in digitizers with high channel count and memory density. Cost savings are also realized by utilizing a platform based on standards of the personal computer industry. Details of the new systems at DIII-D are presented, along with initial experience with their use, and plans for future expansion and improvement

  2. Development and Characterization of Nisin Nanoparticles as Potential Alternative for the Recurrent Vaginal Candidiasis Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, Letícia Coli Louvisse; Todaro, Valerio; Sathler, Plinio Cunha; da Silva, Luiz Cláudio Rodrigues Pereira; do Carmo, Flávia Almada; Costa, Cleonice Marques; Toma, Helena Keiko; Castro, Helena Carla; Rodrigues, Carlos Rangel; de Sousa, Valeria Pereira; Cabral, Lucio Mendes

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this work was the development and characterization of nisin-loaded nanoparticles and the evaluation of its potential antifungal activity. Candidiasis is a fungal infection caused by Candida sp. considered as one of the major public health problem currently. The discovery of antifungal agents that present a reduced or null resistance of Candida sp. and the development of more efficient drug release mechanisms are necessary for the improvement of candidiasis treatment. Nisin, a bacteriocin commercially available for more than 50 years, exhibits antibacterial action in food products with potential antifungal activity. Among several alternatives used to modulate antifungal activity of bacteriocins, polymeric nanoparticles have received great attention due to an effective drug release control and reduction of therapeutic dose, besides the minimization of adverse effects by the preferential accumulation in specific tissues. The nisin nanoparticles were prepared by double emulsification and solvent evaporation methods. Nanoparticles were characterized by dynamic light scattering, zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and scanning electron microscopy. Antifungal activity was accessed by pour plate method and cell counting using Candida albicans strains. The in vitro release profile and in vitro permeation studies were performed using dialysis bag method and pig vaginal mucosa in Franz diffusion cell, respectively. The results revealed nisin nanoparticles (300 nm) with spherical shape and high loading efficiency (93.88 ± 3.26%). In vitro test results suggest a promising application of these nanosystems as a prophylactic agent in recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis and other gynecological diseases.

  3. Alternating twist structures formed by electroconvection in the nematic phase of an achiral bent-core molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shingo; Dhara, Surajit; Sadashiva, B K; Shimbo, Yoshio; Takanishi, Yoichi; Araoka, Fumito; Ishikawa, Ken; Takezoe, Hideo

    2008-04-01

    We report an unusual electroconvection in the nematic phase of a bent-core liquid crystal. In a voltage-frequency diagram, two frequency regions exhibiting prewavy stripe patterns were found, as reported by Wiant We found that these stripes never show extinction dark when cells were rotated under crossed polarizers. Based on the color interchange in between neighboring stripes by the rotation of the cells or an analyzer, twisted molecular orientation is suggested; i.e., the directors are alternately twisted from the top to the bottom surfaces with a pretilt angle in adjacent stripes, which is an analogue of the twisted (splayed) structure observed in surface-stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal cells. The transmittance spectra calculated using the 4x4 matrix method from the model structure are consistent with the experimental observation.

  4. Laminated wood as an alternative to wood poles : Engineered wood structures for electric utility and telecommunications industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reisdorff, R. [Laminated Wood Systems Inc., Seward, NE (United States)

    2002-07-01

    In this PowerPoint presentation, the author discusses the major advantages of laminated structures, for both the electric and telecommunication industries. The advantages include economy, quick delivery, climbing and field modifications, dimensional uniformity and stability. A series of pictures was displayed which showed the manufacturing process. Laminated structures have a proven history. They were developed in Europe in 1890, and introduced to the United States in 1934. Framing members were introduced in the late 1940s, while poles were introduced in 1963, two years ahead of steel poles. Some of the electrical utility applications include: (1) distribution structures, (2) transmission structures such as single-pole, phase over phase switch structures, tangent structures, and H-Frame construction. The applications for the telecommunication industry consist of joint use structures, such as electric and telecommunication, lighting and telecommunication, overhead telephone and wireless; mono-pole applications; three-pole Bell Towers; and tree poles. Examples of each type were shown. figs.

  5. Alternative approaches used to assess structural changes of natural zircon caused by heat treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, L. T. T.; Thuyet, N. T. M.; Phan, T. L.; Tran, N.; Toan, D. N.; Thang, P. D.; Huy, B. T.

    2018-03-01

    It is known that large changes in the crystal structure of zircon (ZrSiO4) can be assessed through the linewidth of the characteristic Raman mode (Δν3) at 1008 cm-1. However, the use of Δν3 to assess small changes caused by heat treatment at temperatures below its decomposition temperature of 1670 °C is difficult. The present work points out that the combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses, and photoluminescence (PL) and Raman (RS) measurements with different excitation wavelengths is an effective approach to solve the above problem. In this context, we have selected natural zircon containing some rare-earth (RE) impurities, and then studied the changes in its crystal structure caused by heat treatment at temperatures Tan=400-1600 °C. XRD analyses reveal that small modifications of the unit-cell parameters occur as Tan>600 °C. Taking the intensity ratios of the ν3 mode to RE-related emissions (Iν3/IRE) or the PL intensity ratios between RE-related emissions into consideration, the similar results in good agreement with the XRD analyses are also found. We believe that the small structural changes are related to the migration and redistribution of defects and impurities, and re-crystallization of zircon. This could be further confirmed though the relation between paramagnetic and ferromagnetic signals when Tan changes.

  6. Electrohydrodynamic bubbling: an alternative route to fabricate porous structures of silk fibroin based materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekemen, Zeynep; Ahmad, Zeeshan; Stride, Eleanor; Kaplan, David; Edirisinghe, Mohan

    2013-05-13

    Conventional fabrication techniques and structures employed in the design of silk fibroin (SF) based porous materials provide only limited control over pore size and require several processing stages. In this study, it is shown that, by utilizing electrohydrodynamic bubbling, not only can new hollow spherical structures of SF be formed in a single step by means of bubbles, but the resulting bubbles can serve as pore generators when dehydrated. The bubble characteristics can be controlled through simple adjustments to the processing parameters. Bubbles with diameters in the range of 240-1000 μm were fabricated in controlled fashion. FT-IR characterization confirmed that the rate of air infused during processing enhanced β-sheet packing in SF at higher flow rates. Dynamic mechanical analysis also demonstrated a correlation between air flow rate and film tensile strength. Results indicate that electrohydrodynamically generated SF and their composite bubbles can be employed as new tools to generate porous structures in a controlled manner with a range of potential applications in biocoatings and tissue engineering scaffolds.

  7. Crystal structure of A. aeolicus LpxC with bound product suggests alternate deacetylation mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew D; Gao, Ning; Ross, Philip L; Olivier, Nelson B

    2015-09-01

    UDP-3-O-acyl-N-acetylglucosamine deacetylase (LpxC) is the first committed step to form lipid A, an essential component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. As it is essential for the survival of many pathogens, LpxC is an attractive target for antibacterial therapeutics. Herein, we report the product-bound co-crystal structure of LpxC from the acheal Aquifex aeolicus solved to 1.6 Å resolution. We identified interactions by hydroxyl and hydroxymethyl substituents of the product glucosamine ring that may enable new insights to exploit waters in the active site for structure-based design of LpxC inhibitors with novel scaffolds. By using this product structure, we have performed quantum mechanical modeling on the substrate in the active site. Based on our results and published experimental data, we propose a new mechanism that may lead to a better understanding of LpxC catalysis and inhibition. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Alternative S2 Hinge Regions of the Myosin Rod Affect Myofibrillar Structure and Myosin Kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Mark S.; Dambacher, Corey M.; Knowles, Aileen F.; Braddock, Joan M.; Farman, Gerrie P.; Irving, Thomas C.; Swank, Douglas M.; Bernstein, Sanford I.; Maughan, David W.; (RPI); (IIT); (SDSU); (Vermont)

    2009-07-01

    The subfragment 2/light meromyosin 'hinge' region has been proposed to significantly contribute to muscle contraction force and/or speed. Transgenic replacement of the endogenous fast muscle isovariant hinge A (exon 15a) in Drosophila melanogaster indirect flight muscle with the slow muscle hinge B (exon 15b) allows examination of the structural and functional changes when only this region of the myosin molecule is different. Hinge B was previously shown to increase myosin rod length, increase A-band and sarcomere length, and decrease flight performance compared to hinge A. We applied additional measures to these transgenic lines to further evaluate the consequences of modifying this hinge region. Structurally, the longer A-band and sarcomere lengths found in the hinge B myofibrils appear to be due to the longitudinal addition of myosin heads. Functionally, hinge B, although a significant distance from the myosin catalytic domain, alters myosin kinetics in a manner consistent with this region increasing myosin rod length. These structural and functional changes combine to decrease whole fly wing-beat frequency and flight performance. Our results indicate that this hinge region plays an important role in determining myosin kinetics and in regulating thick and thin filament lengths as well as sarcomere length.

  9. Development in structural systems reliability theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murotsu, Y.

    1986-01-01

    This paper is concerned with two topics on structural systems reliability theory. One covers automatic generation of failure mode equations, identifications of stochastically dominant failure modes, and reliability assessment of redundant structures. Reduced stiffness matrixes and equivalent nodal forces representing the failed elements are introduced for expressing the safety of the elements, using a matrix method. Dominant failure modes are systematically selected by a branch-and-bound technique and heuristic operations. The other discusses the various optimum design problems based on reliability concept. Those problems are interpreted through a solution to a multi-objective optimization problem. (orig.)

  10. Development in structural systems reliability theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murotsu, Y

    1986-07-01

    This paper is concerned with two topics on structural systems reliability theory. One covers automatic generation of failure mode equations, identifications of stochastically dominant failure modes, and reliability assessment of redundant structures. Reduced stiffness matrixes and equivalent nodal forces representing the failed elements are introduced for expressing the safety of the elements, using a matrix method. Dominant failure modes are systematically selected by a branch-and-bound technique and heuristic operations. The other discusses the various optimum design problems based on reliability concept. Those problems are interpreted through a solution to a multi-objective optimization problem.

  11. Economic development and industrial structure - an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordaas, Hildegunn Kyvik

    1997-09-01

    The essay offers a selective review of central issues related to economic growth. The interrelationship between technological progress, capital accumulation, specialisation and industrial structure is emphasised. It is concluded that, first, there is little evidence that industrial structure plays an independent role in growth. Second, economists have been more successful in explaining the consequence of technological progress than the determinants of technological progress. However, even the consequences are not well understood and there is still a long way to go before general and well-documented policy implications can be drawn. (Author)

  12. Development of full scale testing of an alternate foundation system for post and panel retaining walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    The alternate post system offers benefits such as ease of construction, reduced construction time, and : lower wall costs. While this system seems feasible, there are concerns regarding its performance, in : particular the amount of bending in the po...

  13. Functions, structure, and read-through alternative splicing of feline APOBEC3 genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münk, Carsten; Beck, Thomas; Zielonka, Jörg; Hotz-Wagenblatt, Agnes; Chareza, Sarah; Battenberg, Marion; Thielebein, Jens; Cichutek, Klaus; Bravo, Ignacio G; O'Brien, Stephen J; Lochelt, Martin; Yuhki, Naoya

    2008-01-01

    Background Over the past years a variety of host restriction genes have been identified in human and mammals that modulate retrovirus infectivity, replication, assembly, and/or cross-species transmission. Among these host-encoded restriction factors, the APOBEC3 (A3; apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing catalytic polypeptide 3) proteins are potent inhibitors of retroviruses and retrotransposons. While primates encode seven of these genes (A3A to A3H), rodents carry only a single A3 gene. Results Here we identified and characterized several A3 genes in the genome of domestic cat (Felis catus) by analyzing the genomic A3 locus. The cat genome presents one A3H gene and three very similar A3C genes (a-c), probably generated after two consecutive gene duplications. In addition to these four one-domain A3 proteins, a fifth A3, designated A3CH, is expressed by read-through alternative splicing. Specific feline A3 proteins selectively inactivated only defined genera of feline retroviruses: Bet-deficient feline foamy virus was mainly inactivated by feA3Ca, feA3Cb, and feA3Cc, while feA3H and feA3CH were only weakly active. The infectivity of Vif-deficient feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia virus was reduced only by feA3H and feA3CH, but not by any of the feA3Cs. Within Felidae, A3C sequences show significant adaptive selection, but unexpectedly, the A3H sequences present more sites that are under purifying selection. Conclusion Our data support a complex evolutionary history of expansion, divergence, selection and individual extinction of antiviral A3 genes that parallels the early evolution of Placentalia, becoming more intricate in taxa in which the arms race between host and retroviruses is harsher. PMID:18315870

  14. Estimated impacts of alternative Australian alcohol taxation structures on consumption, public health and government revenues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Christopher M; Byrnes, Joshua M; Cobiac, Linda J; Vandenberg, Brian; Vos, Theo

    2013-11-04

    To examine health and economic implications of modifying taxation of alcohol in Australia. Economic and epidemiological modelling of four scenarios for changing the current taxation of alcohol products, including: replacing the wine equalisation tax (WET) with a volumetric tax; applying an equal tax rate to all beverages equivalent to a 10% increase in the current excise applicable to spirits and ready-to-drink products; applying an excise tax rate that increases exponentially by 3% for every 1% increase in alcohol content above 3.2%; and applying a two-tiered volumetric tax. We used annual sales data and taxation rates for 2010 as the base case. Alcohol consumption, taxation revenue, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) averted and health care costs averted. In 2010, the Australian Government collected close to $8.6 billion from alcohol taxation. All four of the proposed variations to current rates of alcohol excise were shown to save money and more effectively reduce alcohol-related harm compared with the 2010 base case. Abolishing the WET and replacing it with a volumetric tax on wine would increase taxation revenue by $1.3 billion per year, reduce alcohol consumption by 1.3%, save $820 million in health care costs and avert 59 000 DALYs. The alternative scenarios would lead to even higher taxation receipts and greater reductions in alcohol use and harm. Our research findings suggest that any of the proposed variations to current rates of alcohol excise would be a cost-effective health care intervention; they thus reinforce the evidence that taxation is a cost-effective strategy. Of all the scenarios, perhaps the most politically feasible policy option at this point in time is to abolish the WET and replace it with a volumetric tax on wine. This analysis supports the recommendation of the National Preventative Health Taskforce and the Henry Review towards taxing alcohol according to alcohol content.

  15. Role of Lithology and Rock Structure in Drainage Development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lithology and Rock structure play a vital role in the development of Drainage Network in any drainage basin. The drainage patterns upon land surface develop as directed by the underlying lithology and rock structure. In fact, lithology and rock structure together shape the basin and are decisive parameters of nature and ...

  16. Development of a Low Inductance Linear Alternator for Stirling Power Convertors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Steven M.; Schifer, Nicholas A.

    2017-01-01

    The free-piston Stirling power convertor is a promising technology for high efficiency heat-to-electricity power conversion in space. Stirling power convertors typically utilize linear alternators for converting mechanical motion into electricity. The linear alternator is one of the heaviest components of modern Stirling power convertors. In addition, state-of-art Stirling linear alternators usually require the use of tuning capacitors or active power factor correction controllers to maximize convertor output power. The linear alternator to be discussed in this paper, eliminates the need for tuning capacitors and delivers electrical power output in which current is inherently in phase with voltage. No power factor correction is needed. In addition, the linear alternator concept requires very little iron, so core loss has been virtually eliminated. This concept is a unique moving coil design where the magnetic flux path is defined by the magnets themselves. This paper presents computational predictions for two different low inductance alternator configurations, and compares the predictions with experimental data for one of the configurations that has been built and is currently being tested.

  17. Development of a Low-Inductance Linear Alternator for Stirling Power Convertors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Steven M.; Schifer, Nicholas A.

    2017-01-01

    The free-piston Stirling power convertor is a promising technology for high-efficiency heat-to-electricity power conversion in space. Stirling power convertors typically utilize linear alternators for converting mechanical motion into electricity. The linear alternator is one of the heaviest components of modern Stirling power convertors. In addition, state-of-the-art Stirling linear alternators usually require the use of tuning capacitors or active power factor correction controllers to maximize convertor output power. The linear alternator to be discussed in this paper eliminates the need for tuning capacitors and delivers electrical power output in which current is inherently in phase with voltage. No power factor correction is needed. In addition, the linear alternator concept requires very little iron, so core loss has been virtually eliminated. This concept is a unique moving coil design where the magnetic flux path is defined by the magnets themselves. This paper presents computational predictions for two different low inductance alternator configurations. Additionally, one of the configurations was built and tested at GRC, and the experimental data is compared with the predictions.

  18. Electricity supply of Switzerland. Development and structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutzner, J.

    1995-01-01

    An overview of the history of the Swiss power supply since the founding of the Swiss Electricity Works Association in the year 1985 is provided. Power supply, requirements, linkage and exchange with other countries are dealt with. Further themes are the organizational structures, tariffs, power supply and energy policies, as well as national and international connections. 87 figs., 40 refs

  19. AN ANTHOLOGY OF THE DISTINGUISHED ACHIEVEMENTS IN SCIENCE AND TECHNIQUE. PART 32: ALTERNATIVE ENERGY: STATE AND PROSPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Baranov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Implementation of brief analytical review of the state and prospect of development in the modern world of alternative energy, including wind energy, sun energy, geothermal energy, biogas energy, flood-tide water energy, hydrogen energy and small water energy. Methodology. Scientific methods of collection, analysis and analytical treatment of scientific and technical information in area of the present state of world energy and ways of its further development. Results. A brief scientific and technical review is resulted about the state and prospects of world development of basic types of alternative energy. It is shown that, in spite of comparatively small stake (to 10 % of this untraditional energy in general world balance of making of electric power, world association taking into account the necessary changing in the nearest 50 years of present oil-gas «foundation» of energy on other with large raw material, potential and ecological possibilities are forced to invest large financial means in development of the indicated directions of alternative energy. Originality. First on the basis of materials of separate magazine publications, scientific monographs and internet-reports on power problem the brief analytical review of the state and prospects of world development of basic types of alternative energy is executed. Practical value. Deepening and spread of the scientific and technical learnings in area of functioning and ways of development of modern energy. Scientific popularization of arising up before society claimed tasks from global and important for all of humanity of power problem.

  20. Application of SAIL phenylalanine and tyrosine with alternative isotope-labeling patterns for protein structure determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Mitsuhiro [Nagoya University, Structural Biology Research Center, Graduate School of Science (Japan); Ono, Akira M.; Terauchi, Tsutomu [SAIL Technologies Co., Inc. (Japan); Kainosho, Masatsune, E-mail: kainosho@nmr.chem.metro-u.ac.j [Nagoya University, Structural Biology Research Center, Graduate School of Science (Japan)

    2010-01-15

    The extensive collection of NOE constraint data involving the aromatic ring signals is essential for accurate protein structure determination, although it is often hampered in practice by the pervasive signal overlapping and tight spin couplings for aromatic rings. We have prepared various types of stereo-array isotope labeled phenylalanines ({epsilon}- and {zeta}-SAIL Phe) and tyrosine ({epsilon}-SAIL Tyr) to overcome these problems (Torizawa et al. 2005), and proven that these SAIL amino acids provide dramatic spectral simplification and sensitivity enhancement for the aromatic ring NMR signals. In addition to these SAIL aromatic amino acids, we recently synthesized {delta}-SAIL Phe and {delta}-SAIL Tyr, which allow us to observe and assign {delta}-{sup 13}C/{sup 1}H signals very efficiently. Each of the various types of SAIL Phe and SAIL Tyr yields well-resolved resonances for the {delta}-, {epsilon}- or {zeta}-{sup 13}C/{sup 1}H signals, respectively, which can readily be assigned by simple and robust pulse sequences. Since the {delta}-, {epsilon}-, and {zeta}-proton signals of Phe/Tyr residues give rise to complementary NOE constraints, the concomitant use of various types of SAIL-Phe and SAIL-Tyr would generate more accurate protein structures, as compared to those obtained by using conventional uniformly {sup 13}C, {sup 15}N-double labeled proteins. We illustrated this with the case of an 18.2 kDa protein, Escherichia coli peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase b (EPPIb), and concluded that the combined use of {zeta}-SAIL Phe and {epsilon}-SAIL Tyr would be practically the best choice for protein structural determinations.

  1. Application of SAIL phenylalanine and tyrosine with alternative isotope-labeling patterns for protein structure determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Mitsuhiro; Ono, Akira M; Terauchi, Tsutomu; Kainosho, Masatsune

    2010-01-01

    The extensive collection of NOE constraint data involving the aromatic ring signals is essential for accurate protein structure determination, although it is often hampered in practice by the pervasive signal overlapping and tight spin couplings for aromatic rings. We have prepared various types of stereo-array isotope labeled phenylalanines (epsilon- and zeta-SAIL Phe) and tyrosine (epsilon-SAIL Tyr) to overcome these problems (Torizawa et al. 2005), and proven that these SAIL amino acids provide dramatic spectral simplification and sensitivity enhancement for the aromatic ring NMR signals. In addition to these SAIL aromatic amino acids, we recently synthesized delta-SAIL Phe and delta-SAIL Tyr, which allow us to observe and assign delta-(13)C/(1)H signals very efficiently. Each of the various types of SAIL Phe and SAIL Tyr yields well-resolved resonances for the delta-, epsilon- or zeta-(13)C/(1)H signals, respectively, which can readily be assigned by simple and robust pulse sequences. Since the delta-, epsilon-, and zeta-proton signals of Phe/Tyr residues give rise to complementary NOE constraints, the concomitant use of various types of SAIL-Phe and SAIL-Tyr would generate more accurate protein structures, as compared to those obtained by using conventional uniformly (13)C, (15)N-double labeled proteins. We illustrated this with the case of an 18.2 kDa protein, Escherichia coli peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase b (EPPIb), and concluded that the combined use of zeta-SAIL Phe and epsilon-SAIL Tyr would be practically the best choice for protein structural determinations.

  2. Application of SAIL phenylalanine and tyrosine with alternative isotope-labeling patterns for protein structure determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Mitsuhiro; Ono, Akira M.; Terauchi, Tsutomu; Kainosho, Masatsune

    2010-01-01

    The extensive collection of NOE constraint data involving the aromatic ring signals is essential for accurate protein structure determination, although it is often hampered in practice by the pervasive signal overlapping and tight spin couplings for aromatic rings. We have prepared various types of stereo-array isotope labeled phenylalanines (ε- and ζ-SAIL Phe) and tyrosine (ε-SAIL Tyr) to overcome these problems (Torizawa et al. 2005), and proven that these SAIL amino acids provide dramatic spectral simplification and sensitivity enhancement for the aromatic ring NMR signals. In addition to these SAIL aromatic amino acids, we recently synthesized δ-SAIL Phe and δ-SAIL Tyr, which allow us to observe and assign δ- 13 C/ 1 H signals very efficiently. Each of the various types of SAIL Phe and SAIL Tyr yields well-resolved resonances for the δ-, ε- or ζ- 13 C/ 1 H signals, respectively, which can readily be assigned by simple and robust pulse sequences. Since the δ-, ε-, and ζ-proton signals of Phe/Tyr residues give rise to complementary NOE constraints, the concomitant use of various types of SAIL-Phe and SAIL-Tyr would generate more accurate protein structures, as compared to those obtained by using conventional uniformly 13 C, 15 N-double labeled proteins. We illustrated this with the case of an 18.2 kDa protein, Escherichia coli peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase b (EPPIb), and concluded that the combined use of ζ-SAIL Phe and ε-SAIL Tyr would be practically the best choice for protein structural determinations.

  3. Alternative natural gas contract and pricing structures and incentives for the LNG industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attanasi, E.D.

    1991-01-01

    Gas conversion to liquefied gas (LNG) and transport by LNG tankers is one option for meeting expanding gas consumption and for gas traded internationally. This paper examines the impact of the traditional gas contract provisions of indefinite pricing, market out price ceilings, and take-or-pay requirements on the profitability of LNG projects in the context of markets characterized by price and quantity uncertainty. Simulation of experiments are used to examine and calibrate the effects of those provisions. The results provide guidance to operators, host countries and purchasers in structuring such contracts. The paper also assesses prospects of future expansion of world LNG capacity. (author). 11 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs

  4. Development of an Alternative Corrosion Inhibitor for the Storage of Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standring, P.N.; Hands, B.J.; Morgan, S.; Brooks, A.

    2015-01-01

    Sellafield Lt. currently stores AGR fuel in sodium hyrodxide dosed pool water to pH 11.5 to prevent susceptible AGR fuel from failing due to inter-granular attack. The exception to the above storage practice is Thorp Receipt and Storage (TR&S) where an AGR reprocessing buffer is stored in demineralised water as the expected storage durations were short term (up to 5 years). With the extended shut-down of Thorp, storage durations have increased and this has prompted a re-evaluation of the AGR storage regime in TR&S. The use of sodium hydroxide is not feasible due to a compatibility issue with aluminum components used in LWR storage furniture. The implementation process adopted by Sellafield Ltd in developing an alternative corrosion inhibitor for spent AGR fuel is outlined. The two stranded approach evaluates the impact of candidate corrosion inhibitors on fuel integrity and on plant and processes. The development studies in support of the fuel integrity strand are reported. Candidate inhibitors were first evaluated inactively in terms of their ability to arrest propagating corrosion, radiation stability, compatibility with aluminium and environmental impact. Sodium Nitrate was concluded to be the most promising inhibitor. Sodium nitrate was subsequently tested with active AGR brace material. These studies involved the use of bespoke test equipment and techniques. The studies demonstrated that propagating corrosion could be arrested using 10 ppm nitrate and showed that the resultant nitrate film required relatively high chloride concentrations to break it down over the study duration of 60 days. The development studies to date have provided the confidence that sodium nitrate has the potential to be an effective inhibitor for AGR fuel. The final phase of the fuel integrity strand involves a Lead Container Study using whole AGR pins. A staged approach is being adopted in the study programme where proceeding to a more onerous study is not progressed until positive

  5. Application of anaerobic bioreactor landfilling as an energy production alternative in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartaj, M.; Ahmadifar, M. [Isfahan Univ. of Technology (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Despite increases in recycling, composting, and incineration, landfilling remains the major method for managing municipal solid wastes (MSW) worldwide. The most common problems associated with landfill operation are the generation of leachate and gases. Methane gas is a by-product of MSW landfilling and is the third most important greenhouse gas after water vapor and carbon dioxide. This study investigated the feasibility of using anaerobic bioreactors for methane production from MSW in developing countries. Laboratory scale studies were conducted to investigate the performance of a bioreactor reactor under anaerobic conditions as an alternative waste management strategy and gas production. The reactor was made of a plastic container measuring 0.5 x 0.5 x 1.0 m. MSW was placed into the reactor in layers and compacted to achieve a density of 550 kg/m{sup 3}. Twenty eight litres of leachate was recirculated daily for 157 days. The final chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the leachate reduced from a maximum value of 64900 mg/L to a value of 5300 mg/L, showing a 92 per cent reduction. The average methane concentration in generated gas was 58 per cent and gas generation rate was 90 L/kg of waste on wet basis. It was concluded that anaerobic bioreactor technology with accompanying leachate recirculation performs very well in terms of decomposition of MSW and reduction of COD of the leachate. It also has a considerable potential for methane production which could be used as a source of energy. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  6. International development of traditional medicine / complementary and alternative medicine research--what can Europe learn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hök, Johanna; Lewith, George; Weidenhammer, Wolfgang; Santos-Rey, Koldo; Fønnebø, Vinjar; Wiesener, Solveig; Falkenberg, Torkel

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse global research and development (R&D) strategies for traditional medicine (TM) and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) across the world to learn from previous and on-going activities. 52 representatives within CAMbrella nominated 43 key international stakeholders (individuals and organisations) and 15 of these were prioritised. Information from policy documents including mission statements, R&D strategies and R&D activities were collected in combination with personal interviews. Data were analysed using the principles of content analysis. Key stakeholders vary greatly in terms of capacity, mission and funding source (private/public). They ranged from only providing research funding to having a comprehensive R&D and communication agenda. A common shift in R&D strategy was noted; whereas 10 years ago research focused mainly on exploring efficacy and mechanisms, today the majority of stakeholders emphasise the importance of a broad spectrum of research, including methodologies exploring context, safety and comparative effectiveness. The scarce public investment in this field in Europe stands in stark contrast to the large investments found in Australia, Asia and North America. There is an emerging global trend supporting a broad research repertoire, including qualitative and comparative effectiveness research. This trend should be considered by the EU given the experience and the substantial research funding committed by the included stakeholders. To facilitate international collaborative efforts and minimise the risk of investment failure, we recommend the formation of a centralised EU CAM research centre fostering a broad CAM R&D agenda with the responsibility for implementing the relevant findings of CAMbrella.

  7. Development of alternating current circuit simulation as essential learning support for senior high school student

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayang Dwinta Trisniarti

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study an interactive simulation of Alternating Current circuit was developed by using Articulate Storyline 2 and Adobe Flash CS 6 programs. The aim of this study was providing a computer interactive simulation as essential learning support for Senior High School student. One of the most important features of AC circuit simulation is the easily and continuous material to attain learning objectivity and interest toward students. This AC circuit simulation is built to create real-time sine wave graphs so that student could compare the result if the variable were changed gradually. The validation is held through several experts and reviewers due to get obtained through questionnaires. The results of this research could be concluded that AC circuit simulation for Senior High School Physics have good criteria based on user interface, i.e. 50% of respondents rated enough, 16.67% of respondents rated good, and 33.33% of respondents rated very good. Based on maintenance, i.e. 50% of respondents rated enough, 20% of respondents rated good, and 30% of respondents rated very good. Then based on usability, i.e. 6.67% of respondents rated good and 93.33% rated very good. Furthermore, based on understanding, i.e. 6.67% of respondents rated enough, 30% of respondents rated good, and 73.33% of respondents rated very good. The use of AC circuit simulation could improve the senior high school students’ cognitive ability on the Physics’s course, i.e. with the average score increased from 68.67 to 80.5 based on 30 students.

  8. Development of a non-engine fuel injector deposit test for alternative fuels (ENIAK-project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Hajo; Pohland vom Schloss, Heide [OWI - Oel Waerme Institut GmbH, Herzogenrath (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    Deposit formation in and on the injectors of diesel engines may lead to injector malfunction, resulting in a loss in power, rough engine operation and poor emission levels. Poor Biodiesel quality, contamination with copper and zinc as well as undesired reactions between (several) additives and biodiesel components are known causes for nozzle fouling. Therefore, good housekeeping when using biodiesel is required, and all additives have to pass a no-harm test concerning injector fouling. The standard fouling tests are two engine tests: The XUD9-test (CEC F-23-01) and the DW-10-test (CEC DF 98-08). The XUD9 is a cost efficient, fast and proven testing method. It uses, however, an obsolete indirect injection diesel engine and cannot reproduce internal diesel injector deposits (IDID). The newer DW10 test is complex, costly and designed for high stress. This reduces the engine life and leads to a fuel consumption of approximately 1,000 1 per test, both contributing to the high costs of the test. The ENIAK-Project is funded by the FNR (''Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe'', Agency for Renewable Resources) and conducted in cooperation with AGQM, ASG and ERC. Its main goal is the development, assembly, commissioning, and evaluation of a non-engine fuel injector test. It uses a complete common rail system. The injection takes place in a self-designed reactor instead of an engine, and the fuel is not combusted, but re-condensed and pumped in a circle, leading to a low amount of fuel required. If the test method proves to be as reliable as expected, it can be used as an alternative test method for injector fouling with low requirements regarding infrastructure on the testing site and sample volume. (orig.)

  9. [Agrarian movements, development alternatives and food security in Central America: scenarios of transition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Rojas, R

    1991-01-01

    This article, based on personal experiences with a network of organizations of small and medium agricultural producers in Central America, aims to present the views of peasant organizations concerning agrarian problems in the region. The 3 major sections of work define the place of peasant agriculture in the traditional agrarian structure and the new problems resulting from the structural adjustment programs of the 1980s; separately describe the new peasant movements emerging in Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama, identifying common themes an efforts at international collaboration; and explore the positions of the peasant organizations on the optimal strategies for agricultural development and agrarian change. Agriculture remains the backbone of the Central American economies. But because the economic model in the region is 1 of accumulation characterized by dependency, concentration of capital, and social marginalization, the agrarian structure is at the basis of social tensions. Efforts to develop peasant agriculture and to give small producers access to marketing and credit services have been weak and sporadic. The new peasant movements are less inclined than those of the past to employ tactics of confrontation in their efforts to secure access to land and better working conditions. The new movement is the expression of small market producers sometimes grouped into associations who are oriented to production of basic foodstuffs for the internal market. A new concern with adaptation and negotiation is evident. The new organizations have in common a belief in their ability to propose new solutions to regional problems. Their views are founded on a positive assessment of the ability of peasant agriculture to produce food and add dynamism to the regional economy after barriers to credit, technological progress, and modernization in general are removed. Signs of increased cooperation are evident between peasant organizations and other groups

  10. The maximum sizes of large scale structures in alternative theories of gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Sourav [IUCAA, Pune University Campus, Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune, 411 007 India (India); Dialektopoulos, Konstantinos F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli ' Federico II' , Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Edificio G, Via Cinthia, Napoli, I-80126 Italy (Italy); Romano, Antonio Enea [Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, Calle 70 No. 52–21, Medellín (Colombia); Skordis, Constantinos [Department of Physics, University of Cyprus, 1 Panepistimiou Street, Nicosia, 2109 Cyprus (Cyprus); Tomaras, Theodore N., E-mail: sbhatta@iitrpr.ac.in, E-mail: kdialekt@gmail.com, E-mail: aer@phys.ntu.edu.tw, E-mail: skordis@ucy.ac.cy, E-mail: tomaras@physics.uoc.gr [Institute of Theoretical and Computational Physics and Department of Physics, University of Crete, 70013 Heraklion (Greece)

    2017-07-01

    The maximum size of a cosmic structure is given by the maximum turnaround radius—the scale where the attraction due to its mass is balanced by the repulsion due to dark energy. We derive generic formulae for the estimation of the maximum turnaround radius in any theory of gravity obeying the Einstein equivalence principle, in two situations: on a spherically symmetric spacetime and on a perturbed Friedman-Robertson-Walker spacetime. We show that the two formulae agree. As an application of our formula, we calculate the maximum turnaround radius in the case of the Brans-Dicke theory of gravity. We find that for this theory, such maximum sizes always lie above the ΛCDM value, by a factor 1 + 1/3ω, where ω>> 1 is the Brans-Dicke parameter, implying consistency of the theory with current data.

  11. The structure of PTSD symptoms: a test of alternative models using confirmatory factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elklit, Ask; Shevlin, Mark

    2007-09-01

    This study aimed to examine the structure of self-reported post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Based on previous factor analytic findings and the DSM-IV formulation, six confirmatory factor models were specified and estimated that reflected different symptom clusters. The analyses were based on responses from 1116 participants who had suffered whiplash injuries and screened for full or subclinical PTSD using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. A correlated four-factor model with re-experiencing, avoidance, dysphoria and arousal factors fitted the data very well. Correlations with criteria measures showed that these factors were associated with other trauma related variables in a theoretically predictable way and showed evidence of unique predictive utility. These results concur with previous research findings using different trauma populations but do not reflect the current DSM-IV symptom groupings.

  12. Hungry for housing: waqf real estate development - a social welfare alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Ali Siti Nadiah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Islam has outlined 4 important elements to achieve fruitful life in the duniya and the akhirah. A famed hadith of Rasulullah (peace be upon him meaning “Four things that will bring joy to a person, which is (owning a pious woman (wife, a good house (spacious, a good neighbour, and a great vehicle” (Hadith narrated by Ibnu Hibban. It is clear from this hadith that Islam emphasised ownership of a comfortable home. The polemic remains that with skyrocketing housing prices in the market, would the low and middle income groups afford housing that is safe, comfortable and secure? Realising the importance of living in a secure and safe house, this study aims at investigating the possibility of leveraging the upward trend of waqf real estate development in empowering the Muslims’ economy in the country. Towards this end, the authors have conducted a study by collating primary and secondary data obtained from the Penang State Islamic Religious Council (Majlis Agama Islam Pulau Pinang for analysis. Thus the Penang Islamic Council is the study site. Semi structured interviews were conducted with 2 waqf officials who are in charge of coordinating waqf real estate developments in Penang. Based on the study conducted, it was found that Penang State Islamic Religious Council has succeeded in enhancing value added to waqf real estate developments through the implementation of 9 housing project developments using the ijarah concept. The Penang State Islamic Religious Council has enabled the low medium income groups to stay in comfortable and safe housing by utilising such holistic and efficient waqf product developments under shariah guidelines.

  13. Alternate superior Julia sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Anju; Rani, Mamta

    2015-01-01

    Alternate Julia sets have been studied in Picard iterative procedures. The purpose of this paper is to study the quadratic and cubic maps using superior iterates to obtain Julia sets with different alternate structures. Analytically, graphically and computationally it has been shown that alternate superior Julia sets can be connected, disconnected and totally disconnected, and also fattier than the corresponding alternate Julia sets. A few examples have been studied by applying different type of alternate structures

  14. Adaptation of methodology to select structural alternatives of one-way slab in residential building to the guidelines of the European Committee for Standardization (CEN/TC 350)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraile-Garcia, Esteban, E-mail: esteban.fraile@unirioja.es [University of La Rioja, Department of Mechanical Engineering (Spain); Ferreiro-Cabello, Javier, E-mail: javier.ferreiro@unirioja.es [University of La Rioja, Department of Mechanical Engineering (Spain); Qualiberica S.L. (Spain); Martinez-Camara, Eduardo, E-mail: eduardo.martinezc@unirioja.es [University of La Rioja, Department of Mechanical Engineering (Spain); Jimenez-Macias, Emilio, E-mail: emilio.jimenez@unirioja.es [University of La Rioja, Department of Electrical Engineering (Spain)

    2015-11-15

    The European Committee for Standardization (CEN) through its Technical Committee CEN/TC-350 is developing a series of standards for assessing the building sustainability, at both product and building levels. The practical application of the selection (decision making) of structural alternatives made by one-way slabs leads to an intermediate level between the product and the building. Thus the present study addresses this problem of decision making, following the CEN guidelines and incorporating relevant aspects of architectural design into residential construction. A life cycle assessment (LCA) is developed in order to obtain valid information for the decision making process (the LCA was developed applying CML methodology although Ecoindicator99 was used in order to facilitate the comparison of the values); this information (the carbon footprint values) is contrasted with other databases and with the information from the Environmental Product Declaration (EPD) of one of the lightening materials (expanded polystyrene), in order to validate the results. Solutions of different column disposition and geometries are evaluated in the three pillars of sustainable construction on residential construction: social, economic and environmental. The quantitative analysis of the variables used in this study enables and facilitates an objective comparison in the design stage by a responsible technician; the application of the proposed methodology reduces the possible solutions to be evaluated by the expert to 12.22% of the options in the case of low values of the column index and to 26.67% for the highest values. - Highlights: • Methodology for selection of structural alternatives in buildings with one-way slabs • Adapted to CEN guidelines (CEN/TC-350) for assessing the building sustainability • LCA is developed in order to obtain valid information for the decision making process. • Results validated comparing carbon footprint, databases and Env. Product Declarations

  15. Development of structural health monitoring techniques using dynamics testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, G.H. III [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Experimental Structural Dynamics Dept.

    1996-03-01

    Today`s society depends upon many structures (such as aircraft, bridges, wind turbines, offshore platforms, buildings, and nuclear weapons) which are nearing the end of their design lifetime. Since these structures cannot be economically replaced, techniques for structural health monitoring must be developed and implemented. Modal and structural dynamics measurements hold promise for the global non-destructive inspection of a variety of structures since surface measurements of a vibrating structure can provide information about the health of the internal members without costly (or impossible) dismantling of the structure. In order to develop structural health monitoring for application to operational structures, developments in four areas have been undertaken within this project: operational evaluation, diagnostic measurements, information condensation, and damage identification. The developments in each of these four aspects of structural health monitoring have been exercised on a broad range of experimental data. This experimental data has been extracted from structures from several application areas which include aging aircraft, wind energy, aging bridges, offshore structures, structural supports, and mechanical parts. As a result of these advances, Sandia National Laboratories is in a position to perform further advanced development, operational implementation, and technical consulting for a broad class of the nation`s aging infrastructure problems.

  16. Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Voriconazole To Develop an Alternative Dosing Regimen in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastine, Silke; Lehrnbecher, Thomas; Müller, Carsten; Farowski, Fedja; Bader, Peter; Ullmann-Moskovits, Judith; Cornely, Oliver A; Groll, Andreas H; Hempel, Georg

    2018-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic variability of voriconazole (VCZ) in immunocompromised children is high, and adequate exposure, particularly in the first days of therapy, is uncertain. A population pharmacokinetic model was developed to explore VCZ exposure in plasma after alternative dosing regimens. Concentration data were obtained from a pediatric phase II study. Nonlinear mixed effects modeling was used to develop the model. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to test an array of three-times-daily (TID) intravenous dosing regimens in children 2 to 12 years of age. A two-compartment model with first-order absorption, nonlinear Michaelis-Menten elimination, and allometric scaling best described the data (maximal kinetic velocity for nonlinear Michaelis-Menten clearance [ V max ] = 51.5 mg/h/70 kg, central volume of distribution [ V 1 ] = 228 liters/70 kg, intercompartmental clearance [ Q ] = 21.9 liters/h/70 kg, peripheral volume of distribution [ V 2 ] = 1,430 liters/70 kg, bioavailability [ F ] = 59.4%, K m = fixed value of 1.15 mg/liter, absorption rate constant = fixed value of 1.19 h -1 ). Interindividual variabilities for V max , V 1 , Q , and F were 63.6%, 45.4%, 67%, and 1.34% on a logit scale, respectively, and residual variability was 37.8% (proportional error) and 0.0049 mg/liter (additive error). Monte Carlo simulations of a regimen of 9 mg/kg of body weight TID simulated for 24, 48, and 72 h followed by 8 mg/kg two times daily (BID) resulted in improved early target attainment relative to that with the currently recommended BID dosing regimen but no increased rate of accumulation thereafter. Pharmacokinetic modeling suggests that intravenous TID dosing at 9 mg/kg per dose for up to 3 days may result in a substantially higher percentage of children 2 to 12 years of age with adequate exposure to VCZ early during treatment. Before implementation of this regimen in patients, however, validation of exposure, safety, and tolerability in a carefully designed

  17. Adjuvants and alternative routes of administration towards the development of the ideal influenza vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durando, Paolo; Iudici, Rocco; Alicino, Cristiano; Alberti, Marisa; de Florentis, Daniela; Ansaldi, Filippo; Icardi, Giancarlo

    2011-01-01

    Vaccination is universally considered as the principal measure for the control of influenza, which represents a significant burden worldwide, both from a health-care and a socio-economic viewpoint. Conventional non-adjuvanted trivalent influenza vaccines (TIVs) have been recognized as having some deficiencies, such as suboptimal immunogenicity particularly in the elderly, in patients with severe chronic diseases and immunocompromized, indeed, those groups of the population at higher risk of developing severe complications following influenza infection, when compared to healthy adults. Moreover, the protection offered by conventional vaccines may be reduced by periodic antigenic drifts, resulting in a mismatch between the circulating and vaccinal viral strains. Another gap regarding currently available vaccines is related to the egg-based manufacturing system for their production: not only the length of time involved with the latter but also the limited capacity of this platform technology represent a major limitation for the active prevention of influenza, which is particularly important in the case of a new pandemic strain. New technologies used in vaccine composition, administration and manufacture have led to major advances during the last few years, and clinical researchers have continued to work hard, investigating several different strategies to improve the performance of influenza vaccines: namely, the addition of different adjuvants (i.e., MF59- and AS03-vaccines, virosomal formulations), the use of alternative routes of administration or manufacture (i.e., intradermal, nasal and oral vaccines and cell culture- and reverse genetic-based vaccines) or of high doses of antigen, and the development of DNA-vaccines, or the use of conserved viral epitopes (i.e., the extracellular portion of the M2 protein, the nucleoprotein and some domains of the hemagglutinin), in the attempt to produce a "universal target" antigen vaccine. The knowledge acquired represents a

  18. Development and performance measurement of micro-power pack using micro-gas turbine driven automotive alternators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, Kyuho; Koo, Bonjin; Kim, Chang Ho; Kim, Tae Ho

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We develop micro-power pack using automotive alternator and micro-gas turbine. ► We measure rotordynamic and power generation performance of micro-power pack. ► Micro-power pack shows dramatic increases in mass and volumetric power densities. ► Test results assure feasibility of micro-power pack for electric vehicles. -- Abstract: This paper presents the development of a micro-power pack using automotive alternators powered by a micro-gas turbine (MGT) to recharge battery packs, in particular for electric vehicles (EVs). The thermodynamic efficiency for the MGT with the power turbine is estimated from a simple Brayton cycle analysis. The rotordynamic and power generation performance of the MGT driven alternator was measured during a series of experiments under electrical no-loading and loading conditions, and with belt-pulley and flexible bellows couplings. The flexible coupling showed superior rotordynamic and power generation performance than the belt coupling due to the enhanced alignment of the alternator rotor and the reduced mechanical frictions. Furthermore, the micro-power pack showed dramatic increases in the mass and volumetric power densities by ∼4 times and ∼5 times, respectively, compared with those of a commercial diesel generator with similar power level. As a result, this paper assures the feasibility of the light-weight micro-power pack using a MGT and automotive alternators for EVs.

  19. THE ESSENCE OF STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT COMPANY IN THE INTEGRATED STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Khorev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. In the beginning of the article is defined a rational sequence of the consideration of the nature of the strategy of a company development, included into an integrated structure. Further the article describes the following items separately: "a strategy", "a development of a company", and "an integrational structure", applying them to companies included to the integrated structure; separating them from a strategy of development of an autonomous company. The article defines functions which such strategy must define, taking into consideration the nature of the strategy of the company development, included into an integrated structure. Next, the article defines six steps which describe a sequence of development of the strategy of the company development, included into an integrated structure. The analysis which is defined in the article allows determining a complete definition of essence of the strategy of the company development, included into an integrated structure. The article also defines a place of the strategy of development into the hierarchical structure of the strategies. The strategy of the company development, included into an integrated structure (as well as the strategy of development of an autonomous company -- is a competition strategy, and it separates "strategy of leadership for costs", “differentiation strategy”, and “strategy of focusing for costs”. Also authors are analyzed the strategy of the cost optimization. According to the complex definition of the strategy, and the strategy's place inside the hierarchical structure, the article defines functions which corporate, competitive, and functional strategies execute during the management of companies inside an integrational structure. The article presents characteristics of applied strategic decisions at different levels of all three types of strategies. The article's researches allow companies included to the integrated structure define their place inside the

  20. Development of alternative sulfur dioxide control strategies for a metropolitan area and its environs, utilizing a modified climatological dispersion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. J. Skipka; D. B. Smith

    1977-01-01

    Alternative control strategies were developed for achieving compliance with ambient air quality standards in Portland, Maine, and its environs, using a modified climatological dispersion model (CDM) and manipulating the sulfur content of the fuel oil consumed in four concentric zones. Strategies were evaluated for their impact on ambient air quality, economics, and...

  1. Development of an alternative to mechanical shaft encoders for a “smart” wheelchair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Kathleen M; Schultz, Dana L; Barrett, Steven F

    2012-01-01

    One device that is receiving a considerable amount of attention in the biomedical community is the “smart” wheelchair. “Smart” wheelchairs provide those who are unable to control the traditional joystick of a powered wheelchair with an alternative option. With minimal user input, these wheelchairs are able to autonomously navigate around a person’s environment, providing them with a higher level of mobility. The limited competition and extreme complexity of these wheelchairs propels their price outside of the affordable range for the average household. An alternative, cheaper system that could be attached to a typical powered wheelchair would be beneficial to the community.

  2. SOLUTIONS AND MEANS OF ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORT IN THE CONCEPT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CATALIN POPESCU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to achieve an overview of innovative initiatives on alternative transport in recent years in the context of increasing emissions of greenhouse gases. In this context are presented the main problems caused by motorized traffic in the urban agglomerations. Also, there are mentioned measures that could be implemented in busy urban areas. On this occasion are mentioned both new technical solutions and new means of alternative transport type. Additional, specific projects and programs are highlighted using bicycle transportation. There are mentioned initiatives regarding urban transportation completed in European projects such as: CIVITAS, EFFECTS etc. The examples and figures are mainly focused on Romania.

  3. Use of alternative alkali chlorides in RT and PCR of polynucleotides containing G quadruplex structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Alemán, Fabiola; González-Jasso, Eva; Pless, Reynaldo C

    2018-02-15

    Several alkali chlorides were compared for their use in reverse transcription (RT) and PCR of different types of nucleic acid templates. On a test region of biological DNA incapable of forming G quadruplex (G4) structures, Taq DNA polymerase showed similar PCR performance with 50 mM KCl, CsCl, LiCl, and NaCl. In contrast, on a synthetic model polydeoxyribonucleotide prone to G4 formation, good PCR amplification was obtained with 50 mM CsCl, but little or none with LiCl or KCl. Similarly, in RT of a G4-prone model polyribonucleotide, MMLV reverse transcriptase produced a good yield with 50 mM CsCl, mediocre yields with LiCl or without added alkali chloride, and a poor yield with 50 mM KCl. The full RT-PCR assay starting from the G4-prone polyribonucleotide, showed good results with CsCl in both stages, poor results with LiCl, and no product formation with KCl. The model polynucleotides showed fast G quadruplex formation under PCR or RT conditions with 50 mM KCl, but not with CsCl or LiCl. The results argue for the use of CsCl instead of KCl for RT and PCR of G4-prone sequences. No advantage was observed when using the 7-deaza type nucleotide analog c 7 dGTP in PCR amplification of the G4-prone polydeoxyribonucleotide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Structuring user-centred product development processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoolhorst, F.W.B.

    2012-01-01

    Within the last decades, product development industry has found itself facing a general increase in product use problems. These problems originate from a mismatch between the actual functionality that the product provides and the afforded product-user interaction versus the user’s expectations

  5. Leading Change: Faculty Development through Structured Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Painter

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There are relentless calls for innovation in higher education programs in response to media and policy-makers attention to such concerns as instructional quality, relevance to employment, costs, and time-to-degree. At the same time, the individual course remains the primary unit of instruction and there is little evidence of faculty development strategies to assist with changing core instructional practices. We faced that dilemma when we led an innovative doctoral program in educational leadership. Soon after beginning, we implemented a regular meeting of all faculty members teaching and advising in the program to address upcoming events and review student progress. Our retrospective analysis indicates that these meetings evolved as a practical and sustainable framework for faculty development in support of deep change for instructional practices. Here we describe the challenge of faculty development for change and draw lessons learned from our four years of leadership centered on experiential learning and community sense-making. We hope that program leaders who aspire to promote faculty development in conjunction with graduate program implementation will find these lessons useful.

  6. Professional Development for the Novice Teacher: One University's Initiative to Support the Alternatively Certified Educator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Marclyn D.

    2011-01-01

    Many alternatively certified teachers, as was the case in this study, are employed as the teacher of record while simultaneously enrolled in education courses. Therefore, experiencing the collaborative, supportive, peer mentoring environmental elements that are present in many traditional "fieldwork" settings is not an option. By…

  7. Application of fuzzy logic in the selection of energy alternatives for rural community development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Gonzalez, D; Ruelas Lepe, R; Borroto Nordelo, A

    2008-01-01

    This work proposes a methodology to select energy alternative for rural areas integrating multiple criteria. The analysis uses fussy logic to reduce inaccuracies derived from the subjective nature of the scales or weights from some criteria. The methodology has been partially applied in a Mexican rural location; the results are also shown in this document.

  8. Alienation and Engagement: Development of an Alternative Theoretical Framework for Understanding Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jennifer M.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper it is suggested that the themes of alienation and engagement offer a productive alternative perspective for characterising the student experience of learning in higher education, compared to current dominant perspectives such as that offered by approaches to learning and related concepts. A conceptual and historical background of the…

  9. An alternative transportation fuels update : a case study of the developing E85 industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    As the United States imports more than half of its oil and overall consumption continues to climb, : the 1992 Energy Policy Act established the goal of having alternative fuels replace at least ten : percent of petroleum fuels used in the trans...

  10. Cardiac and vascular structure and function parameters do not improve with alternate nightly home hemodialysis: An interventional cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson David W

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nightly extended hours hemodialysis may improve left ventricular hypertrophy and function and endothelial function but presents problems of sustainability and increased cost. The effect of alternate nightly home hemodialysis (NHD on cardiovascular structure and function is not known. Methods Sixty-three patients on standard hemodialysis (SHD: 3.5-6 hours/session, 3-5 sessions weekly converted to NHD (6-10 hours/session overnight for 3-5 sessions weekly. 2Dimensional transthoracic echocardiography and ultrasound measures of brachial artery reactivity (BAR, carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT, total arterial compliance (TAC and augmentation index (AIX were performed post dialysis at baseline and 18-24 months following conversion to NHD. In 37 patients, indices of oxidative stress: plasma malonyldialdehyde (MDA and anti-oxidant enzymes: catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPX and superoxide dismutase (SOD activity and total antioxidant status (TAS were measured at baseline, 3 and 6 months. Results Left ventricular mass index (LVMI remained stable. Despite significant derangement at baseline, there were no changes in diastolic function measures, CIMT, BAR and TAC. AIX increased. Conversion to NHD improved bone mineral metabolism parameters and blood pressure control. Interdialytic weight gains increased. No definite improvements in measures of oxidative stress were demonstrated. Conclusions Despite improvement in uremic toxin levels and some cardiovascular risk factors, conversion to an alternate nightly NHD regimen did not improve cardiovascular structure and function. Continuing suboptimal control of uremic toxins and interdialytic weight gains may be a possible explanation. This study adds to the increasing uncertainty about the nature of improvement in cardiovascular parameters with conversion to intensive hemodialysis regimens. Future randomized controlled trials will be important to determine whether increases in

  11. Retail Market Structure Development in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Machek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is analyzing the trends and development in the retailing sector in Central Europe, namely in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia. These markets serve about 63 million inhabitants. The retail industry in Central Europe has changed dramatically in the last two decades, and has become a model for successful transformation of emerging markets. The retail market is highly concentrated and dominated by Western European retail chains. International retail chains are using all formats of modern distribution. This article is focusing on the development of hypermarkets, supermarkets and discount stores. Due to the international retail chains, Central European countries benefit from a dense network of modern shopping places; the intense competition of highly productive retailers contributes to the lower level of inflation rate because of the so-called Wal-Mart Effect. The constant pressure on prices influences the marketing strategies of both retailers and suppliers.

  12. Developing a network-level structural capacity index for structural evaluation of pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a structural index for use in network-level pavement evaluation to facilitate : the inclusion of the pavements structural condition in pavement management applications. The primary goal of network-level...

  13. A structural analysis of Japanese economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Tsujimura, Kazusuke; Tsujimura, Masako

    2018-01-01

    Japan successfully escaped from poverty after the world war and attained prosperity in a matter of two decades. There were two keys for the success. One was the priority production system – the idea to develop the industries at the bottom of the triangulated input-output table first, and to climb the triangle step by step. The second key for the success was the country’s unique financial system; they deliberately grew both long-term financial institutions for large enterprises and local credi...

  14. Development of mechanical structure design technology for LMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Bong; Lee, Jae Han; Joo, Young Sang [and others

    2000-05-01

    In this project, fundamentals for conceptual design of mechanical structure system for LMR are independently established. The research contents are as follow; at first, conceptual design for SSC, design integration of interfaces, design consistency to keep functions and interfaces by developing arrangement of reactor system and 3 dimensional concept drawings, development and revision of preliminary design requirements and structural design basis, and evaluation of structural integrity for SSC following structural design criteria to check the conceptual design to be proper, at second, development of high temperature structure design and analysis technology and establishment of high temperature structural analysis codes and scheme, development of seismic isolation design concept to reduce seismic design loads to SCC and establishment of seismic analysis codes and scheme.

  15. Development of mechanical structure design technology for LMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Bong; Lee, Jae Han; Joo, Young Sang

    2000-05-01

    In this project, fundamentals for conceptual design of mechanical structure system for LMR are independently established. The research contents are as follow; at first, conceptual design for SSC, design integration of interfaces, design consistency to keep functions and interfaces by developing arrangement of reactor system and 3 dimensional concept drawings, development and revision of preliminary design requirements and structural design basis, and evaluation of structural integrity for SSC following structural design criteria to check the conceptual design to be proper, at second, development of high temperature structure design and analysis technology and establishment of high temperature structural analysis codes and scheme, development of seismic isolation design concept to reduce seismic design loads to SCC and establishment of seismic analysis codes and scheme

  16. Development of analysis methods for seismically isolated nuclear structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Bong; Lee, Jae-Han; Koo, Gyeng-Hoi

    2002-01-01

    KAERI's contributions to the project entitled Development of Analysis Methods for Seismically Isolated Nuclear Structures under IAEA CRP of the intercomparison of analysis methods for predicting the behaviour of seismically isolated nuclear structures during 1996-1999 in effort to develop the numerical analysis methods and to compare the analysis results with the benchmark test results of seismic isolation bearings and isolated nuclear structures provided by participating countries are briefly described. Certain progress in the analysis procedures for isolation bearings and isolated nuclear structures has been made throughout the IAEA CRPs and the analysis methods developed can be improved for future nuclear facility applications. (author)

  17. The development and validation of a two-tiered multiple-choice instrument to identify alternative conceptions in earth science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangione, Katherine Anna

    slight positive correlation between overall score and both confidence and understanding. Responses on the questionnaire were investigated with respect to pedagogical choices. Evidence suggests that content knowledge and having alternative conceptions or science fragments may impact a teacher's pedagogical choices. Through careful development of instruments like ACES-Q II-R and other two- tiered, multiple-choice instruments, educators and researchers car not only identify possible alternative conceptions, they can raise an awareness of alternative conceptions held by children and adults.

  18. Wood product industry - present state and studies of the development alternatives; Puuteollisuuden nykytilan ja haasteiden arviointia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmijoki, O.; Paajanen, T.; Kairi, M.

    2007-07-01

    In this research project the development of the wood products industry and its operating environment in Finland was studied using statistical data mainly from years 1995 - 2003. In this context, the wood products industry includes the sawmilling industry, the plywood and other wood panel industry, prefabricated wooden housing and the building joinery industry, wood packing manufacture and the manufacture of other wooden products. The development of the wood products industry and its operating environment has been estimated by combining statistical data about the business economy, production economy and the national economy from the Central Statistical Office of Finland together with data from the Finnish Forest Research Institute. Based on statistical data, the wood product markets, profitability and cost structure of branches, input market, use of labour force and investments have been studied. The economic importance of the wood products industry has been estimated at a national and a local level. Challenges facing wood products industry branches have been analysed using example calculations based on input-output theory. In the evaluation method, the business environment of the wood products industry branches and related branches, have been described with a use table at basic prices commonly using in the national economy. This method has enabled the direct and indirect effects of simultaneous quantity and price changes occurring in the wood product markets and markets related to the wood product industry, to be analysed. In the example calculations, variation of sawn timber production and log import, as well as the increments of sawn timber upgrading, wood product usage in building, wood panel production and purchase energy price, were reviewed

  19. ReRouting biomedical innovation: observations from a mapping of the alternative research and development (R&D) landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Alexandra; Kiddell-Monroe, Rachel

    2016-09-14

    In recent years, the world has witnessed the tragic outcomes of multiple global health crises. From Ebola to high prices to antibiotic resistance, these events highlight the fundamental constraints of the current biomedical research and development (R&D) system in responding to patient needs globally.To mitigate this lack of responsiveness, over 100 self-identified "alternative" R&D initiatives, have emerged in the past 15 years. To begin to make sense of this panoply of initiatives working to overcome the constraints of the current system, UAEM began an extensive, though not comprehensive, mapping of the alternative biomedical R&D landscape. We developed a two phase approach: (1) an investigation, via the RE:Route Mapping, of both existing and proposed initiatives that claim to offer an alternative approach to R&D, and (2) evaluation of those initiatives to determine which are in fact achieving increased access to and innovation in medicines. Through phase 1, the RE:Route Mapping, we examined 81 initiatives that claim to redress the inequity perpetuated by the current system via one of five commonly recognized mechanisms necessary for truly alternative R&D.Preliminary analysis of phase 1 provides the following conclusions: 1. No initiative presents a completely alternative model of biomedical R&D. 2. The majority of initiatives focus on developing incentives for drug discovery. 3. The majority of initiatives focus on rare diseases or diseases of the poor and marginalized. 4. There is an increasing emphasis on the use of push, pull, pool, collaboration and open mechanisms alongside the concept of delinkage in alternative R&D. 5. There is a trend towards public funding and launching of initiatives by the Global South. Given the RE:Route Mapping's inevitable limitations and the assumptions made in its methodology, it is not intended to be the final word on a constantly evolving and complex field; however, its findings are significant. The Mapping's value lies in its

  20. Development, Reliability, and Equivalence of an Alternate Form for the CQ Duty Performance-Based Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    CQD-O Funding Support: This grant None. 14 There were no other individuals who contributed at least one person month over the past year ...Dysfunction; W81XWH-14-1-0198). - Awarded funding for 2 new grants in the past year . The Purpose Project Feasibility Study (Engelsma Family Foundation) is...repeated as a post-treatment outcome measure due to learning effects. Therefore, an equivalent alternate form is needed. Research Question #1. Can an

  1. Model development for quantitative evaluation of nuclear fuel cycle alternatives and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Won Il

    2000-02-01

    This study addresses the quantitative evaluation of the proliferation resistance and the economics which are important factors of the alternative nuclear fuel cycle system. In this study, model was developed to quantitatively evaluate the proliferation resistance of the nuclear fuel cycles, and a fuel cycle cost analysis model was suggested to incorporate various uncertainties in the fuel cycle cost calculation. The proposed models were then applied to Korean environment as a sample study to provide better references for the determination of future nuclear fuel cycle system in Korea. In order to quantify the proliferation resistance of the nuclear fuel cycle, the proliferation resistance index was defined in imitation of an electrical circuit with an electromotive force and various electrical resistance components. In this model, the proliferation resistance was described an a relative size of the barrier that must be overcome in order to acquire nuclear weapons. Therefore, a larger barriers means that the risk of failure is great, expenditure of resources is large and the time scales for implementation is long. The electromotive force was expressed as the political motivation of the potential proliferators, such as an unauthorized party or a national group to acquire nuclear weapons. The electrical current was then defined as a proliferation resistance index. There are two electrical circuit models used in the evaluation of the proliferation resistance: the series and the parallel circuits. In the series circuit model of the proliferation resistance, a potential proliferator has to overcome all resistance barriers to achieve the manufacturing of the nuclear weapons. This phenomenon could be explained by the fact that the IAEA(International Atomic Energy Agency)'s safeguards philosophy relies on the defense-in-depth principle against nuclear proliferation at a specific facility. The parallel circuit model was also used to imitate the risk of proliferation for

  2. The post-opium scenario and rubber in northern Laos: Alternative Western and Chinese models of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Paul T

    2009-09-01

    In the past few years rubber planting has spread rapidly throughout northern Laos, especially in Luang Namtha province that borders China. The impetus for this boom has come partly from the spiralling demand for rubber in China (now the world's largest rubber consumer), the high world prices for rubber, and China's promotion of overseas investment through its opium-replacement policy. These economic factors have converged with the desperate need of impoverished highlanders in northern Laos to replace opium as a cash crop as a consequence of a recent opium-eradication campaign and inadequate alternative development. This paper draws upon ethnographic and agro-economic research in northern Laos and neighbouring regions and reports of international development organisations operating in Laos. The rubber boom in northern Laos represents a fundamental clash between Western drug-oriented alternative development, on the one hand, and China's national economic strategies abroad and investment-led narcotics policy, on the other. China's opium-replacement policy has contributed to a type of unregulated frontier capitalism with socio-economic and environmental effects that threaten the principles and goals of alternative development and even to marginalise the role international development organisations in northern Laos.

  3. Economic critique of Nam Theun-Hinboun Hydropower Project and electricity development in Laos: proposal for an alternative path to development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, T.

    1996-01-01

    A proposed alternative to the development of a large-scale hydropower project in Laos was presented. The alternative is intended to help make electricity development sustainable over the long term and to benefit the citizens of Laos. The author carefully analyzed the Asian Development Bank report RRP: Laos 27325 of October 1994. He concluded that as presently constituted, the project is likely to fail as an investment and is likely to result in a significant net financial liability. Water resources are one of Laos' greatest assets and the future uses of Laotian rivers could be lost in order to achieve near-term electricity development. It was suggested that Laos should follow three key principles in the development of its electricity sector: maximize economic efficiency, ensure that the government acts as a regulator and not as an investor, and ensure the protection of property rights of citizens and investors. Relevant aspects of the experience with electricity development in Canada were also outlined

  4. Development of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models to predict the carcinogenic potency of chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatapathy, Raghuraman; Wang Chingyi; Bruce, Robert Mark; Moudgal, Chandrika

    2009-01-01

    Determining the carcinogenicity and carcinogenic potency of new chemicals is both a labor-intensive and time-consuming process. In order to expedite the screening process, there is a need to identify alternative toxicity measures that may be used as surrogates for carcinogenic potency. Alternative toxicity measures for carcinogenic potency currently being used in the literature include lethal dose (dose that kills 50% of a study population [LD 50 ]), lowest-observed-adverse-effect-level (LOAEL) and maximum tolerated dose (MTD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between tumor dose (TD 50 ) and three alternative toxicity measures as an estimator of carcinogenic potency. A second aim of this study was to develop a Classification and Regression Tree (CART) between TD 50 and estimated/experimental predictor variables to predict the carcinogenic potency of new chemicals. Rat TD 50 s of 590 structurally diverse chemicals were obtained from the Cancer Potency Database, and the three alternative toxicity measures considered in this study were estimated using TOPKAT, a toxicity estimation software. Though poor correlations were obtained between carcinogenic potency and the three alternative toxicity (both experimental and TOPKAT) measures for the CPDB chemicals, a CART developed using experimental data with no missing values as predictor variables provided reasonable estimates of TD 50 for nine chemicals that were part of an external validation set. However, if experimental values for the three alternative measures, mutagenicity and logP are not available in the literature, then either the CART developed using missing experimental values or estimated values may be used for making a prediction

  5. VLS growth of alternating InAsP/InP heterostructure nanowires for multiple-quantum-dot structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateno, Kouta; Zhang, Guoqiang; Gotoh, Hideki; Sogawa, Tetsuomi

    2012-06-13

    We investigated the Au-assisted growth of alternating InAsP/InP heterostructures in wurtzite InP nanowires on InP(111)B substrates for constructing multiple-quantum-dot structures. Vertical InP nanowires without stacking faults were obtained at a high PH(3)/TMIn mole flow ratio of 300-1000. We found that the growth rate changed largely when approximately 40 min passed. Ten InAsP layers were inserted in the InP nanowire, and it was found that both the InP growth rate and the background As level increased after the As supply. We also grew the same structure using TBAs/TBP and could reduce the As level in the InP segments. A simulation using a finite-difference time-domain method suggests that the nanowire growth was dominated by the diffusion of the reaction species with long residence time on the surface. For TBAs/TBP, when the source gases were changed, the formed surface species showed a short diffusion length so as to reduce the As background after the InAsP growth.

  6. The Structure of the Managerial System of Higher Education's Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levina, Elena Y.; Kutuev, Ruslan A.; Balakhnina, Lidia V.; Tumarov, Konstantin B.; Chudnovskiy, Alexey D.; Shagiev, ?ulat V.

    2016-01-01

    The research urgency is caused by necessity of planning regulation of higher education development at all levels of management. The purpose of this article is to develop the structure of a control system of higher education development, the Foundation of which is understanding of the quality of higher education as factor for development of the…

  7. ENIAK. Development of a non-motor injector coking test facility for alternative fuels; ENIAK. Entwicklung eines nichtmotorischen Injektorverkokungspruefstands fuer alternative Kraftstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Hajo; Schloss, Heide vom; Yang, Zhi; Grote, Melanie [OWI Oel-Waerme-Institut GmbH, Aachen (Germany). Gruppe Anwendungstechnik

    2013-10-01

    Poor Biodiesel quality, contamination with copper and zinc as well as undesired reactions between (several) additives and biodiesel components are known causes for nozzle fouling. Therefore, among other things, all additives have to pass a no-harm test. The standard fouling tests are two engine tests: the XUD9-test (CEC F-23-01) and the DW-10-test (CEC DF 98-08). The XUD9 is a cost efficient, fast and proven testing method. It uses, however, an obsolete indirect injection diesel engine. The newer DW10 test is complex, costly and designed for high stress. This reduces the engine life and leads to a fuel consumption of approximately 1,000 l per test, both contributing to the high costs of the test. The main goal of the project ENIAK is the development, assembly, commissioning, and evaluation of a non-engine fuel injector test. It uses four complete common rail systems. The injection takes place in four self-designed reactors instead of an engine, and the fuel is not combusted, but re-condensed and pumped in a circle. If the test method proves to be as reliable as expected, it can be used as an alternative test method for injector fouling with low requirements regarding infrastructure on the testing site and sample volume. The project is funded by the the federal ministry of consumer protection, food and agriculture via FNR (''Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe'', Agency for Renewable Resources). (orig.)

  8. Structural connectivity allows for multi-threading during rest: the structure of the cortex leads to efficient alternation between resting state exploratory behavior and default mode processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senden, Mario; Goebel, Rainer; Deco, Gustavo

    2012-05-01

    Despite the absence of stimulation or task conditions the cortex exhibits highly structured spatio-temporal activity patterns. These patterns are known as resting state networks (RSNs) and emerge as low-frequency fluctuations (rest. We are interested in the relationship between structural connectivity of the cortex and the fluctuations exhibited during resting conditions. We are especially interested in the effect of degree of connectivity on resting state dynamics as the default mode network (DMN) is highly connected. We find in experimental resting fMRI data that the DMN is the functional network that is most frequently active and for the longest time. In large-scale computational simulations of the cortex based on the corresponding underlying DTI/DSI based neuroanatomical connectivity matrix, we additionally find a strong correlation between the mean degree of functional networks and the proportion of time they are active. By artificially modifying different types of neuroanatomical connectivity matrices in the model, we were able to demonstrate that only models based on structural connectivity containing hubs give rise to this relationship. We conclude that, during rest, the cortex alternates efficiently between explorations of its externally oriented functional repertoire and internally oriented processing as a consequence of the DMN's high degree of connectivity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Demonstration of Decision Support Tools for Sustainable Development - An Application on Alternative Fuels in the Greater Yellowstone-Teton Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shropshire, D.E.; Cobb, D.A.; Worhach, P.; Jacobson, J.J.; Berrett, S.

    2000-12-30

    The Demonstration of Decision Support Tools for Sustainable Development project integrated the Bechtel/Nexant Industrial Materials Exchange Planner and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory System Dynamic models, demonstrating their capabilities on alternative fuel applications in the Greater Yellowstone-Teton Park system. The combined model, called the Dynamic Industrial Material Exchange, was used on selected test cases in the Greater Yellow Teton Parks region to evaluate economic, environmental, and social implications of alternative fuel applications, and identifying primary and secondary industries. The test cases included looking at compressed natural gas applications in Teton National Park and Jackson, Wyoming, and studying ethanol use in Yellowstone National Park and gateway cities in Montana. With further development, the system could be used to assist decision-makers (local government, planners, vehicle purchasers, and fuel suppliers) in selecting alternative fuels, vehicles, and developing AF infrastructures. The system could become a regional AF market assessment tool that could help decision-makers understand the behavior of the AF market and conditions in which the market would grow. Based on this high level market assessment, investors and decision-makers would become more knowledgeable of the AF market opportunity before developing detailed plans and preparing financial analysis.

  10. Spatial and stage-structured population model of the American crocodile for comparison of comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Timothy W.; Slone, Daniel H.; Swain, Eric D.; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Lohmann, Melinda; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Rice, Kenneth G.

    2010-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey Priority Ecosystems Science (PES) initiative to provide the ecological science required during Everglades restoration, we have integrated current regional hydrologic models with American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) research and monitoring data to create a model that assesses the potential impact of Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) efforts on the American crocodile. A list of indicators was created by the Restoration Coordination and Verification (RECOVER) component of CERP to help determine the success of interim restoration goals. The American crocodile was established as an indicator of the ecological condition of mangrove estuaries due to its reliance upon estuarine environments characterized by low salinity and adequate freshwater inflow. To gain a better understanding of the potential impact of CERP restoration efforts on the American crocodile, a spatially explicit crocodile population model has been created that has the ability to simulate the response of crocodiles to various management strategies for the South Florida ecosystem. The crocodile model uses output from the Tides and Inflows in the Mangroves of the Everglades (TIME) model, an application of the Flow and Transport in a Linked Overland/Aquifer Density Dependent System (FTLOADDS) simulator. TIME has the capability to link to the South Florida Water Management Model (SFWMM), which is the primary regional tool used to assess CERP restoration scenarios. A crocodile habitat suitability index and spatial parameter maps that reflect salinity, water depth, habitat, and nesting locations are used as driving functions to construct crocodile finite rate of increase maps under different management scenarios. Local stage-structured models are integrated with a spatial landscape grid to display crocodile movement behavior in response to changing environmental conditions. Restoration efforts are expected to affect salinity levels throughout the habitat of

  11. Alternative approaches to community participation beyond formal structures: evidence from Langa within the municipality of Cape Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Andani

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available While ward committees and Integrated Development Planning (IDP representative forums constitute formal participatory mechanisms in South Africa’s local government, little is known about the potential of local approaches in enhancing participation in municipal planning. This paper examines alternative approaches to participation based on research conducted in Langa – a township situated on the Cape Flats of Cape Town. The paper highlights approaches to residents’ participation in planning tested during the ‘interregnum’ – the period when ward committees are in abeyance due to elections. The study found that, while IDP participatory processes facilitated awareness of participation, ward councillors were crucial in operationalising participation that reflects the diversity of the community.

  12. Proposal and Development of a High Voltage Variable Frequency Alternating Current Power System for Hybrid Electric Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadey, David J.; Taylor, Linda M.; Beach, Raymond F.

    2017-01-01

    The development of ultra-efficient commercial vehicles and the transition to low-carbon emission propulsion are seen as strategic thrust paths within NASA Aeronautics. A critical enabler to these paths comes in the form of hybrid electric propulsion systems. For megawatt-class systems, the best power system topology for these hybrid electric propulsion systems is debatable. Current proposals within NASA and the Aero community suggest using a combination of alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC) for power generation, transmission, and distribution. This paper proposes an alternative to the current thought model through the use of a primarily high voltage AC power system, supported by the Convergent Aeronautics Solutions (CAS) Project. This system relies heavily on the use of doubly-fed induction machines (DFIMs), which provide high power densities, minimal power conversion, and variable speed operation. The paper presents background on the activity along with the system architecture, development status, and preliminary results.

  13. Validation of battery-alternator model against experimental data - a first step towards developing a future power supply system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulos, A.M.; Burnham, K.J.; Mahtani, J.L. [Coventry University (United Kingdom). Control Theory and Applications Centre; Pacaud, C. [Jaguar Cars Ltd., Coventry (United Kingdom). Engineering Centre

    2004-01-01

    The electric power system of a modern vehicle has to supply enough electrical energy to drive numerous electrical and electronic systems and components. The electric power system of a vehicle consists of two major components: an alternator and a battery. A detailed understanding of the characteristics of the electric power system, electrical load demands and the operating environment, such as road conditions and vehicle laden weight, is required when the capacities of the generator and the battery are to be determined for a vehicle. In this study, a battery-alternator system has been developed and simulated in MATLAB/Simulink, and data obtained from vehicle tests have been used as a basis for validating the models. This is considered to be a necessary first step in the design and development of a new 42 V power supply system. (author)

  14. Development of a permanent magnet alternative for a solenoidal ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martens, J.; Fahy, A.; Barr, M. [Centre for Organic Electronics, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Jardine, A.; Allison, W. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Dastoor, P.C., E-mail: Paul.Dastoor@newcastle.edu.au [Centre for Organic Electronics, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2014-12-01

    The most sensitive desktop-sized ionizer utilising electron bombardment is currently the solenoidal ion source. We present an alternate design for such an ion source whereby the solenoidal windings of the electromagnet are replaced by a shaped cylindrical permanent magnet in order to reduce the complexity and running costs of the instrument. Through finite element modelling of the magnetic field in COMSOL and experimental measurements on a small-scale prototype magnet stack, we demonstrate the required shape of the permanent magnet in order to generate the needed field, and the necessity of soft iron collars to smooth fluctuations along the central axis.

  15. DESIGNING CULTURALLY CONSCIOUS ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION TO FOSTER ASIAN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrs. Herliana

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Creating an Asian model of alternative dispute resolution which considers Asian cultures is important. A mere adoption of western standard will less likely accommodate Asian’s unique way of handling disputes. Culture-related problems can be avoided if international commercial mediation or arbitration is tuned in to cultural needs and expectations. Penyusunan model alternatif penyelesaian sengketa gaya Asia yang mengakomodasi budaya setempat penting untuk dilakukan. Penerapan standar barat tidak selamanya cocok dengan cara unik orang Asia dalam memandang suatu sengketa. Konflik kultural dapat dihindari apabila mediasi atau arbitrase bisnis internasional disesuaikan dengan kebutuhan budaya setempat.

  16. The cooperatives not agricultural as an alternative to the local development in the Isla de la Juventud

    OpenAIRE

    Liudyana Dominguez Matos

    2017-01-01

    The work has as objective to analyze the economic results - financial of the non agricultural cooperative “The Kitchen" as alternative for the local development in the Island of Youth, for that to leaned in the economic techniques - financial existent, as well as the comparison, among the access prices to the raw material and the prices of sales that are established for the state gastronomic entities and the non agricultural cooperative. Of the analyzed numbers it was known that the cooperati...

  17. Supplier integration in product development: A matter of designing the project structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Danilovic

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In product development close collaboration between systems integrators and suppliers is important. The purpose of this article is to investigate the impact of the work breakdown structure (WBS and work packages (WPs in product development on the possibility of carrying through the strategy of supplier involvement into collaborative practice and to investigate how supplier involvement can be improved by altering the design of collaborative WBS and WP structures. Dependence Structure Matrix (DSM is introduced in order to analyse, visualise and manage interdependencies, in terms of information exchange between the systems integrator and supplier. This article shows how DSM can support the alternative design of integrated and collaborative WBS and integrated WPs following the logic of dependencies and the flow of information in order to support a strategy focusing on integration of suppliers on project and team level.

  18. Decision making for economic development; A case study of peat and selective alternative energy developments on the island of Newfoundland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, B. (Dept. of Mines and Energy, St. John' s, NF (Canada))

    1994-02-01

    This paper highlights the essential issues and concepts that must be understood and addressed in the performance of sound economic decision making in peat production. The desired result is the identification of a practical, yet thorough, approach to economic analysis. The paper's highlights are summarized by the following nine recommendations: clearly determine the objective; clearly determine the perspective; identify project owners; consider all relevant benefits and all relevant costs; focus on net benefits; consider the opportunity cost of alternative opportunities; take care to avoid double counting; understand and evaluate the relevant risks and recognize that economic success requires global competitiveness. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. WAIS-IV and WISC-IV Structural Validity: Alternate Methods, Alternate Results. Commentary on Weiss et al. (2013a) and Weiss et al. (2013b)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canivez, Gary L.; Kush, Joseph C.

    2013-01-01

    Weiss, Keith, Zhu, and Chen (2013a) and Weiss, Keith, Zhu, and Chen (2013b), this issue, report examinations of the factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV), respectively; comparing Wechsler Hierarchical Model (W-HM) and…

  20. AN APPROACH TO CHARACTERIZING and EVALUATING ALTERNATIVES FOR THE DECOMMISSIONING OF SUB-GRADE STRUCTURES AT THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HOPKINS, A.M.; KLOS, D.B.

    2007-01-01

    In 2002, the Richland Operations Office (RL) of the US Department of Energy (DOE), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) developed milestones for transitioning the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) facility to a clean slab-on-grade configuration. These milestones required developing an engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EF/CA) for the facility's sub-grade structures and installations as part of a series of evaluations intended to provide for the transition of the facility to a clean slab-on-grade configuration. In addition to supporting decisions for interim actions, the analyses of sub-grade structures and installations performed through this EE/CA will contribute to the remedial investigation feasibility study(ies) and subsequently to the final records of decision for the relevant operable units responsible for site closure in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site

  1. Identification of future engineering-development needs of alternative concepts for magnetic-fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    A qualitative identification of future engineering needs of alternative fusion concepts (AFCs) is presented. These needs are assessed relative to the similar needs of the tokamak in order to emphasize differences in required technology with respect to the well documented mainline approach. Although nearly thirty AFCs can be identified as being associated with some level of reactor projection, redirection, refocusing, and general similarities can be used to generate a reduced AFC list that includes only the bumpy tori, stellarators, reversed-field pinches, and compact toroids. Furthermore, each AFC has the potential of operating as a conventional (low power density, superconducting magnets) or a compact, high-power-density (HPD) system. Hence, in order to make tractable an otherwise difficult task, the future engineering needs for the AFCs are addressed here for conventional versus compact approaches, with the latter being treated as a generic class and the former being composed of bumpy tori, stellarators, reversed-field pinches, and compact toroids

  2. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF AUGMENTATIVE AND ALTERNATIVE DIGITAL HOME CONTROL INTERFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Pastorino

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An inquiry of the National Statistics Institute of Spain shows that 74% of the Spanish population with disabilities suffers some kind of limitation performing Daily Basic Activities, while 1.39 million cannot perform them at all without the assistance of specialized personnel. Digital Home Systems could mitigate disabled people’s difficulties to carry out those activities, giving the opportunity to manage home appliances through a single control. Digital Home Systems have to provide specific and adapted control interfaces based on Augmentative and Alternative Communication languages in order to be an efficient solution to the problem and to allow most vulnerable groups of people with disabilities to reach the highest level of autonomy.  This paper describes a Digital Home Interface capable of adapting layouts, styles and contents to device capability, user preferences and appliances’ features; designed with a combination of web technologies, standard languages for abstract interface definition and AAC systems.

  3. Development of an alternative route for recycling AA2050 aluminum alloy by powder metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guido, V.; Oliveira, A.C. de; Travessa, D.N.; Cardoso, K.R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an alternative solid state route to recycling AA2050 aeronautical aluminium alloy chips. The first stage in the recycling process, reported in this work, is the obtainment of the alloy powder by high energy ball milling to subsequent cold pressing and hot extrusion. The process started with the cleaning of chips with the aim of contaminant removing from machining process and transport, followed by the high energy ball milling to result in the AA2050 alloy powder. The powder obtained was characterized by laser size particle analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray diffraction (DRX) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The results show the feasibility of obtaining a powder having appropriate particle size and chemical composition in accordance with the specification for alloy. (author)

  4. Waste management in the Irkutsk region, Siberia, Russia: An environmental assessment of alternative development scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starostina, Vlada; Damgaard, Anders; Eriksen, Marie K; Christensen, Thomas H

    2018-04-01

    The current waste management system, handling around 500,000 t of household, commercial, and institutional waste annually in the Irkutsk region, Siberia, is based on landfilling in an old landfill with no controls of leachate and gas. Life-cycle assessment modelling of the current system shows that it is a major load on the environment, while the simulation of seven alternative systems results in large savings in many impact categories. With respect to climate change, it is estimated that a saving of about 1200 kg CO 2 equivalents is possible per year, per inhabitant, which is a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. The best alternatives involve efficient energy recovery from waste and recycling by source separation for commercial and institutional waste, the major waste type in the Irkutsk region. Recycling of household waste seems less attractive, and it is therefore recommended only to consider this option after experience has been gained with the commercial and institutional waste. Sensitivity analysis shows that recovery of energy - in particular electricity, heat, and steam - from waste is crucial to the environmental performance of the waste management system. This relates to the efficiencies of energy recovery as well as what the recovered energy substitutes, that is, the 'dirtier' the off-set energy, the higher the environmental savings for the waste management system. Since recovered energy may be utilised by only a few energy grids or industrial users, it is recommended to perform additional local assessments of the integration of the waste energy into existing systems and facilities.

  5. Development and modeling of self-deployable structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neogi, Depankar

    Deployable space structures are prefabricated structures which can be transformed from a closed, compact configuration to a predetermined expanded form in which they are stable and can bear loads. The present research effort investigates a new family of deployable structures, called the Self-Deployable Structures (SDS). Unlike other deployable structures, which have rigid members, the SDS members are flexible while the connecting joints are rigid. The joints store the predefined geometry of the deployed structure in the collapsed state. The SDS is stress-free in both deployed and collapsed configurations and results in a self-standing structure which acquires its structural properties after a chemical reaction. Reliability of deployment is one of the most important features of the SDS, since it does not rely on mechanisms that can lock during deployment. The unit building block of these structures is the self-deployable structural element (SDSE). Several SDSE members can be linked to generate a complex building block such as a triangular or a tetrahedral structure. Different SDSE and SDS concepts are investigated in the research work, and the performance of SDS's are experimentally and theoretically explored. Triangular and tetrahedral prototype SDS have been developed and presented. Theoretical efforts include modeling the behavior of 2-dimensional SDSs. Using this design tool, engineers can study the effects of different packing configurations and deployment sequence; and perform optimization on the collapsed state of a structure with different external constraints. The model also predicts if any lockup or entanglement occurs during deployment.

  6. Development of Cranial Bone Surrogate Structures Using Stereolithographic Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-29

    Additive Manufacturing by Jared M Gardner and Thomas A Plaisted Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited...Laboratory Development of Cranial Bone Surrogate Structures Using Stereolithographic Additive Manufacturing by Thomas A Plaisted Weapons...Structures Using Stereolithographic Additive Manufacturing 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Jared

  7. Changes in Nuclear Structure During Wheat Endosperm Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegel, E.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis is an investigation into the structure of wheat endosperm nuclei starting with nuclear divisions and migration during syncytium formation followed by the development of nuclear shape and positioning of chromosome territories and ending with changes in subchromosomal structure during the

  8. Integrating personality structure, personality process, and personality development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumert, Anna; Schmitt, Manfred; Perugini, Marco; Johnson, Wendy; Blum, Gabriela; Borkenau, Peter; Costantini, Giulio; Denissen, J.J.A.; Fleeson, William; Grafton, Ben; Jayawickreme, Eranda; Kurzius, Elena; MacLeod, Colin; Miller, Lynn C.; Read, Stephen J.; Robinson, Michael D.; Wood, Dustin; Wrzus, Cornelia

    2017-01-01

    In this target article, we argue that personality processes, personality structure, and personality development have to be understood and investigated in integrated ways in order to provide comprehensive responses to the key questions of personality psychology. The psychological processes and

  9. Improved tank car design development : ongoing studies on sandwich structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-02

    The Government and industry have a common interest in : improving the safety performance of railroad tank cars carrying : hazardous materials. Research is ongoing to develop strategies : to maintain the structural integrity of railroad tank cars carr...

  10. Off The Scale - Expansion or Development? A Small Town within a Metropolitan Zone as an Alternative Place of Residence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójtowicz-Wróbel, Agnieszka

    2017-10-01

    The goal of this paper is to point out the types of spatial changes that the small towns located in Krakow’s range of influence are currently undergoing, as well as what are the consequences of the various types of changes in these towns. The author asks the question whether the current changes seen in small towns that are under the influence of Krakow can be described as sustainable development - at the basis of which is the increasing of the quality of the functional and spatial structure of a town while preserving its qualities and character - or, on the contrary, that it is more appropriate to describe the changes in the spatial structure of towns as an expansion, which is related only to an increase in their surface area or an increase in the density of their built environment? An attempt has also been made to determine the cause of these changes. An analysis of a set of towns in terms of their accessibility in relation to Krakow, as well as the demographic changes in towns in recent years, has been carried out. This research was useful in determining the dynamic of urban changes or their stagnation. Afterwards, groups of towns with varying degrees of transformation (towns that have been intensively transformed, towns with a balanced degree of spatial changes and towns which remain on the side-lines) were established. In addition, various forms of changes were defined - ranging from cities which register an increase in attractiveness and the changes that it brings while preserving their qualities in accordance with the principles of sustainable development, to settlements which are losing their small-town character as a result of intensive change, at the same time undergoing unification both in terms of space and form of use. From among the groups of towns, example which most fully illustrate the varying degrees and character of the changes of small towns in the area of Krakow has been selected. Based on the research that has been conducted, we can state

  11. Alternative Entrepreneurship in Thailand: Weavers and the Northeastern Handicraft and Women's Development Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongeward, Carolyn

    2001-01-01

    The crafts sector is a significant arena of rural nonfarm employment in Thailand. A handicrafts network focused on women's development helps rural women weavers not only with enterprise development and marketing but also environmental and health issues for appropriate and sustainable development. (SK)

  12. Developing alternative indices of reproductive potential for use in fisheries management : Case studies for stocks spanning an information gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marshall, C.T.; O'Brien, L.; Tomkiewicz, Jonna

    2003-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence to suggest that spawning stock biomass (SSB) may not bedirectly proportional to reproductive potential. The wide-ranging implications of this conclu-sion necessitate that it be tested for as many stocks as possible. Undertaking such tests iscomplicated by the fact...... that fish stocks vary in the amount and type of information that isavailable to estimate reproductive potential. In this review, nine stocks illustrate the range of approaches that are being taken to developing alternative indices of reproductive potential fromexisting data resources. Three stocks had...... sufficient data to reconstruct a time series of total eggproduction (TEP), whereas, the remaining stocks were limited to estimating proxies for stockreproductive potential. For some of the case studies the alternative indices explained a higheramount of recruitment variation than did SSB. Other case studies...

  13. Development of Hybrid Product Breakdown Structure for NASA Ground Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Mark W.; Henry, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    The Product Breakdown Structure is traditionally a method of identification of the products of a project in a tree structure. It is a tool used to assess, plan, document, and display the equipment requirements for a project. It is part of a product based planning technique, and attempts to break down all components of a project in as much detail as possible, so that nothing is overlooked. The PBS for ground systems at the Kennedy Space Center is being developed to encompass the traditional requirements including the alignment of facility, systems, and components to the organizational hierarchy. The Ground Operations Product Breakdown Structure is a hybrid in nature in that some aspects of a work breakdown structure will be incorporated and merged with the Architecture Concept of Operations, Master Subsystem List, customer interface, and assigned management responsibility. The Ground Operations Product Breakdown Structure needs to be able to identify the flexibility of support differing customers (internal and external) usage of ground support equipment within the Kennedy Space Center launch and processing complex. The development of the Product Breakdown Structure is an iterative activity Initially documenting the organization hierarchy structure and relationships. The Product Breakdown Structure identifies the linkage between the customer program requirements, allocation of system resources, development of design goals, and identification logistics products. As the Product Breakdown Structure progresses the incorporation of the results of requirement planning for the customer occurs identifying facility needs and systems. The mature Product Breakdown Structure is baselined with a hierarchical drawing, the Product Breakdown Structure database, and an associated document identifying the verification of the data through the life cycle of the program/product line. This paper will document, demonstrate, and identify key aspects of the life cycle of a Hybrid Product

  14. Redox Abnormalities as a Vulnerability Phenotype for Autism and Related Alternations in CNS Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    2004. MECP2 structural and 3’-UTR variants in schizophrenia , autism and other psychiatric diseases: a possible association with autism. Am J Med...inhibition, thus potentially enabling enhancement of remyelination. Role: PI Award letter dated 12/11/06 Noble (PI) Cure Autism Now Foundation 02/05

  15. Design development of graphite primary structures enables SSTO success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagiotti, V. A.; Yahiro, J. S.; Suh, Daniel E.; Hodges, Eric R.; Prior, Donald J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a graphite composite wing and a graphite composite intertank primary structure for application toward Single-Stage to Orbit space vehicles such as those under development in NASA's X-33/Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Program. The trade study and designs are based on a Rockwell vertical take-off and horizontal landing (VTHL) wing-body RLV vehicle. Northrop Grumman's approach using a building block development technique is described. Composite Graphite/Bismaleimide (Gr/BMI) material characterization test results are presented. Unique intertank and wing composite subcomponent test article designs are described and test results to date are presented. Wing and intertank Full Scale Section Test Article (FSTA) objectives and designs are outlined. Trade studies, supporting building block testing, and FSTA demonstrations combine to develop graphite primary structure composite technology that enables developing X-33/RLV design programs to meet critical SSTO structural weight and operations performance criteria.

  16. Monitoring structure development in milk acidification using diffuse reflectance profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Jacob Lercke; Andersen, Ulf; Møller, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    are needed so that the production can be carried out consistently, regardless of day-to-day variations in the raw materials. Casein micelles aggregate during milk acidification, which leads to formation of a gel network. This change of structure is important for the development of a range of dairy products......, protein, and temperature in the acidification process is conducted. The purpose of the experiment is to investigate how the change of these parameters affects the diffuse reflectance properties as well as to demonstrate the relation between the optical parameters and structure formation in milk......The structure of dairy products is important for the consumer, and milk acidification plays a central role for structural development. To ensure the best possible consumer experience, it is important that a product’s structural properties are stable. Therefore process and quality control tools...

  17. Development of XAFS Into a Structure Determination Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, E. A.

    After the detection of diffraction of x-rays by M. Laue in 1912, the technique was soon applied to structure determination by Bragg within a year. On the other hand, although the edge steps in X-Ray absorption were discovered even earlier by Barkla and both the near edge (XANES) and extended X-Ray fine structure (EXAFS) past the edge were detected by 1929, it still took over 40 years to realize the structure information contained in this X-Ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). To understand this delay a brief historical review of the development of the scientific ideas that transformed XAFS into the premiere technique for local structure determination is given. The development includes both advances in theoretical understanding and calculational capabilities, and in experimental facilities, especially synchrotron radiation sources. The present state of the XAFS technique and its capabilities are summarized.

  18. Peet, R., Hartwick E. – Theories of development: Contentions, Arguments, Alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Epure

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This book review aims to discuss the new perspectives on theories of development provided by two outstanding scholars: Richard Peet and Elaine Hartwick in their recent published book “Theories of development: Contestations, Arguments, Alternatives”. An interesting point a view is presented from the beginning: development means a better life for everyone but economic growth can occur without touching problems like inequalities, poverty etc. The introductory chapter explains the differences between Growth and Development, and it is followed by a part I Conventional Theories of Development, part II Nonconventional Critical Theories of Development, part III Critical Modernism. Readers will find this book review intriguing and interesting enough to stimulate their curiosity to explore this fascinating book.

  19. Tanks Focus Area Alternative Salt Processing Research and Development Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, Harry D.

    2000-05-15

    In March 2000, DOE-Headquarters (HQ) requested the Tanks Focus Area (TFA)to assume management responsibility for the Salt Processing Project technology development program at Savannah River Site. The TFA was requested to conduct several activities, including review and revision of the technology development roadmaps, development of down-selection criteria, and preparation of a comprehensive Research and Development (R&D) Program Plan for three candidate cesium removal technologies, as well as the Alpha and strontium removal processes that must also be carried out. The three cesium removal candidate technologies are Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) Non-Elutable Ion Exchange, Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX), and Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Precipitation (STTP). This plan describes the technology development needs for each process that must be satisfied in order to reach a down-selection decision, as well as continuing technology development required to support conceptual design activities.

  20. Tanks Focus Area Alternative Salt Processing Research and Development Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, Harry D.

    2000-11-30

    In March 2000, DOE-Headquarters (HQ) requested the Tanks Focus Area (TFA) to assume management responsibility for the Salt Processing Project technology development program at Savannah River Site. The TFA was requested to conduct several activities, including review and revision of the technology development roadmaps, development of down-selection criteria, and preparation of a comprehensive Research and Development (R&D) Program Plan for three candidate cesium removal technologies, as well as the Alpha and strontium removal processes that must also be carried out. The three cesium removal candidate technologies are Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) Non-Elutable Ion Exchange, Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX), and Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Precipitation (STTP). This plan describes the technology development needs for each process that must be satisfied in order to reach a down-selection decision, as well as continuing technology development required to support conceptual design activities.

  1. Municipal Wastewater Privatization: An Alternative with Solutions for Infrastructure Development, Environmental Compliance, and Improved Efficiency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    wakeman, Roger

    1998-01-01

    .... Wastewater privatization has historically consisted of short-term contract agreements for treatment operations, but looming infrastructure recapitalization and development requirements have catalyzed...

  2. Greenhouse gas emissions of alternative pavement designs: framework development and illustrative application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Cui, Qingbin; Schwartz, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Pavement rehabilitation is carbon intensive and the choice of pavement type is a critical factor in controlling greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The existing body of knowledge is not able to support decision-making on pavement choice due to a lack of consensus on the system boundaries, the functional units and the estimation periods. Excessive data requirements further inhibit the generalization of the existing methodologies for design evaluation at the early planning stage. This study proposes a practical life-cycle GHG estimation approach, which is arguably effective to benchmark pavement emissions given project bid tabulation. A set of case studies conducted for this study suggest that recycled asphalt pavement (e.g., foam stabilized base (FSB), and warm mix asphalt (WMA)) would prevent up to 50% of GHGs from the initial construction phase. However, from a life-cycle perspective, pavement emissions are dictated largely by the traffic characteristics and the analysis period for the use phase. The benefits from using recycled materials (e.g., FSB) are likely to diminish if the recycled products do not perform as well as those properly proportioned with less recycled materials, or if the recycled materials are locally unavailable. When the AADT reaches 10,000, use phase releases more than 97% of the life cycle emissions and the emissions difference among alternative designs will be within 1%. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Site-wide remedial alternative development in Bear Creek Valley, Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.

    1995-07-01

    This paper presents a case study of an environmental restoration project at a major mixed waste site that poses unique challenges to remediation efforts. Bear Creek Valley is located immediately west of the Y-12 Plant on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The Y-12 Plant was built in 1943 as part of the Manhattan Project, with its original mission being electromagnetic separation of uranium. Since being completed, the Y-12 Plant has also been used for chemical processing of uranium and lithium compounds as well as precision fabrication of components containing these and other materials. Wastes containing radionuclides, metals, chlorinated solvents, oils, coolants, polychlorinated biphenyis (PCBs), and others were disposed of in large quantities at Bear Creek Valley as a result of manufacturing operations at the Y-12 Plant. The Bear Creek Valley feasibility study is using innovative strategies to efficiently and thoroughly consider the information available regarding Bear Creek Valley and process options that could be combined into its remedial alternatives

  4. The development of structural x-ray crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfson, M. M.

    2018-03-01

    From its birth in 1912, when only the simplest structures could be solved, x-ray structural crystallography is now able to solve macromolecular structures containing many thousands of independent non-hydrogen atoms. This progress has depended on, and been driven by, great technical advances in the development of powerful synchrotron x-ray sources, advanced automated equipment for the collection and storage of large data sets and powerful computers to deal with everything from data processing to running programmes employing complex algorithms for the automatic solution of structures. The sheer number of developments in the subject over the past century makes it impossible for this review to be exhaustive, but it will describe some major developments that will enable the reader to understand how the subject has grown from its humble beginnings to what it is today.

  5. Water Reuse and Soil Column Studies for Alternative Water Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Office of Research and Development (ORD) has developed a holistic water research program in order to identify engineering and management options for safe and expanded use ...

  6. Development of an alternating magnetic-field-assisted finishing process for microelectromechanical systems micropore x-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riveros, Raul E.; Yamaguchi, Hitomi; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Takagi, Utako; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Kato, Fumiki; Sugiyama, Susumu; Yamasaki, Noriko; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa

    2010-01-01

    X-ray astronomy research is often limited by the size, weight, complexity, and cost of functioning x-ray optics. Micropore optics promises an economical alternative to traditional (e.g., glass or foil) x-ray optics; however, many manufacturing difficulties prevent micropore optics from being a viable solution. Ezoe et al. introduced microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) micropore optics having curvilinear micropores in 2008. Made by either deep reactive ion etching or x-ray lithography, electroforming, and molding (LIGA), MEMS micropore optics suffer from high micropore sidewall roughness (10-30nmrms) which, by current standards, cannot be improved. In this research, a new alternating magnetic-field-assisted finishing process was developed using a mixture of ferrofluid and microscale abrasive slurry. A machine was built, and a set of working process parameters including alternating frequency, abrasive size, and polishing time was selected. A polishing experiment on a LIGA-fabricated MEMS micropore optic was performed, and a change in micropore sidewall roughness of 9.3±2.5nmrms to 5.7±0.7nmrms was measured. An improvement in x-ray reflectance was also seen. This research shows the feasibility and confirms the effects of this new polishing process on MEMS micropore optics.

  7. Development of an alternating magnetic-field-assisted finishing process for microelectromechanical systems micropore x-ray optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros, Raul E; Yamaguchi, Hitomi; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Takagi, Utako; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Kato, Fumiki; Sugiyama, Susumu; Yamasaki, Noriko; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa

    2010-06-20

    X-ray astronomy research is often limited by the size, weight, complexity, and cost of functioning x-ray optics. Micropore optics promises an economical alternative to traditional (e.g., glass or foil) x-ray optics; however, many manufacturing difficulties prevent micropore optics from being a viable solution. Ezoe et al. introduced microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) micropore optics having curvilinear micropores in 2008. Made by either deep reactive ion etching or x-ray lithography, electroforming, and molding (LIGA), MEMS micropore optics suffer from high micropore sidewall roughness (10-30nmrms) which, by current standards, cannot be improved. In this research, a new alternating magnetic-field-assisted finishing process was developed using a mixture of ferrofluid and microscale abrasive slurry. A machine was built, and a set of working process parameters including alternating frequency, abrasive size, and polishing time was selected. A polishing experiment on a LIGA-fabricated MEMS micropore optic was performed, and a change in micropore sidewall roughness of 9.3+/-2.5nmrms to 5.7+/-0.7nmrms was measured. An improvement in x-ray reflectance was also seen. This research shows the feasibility and confirms the effects of this new polishing process on MEMS micropore optics.

  8. Development of an alternating magnetic-field-assisted finishing process for microelectromechanical systems micropore x-ray optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riveros, Raul E.; Yamaguchi, Hitomi; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Takagi, Utako; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Kato, Fumiki; Sugiyama, Susumu; Yamasaki, Noriko; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa

    2010-06-20

    X-ray astronomy research is often limited by the size, weight, complexity, and cost of functioning x-ray optics. Micropore optics promises an economical alternative to traditional (e.g., glass or foil) x-ray optics; however, many manufacturing difficulties prevent micropore optics from being a viable solution. Ezoe et al. introduced microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) micropore optics having curvilinear micropores in 2008. Made by either deep reactive ion etching or x-ray lithography, electroforming, and molding (LIGA), MEMS micropore optics suffer from high micropore sidewall roughness (10-30nmrms) which, by current standards, cannot be improved. In this research, a new alternating magnetic-field-assisted finishing process was developed using a mixture of ferrofluid and microscale abrasive slurry. A machine was built, and a set of working process parameters including alternating frequency, abrasive size, and polishing time was selected. A polishing experiment on a LIGA-fabricated MEMS micropore optic was performed, and a change in micropore sidewall roughness of 9.3{+-}2.5nmrms to 5.7{+-}0.7nmrms was measured. An improvement in x-ray reflectance was also seen. This research shows the feasibility and confirms the effects of this new polishing process on MEMS micropore optics.

  9. Development of sample assay system equipped with 3He Alternative Neutron Detectors (ASAS). (2) Results of ASAS measurement test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanigawa, Masafumi; Mukai, Yasunobu; Kurita, Tsutomu; Makino, Risa; Nakamura, Hironobu; Tobita, Hiroshi; Ohzu, Akira; Kureta, Masatoshi; Seya, Michio

    2015-01-01

    Against the background of the serious shortage of 3 He gas, design and development of a new detector equipped ZnS/ 10 B 2 O 3 ceramic scintillation neutron detectors in JAEA, with the support of the government (the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology). The design of the alternative 3 He detector is referred from INVS (INVentory Sample assay system (HLNCC (High Level Neutron Coincidence Counter) type)) which is being used for the verification of MOX powder etc. and is named it as ASAS (Alternative Sample Assay System). In order to prove the Pu quantitative performance as an alternative technology, several measurement tests and comparison test with INVS were conducted using ASAS. In these tests, evaluation of fundamental performance (counting efficiency and die-away time) and uncertainty evaluations were implemented. As a result, although fundamental performance of ASAS was not achieved to the one of INVS, we could confirm that ASAS has almost the same Pu quantitative performance including measurement uncertainty as that of INVS. (author)

  10. Scrambling the Nest Egg: How Well Do Teachers Understand Their Pensions, and What Do They Think about Alternative Pension Structures? Working Paper 51

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeArmond, Michael; Goldhaber, Dan

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses two questions: How well do teachers understand their current pension plans? And, what do they think about alternative plan structures? The data come from administrative records and a 2006 survey of teachers in Washington State. The results suggest Washington's teachers are fairly knowledgeable about their pensions, though new…

  11. Using Learning Trajectories for Teacher Learning to Structure Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargagliotti, Anna E.; Anderson, Celia Rousseau

    2017-01-01

    As a result of the increased focus on data literacy and data science across the world, there has been a large demand for professional development in statistics. However, exactly how these professional development opportunities should be structured remains an open question. The purpose of this paper is to describe the first iteration of a design…

  12. Poverty—A structural problem of developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Wülker, Gabriele

    1981-01-01

    The contrast between industrialized and developing countries is often seen as one between two opposites: Rich countries—poor countries. But the poverty in the developing countries is by no means identical with the need for help as perceived in the industrialized societies. Poverty in the Third World is, as the following article shows, a structural problem.

  13. Students' Development of Structure Sense for the Distributive Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüler-Meyer, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    After being introduced to the distributive law in meaningful contexts, students need to extend its scope of application to unfamiliar expressions. In this article, a process model for the development of structure sense is developed. Building on this model, this article reports on a design research project in which exercise tasks support students…

  14. Development of a national code of practice for structural masonry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problems and constraints faced by most developing countries, particularly Ghana, in developing codes of practice for structural masonry are highlighted. The steps that must be undertaken through the coordinated efforts of the National Standards Boards, Research Institutions, Universities and Professional Bodies in the ...

  15. Developing alternative resources of rare earth elements in Europe - EURARE and the red mud challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deady, Eimear; Mouchos, Evangelos; Goodenough, Kathryn; Wall, Frances; Williamson, Ben

    2015-04-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) are considered to be highly "critical" by the European Commission [1], owing to the concentration of global supply [2] and their use in a wide range of emerging technologies (e.g. smart phones, electric cars and wind turbines). The main source of REE is the mineral bastnäsite, which is primarily extracted from carbonatites. Alternative resources of REE have been identified in a variety of other environments such as alluvial placers, bauxites and ore tailings. The EURARE project (www.eurare.eu), funded by the European Commission, aims to improve understanding of potential REE resources in Europe with the overall objective of establishing the basis for a European REE industry. As a part of this project, alternative sources of rare earth elements in Europe are being considered. REE have been identified as being particularly enriched in karst-bauxites and hence in the red muds generated as a waste product from the processing of these bauxites to alumina through the Bayer process [3]. Karst-bauxites are widely distributed with deposits known across the Mediterranean and with intermittent exploitation occurring over many decades. REE become concentrated in the bauxite deposits by the bauxitisation process and are retained due to the geochemical barrier created by the limestone bedrock below. This can result in several processes, including the crystallisation of authigenic REE-bearing minerals, the accumulation of residual phases and the adsorption of ions onto clays and other mineral surfaces [4]. Red muds produced from alumina processing represent a potentially important concentration of REE as it has been demonstrated that the REE pass through the alumina extraction process into the waste, and the total REE concentrations are typically enriched by a factor of two compared with the original bauxite ore [5]. Bauxites and red muds from the Parnassus Ghiona region of Greece [6] and the Seydişehir-Akseki region of Turkey have been assessed as

  16. Development of Briquette from Coir Dust and Rice Husk Blend: An Alternative Energy Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Hamidul Islam

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is one of the predominant renewable energy sources and the use of biomass for the energy generation has got much attention due to its environmental friendliness. Densification of coir dust into fuel briquette can solve waste disposal problem as well as can serve as an alternative energy source. The objective of this study was to investigate the possibility of producing briquette from coir dust and rice husk blend without binder. During this study, a briquetting experiment was conducted with different coir dust and rice husk blends (i.e. coir dust and rice husk ratio of 80:20, 60:40, 50:50, 40:60, 20:80 and 0:100. Briquetting operation was performed using a die-screw press type briquetting machine. The briquettes were tested to evaluate their density, compressive strength, calorific value, burning rate and water vaporizing capacity and it was found that mixing ratio had a significant effect on the physical, mechanical and combustion properties of the coir dust-rice husk briquettes. Density, compressive strength and calorific value and water vaporizing capacity were increased with increasing mixing ratio while burning rate was decreased. Coir dust-rice husk briquettes with mixing ratio of 20:80 had higher density (1.413 g/cm3, compressive strength (218.4 N/cm2, calorific value (4879 kcal/kg, water vaporizing capacity (0.853 l/kg and low burning rate (0.783 kg/hour followed by the mixing ratio 40:60, 50:50, 60:40 and 0:100. The results indicate that coir dust and rice husk blend briquettes were found to have better overall handling characteristics over rice husk briquette. However, production of briquettes from coir dust and rice husk at mixing ratio of 50:50 was found to be more suitable for commercial application in terms of cost effectiveness.

  17. Development of SC structure modularization in Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mun, Taeyoup

    2008-01-01

    New Focus on NPP are Rising Concerns on Global Warming, Potential energy crisis (geo-political), Improved reliability and safety of nuclear power plant, Advent of Generation 3+ NPP technology and Economical Energy Resource. New NPPs are 6 units in Korea and 23 in Asia being built, 32 units being planned in China by 2020 (150 by 2050), 10 units being planned in US by 2020 and IAEA expects $200 billions on NPP construction next 25 years (up to 30% of total world energy). □ SC(Steel Plate Concrete) structure · Steel Plate is used as a Structural Element instead of Reinforcing Bars in RC · SC structure consists of Steel Plate with Headed Studs. Connected by Tie-bars - The Primary Purpose of Tie-bars is to Stiffen and Hold Together the Plates during Construction Process - Headed Studs are Welded to the Inside of Steel Plate for composite action □ Benefits of SC Structure · Shorten Construction Duration for Re bar, Forming and Scaffolding Works · Minimize Site Labors · Improve the Construction Quality · Enable Construction Sites to be kept Clean □ SC Modularization · Fit for Modular Construction for Structural Features · Fit for Modular Construction for Structural Features · Inattentively Effective for Integrated Modules · Pre-fabrication, Pre-assembly and Modularization □ Project Overview · Project Name: Development of SC structure for Modularization in NPP · Project Type: Electric Power Industry R and D (Ministry of Knowledge Economy) · Duration: Sep. 2005 ∼ Aug. 2008 (36 Months) · Research Team and Scopes - Project Management: Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Company (KHNP) - Development of Code and Standards for SC Structure: Korea Society of Steel Construction (KSSC) Korea Electric Power Research Institute (KEPRI) - Development of SC Structural Analysis and Design: Korea Power Engineering Company (KOPEC) - Development of Construction Techniques for SC Modularization: KHNP, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety(KINS), KOPEC □ Performance

  18. Structural and Maturational Covariance in Early Childhood Brain Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xiujuan; Li, Gang; Lu, Zhaohua; Gao, Wei; Wang, Li; Shen, Dinggang; Zhu, Hongtu; Gilmore, John H

    2017-03-01

    Brain structural covariance networks (SCNs) composed of regions with correlated variation are altered in neuropsychiatric disease and change with age. Little is known about the development of SCNs in early childhood, a period of rapid cortical growth. We investigated the development of structural and maturational covariance networks, including default, dorsal attention, primary visual and sensorimotor networks in a longitudinal population of 118 children after birth to 2 years old and compared them with intrinsic functional connectivity networks. We found that structural covariance of all networks exhibit strong correlations mostly limited to their seed regions. By Age 2, default and dorsal attention structural networks are much less distributed compared with their functional maps. The maturational covariance maps, however, revealed significant couplings in rates of change between distributed regions, which partially recapitulate their functional networks. The structural and maturational covariance of the primary visual and sensorimotor networks shows similar patterns to the corresponding functional networks. Results indicate that functional networks are in place prior to structural networks, that correlated structural patterns in adult may arise in part from coordinated cortical maturation, and that regional co-activation in functional networks may guide and refine the maturation of SCNs over childhood development. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Defense IRM: Alternatives Should Be Considered in Developing the New Civilian Personnel System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    ... regional centers, and attempting to improve personnel management business processes. A key part of this initiative is Defense's development of a new information management system-the Defense Civilian Personnel Data System (DCPDs...

  20. Participatory alternatives for charity food delivery? Finnish development in an international comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Silvasti, Tiina

    2014-01-01

    [Introduction] Give a man a fish, and you feed him for a day; show him how to catch fish, and you feed him for a lifetime. First and foremost, hunger as an extreme form of marginalization is a problem of developing countries. It is interesting, though, that food insecurity is also increasing rapidly in the developed world. This article deals with the particular phenomena of marginalization in forms of hunger and food insecurity in rich Western countries. Participation is discussed here as ...

  1. Collective place branding - an alternative strategy for territorial development compared to geographical indications?

    OpenAIRE

    Donner, Mechthild

    2016-01-01

    Geographical Indications (GIs) protecting the origin of specific food products are expanding worldwide and promoted as first order tool for agricultural and local development in developing countries. At the same time, collective place brands are adopted by public and private sectors in Europe as novel strategy to jointly valorise and promote a package of place-specific (food) products and (tourism) services, which supports a distinctive territorial identity or a territorial project.We here pr...

  2. Recent developments in low cost stable structures for space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, T.C.; Grastataro, C.; Smith, B.G.

    1994-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in partnership with Composite Optics Incorporated (COI) is advancing the development of low cost, lightweight, composite technology for use in spacecraft and stable structures. The use of advanced composites is well developed, but the application of an all-composite tracker structure has never been achieved. This paper investigates the application of composite technology to the design and fabrication of an all-composite spacecraft bus for small satellites, using technology directly applicable to central tracking in a high luminosity environment. The satellite program Fast On-Orbit Recording of Transient Events (FORTE) is the second in a series of satellites to be launched into orbit for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This paper will discuss recent developments in the area of low cost composites, used for either spacecraft or ultra stable applications in high energy physics (HEP) detectors. The use of advanced composites is a relatively new development in the area of HEP. The Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) spawned a new generation of Trackers which made extensive use of graphite fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) composite systems. LANL has designed a structure employing new fabrication technology. This concept will lower the cost of composite structures to a point that they may now compete with conventional materials. This paper will discuss the design, analysis and proposed fabrication of a small satellite structure. Central tracking structures using advanced materials capable of operating in an adverse environment typical of that found in a high luminosity collider could use identical concepts

  3. Revised genomic structure of the human ghrelin gene and identification of novel exons, alternative splice variants and natural antisense transcripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herington Adrian C

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ghrelin is a multifunctional peptide hormone expressed in a range of normal tissues and pathologies. It has been reported that the human ghrelin gene consists of five exons which span 5 kb of genomic DNA on chromosome 3 and includes a 20 bp non-coding first exon (20 bp exon 0. The availability of bioinformatic tools enabling comparative analysis and the finalisation of the human genome prompted us to re-examine the genomic structure of the ghrelin locus. Results We have demonstrated the presence of an additional novel exon (exon -1 and 5' extensions to exon 0 and 1 using comparative in silico analysis and have demonstrated their existence experimentally using RT-PCR and 5' RACE. A revised exon-intron structure demonstrates that the human ghrelin gene spans 7.2 kb and consists of six rather than five exons. Several ghrelin gene-derived splice forms were detected in a range of human tissues and cell lines. We have demonstrated ghrelin gene-derived mRNA transcripts that do not code for ghrelin, but instead may encode the C-terminal region of full-length preproghrelin (C-ghrelin, which contains the coding region for obestatin and a transcript encoding obestatin-only. Splice variants that differed in their 5' untranslated regions were also found, suggesting a role of these regions in the post-transcriptional regulation of preproghrelin translation. Finally, several natural antisense transcripts, termed ghrelinOS (ghrelin opposite strand transcripts, were demonstrated via orientation-specific RT-PCR, 5' RACE and in silico analysis of ESTs and cloned amplicons. Conclusion The sense and antisense alternative transcripts demonstrated in this study may function as non-coding regulatory RNA, or code for novel protein isoforms. This is the first demonstration of putative obestatin and C-ghrelin specific transcripts and these findings suggest that these ghrelin gene-derived peptides may also be produced independently of preproghrelin

  4. Beluga coal field development: social effects and management alternatives. [West side of Cook Inlet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, M.; Cluett, C.; Trimble, J.; Brody, S.; Howell, C.; Leman, L.; Svendsen, G.

    1979-05-01

    Plans are under way to mine the Beluga coal fields on the west side of Cook Inlet. The coal will be strip-mined for export, or to supply local electric generating plants, or both. Over the next 20 years, this coal development activity is likely to generate social and economic impacts at the local, regional, and state levels. The purpose of this study is to assess the potential social and economic effects of coal development, including employment and population growth, regional impacts, and the facility and service needs of a new settlement in the Beluga area. Of special concern is identifying the role of various governmental agencies in the development process. Potential effects on the natural environment are not examined in detail since they are expected to be controlled to acceptable levels through existing Federal and state laws. This report examines three possible levels of coal-field development and the settlement requirements associated with each. The most probable regional impacts associated with this development will include effects on the regional labor force, the market for coal, and the generation and distribution of revenues. The main regional labor force impacts will be positive in nature. The rate of regional unemployment is likely to decline slightly for the duration of the project, with an increase in wage income available for reinvestment in the region and a reduction in the number of individuals receiving unemployment insurance payments. Coal development is not expected to induce any significant inmigration of workers from outside the region.The development of the Beluga coal resources and the production of electricity from coal would add to the Kenai Peninsula Borough's tax base. The assessed value of coal lands around Beluga would likely increase and, in addition, Cook Inlet Region, Inc. would be the recipient of royalties from coal leases. A number of recommendations for research and governmental activities are presented.

  5. Development and Characterisation of a Human Chronic Skin Wound Cell Line-Towards an Alternative for Animal Experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caley, Matthew; Wall, Ivan B; Peake, Matthew; Kipling, David; Giles, Peter; Thomas, David W; Stephens, Phil

    2018-03-27

    Background : Chronic skin wounds are a growing financial burden for healthcare providers, causing discomfort/immobility to patients. Whilst animal chronic wound models have been developed to allow for mechanistic studies and to develop/test potential therapies, such systems are not good representations of the human chronic wound state. As an alternative, human chronic wound fibroblasts (CWFs) have permitted an insight into the dysfunctional cellular mechanisms that are associated with these wounds. However, such cells strains have a limited replicative lifespan and therefore a limited reproducibility/usefulness. Objectives : To develop/characterise immortalised cell lines of CWF and patient-matched normal fibroblasts (NFs). Methods and Results : Immortalisation with human telomerase resulted in both CWF and NF proliferating well beyond their replicative senescence end-point (respective cell strains senesced as normal). Gene expression analysis demonstrated that, whilst proliferation-associated genes were up-regulated in the cell lines (as would be expected), the immortalisation process did not significantly affect the disease-specific genotype. Immortalised CWF (as compared to NF) also retained a distinct impairment in their wound repopulation potential (in line with CWF cell strains). Conclusions : These novel CWF cell lines are a credible animal alternative and could be a valuable research tool for understanding both the aetiology of chronic skin wounds and for therapeutic pre-screening.

  6. Development and Characterisation of a Human Chronic Skin Wound Cell Line—Towards an Alternative for Animal Experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Ivan B.; Peake, Matthew; Kipling, David; Giles, Peter; Thomas, David W.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Chronic skin wounds are a growing financial burden for healthcare providers, causing discomfort/immobility to patients. Whilst animal chronic wound models have been developed to allow for mechanistic studies and to develop/test potential therapies, such systems are not good representations of the human chronic wound state. As an alternative, human chronic wound fibroblasts (CWFs) have permitted an insight into the dysfunctional cellular mechanisms that are associated with these wounds. However, such cells strains have a limited replicative lifespan and therefore a limited reproducibility/usefulness. Objectives: To develop/characterise immortalised cell lines of CWF and patient-matched normal fibroblasts (NFs). Methods and Results: Immortalisation with human telomerase resulted in both CWF and NF proliferating well beyond their replicative senescence end-point (respective cell strains senesced as normal). Gene expression analysis demonstrated that, whilst proliferation-associated genes were up-regulated in the cell lines (as would be expected), the immortalisation process did not significantly affect the disease-specific genotype. Immortalised CWF (as compared to NF) also retained a distinct impairment in their wound repopulation potential (in line with CWF cell strains). Conclusions: These novel CWF cell lines are a credible animal alternative and could be a valuable research tool for understanding both the aetiology of chronic skin wounds and for therapeutic pre-screening. PMID:29584680

  7. Alternative security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weston, B.H.

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters: The Military and Alternative Security: New Missions for Stable Conventional Security; Technology and Alternative Security: A Cherished Myth Expires; Law and Alternative Security: Toward a Just World Peace; Politics and Alternative Security: Toward a More Democratic, Therefore More Peaceful, World; Economics and Alternative Security: Toward a Peacekeeping International Economy; Psychology and Alternative Security: Needs, Perceptions, and Misperceptions; Religion and Alternative Security: A Prophetic Vision; and Toward Post-Nuclear Global Security: An Overview

  8. The organization of mineral exploitation and the relationship to urban structures and local business development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Kåre; Hoffmann, Birgitte; Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    The paper explores relations between mining and urban structures as these are decisive for involving the local workforce and developing local businesses. A major challenge for Greenland is the on-going decoupling between existing settlements and the main export industry based on marine living...... also for the surrounding community. The paper explores if a different and long-term organisation of exploitation of mineral resources with establishment of flexible settlements creates an attractive and sustainable alternative with a reasonable population and economic diversity....

  9. Development of systems of analysis in industrial processes with XRF. A technology transfer alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvez, Juan; Poblete, Victor

    1999-01-01

    The FRX Laboratory's experience in developing a unit of analysis by excitation with a radioisotope source is described, with a discussion of its advantages, limitations, types of existing units in the market, use, values and state-of-the-art. The evolution of mining and metallurgical processes has led to the development of new technologies that provide quick and precise control of control and analysis operations, avoiding loss of raw material, chemical reagents, waste of materials and time, to obtain a better quality and purer product. The system developed by the FRX Laboratory is relatively low cost compared to other equipment that is available in the market, and it focuses on single element analysis in hydrometallurgical processes. This system uses a NaI (T1) detector with a beryllium window, related electronics, monitor and printer, which controls the operation automatically using an adequate program for taking samples, measuring, analysis, printing results, changing samples, etc. The sampling is continuous, so it does not have to be taken or prepared chemically. This system can extrapolate to other more complex ones, using new kinds of detectors with higher resolution, more modern electronics, and new multichannel cards. The development of this kind of equipment in Chile means that dependence on foreign technology can be avoided by replacing expensive imported equipment, creating our own technology and transferring it to the domestic market, and even generating income by exporting these units and opening new development prospects (au)

  10. CULTURAL EXPLORATION AS ALTER/NATIVE1 ROUTE TO NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT: INSIGHTS FROM YORUBA VERBAL ARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLUWOLE COKER

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper interrogates Yoruba verbal arts and situates culture as a catalyst for development. It is suggested that the intricate resources of oral art, exemplified by Yoruba textual references, are viable ingredients for socio-cultural empowerment. To fully comprehend the dynamics of a society in constant change due to external and internal realities, one must reconsider culture in order to reposition the society. The multidimensional and multidisciplinary significance of Yoruba verbal art demonstrate that culture has a vital role to play in any meaningful socio-political advancement in the Nigerian body polity. The ideas conveyed in proverbial expressions, representing key cultural realities of the Yoruba people, offer insights and ideas for development and social good. The paper submits that a deeper exploration of the intricate resources of verbal art is a viable route to development.

  11. Action Research for Curriculum Development: An Alternative Approach in the Algerian Centralised Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhlas GHERZOULI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Literature in the field of curriculum is debating the extent to which teachers should or could participate in the developmental process of the curriculum they enact. Being the practitioners, teachers are the ones who transmit theory into practice. However, they are not only consumers of curriculum knowledge, but also significant producers of it. Thus, teachers’ active participation as primary stakeholders in the curriculum development process is a necessity. The paper outlines one approach for teacher participation in curriculum development, which is action research. The main aim of this paper is twofold; first: it explores literature about ‘curriculum’, ‘curriculum development’ and ‘action research’; and second, it emphasizes the prominence of teachers’ involvement and research in curriculum development, paying specific attention to the Algerian secondary school educational reform, which is highly controlled and centralised.

  12. Study of alternative strategies to the task clarification activity of the market-pull product development process model

    OpenAIRE

    Motte, Damien

    2009-01-01

    A very large majority of the current product development process models put forward in textbooks present a homogenous structure, what Ulrich & Eppinger [1] call the market-pull model, presented as a generic one, while other possible product development process models are merely seen as variants. This paper focuses on the task clarification and derived activities (mainly the systematic search for customer needs through market study and the supplementary development costs it entails) and in...

  13. Development of a Computer Application to Simulate Porous Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C. Reis

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Geometric modeling is an important tool to evaluate structural parameters as well as to follow the application of stereological relationships. The obtention, visualization and analysis of volumetric images of the structure of materials, using computational geometric modeling, facilitates the determination of structural parameters of difficult experimental access, such as topological and morphological parameters. In this work, we developed a geometrical model implemented by computer software that simulates random pore structures. The number of nodes, number of branches (connections between nodes and the number of isolated parts, are obtained. Also, the connectivity (C is obtained from this application. Using a list of elements, nodes and branches, generated by the software, in AutoCAD® command line format, the obtained structure can be viewed and analyzed.

  14. Theoretical development of atomic structure: Past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwary, S.N.

    1994-11-01

    Theoretical development of atomic structure is briefly discussed. The role of correlation, relativity, quantum electrodynamic (QED), finite nuclear size (FNS) and parity nonconservation (PNC) in high precision theoretical investigation of properties of atomic and ionic systems is demonstrated. At present, we do not have a comprehensive and practical atomic structure theory which accounts all these physical effects on an equal footing. Suggestions are made for future directions. (author). 108 refs, 5 figs, 9 tabs

  15. Seeking alternatives to probit 9 when developing treatments for wood packaging materials under ISPM No. 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.A. Haack; A. Uzunovic; K. Hoover; J.A. Cook

    2011-01-01

    ISPM No. 15 presents guidelines for treating wood packaging material used in international trade. There are currently two approved phytosanitary treatments: heat treatment and methyl bromide fumigation. New treatments are under development, and are needed given that methyl bromide is being phased out. Probit 9 efficacy (100% mortality of at least 93 613 test organisms...

  16. Development and Female Crime: A Cross-National Test of Alternative Explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffensmeier, Darrell; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Interpol data from 69 countries indicate that the relationship between female percentage of arrests and national development status is mediated by opportunity for "female" consumer crimes and formalization of social control (which makes female crime more visible), but not by gender equality or female economic marginality. Contains 49 references.…

  17. Molecular Genetics Information System (MOLGENIS) : alternatives in developing local experimental genomics databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swertz, Morris A.; Brock, E.O. (Bert) de; Hijum, Sacha A.F.T. van; Jong, Anne de; Buist, Girbe; Baerends, Richard J.S.; Kok, Jan; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Jansen, Ritsert C.

    2004-01-01

    Motivation: Genomic research laboratories need adequate infrastructure to support management of their data production and research workflow. But what makes infrastructure adequate? A lack of appropriate criteria makes any decision on buying or developing a system difficult. Here, we report on the

  18. SSME Alternate Turbopump Development Program: Design verification specification for high-pressure fuel turbopump

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The design and verification requirements are defined which are appropriate to hardware at the detail, subassembly, component, and engine levels and to correlate these requirements to the development demonstrations which provides verification that design objectives are achieved. The high pressure fuel turbopump requirements verification matrix provides correlation between design requirements and the tests required to verify that the requirement have been met.

  19. Public Marketing: An Alternative Policy Decision-Making Idea for Small Cities. Community Development Research Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, James; And Others

    The concept of public marketing presents a strategy for the systems approach to community development that would facilitate the community decision making process via improved communication. Basic aspects of the social marketing process include: (1) product policy; (2) channels of distribution; (3) pricing (perceived price vs quality and quantity…

  20. Survival and larval development of Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on alternatives host

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sa, Verissimo G.M. de; Boregas, Katia G.B.

    2009-01-01

    Two bioassays were conducted to evaluate the suitability of host plants of fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith), in the Brazilian agro-ecosystem. Larval development and survival were analyzed by infesting leaves of maize, grain sorghum, Johnson grass, soybean, Brachiaria and tobacco with FAW newly hatched larvae in a no choice test. No significant differences of survival were observed among insects reared on different hosts, except for tobacco, where no survivors were recorded. Larvae fed on soybean and artificial diet grew larger than those fed on the other hosts. The heaviest pupa was observed from larva fed on artificial diet and the lighter from larva fed on Brachiaria grass. No significant differences were reported on larval development time on natural hosts, but it was longer for larvae reared on artificial diet. Three classes of larval development time were observed on maize, four on sorghum, Brachiaria and soybean, and five on artificial diet. Nearly 85% of FAW larvae completed development within 12 d on maize; 77% on grain sorghum, 80% on Johnson grass, 68% on Brachiaria and 83% on soybean within 14 d and 69% on artificial diet within 17 d. The host suitability to FAW decreases from maize to sorghum, soybean and Brachiaria. (author)

  1. Alternative Work Arrangements among Professionals and Managers: Rethinking Career Development and Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDermid, Shelley M.; Lee, Mary Dean; Buck, Michelle; Williams, Margaret L.

    2001-01-01

    A study of 78 women professionals/managers working reduced hours for family or personal reasons showed that less successful arrangements were associated with lack of upward mobility, underemployment, pressure to work full time, and difficult relations with co-workers. Career development was a concern for those in both more and less successful…

  2. Redox Abnormalities as a Vulnerability Phenotype for Autism and Related Alternations in CNS Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    current work is showing defects in sonic hedgehog signaling and interneuron development that resemble outcomes seen in ASDs (Marín, 2012). As for our...hormone receptors. Mol Endocrinol 17: 79-92 Penzes P, Cahill ME, Jones KA, VanLeeuwen JE, Woolfrey KM (2011) Dendritic spine pathology in

  3. Wind, Sun and Water: Complexities of Alternative Energy Development in Rural Northern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Thomas; Garwood, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on recent research with NGO-driven projects in rural Cajamarca, Peru, we examine the paradoxes of relying on wind, solar and micro-hydro generation of electricity for rural community development. In spite of cost, vagaries of these energy resources and limited material benefits, especially with wind and solar systems, villagers are eagerly…

  4. Selection and development of innovative design alternatives : Ethical, social and uncertainty issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, J.F.

    2015-01-01

    Innovative engineering design shapes the development of novel technologies and is ethically as well as socially relevant, because it affects what kind of possibilities and consequences will arise. A major challenge in engineering design work on innovative technologies is the multitude of

  5. Recent developments of discrete material optimization of laminated composite structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Erik; Sørensen, Rene

    2015-01-01

    This work will give a quick summary of recent developments of the Discrete Material Optimization approach for structural optimization of laminated composite structures. This approach can be seen as a multi-material topology optimization approach for selecting the best ply material and number...... of plies in a laminated composite structure. The conceptual combinatorial design problem is relaxed to a continuous problem such that well-established gradient based optimization techniques can be applied, and the optimization problem is solved on basis of interpolation schemes with penalization...

  6. FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT AND LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AN ALTERNATIVE FOR NEW FUNDING SOURCES OF THE LOCAL COMMUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Petru

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to answer mainly the questions: What are the consequences of the taxation base increase? What forms does the taxation base have? What can local authorities do in order to make certain areas attractive? Which are the specific players involved in the local economic development? Also, beyond the rigours imposed by the mathematical presentation of the sustainable economic development, we appreciate that for the financial management, too, knowing the gear determined by the allocation of public resources and generation of additional revenues will be very useful in establishing and underlying the decisions to invest in the public infrastructure and, also, to calculate the time period in which these can be depreciated especially based on the financial flows from supplementary revenues.

  7. Tourism: an alternative to development?: reconsidering farming, tourism and conservation incentives in Northwest Yunnan mountainous communities

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Mingyu; Hens, Luc; Ou, XiaoKun; De Wulf, Robert

    2009-01-01

    In the last decade, tourism has developed rapidly in the mountainous areas of northwest Yunnan. This growth has led to substantial economic and social changes, with resulting environmental consequences. This article uses a case study to illustrate how local farmers involved in tourism changed their agricultural practices as a result of the transformations that took place in the area. The aim was to examine tourism's expected benefits of poverty alleviation and conservation incentives. Tourism...

  8. Selection and development of innovative design alternatives: Ethical, social and uncertainty issues

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, J.F.

    2015-01-01

    Innovative engineering design shapes the development of novel technologies and is ethically as well as socially relevant, because it affects what kind of possibilities and consequences will arise. A major challenge in engineering design work on innovative technologies is the multitude of uncertainties in the form of known unknowns, unknown unknowns, complexities, and ambiguities. The evaluation and generation of design concepts are general and essential parts of the design process in which va...

  9. Investing in human and natural capital. An alternative paradigm for sustainable development in Awassa, Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, Travis W.; Farley, Joshua; Huber, Candice

    2010-01-01

    Ethiopia remains underdeveloped due to limitations in natural, human, social and built capital. A 2006 scientific atelier conducted in the city of Awassa, Ethiopia investigated investments in human and natural capital as a sustainable development strategy. Local stakeholders identified firewood shortages, degradation of croplands, rising lake levels encroaching on croplands and poor water quality as major impediments to development. They further identified ecological degradation as a key component of these problems, and they acknowledged multiple vicious cycles compounding the environmental and economic threats to the Awassa community. Proposed solutions included investment in natural capital in the form of reforestation activities, investment in human capital in the form of promoting more efficient wood stoves along with increasing public awareness of environmental threats, and investments in social capital in the form of inter-institutional coordination to address environmental problems. All recommended investments rely primarily on national resources, in distinct contrast to the extensive imports required for most built capital investments. Unfortunately, Awassa lacks the surplus necessary for major capital investments of any kind. The atelier therefore helped local participants identify potential funders and write grant proposals for various projects, though none have been funded so far. Reversing the ecological degradation on the scale necessary for sustained economic development in Ethiopia however will require a steady flow of substantial investments, and cannot rely solely on the short term generosity of funders. International payments for carbon sequestration and other ecosystem services could help provide the necessary resources. (author)

  10. Alternative designs for megavoltage machines for cancer treatment in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borras, C.; Svensson, H.; Hanson, G.P.

    1996-01-01

    In developing countries radiation therapy is often performed with antiquated cobalt-60 units, the radioactive sources of which are long decayed and, thus, treatments are ineffective. Furthermore the cost involved in the disposal of spent radionuclide sources discourages owners from proper removal and storage, and accidents occur. Although present design of microwave electron linear accelerators provide excellent beam characteristics, developing countries in many locations do not have the infrastructure to maintain such machines. After an analysis of the radiotherapy situation world-wide - especially from the viewpoint of maintenance - a consensus was reached on the radiotherapy equipment performance requirements. To meet these requirements, several accelerator designs were considered. Among the most promising new designs were the klystron/linac and the high frequency linear accelerator, the microtron in a radiation head, the high frequency betatron, also in a radiation accelerator, and DC accelerators. Possible treatment designs, including those of modular nature, were presented. Since it is estimated that by the year 2015, barring a dramatic and unforeseen cure for cancer, a total of 10,000 machines will be needed to provide treatment for an estimated 10 million new cases per year in developing countries, the impact of such high technology simple machine could be substantial in providing equity and quality for the management of cancer patients. 4 refs, 2 tabs

  11. The effects of antibiotics on the microbiome throughout development and alternative approaches for therapeutic modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, Amy; Crook, Nathan; Dantas, Gautam

    2016-04-13

    The widespread use of antibiotics in the past 80 years has saved millions of human lives, facilitated technological progress and killed incalculable numbers of microbes, both pathogenic and commensal. Human-associated microbes perform an array of important functions, and we are now just beginning to understand the ways in which antibiotics have reshaped their ecology and the functional consequences of these changes. Mounting evidence shows that antibiotics influence the function of the immune system, our ability to resist infection, and our capacity for processing food. Therefore, it is now more important than ever to revisit how we use antibiotics. This review summarizes current research on the short-term and long-term consequences of antibiotic use on the human microbiome, from early life to adulthood, and its effect on diseases such as malnutrition, obesity, diabetes, and Clostridium difficile infection. Motivated by the consequences of inappropriate antibiotic use, we explore recent progress in the development of antivirulence approaches for resisting infection while minimizing resistance to therapy. We close the article by discussing probiotics and fecal microbiota transplants, which promise to restore the microbiota after damage of the microbiome. Together, the results of studies in this field emphasize the importance of developing a mechanistic understanding of gut ecology to enable the development of new therapeutic strategies and to rationally limit the use of antibiotic compounds.

  12. Developing global citizenship online: an authentic alternative to overseas clinical placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Karen; Adamson, Elizabeth; McInally, Wendy; Tiittanen, Hannele; Metcalfe, Sharon

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents the findings of a pilot project to develop and evaluate an international nursing module delivered using a collaborative online platform between nursing programmes in Scotland, USA and Finland. The purpose of the project was to provide an authentic international nursing experience for nursing students, allowing them to explore and contrast the nursing and health care issues in an international context. The pilot cohort ran in September 2011 with a total of 22 students with a mix of students from both undergraduate and postgraduate programmes. A mixed methods research design was used to evaluate the students' experience using an anonymous online questionnaire and the collection of testimonials from students based on their experience. The results demonstrated high levels of satisfaction with the learning experience. Four key themes-learning together, widening horizons, developing autonomy and learning beyond frontiers-emerged from the qualitative data. Developing confidence from the shared learning experience has real implications for the global mobility of the nursing workforce as it helps to prepare nurses for a career beyond their own country's borders. The pilot module has clearly demonstrated that the use of Web 2.0 technology in the forms of a wiki may effectively be employed to provide an online learning environment to allow cross institutional learning. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The use of multicriteria decision making methods to find the environmental costs of hydropower development alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsen, A.J.; Wenstoep, F.

    1994-01-01

    The conference paper deals with a decision support system (DSS) developed to find the costs of environmental goods. The system is based on multicriteria decision making and uses pairwise comparisons of two and two criteria. The criteria weights are calculated with linear regression. When one criterion is monetary, all criteria weights can be expressed in monetary units when the weights are known. The DSS has been tested on a hydropower project in the area of Sauda in Norway. To represent the decision makers, three panels each consisting of three persons were formed. The persons were selected from governmental agencies, the developers, the local environmental administration and a local politician. The DSS worked well with the panels. One problem was that impacts of hydropower projects are very site specific and also hard to quantify. Therefore, a considerable amount of time was used in creating a cognitive understanding of the issues involved and how they were represented by quantitative criteria. Some had also difficulties in accepting the principle of expressing environmental goods in monetary units. The results so far are preliminary. This research work is part of the Norwegian research programme Energy, Environment and Development. 3 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Alternative designs for megavoltage machines for cancer treatment in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borras, C [Pan American Health Organization, Washington, DC (United States); Svensson, H [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Hanson, G P [World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1996-08-01

    In developing countries radiation therapy is often performed with antiquated cobalt-60 units, the radioactive sources of which are long decayed and, thus, treatments are ineffective. Furthermore the cost involved in the disposal of spent radionuclide sources discourages owners from proper removal and storage, and accidents occur. Although present design of microwave electron linear accelerators provide excellent beam characteristics, developing countries in many locations do not have the infrastructure to maintain such machines. After an analysis of the radiotherapy situation world-wide - especially from the viewpoint of maintenance - a consensus was reached on the radiotherapy equipment performance requirements. To meet these requirements, several accelerator designs were considered. Among the most promising new designs were the klystron/linac and the high frequency linear accelerator, the microtron in a radiation head, the high frequency betatron, also in a radiation accelerator, and DC accelerators. Possible treatment designs, including those of modular nature, were presented. Since it is estimated that by the year 2015, barring a dramatic and unforeseen cure for cancer, a total of 10,000 machines will be needed to provide treatment for an estimated 10 million new cases per year in developing countries, the impact of such high technology simple machine could be substantial in providing equity and quality for the management of cancer patients. 4 refs, 2 tabs.

  15. Investing in human and natural capital. An alternative paradigm for sustainable development in Awassa, Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, Travis W. [Evans School of Public Affairs, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, 98195 (United States); Farley, Joshua [Gund Institute for Ecological Economics and Department of Community Development and Applied Economics, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, 05405 (United States); Huber, Candice [UVM Agricultural Extension Service, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, 05405 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Ethiopia remains underdeveloped due to limitations in natural, human, social and built capital. A 2006 scientific atelier conducted in the city of Awassa, Ethiopia investigated investments in human and natural capital as a sustainable development strategy. Local stakeholders identified firewood shortages, degradation of croplands, rising lake levels encroaching on croplands and poor water quality as major impediments to development. They further identified ecological degradation as a key component of these problems, and they acknowledged multiple vicious cycles compounding the environmental and economic threats to the Awassa community. Proposed solutions included investment in natural capital in the form of reforestation activities, investment in human capital in the form of promoting more efficient wood stoves along with increasing public awareness of environmental threats, and investments in social capital in the form of inter-institutional coordination to address environmental problems. All recommended investments rely primarily on national resources, in distinct contrast to the extensive imports required for most built capital investments. Unfortunately, Awassa lacks the surplus necessary for major capital investments of any kind. The atelier therefore helped local participants identify potential funders and write grant proposals for various projects, though none have been funded so far. Reversing the ecological degradation on the scale necessary for sustained economic development in Ethiopia however will require a steady flow of substantial investments, and cannot rely solely on the short term generosity of funders. International payments for carbon sequestration and other ecosystem services could help provide the necessary resources. (author)

  16. Developing alternative oxidation processes for the treatment of organic radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turc, H.A.; Broudic, J.Ch.; Joussot-Dubien, Ch.

    2000-01-01

    An electro-generated silver (II) mediated oxidation process is currently under development in the Atalante facility of the French Atomic Energy Commission, as an operation of the DELOS unit, with the aim to mineralize α-contaminated solvents with respect to the principles of nuclear safety. This process is a wet oxidation one involving a powerful mediator (Ag(II)/Ag(I): 1.92 V/NHE), but its throughput is mainly limited by technological constraints. Hydrothermal oxidation (HTO) has been investigated and proved by inactive studies as to be a versatile and powerful process, which could help destroying the contaminated solvents (dodecane, TBP, TLA...) produced by the spent nuclear fuel reprocessing research and industry. The current development aims to set up a continuous HTO pilot in a standard glovebox, in order to solve both technological and safety difficulties and to treat small volumes of contaminated solvents. This paper discusses the main results of the silver(II) oxidation and HTO process development works. (authors)

  17. Crowdsourcing: An Alternative for the Dynamic Development of Entrepreneurship in the Romanian Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Popescu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Developing entrepreneurship is not only a challenge but also a natural consequence of the approach towards success. Entrepreneurship sustainability is conditioned by how the national business environment influences the education and mentality of the population to have the desire and courage to initiate and develop performance measures in a changing business environment more and more fluctuating and unpredictable. Our research, conducted over nearly two years aims, as main objective, to outline how implementing crowdsourcing as a way of solving, online, some problems regarding activities of major interests at organizational level (in our case, external communication, may contribute to the development of entrepreneurship in Romanian tourism. In this regard, we assumed that, despite the empirical mode of action (of priority being intuition and personal experience, only having reliable information on the perception, primarily, of their customers about the quality of the benefits they received, entrepreneurs in the tourism and hospitality industry will be able to adapt and/or develop their businesses in accordance with the main trends and characteristics of the environment in which they operate. The methodology used (analysis of variance - ANOVA correlated with SPSS for Windows, version 15 to test research hypotheses was the logical consequence of the questions used in questionnaires launched on two websites specially created. In this context, we investigated the biunivocal relationship between the phenomenon of entrepreneurship and business tourism and hospitality industry from the perspective of external organizational communication trends of profile units in the digital age, trends expressed by both managers and also by their customers. Finally, based on hypotheses testing, we found that, in a world of rapidly changing, boosting entrepreneurship became dependent on both the accuracy of the image the managers of tourism units have about their own

  18. Geopressured-geothermal energy development: government incentives and institutional structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick, D.O.; Prestwood, D.C.L.; Roberts, K.; Vanston, J.H. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The following subjects are included: a geothermal resource overview, the evolution of the current Texas geopressured-geothermal institutional structure, project evaluation with uncertainty and the structure of incentives, the natural gas industry, the electric utility industry, potential governmental participants in resource development, industrial users of thermal energy, current government incentives bearing on geopressured-geothermal development, six profiles for utilization of the geopressured-geothermal resources in the mid-term, and probable impacts of new government incentives on mid-term resource utilization profiles. (MHR)

  19. Energy alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweet, C.

    1987-01-01

    The designated successor to fossil fuels is nuclear fission/fusion and that turns out to be problematic. Alternative Energy Systems have great potential but political forces seem to be hampering their development and introduction. The technologies are flexible in their use and scale of operation. The learning curve will not be short but neither will it be as long and as costly as nuclear power. It is time that this is recognised and some serious rethinking takes place in what presently passes for energy policies both in the industrialised countries and in the Third World. Alternative energy systems are defined and some of them which are relevant to the United Kingdom are discussed. (author)

  20. Biomass Development in SRI Field Under Unmaintained Alternate Wetting-Drying Irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardiansyah; Chusnul, A.; Krissandi, W.; Asna, M.

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this research is to observe biomass development of SRI on farmers practice in three plots with different level. This research observes the farmer practice of SRI and Non-SRI during the uncertainty of irrigation water supply and its effects on paddy biomass development during growth stages and final stage of crop. A farmer group that already understand the principle of SRI, applied this method into several plots of their rented paddy field. Researcher interventions were eliminated from their action, so it is purely on farmers decision on managing their SRI plots. Three plots from both SRI and Non-SRI were chosen based on the position of the plot related their access to water. First plots had direct access to water from tertiary irrigation channel (on farm). Second plots were received water from previous upper plots and drainage water into other plots. Third plots were in the bottom position, where they received water from upper plot, and drainage water into farm drainage channel. Result shows there are similar patterns of root, straw, and leaves of biomass during crop growth. On the other hand, during generative phase, grain development shows different pattern and resulting different biomass in harvest time. Second plot, (of SRI) that has water from first plot has the average of biomass grain per plant of 54.4, higher than first plot and third plot, which are 33.8 g and 38.4. Average biomass in second plot is 74.6 g, higher than first and third plot, which are 49.9 g and 52.3 g.

  1. Pro-socially shareable entertainment television programmes: a programming alternative in developing countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, A; Svenkerud, P J

    1994-12-01

    Over the period 1975-82, the Mexican television network created and aired seven entertainment soap operas promoting educational-development themes like adult literacy, smaller family size norms, and an higher social status for women. These emissions earned high ratings in Mexico and in other Latin American countries where they were subsequently broadcast. Evidence suggests that many of the social objectives of the soaps were met. In light of such success, the authors investigated the potential of pro-socially shareable entertainment television programs in developing countries. These programs use entertaining media formats to carry pro-social messages to a wide, yet culturally-proximate audience group. Entertainment television genres such as melodramatic soap operas offer certain advantages for carrying pro-socially shareable messages to audiences. The possibility of using other television genres and media channels, however, also needs to be seriously considered. Pro-socially shareable entertainment programs do have their limitations and problems, with a certain degree of message dilution invariably accompanying the quest for shareability. Targeting specific problems in specific audience groups is difficult and the identity of a relatively small homogeneous group can be threatened in a larger culturally proximate group. The value-laden nature of pro-social content can also be problematic.

  2. ESTIMATING MORAL DEVELOPMENT IN A SAMPLE OF ALTERNATIVE FORMULAS OF PRISON SENTENCED BENEFICIARIES FROM WEST VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS ENRIQUE ZERPA

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The level of moral development in a sampled of convicts from West Venezuela is presented. The studywas carried out by means of Defining Issues Test (DIT evaluation. The sample includes 50 persons between19 and 55 years old (M = 34,33 y DT = 8,76, out of them 39 were males (average age 33,74,DT=8,24 an 11 were females (average age 35,91, DT=10,67. All of them were beneficiaries of alternativesformulas of their respective sentences such as social work, parole or conditional suspension ofsentences and following the corresponding process or rehabilitation out of prisons. This sample registereda moral principles index of 19,67 and a non-relevant answers index of 12,07 as well as fourthmoral developmental stage of 41,3 which are unusually high. The results suggest that there is not astatistically significant difference in the pattern of moral development depending on sex, age, or institutionfor sentenced fulfillment. However, the unusual high pattern of answers and the inverse correspondence between the duration of sentences and the resulting level of moral principles suggest that thesample behaves in a way, which is different from what is expected in no-out-law samples. Findings andimplications are discused.

  3. Research and Development for an Alternative RF Source Using Magnetrons in CEBAF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    At Jefferson Lab, klystrons are currently used as a radiofrequency (RF) power source for the 1497 MHz Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) Continuous Wave (CW) system. A drop-in replacement for the klystrons in the form of a system of magnetrons is being developed. The klystron DC-RF efficiency at CEBAF is 35-51% while the estimated magnetron efficiency is 80-90%. Thus, the introduction of magnetrons to CEBAF will have enormous benefits in terms of electrical power saving. The primary focus of this project was to characterize a magnetron's frequency pushing and pulling curves at 2.45 GHz with stub tuner and anode current adjustments so that a Low Level RF controller for a new 1.497 GHz magnetron can be built. A Virtual Instrument was created in LabVIEW, and data was taken. The resulting data allowed for the creation of many constant lines of frequency and output power. Additionally, the results provided a characterization of magnetron oven temperature drift over the operation time and the relationship between anode current and frequency. Using these results, the control model of different variables and their feedback or feedforward that affect the frequency pushing and pulling of the magnetron is better developed. Department of Energy, Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internships, and Jefferson Lab.

  4. Development Of Functional Foods Sea Weeds Algae Untouched Potential And Alternative Resource - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habtamu Admassu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food by Hippocrates was obscured with the advent of modern drug therapy and nutrition science until to twentieth century. The combination of consumer desires advances in food technology and new evidence-based correlation between nutrition to disease and disease prevention has created an unprecedented opportunity to concentrate on public health issues through diet and lifestyle. There is widespread interest these days to make a choice of functional foods from natural products that might promote health through specific bio-active compounds. Considering the diversity of biochemicals and capable of exerting functional bioactivities a growing trend is developing across globe to use seaweeds in functional food development. Compounds isolated from seaweeds have various functional biological activities antibacterial activity antioxidant potential anti-inflammatory properties anti-e coagulant activity anti-viral activity and antifungal and apoptotic activity. Therefore this review focuses on several bioactive chemicals in seaweeds and their biological activities for which they are responsible as a functional food ingredient.

  5. Materials development for alternative rotor designs for improved fossil-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarlin, R.B.; Bertilsson, J.E.; Ernst, P.; Uggowitzer, P.J.; Speidel, M.O.

    1987-01-01

    At present developments are underway aimed at an improvement of the operating efficiency of steam turbines by an increase in the operating temperature and pressure. As a result certain critical components such as the high-pressure and intermediate-pressure rotors will be subject to higher levels of creep loading. In order to avoid the use of expensive austenitic materials with their inferior thermal fatigue properties, improved ferritic steels with 9-12% Chromium are required. The present paper considers development work on 9-12% Cr steels being performed worldwide. In particular European activities focused on boron-containing steels are highlighted. Steels with up to 100 ppm boron, now under long-term creep rupture testing, will exceed the design goal of a 10/sup 5/ hour creep rupture strength of 100 MPa at 600 0 C (-- 1100 0 F). The optimization of the steels included not only alloy composition but also austenitizing and tempering heat treatment. Weldability tests using the tungsten inert gas technique have shown positive results. Long-term testing to validate this design approach is underway

  6. The effect of cojugate energy consumptions on comparative efficiency of alternatives of the development of nuclear power engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubnov, V.P.; Bykov, A.I.; Egorushkin, S.V.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of control of conjugate energy consumptions on comparative efficiency of alternatives of the development of nuclear power engineering, including NPPs with thermal and fast reactors has been calculated. Economical-mathematical models of the system of nuclear power engineering including the subsystems of fuel utilization, fuel supply and conjugate industries, have been used. It has been shown, that with allowance for conjugate energy consumptions, the economic characteristics of nuclear power engineering sharply degradate when it develops only on the basis of thermal reactors. Putting the fast reactors into the system of nuclear power engineering has an important effect on reduction of conjugate energy consumptions and favors the increase of the efficiency of the system functioning during the considered time interval (60 years). Positive effects from putting breeders into operation become appreciable only on the latest estimated time intervals

  7. Alternative institutional arrangements for developing and commercializing breeder reactor technology. Final report 15 Nov 1975--31 Mar 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.L.; Merrow, E.W.; Baer, W.S.; Alexander, A.J.

    1976-11-01

    In light of large costs, potential benefits, and uncertainties surrounding breeder development, many questions need to be addressed concerning the roles of government, equipment vendors, and electric power utilities in financing, owning, and managing breeder development. The study assesses nine institutional arrangements, ranging from those with heavy private sector initiative to complete government ownership and control. These arrangements are evaluated in terms of: the degree of clearly defined centralized management control that would be afforded; the effectiveness of cost control; the strength of the vendor-utility interface; the value of information produced for subsequent commercialization; the ease of financing; the prospects for risk-sharing; and overall plausibility. Some time-slippage at this stage in order to ensure strong private sector involvement might well accelerate commercialization in the longer run. The alternative is a government-directed program that might proceed faster in the next decade but subsequently encounter more barriers to commercial adoption

  8. Confine Clay in an Alternating Multilayered Structure through Injection Molding: A Simple and Efficient Route to Improve Barrier Performance of Polymeric Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Feilong; Deng, Hua; Bai, Hongwei; Zhang, Qin; Wang, Ke; Chen, Feng; Fu, Qiang

    2015-05-20

    Various methods have been devoted to trigger the formation of multilayered structure for wide range of applications. These methods are often complicated with low production efficiency or require complex equipment. Herein, we demonstrate a simple and efficient method for the fabrication of polymeric sheets containing multilayered structure with enhanced barrier property through high speed thin-wall injection molding (HSIM). To achieve this, montmorillonite (MMT) is added into PE first, then blended with PP to fabricate PE-MMT/PP ternary composites. It is demonstrated that alternating multilayer structure could be obtained in the ternary composites because of low interfacial tension and good viscosity match between different polymer components. MMT is selectively dispersed in PE phase with partial exfoliated/partial intercalated microstructure. 2D-WAXD analysis indicates that the clay tactoids in PE-MMT/PP exhibits an uniplanar-axial orientation with their surface parallel to the molded part surface, while the tactoids in binary PE-MMT composites with the same overall MMT contents illustrate less orientation. The enhanced orientation of nanoclay in PE-MMT/PP could be attributed to the confinement of alternating multilayer structure, which prohibits the tumbling and rotation of nanoplatelets. Therefore, the oxygen barrier property of PE-MMT/PP is superior to that of PE-MMT because of increased gas permeation pathway. Comparing with the results obtained for PE based composites in literature, outstanding barrier property performance (45.7% and 58.2% improvement with 1.5 and 2.5 wt % MMT content, respectively) is achieved in current study. Two issues are considered responsible for such improvement: enhanced MMT orientation caused by the confinement in layered structure, and higher local density of MMT in layered structure induced denser assembly. Finally, enhancement in barrier property by confining impermeable filler into alternating multilayer structure through such

  9. Tourism – an alternative solution for the sustainable development in Petrosani depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Alexandrescu

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available For centuries on end, the Petroşani Depression, – one of the very few in the Southern Carpathians – has been a vast pastureland that helped the development of pastoral life. But, the discovery and exploitation of rich brown coal and pit coal made a lot of people from the neighbouring areas, and from longer distances even, come to work here. Consequently, the basic occupation of the population suffered a significant change. In the past few decades, coal being intensively mined and industrial units being built, urbanization got momentum. Today, the Petroşani Depression is one of the highest urbanized areas in this country. Obviously, there is anthropic pressure, too, but the process is kept under control, fact that has enabled a better organization of the geographical space.

  10. Development and Performance of Alternative Electricity Sector Pathways Subject to Multiple Climate and Water Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newmark, R. L.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Miara, A.; Cohen, S.; Macknick, J.; Sun, Y.; Corsi, F.; Fekete, B. M.; Tidwell, V. C.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change impacts on air temperatures and water availability have the potential to alter future electricity sector investment decisions as well as the reliability and performance of the power sector. Different electricity sector configurations are more or less vulnerable to climate-induced changes. For example, once-through cooled thermal facilities are the most cost-effective and efficient technologies under cooler and wetter conditions, but can be substantially affected by and vulnerable to warmer and drier conditions. Non-thermal renewable technologies, such as PV and wind, are essentially "drought-proof" but have other integration and reliability challenges. Prior efforts have explored the impacts of climate change on electric sector development for a limited set of climate and electricity scenarios. Here, we provide a comprehensive suite of scenarios that evaluate how different electricity sector pathways could be affected by a range of climate and water resource conditions. We use four representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios under five global circulation models (GCM) as climate drivers to a Water Balance Model (WBM), to provide twenty separate future climate-water conditions. These climate-water conditions influence electricity sector development from present day to 2050 as determined using the Regional Energy Deployment Systems (ReEDS) model. Four unique electricity sector pathways will be considered, including business-as-usual, carbon cap, high renewable energy technology costs, and coal reliance scenarios. The combination of climate-water and electricity sector pathway scenarios leads to 80 potential future cases resulting in different national and regional electricity infrastructure configurations. The vulnerability of these configurations in relation to climate change (including in-stream thermal pollution impacts and environmental regulations) is evaluated using the Thermoelectric Power and Thermal Pollution (TP2M) model, providing

  11. Alternative vision or utopian fantasy? Cooperation, empowerment and women's cooperative development in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayoux, L

    1995-01-01

    The discussion addresses the costs and benefits of working in cooperatives in India, imposed participation, methods for increasing incomes, preconceived models, the importance of meeting the actual needs of women, and participatory options. This author evaluated 10 producer cooperatives in West Bengal, Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu during 1984-92. It is argued that more discussion is needed on how ideals of cooperation and empowerment of women can occur simultaneous with the context in which cooperatives must operate. The ten study cooperatives were all officially registered cooperatives. Cooperatives varied in size, organizational structure, and forms of support. Four were determined to be successful in economic and participatory terms. Three were successful because of the efforts of the women themselves. All three cases were based on earning goals that were higher than the women could have achieved on their own. Six failed in terms of participatory decision making and cooperative operations. Lack of sufficient support and/or excessive bureaucratic red tape were involved in the six failures, but to varying degrees. Type of support and means of implementation were important in the six failures. All women used cooperatives as a means of increasing income. Participation rules were imposed by outside agencies. Women were given "cooperative" training. Disputes occurred because women selected to power positions were powerful leaders outside the cooperative. Consensus was difficult to reach. There were conflicts of interest between different departments. Quality control was made difficult by women's inability to provide discipline. Personal conflicts from outside were carried on within the cooperative. Incomes could be improved by training women in local marketing and networking, insuring adequate resources and capital, and providing savings schemes. Gender inequalities were a key factor limiting income for women, but cooperatives did not address this issue. Gains for women

  12. Financial structure, financial development and banking fragility: International evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Porras, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    We study the effects of financial structure and financial development on banking fragility. We develop our study by using fixed-effects panel-data regressions and by controlling the effects of certain banking indicators. We use individual and principal-components indicators of the activity, size and efficiency of intermediaries and markets. The indicators include data for 211 countries between 1990 and 2003. Our main findings suggest that banking stability is enhanced in market-based financia...

  13. Development of a remote inspection robot for high pressure structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae C.; Kim, Jae H.; Choi, Yu R.; Moon, Soon S

    1999-10-01

    The high pressure structures in industrial plants must be periodically inspected for ensure their safety. Currently, the examination of them is manually performed by human inspectors, and there are many restrictions to examine the large containers which enclose dangerous chemicals or radioactive materials. We developed a remotely operated robot to examine these structures using recent mobile robot and computer technologies. Our robot has two magnetic caterpillars that make the robot can adhere to the structures made of steel like materials. The robot moves to the position for examination, and scans that position using ultrasonic probes equipped on it's arm, and transmits the result to the inspector according to his/her commands. Without building any auxiliary structures the robot can inspect the places where manual inspection can't reach. Therefore the robot can make shortening the inspection time as well as preventing the inspector from an accident. (author)

  14. Influence of ownership capital structure of Refinery's operation and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadzhi-Mishev, Dimitar

    1999-01-01

    Refineries are part of the energetic infrastructure of one country. Their significance is dependent on the geographic country position (whether it has sea exit or not), and on structure of primary energy spends in the country. According these facts, country's attitude to the refineries on its territory could be different. The possibility of ownership structure transformation in refineries and necessary legislation in the energetic sector of the state, needed for transformation realization are analyzed in this paper. Essential conditions for transformation fulfilling are protection 'mechanisms for domestic production in crude oil economy, manners of crude oil products price defining, and manners of excise determination and payment. As a function of these conditions, the conditions under which transformation of ownership structure in refineries is possible, as well as their influence on the operation and development of this part of energetic structure in transition country are defined in this paper. (Original)

  15. Development of a remote inspection robot for high pressure structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae C.; Kim, Jae H.; Choi, Yu R.; Moon, Soon S.

    1999-10-01

    The high pressure structures in industrial plants must be periodically inspected for ensure their safety. Currently, the examination of them is manually performed by human inspectors, and there are many restrictions to examine the large containers which enclose dangerous chemicals or radioactive materials. We developed a remotely operated robot to examine these structures using recent mobile robot and computer technologies. Our robot has two magnetic caterpillars that make the robot can adhere to the structures made of steel like materials. The robot moves to the position for examination, and scans that position using ultrasonic probes equipped on it's arm, and transmits the result to the inspector according to his/her commands. Without building any auxiliary structures the robot can inspect the places where manual inspection can't reach. Therefore the robot can make shortening the inspection time as well as preventing the inspector from an accident. (author)

  16. Development of Mechanical Structure Design Technology for LMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Han; Joo, Young Sang; Lee, Hyeong Yeon

    2007-03-01

    Structural integrity and design simplifications were secured on reactor core support system, upper internal structure and core catcher of KALIMER-600. The evaluation on the suitability of high temperature and seismic design of reactor structures, and the structural integrity evaluation on reactor components and high temperature pipings are performed. The interfaces between the components and ISI accessibility are checked. Lightening of reactor building by 7%, the seismic design for 0.3g seismic loads and improvement of reactor structural design concept for KALIMER-600 have been carried out. Remote inspection technique using ultrasonic wave guide sensor was acquired as a visualization method for reactor internals under opaque sodium environments. The basic guideline on high temperature structure assessment as an assessment procedure on high temperature inelastic behaviour has been completed. In high temperature creep-fatigue test, totally 500 cycles (totally 700 hold time) were carried on cylindrical test and IHTS co-axial pipe test models. The behaviors of creep-fatigue damage and creep-fatigue crack behaviour were investigated, and the DB on the structural test were established. The seismic response tests on 19-sub assembly validation test model in air and in water were carried out, and its multi-purpose characteristics and reliability on the SAC-CORE3.0 code developed for core seismic response analysis were validated

  17. Autoclaved Tumor Bone for Skeletal Reconstruction in Paediatric Patients: A Low Cost Alternative in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Umer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed in this series forty patients of pediatric age who underwent resection for malignant tumors of musculoskeletal system followed by biological reconstruction. Our surgical procedure for reconstruction included (1 wide en bloc resection of the tumor; (2 curettage of tumor from the resected bone; (3 autoclaving for 8 minutes (4 bone grafting from the fibula (both vascularized and nonvascularized fibular grafts used; (5 reimplantation of the autoclaved bone into the host bone defect and fixation with plates. Functional evaluation was done using MSTS scoring system. At final followup of at least 18 months (mean 29.2 months, 31 patients had recovered without any complications. Thirty-eight patients successfully achieved a solid bony union between the graft and recipient bone. Three patients had surgical site infection. They were managed with wound debridement and flap coverage of the defect. Local recurrence and nonunion occurred in two patients each. One patient underwent disarticulation at hip due to extensive local disease and one died of metastasis. For patients with non-union, revision procedure with bone graft and compression plates was successfully used. The use of autoclaved tumor grafts provides a limb salvage option that is inexpensive and independent of external resources and is a viable option for musculoskeletal tumor management in developing countries.

  18. ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION IN ISLAMIC FINANCE:RECENT DEVELOPMENT IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasri Jamal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available On 31stMarch 2009, Court of Appeal has revoked the decision made by HighCourt to announce that the contract of Bay BithamanAjil is null and void in thecase ofArab-Malaysia v Taman Ihsan Jaya Sdn. Bhd. Onor[2008] 5 MLJ 631.Interestingly, the judgement made by Appeal Court has touched the basicelements of Islamic law especially the fundamentalissues of BBA such as sell andbuy contract, acceptance of difference views of school of laws in Islam and otherbasic issues ofShari’ahprinciples. This subject matter ofShari’ahprinciplesshould be decided by theShari’ahjudges who are more expert in Islamic law thanthe civil court. At the same year, the Government of Malaysia has passed the Central Bank ofMalaysia Act 2009 (Act 701 that provided the courtshall refer to the Shari’ahAdvisory Council or arbitrator before giving any judgment on Islamic Financedispute. This paper is looking into recent development of legal framework ofIslamic Financial System in Malaysia and also the jurisdiction of Shari’ah Courtpertaining that matters.

  19. Performance and suggested alternative strategies in developing Indonesian cocoa export business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Dradjat

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Black pod rot disease (BPRD which is caused by Phytophthora palmivora is one of the main diseases of cocoa cultivations particularly in plantations with wet climate. Black pod rot can develop rapidly under high humidity environments, particularly during rainy seasons. This disease can cause loss of harvest of up to 46.63% in East Java. The various control efforts attempted so far have not resulted in significant improvements. Urea, in addition to functioning as fertilizer, can also produce the ammonia gas which is believed to be able to suppress black pod rot. This research aims to determine the effectiveness of black pod rot control using the combination of lime and urea. This research was conducted from June to September 2013. The materials used in test included sterile soil, black pod rot infected cocoa, urea, and agricultural lime. Observation results showed that ammonia could form from urea. Lime can increase the speed of the formation. The ammonia gas forming from 0.06% urea and 0.3% lime can control the P. palmivora fungus inside the soil. Key words: Pod rot, P. palmivora, urea, lime, ammonia

  20. Electroacoustic polymer microchip as an alternative to quartz crystal microbalance for biosensor development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamby, Jean; Lazerges, Mathieu; Girault, Hubert H; Deslouis, Claude; Gabrielli, Claude; Perrot, Hubert; Tribollet, Bernard

    2008-12-01

    Laser photoablation of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), a flexible dielectric organic polymer, was used to design an acoustic miniaturized DNA biosensor. The microchip device includes a 100-microm-thick PET layer, with two microband electrodes patterned in photoablated microchannels on one side and a depressed photoablated disk decorated by gold sputtered layer on the other side. Upon application of an electric signal between the two electrodes, an electroacoustic resonance phenomenon at approximately 30 MHz was established through the microelectrodes/PET/ gold layer interface. The electroacoustic resonance response was fitted with a series RLC motional arm in parallel with a static Co arm of a Buttlerworth-Van Dyke equivalent circuit: admittance spectra recorded after successive cycles of DNA hybridization on the gold surface showed reproducible changes on R, L, and C parameters. The same hybridizations runs were performed concomitantly on a 27-MHz (9 MHz, third overtone) quartz crystal microbalance in order to validate the PET device developed for bioanalysis applications. The electroacoustic PET device, approximately 100 times smaller than a microbalance quartz crystal, is interesting for the large-scale integration of acoustic sensors in biochips.

  1. Research and Development of Rapid Design Systems for Aerospace Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Harry G.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the results of research activities associated with the development of rapid design systems for aerospace structures in support of the Intelligent Synthesis Environment (ISE). The specific subsystems investigated were the interface between model assembly and analysis; and, the high performance NASA GPS equation solver software system in the Windows NT environment on low cost high-performance PCs.

  2. Development of strongly coupled FSI technology involving thin walled structures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Suliman, Ridhwaan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A strongly coupled finite volume-finite element fluid-structure interaction (FSI) scheme is developed. Both an edge-based finite volume and Galerkin finite element scheme are implemented and evaluated for modelling the mechanics of solids...

  3. Structure and development of the saccular sensory epithelium in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Structure and development of the saccular sensory epithelium in relation to otolith growth in the perch Perca fluviatilis (Telostei) ... Electron microscopy indicated: 1) The apical surface of each hair cell is covered with a ciliary bundle which varies in length in different epithelial regions. Each bundle is formed from a long ...

  4. Prefabricated elements and structures: Developments, tests and experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goltermann, Per

    2014-01-01

    Danish concrete structures are often built with prefabricated elements, joined together on the site and this provides a large challenge to constantly improve and optimize the elements, the joints and the models. DTU Byg has been active in the development, testing and modelling of new elements...

  5. Horticultural marketing channels in Kenya : structure and development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, T.

    1997-01-01

    This study analyses the structure and development of horticultural marketing channels in Kenya. It is based primarily on a farm survey among some 500 farmers in Nyandarua, Kisii and Taita Taveta Districts and a trade survey of about 750 horticultural traders in 18 different market places.

  6. Compositional effects on the development of damage structures in accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, T.M.

    A study of the development of dislocation structures in charged particle irradiated austenitic alloys has shown that the effects of irradiation and materials variables may be apparent at doses of the order approximately 1 dpa. Irradiation of identical specimens to much higher doses indicates that low and high dose behaviour are closely related

  7. Alternative additives; Alternative additiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-08-15

    In this project a number of industrial and agricultural waste products have been characterised and evaluated in terms of alkali-getter performance. The intended use is for biomass-fired power stations aiming at reducing corrosion or slagging related problems. The following products have been obtained, characterised and evaluated: 1) Brewery draff 2) Danish de-gassed manure 3) Paper sludge 4) Moulding sand 5) Spent bleaching earth 6) Anorthosite 7) Sand 8) Clay-sludge. Most of the above alternative additive candidates are deemed unsuitable due to insufficient chemical effect and/or expensive requirements for pre-treatment (such as drying and transportation). 3 products were selected for full-scale testing: de-gassed manure, spent bleaching earth and clay slugde. The full scale tests were undertaken at the biomass-fired power stations in Koege, Slagelse and Ensted. Spent bleaching earth (SBE) and clay sludge were the only tested additive candidates that had a proven ability to react with KCl, to thereby reduce Cl-concentrations in deposits, and reduce the deposit flux to superheater tubes. Their performance was shown to nearly as good as commercial additives. De-gassed manure, however, did not evaluate positively due to inhibiting effects of Ca in the manure. Furthermore, de-gassed manure has a high concentration of heavy metals, which imposes a financial burden with regard to proper disposal of the ash by-products. Clay-sludge is a wet clay slurring, and drying and transportation of this product entails substantial costs. Spent bleaching does not require much pre-treatment and is therefore the most promising alternative additive. On the other hand, bleaching earth contains residual plant oil which means that a range of legislation relating to waste combustion comes into play. Not least a waste combustion fee of 330 DKK/tonne. For all alternative (and commercial) additives disposal costs of the increase ash by-products represents a significant cost. This is

  8. Detection of preferential particle orientation in the atmosphere: Development of an alternative polarization lidar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geier, Manfred; Arienti, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Increasing interest in polarimetric characterization of atmospheric aerosols has led to the development of complete sample-measuring (Mueller) polarimeters that are capable of measuring the entire backscattering phase matrix of a probed volume. These Mueller polarimeters consist of several moving parts, which limit measurement rates and complicate data analysis. In this paper, we present the concept of a less complex polarization lidar setup for detection of preferential orientation of atmospheric particulates. On the basis of theoretical considerations of data inversion stability and propagation of measurement uncertainties, an optimum optical configuration is established for two modes of operation (with either a linear or a circular polarized incident laser beam). The conceptualized setup falls in the category of incomplete sample-measuring polarimeters and uses four detection channels for simultaneous measurement of the backscattered light. The expected performance characteristics are discussed through an example of a typical aerosol with a small fraction of particles oriented in a preferred direction. The theoretical analysis suggests that achievable accuracies in backscatter cross-sections and depolarization ratios are similar to those with conventional two-channel configurations, while in addition preferential orientation can be detected with the proposed four-channel system for a wide range of conditions. - Highlights: • A theoretical study of a new four-channel lidar concept is offered. • Preferential particle orientation detection could be realized with minor device modifications. • The proposed configuration is optimized to balance inversion uncertainties. • Circular polarized beam is demonstrated to provide the best noise performance. • Operation with ultra-short pulses is proposed to quantify particle number density

  9. Development of alternative methods for the determination of raloxifene hydrochloride in tablet dosage form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Rodrigues Salazar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Three methods are proposed for the quantitative determination of raloxifene hydrochloride in pharmaceutical dosage form: ultraviolet method (UV high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and micellar capillary electrophoresis (MEKC. These methods were developed and validated and showed good linearity, precision and accuracy. Also they demonstrated to be specific and robust. The HPLC and MEKC methods were tested in regards to be stability indicating methods and they showed to have this attribute. The UV method used methanol as solvent and optimal wavelength at 284 nm, obeying Lambert-Beer law in these conditions. The chromatographic conditions for the HPLC method included: NST column C18 (250 x 4.6 mm x 5 µm, mobile phase water:acetonitrile:triethylamine (67:33:0,3 v/v, pH 3.5, flow rate 1.0 mL min-1, injection volume 20.0 µl, UV detection 287 nm and analysis temperature 30 °C. The MEKC method was performed on a fused-silica capillary (40 cm effective length x 50 µm i.d. using as background electrolyte 35.0 mmol L-1 borate buffer and 50.0 mmol L-1 anionic detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS at pH 8.8. The capillary temperature was 32°C, applied voltage 25 kV, UV detection at 280 nm and injection was perfomed at 45 mBar for 4 s, hydrodimanic mode. In this MEKC method, potassium diclofenac (200.0 µg mL-1 was used as internal standard. All these methods were statistically analyzed and demonstrated to be equivalent for quantitative analysis of RLX in tablets and were successfully applied for the determination of the drug.

  10. Progress on the Development of (n,γ)99Mo/99mTc generator, an Alternative of Conventional Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jun Sig; Choi, Seung Rag; Nam, Seong Su; Park, Ul Jae; Son, Kwang Jae; Choi, Kang Hyuk; Choi, Sun Ju

    2010-01-01

    Even though different types of generators have been developed to extract 99m Tc, most of the generators uses 99 Mo from the fission products as the mother radionuclide of 99m Tc. Recently, the crisis of 99 Mo production becomes one of the international issues as 99m Tc is a dominant diagnostic radionuclide. The shortage of 99m Tc has been predicted in the society for more than 10 years. However, actions to prevent such crisis were slow as the initial investment to construct a new research reactor for the production of 99 Mo is high. Currently, it is expected the shortage of 99m Tc will last at least for more than 5 years. As an alternative to minimize such crisis, a new approach is proposed and studied. In this approach, the mother source of 99m Tc comes not from fission products but from the neutron irradiation of molybdenum oxide. Hence, most of the research reactors, which do not have capability to produce fission molybdenum, (n,f) 99 Mo can produce 99 Mo. The key issue in this approach is the uptake capacity of the generator column for (n, γ) 99 Mo, which has extremely low specific activity compared to (n,f) 99 Mo. Currently, the results from the research activities at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute have shown such approach has enough potential as an alternative of the conventional generator. Hence, the progress of the research is reported in this paper

  11. Development of moving alternating magnetic filter using permanent magnet for removal of radioactive corrosion product from nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, M. C.; Kim, S. I.; Lee, K. J.

    2002-01-01

    Radioactive Corrosion Products (CRUD) which are generated by the neutron activation of general corrosion products at the nuclear power plant are the major source of occupational radiation exposure. Most of the CRUD has a characteristic of showing strong ferrimagnetisms. Along with the new development and production of permanent magnet (rare earth magnet) which generates much stronger magnetic field than the conventional magnet, new type of magnetic filter that can separate CRUD efficiently and eventually reduce radiation exposure of personnel at nuclear power plant is suggested. This separator consists of inner and outer magnet assemblies, coolant channel and container surrounding the outer magnet assembly. The rotational motion of the inner and outer permanent magnet assemblies surrounding the coolant channel by driving motor system produces moving alternating magnetic fields in the coolant channel. The CRUD can be separated from the coolant by the moving alternating magnetic field. This study describes the results of preliminary experiment performed with the different flow rates of coolant and rotation velocities of magnet assemblies. This new magnetic filter shows better performance results of filtering the magnetite at coolant (water). Flow rates, rotating velocities of magnet assemblies and particle sizes turn out to be very important design parameters

  12. What if the number of nanotoxicity data is too small for developing predictive Nano-QSAR models? An alternative read-across based approach for filling data gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewicz, Agnieszka

    2017-06-22

    Over the past decade, computational nanotoxicology, in particular Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship models (Nano-QSAR) that help in assessing the biological effects of nanomaterials, have received much attention. In effect, a solid basis for uncovering the relationships between the structure and property/activity of nanoparticles has been created. Nonetheless, six years after the first pioneering computational studies focusing on the investigation of nanotoxicity were commenced, these computational methods still suffer from many limitations. These are mainly related to the paucity of widely available, systematically varied, libraries of experimental data necessary for the development and validation of such models. This results in the still-low acceptance of these methods as valuable research tools for nanosafety and raises the query as to whether these methods could gain wide acceptance of regulatory bodies as alternatives for traditional in vitro methods. This study aimed to give an answer to the following question: How to remedy the paucity of experimental nanotoxicity data and thereby, overcome key roadblock that hinders the development of approaches for data-driven modeling of nanoparticle properties and toxicities? Here, a simple and transparent read-across algorithm for a pre-screening hazard assessment of nanomaterials that provides reasonably accurate results by making the best use of existing limited set of observations will be introduced.

  13. Development of SC structure modularization in Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mun, Taeyoup [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-04-15

    New Focus on NPP are Rising Concerns on Global Warming, Potential energy crisis (geo-political), Improved reliability and safety of nuclear power plant, Advent of Generation 3+ NPP technology and Economical Energy Resource. New NPPs are 6 units in Korea and 23 in Asia being built, 32 units being planned in China by 2020 (150 by 2050), 10 units being planned in US by 2020 and IAEA expects $200 billions on NPP construction next 25 years (up to 30% of total world energy). {open_square} SC(Steel Plate Concrete) structure {center_dot} Steel Plate is used as a Structural Element instead of Reinforcing Bars in RC {center_dot} SC structure consists of Steel Plate with Headed Studs. Connected by Tie-bars - The Primary Purpose of Tie-bars is to Stiffen and Hold Together the Plates during Construction Process - Headed Studs are Welded to the Inside of Steel Plate for composite action {open_square} Benefits of SC Structure {center_dot} Shorten Construction Duration for Re bar, Forming and Scaffolding Works {center_dot} Minimize Site Labors {center_dot} Improve the Construction Quality {center_dot} Enable Construction Sites to be kept Clean {open_square} SC Modularization {center_dot} Fit for Modular Construction for Structural Features {center_dot} Fit for Modular Construction for Structural Features {center_dot} Inattentively Effective for Integrated Modules {center_dot} Pre-fabrication, Pre-assembly and Modularization {open_square} Project Overview {center_dot} Project Name: Development of SC structure for Modularization in NPP {center_dot} Project Type: Electric Power Industry R and D (Ministry of Knowledge Economy) {center_dot} Duration: Sep. 2005 {approx} Aug. 2008 (36 Months) {center_dot} Research Team and Scopes - Project Management: Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Company (KHNP) - Development of Code and Standards for SC Structure: Korea Society of Steel Construction (KSSC) Korea Electric Power Research Institute (KEPRI) - Development of SC Structural Analysis and Design

  14. Development of Probabilistic Structural Analysis Integrated with Manufacturing Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Shantaram S.; Nagpal, Vinod K.

    2007-01-01

    An effort has been initiated to integrate manufacturing process simulations with probabilistic structural analyses in order to capture the important impacts of manufacturing uncertainties on component stress levels and life. Two physics-based manufacturing process models (one for powdered metal forging and the other for annular deformation resistance welding) have been linked to the NESSUS structural analysis code. This paper describes the methodology developed to perform this integration including several examples. Although this effort is still underway, particularly for full integration of a probabilistic analysis, the progress to date has been encouraging and a software interface that implements the methodology has been developed. The purpose of this paper is to report this preliminary development.

  15. Development of magnetostrictive active members for control of space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bruce G.; Avakian, Kevin M.; Fenn, Ralph C.; Gaffney, Monique S.; Gerver, Michael J.; Hawkey, Timothy J.; Boudreau, Donald J.

    1992-08-01

    The goal of this Phase 2 Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) project was to determine the technical feasibility of developing magnetostrictive active members for use as truss elements in space structures. Active members control elastic vibrations of truss-based space structures and integrate the functions of truss structure element, actively controlled actuator, and sensor. The active members must control structural motion to the sub-micron level and, for many proposed space applications, work at cryogenic temperatures. Under this program both room temperature and cryogenic temperature magnetostrictive active members were designed, fabricated, and tested. The results of these performance tests indicated that room temperature magnetostrictive actuators feature higher strain, stiffness, and force capability with lower amplifier requirements than similarly sized piezoelectric or electrostrictive active members, at the cost of higher mass. Two different cryogenic temperature magnetostrictive materials were tested at liquid nitrogen temperatures, both with larger strain capability than the room temperature magnetostrictive materials. The cryogenic active member development included the design and fabrication of a cryostat that allows operation of the cryogenic active member in a space structure testbed.

  16. Development of Ultra-Fine-Grained Structure in AISI 321 Austenitic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiamiyu, A. A.; Szpunar, J. A.; Odeshi, A. G.; Oguocha, I.; Eskandari, M.

    2017-12-01

    Ultra-fine-grained (UFG) structure was developed in AISI 321 austenitic stainless steel (ASS) using cryogenic rolling followed by annealing treatments at 923 K, 973 K, 1023 K, and 1073 K (650 °C, 700 °C, 750 °C, and 800 °C) for different lengths of time. The α'-martensite to γ-austenite reversion behavior and the associated texture development were analyzed in the cryo-rolled specimens after annealing. The activation energy, Q, required for the reversion of α'-martensite to γ-austenite in the steel was estimated to be 80 kJ mol-1. TiC precipitates and unreversed triple junction α'-martensite played major roles in the development of UFG structure through the Zener pinning of grain boundaries. The optimum annealing temperature and time for the development of UFG structure in the cryo-rolled AISI 321 steel are (a) 923 K (650 °C) for approximately 28800 seconds and (b) 1023 K (750 °C) for 600 seconds, with average grain sizes of 0.22 and 0.31 µm, respectively. Annealing at 1023 K (750 °C) is considered a better alternative since the volume fraction of precipitated carbides in specimens annealed at 1023 K (750 °C) are less than those annealed at 923 K (650 °C). More so, the energy consumption during prolonged annealing time to achieve an UFG structure at 923 K (650 °C) is higher due to low phase reversion rate. The hardness of the UFG specimens is 195 pct greater than that of the as-received steel. The higher volume fraction of TiC precipitates in the UFG structure may be an additional source of hardening. Micro and macrotexture analysis indicated {110}〈uvw〉 as the major texture component of the austenite grains in the UFG structure. Its intensity is stronger in the specimen annealed at low temperatures.

  17. Development of human brain structural networks through infancy and childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Shu, Ni; Mishra, Virendra; Jeon, Tina; Chalak, Lina; Wang, Zhiyue J; Rollins, Nancy; Gong, Gaolang; Cheng, Hua; Peng, Yun; Dong, Qi; He, Yong

    2015-05-01

    During human brain development through infancy and childhood, microstructural and macrostructural changes take place to reshape the brain's structural networks and better adapt them to sophisticated functional and cognitive requirements. However, structural topological configuration of the human brain during this specific development period is not well understood. In this study, diffusion magnetic resonance image (dMRI) of 25 neonates, 13 toddlers, and 25 preadolescents were acquired to characterize network dynamics at these 3 landmark cross-sectional ages during early childhood. dMRI tractography was used to construct human brain structural networks, and the underlying topological properties were quantified by graph-theory approaches. Modular organization and small-world attributes are evident at birth with several important topological metrics increasing monotonically during development. Most significant increases of regional nodes occur in the posterior cingulate cortex, which plays a pivotal role in the functional default mode network. Positive correlations exist between nodal efficiencies and fractional anisotropy of the white matter traced from these nodes, while correlation slopes vary among the brain regions. These results reveal substantial topological reorganization of human brain structural networks through infancy and childhood, which is likely to be the outcome of both heterogeneous strengthening of the major white matter tracts and pruning of other axonal fibers. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Development of Human Brain Structural Networks Through Infancy and Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Shu, Ni; Mishra, Virendra; Jeon, Tina; Chalak, Lina; Wang, Zhiyue J.; Rollins, Nancy; Gong, Gaolang; Cheng, Hua; Peng, Yun; Dong, Qi; He, Yong

    2015-01-01

    During human brain development through infancy and childhood, microstructural and macrostructural changes take place to reshape the brain's structural networks and better adapt them to sophisticated functional and cognitive requirements. However, structural topological configuration of the human brain during this specific development period is not well understood. In this study, diffusion magnetic resonance image (dMRI) of 25 neonates, 13 toddlers, and 25 preadolescents were acquired to characterize network dynamics at these 3 landmark cross-sectional ages during early childhood. dMRI tractography was used to construct human brain structural networks, and the underlying topological properties were quantified by graph-theory approaches. Modular organization and small-world attributes are evident at birth with several important topological metrics increasing monotonically during development. Most significant increases of regional nodes occur in the posterior cingulate cortex, which plays a pivotal role in the functional default mode network. Positive correlations exist between nodal efficiencies and fractional anisotropy of the white matter traced from these nodes, while correlation slopes vary among the brain regions. These results reveal substantial topological reorganization of human brain structural networks through infancy and childhood, which is likely to be the outcome of both heterogeneous strengthening of the major white matter tracts and pruning of other axonal fibers. PMID:24335033

  19. Regional Institutional Structure in the Context of Innovative Industry Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Y. Nikitaeva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper proves that successful innovation-oriented development of the industrial complex of the region can be ensured through the creation of adequate institutional structure. As a theoretical and conceptual platform for this task the use of regional institutionalism is suggested. It is reasoned that integration component plays an important role in providing of the innovative development of the industry in modern economic realities and the potential effects of integration on meso- and micro-levels of economy are provided. Integration of industrial structures potential at the same time assumes expansion of a partner segment of the entities relations in the market environment on the basis of network, cluster, and integration approaches convergence to management in the industrial development. On the basis of the international experience analysis it is illustrated that forming of multichannel partnership of actors in the industrial sphere with a vector on an innovatization requires creation of the corresponding institutional conditions. It is established that the main objectives of the relevant institutes consist in legitimization of various forms and technologies of partnership and stimulation of economic entities interactions. The first problem is solved by means of legal support of integration and partners’ interactions, the second one - with the use of a program and project approach. The basic structural elements and functional areas of regional institutional structure in the context of innovative industry development are determined. It is shown that the institutions of the partnership and monitoring of the obligations implementation by integration formations participants can have formal and informal nature, at the same time the trust institution is especially important. In work significant influence of regional specifics on institutional structure and integration of economic entities is proved.

  20. CRADA Final Report for CRADA Number NFE-10-02991 "Development and Commercialization of Alternative Carbon Precursors and Conversion Technologies"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, Rober [ORNL; Paulauskas, Felix [ORNL; Naskar, Amit [ORNL; Kaufman, Michael [ORNL; Yarborough, Ken [ORNL; Derstine, Chris [The Dow Chemical Company

    2013-10-01

    The overall objective of the collaborative research performed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Dow Chemical Company under this Cooperative Research And Development Agreement (CRADA NFE-10-02991) was to develop and establish pathways to commercialize new carbon fiber precursor and conversion technology. This technology is to produce alternative polymer fiber precursor formulations as well as scaled energy-efficient advanced conversion technology to enable continuous mode conversion to obtain carbonized fibers that are technically and economically viable in industrial markets such as transportation, wind energy, infrastructure and oil drilling applications. There have been efforts in the past to produce a low cost carbon fiber. These attempts have to be interpreted against the backdrop of the market needs at the time, which were strictly military aircraft and high-end aerospace components. In fact, manufacturing costs have been reduced from those days to current practice, where both process optimization and volume production have enabled carbon fiber to become available at prices below $20/lb. However, the requirements of the lucrative aerospace market limits further price reductions from current practice. This approach is different because specific industrial applications are targeted, most specifically wind turbine blade and light vehicle transportation, where aircraft grade carbon fiber is not required. As a result, researchers are free to adjust both manufacturing process and precursor chemistry to meet the relaxed physical specifications at a lower cost. This report documents the approach and findings of this cooperative research in alternative precursors and advanced conversion for production of cost-effective carbon fiber for energy missions. Due to export control, proprietary restrictions, and CRADA protected data considerations, specific design details and processing parameters are not included in this report.