WorldWideScience

Sample records for alternative development process

  1. The development of high hydrostatic pressure processes as an alternative to other pathogen reduction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demazeau, G; Rivalain, N

    2011-06-01

    In biology, scientist's interest for high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) has increased over the last 20 years, for both research and industrial developments, mainly because of the low energy associated with its application in liquid phase and its capacity to inactivate pathogens. It is now considered as an interesting alternative to heat treatments for the inactivation of contaminants in many products, from foods to pharmaceutical preparations. This last statement implies different objectives according to the type of product. The therapeutic properties of pharmaceutical preparations or other biological media of physiological importance are in general associated with specific and well-defined molecules such as proteins. Their activity mainly depends on their spatial conformation, maintained by weak chemical bonds that are often pressure sensitive. In this case, the optimization of a HHP process can be more complex than for foods, for which the organoleptic molecules are less pressure sensitive, and the evaluation of their preservation is more subjective and highly dependent on the consumers acceptance. The objective of this review is therefore to underline how, even if the basic concept for the optimization of a pathogen reduction process using HHP is the same whatever the product, major differences arise from the product itself and its final use. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Tanks Focus Area Alternative Salt Processing Research and Development Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, Harry D.

    2000-05-15

    In March 2000, DOE-Headquarters (HQ) requested the Tanks Focus Area (TFA)to assume management responsibility for the Salt Processing Project technology development program at Savannah River Site. The TFA was requested to conduct several activities, including review and revision of the technology development roadmaps, development of down-selection criteria, and preparation of a comprehensive Research and Development (R&D) Program Plan for three candidate cesium removal technologies, as well as the Alpha and strontium removal processes that must also be carried out. The three cesium removal candidate technologies are Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) Non-Elutable Ion Exchange, Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX), and Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Precipitation (STTP). This plan describes the technology development needs for each process that must be satisfied in order to reach a down-selection decision, as well as continuing technology development required to support conceptual design activities.

  3. Tanks Focus Area Alternative Salt Processing Research and Development Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, Harry D.

    2000-11-30

    In March 2000, DOE-Headquarters (HQ) requested the Tanks Focus Area (TFA) to assume management responsibility for the Salt Processing Project technology development program at Savannah River Site. The TFA was requested to conduct several activities, including review and revision of the technology development roadmaps, development of down-selection criteria, and preparation of a comprehensive Research and Development (R&D) Program Plan for three candidate cesium removal technologies, as well as the Alpha and strontium removal processes that must also be carried out. The three cesium removal candidate technologies are Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) Non-Elutable Ion Exchange, Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX), and Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Precipitation (STTP). This plan describes the technology development needs for each process that must be satisfied in order to reach a down-selection decision, as well as continuing technology development required to support conceptual design activities.

  4. Office of River Protection, plan for Developing Hanford Tank Waste Processing Alternatives, Revision 1, December 15, 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WODRICH, D.D.

    2000-01-01

    In August 2000, The Department of Energy (DOE) must decide whether to authorize BNFL Inc. (BNFL) to construct and operate tank waste processing facilities as proposed or to take another path. This will be a multi-billion dollar commitment, requiring that the best path forward be chosen. The plan for reaching this decision is described in reference 1. The alternative evaluations in this plan are directed toward acquiring information needed for the August 2000 decision and for preparing an alternate path plan, should an acceptable agreement with BNFL not be reached. Many of the alternatives considered may still be applicable for failures that could occur after the year 2000, however, depending on the cause of later failures, others alternatives may need to be developed

  5. Developing alternative oxidation processes for the treatment of organic radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turc, H.A.; Broudic, J.Ch.; Joussot-Dubien, Ch.

    2000-01-01

    An electro-generated silver (II) mediated oxidation process is currently under development in the Atalante facility of the French Atomic Energy Commission, as an operation of the DELOS unit, with the aim to mineralize α-contaminated solvents with respect to the principles of nuclear safety. This process is a wet oxidation one involving a powerful mediator (Ag(II)/Ag(I): 1.92 V/NHE), but its throughput is mainly limited by technological constraints. Hydrothermal oxidation (HTO) has been investigated and proved by inactive studies as to be a versatile and powerful process, which could help destroying the contaminated solvents (dodecane, TBP, TLA...) produced by the spent nuclear fuel reprocessing research and industry. The current development aims to set up a continuous HTO pilot in a standard glovebox, in order to solve both technological and safety difficulties and to treat small volumes of contaminated solvents. This paper discusses the main results of the silver(II) oxidation and HTO process development works. (authors)

  6. Development of systems of analysis in industrial processes with XRF. A technology transfer alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvez, Juan; Poblete, Victor

    1999-01-01

    The FRX Laboratory's experience in developing a unit of analysis by excitation with a radioisotope source is described, with a discussion of its advantages, limitations, types of existing units in the market, use, values and state-of-the-art. The evolution of mining and metallurgical processes has led to the development of new technologies that provide quick and precise control of control and analysis operations, avoiding loss of raw material, chemical reagents, waste of materials and time, to obtain a better quality and purer product. The system developed by the FRX Laboratory is relatively low cost compared to other equipment that is available in the market, and it focuses on single element analysis in hydrometallurgical processes. This system uses a NaI (T1) detector with a beryllium window, related electronics, monitor and printer, which controls the operation automatically using an adequate program for taking samples, measuring, analysis, printing results, changing samples, etc. The sampling is continuous, so it does not have to be taken or prepared chemically. This system can extrapolate to other more complex ones, using new kinds of detectors with higher resolution, more modern electronics, and new multichannel cards. The development of this kind of equipment in Chile means that dependence on foreign technology can be avoided by replacing expensive imported equipment, creating our own technology and transferring it to the domestic market, and even generating income by exporting these units and opening new development prospects (au)

  7. Development of an alternating magnetic-field-assisted finishing process for microelectromechanical systems micropore x-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riveros, Raul E.; Yamaguchi, Hitomi; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Takagi, Utako; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Kato, Fumiki; Sugiyama, Susumu; Yamasaki, Noriko; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa

    2010-01-01

    X-ray astronomy research is often limited by the size, weight, complexity, and cost of functioning x-ray optics. Micropore optics promises an economical alternative to traditional (e.g., glass or foil) x-ray optics; however, many manufacturing difficulties prevent micropore optics from being a viable solution. Ezoe et al. introduced microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) micropore optics having curvilinear micropores in 2008. Made by either deep reactive ion etching or x-ray lithography, electroforming, and molding (LIGA), MEMS micropore optics suffer from high micropore sidewall roughness (10-30nmrms) which, by current standards, cannot be improved. In this research, a new alternating magnetic-field-assisted finishing process was developed using a mixture of ferrofluid and microscale abrasive slurry. A machine was built, and a set of working process parameters including alternating frequency, abrasive size, and polishing time was selected. A polishing experiment on a LIGA-fabricated MEMS micropore optic was performed, and a change in micropore sidewall roughness of 9.3±2.5nmrms to 5.7±0.7nmrms was measured. An improvement in x-ray reflectance was also seen. This research shows the feasibility and confirms the effects of this new polishing process on MEMS micropore optics.

  8. Development of an alternating magnetic-field-assisted finishing process for microelectromechanical systems micropore x-ray optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros, Raul E; Yamaguchi, Hitomi; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Takagi, Utako; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Kato, Fumiki; Sugiyama, Susumu; Yamasaki, Noriko; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa

    2010-06-20

    X-ray astronomy research is often limited by the size, weight, complexity, and cost of functioning x-ray optics. Micropore optics promises an economical alternative to traditional (e.g., glass or foil) x-ray optics; however, many manufacturing difficulties prevent micropore optics from being a viable solution. Ezoe et al. introduced microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) micropore optics having curvilinear micropores in 2008. Made by either deep reactive ion etching or x-ray lithography, electroforming, and molding (LIGA), MEMS micropore optics suffer from high micropore sidewall roughness (10-30nmrms) which, by current standards, cannot be improved. In this research, a new alternating magnetic-field-assisted finishing process was developed using a mixture of ferrofluid and microscale abrasive slurry. A machine was built, and a set of working process parameters including alternating frequency, abrasive size, and polishing time was selected. A polishing experiment on a LIGA-fabricated MEMS micropore optic was performed, and a change in micropore sidewall roughness of 9.3+/-2.5nmrms to 5.7+/-0.7nmrms was measured. An improvement in x-ray reflectance was also seen. This research shows the feasibility and confirms the effects of this new polishing process on MEMS micropore optics.

  9. Development of an alternating magnetic-field-assisted finishing process for microelectromechanical systems micropore x-ray optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riveros, Raul E.; Yamaguchi, Hitomi; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Takagi, Utako; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Kato, Fumiki; Sugiyama, Susumu; Yamasaki, Noriko; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa

    2010-06-20

    X-ray astronomy research is often limited by the size, weight, complexity, and cost of functioning x-ray optics. Micropore optics promises an economical alternative to traditional (e.g., glass or foil) x-ray optics; however, many manufacturing difficulties prevent micropore optics from being a viable solution. Ezoe et al. introduced microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) micropore optics having curvilinear micropores in 2008. Made by either deep reactive ion etching or x-ray lithography, electroforming, and molding (LIGA), MEMS micropore optics suffer from high micropore sidewall roughness (10-30nmrms) which, by current standards, cannot be improved. In this research, a new alternating magnetic-field-assisted finishing process was developed using a mixture of ferrofluid and microscale abrasive slurry. A machine was built, and a set of working process parameters including alternating frequency, abrasive size, and polishing time was selected. A polishing experiment on a LIGA-fabricated MEMS micropore optic was performed, and a change in micropore sidewall roughness of 9.3{+-}2.5nmrms to 5.7{+-}0.7nmrms was measured. An improvement in x-ray reflectance was also seen. This research shows the feasibility and confirms the effects of this new polishing process on MEMS micropore optics.

  10. Dounreay: an alternative development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, K.

    1990-01-01

    With the Government decision to phase out the Fast Reactor at Dounreay there is a need to find alternative employment in the area. Traditionally Caithness is an area of farming, fishing and tourism which could be damaged if Dounreay were to be made a nuclear waste repository. The suggestion is that Dounreay should become a centre for research, development and subsequent manufacture of renewable energy sources and devices to harness renewable energy. The Scottish coastline has potential for wind and wave power developments and this could lead to a whole industry in the future. (UK)

  11. Development of a Cost Estimation Process for Human Systems Integration Practitioners During the Analysis of Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    processes. Novice estimators must often use of these complicated cost estimation tools (e.g., ACEIT , SEER-H, SEER-S, PRICE-H, PRICE-S, etc.) until...However, the thesis will leverage the processes embedded in cost estimation tools such as the Automated Cost Estimating Integration Tool ( ACEIT ) and the

  12. Development and Optimization of an Alternative Electrospinning Process for High Throughput

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoppey Muthuraman, Nagarajan

    This work is an investigation of the prospect of electrospinning from the simplest aperture-free system, a flat plate on which polymer solution is placed as droplets or undergoes a gravity-assisted flow. Nanofibers with a similar fiber diameter and diameter distribution were fabricated at similar voltages and working distances as that in an aperture-based system, however with much more flexibility to scale up the process and with no openings or nozzles that can clog. It is verified that the field gradient at the site of jet formation is important. In particular, it is shown that the relatively homogeneous electric field on the plate surface does not promote electrospinning as compared with the significantly more inhomogeneous field at the needle tip in the needle-plate configuration. However, the strong field gradient at the plate edge allows electrospinning from unconfined droplets of the polymer solution and formation of fibers with very similar diameters and diameter distributions as those fabricated by traditional needle electrospinning for the same polymer solution. Further it is also shown that this edge-plate methodology can be extended to systems with many "edges" and curved edges (such as those from a hollow cylinder) for massively-parallel electrospinning (that is, higher potential throughput). A detailed examination of the changes in fiber diameter, diameter distribution, and mat porosity is reported as a function of the electric field magnitude and geometry, and it is concluded that the process is quite stable over a range of experimental conditions. The connection between fiber properties and spinning conditions via changes in the length and duration of the linear region and the degree of whipping is discussed in the context of comparing edge-plate and needle-plate electrospinning. Not only do these results address issues specific to such a surface-based, parallel aperture-less electrospinning approach, they also continue to expand understanding of

  13. Alternative calcination development status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, R.D.

    1997-12-01

    The Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel and (INEEL) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision, dated June 1, 1995, specifies that high-level waste stored in the underground tanks at the ICPP continue to be calcined while other options to treat the waste are studied. Therefore, the High-Level Waste Program has funded a program to develop new flowsheets to increase the liquid waste processing rate. Simultaneously, a radionuclide separation process, as well as other options, are also being developed, which will be compared to the calcination treatment option. Two alternatives emerged as viable candidates; (1) elevated temperature calcination (also referred to as high temperature calcination), and (2) sugar-additive calcination. Both alternatives were determined to be viable through testing performed in a lab-scale calcination mockup. Subsequently, 10-cm Calciner Pilot Plant scoping tests were successfully completed for both flowsheets. The results were compared to the standard 500 C, high-ANN flow sheet (baseline flowsheet). The product and effluent streams were characterized to help elucidate the process chemistry and to investigate potential environmental permitting issues. Several supplementary tests were conducted to gain a better understanding of fine-particles generation, calcine hydration, scrub foaming, feed makeup procedures, sugar/organic elimination, and safety-related issues. Many of the experiments are only considered to be scoping tests, and follow-up experiments will be required to establish a more definitive understanding of the flowsheets. However, the combined results support the general conclusion that flowsheet improvements for the NWCF are technically viable

  14. Study of alternative strategies to the task clarification activity of the market-pull product development process model

    OpenAIRE

    Motte, Damien

    2009-01-01

    A very large majority of the current product development process models put forward in textbooks present a homogenous structure, what Ulrich & Eppinger [1] call the market-pull model, presented as a generic one, while other possible product development process models are merely seen as variants. This paper focuses on the task clarification and derived activities (mainly the systematic search for customer needs through market study and the supplementary development costs it entails) and in...

  15. Process development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuegerl, K

    1984-01-01

    The item 'process development' comprises the production of acetonic/butonal with C. acetobylicum and the yeasting of potato waste. The target is to increase productivity by taking the following measures - optimation of media, on-line process analysis, analysis of reaction, mathematic modelling and identification of parameters, process simulation, development of a state estimator with the help of the on-line process analysis and the model, optimization and adaptive control.

  16. Process development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata G, G.

    1989-01-01

    Process development: The paper describes the organization and laboratory facilities of the group working on radioactive ore processing studies. Contains a review of the carried research and the plans for the next future. A list of the published reports is also presented

  17. Irradiation emerges as processing alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatfield, D.

    1985-01-01

    Anticipating that food irradiation may soon become an important addition to the many food processing techniques currently available, this article discusses many aspects of this process. Primarily, the benefits of irradiation for all foods include insect and bacterial control, increasing the potential to reduce incidences of food-borne illnesses, in addition to delaying the deterioration of fruits and vegetables. Currently approved uses of food irradiation in the U.S. and other countries, a summary of the proposed rule for wider application, and the labeling issue encompassed in the proposal are addressed. Additionally, the areas of great consumer concern--safety and public health implications, are talked about with the conclusion that food irradiation has been declared safe

  18. Decommissioning alternatives, process and work activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The following outlines the topics discussed under Decommissioning Alternatives, Process and Work Activities: (1) decommissioning alternatives, (2) work activities for prompt removal/dismantling, (3) work activities for entombment with delayed dismantling, and (4) work activities for mothballing with delayed dismantling

  19. Alternative process for treating radioactive effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puget, Flavia P.; Massarani, Giulio

    2002-01-01

    In this work an alternative process for treating a wastewater containing dissolved uranium is considered. In order to develop this work, a continuous separation unit, characterized by the solvent extraction, carried out inward the ejector is used. Alamina 336 (a mixture of tri-octyl and tri-decyl amines) is used as extractant in this process. The splitting of the amine-water emulsion formed is carried out in a gravitational separation tank. The result showed that it is possible to reach an efficiency of about 95% for the uranium extraction, for metal concentration in the feed of 10 ppm and a Q fa /Q fo ratio around 500. Furthermore, an efficiency of about 50% is reached for metal concentration in the feed of 1 ppm and for aQ fa /Q fo ratio around 1000, when the liquid flow rate is equal 1200 L/h. (author)

  20. A Repeatable Collaboration Process for Exploring Business Process Improvement Alternatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sol, H G; Amiyo, Mercy; Nabukenya, J.

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic nature of organisations has increased demand for business process agility leading to the adoption of continuous Business Process Improvement (BPI). Success of BPI projects calls for continuous process analysis and exploration of several improvement alternatives. These activities are

  1. Ironmaking Process Alternative Screening Study, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockwood Greene, . .

    2005-01-06

    Iron in the United States is largely produced from iron ore mined in the United States or imported from Canada or South America. The iron ore is typically smelted in Blast Furnaces that use primarily iron ore, iron concentrate pellets metallurgical coke, limestone and lime as the raw materials. Under current operating scenarios, the iron produced from these Blast Furnaces is relatively inexpensive as compared to current alternative iron sources, e.g. direct iron reduction, imported pig iron, etc. The primary problem the Blast Furnace Ironmaking approach is that many of these Blast furnaces are relatively small, as compared to the newer, larger Blast Furnaces; thus are relatively costly and inefficient to operate. An additional problem is also that supplies of high-grade metallurgical grade coke are becoming increasingly in short supply and costs are also increasing. In part this is due to the short supply and costs of high-grade metallurgical coals, but also this is due to the increasing necessity for environmental controls for coke production. After year 2003 new regulations for coke product environmental requirement will likely be promulgated. It is likely that this also will either increase the cost of high-quality coke production or will reduce the available domestic U.S. supply. Therefore, iron production in the United States utilizing the current, predominant Blast Furnace process will be more costly and would likely be curtailed due to a coke shortage. Therefore, there is a significant need to develop or extend the economic viability of Alternate Ironmaking Processes to at least partially replace current and declining blast furnace iron sources and to provide incentives for new capacity expansion. The primary conclusions of this comparative Study of Alternative Ironmaking Process scenarios are: (1) The processes with the best combined economics (CAPEX and OPEX impacts in the I.R.R. calculation) can be grouped into those Fine Ore based processes with no scrap

  2. Alternative Fuel for Portland Cement Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, Anton K; Duke, Steve R; Burch, Thomas E; Davis, Edward W; Zee, Ralph H; Bransby, David I; Hopkins, Carla; Thompson, Rutherford L; Duan, Jingran; ; Venkatasubramanian, Vignesh; Stephen, Giles

    2012-06-30

    The production of cement involves a combination of numerous raw materials, strictly monitored system processes, and temperatures on the order of 1500 °C. Immense quantities of fuel are required for the production of cement. Traditionally, energy from fossil fuels was solely relied upon for the production of cement. The overarching project objective is to evaluate the use of alternative fuels to lessen the dependence on non-renewable resources to produce portland cement. The key objective of using alternative fuels is to continue to produce high-quality cement while decreasing the use of non-renewable fuels and minimizing the impact on the environment. Burn characteristics and thermodynamic parameters were evaluated with a laboratory burn simulator under conditions that mimic those in the preheater where the fuels are brought into a cement plant. A drop-tube furnace and visualization method were developed that show potential for evaluating time- and space-resolved temperature distributions for fuel solid particles and liquid droplets undergoing combustion in various combustion atmospheres. Downdraft gasification has been explored as a means to extract chemical energy from poultry litter while limiting the throughput of potentially deleterious components with regards to use in firing a cement kiln. Results have shown that the clinkering is temperature independent, at least within the controllable temperature range. Limestone also had only a slight effect on the fusion when used to coat the pellets. However, limestone addition did display some promise in regards to chlorine capture, as ash analyses showed chlorine concentrations of more than four times greater in the limestone infused ash as compared to raw poultry litter. A reliable and convenient sampling procedure was developed to estimate the combustion quality of broiler litter that is the best compromise between convenience and reliability by means of statistical analysis. Multi-day trial burns were conducted

  3. Development of an alternative process for recovery of uranium from rejected plates in the manufacture of MTR type fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores Gonzalez, Jocelyn Natalia

    2011-01-01

    This work discusses the recovery of enriched uranium in U 235 , from fuel plates rejected during the fuel elements manufacturing process for the La Reina Nuclear Studies Center, RECH-1, CCHEN. The plates have an aluminum based alloy coating, AISI-SAE 6061, with U 3 Si 2 powder distributed evenly inside and dispersed in an aluminum matrix. The high cost of enriched uranium means that it must be recovered from plates rejected in the production process because of non-compliance with the plate specifications, and also because some of them undergo destructive testing, to measure the aluminum coating's thickness on each side of the plate. The thickness of the uranium nucleus is measured as well and the size of the defects on the ends of the plate such as 'dog bone' and 'fish tail', that is, for the purposes of quality control. The first step in the process is carried out by dissolving the aluminum in a hot solution of NaOH in order to release the uranium silicide powder that is insoluble in the soda. A second step involves dissolving the uranium silicide in a hot HNO 3 solution, followed by washing and filtering, and then extracting the SX and analyzing its behavior during this stage. During the process 98.9% of the uranium is recovered together with a solution that is enough for the SX process given the experiences that were carried out in the extraction stage

  4. EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE STRONIUM AND TRANSURANIC SEPARATION PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SMALLEY CS

    2011-04-25

    In order to meet contract requirements on the concentrations of strontium-90 and transuranic isotopes in the immobilized low-activity waste, strontium-90 and transuranics must be removed from the supernate of tanks 241-AN-102 and 241-AN-107. The process currently proposed for this application is an in-tank precipitation process using strontium nitrate and sodium permanganate. Development work on the process has not proceeded since 2005. The purpose of the evaluation is to identify whether any promising alternative processes have been developed since this issue was last examined, evaluate the alternatives and the baseline process, and recommend which process should be carried forward.

  5. Roll splitting as an alternative intermediate process for wood fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul E. Barnett; Donald L. Sirois

    1985-01-01

    In an effort to develop mobile equipment for harvesting and processing woody biomass from power line rights-of-way and precommerial thinnings, numerous alternative concepts were evaluated by Tennessee Valley Authority's Timber Harvesting Project.

  6. Alternative Water Processor Test Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Karen D.; Mitchell, Julie; Vega, Leticia; Adam, Niklas; Flynn, Michael; Wjee (er. Rau); Lunn, Griffin; Jackson, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The Next Generation Life Support Project is developing an Alternative Water Processor (AWP) as a candidate water recovery system for long duration exploration missions. The AWP consists of biological water processor (BWP) integrated with a forward osmosis secondary treatment system (FOST). The basis of the BWP is a membrane aerated biological reactor (MABR), developed in concert with Texas Tech University. Bacteria located within the MABR metabolize organic material in wastewater, converting approximately 90% of the total organic carbon to carbon dioxide. In addition, bacteria convert a portion of the ammonia-nitrogen present in the wastewater to nitrogen gas, through a combination of nitrogen and denitrification. The effluent from the BWP system is low in organic contaminants, but high in total dissolved solids. The FOST system, integrated downstream of the BWP, removes dissolved solids through a combination of concentration-driven forward osmosis and pressure driven reverse osmosis. The integrated system is expected to produce water with a total organic carbon less than 50 mg/l and dissolved solids that meet potable water requirements for spaceflight. This paper describes the test definition, the design of the BWP and FOST subsystems, and plans for integrated testing.

  7. Alternating event processes during lifetimes: population dynamics and statistical inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Russell T; Sun, Yifei; Wang, Mei-Cheng

    2018-01-01

    In the literature studying recurrent event data, a large amount of work has been focused on univariate recurrent event processes where the occurrence of each event is treated as a single point in time. There are many applications, however, in which univariate recurrent events are insufficient to characterize the feature of the process because patients experience nontrivial durations associated with each event. This results in an alternating event process where the disease status of a patient alternates between exacerbations and remissions. In this paper, we consider the dynamics of a chronic disease and its associated exacerbation-remission process over two time scales: calendar time and time-since-onset. In particular, over calendar time, we explore population dynamics and the relationship between incidence, prevalence and duration for such alternating event processes. We provide nonparametric estimation techniques for characteristic quantities of the process. In some settings, exacerbation processes are observed from an onset time until death; to account for the relationship between the survival and alternating event processes, nonparametric approaches are developed for estimating exacerbation process over lifetime. By understanding the population dynamics and within-process structure, the paper provide a new and general way to study alternating event processes.

  8. The Development of Nonstructural Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-05-01

    particular appeal and benefits for those concerned with environmental issues. However, on reflection it is clear that, almost by definition, easily...peculiar to nonstructural alternatives (that is, the social costs are borne primaqrilv by th,, )ent ficiaries) makes them appealing from the national...Costs Of prId-nt ! loo41p l jotve iopment lie basically in the costs of elevated 111’Z ’’l’i. Pie 1land reqat reti c,- snob dovelIopmeot is loss

  9. Testing an alternate informed consent process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Bernice C; Dodendorf, Diane; Lane, Judy; LaFramboise, Louise; Pozehl, Bunny; Duncan, Kathleen; Knodel, Kendra

    2009-01-01

    One of the main problems in conducting clinical trials is low participation rate due to potential participants' misunderstanding of the rationale for the clinical trial or perceptions of loss of control over treatment decisions. The objective of this study was to test an alternate informed consent process in cardiac rehabilitation participants that involved the use of a multimedia flip chart to describe a future randomized clinical trial and then asked, hypothetically, if they would participate in the future trial. An attractive and inviting visual presentation of the study was created in the form of a 23-page flip chart that included 24 color photographs displaying information about the purpose of the study, similarities and differences between the two treatment groups, and the data collection process. We tested the flip chart in 35 cardiac rehabilitation participants. Participants were asked if they would participate in this future study on two occasions: immediately after the description of the flip chart and 24 hours later, after reading through the informed consent document. Participants were also asked their perceptions of the flip chart and consent process. Of the 35 participants surveyed, 19 (54%) indicated that they would participate in the future study. No participant changed his or her decision 24 hours later after reading the full consent form. The participation rate improved 145% over that of an earlier feasibility study where the recruitment rate was 22%. Most participants stated that the flip chart was helpful and informative and that the photographs were effective in communicating the purpose of the study. Participation rates could be enhanced in future clinical trials by using a visual presentation to explain and describe the study as part of the informed consent process. More research is needed to test alternate methods of obtaining informed consent.

  10. Alternative Fuels and Sustainable Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj; Nielsen, Lars Henrik

    1996-01-01

    The main report of the project on Transportation Fuels based on Renewable Energy. The report contains a review of potential technologies for electric, hybrid and hydrogen propulsion in the Danish transport sector, including an assessment of their development status. In addition, the energy...

  11. Alternative Splicing in Neurogenesis and Brain Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chun-Hao; D, Dhananjaya; Tarn, Woan-Yuh

    2018-01-01

    Alternative splicing of precursor mRNA is an important mechanism that increases transcriptomic and proteomic diversity and also post-transcriptionally regulates mRNA levels. Alternative splicing occurs at high frequency in brain tissues and contributes to every step of nervous system development, including cell-fate decisions, neuronal migration, axon guidance, and synaptogenesis. Genetic manipulation and RNA sequencing have provided insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of alternative splicing in stem cell self-renewal and neuronal fate specification. Timely expression and perhaps post-translational modification of neuron-specific splicing regulators play important roles in neuronal development. Alternative splicing of many key transcription regulators or epigenetic factors reprograms the transcriptome and hence contributes to stem cell fate determination. During neuronal differentiation, alternative splicing also modulates signaling activity, centriolar dynamics, and metabolic pathways. Moreover, alternative splicing impacts cortical lamination and neuronal development and function. In this review, we focus on recent progress toward understanding the contributions of alternative splicing to neurogenesis and brain development, which has shed light on how splicing defects may cause brain disorders and diseases.

  12. Alternative Splicing in Neurogenesis and Brain Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Hao Su

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing of precursor mRNA is an important mechanism that increases transcriptomic and proteomic diversity and also post-transcriptionally regulates mRNA levels. Alternative splicing occurs at high frequency in brain tissues and contributes to every step of nervous system development, including cell-fate decisions, neuronal migration, axon guidance, and synaptogenesis. Genetic manipulation and RNA sequencing have provided insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of alternative splicing in stem cell self-renewal and neuronal fate specification. Timely expression and perhaps post-translational modification of neuron-specific splicing regulators play important roles in neuronal development. Alternative splicing of many key transcription regulators or epigenetic factors reprograms the transcriptome and hence contributes to stem cell fate determination. During neuronal differentiation, alternative splicing also modulates signaling activity, centriolar dynamics, and metabolic pathways. Moreover, alternative splicing impacts cortical lamination and neuronal development and function. In this review, we focus on recent progress toward understanding the contributions of alternative splicing to neurogenesis and brain development, which has shed light on how splicing defects may cause brain disorders and diseases.

  13. Characterization of alternative FBR development strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boegel, A.J.; Clausen, M.J.

    1981-08-01

    Near-term decisions regarding the nature and place of the FBR development program must be made. This study is part of a larger program designed to provide the Department of Energy (DOE) with imformation that can be used to make strategic programmatic decisions. The focus of this report is the description of alternative approaches for developing the FBR and the quantification of the duration and cost of each alternative. The time frames of the alternative approaches are investigated in companion reports (White 1981 and Fraley 1981). The results of these analyses will be described in a summary report

  14. Alternative Energy Development and China's Energy Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David

    2011-06-15

    In addition to promoting energy efficiency, China has actively pursued alternative energy development as a strategy to reduce its energy demand and carbon emissions. One area of particular focus has been to raise the share of alternative energy in China’s rapidly growing electricity generation with a 2020 target of 15% share of total primary energy. Over the last ten years, China has established several major renewable energy regulations along with programs and subsidies to encourage the growth of non-fossil alternative energy including solar, wind, nuclear, hydro, geothermal and biomass power as well as biofuels and coal alternatives. This study thus seeks to examine China’s alternative energy in terms of what has and will continue to drive alternative energy development in China as well as analyze in depth the growth potential and challenges facing each specific technology. This study found that despite recent policies enabling extraordinary capacity and investment growth, alternative energy technologies face constraints and barriers to growth. For relatively new technologies that have not achieved commercialization such as concentrated solar thermal, geothermal and biomass power, China faces technological limitations to expanding the scale of installed capacity. While some alternative technologies such as hydropower and coal alternatives have been slowed by uneven and often changing market and policy support, others such as wind and solar PV have encountered physical and institutional barriers to grid integration. Lastly, all alternative energy technologies face constraints in human resources and raw material resources including land and water, with some facing supply limitations in critical elements such as uranium for nuclear, neodymium for wind and rare earth metals for advanced solar PV. In light of China’s potential for and barriers to growth, the resource and energy requirement for alternative energy technologies were modeled and scenario analysis

  15. WAG (water-alternating-gas) process design: an update review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahoor, M.K. [University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore (Pakistan). Dept. of Petroleum and Gas Engineering], e-mail: mkzahoor@uet.edu.pk; Derahman, M.N.; Yunan, M.H. [Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor (Malaysia). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering

    2011-04-15

    The design and implementation of water-alternating-gas (WAG) process in an improved and cost-effective way are still under process. Due to the complexities involved in implementing the process and the lack of information regarding fluid and reservoir properties, the water-alternating-gas process has not yet been as successful as initially expected. This situation can be overcome by better understanding the fluid distribution and flow behavior within the reservoir. The ultimate purpose can be achieved with improved knowledge on wettability and its influence on fluid distribution, capillary pressure, relative permeability, and other design parameters. This paper gives an insight on the WAG process design and the recently developed correlations which are helpful in incorporating the effects of wettability variations on fluid dynamics within the reservoir. (author)

  16. Re-humanizing the development process : on participation, local organizations and social learning as building blocks of an alternative development view in Algeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malki, M.

    1999-01-01

    This study concerns agricultural development planning and policy-making in the context of post-independent Algeria, which went unquestioned for more than three decades. Algeria won its independence in 1962 after 132 years of French colonization. A post-independence State was formed, taking

  17. Self-packed filter plates: a good alternative for pre-packed filter plates for developing purification processes of therapeutic proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.; Roo, de G.; Burgers, K.; Ottens, M.; Eppink, M.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    The use of high throughput screening (HTS) has successfully been applied in the past years in downstream process development of therapeutic proteins. Different HTS applications were introduced to speed up the purification process development of these proteins. In the light of these findings, studies

  18. An alternative method to achieve metrological confirmation in measurement process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeta, M.; Rubio, E. M.; Sanz, A.; Sevilla, L.

    2012-04-01

    Metrological confirmation process must be designed and implemented to ensure that metrological characteristics of the measurement system meet metrological requirements of the measurement process. The aim of this paper is to present an alternative method to the traditional metrological requirements about the relationship between tolerance and measurement uncertainty, to develop such confirmation processes. The proposed way to metrological confirmation considers a given inspection task of the measurement process into the manufacturing system, and it is based on the Index of Contamination of the Capability, ICC. Metrological confirmation process is then developed taking into account the producer risks and economic considerations on this index. As a consequence, depending on the capability of the manufacturing process, the measurement system will be or will not be in adequate state of metrological confirmation for the measurement process.

  19. Revisiting M&M with Taxes: An Alternative Equilibrating Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth J. Kopecky

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Modigliani and Miller present an equity-quantity shifting equilibrating process to achieve an optimal firm value in the presence of corporate taxes. However, in the era in which they derived their various propositions regarding the relation between a firm’s value and its capital structure, well-capitalized takeover specialists including private equity firms and sovereign funds did not exist, at least by today’s standards. In this paper we develop a simple arbitrage strategy, made viable by the presence of takeover firms, which presents an alternative equilibrating process to achieve the same optimal firm value. This alternative process is markedly different from that of the Modigliani and Miller theorem in terms of its predictions for debt use and restores the prospect of capital structure irrelevancy despite the existence of corporate taxes.

  20. Generating alternatives in nursing: turning curriculum into a living process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J; Moss, C

    The transfer of nursing education into higher education institutions is challenging nurses to re-think educational structures and processes. Traditionally, nursing education has used objective curriculum models which tend to reinforce bureaucratic rather than professional values. Critics suggest that these models, by their failure to incorporate social, political and cultural realities, contribute to theory-practice dichotomies. This paper shares the intentions of Deakin University's School of Nursing in developing alternative approaches to curriculum design and to learning and practising nursing.

  1. Development of an alternative reactivity meter for nuclear reactor control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, P.S.B.

    1991-01-01

    This work describes an alternative version of the IPEN-CNEN/SP reactivity-meter. This new version utilizes a programmable electrometer (to realize the data acquisition) and a IBM-PC microcomputer to process the reactivity calculation. The aim of development of this alternative reactivity-meter is to have available a equipment of measurements of reactivity in the case of the later version show any problem during an experiment. (author)

  2. Processes for production of alternative waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.A.; Rusin, J.M.; McElroy, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    During the past 20 years, numerous waste forms and processes have been proposed for solidification of high-level radioactive wastes (HLW). The number has increased significantly during the past 3 to 4 years. At least five factors must be considered in selecting the waste form and process method: 1) processing flexibility, 2) waste loading, 3) canister size and stability, 4) waste form inertness and stability, and 5) processing complexity. This paper describes various waste form processes and operations, and a simple system is proposed for making comparisons. This system suggests that one goal for processes would be to reduce the number of process steps, thereby providing less complex processing systems

  3. IronMaking Process Alternatives Screening Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2000-10-01

    This study by Lockwood Greene evaluates a number ironmaking processes. The appendices provide greater detail and further exploration of the ironmaking processes, including components, relative costs, and comparisons.

  4. The alternative means process for the Port Hope Area Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, J.E.; Campbell, D.; Rossi, R.

    2006-01-01

    In March of 2001, the Government of Canada, the Town of Port Hope, Hope Township and the Municipality of Clarington agreed to the cleanup and long-term management of historic, low-level radioactive waste materials in these communities. The agreement identified conceptual designs for long-term management facilities for the wastes. Two environmental assessments (EAs) of the proposed long-term management facilities have been initiated as part of the Port Hope Area Initiative (PHAI); namely the Port Hope Long-Term Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Project and the Port Granby Long-Term Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Project. A requirement set out in the Scope for the EAs is the consideration of technically and economically feasible Alternative Means of carrying out the PHAI projects. Alternative Means are the various ways that the projects could be implemented, such as alternative technologies, sites, transportation routes, etc. Early in the overall EA processes the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Office (LLRWMO), which is responsible for undertaking the EAs, recognized that it was facing a significant challenge; namely, the successful completion of a clear, technically sound and defendable Alternative Means analysis, including consultation with and acceptance by the community. This would be a fundamental requirement for the success of the PHAI EAs. A further challenge was to develop consistent assessment methodologies for the Port Hope and Port Granby projects, which were both initiated under the PHAI at the same time. Although similar in many respects, the two projects have major differences. For example, the Port Hope Project, with more sources of contamination within a built- up urban area is more complex and has a broader range of potential solutions to be considered than the rural Port Granby Project. This paper describes how the LLRWMO met that challenge, developed and implemented a successful Alternative Means process and presents the

  5. Integration approach for developing a high-performance biointerface: Sequential formation of hydroxyapatite and calcium carbonate by an improved alternate soaking process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Junji; Akashi, Mitsuru

    2008-01-01

    Biointerfaces are crucial for regulating biofunctions. An effective method of producing new biomaterials is surface modification, in particular, the hybrid organic-inorganic approach. In this paper, we propose a method for the sequential formation of hydroxyapatite and calcium carbonate on porous polyester membranes by using an improved alternate soaking process. The resulting hybrid membranes were characterized in terms of their calcium and phosphorus ion contents; further, their structure was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and infrared spectroscopy (IR). As a typical biofunction, protein adsorption by these hybrid membranes was investigated. Sequential hydroxyapatite and calcium carbonate formation on the membranes was successfully achieved, and the total amounts of hydroxyapatite and calcium carbonate formed were precisely regulated by the preparative conditions. The SEM and XRD characterizations were verified by comparing with the IR results. The amount of adsorbed protein correlated well with not only the amount of hydroxyapatite formed but also the combined amounts of hydroxyapatite and calcium carbonate formed. The results indicate that the hybrid membranes can function as high-performance biointerfaces that are capable of loading biomolecules such as proteins

  6. UST closure alternative uses patented process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    In July 1992, the owner of a Houston restaurant, a converted gasoline service station, decided to close two 8,000-gallon USTs that had been left in the ground onsite. Because most of the restaurant's parking area would have been affected by removing the tanks, the owner opted for abandonment in place. One of the bidders on the project was ELIM-A-TANK Inc., a Houston-based contractor specializing in tank abandonments. ELIM-A-TANK opened for business in November 1991 after developing a proprietary slurry material that can be pumped or poured into USTs through the fill line, eliminating the need for excavation and cold-cutting, as required by API 1604. The company's patented process was reviewed and deemed acceptable by the Texas Water Commission (TWC), the regulating agency in Texas for all UST activities. As required by TWC regulations, an initial subsurface investigation was performed at the site. Several soil borings were installed around the tank pit, and samples of native soils were collected and analyzed for the presence of total petroleum hydrocarbons and BTEX, the aromatic constituents of gasoline. The results were below TWC's action limits, and the site was declared clean

  7. The Development of Mini Portable Digester Designs for Domestic and Restaurant Solid Waste Processing to be Clean Biogas as Energy's Alternative to Replace LPG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, A.; Janari dan, D.; Setiawan, N.

    2016-02-01

    Biofuel is developed as an alternative source of second generation energy that could be attained from organic waste. This research is purposed to create applicative and cheap Portable digester unit for society. The design concepts’ screening that was made under considerations of the experts is finally resumed. Design 1 with final weight score of 1, design 2 with final weight score of -1, design 3 with final weight score of 2, design 4 with final weight score 3, design 5 with final weight score of -1, design 6 with final weight score of 0. Accepted designs for further concept assessment are design 1, 2 and 6. The result of concept assessment applies weighting for the scoring. Design 1 resulting 2.67, design 2 results 2.15 while design 3 results 2.52. Design 1 is concluded as the design with biggest result, which is 2.67. Its specification is explained as follows: tank capacity of 60 liters, manual rotating crank pivot, tank's material is plastic with symbol 1, material of axle swivel arm is grey cast iron, 2 mm rotary blades with hole. The experiment 1 contained 23.78% methane and 13.65 carbon dioxide that resulted from content test.

  8. The Development of Mini Portable Digester Designs for Domestic and Restaurant Solid Waste Processing to be Clean Biogas as Energy's Alternative to Replace LPG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansur, A; Janari dan, D; Setiawan, N

    2016-01-01

    Biofuel is developed as an alternative source of second generation energy that could be attained from organic waste. This research is purposed to create applicative and cheap Portable digester unit for society. The design concepts’ screening that was made under considerations of the experts is finally resumed. Design 1 with final weight score of 1, design 2 with final weight score of -1, design 3 with final weight score of 2, design 4 with final weight score 3, design 5 with final weight score of -1, design 6 with final weight score of 0. Accepted designs for further concept assessment are design 1, 2 and 6. The result of concept assessment applies weighting for the scoring. Design 1 resulting 2.67, design 2 results 2.15 while design 3 results 2.52. Design 1 is concluded as the design with biggest result, which is 2.67. Its specification is explained as follows: tank capacity of 60 liters, manual rotating crank pivot, tank's material is plastic with symbol 1, material of axle swivel arm is grey cast iron, 2 mm rotary blades with hole. The experiment 1 contained 23.78% methane and 13.65 carbon dioxide that resulted from content test. (paper)

  9. Alternative leaching processes for uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ring, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    Laboratory studies have been carried out to compare the extraction of uranium from Australian ores by conventional leaching in sulphuric acid with that obtained using hydrochloric acid and acidified ferric sulphate solutions. Leaching with hydrochloric acid achieved higher extractions of radium-226 but the extraction of uranium was reduced considerably. The use of acidified ferric sulphate solution reduced acid consumption by 20-40% without any detrimental effect on uranium extraction. The ferric ion, which is reduced during leaching, can be reoxidized and recycled after the addition of acid makeup. Hydrogen peroxide was found to be an effective oxidant in conventional sulphuric acid leaching. It is more expensive than alternative oxidants, but it is non-polluting, lesser quantities are required and acid consumption is reduced

  10. Research requirements for alternative reactor development strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to estimate and compare resource requirements and other fuel cycle quantities for alternative reactor deployment strategies. The paper examines from global and national perspectives the interaction of various fuel cycle alternatives described in the previous U.S. submissions to Working Groups 4, 5, 8 and Subgroup 1A/2A. Nuclear energy forecasts of Subgroup 1A/2A are used in the calculation of uranium demand for each strategy. These uranium demands are then compared to U.S. estimates of annual uranium producibility. Annual rather than cumulative producibility was selected because it does not assume preplanned stockpiling, and is therefore more conservative. The strategies attempt to span a range of nuclear power mixes which could evolve if appropriate commercial and governmental climates develop

  11. Alternative Forms of Compound Fractional Poisson Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Beghin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We study here different fractional versions of the compound Poisson process. The fractionality is introduced in the counting process representing the number of jumps as well as in the density of the jumps themselves. The corresponding distributions are obtained explicitly and proved to be solution of fractional equations of order less than one. Only in the final case treated in this paper, where the number of jumps is given by the fractional-difference Poisson process defined in Orsingher and Polito (2012, we have a fractional driving equation, with respect to the time argument, with order greater than one. Moreover, in this case, the compound Poisson process is Markovian and this is also true for the corresponding limiting process. All the processes considered here are proved to be compositions of continuous time random walks with stable processes (or inverse stable subordinators. These subordinating relationships hold, not only in the limit, but also in the finite domain. In some cases the densities satisfy master equations which are the fractional analogues of the well-known Kolmogorov one.

  12. Summary: analysis of alternative FBR development strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnham, J.B.

    1981-12-01

    This report summarizes the comparative evaluation of alternative strategies for the development of the commercial fast breeder reactor (FBR) in the United States. For planning purposes, a range of possible FBR development paths called strategies were selected for evaluation. These strategies, designed to be technically and economically feasible, were expressed in terms of the timing and nature of facilities/research and development programs required to reach full power operation of the first commercial FBR. Four of the seven strategies resulted in a large (1457 MWe) FBR as an end point, the other three in a 1000-MWe plant. Probability distributions were calculated for total strategy costs and time to completion. For the seven strategies analyzed, the costs (discounted 1980 dollars) ranged from $1.8 billion to $4.9 billion; the completion times ranged from 24 to 55 years

  13. Model based simulation of alternative transmission concepts in early stages of product development process; Einsatz von Simulationsmodellen zur Beurteilung von alternativen Getriebekonzepten in fruehen Phasen des Produktentstehungsprozesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albers, A.; Ott, S.; Seifermann, A. [Karlsruhe Univ. (Germany). IPEK - Inst. fuer Produktentwicklung

    2006-07-01

    The contribution describes a method for assessing the new transmission concepts and investigate their advantages in alternative powertrain systems. Simulation models of different powertrains were used in order to make the different concepts comparable in an early stage of the product developmentprocess. Further, it is shown how the Contact and Channel Model (C and CM) can be used for modelling individual transmission concepts. These models can help to identify and assess interdependences between part systems and components. (orig.)

  14. Survey on alternative energy for industrial processes in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masduki, B.; Sukarsono, R.; Wardaya; Suryawan, I.

    1997-01-01

    In consequence of the national industrial development, it is necessary to supply a lot of energy. This paper presented a discussion about the option of supplying nuclear processed heat as alternative energy sources for industry especially in Java island. The electrical energy requirement can be estimated rising. The stock and the requirement of energy in Indonesia is unbalance. If the oil production rate is constant, such as that of today, it can be estimated that the oil stock would be over in 20 years. The country is trying to difertify its source of energy and reduce its dependence on oil. High Temperature Reactor (HTR) produces electric and also heat at various temperature in the form of steam and gas. Heat processes from a high temperature reactor, could be used in industry for supplying heat for coal hidroforming, gasification of coal, metal annealing, petrochemical hydrogenation, distillation, purification of petrochemicals, evaporation, water heat, etc. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig., 5 tabs

  15. 77 FR 30308 - Proposed Renewal of Information Collection: Alternatives Process in Hydropower Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ...: Alternatives Process in Hydropower Licensing AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Office of Environmental Policy... the Alternatives Process in Hydropower Licensing, OMB Control Number 1094-0001. FOR FURTHER... more of the Departments develop for inclusion in a hydropower license issued by the Federal Energy...

  16. Process improvement : the creation and evaluation of process alternatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netjes, M.

    2010-01-01

    Companies continuously strive to improve their processes to increase productivity and delivered quality against lower costs. With Business Process Redesign (BPR) projects such improvement goals can be achieved. BPR involves the restructuring of business processes, stimulated by the application of

  17. Evaluation of alternative MGDS development strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberds, W.; Miller, I.; Caldwell, D.

    1991-01-01

    A methodology has been developed to explicitly and quantitatively evaluate acceptable alternative repository development strategies, in terms of the degree to which they are likely to satisfy a specified set of system objectives (e.g., minimizing overall costs through closure, time to initial waste receipt and long-term health effects). An open-quotes acceptableclose quotes strategy is one which has a high likelihood of satisfying specified system functions and requirements. Simple but comprehensive system models have been developed to estimate the relevant consequences of any strategy, explicitly considering system uncertainties and contingencies, including the possibility of finding the site to be unsuitable and having to develop a repository elsewhere. Such open-quotes technical assessments,close quotes which are appropriately developed by technical experts, can then be combined with separate open-quotes value judgementsclose quotes regarding preferences and tradeoffs among the consequences, which are appropriately determined by the decision makers/stake holders (rather than by the technical experts) in order to explicitly determine preferences among the acceptable strategies. Implementation of the methodology has been demonstrated by example

  18. SELECTION AND PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE REDUCTANTS FOR SRAT PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, M.; Pickenheim, B.; Peeler, D.

    2009-06-30

    Defense Waste Processing Facility - Engineering (DWPF-E) has requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to perform scoping evaluations of alternative flowsheets with the primary focus on alternatives to formic acid during Chemical Process Cell (CPC) processing. The reductants shown below were selected for testing during the evaluation of alternative reductants for Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) processing. The reductants fall into two general categories: reducing acids and non-acidic reducing agents. Reducing acids were selected as direct replacements for formic acid to reduce mercury in the SRAT, to acidify the sludge, and to balance the melter REDuction/OXidation potential (REDOX). Non-acidic reductants were selected as melter reductants and would not be able to reduce mercury in the SRAT. Sugar was not tested during this scoping evaluation as previous work has already been conducted on the use of sugar with DWPF feeds. Based on the testing performed, the only viable short-term path to mitigating hydrogen generation in the CPC is replacement of formic acid with a mixture of glycolic and formic acids. An experiment using glycolic acid blended with formic on an 80:20 molar basis was able to reduce mercury, while also targeting a predicted REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) of 0.2 expressed as Fe{sup 2+}/{Sigma}Fe. Based on this result, SRNL recommends performing a complete CPC demonstration of the glycolic/formic acid flowsheet followed by a design basis development and documentation. Of the options tested recently and in the past, nitric/glycolic/formic blended acids has the potential for near term implementation in the existing CPC equipment providing rapid throughput improvement. Use of a non-acidic reductant is recommended only if the processing constraints to remove mercury and acidify the sludge acidification are eliminated. The non-acidic reductants (e.g. sugar) will not reduce mercury during CPC processing and sludge acidification would

  19. Processing mechanics of alternate twist ply (ATP) yarn technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkhamy, Donia Said

    Ply yarns are important in many textile manufacturing processes and various applications. The primary process used for producing ply yarns is cabling. The speed of cabling is limited to about 35m/min. With the world's increasing demands of ply yarn supply, cabling is incompatible with today's demand activated manufacturing strategies. The Alternate Twist Ply (ATP) yarn technology is a relatively new process for producing ply yarns with improved productivity and flexibility. This technology involves self plying of twisted singles yarn to produce ply yarn. The ATP process can run more than ten times faster than cabling. To implement the ATP process to produce ply yarns there are major quality issues; uniform Twist Profile and yarn Twist Efficiency. The goal of this thesis is to improve these issues through process modeling based on understanding the physics and processing mechanics of the ATP yarn system. In our study we determine the main parameters that control the yarn twist profile. Process modeling of the yarn twist across different process zones was done. A computational model was designed to predict the process parameters required to achieve a square wave twist profile. Twist efficiency, a measure of yarn torsional stability and bulk, is determined by the ratio of ply yarn twist to singles yarn twist. Response Surface Methodology was used to develop the processing window that can reproduce ATP yarns with high twist efficiency. Equilibrium conditions of tensions and torques acting on the yarns at the self ply point were analyzed and determined the pathway for achieving higher twist efficiency. Mechanistic modeling relating equilibrium conditions to the twist efficiency was developed. A static tester was designed to zoom into the self ply zone of the ATP yarn. A computer controlled, prototypic ATP machine was constructed and confirmed the mechanistic model results. Optimum parameters achieving maximum twist efficiency were determined in this study. The

  20. Use of alternative curing salts for processing salamis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Gyun Yim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study was performed to determine effects of different curing salts on the quality of salamis and to assess feasibility of using NaCl-alternative salts. Methods Various types of curing salts (KCl or MgCl2 as well as NaCl (sun-dried or refined were incorporated for processing of salamis. The proximate composition, fatty acids, nucleotide-related compounds, and free amino acids of the salamis were analyzed during 40 days of ripening. Results The substitution of NaCl by KCl caused higher fat and ash content, but lower moisture content of the salami after 20 days of ripening (p<0.05. Compared with the sun-dried NaCl, use of KCl in salami also led to greater inosine 5′-monophosphate whereas refined NaCl had more inosine (p<0.05. KCl-added salami also had a higher C12:0, C17:1, and C20:0 than other types of salami (p<0.05. MgCl2-added salami had higher content of free amino acids compared to the other salamis (p<0.05. Conclusion Alternative curing salts such as KCl and MgCl2 could substitute NaCl in consideration of quality factor of a fermented meat product. Especially replacement of NaCl with KCl will be a suitable strategy for developing relatively low sodium salami products without compromising product quality.

  1. Environmental quality indexing of large industrial development alternatives using AHP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solnes, Julius

    2003-01-01

    Two industrial development alternatives have been proposed for the East Coast of Iceland in order to strengthen its socio-economic basis. The favoured option is to build a large aluminium smelter, which requires massive hydropower development in the nearby highlands. Another viable option is the construction of a 6-million-ton oil refinery, following the planned exploitation of the Timan Pechora oil reserves in the Russian Arctic. A third 'fictitious' alternative could be general development of existing regional industry and new knowledge-based industries, development of ecotourism, establishment of national parks, accompanied by infrastructure improvement (roads, tunnels, communications, schools, etc.). The three alternatives will have different environmental consequences. The controversial hydropower plant for the smelter requires a large water reservoir as well as considerable land disturbance in this unique mountain territory, considered to be the largest uninhabited wilderness in Western Europe. The aluminium smelter and the oil refinery will give rise to substantial increase of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the country (about 20%). Then there is potential environmental risk associated with the refinery regarding oil spills at sea, which could have disastrous impact on the fisheries industry. However, the oil refinery does not require any hydropower development, which is a positive factor. Finally, the third alternative could be defined as a ''green'' solution whereby the detrimental environmental consequences of the two industrial solutions are mostly avoided. In order to compare the three alternatives in an orderly manner, the analytic hierarchy process methodology of Saaty was applied to calculate the environmental quality index of each alternative, which is defined as a weighted sum of selected environmental and socio-economic factors. These factors are evaluated on a comparison basis, applying the AHP methodology, and the weights in the quality

  2. Research and development in alternative energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamptey, J.; Moo-Young, M.; Sullivan, H.F.

    1990-01-01

    This paper comprehensively discusses the various bioconversion and thermochemical processes. It recommends that the most urgent research and development issues should relate to direct microbial conversion systems for starch and cellulosic material and to basic biomass combustion rates and mechanisms. An overview of some of the major renewable energy resources and conversion technologies along with the potentials and problems associated with these are also presented.(author). 235 refs., 2 tabs

  3. Development of alternative fuel for pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, P.E.; Ferreira, R.A.N.; Ferraz, W.B.; Lameiras, F.S.; Santos, A.; Assis, G. de; Doerr, W.O.; Wehner, E.L.

    1984-01-01

    The utilization of alternative fuel cycles in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) such as Th/U and Th/Pu cycles can permit a better utilization of uranium reserves without the necessity of developing new power reactor concepts. The development of the technology of alternative fuels for PWR is one of the objectives of the 'Program on Thorium Utilization in Pressurized Water Reactors' carried out jointly by Empresas Nucleares Brasileiras S.A. (NUCLEBRAS), through its Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN) and by German institutions, the Julich Nuclear Research Center (KFA), the Kraftwerk Union A.G. (KWU) and NUKEM GmbH. This paper summarizes the results so far obtained in the fuel technology. The development of a fabrication process for PWR fuel pellets from gel-microspheres is reported as well as the design, the specification, and the fabrication of prototype fuel rods for irradiation tests. (Author) [pt

  4. Process control program development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dameron, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper details the development and implementation of a ''Process Control Program'' at Duke Power's three nuclear stations - Oconee, McGuire, and Catawba. Each station is required by Technical Specification to have a ''Process Control Program'' (PCP) to control all dewatering and/or solidification activities for radioactive wastes

  5. Using Process Observation to Teach Alternative Dispute Resolution: Alternatives to Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Robert A. Barush

    1987-01-01

    A method of teaching alternative dispute resolution (ADR) involves sending students to observe actual ADR sessions, by agreement with the agencies conducting them, and then analyzing the students' observations in focused discussions to improve student insight and understanding of the processes involved. (MSE)

  6. Bioleaching - an alternate uranium ore processing technology for India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abilash; Mehta, K.D.; Kumar, V.; Pandey, B.D.; Tamarakar, P.K.

    2010-01-01

    Meeting the feed supply of uranium fuel in the present and planned nuclear reactors calls for huge demand of uranium, which at the current rate of production, shows a mismatch. The processing methods at UCIL (DAE) needs to be modified/changed or re-looked into because of its very suitability in near future for low-index raw materials which are either unmined or stacked around if mined. There is practically no way to process tailings with still some values. Efforts were made to utilize such resources (low-index ore of Turamdih mines, containing 0.03% U 3 O 8 ) by NML in association with UCIL as a national endeavor. In this area, the R and D work showed the successful development of a bioleaching process from bench scale to lab scale columns and then finally to the India's first ever large scale column, from the view point of harnessing such a processing technology as an alternative for the uranium industry and nuclear sector in the country. The efforts culminated into the successful operation of large scale trials at the 2 ton level column uranium bioleaching that was carried out at the site of UCIL, Jaduguda yielding a maximum recovery of 69% in 60 days. This achievement is expected to pave the way for scaling up the activity to a 100T or even more heap bioleaching trials for realization of this technology, which needs to be carried out with the support of the nuclear sector in the country keeping in mind the national interest. (author)

  7. Short Horizon Control Strategies for an Alternating Activated Sludge Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaacs, Steven Howard

    1996-01-01

    Three control strategies allowing improved operational flexibility of an alternating type activated sludge process are presented in a unified model based framework. The control handles employed are the addition rate of an external carbon source to denitrification, the cycle length, and the dissol...

  8. A Comparison of Five Alternative Approaches to Information Systems Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Hirschheim

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available The field of information systems (IS has grown dramatically over the past three decades. Recent trends have transformed the IS landscape. These trends include: the evolution of implementation technology from centralized mainframe environments towards distributed client-server architectures, embracing the internet and intranets; changes in user interface technology from character-based to graphical user interfaces, multimedia, and the World Wide Web; changes in applications from transaction processing systems towards systems supporting collaborative work; and the use of information technology as an enabler of business process reengineering and redesign. These technology changes coupled with changes in organizations and their operating environment, such as the growth of the network and virtual organization, internationalization and globalization of many organizations, intensified global competition, changes in values such as customer orientation (service quality and Quality of Working Life, have imposed new demands on the development of information systems. These changes have led to an increasing discussion about information systems development (ISO, and in particular, the various methods, tools, methodologies, and approaches for ISD. We believe such discussion has opened the door for new, alternative IS development approaches and methodologies. Our paper takes up this theme by describing five alternative ISD approaches, namely the Interactionist approach, the Speech Act-based approach, Soft Systems Methodology, the Trade Unionist approach, and the Professional Work Practices approach. Despite the fact that most of these approaches have a history of over 15 years, their relevance to IS development is not well recognized in the mainstream of IS practice and research, nor is their institutional status comparable to traditional approaches such as structured analysis and design methods. Therefore we characterize the five approaches as 'alternative' in

  9. Scaling behaviour of randomly alternating surface growth processes

    CERN Document Server

    Raychaudhuri, S

    2002-01-01

    The scaling properties of the roughness of surfaces grown by two different processes randomly alternating in time are addressed. The duration of each application of the two primary processes is assumed to be independently drawn from given distribution functions. We analytically address processes in which the two primary processes are linear and extend the conclusions to nonlinear processes as well. The growth scaling exponent of the average roughness with the number of applications is found to be determined by the long time tail of the distribution functions. For processes in which both mean application times are finite, the scaling behaviour follows that of the corresponding cyclical process in which the uniform application time of each primary process is given by its mean. If the distribution functions decay with a small enough power law for the mean application times to diverge, the growth exponent is found to depend continuously on this power-law exponent. In contrast, the roughness exponent does not depe...

  10. Scaling behaviour of randomly alternating surface growth processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raychaudhuri, Subhadip; Shapir, Yonathan

    2002-01-01

    The scaling properties of the roughness of surfaces grown by two different processes randomly alternating in time are addressed. The duration of each application of the two primary processes is assumed to be independently drawn from given distribution functions. We analytically address processes in which the two primary processes are linear and extend the conclusions to nonlinear processes as well. The growth scaling exponent of the average roughness with the number of applications is found to be determined by the long time tail of the distribution functions. For processes in which both mean application times are finite, the scaling behaviour follows that of the corresponding cyclical process in which the uniform application time of each primary process is given by its mean. If the distribution functions decay with a small enough power law for the mean application times to diverge, the growth exponent is found to depend continuously on this power-law exponent. In contrast, the roughness exponent does not depend on the timing of the applications. The analytical results are supported by numerical simulations of various pairs of primary processes and with different distribution functions. Self-affine surfaces grown by two randomly alternating processes are common in nature (e.g., due to randomly changing weather conditions) and in man-made devices such as rechargeable batteries

  11. 77 FR 51551 - Proposed Renewal of Information Collection: Alternatives Process in Hydropower Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ...: Alternatives Process in Hydropower Licensing AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Office of Environmental Policy... approval for the collection of information for Alternatives Process in Hydropower Licensing. This... comments should reference Alternatives Process in Hydropower Licensing. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: To...

  12. Entrepreneurship and development - an alternative perspective

    OpenAIRE

    McCullagh, Ciaran

    1984-01-01

    Abstract: This paper offers an alternative to the more orthodox psychological approach to the study of entrepreneurship. It suggests that an adequate theory of entrepreneurship must consider a country's political and economic history and especially the way in which this history has structured the opportunities for economic gain open to social groups in the society. It further suggests that due to the different historical experience of underdeveloped countries, and especially international mon...

  13. Communications for alternative development: towards a paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, R

    1984-01-01

    fulfill basic needs, and to preserve cultural deversity. The development process must be politicized and controlled by the people rather than by technocrats and bureaucrats. The role of the state must be reevaluated. After World War II, the state was perceived as having the capacity to liberalize and equalize society. The state has failed to live up to this expectation. Social equality must be established through democratization. Social classes must be redefined, the inablity of the proletariat to absorb the poor must be recognized, and consumerism must be curbed. Communication is the tool which can promote the cause of human survival and human dignity and expose the agenda of the strong forces which, in reality, constitutes a global project to end humanity. This agenda is pursued by scientists and elitists around the world. Their activities and policies will doom mankind to nuclear war, or to violent conflict over resources, or to the destruction of the world's poor.

  14. The cost of ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass -- A comparison of selected alternative processes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grethlein, H.E.; Dill, T.

    1993-04-30

    The purpose of this report is to compare the cost of selected alternative processes for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol. In turn, this information will be used by the ARS/USDA to guide the management of research and development programs in biomass conversion. The report will identify where the cost leverages are for the selected alternatives and what performance parameters need to be achieved to improve the economics. The process alternatives considered here are not exhaustive, but are selected on the basis of having a reasonable potential in improving the economics of producing ethanol from biomass. When other alternatives come under consideration, they should be evaluated by the same methodology used in this report to give fair comparisons of opportunities. A generic plant design is developed for an annual production of 25 million gallons of anhydrous ethanol using corn stover as the model substrate at $30/dry ton. Standard chemical engineering techniques are used to give first order estimates of the capital and operating costs. Following the format of the corn to ethanol plant, there are nine sections to the plant; feed preparation, pretreatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation and dehydration, stillage evaporation, storage and denaturation, utilities, and enzyme production. There are three pretreatment alternatives considered: the AFEX process, the modified AFEX process (which is abbreviated as MAFEX), and the STAKETECH process. These all use enzymatic hydrolysis and so an enzyme production section is included in the plant. The STAKETECH is the only commercially available process among the alternative processes.

  15. A New Globalization Paradigm: World Unity or Alternatives for Development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Shvydanenko

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the conceptual foundations of the modern global economic system of development. It reflects the cyclical nature of changes to and the details of global integration processes. The creation of a global economy from a multi-paradigmatic angle is briefly outlined, taking into account the modern paradigms of globalization and the predominance of alternatives to the future development of a global economic space. The article investigates the development of a new type of world economy, a multi-system with a proven role for linkages and a more consolidated world economy. The article reveals the initial conditions for and main qualitative changes related to the integrated development of a complex network of interdependent national societies and macro-regional geo-economic structures. The article also reveals changes in the configuration of those factors that provide competitiveness for these societies and geo-economic formations.

  16. Evaluation Framework for Alternative Fuel Vehicles: Sustainable Development Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Shang Chang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Road transport accounts for 72.06% of total transport CO2, which is considered a cause of climate change. At present, the use of alternative fuels has become a pressing issue and a significant number of automakers and scholars have devoted themselves to the study and subsequent development of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs. The evaluation of AFVs should consider not only air pollution reduction and fuel efficiency but also AFV sustainability. In general, the field of sustainable development is subdivided into three areas: economic, environmental, and social. On the basis of the sustainable development perspective, this study presents an evaluation framework for AFVs by using the DEMATEL-based analytical network process. The results reveal that the five most important criteria are price, added value, user acceptance, reduction of hazardous substances, and dematerialization. Price is the most important criterion because it can improve the popularity of AFVs and affect other criteria, including user acceptance. Additional, the energy usage criterion is expected to significantly affect the sustainable development of AFVs. These results should be seriously considered by automakers and governments in developing AFVs.

  17. Flue Gas Cleaning With Alternative Processes and Reaction Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren Birk; Huang, Jun; Riisager, Anders

    2007-01-01

    Alternative methods to the traditional industrial NOX and SOXflue gas cleaning processes working at lower temperatures and/orleading to useful products are desired. In this work we presentour latest results regarding the use of molten ionic media inelectrocatalytic membrane separation, ionic liquid...... reversibleabsorption and supported ionic liquid deNOX catalysis. Furtherdevelopment of the methods will hopefully make them suitable forinstallation in different positions in the flue gas duct ascompared to the industrial methods available today....

  18. Alternative, Green Processes for the Precision Cleaning of Aerospace Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Phillip R.; Grandelli, Heather Eilenfield; Devor, Robert; Hintze, Paul E.; Loftin, Kathleen B.; Tomlin, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    Precision cleaning is necessary to ensure the proper functioning of aerospace hardware, particularly those systems that come in contact with liquid oxygen or hypergolic fuels. Components that have not been cleaned to the appropriate levels may experience problems ranging from impaired performance to catastrophic failure. Traditionally, this has been achieved using various halogenated solvents. However, as information on the toxicological and/or environmental impacts of each came to light, they were subsequently regulated out of use. The solvent currently used in Kennedy Space Center (KSC) precision cleaning operations is Vertrel MCA. Environmental sampling at KSC indicates that continued use of this or similar solvents may lead to high remediation costs that must be borne by the Program for years to come. In response to this problem, the Green Solvents Project seeks to develop state-of-the-art, green technologies designed to meet KSCs precision cleaning needs.Initially, 23 solvents were identified as potential replacements for the current Vertrel MCA-based process. Highly halogenated solvents were deliberately omitted since historical precedents indicate that as the long-term consequences of these solvents become known, they will eventually be regulated out of practical use, often with significant financial burdens for the user. Three solvent-less cleaning processes (plasma, supercritical carbon dioxide, and carbon dioxide snow) were also chosen since they produce essentially no waste stream. Next, experimental and analytical procedures were developed to compare the relative effectiveness of these solvents and technologies to the current KSC standard of Vertrel MCA. Individually numbered Swagelok fittings were used to represent the hardware in the cleaning process. First, the fittings were cleaned using Vertrel MCA in order to determine their true cleaned mass. Next, the fittings were dipped into stock solutions of five commonly encountered contaminants and were

  19. Development sustainable as alternative of environment transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Luz Angela

    1999-01-01

    The growth should be conceived from an angle in the one that all and each one of the members of the society takes conscience of its indispensable paper in the sustainable development of the resources of the planet. The present article offers certain key elements, necessary to take into account in the achievement of this development modality, highlighting the necessity to implement political of administration that go of the local plane going by the regional and national until culminating in the all planet

  20. Development of alternate extractant systems for fast reactor fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasudeva Rao, P.R.; Suresh, A.; Venkatesan, K.A.; Srinivasan, T.G.; Raj, Baldev

    2007-01-01

    Due to the limitations of TBP in processing of high burn-up, Pu-rich fast reactor fuels, there is a need to develop alternate extractants for fast reactor fuel processing. In this context, our Centre has been examining the suitability of alternate tri-alkyl phosphates. Third phase formation in the extraction of Th(IV) by TBP, tri-n-amyl phosphate (TAP) and tri-2-methyl-butyl phosphate (T2MBP) from nitric acid media has been investigated under various conditions to derive conclusions on their application for extraction of Pu at macro levels. The chemical and radiolytic degradation of tri-n-amyl-phosphate (TAP) diluted in normal paraffin hydrocarbon (NPH) in the presence of nitric acid has been investigated by the measurement of plutonium retention in organic phase. The potential application of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) for reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel has been explored. Extraction of uranium (VI) and palladium (II) from nitric acid medium by commercially available RTIL and tri-n-butyl phosphate solution in RTIL have been studied and the feasibility of electrodeposition of uranium as uranium oxide (UO 2 ) and palladium (II) as metallic palladium from the loaded organic phase have been demonstrated. This paper describes results of the above studies and discusses the suitability of the systems for fast reactor fuel reprocessing. (authors)

  1. Medical Countermeasure Product Development - Alternatives Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Maritime Research Laboratory of the Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) in 1995 as a Research Scientist. In January 1997 he was promoted... biosecurity role to supply to the Government and the World Health Organisation (WHO). In the future there may be circumstances where there is no... standards to solve national priority CBR or infectious disease threats. The PPP may enable Government to: • access and grow product development

  2. The Development of Alternative Food Cost Indexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-11-01

    this total effort were to develop a new uniform ration cost system which would be directly related to known consumer preferences and nutritional...usage by all military services. 6. Be easy to understand and use. 7. Provide a BDFA capable of meeting consumer preferences and requirements as well... consumer preferences . in addition, historical usage data cannot help but reflect certain undesirable influences that mi I itary food service has

  3. An alternative to motivate learners and to develop moral values in future physical and sports education professionals, using visual aids of USA-Cuba discrepancy in the teaching-learning process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Rizo-Valdés

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with a pedagogical alternative to motivate learners in classes with reference to USA-Cuba discrepancy using visual aids that express the different actions and aggressions of US-imperialism to Latin America, specifically our country with the purpose of widening its military supremacy and the policy of annexation towards our Island. The classes involve two main moments: 1- a directed lecture, 2- a workshop session to conclude; achieving the objectives of this pedagogical alternative, to the development of a set of teaching and intellectual skills contributing this way to the enhancement of moral values such as: identity, patriotism, anti-imperialism and solidarity among others.

  4. ALTERNATIVE MODELS OF FINANCING REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina, GRADEA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Public financing of infrastructure proved under performing at uneconomic prices, and because of political interference in the management of funds, understanding the problem leading to the adoption of private funding variant, an effective way of private funding being the financing of the project. Project financing is a concept that assessed by means of financing a specific technique. In this context, those granting funds usually through loans typically are only interested in cash flows and project profit, which are a source of funds for repayment of loans; they are less interested in the creditworthiness of those employed in the project (organizations, governments, communities and so on. This approach has led to the emergence of new ways of financing projects, new types of projects, such as regional and rural development.

  5. Allele-Specific Alternative mRNA processing (ASARP) | Informatics Technology for Cancer Research (ITCR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A software pipeline for prediction of allele-specific alternative RNA processing events using single RNA-seq data. The current version focuses on prediction of alternative splicing and alternative polyadenylation modulated by genetic variants.

  6. Process research and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickler, D. B.

    1986-01-01

    The following major processes involved in the production of crystalline-silicon solar cells were discussed: surface preparation, junction formation, metallization, and assembly. The status of each of these processes, and the sequence in which these processes are applied, were described as they were in 1975, as they were in 1985, and what they might be in the future.

  7. The application of natural language processing to augmentative and alternative communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbotham, D Jeffery; Lesher, Gregory W; Moulton, Bryan J; Roark, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in the application of natural language processing (NLP) to augmentative and alternative communication (AAC), particularly in the areas of interface design and word prediction. This article will survey the current state-of-the-science of NLP in AAC and discuss its future applications for the development of next generation of AAC technology.

  8. COCONUT WATER VINEGAR: NEW ALTERNATIVE WITH IMPROVED PROCESSING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD ANAS OTHAMAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vinegar is a condiment made from various sugary and starchy materials by alcoholic and subsequent acetic fermentation. Vinegar can be produced via different methods and from various types of raw material. A new alternative substrate for vinegar production namely mature coconut water has been tested and was compared with 2 common substrates which were coconut sap and pineapple juice. Substrates such as sap and juices have been found to have high amount of total soluble solids which corresponding to high sugar content in the substrates which is more than 14oBrix. Therefore, both substrates could be directly used for vinegar production without requirement of other carbon sources. However, coconut water which showed low Brix value need to be adjusted to 14oBrix by adding sucrose prior to the fermentation process. Substrates fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae have yielded 7-8% of alcohol within 7-10 days aerobic incubation at room temperature. The alcoholic medium were then used as a seed broth for acetic fermentation with Acetobactor aceti as inoculums and fermented for approximately 2 months to obtain at least 4% of acetic acid. Investigation on the effect of inoculum sizes and implementation of back-slopping technique were performed to improve the processing method for coconut water vinegar production. The results show that 10% of inoculum size was the best for acetic acid fermentation and the back-slopping technique has helped to reduce the process time of coconut water vinegar production.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter J. Tijrn

    2003-05-31

    This Final Report for Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC22-95PC93052, the ''Development of Alternative Fuels and Chemicals from Synthesis Gas,'' was prepared by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products), and covers activities from 29 December 1994 through 31 July 2002. The overall objectives of this program were to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture primarily of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and carbon monoxide (CO), to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at the LaPorte, Texas Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). Laboratory work was performed by Air Products and a variety of subcontractors, and focused on the study of the kinetics of production of methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas, the production of DME using the Liquid Phase Dimethyl Ether (LPDME{trademark}) Process, the conversion of DME to fuels and chemicals, and the production of other higher value products from syngas. Four operating campaigns were performed at the AFDU during the performance period. Tests of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Process and the LPDME{trademark} Process were made to confirm results from the laboratory program and to allow for the study of the hydrodynamics of the slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR) at a significant engineering scale. Two campaigns demonstrated the conversion of syngas to hydrocarbon products via the slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process. Other topics that were studied within this program include the economics of production of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), the identification of trace components in coal-derived syngas and the means to economically remove these species, and the study of systems for separation of wax from catalyst in the F-T process. The work performed under this Cooperative Agreement has continued to promote the development of technologies that use clean syngas produced

  10. Development of Teachers’ Alternative Certification in the USA

    OpenAIRE

    Pazyura Natalia

    2015-01-01

    The article reveals the prerequisites of appearance of alternative ways to train teachers in the USA at the end of the XX century as main mechanisms to increase qualitative and quantitative characteristics of teaching staff. The author concentrates the attention on the advantages and disadvantages of non-traditional ways to acquire teaching profession. The peculiarities of the development in different states of the country, main characteristics of the training with the help of alternative pro...

  11. Silicon web process development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Skutch, M. E.; Driggers, J. M.; Hopkins, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    The silicon web process takes advantage of natural crystallographic stabilizing forces to grow long, thin single crystal ribbons directly from liquid silicon. The ribbon, or web, is formed by the solidification of a liquid film supported by surface tension between two silicon filaments, called dendrites, which border the edges of the growing strip. The ribbon can be propagated indefinitely by replenishing the liquid silicon as it is transformed to crystal. The dendritic web process has several advantages for achieving low cost, high efficiency solar cells. These advantages are discussed.

  12. Uranium processing developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.Q.

    1977-01-01

    The basic methods for processing ore to recover the contained uranium have not changed significantly since the 1954-62 period. Improvements in mill operations have been the result of better or less expensive reagents, changes in equipment, and in the successful resolvement of many environmental matters. There is also an apparent trend toward large mills that can profitably process lower grade ores. The major thrust in the near future will not be on process technology but on the remaining environmental constraints associated with milling. At this time the main ''spot light'' is on tailings dam and impoundment area construction and reclamation. Plans must provide for an adequate safety factor for stability, no surface or groundwater contamination, and minimal discharge of radionuclides to unrestricted areas, as may be required by law. Solution mining methods must also provide for plans to restore the groundwater back to its original condition as defined by local groundwater regulations. Basic flowsheets (each to finished product) plus modified versions of the basic types are shown

  13. 25 CFR 42.4 - What are alternative dispute resolution processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are alternative dispute resolution processes? 42.4... What are alternative dispute resolution processes? Alternative dispute resolution (ADR) processes are... use them, contact the Office of Collaborative Action and Dispute Resolution by: (1) Sending an e-mail...

  14. Involvement of the visual change detection process in facilitating perceptual alternation in the bistable image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urakawa, Tomokazu; Bunya, Mao; Araki, Osamu

    2017-08-01

    A bistable image induces one of two perceptual alternatives. When the bistable visual image is continuously viewed, the percept of the image alternates from one possible percept to the other. Perceptual alternation was previously reported to be induced by an exogenous perturbation in the bistable image, and this perturbation was theoretically interpreted to cause neural noise, prompting a transition between two stable perceptual states. However, little is known experimentally about the visual processing of exogenously driven perceptual alternation. Based on the findings of a previous behavioral study (Urakawa et al. in Perception 45:474-482, 2016), the present study hypothesized that the automatic visual change detection process, which is relevant to the detection of a visual change in a sequence of visual events, has an enhancing effect on the induction of perceptual alternation, similar to neural noise. In order to clarify this issue, we developed a novel experimental paradigm in which visual mismatch negativity (vMMN), an electroencephalographic brain response that reflects visual change detection, was evoked while participants continuously viewed the bistable image. In terms of inter-individual differences in neural and behavioral data, we found that enhancements in the peak amplitude of vMMN1, early vMMN at a latency of approximately 150 ms, correlated with increases in the proportion of perceptual alternation across participants. Our results indicate the involvement of automatic visual change detection in the induction of perceptual alternation, similar to neural noise, thereby providing a deeper insight into the neural mechanisms underlying exogenously driven perceptual alternation in the bistable image.

  15. Alternative energy development strategies for China towards 2030

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linwei MA; Zheng LI; Feng FU; Xiliang ZHANG; Weidou NI

    2009-01-01

    The purposes, objectives and technology path-ways for alternative energy development are discussed with the aim of reaching sustainable energy development in China. Special attention has been paid to alternative power and alternative vehicle fuels. Instead of limiting alternative energy to energy sources such as nuclear and renewable energy, the scope of discussion is extended to alternative technologies such as coal power with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS), electric and hydrogen vehicles. In order to take account of the fact that China's sustainable energy development involves many dimen-sions, a six-dimensional indicator set has been established and applied with the aim of comprehensively evaluating different technology pathways in a uniform way. The ana-lysis reaches the following conclusions: (a) in the power sector, wind power, nuclear power and hydro power should be developed as much as possible, while R&D of solar power and coal power with CCS should be strengthened continuously for future deployment. (b) in the transporta-tion sector, there is no foreseeable silver bullet to replace oil on a large scale within the time frame of 20 to 30 years. To ease the severe energy security situation, expedient choices like coal derived fuels could be developed. However, its scale should be optimized in accordance to the trade-off of energy security benefits, production costs and environmental costs. Desirable alternative fuels (or technologies) like 2nd generation biofuels and electrical vehicles should be the subject of intensive R&D with the objective to be cost effective as early as possible.

  16. Alternative processes for managing existing commercial high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-04-01

    A number of alternatives are discussed for managing high-level radioactive waste presently stored at the West Valley, New York, plant owned by Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. These alternatives (liquid storage, conversion to cement, shale fracturing, shale cement, calcination, aqueous silicate, conversion to glass, and salt cake) are limited to concepts presently under active investigation by ERDA. Each waste management option is described and examined regarding the status of the technology; its applications to managing NFS waste; its advantages and disadvantages; the research and development needed to implement the option; safety considerations; and estimated costs and time to implement the process

  17. ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVE PAYMENT DESIGNS FOR FARMLAND DEVELOPMENT RIGHTS

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson, Steven D.

    1999-01-01

    Four alternative payment rules were examined to evaluate their ability to accomplish the objectives of the development rights purchase program. Paying the true economic value for the development rights does not allow the program to target high quality agricultural land. Modifying the payment strategy by offering a minimum payment will provide some extra incentive for high quality agricultural land in areas with little development pressure, but will provide little help in areas with high devel...

  18. Alternative financial institutions? Sustainability, development, social reproduction, and gender analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidder, T

    1999-08-01

    This paper proposes a conceptual framework for alternative financial institutions in Nicaragua. The article includes a discussion on innovative services and policies, which differentiate CARUNA (National Savings and Credit Cooperative ¿Caja Rural¿), and other financial institutions from conventional banks. It further examines theories that have altered the way development practitioners think about the economy, poverty reduction, and the positions of men and women in the society. These theories are the feminist economic theory and alternative development theories. Specific ways to incorporate the concepts of alternative and feminist economic theories in the design of financial institutions include open credit, savings, and remittance mechanisms, and coordinating councils. The gender analysis approach was used to evaluate the design of financial institutions.

  19. The processes of strategy development

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Andy; Johnson, Gerry

    1995-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the processes by which strategy is developed within organisations. It builds on research into the nature of strategy development being undertaken within the Centre for Strategic Management and Organisational Change at Cranfield School of Management. Initially the process of strategy development is discussed, a number of explanations of the process are presented and an integrated framework is developed. This framework is subsequently used to illustra...

  20. Coal-gold agglomeration: an alternative separation process in gold recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akcil, A.; Wu, X.Q.; Aksay, E.K. [Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Considering the increasing environmental concerns and the potential for small gold deposits to be exploited in the future, the uses of environmentally friendly processes are essential. Recent developments point to the potential for greatly increased plant performance through a separation process that combines the cyanide and flotation processes. In addition, this kind of alternative treatment processes to the traditional gold recovery processes may reduce the environmental risks of present small-scale gold mining. Gold recovery processes that applied to different types of gold bearing ore deposits show that the type of deposits plays an important role for the selection of mineral processing technologies in the production of gold and other precious metals. In the last 25 years, different alternative processes have been investigated on gold deposits located in areas where environmental issues are a great concern. In 1988, gold particles were first recovered by successful pilot trial of coal-gold agglomeration (CGA) process in Australia. The current paper reviews the importance of CGA in the production of gold ore and identifies areas for further development work.

  1. PSE in Pharmaceutical Process Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Cervera Padrell, Albert Emili; Woodley, John

    2011-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry is under growing pressure to increase efficiency, both in production and in process development. This paper will discuss the use of Process Systems Engineering (PSE) methods in pharmaceutical process development, and searches for answers to questions such as: Which PSE...

  2. Local alternative energy futures: developing economies/building communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Totten, M.; Glass, B.; Freedberg, M.; Webb, L.

    1980-12-01

    A separate abstract was prepared for each of the three parts of the conference. A sufficient range of information is presented to enable interested parties to explore the viable alternatives for community self-sufficiency. The parts are entitled: Financial Incentives and Funding Sources; Standards, Regulations, Mandates, Ordinances, Covenants; and Community/Economic Development. (MCW)

  3. USU Alternative and Unconventional Energy Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behunin, Robert [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); Wood, Byard [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); Heaslip, Kevin [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); Zane, Regan [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); Lyman, Seth [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); Simmons, Randy [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); Christensen, David [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States)

    2014-01-29

    and is poised to quickly become a multi-million dollar company with clients around the globe. Moreover, USU students and researchers alike are now on the leading edge of the electrified transportation workforce. Finally, the legacy of this DOE investment in electric transportation is continuing at USU with the formation in progress of an industry sponsored research center built around the Electric Roadway and Vehicle (EVR) research facility and test track (http://evr.usu.edu). The research conducted in unconventional energy environmental monitoring and beneficial reuse technologies experienced broad success developing experimental and modeling tools and implementing those tools to better understand environmental impacts of industrial processes used in unconventional energy development in the Utah’s Uintah Basin. Before this project began the USU Uintah Basin branch campus had minimal capability to perform this regionally critical environmental research. This research investment enabled monitoring and modeling equipment and expertise to assess impacts of energy development to all aspects of environmental quality. Laboratory capability for environmental analysis has been developed and engaged along with field testing at multiple locations. Successful campaigns to measure greenhouse gas and hydrocarbon emissions from produced water surface impoundments and leakage from subsurface oil and gas infrastructure were executed. A computer model of meteorological conditions during winter inversion episodes was created, and commercialization efforts are underway for those models. Finally, in the past 24 months, nearly $2 million in non- DOE external funding from state, local, federal and private entities has been awarded to USU Uintah Basin to continue and add to work and capability established by this task. The preceding examples represent a few highlights resulting from the USU Alternative and Unconventional Energy Research and Development project. The following report

  4. EUV mask process specifics and development challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesladek, Pavel

    2014-07-01

    EUV lithography is currently the favorite and most promising candidate among the next generation lithography (NGL) technologies. Decade ago the NGL was supposed to be used for 45 nm technology node. Due to introduction of immersion 193nm lithography, double/triple patterning and further techniques, the 193 nm lithography capabilities was greatly improved, so it is expected to be used successfully depending on business decision of the end user down to 10 nm logic. Subsequent technology node will require EUV or DSA alternative technology. Manufacturing and especially process development for EUV technology requires significant number of unique processes, in several cases performed at dedicated tools. Currently several of these tools as e.g. EUV AIMS or actinic reflectometer are not available on site yet. The process development is done using external services /tools with impact on the single unit process development timeline and the uncertainty of the process performance estimation, therefore compromises in process development, caused by assumption about similarities between optical and EUV mask made in experiment planning and omitting of tests are further reasons for challenges to unit process development. Increased defect risk and uncertainty in process qualification are just two examples, which can impact mask quality / process development. The aim of this paper is to identify critical aspects of the EUV mask manufacturing with respect to defects on the mask with focus on mask cleaning and defect repair and discuss the impact of the EUV specific requirements on the experiments needed.

  5. Development of synthetic gasoline production process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imai, T; Fujita, H; Yamada, K; Suzuki, T; Tsuchida, Y

    1986-01-01

    As oil deposits are limited, it is very important to develop techniques for manufacturing petroleum alternatives as substitute energy sources to brighten the outlook for the future. The Research Association for Petroleum Alternatives Development (RAPAD) in Japan is engaged in the research and development of production techniques for light hydrocarbon oils such as gasoline, kerosene, and light oil from synthesis gas (CO, H/sub 2/) obtained from the raw materials of natural gas, coal, etc. Regarding the MTG process of synthesizing gasoline via methanol from synthesis gas and the STG process of directly synthesizing gasoline from synthesis gas, Cosmo Oil Co., Ltd. and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., members of RAPAD, have sought jointly to develop catalysts and processes. As a result of this co-operation, the authors have recently succeeded in developing a new catalyst with a long life span capable of providing a high yield and high selectivity. Additionally, the authors are currently on the verge of putting into effect a unique two-step STG process of synthesizing high octane gasoline via dimethyl ether, referred to as the AMSTG process.

  6. Design of sustainable chemical processes: Systematic retrofit analysis, generation and evaluation alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, Ana; Gani, Rafiqul; Matos, Henrique

    2008-01-01

    eliminating the need to identify trade-off-based solutions. These indicators are also able to reduce (where feasible) a set of safety indicators. An indicator sensitivity analysis algorithm has been added to the methodology to define design targets and to generate sustainable process alternatives. A computer-aided...... tool has been developed to facilitate the calculations needed for the application of the methodology. The application of the indicator-based methodology and the developed software are highlighted through a process flowsheet for the production of vinyl chlorine monomer (VCM)....

  7. Optical computing - an alternate approach to trigger processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleland, W.E.

    1981-01-01

    The enormous rate reduction factors required by most ISABELLE experiments suggest that we should examine every conceivable approach to trigger processing. One approach that has not received much attention by high energy physicists is optical data processing. The past few years have seen rapid advances in optoelectronic technology, stimulated mainly by the military and the communications industry. An intriguing question is whether one can utilize this technology together with the optical computing techniques that have been developed over the past two decades to develop a rapid trigger processor for high energy physics experiments. Optical data processing is a method for performing a few very specialized operations on data which is inherently two dimensional. Typical operations are the formation of convolution or correlation integrals between the input data and information stored in the processor in the form of an optical filter. Optical processors are classed as coherent or incoherent, according to the spatial coherence of the input wavefront. Typically, in a coherent processor a laser beam is modulated with a photographic transparency which represents the input data. In an incoherent processor, the input may be an incoherently illuminated transparency, but self-luminous objects, such as an oscilloscope trace, have also been used. We consider here an incoherent processor in which the input data is converted into an optical wavefront through the excitation of an array of point sources - either light emitting diodes or injection lasers

  8. Engineering study: disposition of terminal liquors for interim storage. [Eight alternative processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz, W.P.; Ogren, W.E.

    1975-02-01

    Eight alternative processes were chosen as being technologically feasible within the time frame dictated by budgeting procedures and terminal liquor availability. Solidified waste products acceptable for single-shell tank storage were assumed to be placed in available single-shell tanks. Double-shell tanks were used only for the more mobile terminal liquors or semi-solid mush products. The mush, chemical neutralization, and clay in-tank processes offer potential savings of tens of millions of dollars over double-shell tank storage of terminal liquors. In order to achieve this cost savings, the process development and demonstration must be completed prior to the beginning of double-shell tank construction (Dec. 1976) expected to be funded from a fiscal year 1977 line item. Budgeting for these additional double-shell tanks must proceed since the processing options discussed here are not yet available and may not prove to be available at the required time. This study indicates the following topics for additional study: Process technology development to achieve interim storage of terminal liquor products receives the greatest emphasis as a means of reducing capital expenditures. Interim storage product criteria, waste inventory, and conversion to final form require definition to allow comparison of the alternatives for disposition of terminal liquors. The pseudotechnical nature of product acceptability criteria is important to the evaluation of the partial neutralization and aluminum removal alternatives. More accurate estimates of terminal liquor quantity and composition are required to give a sound technical basis for choosing the appropriate processing alternative. Retrieval and reprocessing operations may affect the comparisons presented by this study. (DLC)

  9. An alternative process to treat boiler feed water for reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirgis, Adel; Ghosh, Jyoti P; Achari, Gopal; Langford, Cooper H; Banerjee, Daliya

    2012-09-01

    A bench-scale process to treat boiler feed water for reuse in steam generation was developed. Industrial water samples from a steam-assisted gravity drainage plant in northern Alberta, Canada, were obtained and samples characterized. The technology, which consists of coagulation-settling to remove oil/grease and particulates followed by an advanced oxidative treatment, led to clean water samples with negligible organic carbon. Coagulation followed by settling removed most particulates and some insoluble organics. The advanced oxidative treatment removed any remaining color in the samples, decreased the organic content to near-zero, and provided water ready for reuse.

  10. Cost benefit and risk assessment for selected tank waste process testing alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasper, K.A.

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) program to safely manage wastes currently stored in underground tank at the Hanford Site. A TWRS testing and development strategy was recently developed to define long-range TWRS testing plans. The testing and development strategy considered four alternatives. The primary variable in the alternatives is the level of pilot-scale testing involving actual waste. This study evaluates the cost benefit and risks associated with the four alternatives. Four types of risk were evaluated: programmatic schedule risk, process mishap risk, worker risk, and public health risk. The structure of this report is as follows: Section 1 introduces the report subject; Section 2 describes the test strategy alternative evaluation; Section 3 describes the approach used in this study to assess risk and cost benefit; Section 4 describes the assessment methodologies for costs and risks; Section 5 describes the bases and assumptions used to estimate the costs and risks; Section 6 presents the detailed costs and risks; and Section 7 describes the results of the cost benefit analysis and presents conclusions

  11. Substantiation of selection method of preferred alternative of belt conveyor drive systems on the basis of the analytic hierarchy process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goncharov K.A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides substantiation of selection method of preferred alternative of belt conveyor drive systems on the basis of the analytic hierarchy process. Conditions for the correct application of the proposed method in the selection process of preferred alternative of technical objects were worked out. The set of criteria of system effectiveness evalua-tion and the corresponding hierarchical structure in accordance with the developed conditions was proposed.

  12. Is the nuclear power an ethic alternative for the development?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilegan, Constantin Iosif; Chirica, Teodor

    1999-01-01

    Is the nuclear power an ethical alternative for the development of the energy sector? This is the question the authors try to answer. Nuclear power is subject to constant attacks from different opponent groups. They have managed to make negative public opinion, especially after the Chernobyl accident, which tends to minimise the important of that alternative. Unfortunately, nuclear professionals are also the subjects of that propaganda and even some of us are pessimistic about the future of our sector. The public will accept nuclear power if the producer guarantees that he is able to meet three conditions for the electricity supply: generation without risks for public or the environment, as cost-effective as possible and with high availability. In order to keep the confidence of general public for nuclear power, the authors, with total openness, compared the up-to-date power alternatives. The conclusion is, that for the next future, to avoid the global heating effect and to meet the constrains for a 'cleaner world', the humanity must to rely on nuclear power, besides other cleaner conventional alternatives, as ethical sources of energy. (authors)

  13. High pressure as an alternative processing step for ham production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingen, Sylvia; Sudhaus, Nadine; Becker, André; Krischek, Carsten; Klein, Günter

    2016-08-01

    As high pressure processing (HPP) is becoming more and more important in the food industry, this study examined the application of HPP (500 and 600MPa) as a manufacturing step during simulated ham production. By replacing conventional heating with HPP steps, ham-like texture or color attributes could not be achieved. HPP products showed a less pale, less red appearance, softer texture and higher yields. However, a combination of mild temperature (53°C) and 500MPa resulted in parameters more comparable to cooked ham. We conclude that HPP can be used for novel food development, providing novel textures and colors. However, when it comes to ham production, a heating step seems to be unavoidable to obtain characteristic ham properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 14 CFR 17.33 - Election of alternative dispute resolution process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Election of alternative dispute resolution... TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURAL RULES PROCEDURES FOR PROTESTS AND CONTRACTS DISPUTES Alternative Dispute Resolution § 17.33 Election of alternative dispute resolution process. (a) The Office of Dispute Resolution for...

  15. COCONUT WATER VINEGAR: NEW ALTERNATIVE WITH IMPROVED PROCESSING TECHNIQUE

    OpenAIRE

    MUHAMMAD ANAS OTHAMAN; SHAIFUL ADZNI SHARIFUDIN; AZLINA MANSOR; AINAA ABD KAHAR; KAMARIAH LONG

    2014-01-01

    Vinegar is a condiment made from various sugary and starchy materials by alcoholic and subsequent acetic fermentation. Vinegar can be produced via different methods and from various types of raw material. A new alternative substrate for vinegar production namely mature coconut water has been tested and was compared with 2 common substrates which were coconut sap and pineapple juice. Substrates such as sap and juices have been found to have high amount of total soluble solids which correspo...

  16. Preliminary evaluation of alternative waste form solidification processes. Volume I. Identification of the processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treat, R.L.; Nesbitt, J.F.; Blair, H.T.; Carter, J.G.; Gorton, P.S.; Partain, W.L.; Timmerman, C.L.

    1980-04-01

    This document contains preconceptual design data on 11 processes for the solidification and isolation of nuclear high-level liquid wastes (HLLW). The processes are: in-can glass melting (ICGM) process, joule-heated glass melting (JHGM) process, glass-ceramic (GC) process, marbles-in-lead (MIL) matrix process, supercalcine pellets-in-metal (SCPIM) matrix process, pyrolytic-carbon coated pellets-in-metal (PCCPIM) matrix process, supercalcine hot-isostatic-pressing (SCHIP) process, SYNROC hot-isostatic-pressing (SYNROC HIP) process, titanate process, concrete process, and cermet process. For the purposes of this study, it was assumed that each of the solidification processes is capable of handling similar amounts of HLLW generated in a production-sized fuel reprocessing plant. It was also assumed that each of the processes would be enclosed in a shielded canyon or cells within a waste facility located at the fuel reprocessing plant. Finally, it was assumed that all of the processes would be subject to the same set of regulations, codes and standards. Each of the solidification processes converts waste into forms that may be acceptable for geological disposal. Each process begins with the receipt of HLLW from the fuel reprocessing plant. In this study, it was assumed that the original composition of the HLLW would be the same for each process. The process ends when the different waste forms are enclosed in canisters or containers that are acceptable for interim storage. Overviews of each of the 11 processes and the bases used for their identification are presented in the first part of this report. Each process, including its equipment and its requirements, is covered in more detail in Appendices A through K. Pertinent information on the current state of the art and the research and development required for the implementation of each process are also noted in the appendices

  17. Process developments in gasoil hydrotreating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, R.C.; Kinley, D.H.; Wood, M.A. [Davy Process Technology Limited, London (United Kingdom)

    1997-07-01

    Changing demand patterns and legislation increase the pressure upon hydrotreating capacities at many refineries. To meet these pressures, improvements have been and will be necessary not only in catalysts, but also in the hydrotreating process. On the basis of its hydrogenation experience, Davy Process Technology has developed and tested a number of concepts aimed at improving the effectiveness of the basic process - enabling economic deep desulfurisation and opening up the potential for an integrated HDS/HDA flowsheet using sulphur tolerant HDA Catalysts.

  18. Fluid queues driven by a birth and death process with alternating flow rates

    OpenAIRE

    P. R. Parthasarathy; K. V. Vijayashree; R. B. Lenin

    2004-01-01

    Fluid queue driven by a birth and death process (BDP) with only one negative effective input rate has been considered in the literature. As an alternative, here we consider a fluid queue in which the input is characterized by a BDP with alternating positive and negative flow rates on a finite state space. Also, the BDP has two alternating arrival rates and two alternating service rates. Explicit expression for the distribution function of the buffer occupancy is obtained. The case where the s...

  19. Cogeneration technology alternatives study. Volume 2: Industrial process characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Information and data for 26 industrial processes are presented. The following information is given for each process: (1) a description of the process including the annual energy consumption and product production and plant capacity; (2) the energy requirements of the process for each unit of production and the detailed data concerning electrical energy requirements and also hot water, steam, and direct fired thermal requirements; (3) anticipated trends affecting energy requirements with new process or production technologies; and (4) representative plant data including capacity and projected requirements through the year 2000.

  20. Validation of Alternative In Vitro Methods to Animal Testing: Concepts, Challenges, Processes and Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesinger, Claudius; Desprez, Bertrand; Coecke, Sandra; Casey, Warren; Zuang, Valérie

    This chapter explores the concepts, processes, tools and challenges relating to the validation of alternative methods for toxicity and safety testing. In general terms, validation is the process of assessing the appropriateness and usefulness of a tool for its intended purpose. Validation is routinely used in various contexts in science, technology, the manufacturing and services sectors. It serves to assess the fitness-for-purpose of devices, systems, software up to entire methodologies. In the area of toxicity testing, validation plays an indispensable role: "alternative approaches" are increasingly replacing animal models as predictive tools and it needs to be demonstrated that these novel methods are fit for purpose. Alternative approaches include in vitro test methods, non-testing approaches such as predictive computer models up to entire testing and assessment strategies composed of method suites, data sources and decision-aiding tools. Data generated with alternative approaches are ultimately used for decision-making on public health and the protection of the environment. It is therefore essential that the underlying methods and methodologies are thoroughly characterised, assessed and transparently documented through validation studies involving impartial actors. Importantly, validation serves as a filter to ensure that only test methods able to produce data that help to address legislative requirements (e.g. EU's REACH legislation) are accepted as official testing tools and, owing to the globalisation of markets, recognised on international level (e.g. through inclusion in OECD test guidelines). Since validation creates a credible and transparent evidence base on test methods, it provides a quality stamp, supporting companies developing and marketing alternative methods and creating considerable business opportunities. Validation of alternative methods is conducted through scientific studies assessing two key hypotheses, reliability and relevance of the

  1. Process Alternatives for Second Generation Ethanol Production from Sugarcane Bagasse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    F. Furlan, Felipe; Giordano, Roberto C.; Costa, Caliane B. B.

    2015-01-01

    on the economic feasibility of the process. For the economic scenario considered in this study, using bagasse to increase ethanol production yielded higher ethanol production costs compared to using bagasse for electric energy production, showing that further improvements in the process are still necessary.......In ethanol production from sugarcane juice, sugarcane bagasse is used as fuel for the boiler, to meet the steam and electric energy demand of the process. However, a surplus of bagasse is common, which can be used either to increase electric energy or ethanol production. While the first option uses...... already established processes, there are still many uncertainties about the techno-economic feasibility of the second option. In this study, some key parameters of the second generation ethanol production process were analyzed and their influence in the process feasibility assessed. The simulated process...

  2. The MINERVA Software Development Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narkawicz, Anthony; Munoz, Cesar A.; Dutle, Aaron M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a software development process for safety-critical software components of cyber-physical systems. The process is called MINERVA, which stands for Mirrored Implementation Numerically Evaluated against Rigorously Verified Algorithms. The process relies on formal methods for rigorously validating code against its requirements. The software development process uses: (1) a formal specification language for describing the algorithms and their functional requirements, (2) an interactive theorem prover for formally verifying the correctness of the algorithms, (3) test cases that stress the code, and (4) numerical evaluation on these test cases of both the algorithm specifications and their implementations in code. The MINERVA process is illustrated in this paper with an application to geo-containment algorithms for unmanned aircraft systems. These algorithms ensure that the position of an aircraft never leaves a predetermined polygon region and provide recovery maneuvers when the region is inadvertently exited.

  3. Biotechnological processes for biodiesel production using alternative oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azocar, Laura; Ciudad, Gustavo [La Frontera Univ., Temuco (Chile). Nucleo Cietifico Tecnologico en Biorrecursos; Heipieper, Hermann J. [Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Leipzig (Germany). Dept. of Environmental Biotechnology; Navia, Rodrigo [La Frontera Univ., Temuco (Chile). Nucleo Cietifico Tecnologico en Biorrecursos; La Frontera Univ., Temuco (Chile). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica

    2010-10-15

    As biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester (FAME)) is mainly produced from edible vegetable oils, crop soils are used for its production, increasing deforestation and producing a fuel more expensive than diesel. The use of waste lipids such as waste frying oils, waste fats, and soapstock has been proposed as low-cost alternative feedstocks. Non-edible oils such as jatropha, pongamia, and rubber seed oil are also economically attractive. In addition, microalgae, bacteria, yeast, and fungi with 20% or higher lipid content are oleaginous microorganisms known as single cell oil and have been proposed as feedstocks for FAME production. Alternative feedstocks are characterized by their elevated acid value due to the high level of free fatty acid (FFA) content, causing undesirable saponification reactions when an alkaline catalyst is used in the transesterification reaction. The production of soap consumes the conventional catalyst, diminishing FAME production yield and simultaneously preventing the effective separation of the produced FAME from the glycerin phase. These problems could be solved using biological catalysts, such as lipases or whole-cell catalysts, avoiding soap production as the FFAs are esterified to FAME. In addition, by-product glycerol can be easily recovered, and the purification of FAME is simplified using biological catalysts. (orig.)

  4. Process of establishing design requirements and selecting alternative configurations for conceptual design of a VLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Young Bae

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a process for establishing design requirements and selecting alternative configurations for the conceptual phase of aircraft design has been proposed. The proposed process uses system-engineering-based requirement-analysis techniques such as objective tree, analytic hierarchy process, and quality function deployment to establish logical and quantitative standards. Moreover, in order to perform a logical selection of alternative aircraft configurations, it uses advanced decision-making methods such as morphological matrix and technique for order preference by similarity to the ideal solution. In addition, a preliminary sizing tool has been developed to check the feasibility of the established performance requirements and to evaluate the flight performance of the selected configurations. The present process has been applied for a two-seater very light aircraft (VLA, resulting in a set of tentative design requirements and two families of VLA configurations: a high-wing configuration and a low-wing configuration. The resulting set of design requirements consists of three categories: customer requirements, certification requirements, and performance requirements. The performance requirements include two mission requirements for the flight range and the endurance by reflecting the customer requirements. The flight performances of the two configuration families were evaluated using the sizing tool developed and the low-wing configuration with conventional tails was selected as the best baseline configuration for the VLA.

  5. Integrated durability process in product development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pompetzki, M.; Saadetian, H.

    2002-01-01

    This presentation describes the integrated durability process in product development. Each of the major components of the integrated process are described along with a number of examples of how integrated durability assessment has been used in the ground vehicle industry. The durability process starts with the acquisition of loading information, either physically through loads measurement or virtually through multibody dynamics. The loading information is then processed and characterized for further analysis. Durability assessment was historically test based and completed through field or laboratory evaluation. Today, it is common that both the test and CAE environments are used together in durability assessment. Test based durability assessment is used for final design sign-off but is also critically important for correlating CAE models, in order to investigate design alternatives. There is also a major initiative today to integrate the individual components into a process, by linking applications and providing a framework to communicate information as well as manage all the data involved in the entire process. Although a single process is presented, the details of the process can vary significantly for different products and applications. Recent applications that highlight different parts of the durability process are given. As well as an example of how integration of software tools between different disciplines (MBD, FE and fatigue) not only simplifies the process, but also significantly improves it. (author)

  6. Preliminary evaluation of alternative waste form solidification processes. Volume II. Evaluation of the processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-08-01

    This Volume II presents engineering feasibility evaluations of the eleven processes for solidification of nuclear high-level liquid wastes (HHLW) described in Volume I of this report. Each evaluation was based in a systematic assessment of the process in respect to six principal evaluation criteria: complexity of process; state of development; safety; process requirements; development work required; and facility requirements. The principal criteria were further subdivided into a total of 22 subcriteria, each of which was assigned a weight. Each process was then assigned a figure of merit, on a scale of 1 to 10, for each of the subcriteria. A total rating was obtained for each process by summing the products of the subcriteria ratings and the subcriteria weights. The evaluations were based on the process descriptions presented in Volume I of this report, supplemented by information obtained from the literature, including publications by the originators of the various processes. Waste form properties were, in general, not evaluated. This document describes the approach which was taken, the developent and application of the rating criteria and subcriteria, and the evaluation results. A series of appendices set forth summary descriptions of the processes and the ratings, together with the complete numerical ratings assigned; two appendices present further technical details on the rating process

  7. Policy alternatives in reforming energy utilities in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriele, Alberto

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the policy alternatives faced by developing countries in their endeavor to preserve and develop their electricity and gas systems, two service-oriented industries which--along with oil--provide the bulk of energy supply both in developed and in developing countries. Even in very poor countries, industrially generated energy is indispensable for carrying out most economic activities. Therefore, governments traditionally recognize that the supply of gas and electricity entails a fundamental public service dimension. The Introduction presents the case for reforming of energy utilities, discusses in general terms the pros and cons of privatization, and attempts to locate the reforms in a broader historical framework in which developing countries' governments faced characterized by increasing financial hardship. Section 2 constitutes the core of the paper. It reviews the main features of gas and power sector reforms in the developing world and analyzes specifically the cases of five semi-industrialized countries in Latin America and Asia. Section 3 (Concluding remarks) briefly evaluates the country experiences reviewed above and indicates a few policy lessons which can be learnt from them. The main conclusion is that, in a long-run development perspective, full-scale privatization of gas and power sectors in developing countries entails significant risks, and therefore a flexible policy approach is preferable to a rigid commitment to extensive liberalization

  8. An alternative process for hydrogenation of sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana de Cassia de Souza Schneider

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Classic methodologies for hydrogenation of vegetable oils have traditionally been carried out by nickel catalysts under high pressure of H2 and high temperature. An alternative method for hydrogenation of sunflower oil using limonene and palladium-on-carbon was investigated in this study. The use of limonene as a hydrogen donor solvent was proposed in order to avoid high temperature and high-pressure conditions. The catalytic transfer of hydrogenation was studied by using 0.5 to 2% of Pd as a catalyst, a limonene:oil ratio of 3:1, and reaction times from 0.5 to 2 hours. Under these conditions, high selectivities for oleic acid and low concentrations of stearic acid were obtained.

  9. Homogeneous Discrete Time Alternating Compound Renewal Process: A Disability Insurance Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guglielmo D’Amico

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Discrete time alternating renewal process is a very simple tool that permits solving many real life problems. This paper, after the presentation of this tool, introduces the compound environment in the alternating process giving a systematization to this important tool. The claim costs for a temporary disability insurance contract are presented. The algorithm and an example of application are also provided.

  10. 14 CFR 17.35 - Selection of neutrals for the alternative dispute resolution process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... dispute resolution process. 17.35 Section 17.35 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURAL RULES PROCEDURES FOR PROTESTS AND CONTRACTS DISPUTES Alternative Dispute Resolution § 17.35 Selection of neutrals for the alternative dispute resolution process. (a) In...

  11. Design alternatives for process group membership and multicast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birman, Kenneth P.; Cooper, Robert; Gleeson, Barry

    1991-01-01

    Process groups are a natural tool for distributed programming, and are increasingly important in distributed computing environments. However, there is little agreement on the most appropriate semantics for process group membership and group communication. These issues are of special importance in the Isis system, a toolkit for distributed programming. Isis supports several styles of process group, and a collection of group communication protocols spanning a range of atomicity and ordering properties. This flexibility makes Isis adaptable to a variety of applications, but is also a source of complexity that limits performance. This paper reports on a new architecture that arose from an effort to simplify Isis process group semantics. Our findings include a refined notion of how the clients of a group should be treated, what the properties of a multicast primitive should be when systems contain large numbers of overlapping groups, and a new construct called the casuality domain. As an illustration, we apply the architecture to the problem of converting processes into fault-tolerant process groups in a manner that is 'transparent' to other processes in the system.

  12. Alternative processes for uranium recovery from phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte Neto, J.; Santos Benedetto, J. dos; Aquino, J.A. de

    1987-01-01

    Two processes of solvent extraction using D 2 EHPATOPO synergistic mixture, in order to recover uranium from phosphoric acid proceeding from physical and chemical treatments of the phosphorus-uraniferous ore of Itataia-CE, Brazil, are studied. The steps of each process were studied in laboratory and pilot scales. The flow charts for both processes with detailed description of each step, the operational conditions, the mass balances, the results obtained and the description of pilot units, are presented. (M.C.K.) [pt

  13. Regional LLRW processing alternatives applying the DOE REGINALT systems analysis model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beers, G.H.

    1987-01-01

    The DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program has developed a computer-based decision support system of models that may be used by nonprogrammers to evaluate a comprehensive approach to commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) management. REGINALT (Regional Waste Management Alternatives Analysis Model) implementation will be described as the model is applied to hypothetical regional compact for the purpose of examining the technical and economic potential of two waste processing alternatives. Using waste from a typical regional compact, two specific regional waste processing centers are compared for feasibility. Example 1 assumes that a regional supercompaction facility is being developed for the region. Example 2 assumes that a regional facility with both supercompaction and incineration is specified. Both examples include identical disposal facilities, except that capacity may differ due to variation in volume reduction achieved. The two examples are compared with regard to volume reduction achieved, estimated occupational exposure for the processing facilities, and life cycle costs per generated unit waste. A base case also illustrates current disposal practices. The results of the comparisons evaluated, and other steps, if necessary, for additional decision support are identified

  14. The aluminum smelting process and innovative alternative technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvande, Halvor; Drabløs, Per Arne

    2014-05-01

    The industrial aluminum production process is addressed. The purpose is to give a short but comprehensive description of the electrolysis cell technology, the raw materials used, and the health and safety relevance of the process. This article is based on a study of the extensive chemical and medical literature on primary aluminum production. At present, there are two main technological challenges for the process--to reduce energy consumption and to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. A future step may be carbon dioxide gas capture and sequestration related to the electric power generation from fossil sources. Workers' health and safety have now become an integrated part of the aluminum business. Work-related injuries and illnesses are preventable, and the ultimate goal to eliminate accidents with lost-time injuries may hopefully be approached in the future.

  15. New alternative processes for the treatment of the alkaline solvent wash waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecille, L.; Cumming, I.W.; Gasparini, G.; Dozol, J.F.

    1986-09-01

    The separate treatment of the solvent wash alkaline waste (ASWW) from the other low and medium level liquid wastes generated during reprocessing operations has been investigated through the development of three alternative processes dealing with solvent extraction, chemical precipitation combined with ultrafiltration and inorganic ion exchange. On the basis of lab-scale experiments performed on the same genuine ASWW sample, a comparison has been made between the respective performances of each of these processes in terms of selectivity, decontamination and volume reduction factors. From this assessment, it evolved that solvent extraction and chemical precipitation combined with utrafiltration processes are good competitors for implementing such kind of treatment although for the alpha DF, solvent extraction appears more flexible. To be really attractive, inorganic ion exchange should exhibit better VRF and DF possibly by pretreating the ASWW. 10 refs

  16. The development of an alternative thermoplastic powder prepregging technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, A. L.; Hyer, M. W.; Wilkes, G. L.; Loos, A. C.

    1992-01-01

    An alternative powder prepregging technique is discussed that is based on the deposition of powder onto carbon fibers that have been moistened using an ultrasonic humidifier. The dry fiber tow is initially spread to allow a greater amount of the fiber surface to be exposed to the powder, thus ensuring a significant amount of intimate contact between the fiber and the matrix. Moisture in the form of ultrafine water droplets is then deposited onto the spread fiber tow. The moisture promotes adhesion to the fiber until the powder can be tacked to the fibers by melting. Powdered resin is then sieved onto the fibers and then tacked onto the fibers by quick heating in a convective oven. This study focuses on the production of prepregs and laminates made with LaRC-TPI (thermoplastic polyimide) using this process. Although the process appears to be successful, early evaluation was hampered by poor interfacial adhesion. The adhesion problem, however, seems to be the result of a material system incompatibility, rather than being influenced by the process.

  17. Assessing Commercial and Alternative Poultry Processing Methods using Microbiome Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assessing poultry processing methods/strategies has historically used culture-based methods to assess bacterial changes or reductions, both in terms of general microbial communities (e.g. total aerobic bacteria) or zoonotic pathogens of interest (e.g. Salmonella, Campylobacter). The advent of next ...

  18. Early screening of nuclear waste retrieval and processing alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitty, W.J.; Cox, N.D.

    1979-01-01

    The retrieval and processing of the buried transuranic-contaminated waste stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory was studied by two task force teams. A linear additive scoring model was used for the evaluation. The figures of merit for the retrieval systems showed that one of the systems was superior to the others

  19. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 3: Industrial processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, W. B.; Gerlaugh, H. E.; Priestley, R. R.

    1980-01-01

    Cogenerating electric power and process heat in single energy conversion systems rather than separately in utility plants and in process boilers is examined in terms of cost savings. The use of various advanced energy conversion systems are examined and compared with each other and with current technology systems for their savings in fuel energy, costs, and emissions in individual plants and on a national level. About fifty industrial processes from the target energy consuming sectors were used as a basis for matching a similar number of energy conversion systems that are considered as candidate which can be made available by the 1985 to 2000 time period. The sectors considered included food, textiles, lumber, paper, chemicals, petroleum, glass, and primary metals. The energy conversion systems included steam and gas turbines, diesels, thermionics, stirling, closed cycle and steam injected gas turbines, and fuel cells. Fuels considered were coal, both coal and petroleum based residual and distillate liquid fuels, and low Btu gas obtained through the on site gasification of coal. An attempt was made to use consistent assumptions and a consistent set of ground rules specified by NASA for determining performance and cost. Data and narrative descriptions of the industrial processes are given.

  20. Development of alternative/renewable sources of energy in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharif, M.

    2005-01-01

    The depleting Conventional Energy Resources and highly raised prices of fuel oil, coal, firewood and such other fossil fuels, have forced the mankind to think about the utilization of Alternative / Renewable Sources of Energy. Alternative / Renewable Energy is very attractive, reliable and cost competitive energy. Sun is readily available to provide a clean, abundant and virtually infinite energy to meet the significant portion of mankind's energy-needs. The possible use of renewable-energy sources is discussed in this paper, in order to fill the estimated gap between the available energy-sources and energy-needs of our country in the near future. Designing, Fabrication and Installation of different renewable-energy devices by PCSIR are also discussed in this paper. Different renewable-energy devices such as, solar water heaters, solar cookers, solar dehydrators, solar water-desalination plants, solar heating and cooling of buildings, solar operated absorption-type chiller, solar furnace, solar architecture, developed by PCSIR are discussed in some detail so that the role of renewable-energy sources for their direct use (as heat and power) can be determined. Various technical aspects are discussed to reduce the unit cost with improved efficiency. (author)

  1. Live forensic acquisition as alternative to traditional forensic processes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lessing, M

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of live forensic acquisition in general presents a remedy for some of the problems introduced by traditional forensic acquisition. However, this live forensic acquisition introduces a variety of additional problems, unique...

  2. Patterns of Software Development Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Javier Bolaños Castro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available "Times New Roman","serif";mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA">This article presents a set of patterns that can be found to perform best practices in software processes that are directly related to the problem of implementing the activities of the process, the roles involved, the knowledge generated and the inputs and outputs belonging to the process. In this work, a definition of the architecture is encouraged by using different recurrent configurations that strengthen the process and yield efficient results for the development of a software project. The patterns presented constitute a catalog, which serves as a vocabulary for communication among project participants [1], [2], and also can be implemented through software tools, thus facilitating patterns implementation [3]. Additionally, a tool that can be obtained under GPL (General Public license is provided for this purpose

  3. The Aluminum Smelting Process and Innovative Alternative Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabløs, Per Arne

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The industrial aluminum production process is addressed. The purpose is to give a short but comprehensive description of the electrolysis cell technology, the raw materials used, and the health and safety relevance of the process. Methods: This article is based on a study of the extensive chemical and medical literature on primary aluminum production. Results: At present, there are two main technological challenges for the process—to reduce energy consumption and to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. A future step may be carbon dioxide gas capture and sequestration related to the electric power generation from fossil sources. Conclusions: Workers' health and safety have now become an integrated part of the aluminum business. Work-related injuries and illnesses are preventable, and the ultimate goal to eliminate accidents with lost-time injuries may hopefully be approached in the future. PMID:24806723

  4. Performance of wet process method alternatives : terminal or continuous blend

    OpenAIRE

    Fontes, Liseane P. T. L.; Pereira, Paulo A. A.; Pais, Jorge C.; Trichês, Glicério

    2006-01-01

    This study presents the results of the research to investigate asphalt rubber mixtures produced with asphalt rubber binder obtained from two different processes; (i) terminal blend (produced in refinery); (ii) continuous blend (produced in laboratory). The experiment included the evaluation of fatigue and permanent deformation resistance of two gap graded mixtures (Caltrans ARHM -GG; ADOT AR-A C) and a dense gradation Asphalt Institute (AI) mix type IV) Two asphalt rubbers from terminal blend...

  5. Intragenesis and cisgenesis as alternatives to transgenic crop development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Wendt, Toni; Holm, Preben Bach

    2013-01-01

    One of the major concerns of the general public about transgenic crops relates to the mixing of genetic materials between species that cannot hybridize by natural means. To meet this concern, the two transformation concepts cisgenesis and intragenesis were developed as alternatives to transgenesis...... from cisgenesis by allowing use of new gene combinations created by in vitro rearrangements of functional genetic elements. Several surveys show higher public acceptance of intragenic/cisgenic crops compared to transgenic crops. Thus, although the intragenic and cisgenic concepts were introduced...... internationally only 9 and 7 years ago, several different traits in a variety of crops have currently been modified according to these concepts. Five of these crops are now in field trials and two have pending applications for deregulation. Currently, intragenic/cisgenic plants are regulated as transgenic plants...

  6. Evaluation of alternative drying techniques for the earthworm flour processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Suárez Hernández

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of earthworm flour includes several steps, among which the most critical is the drying process due to factors such as time and energ y requirements. In addition, the information available about this process is relquite limited. Thus, this work evaluated four drying techniques likely to be implemented by lombricultores: sun drying, oven drying, drying tunnel and microwave assisted drying. Drying kinetics values were obtained for all drying techniques, and specific parameters as the following were evaluated: drying tray material (stainless and ceramic steel for sun drying, microwave power (30 %, 50 % and 80 % and amount of material to be dried (72 and 100 g for microwave assisted drying, temperature (50, 65, 90 and 100 °C for oven drying, and temperature (50 and 63 °C and air speed (2.9 to 3.6 m/s for tunnel drying. It was determined that the most efficient technique is the drying tunnel, because this allows the combination of heat transfer by conduction and convection, and enables controlling the operating parameters. Finally, nutritional analyzes were performed in samples obtained by each drying technique evaluated. The crude protein content for sun drying, microwave assisted drying, oven drying and tunnel drying were 66.36 %, 67.91 %, 60.35 % and 62.33 % respectively, indicating that the drying method and operating parameters do not significantly affect the crude protein content.

  7. Newly Generated Liquid Waste Processing Alternatives Study, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landman, William Henry; Bates, Steven Odum; Bonnema, Bruce Edward; Palmer, Stanley Leland; Podgorney, Anna Kristine; Walsh, Stephanie

    2002-09-01

    This report identifies and evaluates three options for treating newly generated liquid waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The three options are: (a) treat the waste using processing facilities designed for treating sodium-bearing waste, (b) treat the waste using subcontractor-supplied mobile systems, or (c) treat the waste using a special facility designed and constructed for that purpose. In studying these options, engineers concluded that the best approach is to store the newly generated liquid waste until a sodium-bearing waste treatment facility is available and then to co-process the stored inventory of the newly generated waste with the sodium-bearing waste. After the sodium-bearing waste facility completes its mission, two paths are available. The newly generated liquid waste could be treated using the subcontractor-supplied system or the sodium-bearing waste facility or a portion of it. The final decision depends on the design of the sodium-bearing waste treatment facility, which will be completed in coming years.

  8. Microwave heating processing as alternative of pretreatment in second-generation biorefinery: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar-Reynosa, Alejandra; Romaní, Aloia; Rodríguez-Jasso, Rosa Ma.; Aguilar, Cristóbal N.; Garrote, Gil; Ruiz, Héctor A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Microwave heating pretreatment for lignocellulosic material. • Fundament of lignocellulosic material fractionation using microwave irradiation. • Energy consumption in microwave pretreatments and microwave reactors description. • Microwave heating as pretreatment in a biorefinery concept. - Abstract: The development of a feasible biorefinery is in need of alternative technologies to improve lignocellulosic biomass conversion by the suitable use of energy. Microwave heating processing (MHP) is emerging as promising unconventional pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials (LCMs). MHP applied as pretreatment induces LCMs breakdown through the molecular collision caused by the dielectric polarization. Polar particles movement generates a quick heating consequently the temperatures and times of process are lower. In this way, MHP has positioned as green technology in comparison with other types of heating. Microwave technology represents an excellent option to obtain susceptible substrates to enzymatic saccharification and subsequently in the production of bioethanol and high-added compounds. However, it is still necessary to study the dielectric properties of materials, and conduct economic studies to achieve development in pilot and industrial scale. This work aims to provide an overview of recent progress and alternative configurations for combining the application of microwave technology on the pretreatment of LCMs in terms of biorefinery.

  9. Development process of subjects society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Reshetnichenko

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background due to defining the role of people in the development of society and the almost complete absence of scientific management processes capable of progressive development of both individuals and social communities, and nations, and civilization in general. In order to overcome inherent subjectivist methodology of knowledge, psyholohizatorskyh, hiperpolityzovanyh and utilitarian approach, the authors proposed a three-tier system of business processes of society. The conceptual core of the approach consists in the detection task as logical - mathematical laws of subjects of primary, secondary and higher levels of development, and on the mechanisms of their formation and practice. The solution of the tasks allowed the authors to reveal the structure of both the ascending and descending processes of economic society. Thus, the analysis of individual carriers upward changes as «individual», «individuality», «person» and «personality» showed conditionality determination of their activities with «anthropometric», «ethnic», «demographic» and «ideological» mechanisms. Nature as common carriers downstream changes revealed using correlative related «groups», «group «, «groups» and «communities» whose activity is due to «vitalistic», «education», «professional» and «stratification» mechanisms. To disclose the nature and organization of secondary and higher levels of economic society by the authors introduced the category of «citizen», «heneralista», «human space», «human galactic» ‘formation and development is causing «status», «Persona logical», «humanocentric», «institutional», «cluster», «kontaminatsiyni» and other mechanisms. One of the main achievements of the work, the authors consider the possibility of further development and practical implementation of new quality management processes of economic society based multimodal dialectical logic.

  10. Alternatives to Organic Solvents in Industrial Cleaning Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    To control chemical hazards in work places, substitution of harmful substances with less harmful or non-toxic products is now a method used in many countries and in many companies. It has previously been demonstrated that it is desirable and possible to use non-volatile, low-toxic vegetable...... cleaning agents in offset printing companies instead of volatile, toxic organic solvents. The present study is based on a project with the aim of defining other industrial processes, where organic solvents used for cleaning or degreasing can be replaced by non-volatile, low-toxic products, which are based...... on esters from fatty acids of vegetable origin (vegetable esters - VE).The study indicates that industrial cleaning/degreasing with organic solvents may be substituted with VEs on metal surfaces and on some coated surfaces, in manufacture of paints and inks, use of paints, use of inks (printing), metal...

  11. Fuel alternatives for oil sands development - the nuclear option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bock, D [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Mississauga, ON (Canada); Donnelly, J K

    1996-12-31

    Currently natural gas is the fuel of choice in all oil sand developments. Alberta sources of hydrocarbon based fuels are large but limited. Canadian nuclear technology was studied as a possible alternative for providing steam for the deep commercial in situ oil sand projects which were initiated over ten years ago. Because the in situ technology of that time required steam at pressures in excess of 10 MPa, the nuclear option required the development of new reactor technology, or the use of steam compressors, which was not economical. The current SAGD (steam assisted gravity drainage) technology requires steam at pressures of less than 5 MPa, which is in the reach of existing Canadian nuclear technology. The cost of supplying steam for a SAGD in situ project using a CANDU 3 nuclear reactor was developed. The study indicates that for gas prices in excess of $2.50 per gigajoule, replacing natural gas fuel with a nuclear reactor is economically feasible for in situ projects in excess of 123 thousand barrels per day. (author). 9 refs., 3 tabs., 12 figs.

  12. Fuel alternatives for oil sands development - the nuclear option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bock, D.; Donnelly, J.K.

    1995-01-01

    Currently natural gas is the fuel of choice in all oil sand developments. Alberta sources of hydrocarbon based fuels are large but limited. Canadian nuclear technology was studied as a possible alternative for providing steam for the deep commercial in situ oil sand projects which were initiated over ten years ago. Because the in situ technology of that time required steam at pressures in excess of 10 MPa, the nuclear option required the development of new reactor technology, or the use of steam compressors, which was not economical. The current SAGD (steam assisted gravity drainage) technology requires steam at pressures of less than 5 MPa, which is in the reach of existing Canadian nuclear technology. The cost of supplying steam for a SAGD in situ project using a CANDU 3 nuclear reactor was developed. The study indicates that for gas prices in excess of $2.50 per gigajoule, replacing natural gas fuel with a nuclear reactor is economically feasible for in situ projects in excess of 123 thousand barrels per day. (author). 9 refs., 3 tabs., 12 figs

  13. SPECIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE EDUCATION PROCESS OF ALTERNATIVE SCHOOLCHILDREN IN THE USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Stanislavovna Bessarabova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The urgency of the topic is stipulated by the importance of the problem of education of the schoolchildren who have other (alternative physical or mental development and who belong to a separate cultural group with its own features, possibilities and needs in education.The purpose of the research is to reveal the essential parts of the inclusive educational environment in the approaches of American scholars. The problem is studied in the context of multicultural education.The results of the research showed that the formation of the inclusive educational environment should be based on the principles of multicultural education: anti-racist character of education, which rejects any forms of discrimination of schoolchildren; orientation to the achievement of social justness; liberal character (education helps a person to overcome self-oppression and lack of confidence in one’s efforts; transmission character (a person transmits knowledge and skills from school community to society; transactional character (inclusive educational environment provides the opportunity of mutual transaction of the representatives of two different cultures – alternative children and traditional children; transformational cha-racter (an alternative child is transformed from the passive object of the life care of the family into the ultimate self-sufficient subject who is able to take part in the life of the society.Practical implications of the results. The results of the research are applicable in the process of working out of the new technologies, methods and approaches in education to create inclusive educational environment in educational institution and in the process of the development of multicultural competence as an essential personal quality of a modern professional.

  14. Biochemical Process Development and Integration | Bioenergy | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochemical Process Development and Integration Biochemical Process Development and Integration Our conversion and separation processes to pilot-scale integrated process development and scale up. We also Publications Accounting for all sugar produced during integrated production of ethanol from lignocellulosic

  15. Software Development Standard Processes (SDSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavin, Milton L.; Wang, James J.; Morillo, Ronald; Mayer, John T.; Jamshidian, Barzia; Shimizu, Kenneth J.; Wilkinson, Belinda M.; Hihn, Jairus M.; Borgen, Rosana B.; Meyer, Kenneth N.; hide

    2011-01-01

    A JPL-created set of standard processes is to be used throughout the lifecycle of software development. These SDSPs cover a range of activities, from management and engineering activities, to assurance and support activities. These processes must be applied to software tasks per a prescribed set of procedures. JPL s Software Quality Improvement Project is currently working at the behest of the JPL Software Process Owner to ensure that all applicable software tasks follow these procedures. The SDSPs are captured as a set of 22 standards in JPL s software process domain. They were developed in-house at JPL by a number of Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) residing primarily within the Engineering and Science Directorate, but also from the Business Operations Directorate and Safety and Mission Success Directorate. These practices include not only currently performed best practices, but also JPL-desired future practices in key thrust areas like software architecting and software reuse analysis. Additionally, these SDSPs conform to many standards and requirements to which JPL projects are beholden.

  16. Technology development life cycle processes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, David Franklin

    2013-05-01

    This report and set of appendices are a collection of memoranda originally drafted in 2009 for the purpose of providing motivation and the necessary background material to support the definition and integration of engineering and management processes related to technology development. At the time there was interest and support to move from Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) Level One (ad hoc processes) to Level Three. As presented herein, the material begins with a survey of open literature perspectives on technology development life cycles, including published data on %E2%80%9Cwhat went wrong.%E2%80%9D The main thrust of the material presents a rational expose%CC%81 of a structured technology development life cycle that uses the scientific method as a framework, with further rigor added from adapting relevant portions of the systems engineering process. The material concludes with a discussion on the use of multiple measures to assess technology maturity, including consideration of the viewpoint of potential users.

  17. Commercial processing and disposal alternatives for very low levels of radioactive waste in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benda, G.A.

    2005-01-01

    The United States has several options available in the commercial processing and disposal of very low levels of radioactive waste. These range from NRC licensed low level radioactive sites for Class A, B and C waste to conditional disposal or free release of very low concentrations of material. Throughout the development of disposal alternatives, the US promoted a graded disposal approach based on risk of the material hazards. The US still promotes this approach and is renewing the emphasis on risk based disposal for very low levels of radioactive waste. One state in the US, Tennessee, has had a long and successful history of disposal of very low levels of radioactive material. This paper describes that approach and the continuing commercial options for safe, long term processing and disposal. (author)

  18. Development of alternative materials for BWR fuel springs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uruma, Y.; Osato, T.; Yamazaki, K.

    2002-01-01

    Major sources of radioactivity introduced into reactor water of BWR were estimated fuel crud and in-core materials (especially, fuel springs). Fuel springs are used for fixation of fuel cladding tubes with spacer grid. Those are small parts (total length is only within 25 mm) and so many numbers are loaded simultaneously and then total surfaces area are calculated up to about 200 m 2 . Fuel springs are located under high radiation field and high oxidative environment. Conventional fuel spring is made of alloy-X750 which is one of nickel-based alloy and is reported to show relatively higher corrosion release rate. 58 Co and 60 Co will be released directly into reactor water from intensely radio-activated fuel springs surface and increase radioactivity concentrations in primary coolant. Corrosion release control from fuel springs is an important technical item and a development of alternative material instead of alloy-X750 for fuel spring is a key subject to achieve ultra low man-rem exposure BWR plant. In present work, alloy-X718 which started usage for PWR fuel springs and stainless steel type 316L which has many mechanical property data are picked up for alternative materials and compared their corrosion behaviors with conventional material. Corrosion experiment was conducted under vapor-water two phases flow which is simulated fuel cladding surface boiling condition. After exposure, corrosion film formed under corrosion test was analyzed in detail and corrosion film amount and corrosion release amount are estimated among three materials. (authors)

  19. Alternatives and implication in process of environmental impact assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauš Peter

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available EIA is an interactive, rule-based expert system for the environmental impact assessment. It is designed for a screening level assessment of development projects at a pre-feasibility stage. Typical problems for the evaluation include: resettlement; watershed degradation; encroachment upon precious ecosystems; encroachment on historical/cultural values; watershed erosion; reservoir siltation; impairment of navigation; changes in groundwater hydrology, waterlogging; seepage and evaporation losses; migration of valuable fish species; inundation of mineral resources/forests; other inundation losses and adverse effects. It is important to prevent environmental pollution when carrying out large-scale development projects, such as artificial change of landscapes and building of certain structures that may cause a tremendous impact on the environment. In accordance with Cities Environmental Impact Assessment Departments it is necessary to provide project organisers with a necessary advice and instructions concerning the environmental impact assessment a survey to predict and evaluate environmental impact to be conducted by project organisers. Prior to offering the advice and instructions, cities need to hear the opinions of residents of the areas concerned, mayors of related municipalities and other opinion leaders, including specialists, to reflect their views in the environmental preservation. The first aspect in any quality assessment is to determine the representativeness of data both in terms of physical siting and data collected. It must be recognised the environment is a dynamic fluid; quality therefore varies over space and time. There will be locations in any community that experience poorer quality than recorded at a monitoring station. Likewise other sites will have a better quality. Most communities have only a single monitoring site. Therefore, the air quality monitors are sited to provide a representative estimate of the community exposure

  20. Risk-Informed Decision Making: Application to Technology Development Alternative Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezfuli, Homayoon; Maggio, Gaspare; Everett, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    NASA NPR 8000.4A, Agency Risk Management Procedural Requirements, defines risk management in terms of two complementary processes: Risk-informed Decision Making (RIDM) and Continuous Risk Management (CRM). The RIDM process is used to inform decision making by emphasizing proper use of risk analysis to make decisions that impact all mission execution domains (e.g., safety, technical, cost, and schedule) for program/projects and mission support organizations. The RIDM process supports the selection of an alternative prior to program commitment. The CRM process is used to manage risk associated with the implementation of the selected alternative. The two processes work together to foster proactive risk management at NASA. The Office of Safety and Mission Assurance at NASA Headquarters has developed a technical handbook to provide guidance for implementing the RIDM process in the context of NASA risk management and systems engineering. This paper summarizes the key concepts and procedures of the RIDM process as presented in the handbook, and also illustrates how the RIDM process can be applied to the selection of technology investments as NASA's new technology development programs are initiated.

  1. Alternative waste form development - low-temperature pyrolytic carbon coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oma, K.H.; Rusin, J.M.; Kidd, R.W.; Browning, M.F.

    1981-01-01

    Although several chemical vapor deposition (CVD) - coated waste forms have been successfully produced, some major disadvantages associated with the high-temperature fluidized-bed CVD coating process exist. To overcome these disadvantages, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory has initiated the development of a pyrolytic carbon CVD coating system to coat large waste-form particles at temperatures ranging from 400 to 500/degree/C. This relatively simple system has been used to coat kilogram quantities of simulated waste-glass marbles. Further development of this system could result in a viable process to coat bulk quantities of both glass and ceramic waste forms. This paper discusses various aspects of the development work, including coating techniques, parametric study, and coater equipment. 10 refs

  2. Development of advanced spent fuel management process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Young Joon; Cho, S. H.; You, G. S.

    2001-04-01

    Currently, the economic advantage of any known approach to the back end fuel cycle of a nuclear power reactor has not been well established. Thus the long term storage of the spent fuel in a safe manner is one of the important issues to be resolved in countries where the nuclear power has a relatively heavy weight in power production of that country. At KAERI, as a solution to this particular issue midterm storage of the spent fuel, an alternative approach has been developed. This approach includes the decladding and pulverization process of the spent PWR fuel rod, the reducing process from the uranium oxide to a metallic uranium powder using Li metal in a LiCl salt, the continuous casting process of the reduced metal, and the recovery process of Li from mixed salts by the electrolysis. We conducted the laboratory scale tests of each processes for the technical feasibility and determination for the operational conditions for this approach. Also, we performed the theoretical safety analysis and conducted integral tests for the equipment integration through the Mock-up facility with non-radioactive samples. There were no major issues in the approach, however, material incompatibility of the alkaline metal and oxide in a salt at a high temperature and the reactor that contains the salt became a show stopper of the process. Also the difficulty of the clear separation of the salt with metals reduced from the oxide became a major issue

  3. Development of the Model of Decision Support for Alternative Choice in the Transportation Transit System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabashkin Igor

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The decision support system is one of the instruments for choosing the most effective decision for cargo owner in constant fluctuated business environment. The objective of this Paper is to suggest the multiple-criteria approach for evaluation and choice the alternatives of cargo transportation in the large scale transportation transit system for the decision makers - cargo owners. The large scale transportation transit system is presented by directed finite graph. Each of 57 alternatives is represented by the set of key performance indicators Kvi and set of parameters Paj. There has been developed a two-level hierarchy system of criteria with ranging expert evaluations based on Analytic Hierarchy Process Method. The best alternatives were suggested according to this method.

  4. Toxicological evaluation of natural rubber films from vulcanized latex by the conventional process and the alternative process with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Vania Elisabeth

    1997-01-01

    The industrial vulcanization of natural rubber latex (NRL) is made all over the world by conventional process using sulphur and heat but it can be made by an alternative process using ionizing radiation. In this research the NRL was tested by 13 physical, chemical and mechanical assays which showed its good quality. It was done a preliminary study of the toxicological properties of 4 natural rubber films obtained by casting process of NRL: one non vulcanized, other vulcanized by the conventional process and two vulcanized by the alternative process. In the alternative process the films were obtained by irradiation of NRL by gamma rays from the 60 Co source at 250 kGy in the absence of sensitizer and irradiated NRL at 12 kGy in the presence of 4ph r of n-butyl acrylate / 0.2 phr of KOH. These vulcanization doses were determined from broken tensile strength. In the conventional process, sulphur vulcanized NRL was made using a classical composition. Another film was made with non vulcanized NRL. The preliminary evaluation of the toxicological properties was made from in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo systemic toxicity assays. The LBN films vulcanized by the alternative process have less cytotoxicity than the NRL film vulcanized by the conventional process. The sensitized vulcanized films by gamma rays and non vulcanized films showed similar cytotoxicity while the vulcanized films without sensitizer showed a slight lower cytotoxicity. The non vulcanized NRL film and the NRL films vulcanized by the alternative process did not show toxic effects int he 72 hours period of the systemic toxicity assay. However the NRL film vulcanized with sulphur induced effects like allaying and motor in coordination on the animals treated with an oil extract at the fourth hour and recovering after that. The alternative process promoted lower toxic effects than conventional process because there was no toxic substances present. (author)

  5. Functionality of alternative protein in gluten-free product development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deora, Navneet Singh; Deswal, Aastha; Mishra, Hari Niwas

    2015-07-01

    Celiac disease is an immune-mediated disease triggered in genetically susceptible individuals by ingested gluten from wheat, rye, barley, and other closely related cereal grains. The current treatment for celiac disease is life-long adherence to a strict gluten-exclusion diet. The replacement of gluten presents a significant technological challenge, as it is an essential structure-building protein, which is necessary for formulating high-quality baked goods. A major limitation in the production of gluten-free products is the lack of protein functionality in non-wheat cereals. Additionally, commercial gluten-free mixes usually contain only carbohydrates, which may significantly limit the amount of protein in the diet. In the recent past, various approaches are attempted to incorporate protein-based ingredients and to modify the functional properties for gluten-free product development. This review aims to the highlight functionality of the alternative protein-based ingredients, which can be utilized for gluten-free product development both functionally as well as nutritionally. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. The Process of Trust Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren; Højland, Jeppe

    in management among employees. Trust is found to be higher among employees interacting regularly with managers, as in the project coordination group. It is found that personal relations are very important for the development of trust. The success of the project may be explained by the involvement of an ‘elite...... and discuss with colleagues from other departments and develop personal knowledge of each other....... by high trust and co-operation? In this paper we explore the process of trust development during an organisational change project in a Danish SME by looking at two kinds of trust relations: employee trust in management and trust relations among employees. We find substantial differences in trust...

  7. The National Shipbuilding Research Program: Producibility Cost Reductions through Alternative Materials and Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Horsmon, Jr., Albert W; Johnson, Karl; Gans-Devney, Barbara

    1999-01-01

    This report describes research into the use of alternative materials and processes to reduce material and labor costs while also looking at the influence of these choices on the life cycle costs of the vessel...

  8. Evaluation of alternative fuels for the Greek road transport sector using the analytic hierarchy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsita, Katerina G.; Pilavachi, Petros A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates alternative fuels for the Greek road transport sector, using the Analytic Hierarchy Process. Seven different alternatives of fuel mode are considered in this paper: internal combustion engine (ICE) and its combination with petroleum and 1st and 2nd generation biofuels blends, fuel cells, hybrid vehicles, plug-in hybrids and electric vehicles. The evaluation of alternative fuel modes is performed according to cost and policy aspects. In order to evaluate each alternative fuel, one base scenario and ten alternative scenarios with different weight factors selection per criterion are presented. After deciding the alternative fuels’ scoring against each criterion and the criteria weights, their synthesis gives the overall score and ranking for all ten alternative scenarios. It is concluded that ICE blended with 1st and 2nd generation biofuels are the most suitable alternative fuels for the Greek road transport sector. - Highlights: ► Alternative fuels for the Greek road transport sector have been evaluated. ► The method of the AHP was used. ► Seven different alternatives of fuel mode are considered. ► The evaluation is performed according to cost and policy aspects. ► The ICE with 1st and 2nd generation biofuels are the most suitable fuels.

  9. Tests of a homogeneous Poisson process against clustering and other alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, C.L.

    1994-05-01

    This report presents three closely related tests of the hypothesis that data points come from a homogeneous Poisson process. If there is too much observed variation among the log-transformed between-point distances, the hypothesis is rejected. The tests are more powerful than the standard chi-squared test against the alternative hypothesis of event clustering, but not against the alternative hypothesis of a Poisson process with smoothly varying intensity

  10. Quantitative regulation of alternative splicing in evolution and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irimia, Manuel; Rukov, Jakob L; Roy, Scott W

    2009-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) is a widespread mechanism with an important role in increasing transcriptome and proteome diversity by generating multiple different products from the same gene. Evolutionary studies of AS have focused primarily on the conservation of alternatively spliced sequences or o...

  11. Future energy demand in Laos. Scenario alternatives for development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luukkanen, J.; Kouphokham, K.; Panula-Ontto, J. [and others

    2012-07-01

    Energy production in Laos is still dominated by traditional fuels. Fuelwood in the main source of energy and most of the energy is consumed at households for cooking. Increase in the number of cars and motorbikes is rapidly increasing the use of imported petroleum products. Electrification is one of the central targets of the Lao government. The electrification rate has increased fast in Laos and in the year 2010 over 70 % households had electricity supply. The target is to have 90 % access to electricity by the year 2020. The World Bank regards the electrification of Lao PDR to be a success story. This paper deals with the present and future energy consumption in Laos. First the historical trends of energy use in different sectors are analysed. The future scenarios are constructed using LaoLinda model. Four different future alternative development paths are analysed using the model results. The energy use data source for the analysis is from the Ministry of Energy and Mines (MEM) of Lao PDR. Economic and other data is from the Department of Statistics of Lao PDR.

  12. Evaluation of alternative chemical additives for high-level waste vitrification feed preparation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seymour, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    During the development of the feed processing flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), research had shown that use of formic acid (HCOOH) could accomplish several processing objectives with one chemical addition. These objectives included the decomposition of tetraphenylborate, chemical reduction of mercury, production of acceptable rheological properties in the feed slurry, and controlling the oxidation state of the glass melt pool. However, the DEPF research had not shown that some vitrification slurry feeds had a tendency to evolve hydrogen (H 2 ) and ammonia (NH 3 ) as the result of catalytic decomposition of CHOOH with noble metals (rhodium, ruthenium, palladium) in the feed. Testing conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory and later at the Savannah River Technical Center showed that the H 2 and NH 3 could evolve at appreciable rates and quantities. The explosive nature of H 2 and NH 3 (as ammonium nitrate) warranted significant mitigation control and redesign of both facilities. At the time the explosive gas evolution was discovered, the DWPF was already under construction and an immediate hardware fix in tandem with flowsheet changes was necessary. However, the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) was in the design phase and could afford to take time to investigate flowsheet manipulations that could solve the problem, rather than a hardware fix. Thus, the HWVP began to investigate alternatives to using HCOOH in the vitrification process. This document describes the selection, evaluation criteria, and strategy used to evaluate the performance of the alternative chemical additives to CHOOH. The status of the evaluation is also discussed

  13. Process Development for Nanostructured Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elam, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    Photovoltaic manufacturing is an emerging industry that promises a carbon-free, nearly limitless source of energy for our nation. However, the high-temperature manufacturing processes used for conventional silicon-based photovoltaics are extremely energy-intensive and expensive. This high cost imposes a critical barrier to the widespread implementation of photovoltaic technology. Argonne National Laboratory and its partners recently invented new methods for manufacturing nanostructured photovoltaic devices that allow dramatic savings in materials, process energy, and cost. These methods are based on atomic layer deposition, a thin film synthesis technique that has been commercialized for the mass production of semiconductor microelectronics. The goal of this project was to develop these low-cost fabrication methods for the high efficiency production of nanostructured photovoltaics, and to demonstrate these methods in solar cell manufacturing. We achieved this goal in two ways: 1) we demonstrated the benefits of these coatings in the laboratory by scaling-up the fabrication of low-cost dye sensitized solar cells; 2) we used our coating technology to reduce the manufacturing cost of solar cells under development by our industrial partners.

  14. Development of a multi-criteria evaluation framework for alternative light-duty vehicles technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazeli, R.; Leal, V.; Sousa, J.P.

    2011-07-15

    Multi-Attribute Utility Theory (MAUT) is very popular in the context of multi-criteria decision making because it easily incorporates the decision maker's preferences. The basic goal of MAUT is to replace available information by ''utility values'' allowing the comparison of alternatives. For the basic MCDA problem of choosing the best alternative, it is useful for a DM to start by eliminating those alternatives that do not seem to be interesting. This procedure is often called ''screening''. Screening helps by allowing the DM to concentrate on a smaller set that (very likely) contains the best alternative. In this work we have applied a sequential screening process, starting with a Pareto Optimal (PO) approach, followed by a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) based screening and Trade-off Weights (TW) procedure. To illustrate the approach, Portugal was chosen as a case study. Besides, at this preliminary stage of the research, we just considered alternatives with 100% of one specific fuel/technology combination (alternatives with fleets combining different shares of fuels/technologies will be analyzed in the next phase of the research). MAUT was applied to identify the utility values of each alternative for each group of attributes. Then the sequential screening approach was applied. The final screening set includes DICI-DME, Fuel Cell using Hydrogen, the Fuel Cell with reformer using Methanol, and Hybrid Gasoline. As a conclusion, preliminary results clearly show the potential of the developed approach in setting a framework for supporting better and sounder decision-making on which AFV technologies should be supported. (Author)

  15. Assessment of Energy Performance and Emission Control Using Alternative Fuels in Cement Industry through a Process Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azad Rahman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cement manufacturing is one of the most energy intensive processes and is accountable for substantial pollutant emissions. Increasing energy costs compel stakeholders and researchers to search for alternative options to improve energy performance and reduce CO2 emissions. Alternative fuels offer a realistic solution towards the reduction of the usage of fossil fuels and the mitigation of pollutant emissions. This paper developed a process model of a precalciner kiln system in the cement industry using Aspen Plus software to simulate the effect of five alternative fuels on pollutant emissions and energy performance. The alternatives fuels used were tyre, municipal solid waste (MSW, meat and bone meal (MBM, plastic waste and sugarcane bagasse. The model was developed on the basis of energy and mass balance of the system and was validated against data from a reference cement plant. This study also investigated the effect of these alternative fuels on the quality of the clinker. The results indicated that up to a 4.4% reduction in CO2 emissions and up to a 6.4% reduction in thermal energy requirement could be achieved using these alternative fuels with 20% mix in coal. It was also found that the alternative fuels had minimum influence on the clinker quality except in the case of MSW. Overall, MBM was found to be a better option as it is capable on reducing energy requirement and CO2 emissions more than others. The outcomes of the study offer better understanding of the effects of solid alternative fuels to achieve higher energy performance and on mitigating pollutant emissions in cement industry.

  16. Hawaii Integrated Energy Assessment. Volume V. Rules, regulations, permits and policies affecting the development of alternate energy sources in Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive presentaton of the major permits, regulations, rules, and controls which are likely to affect the development of alternate energy sources in Hawaii is presented. An overview of the permit process, showing the major categories and types of permits and controls for energy alternatives is presented. This is followed by a brief resume of current and projected changes designed to streamline the permit process. The permits, laws, regulations, and controls that are applicable to the development of energy alternatives in Hawaii are described. The alternate energy technologies affected, a description of the permit or control, and the requirements for conformance are presented for each applicable permit. Federal, state, and county permits and controls are covered. The individual energy technologies being considered as alternatives to the State's present dependence on imported fossil fuels are emphasized. The alternate energy sources covered are bioconversion, geothermal, ocean thermal, wind, solar (direct), and solid waste. For each energy alternative, the significant permits are summarized with a brief explanation of why they may be necessary. The framework of policy development at each of the levels of government with respect to the alternate energy sources is covered.

  17. Regional LLRW [low-level radioactive waste] processing alternatives applying the DOE REGINALT systems analysis model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beers, G.H.

    1987-01-01

    The DOE Low-Level Waste Management Progam has developed a computer-based decision support system of models that may be used by nonprogrammers to evaluate a comprehensive approach to commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) management. REGINALT (Regional Waste Management Alternatives Analysis Model) implementation will be described as the model is applied to a hypothetical regional compact for the purpose of examining the technical and economic potential of two waste processing alternaties. Using waste from a typical regional compact, two specific regional waste processing centers will be compared for feasibility. Example 1 will assume will assume that a regional supercompaction facility is being developed for the region. Example 2 will assume that a regional facility with both supercompation and incineration is specified. Both examples will include identical disposal facilities, except that capacity may differ due to variation in volume reduction achieved. The two examples will be compared with regard to volume reduction achieved, estimated occupational exposure for the processing facilities, and life cylcle costs per generated unit waste. A base case will also illustrate current disposal practices. The results of the comparisons will be evaluated, and other steps, if necessary, for additional decision support will be identified

  18. Alternative Silver Production by Environmental Sound Processing of a Sulfo Salt Silver Mineral Found in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Birich

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Very often, the production of silver causes devastating environmental issues, because of the use of toxic reagents like cyanide and mercury. Due to severe environmental damage caused by humans in the last decades, the social awareness regarding the sustainable production processes is on the rise. Terms like “sustainable” and “green” in product descriptions are becoming more and more popular and producers are forced to satisfy the rising environmental awareness of their customers. Within this work, an alternative environmental sound silver recovery process was developed for a vein type silver ore from Mina Porka, Bolivia. A foregoing characterization of the input material reveals its mineral composition. In the following mineral processing, around 92.9% silver was concentrated by separating 59.5 wt. % of non-silver minerals. Nitric acid leaching of the generated concentrate enabled a silver recovery of up to 98%. The dissolved silver was then separated via copper cementation to generate a metallic silver product of >99% purity. Summarizing all process steps, a silver yield of 87% was achieved in lab scale. A final upscaling trial was conducted to prove the process’ robustness. Within this trial, almost 4 kg of metallic silver with a purity of higher than 99.5 wt. % was produced.

  19. The transmission process of financial crises across the emerging markets: an alternative consideration

    OpenAIRE

    Abdurrahman, Korkmaz

    2012-01-01

    This paper offers an alternative consideration for the transmission process of financial crises across emerging markets. Here, we hypothesized that the interdependence effect could weaken, even disappear completely, and veer during a crisis period as a result of the contagion process. The importance of this hypothesis for the policy implication is also highlighted because it can be validated for many cases by our data.

  20. Variations of uranium and plutonium coprocessing as proliferation-resistant alternatives to the classical purex process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckham, J.A.; Sumner, W.B.

    1979-08-01

    Evaluation of these alternatives for processing LWR fuel has led to the following conclusions: (1) None of the alternaives provide a pure, technical solution which completely eliminates the potential for proliferation of nuclear weapons by utilizing plutonium from the light water reactors. (2) The heat spike alternative appears feasible and provides the most effective method of rendering the LWR plutonim unattractive for weapons use. (3) The low-DF process alternate would require demonstration to: (a) determine the reliability of the in-cell recycle streams which are used to prevent reversion of the process for purification of plutonium, and (b) verify the fission product decontamination factors. (4) The alternates evaluated have no significant impacts on the design of waste treatment facilities, although the required capacities of high-level solid waste processing and high-level liquid waste storage can be significantly altered. (5) The impact of these alternate processes on fuel fabrication and other aspects of the fuel cycle requires additional evaluation

  1. The management of Marketing: an alternative in enterprises development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn Bernal Prado

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The company product portfolio has to be review and permanent adjust in order to achieve the given objectives. The present work has as an objective to design and to implement a procedure of specialized cements development at Cement Siguaney's Company in Sancti Spíritus, due to the decline phase in which was the enterprise caused by the dated technologies and the development of other cement companies existing in the country with efficient and a cheap process in the dry way. The implementation of the procedure for the development of new products at Cement Siguaney's Company in Sancti Spíritus made possible that the company became one of its kind dedicated to the production and commercialization of specialized cements. Each of the phases of the procedure is based on the use of investigation techniques (inductive and deductive analytic-synthetic, historical and logicaland empirical-experimental level (document analysis, surveys, observation, experiment and data triangulation The fundamental results of present work are framed in the increment of the specialized cements request, bigger productivity of work, technological efficiency, humanization of work, among others.

  2. Silver nanoparticles: an alternative method for sanitization of minimally processed cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliane Andrade Araújo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The minimal processing of vegetables basically aims to extend food shelf life, which depends on a number of factors, such as sanitization, that is considered a critical step for food microbiological quality. However, the usual antimicrobial agents reduce the microbial population in a maximum of two logarithmic cycles. Therefore, it is necessary to develop alternative sanitizers. This study aimed to increase the innocuity of minimally processed cabbage through sanitization with silver nanoparticles. It was observed that the nanoparticles promoted three logarithmic reductions, i.e. a 99.9 % reduction rate, in the Escherichia coli population inoculated on the cabbage surface. When compared to other antimicrobial agents (sodium dichloroisocyanurate and sodium hypochlorite, the nanoparticles were more efficient in sanitizing minimally processed cabbage, showing a lower count of aerobic mesophils. It was also observed that the cabbage surface presents hydrophobic characteristics, resulting in a higher propension for bacterial adhesion, which was confirmed in the thermodynamic evaluation of favorable adhesion for Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua.

  3. Unit Pricing and Alternatives: Developing an Individualized Shopping Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cude, Brenda; Walker, Rosemary

    1985-01-01

    This article offers a new perspective on the teaching of unit pricing in consumer economics classes by identifying ways to teach the costs as well as the benefits of unit pricing and realistic guidelines for suggesting situations in which it is most appropriate. Alternatives to unit pricing will also be explored. (CT)

  4. Understanding flexible and distributed software development processes

    OpenAIRE

    Agerfalk, Par J.; Fitzgerald, Brian

    2006-01-01

    peer-reviewed The minitrack on Flexible and Distributed Software Development Processes addresses two important and partially intertwined current themes in software development: process flexibility and globally distributed software development

  5. Application of structured flowsheets to global evaluation of tank waste processing alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, G.; Knutson, B.J.; Niccoli, L.G.; Frank, D.D.

    1994-01-01

    Remediation of the Hanford waste tanks requires integration of chemical technologies and evaluation of alternatives from the perspective of the overall Hanford cleanup purpose. The use of Design/IDEF (R) logic to connect chemical process functions to the overall cleanup mission in the Hanford Strategic Analysis (HSA) and to Aspen Plus (R) process models can show the effect of each process step on global performance measures such as safety, cost, and public perception. This hybrid of chemical process analysis and systems engineering produces structured material balance flowsheets at any level of process aggregation within the HSA. Connectivity and consistent process and stream nomenclature are automatically transferred between detailed process models, the HSA top purpose, and the global material balance flowsheet evaluation. Applications to separation processes is demonstrated for a generic Truex-Sludge Wash flowsheet with many process options and for the aggregation of a Clean Option flowsheet from a detailed chemical process level to a global evaluation level

  6. Alternative Processes for Water Reclamation and Solid Waste Processing in a Physical/chemical Bioregenerative Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Tom D.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on alternative processes for water reclamation and solid waste processing in a physical/chemical-bioregenerative life support system are presented. The main objective is to focus attention on emerging influences of secondary factors (i.e., waste composition, type and level of chemical contaminants, and effects of microorganisms, primarily bacteria) and to constructively address these issues by discussing approaches which attack them in a direct manner.

  7. Performance and suggested alternative strategies in developing Indonesian cocoa export business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Dradjat

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This research focussed on the export development of cocoa bean with respect to its export growth, values and competitiveness. Based on this deve-lopment, the aim of this research is to propose alternative development strategies of export business for cocoa bean in the future. The Analysis Hierarchie Process (AHP framework of export business of cocoa bean was arranged consecutively from formulation of focuss or goals, identification of affecting factors and actors, deter mination of actor objectives, and recognition of alternative strategies needed. Each component of goals, factors, actors, objectives, and alternative strategies were valued on the basis of their importance using Saaty scales. Results of interviews with experts were analyzed using AHP technique. The development of cocoa bean export from 2000 to 2006 showed the competitiveness position of Indonesia in the world market was fairly good. In order to increase the growth and values of cocoa bean export, the experts consider the role of government as regulators and facilitators is very important. The government became the main actor for the export development through de/regulation related to the cocoa bean commodity. The objectives of actors could be achieved by combining strategies (i provision of fund in national and regional budget, as well as other sources (ii implementation of recomended technologies of cocoa, (iii acceleration of replanting program, (iv improvement of research productivity in producing high yielding plant materials, (v development of transportation facilities from farms to harbours, (vi development of farmers’ organization and partnerships as well as strategic alliance, and (viii pests and diseases control. Key words: Cocoa bean, expor, role of government, objectives and strategies.

  8. Development of multicriteria models to classify energy efficiency alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neves, Luis Pires; Antunes, Carlos Henggeler; Dias, Luis Candido; Martins, Antonio Gomes

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims at describing a novel constructive approach to develop decision support models to classify energy efficiency initiatives, including traditional Demand-Side Management and Market Transformation initiatives, overcoming the limitations and drawbacks of Cost-Benefit Analysis. A multicriteria approach based on the ELECTRE-TRI method is used, focusing on four perspectives: - an independent Agency with the aim of promoting energy efficiency; - Distribution-only utilities under a regulated framework; - the Regulator; - Supply companies in a competitive liberalized market. These perspectives were chosen after a system analysis of the decision situation regarding the implementation of energy efficiency initiatives, looking for the main roles and power relations, with the purpose of structuring the decision problem by identifying the actors, the decision makers, the decision paradigm, and the relevant criteria. The multicriteria models developed allow considering different kinds of impacts, but avoiding difficult measurements and unit conversions due to the nature of the multicriteria method chosen. The decision is then based on all the significant effects of the initiative, both positive and negative ones, including ancillary effects often forgotten in cost-benefit analysis. The ELECTRE-TRI, as most multicriteria methods, provides to the Decision Maker the ability of controlling the relevance each impact can have on the final decision. The decision support process encompasses a robustness analysis, which, together with a good documentation of the parameters supplied into the model, should support sound decisions. The models were tested with a set of real-world initiatives and compared with possible decisions based on Cost-Benefit analysis

  9. Value Chain Development as Alternative Method For Mapping Waste Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Saiful Hakim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid Waste management begin at the household as waste of consumption and ended as a new form of waste product or recycling. Based on its value chain the subsequent process will have distict differences with manufacturing product. Value chain of manufacturing product will characterize as value added chain along the chain, where every side of the chain will generate positive chain. In the other hand, some parties of waste management value chain will negative value existed. Some parties in this chain will generate negative value solely because they must establish some cost for wipe the waste. Dissimilarities between value chain on product and waste will contribute to discrepancy between parties. Main purpose of this research is to identify value chain from solid waste management using value chain development. Another purpose to accomplished is to resolve discrepancy in value chain.  Research results shown that household is the parties that experiences negative value. To minimize the discrepancies there should be an action towards household

  10. Development of alternative energy technologies. Entrepreneurs, new technologies, and social change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, T R

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses the introduction and development of several alternative energy technologies in countries where the innovation process has enjoyed some measure of success: solar water heating (California, Israel), windmills (Denmark), wood and peat for co-generation (Northern New England, Finland) and geo-thermal power (California) as well as heat pumps designed to save energy (West Germany). It is argued that the introduction and development of new technologies - and the socio-technical systems which utilize these technologies - depend on the initiatives of entrepreneurs and social change agents. They engage in adapting and matching technology and social structure (laws, institutions, norms, political and economic forces and social structure generally). Successful developments - as well as blocked or retarded developments - are discussed in terms of such ''compatibility analysis''. Policy implications are also discussed. (orig.).

  11. Development of radiation processes for better environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majali, A.B.; Sabharwal, S.; Deshpande, R.S.; Sarma, K.S.S.; Bhardwaj, Y.K.; Dhanawade, B.R.

    1998-01-01

    The increasing population and industrialization, worldover, is placing escalating demands for the development of newer technologies that are environment friendly and minimize the pollution associated with the development. Radiation technology can be of benefit in reducing the pollution levels associated with many processes. The sulphur vulcanization method for natural rubber latex vulcanization results in the formation of considerable amounts of nitrosoamines, both in the product as well as in the factory environment. Radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex has emerged as a commercially viable alternative to produce sulphur and nitrosoamine free rubber. A Co-60 γ-radiation based pilot plant has been functioning since April 1993 to produce vulcanized natural rubber latex (RVNRL) using acrylate monomers as sensitizer. The role of sensitizer, viz. n-butyl acrylate in the vulcanization process has been elucidated using the pulse radiolysis technique. Emission of toxic sulphur containing gases form an inevitable part of viscose-rayon process and this industry is in search of ways to reduce the associated pollution levels. The irradiation of cellulose results in cellulose activation and reduction in the degree of polymerization (DP). These effects can reduce the solvents required to dissolve the paper pulp. There is a keen interest in utilizing radiation technology in viscose rayon production. We have utilized the electron beam (EB) accelerator for reducing the degree of polymerization (DP) of paper pulp. Laboratory scale tests have been carried out to standardize the conditions for production of pulp having the desired DP by EB irradiation. The use of irradiated paper pulp can result in ∼40% reduction in the consumption of CS 2 in the process that can be beneficial in reducing the pollution associated with the process. PTFE waste can be recycled into a low molecular weight microfine powder by irradiation. An EB based process has been standardized to produce

  12. The Effectiveness of Process-Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning to Reduce Alternative Conceptions in Secondary Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthlow, Michelle J.; Watson, Scott B.

    2014-01-01

    A nonequivalent, control group design was used to investigate student achievement in secondary chemistry. This study investigated the effect of process-oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) in high school chemistry to reduce alternate conceptions related to the particulate nature of matter versus traditional lecture pedagogy. Data were…

  13. A Critical Examination of the Process of Modifying the Curriculum of Alternative Secondary Educational Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study, "A Critical Examination of the Process of Modifying the Curriculum of Alternative Secondary Educational Programs," was done with the use of action research to study (a) whether students currently participating in a continuation school believe their educational and career needs are presently being met; (b) the types of career…

  14. Nuclear Heat Application: Desalination as an Alternative Process for Potable Water Production in Indonesia (part 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amir-Rusli

    2000-01-01

    A survey of water supply and demand system and identification of desalination process need for Indonesia has been carried out. Even Indonesia is located in tropical zone of equator; it is still reported lack of water resources, especially during 6 months dry season. Due to miss-water management and bad attitude of the people itself occurred in the past; most of conventional water resources of river, lake and reservoir were damaged during development period of industrial and agriculture sectors. A half of 200 millions peoples of Indonesian population are still scarce of potable drinking water during the year of 1997. Jakarta as the capital has a population of 10 millions people which is the worse water availability in capita per year in the world at present. Seawater intrusion problem to about more than 11 km away is also detected in big cities of the main islands of Indonesia, and these same conditions are faced to other thousands of small islands. Therefore it is an urgent situation to develop a total integrated water management system in order to improve the performance of water resources. Desalination system of seawater/brackish water is considered and showed a good alternative for potable water production for domestic or industrial purposes. But in the long-term, water management system of the effectiveness cycle use of water should be implemented at sites. (author)

  15. Assessment of processes, facilities, and costs for alternative solid forms for immobilization of SRP defense waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunson, J.B. Jr.; Eisenberg, A.M.; Schuyler, R.L. III; Haight, H.G. Jr.; Mello, V.E.; Gould, T.H. Jr.; Butler, J.L.; Pickett, J.B.

    1982-03-01

    A quantitative merit evaluation which assesses the relative difficulty of remote processing of Savannah River Plant high-level wastes for seven alternative waste forms is presented. The reference borosilicate glass process is rated as the simplest, followed by FUETAP concrete. The other processes evaluated in order of increasing complexity were: glass marbles in a lead matrix, high-silica glass, crystalline ceramic (Synroc-D and tailored ceramic), and coated ceramic particles. Cost appraisals are summarized for the borosilicate glass, high-silica glass, and ceramic waste form processing facilities

  16. Mixed Waste Focus Area alternative oxidation technologies development and demonstration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borduin, L.C.; Fewell, T.; Gombert, D.; Priebe, S.

    1998-01-01

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) is currently supporting the development and demonstration of several alternative oxidation technology (AOT) processes for treatment of combustible mixed low-level wastes. The impetus for this support derives from regulatory and political hurdles frequently encountered by traditional thermal techniques, primarily incinerators. AOTs have been defined as technologies that destroy organic material without using open-flame reactions. Whether thermal or nonthermal, the processes have the potential advantages of relatively low-volume gaseous emissions, generation of few or no dioxin/furan compounds, and operation at low enough temperatures that metals (except mercury) and most radionuclides are not volatilized. Technology development and demonstration are needed to confirm and realize the potential of AOTs and to compare them on an equal basis with their fully demonstrated thermal counterparts. AOTs include both thermal and nonthermal processes that oxidize organic wastes but operate under significantly different physical and chemical conditions than incinerators. Nonthermal processes currently being studied include Delphi DETOX and acid digestion at the Savannah River Site, and direct chemical oxidation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. All three technologies are at advanced stages of development or are entering the demonstration phase. Nonflame thermal processes include catalytic chemical oxidation, which is being developed and deployed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and team reforming, a commercial process being supported by Department of Energy. Related technologies include two low-flow, secondary oxidation processes (Phoenix and Thermatrix units) that have been tested at MSE, Inc., in Butte, Montana. Although testing is complete on some AOT technologies, most require additional support to complete some or all of the identified development objectives. Brief descriptions, status, and planned paths forward for each

  17. The Development of Analogical Reasoning Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.; Rifkin, Bathsheva

    1979-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to test the generalizability to children of a theory of analogical reasoning processes, originally proposed for adults, and to examine the development of analogical reasoning processes in terms of five proposed sources of cognitive development. (MP)

  18. Instrumental development and data processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzen, J.

    1978-01-01

    A review of recent developments in mass spectrometry instrumentation is presented under the following headings: introduction (scope of mass spectrometry compared with neighbouring fields); ion sources and ionization techniques; spectrometers (instrumental developments); measuring procedures; coupling techniques; data systems; conclusions (that mass spectrometry should have a broader basis and that there would be mutual profit from a better penetration of mass spectrometry into fields of routine application). (U.K.)

  19. Alternatives for high-level waste forms, containers, and container processing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, T.W.

    1995-01-01

    This study evaluates alternatives for high-level waste forms, containers, container processing systems, and onsite interim storage. Glass waste forms considered are cullet, marbles, gems, and monolithic glass. Small and large containers configured with several combinations of overpack confinement and shield casks are evaluated for these waste forms. Onsite interim storage concepts including canister storage building, bore holes, and storage pad were configured with various glass forms and canister alternatives. All favorable options include the monolithic glass production process as the waste form. Of the favorable options the unshielded 4- and 7-canister overpack options have the greatest technical assurance associated with their design concepts due to their process packaging and storage methods. These canisters are 0.68 m and 0.54 m in diameter respectively and 4.57 m tall. Life-cycle costs are not a discriminating factor in most cases, varying typically less than 15 percent

  20. Analytical Hierarchy Process for the selection of strategic alternatives for introduction of infrastructure virtual desktop infrastructure in the university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina A. Makoviy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The task of choosing a strategy for implementing the virtual desktop infrastructure into the IT infrastructure of the university is considered. The infrastructure of virtual desktops is a technology that provides centralization of management of client workplaces, increase the service life of computers in classrooms. The analysis of strengths and weaknesses, threats and opportunities for introducing virtualization in the university. Alternatives to implementation based on the results of the pilot project have been developed. To obtain quantitative estimates in the SWOT - analysis of the pilot project, the analytical hierarchy process is used. The analysis of implementation of the pilot project by experts is carried out and the integral value of quantitative estimates of various alternatives is generated. The combination of the analytical hierarchy process and SWOT - analysis allows you to choose the optimal strategy for implementing desktop virtualization.

  1. The transformation of trust in China's alternative food networks: disruption, reconstruction, and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Yu. Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Food safety issues in China have received much scholarly attention, yet few studies systematically examined this matter through the lens of trust. More importantly, little is known about the transformation of different types of trust in the dynamic process of food production, provision, and consumption. We consider trust as an evolving interdependent relationship between different actors. We used the Beijing County Fair, a prominent ecological farmers' market in China, as an example to examine the transformation of trust in China's alternative food networks. We argue that although there has been a disruption of institutional trust among the general public since 2008 when the melamine-tainted milk scandal broke out, reconstruction of individual trust and development of organizational trust have been observed, along with the emergence and increasing popularity of alternative food networks. Based on more than six months of fieldwork on the emerging ecological agriculture sector in 13 provinces across China as well as monitoring of online discussions and posts, we analyze how various social factors - including but not limited to direct and indirect reciprocity, information, endogenous institutions, and altruism - have simultaneously contributed to the transformation of trust in China's alternative food networks. The findings not only complement current social theories of trust, but also highlight an important yet understudied phenomenon whereby informal social mechanisms have been partially substituting for formal institutions and gradually have been building trust against the backdrop of the food safety crisis in China.

  2. Strategy for development modes competent performance in teachers qualified alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sailí Rodríguez Fuentes

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the process of professionalization of the teacher is a subject of contemporary conjuncture, which is debated and investigated by researchers from dissimilar edges. Objective: to contribute to the professionalization process of qualified teachers of Technical and Vocational Education through a pedagogical strategy. Materials and methods: The materialist dialectic is used as a general method, allowing the study of the object as a process, the determination of its components, as well as its contradictions. theoretical methods: the historical and logical to delve into the regularities and qualities of reality in the polytechnic centers. Essential empirical methods were used: the documentary analysis that included the professional model; study plans, to obtain authentic and reliable information for research, interviews with students with the purpose of analyzing the manifestations of the professionalization process of the students and the direction of the process by the teachers, the observation of teaching activities allowed to diagnose the object , the demonstration of the problem, as well as the results of the practice of the strategy to be implemented. Results: a pedagogical strategy is designed and implemented to perfect the competent professional performance modes in the qualified professors. Conclusions: it contributed to the improvement of the professionalization process in favor of the competent professional modes of action.

  3. Overview on recent developments: alternative isotope production methods in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huynh, K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an update on the Government of Canada's programs in alternative isotope production methods for securing supply of technetium 99m for Canadians. The supply disruptions of isotopes in 2007 and 2009/2010 caused by unplanned outages at AECL's National Research Universal (NRU) reactor highlighted the fragility of the supply chain that delivers medical isotopes, specifically Technetium 99m (Tc99m) to patients in Canada and globally. Tc99m, which is derived from its parent, molybdenum99 (Mo99) is the most widely used medical isotope for imaging, and accounts for 80 percent of nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures. Prior to the outage, nearly all the Mo99 produced for the world market came from five aging government owned research reactors in Canada, France, the Netherlands, Belgium and South Africa. The NRU, the largest of these, produced about 30 to 40 percent of the world supply of isotopes prior to 2009 - since its return to service in 2010, its world market share is estimated at 15 to 20%.

  4. Alternative approach of developing all-optical Fredkin and Toffoli gates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Dhoumendra; Mandal, Sumana; Garai, Sisir Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Reversible logic gates show potential roles in communication technology, and it has a wide area of applicability such as in sequential and combinational circuit of optical computing, optical signal processing, multi-valued logic operations, etc. because of its advantageous aspects of data-recovering capabilities, low power consumption, least power dissipation, faster speed of processing, less hardware complexity, etc. In a reversible logic gate not only the outputs can be determined from the inputs, but also the inputs can be uniquely recovered from the outputs. In this article an alternative approach has been made to develop three-input-output Fredkin and Toffoli gates using the frequency conversion property of semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) and frequency-based beam routing by optical multiplexers and demultiplexers. Simulation results show the feasibility of our proposed scheme.

  5. Technical and economic feasibility of alternative fuel use in process heaters and small boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-02-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of using alternate fuels - fuels other than oil and natural gas - in combustors not regulated by the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978 (FUA) was evaluated. FUA requires coal or alternate fuel use in most large new boilers and in some existing boilers. Section 747 of FUA authorizes a study of the potential for reduced oil and gas use in combustors not subject to the act: small industrial boilers with capacities less than 100 MMBtu/hr, and process heat applications. Alternative fuel use in combustors not regulated by FUA was examined and the impact of several measures to encourage the substitution of alternative fuels in these combustors was analyzed. The primary processes in which significant fuel savings can be achieved are identified. Since feedstock uses of oil and natural gas are considered raw materials, not fuels, feedstock applications are not examined in this analysis. The combustors evaluated in this study comprise approximately 45% of the fuel demand projected in 1990. These uses would account for more than 3.5 million barrels per day equivalent fuel demand in 1990.

  6. An alternative approach to financing development in Africa | Adeolu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To make adequate capital available to finance development projects in Africa, several important and innovative ideas became popular in the early and later post-independent years. Much of these ideas included a proposal for International Finance Facility (IFF) to increase development aid substantially for the millennium ...

  7. Extending the agile development process to develop acceptably secure software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ben Othmane, L.; Angin, P.; Weffers, H.T.G.; Bhargava, B.

    2013-01-01

    The agile software development approach makes developing secure software challenging. Existing approaches for extending the agile development process, which enables incremental and iterative software development, fall short of providing a method for efficiently ensuring the security of the software

  8. Rural Tourism - Alternative to the Development of Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina PAIU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rural tourism through its content and its features is a distinct component in the economy of a region, and the sustainable, efficient use of local tourism resources can be an extremely important activity by: adding added value, boosting productivity, employment and increasing the living standard of the population. Rural tourism is considered a lever to mitigate local imbalances and besides attracting touristic areas in the circuit, it also has consequences on territorial development: housing construction, road development, development of public services and the development of small and medium-sized enterprises. Consequently, rural tourism has an impact on a country's economic and social development strategy, but also on a branch level.

  9. West Valley demonstration project: alternative processes for solidifying the high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holton, L.K.; Larson, D.E.; Partain, W.L.; Treat, R.L.

    1981-10-01

    In 1980, the US Department of Energy (DOE) established the West Valley Solidification Project as the result of legislation passed by the US Congress. The purpose of this project was to carry out a high level nuclear waste management demonstration project at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center in West Valley, New York. The DOE authorized the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), which is operated by Battelle Memorial Institute, to assess alternative processes for treatment and solidification of the WNYNSC high-level wastes. The Process Alternatives Study is the suject of this report. Two pretreatment approaches and several waste form processes were selected for evaluation in this study. The two waste treatment approaches were the salt/sludge separation process and the combined waste process. Both terminal and interim waste form processes were studied. The terminal waste form processes considered were: borosilicate glass, low-alkali glass, marbles-in-lead matrix, and crystallinolecular potential and molecular dynamics calculations of the effect are yet to be completed. Cous oxide was also investigated. The reaction is first order in nitrite ion, second order in hydrogen ion, and between zero and first order in hydroxylamine monosulfonate, depending on the concentration

  10. Development of functionally-oriented technological processes of electroerosive processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syanov, S. Yu

    2018-03-01

    The stages of the development of functionally oriented technological processes of electroerosive processing from the separation of the surfaces of parts and their service functions to the determination of the parameters of the process of electric erosion, which will provide not only the quality parameters of the surface layer, but also the required operational properties, are described.

  11. High-Throughput Process Development for Biopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Abhinav A; Rameez, Shahid; Wolfe, Leslie S; Oien, Nathan

    2017-11-14

    The ability to conduct multiple experiments in parallel significantly reduces the time that it takes to develop a manufacturing process for a biopharmaceutical. This is particularly significant before clinical entry, because process development and manufacturing are on the "critical path" for a drug candidate to enter clinical development. High-throughput process development (HTPD) methodologies can be similarly impactful during late-stage development, both for developing the final commercial process as well as for process characterization and scale-down validation activities that form a key component of the licensure filing package. This review examines the current state of the art for HTPD methodologies as they apply to cell culture, downstream purification, and analytical techniques. In addition, we provide a vision of how HTPD activities across all of these spaces can integrate to create a rapid process development engine that can accelerate biopharmaceutical drug development. Graphical Abstract.

  12. Land in the Political Economy of African Development: Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    2008-06-18

    Jun 18, 2008 ... The economic version of the perspective on land reform promotes the ...... Fanon, F., 1961, The Wretched of the Earth, London: Penguin Books. Flintan, F. and ... Development, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Mafeje ...

  13. Alternative methods for developing external travel survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) has a comprehensive on-going travel survey : program that supports the travel demand models being developed for transportation planning efforts in urban : areas throughout Texas. One component of the sur...

  14. Development and In Vitro Toxicity Evaluation of Alternative Sustainable Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novel nanomaterial types are rapidly being developed for the value they may add to consumer products without sufficient evaluation of implications for human health, toxicity, environmental impact and long-term sustainability. Nanomaterials made of metals, semiconductors and vario...

  15. Financing the alternative: renewable energy in developing and transition countries

    OpenAIRE

    Brunnschweiler, Christa N.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the determinants of credit allocation to renewable energy firms in developing and transition countries. Using a simple en- dogenous growth model, we show that the development of the renewable energy sector, i.e. the diversification of renewable energy resources used in primary energy production, depends on the quality of financial intermedia- tion, debtor information costs to banks, and financing needs of renewable energy firms. Policies should aim at increasing financial ...

  16. Tourist load capacity: Alternative for the Sustainable Development of Cozumel

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz, Alejandro Palafox; Pavón, Romano Segrado

    2018-01-01

    From last 50 years, tourism development had been promoted to bring several numbers of visitors to generate lot of millions of dollars. However, the result of this tourism policy has a severe impact on the environment and an important consequence on society, as a result the decadence of the economical model due to the depletion of the natural resources and the increase of poverty. Even though the official discourse looks forward a sustainable development of the tourism activity. Besides, the p...

  17. Fragment-based drug discovery as alternative strategy to the drug development for neglected diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Juliana da Fonseca Rezende E; Gomes, Renan Augusto; Vital-Fujii, Drielli Gomes; Ferreira, Glaucio Monteiro; Trossini, Gustavo Henrique Goulart

    2017-12-01

    Neglected diseases (NDs) affect large populations and almost whole continents, representing 12% of the global health burden. In contrast, the treatment available today is limited and sometimes ineffective. Under this scenery, the Fragment-Based Drug Discovery emerged as one of the most promising alternatives to the traditional methods of drug development. This method allows achieving new lead compounds with smaller size of fragment libraries. Even with the wide Fragment-Based Drug Discovery success resulting in new effective therapeutic agents against different diseases, until this moment few studies have been applied this approach for NDs area. In this article, we discuss the basic Fragment-Based Drug Discovery process, brief successful ideas of general applications and show a landscape of its use in NDs, encouraging the implementation of this strategy as an interesting way to optimize the development of new drugs to NDs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. Alternatives generation and analysis for the phase 1 high-level waste pretreatment process selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manuel, A.F.

    1997-01-01

    This report evaluates the effects of enhanced sludge washing and sludge washing without caustic leaching during the preparation of the Phase 1 high-level waste feeds. The pretreatment processing alternatives are evaluated against their ability to satisfy contractual, cost minimization, and other criteria. The information contained in this report is consistent with, and supplemental to, the Tank Waste Remediation System Operation and Utilization Plan (Kirkbride et al. 1997)

  19. Alternatives generation and analysis for the phase 1 high-level waste pretreatment process selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manuel, A.F.

    1997-10-02

    This report evaluates the effects of enhanced sludge washing and sludge washing without caustic leaching during the preparation of the Phase 1 high-level waste feeds. The pretreatment processing alternatives are evaluated against their ability to satisfy contractual, cost minimization, and other criteria. The information contained in this report is consistent with, and supplemental to, the Tank Waste Remediation System Operation and Utilization Plan (Kirkbride et al. 1997).

  20. Technological and economical assessment of alternative process chains for blisk manufacture

    OpenAIRE

    Klocke, Fritz; Schmitt, Robert; Zeis, Markus; Heidemanns, Lukas; Kerkhoff, Johannes; Heinen, Daniel; Klink, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Due to the increase of blisk (blade integrated disk) demands instead of the conventional fir-tree design in current aero-engine concepts there is a high resource-driven need for a comprehensive evaluation of different process chain alternatives for blisk manufacture. Therefore, in this paper different manufacturing chains consisting of roughing, pre-finishing and finishing/polishing are compared to each other by the example of a HPC-blisk out of Inconel 718. Beside conventional milling and el...

  1. Selection of Alternatives for the Natural Gas Supply in Colombia using the Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Becerra Fernández

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Context: Colombia consumes natural gas in different sectors, especially in the ones that are residential and vehicular transport. Gas consumption serves as backup for power generation in situations of reduced hydroelectric capacity. Nowadays, gas reserve levels have been reduced and it is essential to ensure the uninterrupted supply of the resource. To achieve such objective, there are some alternatives which are difficult to implement at the same time, given the limited financial budget and implementation times that they demanded. In this way, several studies have advanced in the application of models to prioritize alternatives for both supplying power and reducing emissions in the generation, especially regarding the evaluation of energy sources and technology selection for supply. Method: The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP based in the Delphi method to define preferences according to the experts judgment, was applied to evaluate the selection of alternatives supply of natural gas in Colombia, considering technical, environmental and social criteria, which is reliable and policy oriented to guarantee supply of resources in the country. Results: Once the model was applied, we evaluated the criteria and alternatives for infrastructure to support gas supply, finding that reliability is the most relevant criterion as well as alternative of building the ‘Regasification Pacific Plant’ followed by the construction of the ‘Buenaventura-Cali pipeline’ and the ‘Storage Plant in Bogotá'. Conclusions: As the results indicate, in Colombia efforts should be focus on imports of the resource through the construction of regasification plants and pipelines to facilitate transport inland to demand points. The latter may help decision makers facing various alternatives to ensure the supply of this resource, which is relevant to various economic sectors, including generation of electricity in the country. Language: Spanish

  2. The development of nuclear power as an alternative energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Mingguang; Ye Cheng; Han Xu

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the world's recent development of nuclear power, which does not seem to achieve what has been anticipated by the groups of experts. In this regard, there is before us a heavy responsibility and a long way to go. Nuclear power is very important for China's environmental protection and economic development. Suggestions are made for longer-term demand for the electricity and long-term nuclear power plan in China.According to the nuclear power strategy adopted by developed nations, we believe that China's nuclear power strategy and nuclear techniques shall be based on advanced PWR, such as AP1000, CAP1000, CAP1400 and CAP1700, which will be the main NPP types in a long time in China, and the latter two shall be highly competitive in the world.For generation IV reactors, the SCWR (Supercritical Water Reactor) is more suitable than others, in terms of the industrial development in PWRs and fossil fuel super critical generator systems in China. In addition,investment should be increased in fast reactors to achieve the fuel closed-cycle, and attentions should be paid to the TWR (Traveling-wave Reactor), and small and medium-sized reactor as well.Finally, conclusions are given for large scale development of nuclear power in China. (authors)

  3. [Alternatives to the drug research and development model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez, Germán

    2015-03-01

    One-third of the global population lacks access to medications; the situation is worse in poor countries, where up to 50% of the population lacks access. The failure of current incentive systems based in intellectual property to offer the necessary pharmaceutical products, especially in the global south, is a call to action. Problems related to drug access cannot be solved solely through improvements or modifications in the existing incentive models. The intellectual property system model does not offer sufficient innovation for developing countries; new mechanisms that effectively promote innovation and drug access simultaneously are needed. A binding international agreement on research and development, negotiated under the auspices of the World Health Organization, could provide an adequate framework for guaranteeing priority-setting, coordination, and sustainable financing of drugs at reasonable prices for developing countries.

  4. Development of Alternative Technology to PWHT in Site Welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ho Jin; Lee, B. S.; Jang, J. S.; Kim, K. H.; Park, S. D.; Yoon, J. H.; Kim, M. C.; Kim, K. B.; Sung, K. W

    2007-04-15

    ASME Section IX added requirements for qualification when using temper bead welding in the 2004 edition. The temper bead welding techniques which can satisfy the requirements of the Code are needed to use them in the site repair welding. The optimized welding parameters can be obtained when controlling the process to supercritically-reheat and to subcritically-reheat the coarse grain region sequently. The microstructures of SCFGCG obtained from the Gleegle simulated specimens and those of post weld heat treated coarse grain region are compared. The obtained both microstructures showed almost similar patterns. mid bead deposition technique Suggested in this study has a technical concept that the mid beads are deposited between the deposited initial beads repeatedly in a bead layer, which gives a lot of reheating effects on brittle microstructure in HAZ. This newly suggested technique is considered to have more effective tempering effect than the conventional temper bead technique which has concept to deposit one type of beads in a bead layer. The suggested modeling in this study can simulate well the SMAW process. Hence this modeling was used in analyzing the more complicated welding process of multi-layer welding. The modeling was used to analyze the tempering effect on the microstructures of HAZ by considering the patterns of overlapping of the reheating regions under the consequently deposited beads. When considering the crack path in the ever-matched weld metal condition, the interface may have a resistance against the crack propagation. A182 filler and A625 filler were used to make the weld specimens which have different weld metal conditions. The crack directed toward the under-matched weld metal may propagate across the fusion line easier than that of the even-matched weld metal condition.

  5. Development of Alternative Technology to PWHT in Site Welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ho Jin; Lee, B. S.; Jang, J. S.; Kim, K. H.; Park, S. D.; Yoon, J. H.; Kim, M. C.; Kim, K. B.; Sung, K. W.

    2007-04-01

    ASME Section IX added requirements for qualification when using temper bead welding in the 2004 edition. The temper bead welding techniques which can satisfy the requirements of the Code are needed to use them in the site repair welding. The optimized welding parameters can be obtained when controlling the process to supercritically-reheat and to subcritically-reheat the coarse grain region sequently. The microstructures of SCFGCG obtained from the Gleegle simulated specimens and those of post weld heat treated coarse grain region are compared. The obtained both microstructures showed almost similar patterns. mid bead deposition technique Suggested in this study has a technical concept that the mid beads are deposited between the deposited initial beads repeatedly in a bead layer, which gives a lot of reheating effects on brittle microstructure in HAZ. This newly suggested technique is considered to have more effective tempering effect than the conventional temper bead technique which has concept to deposit one type of beads in a bead layer. The suggested modeling in this study can simulate well the SMAW process. Hence this modeling was used in analyzing the more complicated welding process of multi-layer welding. The modeling was used to analyze the tempering effect on the microstructures of HAZ by considering the patterns of overlapping of the reheating regions under the consequently deposited beads. When considering the crack path in the ever-matched weld metal condition, the interface may have a resistance against the crack propagation. A182 filler and A625 filler were used to make the weld specimens which have different weld metal conditions. The crack directed toward the under-matched weld metal may propagate across the fusion line easier than that of the even-matched weld metal condition

  6. Theoretical developments for interpreting kernel spectral clustering from alternative viewpoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Peluffo-Ordóñez

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available To perform an exploration process over complex structured data within unsupervised settings, the so-called kernel spectral clustering (KSC is one of the most recommended and appealing approaches, given its versatility and elegant formulation. In this work, we explore the relationship between (KSC and other well-known approaches, namely normalized cut clustering and kernel k-means. To do so, we first deduce a generic KSC model from a primal-dual formulation based on least-squares support-vector machines (LS-SVM. For experiments, KSC as well as other consider methods are assessed on image segmentation tasks to prove their usability.

  7. Exploring Youth Development in Ethiopia: An Alternative Strength ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Assets Profile measure have also suggested that the youth are indeed endowed with a number of developmental assets and these assets are significantly better for females than they are for males. Key-words: Ethiopian youth, Ethiopian adolescents, developmental assets, positive youth development, youth participation.

  8. Social contention in Denmark over alternative wind power development paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyborg, Sophie; Kirkegaard, Julia Kirch; Clausen, Laura Tolnov

    of Nørrekær Enge in Jutland. The paper traces protracted negotiations between a large energy company acting as wind farm developer who bought up dwellings to make space for extending an existing wind farm, land-owners, a farmers' association, and municipalities, as well as with an emergent coalition...

  9. Trends in the Development of Alternative Work Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Maureen

    1979-01-01

    Flexible scheduling and reduced work time programs can help alleviate some of the pressures on public and private employers to develop innovative solutions to problems caused by inflation, unemployment, the transition in the composition of the workforce, and changes in life-styles. (Author/IRT)

  10. Development of novel microencapsulation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Weisi

    of polymer solution suspended in water or from a spray. Hollow PS particles were obtained by swelling PS latex with solvent, freezing in liquid nitrogen, and drying in vacuum. It is shown that the particle morphology is due to phase separation in the polymer emulsion droplets upon freezing in liquid nitrogen, and that morphological changes are driven largely by lowering interfacial free energy. The dried hollow particles were resuspended in a dispersing media and exposed to a plasticizer, which imparts mobility to polymer chains, to close the surface opening and form microcapsules surrounding an aqueous core. The interfacial free energy difference between the hydrophobic inside and hydrophilic outside surfaces is the major driving force for closing the hole on the surface. A controlled release biodegradable vehicle for drug was made by encapsulating procaine hydrochloride, a water-soluble drug, into the core of poly(DL-lactide) (PLA) microcapsules, which were made by the freeze-drying and subsequent closing process. The encapsulation efficiency is affected by the hollow particle morphology, amount of closing agent, exposure time, surfactant, and method of dispersing the hollow particles in water. Controlled release of procaine hydrochloride from the microcapsules into phosphate buffer was observed. The use of benign solvents dimethyl carbonate in spray/freeze-drying and CO2 for closing would eliminate concerns of residual harmful solvent in the product. The ease of separation of CO2 from the drug solution may also enable recycling of the drug solution to increase the overall encapsulation efficiency using these novel hollow particles.

  11. An alternative development strategy for the nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amman, F

    1987-05-01

    Although the risk of a Chernobyl type accident is very low, social risk perception, which is not associated with a measure of probability but with the consequences of core melting, may now hinder the spread of nuclear technology. The Author promotes international cooperation in the development of the high temperature gas reactor, HTGR, which is not subject to large core melting. This type of technological innovation would reduce social risk perception and slow down opposition to nuclear power.

  12. Development of the Mo-99 process at CRNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrill, K.A.; Harrison, R.J.

    1987-11-01

    Highly enriched uranium (HEU) is used for Mo-99 production at CRNL. Dissolution of the targets and loading of the solution onto AI 2 0 3 columns is discussed. Development work continues to reduce processing time and overall product cost. A process for treating the fission product waste has been selected and a facility for processing is being designed. Low enriched uranium (LEU) is planned for targets eventually. Our experience with Si-based fuel for targets is poor, and alternatives are being sought

  13. Analysis of nuclear issue and development of policy alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Byungchool; Lee, Youngjoon; Yun, Sungwon; Yun, Keehwan; Ko, Wonil

    2012-08-01

    ? Promoted amicably passing a resolution on a general meeting of Atomic Energy Promotion Commission through the preliminary review and opinion gathering ? Mutual understanding and forming a social consensus on nuclear related issues through R and D reporting about the SMART, Decommission and Dis, Future Nuclear System etc Ο Promoted strengthening the work related to the nuclear policy through discovering the 8 policy initiatives prioritized Ο Analyzed the policy process as well as previous research results related to spent fuel for establishment of spent-fuel policy and presented the methods for legislation Ο Suggested the establishment and multi-step implementation strategies of 'Nuclear educational hurb center' Ο Germany, Switzerland, Belgium returned to their former phase-out strategies, except for these three countries, did not change nuclear promotion policies Ο Democratic United Party is currently taking the opposite stance on NPP but it is necessary to make an effort to analyze current domestic energy circumstances on objective and rational grounds

  14. Developing engineering processes through integrated modelling of product and process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jeppe Bjerrum; Hvam, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This article aims at developing an operational tool for integrated modelling of product assortments and engineering processes in companies making customer specific products. Integrating a product model in the design of engineering processes will provide a deeper understanding of the engineering...... activities as well as insight into how product features affect the engineering processes. The article suggests possible ways of integrating models of products with models of engineering processes. The models have been tested and further developed in an action research study carried out in collaboration...... with a major international engineering company....

  15. A methodology for development of biocatalytic processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima Ramos, Joana

    are available. The first case study presents a rational approach for defining a development strategy for multi-enzymatic processes. The proposed methodology requires a profound and structured knowledge of the multi-enzyme systems, integrating chemistry, biological and process engineering. In order to suggest......). These process metrics can often be attained by improvements in the reaction chemistry, the biocatalyst, and/or by process engineering, which often requires a complex process development strategy. Interestingly this complexity, which arises from the need for integration of biological and process technologies...... and their relationship with the overall process is not clear.The work described in this thesis presents a methodological approach for early stage development of biocatalytic processes, understanding and dealing with the reaction, biocatalyst and process constraints. When applied, this methodology has a decisive role...

  16. Identification and development of waste management alternatives for Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desmond, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    The European Union Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) Directive (2001/42/EC) requires the assessment of likely significant effects on the environment of implementing plans or programmes and reasonable alternatives. While SEA regulations and guidelines emphasize rigour and objectivity in the assessment of alternatives they have little to say on their actual identification. Therefore, criteria should be developed which would aid decision makers in the identification of alternatives appropriate to the tier of decision-making and which meet the objectives of SEA. A methodology is set out in this paper for identifying SEA alternatives for a proposed waste management plan/programme. Specifically, the methodology describes a set of alternatives identification criteria, which will meet the requirements and objectives of SEA and waste management legislation. The outputs from the methodology will help focus on the identification of more sustainable alternatives for waste management planning in Ireland

  17. Nonthermal food processing alternatives and their effects on taste and flavor compounds of beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Rivas, Enrique; Salmerón-Ochoa, Iván

    2014-01-01

    Food drinks are normally processed to increase their shelf-life and facilitate distribution before consumption. Thermal pasteurization is quite efficient in preventing microbial spoilage of many types of beverages, but the applied heat may also cause undesirable biochemical and nutritious changes that may affect sensory attributes of the final product. Alternative methods of pasteurization that do not include direct heat have been investigated in order to obtain products safe for consumption, but with sensory attributes maintained as unchanged as possible. Food scientists interested in nonthermal food preservation technologies have claimed that such methods of preserving foods are equally efficient in microbial inactivation as compared with conventional thermal means of food processing. Researchers in the nonthermal food preservation area also affirm that alternative preservation technologies will not affect, as much as thermal processes, nutritional and sensory attributes of processed foods. This article reviews research in nonthermal food preservation, focusing on effects of processing of food drinks such as fruit juices and dairy products. Analytical techniques used to identify volatile flavor-aroma compounds will be reviewed and comparative effects for both thermal and nonthermal preservation technologies will be discussed.

  18. Olefins from conventional and heavy feedstocks: Energy use in steam cracking and alternative processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Tao; Patel, Martin; Blok, Kornelis

    2006-01-01

    Steam cracking for the production of light olefins, such as ethylene and propylene, is the single most energy-consuming process in the chemical industry. This paper reviews conventional steam cracking and innovative olefin technologies in terms of energy efficiency. It is found that the pyrolysis section of a naphtha steam cracker alone consumes approximately 65% of the total process energy and approximately 75% of the total exergy loss. A family portrait of olefin technologies by feedstocks is drawn to search for alternatives. An overview of state-of-the-art naphtha cracking technologies shows that approximately 20% savings on the current average process energy use are possible. Advanced naphtha cracking technologies in the pyrolysis section, such as advanced coil and furnace materials, could together lead to up to approximately 20% savings on the process energy use by state-of-the-art technologies. Improvements in the compression and separation sections could together lead to up to approximately 15% savings. Alternative processes, i.e. catalytic olefin technologies, can save up to approximately 20%

  19. Development of other oil-alternative energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Development efforts are being given on a large wind power generation system which has high reliability and economy and suits the actual situations in Japan. Verification tests will be conducted to establish control systems to realize load leveling against the increase in maximum power demand and the differences in demands between seasons, days and nights. Development will also be made on technologies for systems to operate devices optimally using nighttime power for household use. Solar light and heat energies will be introduced and used widely in housing to achieve efficient comprehensive energy utilization. Wastes, waste heat and unused energies locally available will be utilized to promote forming environment harmonious type energy communities. Photovoltaic and fuel cell power generation facilities will be installed on a trial basis to promote building a groundwork for full-scale installations. Photovoltaic power generation systems will be installed on actual houses to establish technologies to assess and optimize the load leveling effect. Attempts will be made on practical application of high-efficiency regional heat supply systems which utilize such unutilized energies as those from sea water and river water. Assistance will be given through preparing manuals on introduction of wastes power generation systems by local governments, and introduction of regional energy systems by using new discrete type power generation technologies and consumer-use cogeneration systems. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  20. Alternative sanitization methods for minimally processed lettuce in comparison to sodium hypochlorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelli, Mara Lígia Biazotto; Amaral, Rívia Darla Álvares; Benedetti, Benedito Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Lettuce is a leafy vegetable widely used in industry for minimally processed products, in which the step of sanitization is the crucial moment for ensuring a safe food for consumption. Chlorinated compounds, mainly sodium hypochlorite, are the most used in Brazil, but the formation of trihalomethanes from this sanitizer is a drawback. Then, the search for alternative methods to sodium hypochlorite has been emerging as a matter of great interest. The suitability of chlorine dioxide (60 mg L(-1)/10 min), peracetic acid (100 mg L(-1)/15 min) and ozonated water (1.2 mg L(-1)/1 min) as alternative sanitizers to sodium hypochlorite (150 mg L(-1) free chlorine/15 min) were evaluated. Minimally processed lettuce washed with tap water for 1 min was used as a control. Microbiological analyses were performed in triplicate, before and after sanitization, and at 3, 6, 9 and 12 days of storage at 2 ± 1 °C with the product packaged on LDPE bags of 60 μm. It was evaluated total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., psicrotrophic and mesophilic bacteria, yeasts and molds. All samples of minimally processed lettuce showed absence of E. coli and Salmonella spp. The treatments of chlorine dioxide, peracetic acid and ozonated water promoted reduction of 2.5, 1.1 and 0.7 log cycle, respectively, on count of microbial load of minimally processed product and can be used as substitutes for sodium hypochlorite. These alternative compounds promoted a shelf-life of six days to minimally processed lettuce, while the shelf-life with sodium hypochlorite was 12 days.

  1. Alternative sanitization methods for minimally processed lettuce in comparison to sodium hypochlorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Lígia Biazotto Bachelli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Lettuce is a leafy vegetable widely used in industry for minimally processed products, in which the step of sanitization is the crucial moment for ensuring a safe food for consumption. Chlorinated compounds, mainly sodium hypochlorite, are the most used in Brazil, but the formation of trihalomethanes from this sanitizer is a drawback. Then, the search for alternative methods to sodium hypochlorite has been emerging as a matter of great interest. The suitability of chlorine dioxide (60 mg L-1/10 min, peracetic acid (100 mg L-1/15 min and ozonated water (1.2 mg L-1 /1 min as alternative sanitizers to sodium hypochlorite (150 mg L-1 free chlorine/15 min were evaluated. Minimally processed lettuce washed with tap water for 1 min was used as a control. Microbiological analyses were performed in triplicate, before and after sanitization, and at 3, 6, 9 and 12 days of storage at 2 ± 1 ºC with the product packaged on LDPE bags of 60 µm. It was evaluated total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., psicrotrophic and mesophilic bacteria, yeasts and molds. All samples of minimally processed lettuce showed absence of E. coli and Salmonella spp. The treatments of chlorine dioxide, peracetic acid and ozonated water promoted reduction of 2.5, 1.1 and 0.7 log cycle, respectively, on count of microbial load of minimally processed product and can be used as substitutes for sodium hypochlorite. These alternative compounds promoted a shelf-life of six days to minimally processed lettuce, while the shelf-life with sodium hypochlorite was 12 days.

  2. Radioactive Dry Process Material Treatment Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. J.; Hung, I. H.; Kim, K. K. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    The project 'Radioactive Dry Process Material Treatment Technology Development' aims to be normal operation for the experiments at DUPIC fuel development facility (DFDF) and safe operation of the facility through the technology developments such as remote operation, maintenance and pair of the facility, treatment of various high level process wastes and trapping of volatile process gases. DUPIC Fuel Development Facility (DFDF) can accommodate highly active nuclear materials, and now it is for fabrication of the oxide fuel by dry process characterizing the proliferation resistance. During the second stage from march 2005 to February 2007, we carried out technology development of the remote maintenance and the DFDF's safe operation, development of treatment technology for process off-gas, and development of treatment technology for PWR cladding hull and the results was described in this report.

  3. Prospects of biomass energy in Bangladesh: an alternative development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salahuddin, Ahmed

    1998-01-01

    Biomass plays an important and complex role in the lives of the people of rural Bangladesh, where more than 80 per cent of the country's population live. The problems relating to biomass do not have to do merely with the question of supply of wood, or of food or of fuel; the problems are linked to competition in the variegations of land-use and to differing end-uses of by-products that may compete with or complement each other. The paper discusses the present pattern and amount of biomass consumption with a view to assessing the future prospect of biomass supply in meeting various needs. Regarding biomass energy supply, several important conclusions can be drawn: a) the energy consumption pattern in Bangladesh is characterized by heavy dependence on traditional fuel; b) the domestic sector uses 80 per cent of the total biomass fuel and c) in the industrial sector, about 76 per cent of the energy used consists of biomass fuel, mainly for processing agricultural products. Several observations are made pertaining to different sectors of biomass fuel demand. (author)

  4. Development of alternative ship propulsion in terms of exhaust emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markowski Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of new emission limits for exhaust emissions of ship engines contributes to the development of new powertrain solutions. New solutions in the simplest approach concern the reduction of the concentration of sulfur in motor fuels. Typically, the aforementioned fuels have a lower value of viscosity which causes a number of supply system problems. It is becoming more and more common to use fuel cells in engine rooms of various types of marine vessels. Unlike conventional systems that use internal combustion engines, these systems have zero exhaust emissions. Hydrogen, methanol, methane and other substances may be used as a fuel in fuel cells. However, so far the best operating parameters are manifested by cells powered by hydrogen, which is associated with difficulties in obtaining and storing this fuel. Therefore, the use of turbine engines allows the obtaining of large operating and environmental advantages. The paper presents a comparison of the ecological parameters of turbine and piston engines.

  5. 25 CFR 170.935 - How does a direct service tribe begin the alternative dispute resolution process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....935 How does a direct service tribe begin the alternative dispute resolution process? (a) To begin the ADR process, a direct service tribe must write to the BIA Regional Director or the Chief of BIA... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does a direct service tribe begin the alternative...

  6. School Process and Teacher Job Satisfaction at Alternative Schools: A Multilevel Study Using SASS 2007-08 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jiangang; Izumi, Masashi; Gao, Xingyuan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the associations between public alternative schools' teacher job satisfaction and school processes. Based on a multilevel analysis of the national School and Staffing Survey 2007-08 data, we found that among the seven school processes, public alternative schools' administrative support, staff collegiality, career and working…

  7. Evaluation of process alternatives for solidification of the West Valley high-level liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holton, L.K.; Larson, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) established the West Valley Solidification Project (WVSP) in 1980. The project purpose is to demonstrate removal and solidification of the high-level liquid wastes (HLLW) presently stored in tanks at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC), West Valley, New York. As part of this effort, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted a study to evaluate process alternatives for solidifcation of the WNYNSC wastes. Two process approaches for waste handling before solidification, together with solidification processes for four terminal and four interim waste forms, were considered. The first waste-handling approach, designated the salt/sludge separation process, involves separating the bulk of the nonradioactive nuclear waste constituents from the radioactive waste constituents, and the second waste-handling approach, designated the combined-waste process, involves no waste segregation prior to solidification. The processes were evaluated on the bases of their (1) readiness for plant startup by 1987, (2) relative technical merits, and (3) process cost. The study has shown that, based on these criteria, the salt/sludge separation process with a borosilicate glass waste form is preferred when producing a terminal waste form. It was also concluded that if an interim waste form is to be used, the preferred approach would be the combined waste process with a fused-salt waste form

  8. The effectiveness of process oriented guided inquiry learning to reduce alternate conceptions in secondary chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthlow, Michelle J.

    2011-12-01

    A nonequivalent, control group, pretest-posttest design was used to investigate student achievement in secondary chemistry. This study investigated the effect of process oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) in high school chemistry to reduce alternate conceptions related to the particulate nature of matter versus traditional lecture pedagogy. Data were collected from chemistry students in four large high schools and analyzed using ANCOVA. The results show that POGIL pedagogy, as opposed to traditional lecture pedagogy, resulted in fewer alternate conceptions related to the particulate nature of matter. Male and female students in the POGIL group posted better posttest scores than their traditional group peers. African-American and Hispanic students in the POGIL group exhibited achievement gains consistent with Caucasian and Asian students. Further studies are needed to determine the value of POGIL to address achievement gap concerns in chemistry.

  9. CHALLENGES AND ALTERNATIVE OF CREATIVITY DEVELOPMENT IN HIGHER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Yunus

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Creativity is the human ability to think, modify, discover and create something. Creativity in the scientific world and the general public is common term. In reality, creativity and human life are two different things, but inseparable, thus affecting and closely correlated. Life and civilization will stagnate and vacuum without creativity. Creativity always presents and appears in the rhythm of space and time as the level of thinking and the human needs. Problems faced by higher education in Indonesia today is the low creativity of both students and lecturers. Those are caused by: (1 creativity is not taught in higher education, (2 the creativity of students is less supported by parents, (3 the leader of higher education considers creativity as a means of damaging the system or existing products, and (4 the routines of lectures and students. In order to develop creativity in higher education, then the leader and lecturers should eliminate bad habits in destroying the creativity of subordinates and students, parents should continue the natural talent of the child, select the child’s social environment, minimize  punishment, and do not curb excessively  child to “do“ something. Ways that can be taken to intensify creativity in higher education including by the use of creative techniques based practical such as: brainstorming, incubator method, and the method of mapping the mind

  10. Present status on world alternative energy developments to oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddington, J.

    1980-01-01

    The IEA was established about five years ago in the OECD immediately after the oil crisis, and 20 countries have participated in it. Progress was observed in the control of the expansion of energy demand. The energy utilization in IEA member countries became efficient due to the contribution of new technologies, and owing to the improvement of productivity, the growth of energy consumption was less than 1% despite the GDP grew at the yearly rate of 2.5%. The expansion of the utilization of natural gas and coal is promising, but the projects of nuclear power generation are behind schedule. The short term prospect in petroleum market is discussed, and the price of crude oil tends to be stabilized. ''The prospect of energy in the world by 2000'' will be published by the IEA in the latter half of 1980. The scale of the development of nuclear power generation was reduced because the prediction of the rate of power generation growth was changed from 5.2% to 3.1%. The effect of new energy technologies on future energy market has been studied by the support of 15 countries, and it was recommended to give financial aid to heat pumps, coal liquefaction and the efficient recovery of oil and natural gas. Also the techniques for operating existing facilities under strict environment and safety regulations have been studied. (Kako, I.)

  11. Effects of alternating and direct current in electrocoagulation process on the removal of cadmium from water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasudevan, Subramanyan; Lakshmi, Jothinathan; Sozhan, Ganapathy

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Very high removal efficiency of cadmium was achieved by electrocoagulation. → Alternating current (AC) avoids oxide layer and corrosion on anode surface. → Good current transfer between anode and cathode results more removal efficiency. → Compact treatment facility and complete automation. → Aluminum alloy anode prevents residual aluminum in treated water. - Abstract: In practice, direct current (DC) is used in an electrocoagulation processes. In this case, an impermeable oxide layer may form on the cathode as well as corrosion formation on the anode due to oxidation. This prevents the effective current transfer between the anode and cathode, so the efficiency of electrocoagulation processes declines. These disadvantages of DC have been diminished by adopting alternating current (AC) in electrocoagulation processes. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effects of AC and DC on the removal of cadmium from water using aluminum alloy as anode and cathode. The results showed that the removal efficiency of 97.5 and 96.2% with the energy consumption of 0.454 and 1.002 kWh kl -1 was achieved at a current density of 0.2 A/dm 2 and pH of 7.0 using aluminum alloy as electrodes using AC and DC, respectively. For both AC and DC, the adsorption of cadmium was preferably fitting Langmuir adsorption isotherm, the adsorption process follows second order kinetics and the temperature studies showed that adsorption was exothermic and spontaneous in nature.

  12. Effects of alternating and direct current in electrocoagulation process on the removal of cadmium from water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasudevan, Subramanyan, E-mail: vasudevan65@gmail.com [CSIR-Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi 630 006 (India); Lakshmi, Jothinathan; Sozhan, Ganapathy [CSIR-Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi 630 006 (India)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Very high removal efficiency of cadmium was achieved by electrocoagulation. {yields} Alternating current (AC) avoids oxide layer and corrosion on anode surface. {yields} Good current transfer between anode and cathode results more removal efficiency. {yields} Compact treatment facility and complete automation. {yields} Aluminum alloy anode prevents residual aluminum in treated water. - Abstract: In practice, direct current (DC) is used in an electrocoagulation processes. In this case, an impermeable oxide layer may form on the cathode as well as corrosion formation on the anode due to oxidation. This prevents the effective current transfer between the anode and cathode, so the efficiency of electrocoagulation processes declines. These disadvantages of DC have been diminished by adopting alternating current (AC) in electrocoagulation processes. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effects of AC and DC on the removal of cadmium from water using aluminum alloy as anode and cathode. The results showed that the removal efficiency of 97.5 and 96.2% with the energy consumption of 0.454 and 1.002 kWh kl{sup -1} was achieved at a current density of 0.2 A/dm{sup 2} and pH of 7.0 using aluminum alloy as electrodes using AC and DC, respectively. For both AC and DC, the adsorption of cadmium was preferably fitting Langmuir adsorption isotherm, the adsorption process follows second order kinetics and the temperature studies showed that adsorption was exothermic and spontaneous in nature.

  13. Horizontal alternating steam drive process for the Orinoco heavy oil belt in eastern Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edgar A. Fernandez R.; Bashbush, J.L. [Schlumberger, Sugar Land, TX (United States)

    2008-10-15

    Horizontal alternating steam drive (HASD) processes use single horizontal wells that cyclically switch between injection and production phases. The steam chambers generated by the wells are laterally driven by the pressure differentials created by adjacent producers to form a sweeping front between the wells. This feasibility study assessed the use of HASD processes at a heavy oil reservoir in Venezuela. The study used numerical simulations from a representative reservoir with a 5-horizontal well array to asses the HASD recovery technique under various scenarios. Sensitivity analyses were also conducted to consider the positioning of the horizontal well placement in the reservoir column; different injection sequences; variations in the duration of injection cycles; injection rates; and the lengths of the horizontal reach of the wells. Results of the study suggested that HASD is a suitable alternative for reservoirs with sands in the 20 foot to 50 foot thickness range. HASD achieved average recovery factors of above 20 per cent over a 15 year period, and required fewer wells than steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) processes. It was concluded that the wells must be designed to consider the additional thermal stresses resulting the repeated injection and production cycles associated with HASD processes. The 6 refs., 2 tabs., 16 figs.

  14. Development of pathogen risk assessment models for the evaluation of sludge management alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeager, J.G.; Sheridan, R.E.; Ward, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    The constraints imposed on sewage treatment and disposal by clean air and water legislation make it clear that, in the near future, there will be increasing amounts of sewage sludge and fewer alternatives for its disposal. Additionally, this legislation has encouraged the use of waste management procedures which emphasize the recycling of waste materials. Decisions regarding optimal methods of sludge handling will primarily be controlled by economic considerations including the intrinsic value of the sludge, the cost of transporting sludge and sludge products, and the degree of treatment necessary to make the sludge suitable for particular applications. One principal reason to treat sludge is to inactivate pathogens. However, the actual health risks posed by pathogenic species that result from different methods of sludge utilization and how these risks are affected by different treatment processes are poorly understood. Therefore, computerized models are being developed to describe pathogen transport through environmental pathways and to help predict the risk of certain sludge utilization practices

  15. Challenges and Prospects of Cooperatives, as a real alternative development to Neoliberal Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Alberto Rivera Rodríguez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The experience of the theory and he practices from the cooperativismo to international level, as essential element of the call Social or solidary Sector of the economy, it has demonstrated as the same one it has contributed significantly to shovel the big problems of this global village Latin América and the caribe it has not been unaware to this situation, for such a reason, the present work has as purpose to carry out some reflections about the cooperative process that today is carried aout in the countries of the region, highlighting its main challenges and perspectives before the Neoliberal Globalization in its noble aspiration of transforming into an economic and social real development alternative

  16. Development of some new Aza and Thia complex as alternative tracers for oil reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Lauris L.; Donnici, Claudio L.; Ayala, Jose D.

    2009-01-01

    A promising group of non-sorbing tracers are lanthanide ions complexed to organic anions, which yield a negatively charged complex. Besides, this lanthanide ion could be chosen which, in its non-complexed form, is very insoluble in groundwater and thus no severe background concentrations problem would arise. The lanthanide elements may be used as tracers since they present good solubility in water, when complexed, and the nuclides have high neutron cross sections, they may be used as activable tracers under neutron irradiation in order to evaluate the efficiency of the petroleum production processes. For this purpose, tracers must be soluble in the aqueous phase and be insoluble in the organic phase, they also must not be adsorbed on the internal microporous rock formations and be easily detectable. Lanthanide complexes with DTPA and thiodicarboxylic acid ligands are an alternative to the development of these novel tracers since their properties may be chemically adjusted. (author)

  17. Variability of LD50 Values from Rat Oral Acute Toxicity Studies: Implications for Alternative Model Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative models developed for estimating acute systemic toxicity are generally evaluated using in vivo LD50 values. However, in vivo acute systemic toxicity studies can produce variable results, even when conducted according to accepted test guidelines. This variability can ma...

  18. Discrete Institutional Alternatives of Public Administration Reforms in Countries with Developed and Developing Institutional Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny A. Kapoguzov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an approach to evaluation the impact of the level of development of institutional environment on the success of the reforms of public administration. The indicators that characterize the degree of development of the institutional environment, in particular, the level of protection of property rights, the development of political competition, civil society, corruption, and trust in society are shown. Depending on the elements of the political-administrative system, socio-economic features, that determine the trajectories of reforms, showing alternative purposes and characterized some indicators, that characterizing the results of reforms for the OECD-counties. Showing institutional problems is implementing reforms in the transition countries, depending on the elements of the political and administrative systems, and socio-cultural factors that determine the path of reform, showing alternative purposes and characterized by individual indicators characterizing the results of the OECD reform. From the point of view of the classification results, the emphasis is made on quantitative results of the operational type, in particular, the dynamics of the general government expenditure and the level of employment of civil servants in relation to employment in the economy as a whole. Showing institutional problems in the implementation of reforms in the transition countries, in particular the gap of development of the bureaucratic ethos, the weakness of the market environment and the insufficient level of external pressure on the quality of public services. The significance for the success of reform and systemic cultural change within the state apparatus, which affects the quality of citizens' satisfaction with public services is observed. It is noted that the preliminary formalization of the public sector, the formation of Weberian bureaucracy type is essential for successful implementation of the New Public Management. The factors that

  19. Analysis of words to development of augmentative and alternative communication boards for disabled student

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Carla Paura

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the contribution of the words used in language assessment instruments and/or the vocabulary used in Brazil for the development of alternative communication boards. Methods: word lists from the selected assessment instruments were analyzed through a protocol designed for this purpose. The frequency of occurrence of each word was verified considering four word lists from the instruments and the frequency of occurrence of these words according to the classification proposed by Comunication Pictu Symbols system - PCS. Results: Results showed that the frequency words occurred only once was of 67.88% and the frequency of occurrence of concrete and abstract nouns in the instruments was 60.04%. The instrument that presented words with more than one occurrence was the Vocabulary Test-PPVT Peabody Picture. Conclusions: The use of tool that are already used and standardized may contribute to the process of evaluation, selection and deployment of augmentative and alternative communication resources for children and youth with disabilities.

  20. Features of the Manufacturing Vision Development Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra; Riis, Jens Ove; Boer, Harry

    2005-01-01

    of action research. The methodology recommends wide participation of people from different hierarchical and functional positions, who engage in a relatively short, playful and creative process and come up with a vision (concept) for the future manufacturing system in the company. Based on three case studies......This paper discusses the key features of the process of Manufacturing Vision Development, a process that enables companies to develop their future manufacturing concept. The basis for the process is a generic five-phase methodology (Riis and Johansen, 2003) developed as a result of ten years...... of companies going through the initial phases of the methodology, this research identified the key features of the Manufacturing Vision Development process. The paper elaborates the key features by defining them, discussing how and when they can appear, and how they influence the process....

  1. Unified Approach in the DSS Development Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure of today's decision support environment become very complex due to new generation of Business Intelligence applications and technologies like Data Warehouse, OLAP (On Line Analytical Processing and Data Mining. In this respect DSS development process are not simple and needs an adequate methodology or framework able to manage different tools and platforms to achieve manager's requirements. The DSS development process must be view like a unified and iterative set of activities and operations. The new techniques based on Unified Process (UP methodology and UML (Unified Modeling Language it seems to be appropriate for DSS development using prototyping and RAD (Rapid Application Development techniques. In this paper we present a conceptual framework for development and integrate Decision Support Systems using Unified Process Methodology and UML.

  2. Municipal solid waste processing and separation employing wet torrefaction for alternative fuel production and aluminum reclamation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu'min, Gea Fardias; Prawisudha, Pandji; Zaini, Ilman Nuran; Aziz, Muhammad; Pasek, Ari Darmawan

    2017-09-01

    This study employs wet torrefaction process (also known as hydrothermal) at low temperature. This process simultaneously acts as waste processing and separation of mixed waste, for subsequent utilization as an alternative fuel. The process is also applied for the delamination and separation of non-recyclable laminated aluminum waste into separable aluminum and plastic. A 2.5-L reactor was used to examine the wet torrefaction process at temperatures below 200°C. It was observed that the processed mixed waste was converted into two different products: a mushy organic part and a bulky plastic part. Using mechanical separation, the two products can be separated into a granular organic product and a plastic bulk for further treatment. TGA analysis showed that no changes in the plastic composition and no intrusion from plastic fraction to the organic fraction. It can be proclaimed that both fractions have been completely separated by wet torrefaction. The separated plastic fraction product obtained from the wet torrefaction treatment also contained relatively high calorific value (approximately 44MJ/kg), therefore, justifying its use as an alternative fuel. The non-recyclable plastic fraction of laminated aluminum was observed to be delaminated and separated from its aluminum counterpart at a temperature of 170°C using an additional acetic acid concentration of 3%, leaving less than 25% of the plastic content in the aluminum part. Plastic products from both samples had high calorific values of more than 30MJ/kg, which is sufficient to be converted and used as a fuel. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Alternative methodology for using Eureka software in the teaching-learning process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudeisy Cudina-Guerrero

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to fulfill one of the aspects that characterized the curriculum for the training of ordinary skill in the Technical and Vocational Education which states: increase student learning in mathematics in particular, where teachers use the computer effectively as a teaching, and thus eliminate academic failure, an alternative methodology was developed to use the Eureka software, which was presented to teachers and provincial methodologists of mathematics, as well as students of Accounting, it helped to further learning students at Work with Variables. The proposal was designed to achieve a formative learning accordingly to the objectives of the program it requires Mathematics. The relevance of the alternative was assessed by consulting specialists, where they corroborated that can be educational practice.

  4. Advancing alternatives analysis: The role of predictive toxicology in selecting safer chemical products and processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Timothy; Zaunbrecher, Virginia; Beryt, Elizabeth; Judson, Richard; Tice, Raymond; Allard, Patrick; Blake, Ann; Cote, Ila; Godwin, Hilary; Heine, Lauren; Kerzic, Patrick; Kostal, Jakub; Marchant, Gary; McPartland, Jennifer; Moran, Kelly; Nel, Andre; Ogunseitan, Oladele; Rossi, Mark; Thayer, Kristina; Tickner, Joel; Whittaker, Margaret; Zarker, Ken

    2017-09-01

    Alternatives analysis (AA) is a method used in regulation and product design to identify, assess, and evaluate the safety and viability of potential substitutes for hazardous chemicals. It requires toxicological data for the existing chemical and potential alternatives. Predictive toxicology uses in silico and in vitro approaches, computational models, and other tools to expedite toxicological data generation in a more cost-effective manner than traditional approaches. The present article briefly reviews the challenges associated with using predictive toxicology in regulatory AA, then presents 4 recommendations for its advancement. It recommends using case studies to advance the integration of predictive toxicology into AA, adopting a stepwise process to employing predictive toxicology in AA beginning with prioritization of chemicals of concern, leveraging existing resources to advance the integration of predictive toxicology into the practice of AA, and supporting transdisciplinary efforts. The further incorporation of predictive toxicology into AA would advance the ability of companies and regulators to select alternatives to harmful ingredients, and potentially increase the use of predictive toxicology in regulation more broadly. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:915-925. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  5. Integrating Complementary and Alternative Medicine Into Conventional Health Care System in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishra, Shiva Raj; Neupane, Dinesh; Kallestrup, Per

    2015-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine has been a part of human life and practices since the beginning of time. The role of complementary and alternative medicine for the health of humans is undisputed particularly in light of its role in health promotion and well-being. This article discusses wa...... through which complementary and alternative medicine can be promoted and sustained as an integrated element of health care in developing countries. We specifically present the exemplary of Amchi traditional doctors of Northern Himalayas......Complementary and alternative medicine has been a part of human life and practices since the beginning of time. The role of complementary and alternative medicine for the health of humans is undisputed particularly in light of its role in health promotion and well-being. This article discusses ways...

  6. Management of Talent Development Process in Sport

    OpenAIRE

    SEVİMLİ, Dilek

    2015-01-01

    In the development of elite athletes, talent identification and education, is a complex and multidimensional process. It is difficult to predict the future performance depending on the increasing amount of technical, tactical, conditioning and psychological needs in a sport. Factors such as children’s developmental stages and levels, gender, athlete development programs, social support, the quality of coaches, access to equipment and facilities can affect talent development process.Phases of ...

  7. High-power ultrasonic processing: Recent developments and prospective advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Juarez, Juan A.

    2010-01-01

    Although the application of ultrasonic energy to produce or to enhance a wide variety of processes have been explored since about the middle of the 20th century, only a reduced number of ultrasonic processes have been established at industrial level. However, during the last ten years the interest in ultrasonic processing has revived particularly in industrial sectors where the ultrasonic technology may represent a clean and efficient tool to improve classical existing processes or an innovation alternative for the development of new processes. Such seems to be the case of relevant sectors such as food industry, environment, pharmaceuticals and chemicals manufacture, machinery, mining, etc where power ultrasound is becoming an emerging technology for process development. The possible major problem in the application of high-intensity ultrasound on industrial processing is the design and development of efficient power ultrasonic systems (generators and reactors) capable of large scale successful operation specifically adapted to each individual process. In the area of ultrasonic processing in fluid media and more specifically in gases, the development of the steppedplate transducers and other power ge with extensive radiating surface has strongly contributed to the implementation at semi-industrial and industrial stage of several commercial applications, in sectors such as food and beverage industry (defoaming, drying, extraction, etc), environment (air cleaning, sludge filtration, etc...), machinery and process for manufacturing (textile washing, paint manufacture, etc). The development of different cavitational reactors for liquid treatment in continuous flow is helping to introduce into industry the wide potential of the area of sonochemistry. Processes such as water and effluent treatment, crystallization, soil remediation, etc have been already implemented at semi-industrial and/or industrial stage. Other single advances in sectors like mining or energy have

  8. Organizational Development: Values, Process, and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulies, Newton; Raia, Anthony P.

    The current state-of-the-art of organizational development is the focus of this book. The five parts into which the book is divided are as follows: Part One--Introduction (Organizational Development in Perspective--the nature, values, process, and technology of organizational development); Part Two--The Components of Organizational Developments…

  9. Robot development for nuclear material processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrotti, L.R.; Armantrout, G.A.; Allen, D.C.; Sievers, R.H. Sr.

    1991-07-01

    The Department of Energy is seeking to modernize its special nuclear material (SNM) production facilities and concurrently reduce radiation exposures and process and incidental radioactive waste generated. As part of this program, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) lead team is developing and adapting generic and specific applications of commercial robotic technologies to SNM pyrochemical processing and other operations. A working gantry robot within a sealed processing glove box and a telerobot control test bed are manifestations of this effort. This paper describes the development challenges and progress in adapting processing, robotic, and nuclear safety technologies to the application. 3 figs

  10. DIAGNOSIS OF ALTERNATIVE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE IN THE CITY OF UBÁ-MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Sperandio Duriguetto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Conventional agriculture uses mechanization practices, remediation and soil fertilization and pesticides to control pests and diseases. The criticism of this farming system grows as studies show that pesticides contaminate food and the environment and cause health damage. Aiming at sustainable development and the pursuit of consolidation between the social, economic and ecological agriculture alternative arises. This work is outlined in order to understand the current status, characteristics, limitations and difficulties for the implementation of alternative agriculture in the municipality of Ubá-MG. Furthermore, we seek to identify the knowledge of agricultural alternative as well as the interest and profile of likely consumers of these products in the municipality. We conducted a quantitative research through the use of two questionnaires with multiple choice questions and dichotomous, by simple random sampling. The results show that there are many difficulties for the development of alternative agriculture in the county, including: a lack of resources for producers, small-scale production, lack of market and consumer knowledge about alternative product in the municipality. Given these difficulties, the alternative system seems advantageous and competitive both economically and environmentally compared to the conventional system. There was a lack of information regarding organic products, alternative, since access to these is restricted to much of the population in the municipality of Ubá and adjacent municipalities. Seeking theoretical basis it was necessary also to perform a literature search in several papers that address the theme.

  11. Safety guides development process in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butragueno, J.L.; Perello, M.

    1979-01-01

    Safety guides have become a major factor in the licensing process of nuclear power plants and related nuclear facilities of the fuel cycle. As far as the experience corroborates better and better engineering methodologies and procedures, the results of these are settled down in form of standards, guides, and similar issues. This paper presents the actual Spanish experience in nuclear standards and safety guides development. The process to develop a standard or safety guide is shown. Up to date list of issued and on development nuclear safety guides is included and comments on the future role of nuclear standards in the licensing process are made. (author)

  12. Alternative Layouts for the Carbon Capture with the Chilled Ammonia Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valenti, Gianluca; Bonalumi, Davide; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup

    2013-01-01

    Many alternatives are being investigated for the carbon capture, but none appears to have been proved as the choice for full-scale applications. This work considers the Chilled Ammonia Process for coal-fired Ultra Super Critical power plants. Three layouts are simulated with Aspen Plus and the Ex......Many alternatives are being investigated for the carbon capture, but none appears to have been proved as the choice for full-scale applications. This work considers the Chilled Ammonia Process for coal-fired Ultra Super Critical power plants. Three layouts are simulated with Aspen Plus...... substantially the electric loss due to stream extraction from the turbine. The simulations show that the net electric efficiency drops from 45.5% to 33.5-34.5%, the SPECCA index is 3.8-4.3 MJth kgCO2–1 and the heat duties are 2.7-2.9 MJth kgCO2–1. The performances may improve greatly upon optimization...

  13. Adapting the unified software development process for user interface development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obrenovic, Z.; Starcevic, D.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we describe how existing software developing processes, such as Rational Unified Process, can be adapted in order to allow disciplined and more efficient development of user interfaces. The main objective of this paper is to demonstrate that standard modeling environments, based on the

  14. Structural and morphological approach of Co-Cr dental alloys processed by alternative manufacturing technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porojan, Sorin; Bîrdeanu, Mihaela; Savencu, Cristina; Porojan, Liliana

    2017-08-01

    The integration of digitalized processing technologies in traditional dental restorations manufacturing is an emerging application. The objective of this study was to identify the different structural and morphological characteristics of Co-Cr dental alloys processed by alternative manufacturing techniques in order to understand the influence of microstructure on restorations properties and their clinical behavior. Metallic specimens made of Co-Cr dental alloys were prepared using traditional casting (CST), and computerized milling (MIL), selective laser sintering (SLS) and selective laser melting (SLM). The structural information of the samples was obtained by X-ray diffraction, the morphology and the topography of the samples were investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscope. Given that the microstructure was significantly different, further differences in the clinical behavior of prosthetic restorations manufactured using additive techniques are anticipated.

  15. Development perspectives of alternative energy projects before the new energy regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencia V; Jaime A; Perez O, Jaime A; Moreno O, German

    2000-01-01

    Large electric energy generation systems are dominant in the energy markets. This has been like that, because the economic balances have not included yet some parameters, and specifically environmental variables, that started being considered in the international markets. Colombian generation and transmission expanding plans are commented and the possibilities for the developing of alternative energy projects are referred to those plans. Additionally, a regional experience in the definition of criteria for electric energy service coverage enlargement allowing for alternative energy inclusion is presents, remarking their successful application as a competitive alternative for rural energizing

  16. Development of an Alternative Glass Formulation for Vitrification of Excess Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MARRA, JAMES

    2006-01-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE/EM) plans to conduct the Plutonium Disposition Project at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to disposition excess weapons-usable plutonium. A plutonium glass waste form is a leading candidate for immobilization of the plutonium for subsequent disposition in a geologic repository. A reference glass composition (Lanthanide Borosilicate (La 2 O 3 -B 2 O 3 -SiO 2 (LaBS))-Frit B) was developed and testing with the LaBS Frit B composition is underway to provide data to support the Yucca Mountain License Application process. The objective of this task was to investigate alternative frit compositions and/or processing conditions that may improve the performance of the reference Frit B-LaBS glass in the repository. The current LaBS Frit B composition was used as the baseline for alternative glass formulation development efforts. A review of the literature and past high actinide concentration glass development efforts was conducted to formulate candidate compositions for testing. Glass science principles were also utilized to determine candidate frit components that may meet task objectives. Additionally, glass processing methods (e.g. slow cooling or induced heat treatment) were investigated as potential means to improve the glass durability and/or minimize fissile material and neutron absorber separation. Based on these analyses, a series of candidate surrogate glasses were fabricated and analyzed. One composition was then selected for fabrication with PuO 2 and subsequently analyzed. A phase equilibrium approach, developed from the assessment of previous high lanthanide glass formulations, was used to recommend modifications to the SRNL Frit B composition. A specific recommendation to increase Ln 2 O 3 content with concurrent reduction of Al 2 O 3 and SiO 2 content proved to be successful in improving the melting behavior and component solubility of the glass. This change moved the formulation from a

  17. Minimally processed beetroot waste as an alternative source to obtain functional ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Anne Porto Dalla; Hermes, Vanessa Stahl; Rios, Alessandro de Oliveira; Flôres, Simone Hickmann

    2017-06-01

    Large amounts of waste are generated by the minimally processed vegetables industry, such as those from beetroot processing. The aim of this study was to determine the best method to obtain flour from minimally processed beetroot waste dried at different temperatures, besides producing a colorant from such waste and assessing its stability along 45 days. Beetroot waste dried at 70 °C originates flour with significant antioxidant activity and higher betalain content than flour produced from waste dried at 60 and 80 °C, while chlorination had no impact on the process since microbiological results were consistent for its application. The colorant obtained from beetroot waste showed color stability for 20 days and potential antioxidant activity over the analysis period, thus it can be used as a functional additive to improve nutritional characteristics and appearance of food products. These results are promising since minimally processed beetroot waste can be used as an alternative source of natural and functional ingredients with high antioxidant activity and betalain content.

  18. Alternative Procedure of Heat Integration Tehnique Election between Two Unit Processes to Improve Energy Saving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, S. S.; Renanto; Altway, A.

    2018-01-01

    The energy use system in a production process, in this case heat exchangers networks (HENs), is one element that plays a role in the smoothness and sustainability of the industry itself. Optimizing Heat Exchanger Networks (HENs) from process streams can have a major effect on the economic value of an industry as a whole. So the solving of design problems with heat integration becomes an important requirement. In a plant, heat integration can be carried out internally or in combination between process units. However, steps in the determination of suitable heat integration techniques require long calculations and require a long time. In this paper, we propose an alternative step in determining heat integration technique by investigating 6 hypothetical units using Pinch Analysis approach with objective function energy target and total annual cost target. The six hypothetical units consist of units A, B, C, D, E, and F, where each unit has the location of different process streams to the temperature pinch. The result is a potential heat integration (ΔH’) formula that can trim conventional steps from 7 steps to just 3 steps. While the determination of the preferred heat integration technique is to calculate the potential of heat integration (ΔH’) between the hypothetical process units. Completion of calculation using matlab language programming.

  19. Syntactic processing in music and language: Effects of interrupting auditory streams with alternating timbres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiveash, Anna; Thompson, William Forde; Badcock, Nicholas A; McArthur, Genevieve

    2018-07-01

    Music and language both rely on the processing of spectral (pitch, timbre) and temporal (rhythm) information to create structure and meaning from incoming auditory streams. Behavioral results have shown that interrupting a melodic stream with unexpected changes in timbre leads to reduced syntactic processing. Such findings suggest that syntactic processing is conditional on successful streaming of incoming sequential information. The current study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate whether (1) the effect of alternating timbres on syntactic processing is reflected in a reduced brain response to syntactic violations, and (2) the phenomenon is similar for music and language. Participants listened to melodies and sentences with either one timbre (piano or one voice) or three timbres (piano, guitar, and vibraphone, or three different voices). Half the stimuli contained syntactic violations: an out-of-key note in the melodies, and a phrase-structure violation in the sentences. We found smaller ERPs to syntactic violations in music in the three-timbre compared to the one-timbre condition, reflected in a reduced early right anterior negativity (ERAN). A similar but non-significant pattern was observed for language stimuli in both the early left anterior negativity (ELAN) and the left anterior negativity (LAN) ERPs. The results suggest that disruptions to auditory streaming may interfere with syntactic processing, especially for melodic sequences. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessment and Development of Engineering Design Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrikkeholm, Jeppe Bjerrum

    , the engineering companies need to have efficient engineering design processes in place, so they can design customised product variants faster and more efficiently. It is however not an easy task to model and develop such processes. To conduct engineering design is often a highly iterative, illdefined and complex...... the process can be fully understood and eventually improved. Taking its starting point in this proposition, the outcome of the research is an operational 5-phased procedure for assessing and developing engineering design processes through integrated modelling of product and process, designated IPPM......, and eventually the results are discussed, overall conclusions are made and future research is proposed. The results produced throughout the research project are developed in close collaboration with the Marine Low Speed business unit within the company MAN Diesel & Turbo. The business unit is the world market...

  1. Integrating ergonomics into the product development process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole

    1997-01-01

    and production engineers regarding information sources in problem solving, communication pattern, perception of ergonomics, motivation and requests to support tools and methods. These differences and the social and organizational contexts of the development process must be taken into account when considering......A cross-sectional case study was performed in a large company producing electro-mechanical products for industrial application. The purpose was to elucidate conditions and strategies for integrating ergonomics into the product development process thereby preventing ergonomic problems at the time...... of manufacture of new products. In reality the product development process is not a rational problem solving process and does not proceed in a sequential manner as decribed in engineering models. Instead it is a complex organizational process involving uncertainties, iterative elements and negotiation between...

  2. Environmental value considerations in public attitudes about alternative energy development in Oregon and Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Brent S; Pierce, John C; Warner, Rebecca L; Lovrich, Nicholas P

    2015-03-01

    The 2013 Pacific Coast Action Plan on Climate and Energy signed by the Governors of California, Oregon, and Washington and the Premier of British Columbia launched a broadly announced public commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through multiple strategies. Those strategies include the development and increased use of renewable energy sources. The initiative recognized that citizens are both a central component in abating greenhouse gas emissions with regard to their energy use behaviors, and are important participants in the public policymaking process at both state and local levels of government. The study reported here examines whether either support or opposition to state government leadership in the development of alternative energy technologies can be explained by environmental values as measured by the New Ecological Paradigm (NEP). The research results are based on mail surveys of randomly selected households conducted throughout Oregon and Washington in late 2009 and early 2010. Findings suggest that younger and more highly educated respondents are significantly more likely than older and less educated respondents to either support or strongly support government policies to promote bioenergy, wind, geothermal, and solar energy. Those respondents with higher NEP scores are also more supportive of government promotion of wind, geothermal, and solar technologies than are those with lower NEP scores. Support for wave energy does not show a statistical correlation with environmental values, maybe a reflection of this technology's nascent level of development. The paper concludes with a consideration of the implications of these findings for environmental management.

  3. Fabrication Process Development for Light Deformable Mirrors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The project objective is to develop robust, reproductibble fabrication processes to realize functional deformable membrane mirrors (DM) for a space mission in which...

  4. Chemometric analysis of alternations in coal ash quality induced by application of different mechano-chemical processing parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terzić Anja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The coal fly ash mechano-chemical activation conducted via high energy ultra-centrifugal mill was optimized using mathematical and statistical tools. The aim of the investigation was to accent the merits of alternations in ash processing schemes with a referral regarding the enhancement of the ash reactivity that will lead to its higher volume utilization as a cement replacement in concrete design. The impact of the processing parameters sets (number of rotor revolutions, current intensity, activation period, circumferential rotor speed, mill capacity on the on the product’s quality factors (grain size distribution, average grain size, micronization level, agglomeration tendency, specific surface area was assessed via Response surface method, Standard score analysis and Principal component analysis in order to obtain the most favorable output. Developed models were able to meticulously predict quality parameters in an extensive range of processing parameters. The calculated r2 values were in the range of 0.846-0.999. The optimal ash sample, that reached the Standard Score as high as 0.93, was produced using a set of processing parameters appropriate to experimental sequence with applied 120 μm sieve mesh. The microstructural characteristics were assessed using image-processing values and histogram plots of the activated fly ash SEM images. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. ON 172057, Grant no. III 45008, Grant no. TR 31055 and Grant no. TR 34006

  5. Recent Developments in Abrasive Hybrid Manufacturing Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruszaj Adam

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent dynamic development of abrasive hybrid manufacturing processes results from application of a new difficult for machining materials and improvement of technological indicators of manufacturing processes already applied in practice. This tendency also occurs in abrasive machining processes which are often supported by ultrasonic vibrations, electrochemical dissolution or by electrical discharges. In the paper we present the review of new results of investigations and new practical applications of Abrasive Electrodischarge (AEDM and Electrochemical (AECM Machining.

  6. Itataia project - Development of the process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, S.V.

    1987-01-01

    A process for treating the phosphorus uraniferous ore, from Itataia-CE mine in Brazil, was developed, establishing the basic flow chart for recovery two products: uranium concentrate and phosphoric acid. The developed process consists in physical concentration, chemical separation, solvent extraction, and it presented, in laboratory and pilot scales, recovery levels which assure the project viability technicaly and economicaly. The consolidation of project and the description of installations are presented by a documentary film. (M.C.K.) [pt

  7. Itataia project - Development of the process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, S.V.

    1987-01-01

    A process for treating the phosphorous uraniferous ore, from Itataia-CE mine in Brazil, was developed, establishing the basic flow chart for recovery two products: uranium concentrate and phosphoric acid. The developed process consists in physical concentration, chemical separation, solvent extraction, and it presented, in laboratory and pilot scales, recovery leves which assure the project viability technically and economically. The consolidation of project and the description of installations are presented by a documentary film. (M.C.K.) [pt

  8. Teaching Information Systems Development via Process Variants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wee-Kek; Tan, Chuan-Hoo

    2010-01-01

    Acquiring the knowledge to assemble an integrated Information System (IS) development process that is tailored to the specific needs of a project has become increasingly important. It is therefore necessary for educators to impart to students this crucial skill. However, Situational Method Engineering (SME) is an inherently complex process that…

  9. Biocatalytic process development using microfluidic miniaturized systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krühne, Ulrich; Heintz, Søren; Ringborg, Rolf Hoffmeyer

    2014-01-01

    The increasing interest in biocatalytic processes means there is a clear need for a new systematic development paradigm which encompasses both protein engineering and process engineering. This paper argues that through the use of a new microfluidic platform, data can be collected more rapidly...

  10. Process Consultation: Its Role in Organization Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Edgar H.

    This volume focuses on the process by which the consultant builds readiness for organizational development (OD) programs, actually conducts training, and works with the key individuals of an organization as part of an OD program. Part I describes in some detail the human processes in organizations--communication, functional roles of group members,…

  11. Advances in the Process Development of Biocatalytic Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufvesson, Pär; Lima Ramos, Joana; Al-Haque, Naweed

    2013-01-01

    Biocatalysis is already established in chemical synthesis on an industrial scale, in particular in the pharmaceutical sector. However, the wider implementation of biocatalysis is currently hindered by the extensive effort required to develop a competitive process. In order that resources spent...

  12. Sustainable Ammonia Synthesis – Exploring the scientific challenges associated with discovering alternative, sustainable processes for ammonia production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nørskov, Jens [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); ; SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Chen, Jingguang [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Miranda, Raul [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science; Fitzsimmons, Tim [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science; Stack, Robert [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science

    2016-02-18

    Ammonia (NH3) is essential to all life on our planet. Until about 100 years ago, NH3 produced by reduction of dinitrogen (N2) in air came almost exclusively from bacteria containing the enzyme nitrogenase.. DOE convened a roundtable of experts on February 18, 2016. Participants in the Roundtable discussions concluded that the scientific basis for sustainable processes for ammonia synthesis is currently lacking, and it needs to be enhanced substantially before it can form the foundation for alternative processes. The Roundtable Panel identified an overarching grand challenge and several additional scientific grand challenges and research opportunities: -Discovery of active, selective, scalable, long-lived catalysts for sustainable ammonia synthesis. -Development of relatively low pressure (<10 atm) and relatively low temperature (<200 C) thermal processes. -Integration of knowledge from nature (enzyme catalysis), molecular/homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. -Development of electrochemical and photochemical routes for N2 reduction based on proton and electron transfer -Development of biochemical routes to N2 reduction -Development of chemical looping (solar thermochemical) approaches -Identification of descriptors of catalytic activity using a combination of theory and experiments -Characterization of surface adsorbates and catalyst structures (chemical, physical and electronic) under conditions relevant to ammonia synthesis.

  13. Process-Based Quality (PBQ) Tools Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummins, J.L.

    2001-12-03

    The objective of this effort is to benchmark the development of process-based quality tools for application in CAD (computer-aided design) model-based applications. The processes of interest are design, manufacturing, and quality process applications. A study was commissioned addressing the impact, current technologies, and known problem areas in application of 3D MCAD (3-dimensional mechanical computer-aided design) models and model integrity on downstream manufacturing and quality processes. The downstream manufacturing and product quality processes are profoundly influenced and dependent on model quality and modeling process integrity. The goal is to illustrate and expedite the modeling and downstream model-based technologies for available or conceptual methods and tools to achieve maximum economic advantage and advance process-based quality concepts.

  14. Transcranial alternating current stimulation: A review of the underlying mechanisms and modulation of cognitive processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph S Herrmann

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Brain oscillations of different frequencies have been associated with a variety of cognitive functions. Convincing evidence supporting those associations has been provided by studies using intracranial stimulation, pharmacological interventions and lesion studies. The emergence of novel non-invasive brain stimulation techniques like repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS and transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS now allows to modulate brain oscillations directly. Particularly, tACS offers the unique opportunity to causally link brain oscillations of a specific frequency range to cognitive processes, because it uses sinusoidal currents that are bound to one frequency only. Using tACS allows to modulate brain oscillations and in turn to influence cognitive processes, thereby demonstrating the causal link between the two. Here, we review findings about the physiological mechanism of tACS and studies that have used tACS to modulate basic motor and sensory processes as well as higher cognitive processes like memory, ambiguous perception, and decision making.

  15. Agrofood chains: a viable alternative for sustainable rural development or consolidation of big business?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Rosa Yumbla

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Beginning in the 90s, following patterns that responded to the global corporate food regime, the government of Ecuador encouraged the formation of agro-food chains, among them, the chain of corn-animal feed- poultry. The food chain includes two service links (SL and four productive links (PL controlled by companies such as Pronaca, Agripac, Ecuaquímica and Supermaxi. These companies implemented horizontal, vertical, financial, and brand integrations, as strategies to consolidate market power and something even more prejudicial –the shaping of decisions regarding what and how to plant, and the available choices of what and how to consume– progressively creating a gap between producers and consumers.This model promotes corn monoculture through contract farming, encourages the use of agrochemicals, and endorses large poultry and swine processing factories which cause air, soil and water pollution from the ‘by products’, gas, feces and urine produced by the animals. Additionally, it promotes, supports an increases the consumption of animal protein, which is energy inefficient.The article discusses the consolidation of the agro-food chain, corn –processed food– poultry, and their links in order to determine if the integration of producers and consumers in this chain is an alternative to equitable development. Or are they part of the business strategies that respond to global food systems?

  16. Understanding Alternative Food Networks: Exploring the Role of Food Supply Chains in Rural Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renting, H.; Marsden, T.; Banks, J.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we explore the development and incidence of alternative food networks within a European-wide context. By developing a consistent definition of short food supply chains, we address both the morphology and the dynamics of these, and then examine empirical evidence concerning their

  17. Alternative Pathways to Talent Development in Music: The Narrative of an Eminent Filipino Singer-Songwriter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garces-Bacsal, Rhoda Myra

    2014-01-01

    The narrative of an eminent Filipino singer-songwriter, Noel Cabangon, provides a description of an alternative pathway to musical talent development. Most theories on talent development assume that a young artist would have access to the resources required for one to advance in the domain. The results of multiple in-depth interviews suggested…

  18. Timing Childhoods: An Alternative Reading of Children's Development through Philosophy of Time, Temporality, Place and Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesar, Marek

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that the denial of development can be a productive space and a liberating time for children in the current outcomes-driven times. The author offers an alternative reading of childhood, considering children's development differently through various philosophical theorizations of events, which emerge through utilizing philosophy…

  19. New product development processes for ICT-for-development projects

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    McAlister, BN

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available in developing regions of the world is increasing rapidly. A number of methods and practices have been used by organizations to develop and deliver such ICT solutions, but a need exists to formalize product development processes for use in the ICT...

  20. Cognitive Process of Development in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddington, Eulalee N.

    2009-01-01

    In this article we explored the theories of Arnold Gesell, Erik Erickson and Jean Piaget about how human beings development. In this component we will analyze the cognitive processes of how children perceive and develop, in particular children from a cross-cultural background. How learning takes place, and how the influences of culture, and…

  1. Automating Software Development Process using Fuzzy Logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelloni, Francesco; Aksit, Mehmet; Damiani, Ernesto; Jain, Lakhmi C.; Madravio, Mauro

    2004-01-01

    In this chapter, we aim to highlight how fuzzy logic can be a valid expressive tool to manage the software development process. We characterize a software development method in terms of two major components: artifact types and methodological rules. Classes, attributes, operations, and inheritance

  2. Biochemical Changes during Development Process of Anther ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ERCAN

    2012-02-20

    Feb 20, 2012 ... The main metabolic substances changes during the development process of anther-derived embryos in loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl. ... provide energy for the new development phase (Zang et al., 2004; He and Qi, 2002). ... were used for experimental materials (Figure 1) such as embryogenic calluses ...

  3. Alternative processing of renographic data for use in children and agitated adult patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsen, Ove

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe an alternative method for processing [99mTc]-diethylene-triamine pentaacetate ([99mTc]-DTPA) renographic data which is unaffected by patient movement and which only requires the patient to be on the imaging table during the early and late examination phases. Methods: The analysis is based on early image series (0-2 min postinjection) and late image series (the last 5 min). Regions of interest (ROIs) over the kidneys, renal parenchyma and renal backgrounds were created in both sets of images. A robust method for determination without deconvolution of mean transit time indices for the whole kidney and renal parenchyma was established. Estimation of renal volume was possible using a geometrical method. Results: Simulation studies and studies in patients showed a close relationship between the mean transit times using deconvolution and the corresponding mean transit time indices. Conclusions: The alternative method is recommended to be applied in those agitated patients, children in particular, where sedation is either contraindicated or not relevant and in cases where the effective acquisition time should be kept at a minimum (Au)

  4. Limits of Risk Predictability in a Cascading Alternating Renewal Process Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xin; Moussawi, Alaa; Korniss, Gyorgy; Bakdash, Jonathan Z; Szymanski, Boleslaw K

    2017-07-27

    Most risk analysis models systematically underestimate the probability and impact of catastrophic events (e.g., economic crises, natural disasters, and terrorism) by not taking into account interconnectivity and interdependence of risks. To address this weakness, we propose the Cascading Alternating Renewal Process (CARP) to forecast interconnected global risks. However, assessments of the model's prediction precision are limited by lack of sufficient ground truth data. Here, we establish prediction precision as a function of input data size by using alternative long ground truth data generated by simulations of the CARP model with known parameters. We illustrate the approach on a model of fires in artificial cities assembled from basic city blocks with diverse housing. The results confirm that parameter recovery variance exhibits power law decay as a function of the length of available ground truth data. Using CARP, we also demonstrate estimation using a disparate dataset that also has dependencies: real-world prediction precision for the global risk model based on the World Economic Forum Global Risk Report. We conclude that the CARP model is an efficient method for predicting catastrophic cascading events with potential applications to emerging local and global interconnected risks.

  5. Adult Personality Development: Dynamics and Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Diehl, Manfred; Hooker, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this special issue of Research in Human Development is on adult personality and how personality may contribute to and be involved in adult development. Specifically, the contributions in this issue focus on the links between personality structures (e.g., traits) and personality processes (e.g., goal pursuit, self--regulation) and emphasize the contributions that intensive repeated measurement approaches can make to the understanding of personality and development across the adult...

  6. The software development process in worldwide collaborations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amako, K.

    1998-01-01

    High energy physics experiments in future colliders are inevitably large scale international collaborations. In these experiments, software development has to be done by a large number of physicists, software engineers and computer scientists, dispersed all over the world. The major subject of this paper is to discuss on various aspects of software development in the worldwide environment. These include software engineering and methodology, software development process and management. (orig.)

  7. Developments on uranium enrichment processes in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frejacques, C.; Gelee, M.; Massignon, D.; Plurien, P.

    1977-01-01

    Gaseous diffusion has so far been the main source of supply for enriched uranium and it is only recently that the gas centrifuge came into the picture. Numerous other isotope separation processes have been considered or are being assessed, and there is nothing to exclude the future use of a new process. Developments on likely new processes have been carried out by many organizations both governmental and private. The French Commissariat a l'energie atomique, besides their very extensive endeavours already devoted to gaseous diffusion, have studied and developed the gas centrifuge, chemical exchange, aerodynamic and selective photoexcitation processes. The gaseous diffusion process, selected by Eurodif for the Tricastin plant, and which will also be used by Coredif, is discussed in another paper in these Proceedings. This process is the technico-economic yardstick on which our comparisons are based. Within the limits of their development level, processes are compared on the basis of the separative work cost components: specific investment, specific power consumption and power cost, and specific operating and maintenance costs. (author)

  8. Alternative-fueled truck demonstration natural gas program: Caterpillar G3406LE development and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    In 1990, the California Energy Commission, the South Coast Air Quality Management District, and the Southern California Gas Company joined together to sponsor the development and demonstration of compressed natural gas engines for Class 8 heavy-duty line-haul trucking applications. This program became part of an overall Alternative-Fueled Truck Demonstration Program, with the goal of advancing the technological development of alternative-fueled engines. The demonstration showed natural gas to be a technically viable fuel for Class 8 truck engines.

  9. Process Simulation and Techno-Economic Evaluation of Alternative Biorefinery Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizpurua Gonzalez, Carlos Ernesto

    A biorefinery is a complex processing facility that uses sustainably produced biomass as feedstock to generate biofuels and chemical products using a wide variety of alternative conversion pathways. The alternative conversion pathways can be generally classified as either biochemical or thermochemical conversion. A biorefinery is commonly based on a core biomass conversion technology (pretreatment, hydrolysis, pyrolysis, etc.) followed by secondary processing stages that determine the specific product, and its recovery. In this study, techno-economic analysis of several different lignocellulosic biomass conversion pathways have been performed. First, a novel biochemical conversion, which used electron beam and steam explosion pretreatments for ethanol production was evaluated. This evaluation include both laboratory work and process modeling. Encouraging experimental results are obtained that showed the biomass had enhanced reactivity to the enzyme hydrolysis. The total sugar recovery for the hardwood species was 72% using 5 FPU/g enzyme dosage. The combination of electron beam and steam explosion provides an improvement in sugar conversion of more than 20% compared to steam explosion alone. This combination of pretreatments was modeled along with a novel ethanol dehydration process that is based on vapor permeation membranes. The economic feasibility of this novel pretreatment-dehydration technology was evaluated and compared with the dilute acid process proposed by NREL in 2011. Overall, the pretreatment-dehydration technology process produces the same ethanol yields (81 gal/bdton). However, the economics of this novel process does not look promising since the minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) to generate an internal rate of return of 10% is of 3.09 /gal, compared to 2.28 /gal for the base case. To enhance the economic potential of a biorefinery, the isolation of value-added co-products was incorporated into the base dilute acid biorefinery process. In this

  10. Alternative Splicing in Breast Cancer and the Potential Development of Therapeutic Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Montiel, Nancy; Anaya-Ruiz, Maricruz; Pérez-Santos, Martín; Martínez-Contreras, Rebeca D

    2017-10-05

    Alternative splicing is a key molecular mechanism now considered as a hallmark of cancer that has been associated with the expression of distinct isoforms during the onset and progression of the disease. The leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide is breast cancer, and even when the role of alternative splicing in this type of cancer has been established, the function of this mechanism in breast cancer biology is not completely decoded. In order to gain a comprehensive view of the role of alternative splicing in breast cancer biology and development, we summarize here recent findings regarding alternative splicing events that have been well documented for breast cancer evolution, considering its prognostic and therapeutic value. Moreover, we analyze how the response to endocrine and chemical therapies could be affected due to alternative splicing and differential expression of variant isoforms. With all this knowledge, it becomes clear that targeting alternative splicing represents an innovative approach for breast cancer therapeutics and the information derived from current studies could guide clinical decisions with a direct impact in the clinical advances for breast cancer patients nowadays.

  11. Factors Affecting the Development of Rural Tourism as Alternative Tourism and Its Impact

    OpenAIRE

    ÇEKEN, Hüseyin; DALGIN, Taner; ÇAKIR, Neşe

    2012-01-01

    New tourism trends in the world are developing in the direction of history, health, trekking, cultural and rural tourism depending on the demand. The importance of rural tourism is increasing day by day both in developed and developing countries as being alternative to or complimentary to existing tourism types. There is a great effort in the world to reinforce economies of rural areas by using touristic supply sources for rural tourism purposes. The achievements in the rural tourism applicat...

  12. Development of DUMAS data processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Hiroshi

    1982-01-01

    In the field of nuclear experiments, the speed-up of data processing has been required recently along with the increase of the amount of data per event or the rate of event occurrence per unit time. In the DUMAS project of RCNP, the development of data processing system has been required, which can perform the high speed transfer and processing. The system should transfer the data of 5 multiwire proportional counters and other counters from the laboratory to the counting room at the rate of 1000 events every second, and also should perform considerably complex processes such as histogramming, particle identification, calculation of various polarizations as well as dumping to the secondary memory in the counting room. Furthermore, easy start-up, adjustment, inspection and maintenance and non-special hardware and software should be considered. A system presently being investigated for satisfying the above requirements is described. The main points are as follows: to employ CAMAC system for the interface with readout circuit, to transfer data between the laboratory and the counting room by converting the byte-serial transfer to the bit-serial optical fiber communication, and to unify the data processing computers to the PDP-11 family by connecting two miniature computers. Development of such a data processing system seems to be useful as an preparatory research for the development of NUMATRON measuring instruments. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  13. Comparing single- and dual-process models of memory development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Brett K; Dunn, John C; Joubert, Amy; Taylor, Robert

    2017-11-01

    This experiment examined single-process and dual-process accounts of the development of visual recognition memory. The participants, 6-7-year-olds, 9-10-year-olds and adults, were presented with a list of pictures which they encoded under shallow or deep conditions. They then made recognition and confidence judgments about a list containing old and new items. We replicated the main trends reported by Ghetti and Angelini () in that recognition hit rates increased from 6 to 9 years of age, with larger age changes following deep than shallow encoding. Formal versions of the dual-process high threshold signal detection model and several single-process models (equal variance signal detection, unequal variance signal detection, mixture signal detection) were fit to the developmental data. The unequal variance and mixture signal detection models gave a better account of the data than either of the other models. A state-trace analysis found evidence for only one underlying memory process across the age range tested. These results suggest that single-process memory models based on memory strength are a viable alternative to dual-process models for explaining memory development. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Development of modified FT (MFT) process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jinglai Zhou; Zhixin Zhang; Wenjie Shen [Institute of Coal Chemistry, Taiyuan (China)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Two-Stage Modified FT (MFT) process has been developed for producing high-octane gasoline from coal-based syngas. The main R&D are focused on the development of catalysts and technologies process. Duration tests were finished in the single-tube reactor, pilot plant (100T/Y), and industrial demonstration plant (2000T/Y). A series of satisfactory results has been obtained in terms of operating reliability of equipments, performance of catalysts, purification of coal - based syngas, optimum operating conditions, properties of gasoline and economics etc. Further scaling - up commercial plant is being considered.

  15. Development of coal partial hydropyrolysis process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hideaki Yabe; Takafumi Kawamura; Kohichiroh Gotoh; Akemitsu Akimoto [Nippon Steel Corporation, Chiba (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    Coal partial hydropyrolysis process aims at co-production of high yield of light oil such as BTX and naphthalene and synthesis gas from a low rank coal under a mild hydropyrolysis condition. The characteristic of this process is in the two-staged entrained hydropyrolysis reactor composed of the reformer and gasifier. This reactor arrangement gives us high heat efficiency of this process. So far, in order to evaluate the process concept a small-scale basic experiment and a 1t/day process development unit study were carried out. The experimental results showed that coal volatiles were partially hydrogenated to increase the light oil and hydrocarbon gases at the condition of partial hydropyrolysis such as pressure of 2-3MPa, temperature of 700-900{sup o}C and hydrogen concentration of 30-50%. This process has a possibility of producing efficiently and economically liquid and gas products as chemicals and fuel for power generation. As a further development in the period of 2003 to 2008, a 20t/day pilot plant study named ECOPRO (efficient co-production with coal flash hydropyrolysis technology) has been started to establish the process technologies for commercialization. 12 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. An innovative service process development based on a reference model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Sanfelice Frazzon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the new service development (NSD process, focusing specifically in a case of a financial service, guided by the following research questions: what are the processes and practices used in the development and design of new financial services? How the results of the financial NSD proposal reflects on the NSD are as a whole? Therefore, the study aims to show and describe a financial service development, conducted at Helpinveste. The paper focuses on the Conceptual Design service (activities: definition of specifications and development of alternative solutions for the service and Service Process Design (Service Representation phases. The methodological procedures are based on the process approach, using a reference model for developing new services. In order to operationalize the model, several techniques for the various stages of the project were used, e.g. QFD and Service Blueprint. Lastly, conclusions report contributions from the reference model application, both theoretical and practical contributions, as well the limitations and further research recommendations.

  17. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Dong Ho [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Yook, Hong Sun [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak Soo [Sogang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Cherl Ho; Park, Hyun Jin [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Il Jun [Hallym Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Jung Ho [Kyungbook National Univ., Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-05-01

    To secure national food resources, development of energy-saving food processing and preservation technologies, establishment of method on improvement of national health and safety by development of alternative techniques of chemicals and foundation of the production of hygienic food and public health related products by irradiation technology were studied. Results at current stage are following; Processing techniques of low salted and fermented fish using gamma irradiation were developed and superiority of using irradiation to conventional food processing methods was established. Processing technique of value-added functional materials for the manufacture of food or public health products using RT/BT/NT combination technology was developed. The basic theories for the technology development to reduce toxic or undesirable compounds in food such as allergy or carcinogens were established. Exterminating methods of quarantine organisms in herbs/spices was established and the quality evaluation and detection conditions in quarantine treatment were set. From the studies on 'program of public understanding' based on safety of the gamma irradiated food, the information for public relation in enlargement of consumer acceptance/implementation and the peaceful use of nuclear energy were secured. Results from the research project will contribute on improvement of competency of domestic food industry and export market. The results also expect the improvement of public health by prevention of food borne diseases and enhancement of national economy and industry by increase of direct/indirect productivity.

  18. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Dong Ho; Yook, Hong Sun; Kim, Hak Soo; Lee, Cherl Ho; Park, Hyun Jin; Kang, Il Jun; Kwon, Jung Ho

    2002-05-01

    To secure national food resources, development of energy-saving food processing and preservation technologies, establishment of method on improvement of national health and safety by development of alternative techniques of chemicals and foundation of the production of hygienic food and public health related products by irradiation technology were studied. Results at current stage are following; Processing techniques of low salted and fermented fish using gamma irradiation were developed and superiority of using irradiation to conventional food processing methods was established. Processing technique of value-added functional materials for the manufacture of food or public health products using RT/BT/NT combination technology was developed. The basic theories for the technology development to reduce toxic or undesirable compounds in food such as allergy or carcinogens were established. Exterminating methods of quarantine organisms in herbs/spices was established and the quality evaluation and detection conditions in quarantine treatment were set. From the studies on 'program of public understanding' based on safety of the gamma irradiated food, the information for public relation in enlargement of consumer acceptance/implementation and the peaceful use of nuclear energy were secured. Results from the research project will contribute on improvement of competency of domestic food industry and export market. The results also expect the improvement of public health by prevention of food borne diseases and enhancement of national economy and industry by increase of direct/indirect productivity

  19. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Dong Ho [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Yook, Hong Sun [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak Soo [Sogang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Cherl Ho; Park, Hyun Jin [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Il Jun [Hallym Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Jung Ho [Kyungbook National Univ., Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-05-01

    To secure national food resources, development of energy-saving food processing and preservation technologies, establishment of method on improvement of national health and safety by development of alternative techniques of chemicals and foundation of the production of hygienic food and public health related products by irradiation technology were studied. Results at current stage are following; Processing techniques of low salted and fermented fish using gamma irradiation were developed and superiority of using irradiation to conventional food processing methods was established. Processing technique of value-added functional materials for the manufacture of food or public health products using RT/BT/NT combination technology was developed. The basic theories for the technology development to reduce toxic or undesirable compounds in food such as allergy or carcinogens were established. Exterminating methods of quarantine organisms in herbs/spices was established and the quality evaluation and detection conditions in quarantine treatment were set. From the studies on 'program of public understanding' based on safety of the gamma irradiated food, the information for public relation in enlargement of consumer acceptance/implementation and the peaceful use of nuclear energy were secured. Results from the research project will contribute on improvement of competency of domestic food industry and export market. The results also expect the improvement of public health by prevention of food borne diseases and enhancement of national economy and industry by increase of direct/indirect productivity.

  20. ALTERNATIVE METHODS OF TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSING TO REDUCE SALT IN MEAT PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. K. Tunieva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The world trends in table salt reduction in meat products contemplate the use of different methods for preservation of taste and consistency in finished products as well as shelf life prolongation. There are several approaches to a sodium chloride reduction in meat products. The paper presents a review of the foreign studies that give evidence of the possibility to maintain quality of traditional meat products produced with the reduced salt content. The studies in the field of salty taste perception established that a decrease in a salt crystal size to 20 µm enabled reducing an amount of added table salt due to an increase in the salty taste intensity in food products. Investigation of the compatibility of different taste directions is also interesting as one of the approaches to a sodium chloride reduction in food products. The use of water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w double emulsions allows controlling a release of encapsulated ingredients (salt, which enables enhancement of salty taste. The other alternative method of technological processing of meat raw material for reducing salt in meat products is the use of high pressure processing. This method has several advantages and allows not only an increase in the salty taste intensity, but also formation of a stable emulsion, an increase in water binding capacity of minced meat and extension of shelf-life.

  1. Decreasing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emission from bitumen using alternative bitumen production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasoulzadeh, Y.; Mortazavi, S.B.; Yousefi, A.A.; Khavanin, A.

    2011-01-01

    In 1988, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommended that bitumen fumes should also be considered a potential occupational carcinogen and management practices such as engineering controls should be implemented. Changing the production process of bitumen, as a source control method, was investigated in our study. For the first time, a novel alternative process was used to produce paving grade bitumen with decreased PAH emissions as well as improved bitumen performance grade (PG). Post-consumer latex and natural bitumen (NB) were used as additives to obtain 60/70 modified bitumen directly from the vacuum bottom (VB) without any need for air-blowing. The emissions were produced by a laboratory fume generation rig and were sampled and analyzed by GC-Mass and GC-FID as described in NIOSH method 5515. The PG of the resulting modified 60/70 bitumen in this study covers a wider range of climatic conditions and has higher total resistance against deformation than conventional 60/70 bitumen. The total PAH emissions from modified 60/70 bitumen (100.2619 ng/g) were decreased approximately to 50% of PAHs emitted from conventional 60/70 bitumen (197.696 ng/g). Therefore, it is possible to obtain modified bitumen with lower PAH emissions and better quality than conventional bitumen via additives and without air-blowing.

  2. Leaching and heating process as alternative to produce fish protein powder from Kilka (Clupeonella cultiventris caspia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAVEH RAHMANIFARAH

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Rahmanifarah K, Shabanpour B, Shaviklo AR, Aalami M. 2014. Leaching and heating process as alternative to produce fish protein powder from Kilka (Clupeonella cultiventris caspia. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 1-6. The effect of protein extraction procedures (leached mince and heated suspension on selected properties of fish protein powder (proximate composition, pH, color, density, viscosity, fat adsorption, emulsifying capacity, emulsifying stability, foaming capacity, foaming stability, WBC, protein solubility in water, hygroscopicity, Trichloroacetic acid (TCA-soluble peptides and free sulfhydryl groups was investigated. Results showed that Fish protein powder (FPP produced by leaching mince (LM have higher protein, moisture, ash, pH, L*, viscosity, emulsion capacity, emulsion stability, foam capacity, foam stability, water binding capacity (WBC, protein solubility, hygroscopicity, TCA soluble peptides and free sulfhydryl group content than heated suspension (HS (P0.05. Overall, it was observed that high temperature during heating of suspension in HS method makes possible protein denaturation and aggregation. Consequently, based on functional, chemical and physical properties, extraction of fish protein by leaching process was found to be suitable for the production of fish protein powder.

  3. SR proteins are NXF1 adaptors that link alternative RNA processing to mRNA export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-McNicoll, Michaela; Botti, Valentina; de Jesus Domingues, Antonio M; Brandl, Holger; Schwich, Oliver D; Steiner, Michaela C; Curk, Tomaz; Poser, Ina; Zarnack, Kathi; Neugebauer, Karla M

    2016-03-01

    Nuclear export factor 1 (NXF1) exports mRNA to the cytoplasm after recruitment to mRNA by specific adaptor proteins. How and why cells use numerous different export adaptors is poorly understood. Here we critically evaluate members of the SR protein family (SRSF1-7) for their potential to act as NXF1 adaptors that couple pre-mRNA processing to mRNA export. Consistent with this proposal, >1000 endogenous mRNAs required individual SR proteins for nuclear export in vivo. To address the mechanism, transcriptome-wide RNA-binding profiles of NXF1 and SRSF1-7 were determined in parallel by individual-nucleotide-resolution UV cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (iCLIP). Quantitative comparisons of RNA-binding sites showed that NXF1 and SR proteins bind mRNA targets at adjacent sites, indicative of cobinding. SRSF3 emerged as the most potent NXF1 adaptor, conferring sequence specificity to RNA binding by NXF1 in last exons. Interestingly, SRSF3 and SRSF7 were shown to bind different sites in last exons and regulate 3' untranslated region length in an opposing manner. Both SRSF3 and SRSF7 promoted NXF1 recruitment to mRNA. Thus, SRSF3 and SRSF7 couple alternative splicing and polyadenylation to NXF1-mediated mRNA export, thereby controlling the cytoplasmic abundance of transcripts with alternative 3' ends. © 2016 Müller-McNicoll et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  4. Alternative splicing at the intersection of biological timing, development, and stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiger, Dorothee; Brown, John W S

    2013-10-01

    High-throughput sequencing for transcript profiling in plants has revealed that alternative splicing (AS) affects a much higher proportion of the transcriptome than was previously assumed. AS is involved in most plant processes and is particularly prevalent in plants exposed to environmental stress. The identification of mutations in predicted splicing factors and spliceosomal proteins that affect cell fate, the circadian clock, plant defense, and tolerance/sensitivity to abiotic stress all point to a fundamental role of splicing/AS in plant growth, development, and responses to external cues. Splicing factors affect the AS of multiple downstream target genes, thereby transferring signals to alter gene expression via splicing factor/AS networks. The last two to three years have seen an ever-increasing number of examples of functional AS. At a time when the identification of AS in individual genes and at a global level is exploding, this review aims to bring together such examples to illustrate the extent and importance of AS, which are not always obvious from individual publications. It also aims to ensure that plant scientists are aware that AS is likely to occur in the genes that they study and that dynamic changes in AS and its consequences need to be considered routinely.

  5. Testing Alternative Hypotheses Regarding the Association between Behavioral Inhibition and Language Development in Toddlerhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Ashley K. Smith; Patel, Deepika; Corley, Robin P.; Friedman, Naomi P.; Hewitt, John K.; Robinson, JoAnn L.; Rhee, Soo H.

    2014-01-01

    Studies have reported an inverse association between language development and behavioral inhibition or shyness across childhood, but the direction of this association remains unclear. This study tested alternative hypotheses regarding this association in a large sample of toddlers. Data on behavioral inhibition and expressive and receptive…

  6. Development of an alternative artificial soil for earthworm toxicity testing in tropical countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Silva, M.; van Gestel, C.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The standard soil invertebrate toxicity tests developed by OECD and ISO use an artificial soil as the test substrate, which contains sphagnum peat as a component. This type of peat is not widely available. Investigation of possible alternative substrates using locally available materials therefore

  7. Afghanistan and the development of alternative systems of animal health in the absence of effective government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, B.E.C.; Ward, D.E.

    2004-01-01

    This case study describes the efforts by both non-governmental organisations and United Nations agencies to develop an alternative system for delivering animal health services in Afghanistan, during a period in which there was effectively no government. The authors examine the period from the

  8. 77 FR 22583 - Allocations, Common Application, Waivers, and Alternative Requirements for Community Development...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... Action Plan for Disaster Recovery on the grantee's official web site for no less than 7 calendar days to... Application, Waivers, and Alternative Requirements for Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) Disaster...: This Notice advises the public of the allocation of CDBG disaster recovery funds for the purpose of...

  9. WP1 Development of New Standardization Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work package can be divided into two main areas: 1. Review of existing standardization procedures with focus on leading edge fatigue cracks and recommendations / rules for avoiding leading edge cracks. 2. Development of a new standardization process focusing on leading edge...

  10. L2 Chinese: Grammatical Development and Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Ziyin

    2016-01-01

    Two recent books (Jiang, 2014, "Advances in Chinese as a second language"; Wang, 2013, "Grammatical development of Chinese among non-native speakers") provide new resources for exploring the role of processing in acquiring Chinese as a second language (L2). This review article summarizes, assesses and compares some of the…

  11. Interpartner Legitimacy in the Alliance Development Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Das, T.K.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a framework to understand interpartner legitimacy in strategic alliances. Interpartner legitimacy is the mutual acknowledgment by the alliance partners that their actions are proper in the developmental processes of the alliance. We argue that interpartner legitimacy is needed...... legitimacy in different alliance types. Finally, we derive propositions for further research, and discuss strategies that alliance managers can adopt to develop interpartner legitimacy....

  12. Academic writing development: a complex, dynamic process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penris, Wouter; Verspoor, Marjolijn; Pfenniger, Simone; Navracsics, Judit

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally we look at learning outcomes by examining single outcomes. A new and future direction is to look at the actual process of development. Imagine an advanced, 17-year-old student of English (L2) who has just finished secondary school in the Netherlands and wants to become an English

  13. Spent fuel storage process equipment development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyun Soo; Lee, Jae Sol; Yoo, Jae Hyung

    1990-02-01

    Nuclear energy which is a major energy source of national energy supply entails spent fuels. Spent fuels which are high level radioactive meterials, are tricky to manage and need high technology. The objectives of this study are to establish and develop key elements of spent fuel management technologies: handling equipment and maintenance, process automation technology, colling system, and cleanup system. (author)

  14. The Process Genre Writing Approach; An Alternative Option for the Modern Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor, Emma

    2017-01-01

    "Writing involves knowledge about the language, the context in which writing happens and skills in using language. Writing development happens by drawing out the learners' potential and providing input to which learners respond" (Badger & White, 2000.) Taking this in to account, the Process Genre Approach in writing classes can be…

  15. Students’ development in the learning process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir D. Shadrikov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A system genetics approach has been employed to study students’ mental development.Ability development is considered in terms of mastering of intellectualoperations. The study endeavors to identify the components of certain abilitiesconsciously acquired by a student in the process of learning. The study was arrangedin two directions: the teaching of students to master intellectual operationsand use them in their work with training materials, and psychological testingof control and experimental student groups before and after training tests todiagnose the level of intellectual development. The study involved teachers andstudents of primary and secondary school.

  16. Alternative haplotypes of antigen processing genes in zebrafish diverged early in vertebrate evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Sean C.; Hernandez, Kyle M.; Wcisel, Dustin J.; Kettleborough, Ross N.; Stemple, Derek L.; Andrade, Jorge; de Jong, Jill L. O.

    2016-01-01

    Antigen processing and presentation genes found within the MHC are among the most highly polymorphic genes of vertebrate genomes, providing populations with diverse immune responses to a wide array of pathogens. Here, we describe transcriptome, exome, and whole-genome sequencing of clonal zebrafish, uncovering the most extensive diversity within the antigen processing and presentation genes of any species yet examined. Our CG2 clonal zebrafish assembly provides genomic context within a remarkably divergent haplotype of the core MHC region on chromosome 19 for six expressed genes not found in the zebrafish reference genome: mhc1uga, proteasome-β 9b (psmb9b), psmb8f, and previously unknown genes psmb13b, tap2d, and tap2e. We identify ancient lineages for Psmb13 within a proteasome branch previously thought to be monomorphic and provide evidence of substantial lineage diversity within each of three major trifurcations of catalytic-type proteasome subunits in vertebrates: Psmb5/Psmb8/Psmb11, Psmb6/Psmb9/Psmb12, and Psmb7/Psmb10/Psmb13. Strikingly, nearby tap2 and MHC class I genes also retain ancient sequence lineages, indicating that alternative lineages may have been preserved throughout the entire MHC pathway since early diversification of the adaptive immune system ∼500 Mya. Furthermore, polymorphisms within the three MHC pathway steps (antigen cleavage, transport, and presentation) are each predicted to alter peptide specificity. Lastly, comparative analysis shows that antigen processing gene diversity is far more extensive than previously realized (with ancient coelacanth psmb8 lineages, shark psmb13, and tap2t and psmb10 outside the teleost MHC), implying distinct immune functions and conserved roles in shaping MHC pathway evolution throughout vertebrates. PMID:27493218

  17. An alternative frame of reference for rehabilitation: the helping process versus the medical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, T P

    1975-03-01

    In rehabilitation the frame of reference of the helping professions is significantly different from the standard medical model in the following areas: the dynamics of the relationship, basis for client's trust of the professional, activity versus passivity of both the client and the professional, and the approach to identification and solution of client problems. "The helping process" as practiced in the helping professions is not doing the task, but assisting the client to do it himself, for himself. In this process the needs, values and feelings of both the helper and the helpee must be recognized and dealt with. For the helping process to be successful, three basic conditions are required: development of mutual trust, joint exploration of the problem(s) and listening by both sides. Also involved in attaining success in the helping process is an awareness of not only the barriers in receiving help but also the difficulties in giving help.

  18. Development of enhanced sulfur rejection processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T.; Richardson, P.E.

    1996-03-01

    Research at Virginia Tech led to the development of two complementary concepts for improving the removal of inorganic sulfur from many eastern U.S. coals. These concepts are referred to as Electrochemically Enhanced Sulfur Rejection (EESR) and Polymer Enhanced Sulfur Rejection (PESR) processes. The EESR process uses electrochemical techniques to suppress the formation of hydrophobic oxidation products believed to be responsible for the floatability of coal pyrite. The PESR process uses polymeric reagents that react with pyrite and convert floatable middlings, i.e., composite particles composed of pyrite with coal inclusions, into hydrophilic particles. These new pyritic-sulfur rejection processes do not require significant modifications to existing coal preparation facilities, thereby enhancing their adoptability by the coal industry. It is believed that these processes can be used simultaneously to maximize the rejection of both well-liberated pyrite and composite coal-pyrite particles. The project was initiated on October 1, 1992 and all technical work has been completed. This report is based on the research carried out under Tasks 2-7 described in the project proposal. These tasks include Characterization, Electrochemical Studies, In Situ Monitoring of Reagent Adsorption on Pyrite, Bench Scale Testing of the EESR Process, Bench Scale Testing of the PESR Process, and Modeling and Simulation.

  19. Process development for scum to biodiesel conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Chong-hao; Min, Min; Nie, Yong; Xie, Qing-long; Lu, Qian; Deng, Xiang-yuan; Anderson, Erik; Li, Dong; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2015-06-01

    A novel process was developed for converting scum, a waste material from wastewater treatment facilities, to biodiesel. Scum is an oily waste that was skimmed from the surface of primary and secondary settling tanks in wastewater treatment plants. Currently scum is treated either by anaerobic digestion or landfilling which raised several environmental issues. The newly developed process used a six-step method to convert scum to biodiesel, a higher value product. A combination of acid washing and acid catalyzed esterification was developed to remove soap and impurities while converting free fatty acids to methyl esters. A glycerol washing was used to facilitate the separation of biodiesel and glycerin after base catalyzed transesterification. As a result, 70% of dried and filtered scum was converted to biodiesel which is equivalent to about 134,000 gallon biodiesel per year for the Saint Paul waste water treatment plant in Minnesota. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of alternate paragraphs for the Logical Memory subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale-IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jeri; Swier-Vosnos, Amy; Woodworth, Craig; Umfleet, Laura Glass; Czipri, Sheena; Kopald, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the two studies included in this article was to validate an alternate form, the Morris Revision-Fourth Edition (MR-IV), to the Logical Memory paragraphs of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (LM-IV) for use when retesting of individuals is desired. Study I demonstrated high correlation with the LM-IV paragraphs. Study II was a replication that again demonstrated high correlation between the original LM-IV and the new MR-IV paragraphs. High interrater reliability also was demonstrated. Consequently, the MR-IV paragraphs can be considered an alternate form to the LM-IV paragraphs. Although other attempts have been made to develop alternate stories, these new paragraphs are the only ones that are equivalent in structure, affective tone, and number of scorable units. They have considerable clinical utility and research potential.

  1. Development of an alternating integrator for magnetic measurements for experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, D. M., E-mail: dmliu@live.cn; Zhao, W. Z.; He, Y. G.; Chen, B. [School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Wan, B. N.; Shen, B.; Huang, J.; Liu, H. Q. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2014-11-15

    A high-performance integrator is one of the key electronic devices for reliably controlling plasma in the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak for long pulse operation. We once designed an integrator system of real-time drift compensation, which has a low integration drift. However, it is not feasible for really continuous operations due to capacitive leakage error and nonlinearity error. To solve the above-mentioned problems, this paper presents a new alternating integrator. In the new integrator, the integrator system of real-time drift compensation is adopted as one integral cell while two such integral cells work alternately. To achieve the alternate function, a Field Programmable Gate Array built in the digitizer is utilized. The performance test shows that the developed integrator with the integration time constant of 20 ms has a low integration drift (<15 mV) for 1000 s.

  2. Alternative depreciation policies for promoting combined heat and power (CHP) development in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Jeferson Borghetti; Szklo, Alexandre Salem; Tolmasquim, Mauricio Tiomno

    2006-01-01

    This paper assessed the economic impact of alternative depreciation methods on the development of combined heat-and-power (CHP) systems in the Brazilian industrial sector. Alternative depreciation methods were proposed and the case study of a Brazilian chemical plant showed that the most effective depreciation method for the promotion of CHP plants in Brazil was the Matheson method with an accelerated depreciation schedule of 7 years. This alternative method was then applied to the Brazilian chemical industry as a whole, increasing its installed capacity in CHP systems by 24%. Therefore, fiscal incentives can be an interesting tool for promoting energy efficiency in the Brazilian industrial sector, promoting the expansion of CHP plants. It reduces government fiscal revenues, but it also induces the technological reposition and improves the feasibility of ventures that are not installed without this kind of incentive

  3. Strategic importance of the New Materials in the Sustainable Development and as Alternative of competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez E, Wilken; Bejarano B, Hernan; Villazon A, Hernando

    1999-01-01

    The new materials have a growing importance in the national development, and most of the industrialized countries are investing big supreme in the development of these, due to their great strategic paper in the global economic interaction. The present article seeks to give a general vision of the participation of these materials in the world economy as alternative factor of competition, keeping primarily in mind the conservation of the environment and the permanent search of the total quality

  4. Development of Demonstrably Predictive Models for Emissions from Alternative Fuels Based Aircraft Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Engineering Chemistry Fundamentals, Vol. 5, No. 3, 1966, pp. 356–363. [14] Burns, R. A., Development of scalar and velocity imaging diagnostics...in an Aero- Engine Model Combustor at Elevated Pressure Using URANS and Finite- Rate Chemistry ,” 50th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference...FINAL REPORT Development of Demonstrably Predictive Models for Emissions from Alternative Fuels Based Aircraft Engines SERDP Project WP-2151

  5. Compact Process Development at Babcock & Wilcox

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Shaber; Jeffrey Phillips

    2012-03-01

    Multiple process approaches have been used historically to manufacture cylindrical nuclear fuel compacts. Scale-up of fuel compacting was required for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project to achieve an economically viable automated production process capable of providing a minimum of 10 compacts/minute with high production yields. In addition, the scale-up effort was required to achieve matrix density equivalent to baseline historical production processes, and allow compacting at fuel packing fractions up to 46% by volume. The scale-up approach of jet milling, fluid-bed overcoating, and hot-press compacting adopted in the U.S. Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development Program involves significant paradigm shifts to capitalize on distinct advantages in simplicity, yield, and elimination of mixed waste. A series of compaction trials have been completed to optimize compaction conditions of time, temperature, and forming pressure using natural uranium oxycarbide (NUCO) fuel at packing fractions exceeding 46% by volume. Results from these trials are included. The scale-up effort is nearing completion with the process installed and operable using nuclear fuel materials. Final process testing is in progress to certify the process for manufacture of qualification test fuel compacts in 2012.

  6. Evaluation of alternative flow sheets for upgrade of the Process Waste Treatment Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, S.M.

    1991-04-01

    Improved chemical precipitation and/or ion-exchange (IX) methods are being developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in an effort to reduce waste generation at the Process Waste Treatment Plant (PWTP). A wide variety of screening tests were performed on potential precipitation techniques and IX materials on a laboratory scale. Two of the more promising flow sheets have been tested on pilot and full scales. The data were modeled to determine the operating conditions and waste generation at plant-scale and used to develop potential flow sheets for use at the PWTP. Each flow sheet was evaluated using future-valve economic analysis and performance ratings (where numerical values were assigned to costs, process flexibility and simplicity, stage of development, waste reduction, environmental and occupational safety, post-processing requirements, and final waste form). The results of this study indicated that several potential flow sheets should be considered for further development, and more detailed cost estimates should be made before a final selection is made for upgrade of the PWTP. 19 refs., 52 figs., 22 tabs

  7. Effects of direct and alternating current on the treatment of oily water in an electroflocculation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Cerqueira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the direct current mode (DC, widely used in electroflocculation (EC, the formation of an impermeable oxide layer on the cathode causes the declining of the efficiency of this process. This disadvantage has been reduced by adopting alternating current (AC. In this study, the effects of AC and DC on operational parameters such as the removal of oils and greases (O&G, color and turbidity from oil-in-water (O/W emulsions of the petroleum industry using aluminum electrodes were investigated. Removal efficiencies of 95%, 97% and 99% of O&G, color and turbidity with energy consumption of 0.280 kWh/m³ and electrode consumption of 0.12 g and 0.18 g were achieved at a current density of 3 A, operation time of 3 minutes and initial pH of 9.0 using AC and DC, respectively. In continuous flow tests performed with the same experimental conditions, the electrode consumption at times up to 60 minutes were 1.6 g and 3.4 g using AC and DC, respectively.

  8. Development of Alternative Power Industry Based on Nanotechnologies: Forecast Effects for Russian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inshakova Elena Ivanovna

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aspiration of countries to achieve sustainable economic growth by reducing the energy dependence of the main suppliers of energy resources and by increasing national energy security induces in the conditions of increasing competition between participants in the global energy market the necessity to intensify the use of internal development resources, including the introduction of energy-saving technologies and development of alternative power industry. The urgency of the problems of international competitiveness achievement based on the energy security strengthening, solution of which largely determines the directions of the energy sector development, is increasingly recognized in many countries, including Russia. Timeliness of preparation to the use of substitute innovative energy resources and energy sources, while the traditional fossil fuels are dwindling, is marked as one of the most important principles of the state policy of Russia. All these factors update the development of domestic alternative energy in accordance with the megatrends of the world energy sector. The prospects for the development of modern energy, especially alternative, are associated by many experts with the use of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials. Nanotechnologies contribute to the new opportunities for the use of renewable energy sources and a significant contribution to the production and conservation of energy. The main directions of the effective use of nanotechnologies in the energy sector are: the use of renewable sources; energy storage; reducing the consumption of materials; the use of alternative materials. On the example of the world and Russian practice of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials use in the sphere of wind and solar energy the basic effects of their application, important for the development of alternative energy and of the Russian national economy as a whole, are identified in the article. The most important effects include strengthening

  9. Development of an Alternative Corrosion Inhibitor for the Storage of Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standring, P.N.; Hands, B.J.; Morgan, S.; Brooks, A.

    2015-01-01

    Sellafield Lt. currently stores AGR fuel in sodium hyrodxide dosed pool water to pH 11.5 to prevent susceptible AGR fuel from failing due to inter-granular attack. The exception to the above storage practice is Thorp Receipt and Storage (TR&S) where an AGR reprocessing buffer is stored in demineralised water as the expected storage durations were short term (up to 5 years). With the extended shut-down of Thorp, storage durations have increased and this has prompted a re-evaluation of the AGR storage regime in TR&S. The use of sodium hydroxide is not feasible due to a compatibility issue with aluminum components used in LWR storage furniture. The implementation process adopted by Sellafield Ltd in developing an alternative corrosion inhibitor for spent AGR fuel is outlined. The two stranded approach evaluates the impact of candidate corrosion inhibitors on fuel integrity and on plant and processes. The development studies in support of the fuel integrity strand are reported. Candidate inhibitors were first evaluated inactively in terms of their ability to arrest propagating corrosion, radiation stability, compatibility with aluminium and environmental impact. Sodium Nitrate was concluded to be the most promising inhibitor. Sodium nitrate was subsequently tested with active AGR brace material. These studies involved the use of bespoke test equipment and techniques. The studies demonstrated that propagating corrosion could be arrested using 10 ppm nitrate and showed that the resultant nitrate film required relatively high chloride concentrations to break it down over the study duration of 60 days. The development studies to date have provided the confidence that sodium nitrate has the potential to be an effective inhibitor for AGR fuel. The final phase of the fuel integrity strand involves a Lead Container Study using whole AGR pins. A staged approach is being adopted in the study programme where proceeding to a more onerous study is not progressed until positive

  10. Gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L processing alternatives for the profit of the fruits unsuitable for the marketing fresh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana María Castro Sánchez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of unsuitable fruits for marketing in fresh, represents an area with great economic potential. In the regions of Colombia where is produced cape gooseberry it is necessary to consider and develop processing alternatives of this fruit, because the losses in harvest and postharvest of gooseberry in the country, can reach up to 45% of the total production. In this research, it was developed pulp, jam and nectar of cape gooseberry ecotype Colombia with cracked and soft fruits, from Ventaquemada and Cienega, municipalities of the department of Boyaca. The results of this research have applications for the producing regions of cape gooseberry in Colombia that suffer from loss of fruit by cracking and softening. There were three formulations of each by-product, by varying the content of pulp in the final product and the physiochemical characterization, microbiological and sensorial. Finally, it was calculated the cost of each most accepted by-product by the panel. The results showed that at a microbiological l and physic-chemical level, the sub-products meet the regulations. At sensory level, the most widely accepted pulp pasteurized with sugar, the most accepted nectar was the formulation with 20% of pulp and the most widely accepted jam was the formulation with 50% of pulp. The cost to process 1 kg of fruit was 3,11 USD for pulp, 3,36 USD for nectar and 3,66 USD for jam.

  11. Development of optical marker for polyolefin processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchini, Leonardo Guedes

    2013-01-01

    Research and publications about luminescent polymers have been developed in the last years for the academic innovation; however the industrial application has been very limited in this area. Processed Optical markers are few explored due the difficult to process luminescent polymeric materials with stable luminescence. The materials used to process luminescent polypropylene (PP) were polyamide 6 (PA6) doped with europium complex [Eu(tta) 3 (H 2 O) 2 ] obtained through the dilution and casting process. The polyolefins because they are inert, do not fit the common procedure of doping, in consequence, in this work luminescent polypropylene was indirectly prepared by polyamide 6 doped with europium complex through extrusion process. Product characterization was done using Thermal gravimetry analysis (TG), Differential Scanning Calorimetric (DSC), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and spectro fluorescence of emission and excitation. The blend PP/PA6:Eu(tta) 3 presented luminescent properties, after semi-industrial process, as observed in the narrow bands of intra configuration transitions- 4f 6 relatives to energy levels 7 F 0 → 5 L 6 (394nm), 7 F 0 → 5 D 3 (415nm), 7 F 0 → 5 D 2 (464nm), 7 F 0 → 5 D 1 (525nm) e 7 F 0 → 5 D 0 (578nm) of emission spectrum. Red light of the pellets or film is emitted when excited in UV lamp (365nm). TG results showed under O 2 atmosphere that PP doped with PA6:Eu(tta) 3 was more stable than pure PP. In this work was processed luminescent PP/PA6:Eu(tta) 3 with properties of thermal and photo stability which can be used as optical marker in polymer processing. (author)

  12. Lyondell develops one step isobutylene process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Lyondell Petrochemical Co., Houston, has developed a one step process to convert normal butylenes to isobutylene, a key component of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE). MTBE is expected to become the additive of choice among U.S. refiners to blend oxygenated gasolines required by 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act. Lyondell Pres. and Chief Executive Officer Bob Gower the the new process could help assure adequate supplies of MTBE to meet U.S. demand for cleaner burning fuels. Lyondell estimates the capital cost of building a grassroots plant to produce isobutylene with the new process would be less than half the cost of a grassroot plant to produce isobutylene with existing technology starting with normal butane

  13. Exploring Critical Alternatives for Youth Development through Lifestyle Sport: Surfing and Community Development in Aotearoa/New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Belinda Wheaton; Georgina Roy; Rebecca Olive

    2017-01-01

    While competition-based team sports remain dominant in community and sport-for-development programs, researchers are exploring the value of alternative, less “sportized” activities such as lifestyle/action sports. In this paper, we explore the ways in which surfing is being used in development programs in Aotearoa/New Zealand, examining the perceived social benefits and impact. Our methods involved: (a) mapping the range of surfing projects; and (b) 8 in-depth interviews with program personne...

  14. The Plasma Hearth Process Technology Development Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geimer, R.; Batdorf, J.; Wolfe, P.

    1993-01-01

    The US DOE Office of Technology Development (OTD) is currently evaluating the Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) for potential treatment of several DOE waste types. The PHP is a high-temperature vitrification process that has potential application for a wide range of mixed waste types in both the low-level and transuranic mixed waste categories. The PHP is being tested under both the OTD Mixed Waste Integrated Program and the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration. Initial testing has been completed on several different surrogate waste forms that are representative of some of the DOE mixed waste streams. Destruction of organic material exceeds that of conventional incineration technologies. The vitrified residual has leaching characteristics comparable to glass formulations produced in the high-level waste program. The first phase of the PHP demonstration project has been successfully completed, and the project is currently beginning a comprehensive second phase of development and testing

  15. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Site Development Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, F.G.

    1994-02-01

    The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) mission is to receive and store spent nuclear fuels and radioactive wastes for disposition for Department of Energy (DOE) in a cost-effective manner that protects the safety of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) employees, the public, and the environment by: Developing advanced technologies to process spent nuclear fuel for permanent offsite disposition and to achieve waste minimization. Receiving and storing Navy and other DOE assigned spent nuclear fuels. Managing all wastes in compliance with applicable laws and regulations. Identifying and conducting site remediation consistent with facility transition activities. Seeking out and implementing private sector technology transfer and cooperative development agreements. Prior to April 1992, the ICPP mission included fuel reprocessing. With the recent phaseout of fuel reprocessing, some parts of the ICPP mission have changed. Others have remained the same or increased in scope

  16. Development of the Concise Data Processing Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Day

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Concise Data Processing Assessment (CDPA was developed to probe student abilities related to the nature of measurement and uncertainty and to handling data. The diagnostic is a ten question, multiple-choice test that can be used as both a pre-test and post-test. A key component of the development process was interviews with students, which were used to both uncover common modes of student thinking and validate item wording. To evaluate the reliability and discriminatory power of this diagnostic, we performed statistical tests focusing on both item analysis (item difficulty index, item discrimination index, and point-biserial coefficient and on the entire test (test reliability and Ferguson’s delta. Scores on the CDPA range from chance (for novices to about 80% (for experts, indicating that it possesses good dynamic range. Overall, the results indicate that the CDPA is a reliable assessment tool for measuring targeted abilities in undergraduate physics students.

  17. Development of advanced spent fuel management process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ro, Seung Gy; Shin, Y. J.; Do, J. B.; You, G. S.; Seo, J. S.; Lee, H. G.

    1998-03-01

    This study is to develop an advanced spent fuel management process for countries which have not yet decided a back-end nuclear fuel cycle policy. The aims of this process development based on the pyroreduction technology of PWR spent fuels with molten lithium, are to reduce the storage volume by a quarter and to reduce the storage cooling load in half by the preferential removal of highly radioactive decay-heat elements such as Cs-137 and Sr-90 only. From the experimental results which confirm the feasibility of metallization technology, it is concluded that there are no problems in aspects of reaction kinetics and equilibrium. However, the operating performance test of each equipment on an engineering scale still remain and will be conducted in 1999. (author). 21 refs., 45 tabs., 119 figs

  18. Recent Membrane Development for Pervaporation Processes

    KAUST Repository

    Ong, Yee Kang; Shi, Gui Min; Le, Ngoc Lieu; Tang, Yu Pan; Zuo, Jian; Nunes, Suzana Pereira; Chung, Neal Tai-Shung

    2016-01-01

    Pervaporation has been regarded as a promising separation technology in separating azeotropic mixtures, solutions with similar boiling points, thermally sensitive compounds, organic–organic mixtures as well as in removing dilute organics from aqueous solutions. As the pervaporation membrane is one of the crucial factors in determining the overall efficiency of the separation process, this article reviews the research and development (R&D) of polymeric pervaporation membranes from the perspective of membrane fabrication procedures and materials.

  19. Developing Online Recruitment Process for Cinnabon Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Lopyrev, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    Since the times internet started to become accessible to the general public, employers noticed its effectiveness as a recruitment tool. Nowadays, a big percentage of recruitment happens online. Internet presents cost-effective opportunities to reach large pool of candidates, compared to pre-internet era recruitment tools. In this thesis, the aim is to develop online recruitment process for Finnish franchisee of Cinnabon – an international chain of bakeries famous for its cinnamon rolls. T...

  20. Recent Membrane Development for Pervaporation Processes

    KAUST Repository

    Ong, Yee Kang

    2016-03-11

    Pervaporation has been regarded as a promising separation technology in separating azeotropic mixtures, solutions with similar boiling points, thermally sensitive compounds, organic–organic mixtures as well as in removing dilute organics from aqueous solutions. As the pervaporation membrane is one of the crucial factors in determining the overall efficiency of the separation process, this article reviews the research and development (R&D) of polymeric pervaporation membranes from the perspective of membrane fabrication procedures and materials.

  1. Development of Processed Products from Guapple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresita Acevedo

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to develop processed products from guapple. Characterization of the guapple fruit was intially conducted before proceeding to formulation studies.The following characteristics of the guapple fruit were observed: color of outer skin - yellow green with Munsell notation of 10 Y7/6, color of inner flesh - off white with Munsell notation of 7.5Y 8/2; texture, 20.4-37.1 mm; average weight per piece, from 219 to 420 gms; ph, 3.7; titrable acidity (citric acid, 0.34%, and soluble solids, 2.6° Brix.The identified processed products from guapple were puree, pickles, and preserves. Standardized processes and formulations for each of these products were developed in semi-pilot scale. Removal of the skin for the guapple preserves and pickles was facilitated using 5% brine-l % CaCI2.Suitable packaging materials were also identified. Flexible films were used for guapple puree while glass jars and flexible films were found to be satisfactory both for guapple pickles and preserves.Physico-chemical, microbiological, and sensory evaluation were done after two months of storage. Based on these tests, the pasteurization process of 180° F for 20 minutes for puree and 10 minutes for preserves and pickles, was found to make the products commercially sterile.

  2. Development of Advanced Spent Fuel Management Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Chung Seok; Choi, I. K.; Kwon, S. G. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    As a part of research efforts to develop an advanced spent fuel management process, this project focused on the electrochemical reduction technology which can replace the original Li reduction technology of ANL, and we have successfully built a 20 kgHM/batch scale demonstration system. The performance tests of the system in the ACPF hot cell showed more than a 99% reduction yield of SIMFUEL, a current density of 100 mA/cm{sup 2} and a current efficiency of 80%. For an optimization of the process, the prevention of a voltage drop in an integrated cathode, a minimization of the anodic effect and an improvement of the hot cell operability by a modulation and simplization of the unit apparatuses were achieved. Basic research using a bench-scale system was also carried out by focusing on a measurement of the electrochemical reduction rate of the surrogates, an elucidation of the reaction mechanism, collecting data on the partition coefficients of the major nuclides, quantitative measurement of mass transfer rates and diffusion coefficients of oxygen and metal ions in molten salts. When compared to the PYROX process of INL, the electrochemical reduction system developed in this project has comparative advantages in its application of a flexible reaction mechanism, relatively short reaction times and increased process yields.

  3. Development of Advanced Spent Fuel Management Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Chung Seok; Choi, I. K.; Kwon, S. G.

    2007-06-01

    As a part of research efforts to develop an advanced spent fuel management process, this project focused on the electrochemical reduction technology which can replace the original Li reduction technology of ANL, and we have successfully built a 20 kgHM/batch scale demonstration system. The performance tests of the system in the ACPF hot cell showed more than a 99% reduction yield of SIMFUEL, a current density of 100 mA/cm 2 and a current efficiency of 80%. For an optimization of the process, the prevention of a voltage drop in an integrated cathode, a minimization of the anodic effect and an improvement of the hot cell operability by a modulation and simplization of the unit apparatuses were achieved. Basic research using a bench-scale system was also carried out by focusing on a measurement of the electrochemical reduction rate of the surrogates, an elucidation of the reaction mechanism, collecting data on the partition coefficients of the major nuclides, quantitative measurement of mass transfer rates and diffusion coefficients of oxygen and metal ions in molten salts. When compared to the PYROX process of INL, the electrochemical reduction system developed in this project has comparative advantages in its application of a flexible reaction mechanism, relatively short reaction times and increased process yields

  4. Alternatives for the treatment and disposal of healthcare wastes in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, L.F.; Savage, G.M.; Eggerth, L.L.

    2005-01-01

    Waste production in healthcare facilities in developing countries has brought about a variety of concerns due to the use of inappropriate methods of managing the wastes. Inappropriate treatment and final disposal of the wastes can lead to adverse impacts to public health, to occupational health and safety, and to the environment. Unfortunately, most economically developing countries suffer a variety of constraints to adequately managing these wastes. Generally in developing countries, few individuals in the staff of the healthcare facility are familiar with the procedures required for a proper waste management program. Furthermore, the management of wastes usually is delegated to poorly educated laborers who perform most activities without proper guidance and insufficient protection. This paper presents some of the most common treatment and disposal methods utilized in the management of infectious healthcare wastes in developing countries. The methods discussed include: autoclave; microwave; chemical disinfection; combustion (low-, medium-, and high-technology); and disposal on the ground (dump site, controlled landfill, pits, and sanitary landfill). Each alternative for treatment and disposal is explained, including a description of the types of wastes that can and cannot be treated. Background information on the technologies also is included in order to provide information to those who may not be familiar with the details of each alternative. In addition, a brief presentation of some of the emissions from each of the treatment and disposal alternatives is presented

  5. TMT approach to observatory software development process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buur, Hanne; Subramaniam, Annapurni; Gillies, Kim; Dumas, Christophe; Bhatia, Ravinder

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of the Observatory Software System (OSW) is to integrate all software and hardware components of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) to enable observations and data capture; thus it is a complex software system that is defined by four principal software subsystems: Common Software (CSW), Executive Software (ESW), Data Management System (DMS) and Science Operations Support System (SOSS), all of which have interdependencies with the observatory control systems and data acquisition systems. Therefore, the software development process and plan must consider dependencies to other subsystems, manage architecture, interfaces and design, manage software scope and complexity, and standardize and optimize use of resources and tools. Additionally, the TMT Observatory Software will largely be developed in India through TMT's workshare relationship with the India TMT Coordination Centre (ITCC) and use of Indian software industry vendors, which adds complexity and challenges to the software development process, communication and coordination of activities and priorities as well as measuring performance and managing quality and risk. The software project management challenge for the TMT OSW is thus a multi-faceted technical, managerial, communications and interpersonal relations challenge. The approach TMT is using to manage this multifaceted challenge is a combination of establishing an effective geographically distributed software team (Integrated Product Team) with strong project management and technical leadership provided by the TMT Project Office (PO) and the ITCC partner to manage plans, process, performance, risk and quality, and to facilitate effective communications; establishing an effective cross-functional software management team composed of stakeholders, OSW leadership and ITCC leadership to manage dependencies and software release plans, technical complexities and change to approved interfaces, architecture, design and tool set, and to facilitate

  6. Dry process fuel performance technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Kweon Ho; Kim, K. W.; Kim, B. K. (and others)

    2006-06-15

    The objective of the project is to establish the performance evaluation system of DUPIC fuel during the Phase III R and D. In order to fulfil this objectives, property model development of DUPIC fuel and irradiation test was carried out in Hanaro using the instrumented rig. Also, the analysis on the in-reactor behavior analysis of DUPIC fuel, out-pile test using simulated DUPIC fuel as well as performance and integrity assessment in a commercial reactor were performed during this Phase. The R and D results of the Phase III are summarized as follows: Fabrication process establishment of simulated DUPIC fuel for property measurement, Property model development for the DUPIC fuel, Performance evaluation of DUPIC fuel via irradiation test in Hanaro, Post irradiation examination of irradiated fuel and performance analysis, Development of DUPIC fuel performance code (KAOS)

  7. Dry process fuel performance technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Kweon Ho; Kim, K. W.; Kim, B. K.

    2006-06-01

    The objective of the project is to establish the performance evaluation system of DUPIC fuel during the Phase III R and D. In order to fulfil this objectives, property model development of DUPIC fuel and irradiation test was carried out in Hanaro using the instrumented rig. Also, the analysis on the in-reactor behavior analysis of DUPIC fuel, out-pile test using simulated DUPIC fuel as well as performance and integrity assessment in a commercial reactor were performed during this Phase. The R and D results of the Phase III are summarized as follows: Fabrication process establishment of simulated DUPIC fuel for property measurement, Property model development for the DUPIC fuel, Performance evaluation of DUPIC fuel via irradiation test in Hanaro, Post irradiation examination of irradiated fuel and performance analysis, Development of DUPIC fuel performance code (KAOS)

  8. Studies and Development of Radiation Processed Nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varshney, Lalit; Sabharwal, Sunil; Francis, Sanju; Biswal, Jayashree [Radiation Technology Development Section, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2009-07-01

    Nanotechnology is the emerging technology that deals with processing, manipulating and manufacturing devices and products at the microscopic scale of molecules or atoms with structures smaller than 100 nanometers. Realizing its potential, Government of India spending on R&D in nanotechnology has gone up by an order of magnitude in last 5 years through various national and international programs. High energy gamma radiation and electron beams could be a useful tool to create innovative and newer nano-materials for various applications in medical field for treatment and detection purposes. Considering its certain advantage for producing nano-materials, radiation technology will play a crucial role in development of such materials. Research and development in the area of nano--particles on polymer films, hydrogels, silica particles and their nano-clusters using radiation technology could be a possible route for development of new functional nano-materials. (author)

  9. Studies and Development of Radiation Processed Nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varshney, Lalit; Sabharwal, Sunil; Francis, Sanju; Biswal, Jayashree

    2009-01-01

    Nanotechnology is the emerging technology that deals with processing, manipulating and manufacturing devices and products at the microscopic scale of molecules or atoms with structures smaller than 100 nanometers. Realizing its potential, Government of India spending on R&D in nanotechnology has gone up by an order of magnitude in last 5 years through various national and international programs. High energy gamma radiation and electron beams could be a useful tool to create innovative and newer nano-materials for various applications in medical field for treatment and detection purposes. Considering its certain advantage for producing nano-materials, radiation technology will play a crucial role in development of such materials. Research and development in the area of nano--particles on polymer films, hydrogels, silica particles and their nano-clusters using radiation technology could be a possible route for development of new functional nano-materials. (author)

  10. Developments in hydroconversion processes for residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douwes, C T [Shell Res. B.V.; Wijffels, J B; Van Klinken, J; Van Zijll Langhout, W C

    1979-01-01

    A review of recent developments in hydrotreating processes for demetallization, desulfurization, and conversion to distillate products of residues covers catalyst developments for suppression of coke formation, maximum metals tolerance, and conversion selectivity; the effects of hydrogen pressure and temperature on catalyst deactivation and conversion; basic operating characteristics of conventional fixed-bed trickle-flow reactors, and of onstream catalyst replacement reactors, including the expanded-bed and the moving-bed reactor; a comparison of catalyst bed activity level, dirt tolerance, reactor effectiveness, temperature control, and thermal stability of the expanded-bed and moving-bed reactors; residue upgrading in slurry-bed reactors of dispersed vanadium sulfide catalyst in the oil; design and control features for safety and reliability; and a cost comparison between the indirect hydrotreating route, in which the asphalt fraction is separated prior to hydrotreating, and the as yet incompletely developed direct route.

  11. Development and Validation of Linear Alternator Models for the Advanced Stirling Convertor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metscher, Jonathan F.; Lewandowski, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    Two models of the linear alternator of the Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) have been developed using the Sage 1-D modeling software package. The first model relates the piston motion to electric current by means of a motor constant. The second uses electromagnetic model components to model the magnetic circuit of the alternator. The models are tuned and validated using test data and also compared against each other. Results show both models can be tuned to achieve results within 7 of ASC test data under normal operating conditions. Using Sage enables the creation of a complete ASC model to be developed and simulations completed quickly compared to more complex multi-dimensional models. These models allow for better insight into overall Stirling convertor performance, aid with Stirling power system modeling, and in the future support NASA mission planning for Stirling-based power systems.

  12. Testing and evaluation of alternative process systems for immobilizing radioactive mixed particulate waste in cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weingardt, K.M.; Weber, J.R.

    1994-03-01

    Radioactive and Hazardous Mixed Wastes have accumulated at the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. Ongoing operations and planned facilities at Hanford will also contribute to this waste stream. To meet the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Land Disposal Restrictions most of this waste will need to be treated to permit disposal. In general this treatment will need to include stabilization/solidification either as a sole method or as part of a treatment train. A planned DOE facility, the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 2A, is scoped to provide this required treatment for containerized contact-handled (CH), mixed low-level waste (MLLW) at Hanford. An engineering development program has been conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to select the best system for utilizing a cement based process in WRAP Module 2A. Three mixing processes were developed for analysis and testing; in-drum mixing, continuous mixing, and batch mixing. Some full scale tests were conducted and 55 gallon drums of solidified product were produced. These drums were core sampled and examined to evaluate mixing effectiveness. Total solids loading and the order of addition of waste and binder constituents were also varied. The highest confidence approach to meet the WRAP Module 2A waste immobilization system needs appears to be the out-of-drum batch mixing concept. This system is believed to offer the most flexibility and efficiency, given the highly variable and troublesome waste streams feeding the facility

  13. Alternative processes for the long-term storage of Kr-85

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penzhorn, R.D.

    1977-12-01

    The forseeable problems which are characteristic of the long-term storage of Kr-85, are discussed on the basis of the chemical, physical and radiological properties of the fission noble gases krypton and xenon as well as rubidium, the daughter nuclide of Kr-85. The various alternatives suggested in the literature for the long-term storage of Kr-85 are reviewed. The technological realization of each of the proposed alternatives is analyzed. (orig.) [de

  14. Manufacturing Vision DevelopmentProcess and Dialogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra

    This Ph.D. project has been conducted in the context of PRODUCTION+5 methodology for devel¬oping manufacturing visions for companies, and related to Experimental Laboratory for Production. Both have been established in the Center for Industrial Production. The empirical parts of the research invo...... involve case studies of three companies that are part of the MCD-process. The cases primarily are focusing on the process and the dialogue dur¬ing the manufacturing vision development.......This Ph.D. project has been conducted in the context of PRODUCTION+5 methodology for devel¬oping manufacturing visions for companies, and related to Experimental Laboratory for Production. Both have been established in the Center for Industrial Production. The empirical parts of the research...

  15. Image processing and analysis software development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahnaz, R.

    1999-01-01

    The work presented in this project is aimed at developing a software 'IMAGE GALLERY' to investigate various image processing and analysis techniques. The work was divided into two parts namely the image processing techniques and pattern recognition, which further comprised of character and face recognition. Various image enhancement techniques including negative imaging, contrast stretching, compression of dynamic, neon, diffuse, emboss etc. have been studied. Segmentation techniques including point detection, line detection, edge detection have been studied. Also some of the smoothing and sharpening filters have been investigated. All these imaging techniques have been implemented in a window based computer program written in Visual Basic Neural network techniques based on Perception model have been applied for face and character recognition. (author)

  16. Development of coincidence processing module for PEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Baotong; Shuai Lei; Li Ke

    2011-01-01

    For the breast cancer diagnosis and therapy, a prototype of positron emission mammography (PEM) was developed in Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. In this paper, the design of coincidence processing module (CPM) for this PEM was presented. Both the hardware architecture and the software logic were introduced. In this design, the CPM used the Rocket IO fast interface in FPGA and fiber technology to acquire the preprocessed data from the continuous sampling module (CSM) and then selected the valid event with the coincidence timing window method, which was performed in the FPGA on the daughter board. The CPM transmits the processed data to host computer via gigabit Ethernet. The whole system was controlled by CAN bus. The primary tests indicate that the performance of this design is good. (authors)

  17. Technology development for DUPIC process safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, J S; Kim, H D; Lee, Y G; Kang, H Y; Cha, H R; Byeon, K H; Park, Y S; Choi, H N [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    As the strategy for DUPIC(Direct Use of spent PWR fuel In CANDU reactor) process safeguards, the neutron detection method was introduced to account for nuclear materials in the whole DUPIC process by selectively measuring spontaneous fission neutron signals from {sup 244}Cm. DSNC was designed and manufactured to measure the account of curium in the fuel bundle and associated process samples in the DUPIC fuel cycle. The MCNP code had response profile along the length of the CANDU type fuel bundle. It was found experimentally that the output signal variation due to the overall azimuthal asymmetry was less than 0.2%. The longitudinal detection efficiency distribution at every position including both ends was kept less than 2% from the average value. Spent fuel standards almost similar to DUPIC process material were fabricated from a single spent PWR fuel rod and the performance verification of the DSNC is in progress under very high radiation environment. The results of this test will be eventually benchmarked with other sources such as code simulation, chemical analysis and gamma analysis. COREMAS-DUPIC has been developed for the accountability management of nuclear materials treated by DUPIC facility. This system is able to track the controlled nuclear materials maintaining the material inventory in near-real time and to generate the required material accountability records and reports. Concerning the containment and surveillance technology, a focused R and D effort is given to the development of unattended continuous monitoring system. Currently, the component technologies of radiation monitoring and surveillance have been established, and continued R and D efforts are given to the integration of the components into automatic safeguards diagnostics. (author).

  18. TRENDS IN OFFICIAL DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE TO DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND POSSIBILITIES OF ALTERNATIVE FINANCING MECHANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talknice Saungweme

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study analyses trends in Official Development Assistance (ODA to developing countries, mainly Africa, and possibilities of new financing instruments. Economies of most developing countries, especially those in Sub-Saharan Africa, are characterised by low investment flows, huge import bills and lower exports. Subsequently, development assistance is the major source of external finance and has taken the form of budget support, humanitarian and development finance. However, the noted fall in ODA in 2005, 2009 and 2012 might adversely impact directly on the attainment of millennium development goals in 2015. This negative trend in ODA is a result of a combination of factors such as economic constraints in the donor countries (for example, the debt crisis and/or a new shift in financing mechanisms to developing countries.

  19. Development of uranium processing at Wiluna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenny, D., E-mail: dayle.kenny@toroenergy.com.au [Toro Energy Ltd., West Perth, WA (Australia); Dombrose, E. [Metallurgical Support Pty Ltd., Shelley, WA (Australia)

    2010-07-01

    Toro Energy Ltd. has identified a resource of 20.2 million tonnes at a grade of 548 ppm U{sub 3}O{sub 8} at Wiluna, Western Australia. Calcrete and clay delta formations host the uranium mineral carnotite. Initial studies indicate a mining operation is technically, environmentally and commercially viable. Increase in demand for uranium and a change in State Government policy on uranium mining have lead Toro to proceed with a bankable feasibility study and commence approvals with State and Federal Governments. This paper discusses how Toro arrived at the decision to utilise alkaline heap leach, a process not widely used, and how it is being developed. (author)

  20. Development of the operational information processing platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hyun Kook; Park, Jeong Seok; Baek, Seung Min; Kim, Young Jin; Joo, Jae Yoon; Lee, Sang Mok; Jeong, Young Woo; Seo, Ho Jun; Kim, Do Youn; Lee, Tae Hoon

    1996-02-01

    The Operational Information Processing Platform(OIPP) is platform system which was designed to provide the development and operation environments for plant operation and plant monitoring. It is based on the Plant Computer Systems (PCS) of Yonggwang 3 and 4, Ulchin 3 and 4, and Yonggwang 5 and 6 Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). The UNIX based workstation, real time kernel and graphics design tool are selected and installed through the reviewing the function of PCS. In order to construct the development environment for open system architecture and distributed computer system, open computer system architecture was adapted both in hardware and software. For verification of system design and evaluation of technical methodologies, the PCS running under the OIPP is being designed and implemented. In this system, the man-machine interface and system functions are being designed and implemented to evaluate the differences between the UCN 3, 4 PCS and OIPP. 15 tabs., 32 figs., 11 refs. (Author)

  1. Development of partitioning process: purification of DIDPA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Masayuki; Morita, Yasuji; Kubota, Masumitsu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-04-01

    The partitioning process has developed and demonstrated that the solvent extraction with diisodecylphosphoric acid (DIDPA) can successfully separate transuranium elements from a high-level liquid waste. In the solvent extraction, DIDPA is decomposed by radiolysis and hydrolysis. The main degradation product is monoisodecyl phosphoric acid (MIDPA). Ethylene glycol has been used for removing the product by a solvent extraction method. However this method has two drawbacks that two phases separate slowly and the used ethylene glycol is not regeneratable. First it was found that the addition of acetone or methanol with 20 volume % improved the phase separation. Then a new purification method was developed by using an aqueous solution of methanol or acetone. The new purification method is as excellent as the ethylene glycol method for the removal of MIDPA. (author)

  2. Evidence development and publication planning: strategic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittek, Michael R; Jo Williams, Mary; Carlson, Angeline M

    2009-11-01

    A number of decisions in the health care field rely heavily on published clinical evidence. A systematic approach to evidence development and publication planning is required to develop a portfolio of evidence that includes at minimum information on efficacy, safety, durability of effect, quality of life, and economic outcomes. The approach requires a critical assessment of available literature, identification of gaps in the literature, and a strategic plan to fill the gaps to ensure the availability of evidence demanded for clinical decisions, coverage/payment decisions and health technology assessments. The purpose of this manuscript is to offer a six-step strategic process leading to a portfolio of evidence that meets the informational needs of providers, payers, and governmental agencies concerning patient access to a therapy.

  3. Development of an alternative route for recycling AA2050 aluminum alloy by powder metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guido, V.; Oliveira, A.C. de; Travessa, D.N.; Cardoso, K.R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an alternative solid state route to recycling AA2050 aeronautical aluminium alloy chips. The first stage in the recycling process, reported in this work, is the obtainment of the alloy powder by high energy ball milling to subsequent cold pressing and hot extrusion. The process started with the cleaning of chips with the aim of contaminant removing from machining process and transport, followed by the high energy ball milling to result in the AA2050 alloy powder. The powder obtained was characterized by laser size particle analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray diffraction (DRX) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The results show the feasibility of obtaining a powder having appropriate particle size and chemical composition in accordance with the specification for alloy. (author)

  4. Exogenously-driven perceptual alternation of a bistable image: From the perspective of the visual change detection process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urakawa, Tomokazu; Aragaki, Tomoya; Araki, Osamu

    2017-07-13

    Based on the predictive coding framework, the present behavioral study focused on the automatic visual change detection process, which yields a concomitant prediction error, as one of the visual processes relevant to the exogenously-driven perceptual alternation of a bistable image. According to this perspective, we speculated that the automatic visual change detection process with an enhanced prediction error is relevant to the greater induction of exogenously-driven perceptual alternation and attempted to test this hypothesis. A modified version of the oddball paradigm was used based on previous electroencephalographic studies on visual change detection, in which the deviant and standard defined by the bar's orientation were symmetrically presented around a continuously presented Necker cube (a bistable image). By manipulating inter-stimulus intervals and the number of standard repetitions, we set three experimental blocks: HM, IM, and LM blocks, in which the strength of the prediction error to the deviant relative to the standard was expected to gradually decrease in that order. The results obtained showed that the deviant significantly increased perceptual alternation of the Necker cube over that by the standard from before to after the presentation of the deviant. Furthermore, the differential proportion of the deviant relative to the standard significantly decreased from the HM block to the IM and LM blocks. These results are consistent with our hypothesis, supporting the involvement of the automatic visual change detection process in the induction of exogenously-driven perceptual alternation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Controlled Carbon Source Addition to an Alternating Nitrification-Denitrification Wastewater Treatment Process Including Biological P Removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaacs, Steven Howard; Henze, Mogens

    1995-01-01

    The paper investigates the effect of adding an external carbon source on the rate of denitrification in an alternating activated sludge process including biological P removal. Two carbon sources were examined, acetate and hydrolysate derived from biologically hydrolyzed sludge. Preliminary batch ...

  6. Automatic adjustment of cycle length and aeration time for improved nitrogen removal in an alternating activated sludge process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaacs, Steven Howard

    1997-01-01

    The paper examines the nitrogen dynamics in the alternating BIODENITRO and BIODENIPHO processes with a focus on two control handles influencing now scheduling and aeration: the cycle length and the ammonia concentration at which a nitrifying period is terminated. A steady state analysis examining...

  7. Automated forms processing - An alternative to time-consuming manual double entry of data in arthroplasty registries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Aksel

    2012-01-01

    , there was no statistical difference compared to single-key data entry (error proportion=0.007 (95% CI: 0.001-0.024), (p= 0.656)), as well as double-key data entry (error proportion=0.003 (95% CI: 0.000-0.019), (p= 0.319)). Discussion and conclusion: Automated forms processing is a valid alternative to double manual data......Background: The clinical and scientific usage of patient-reported outcome measures is increasing in the health services. Often paper forms are used. Manual double entry of data is defined as the definitive gold standard for transferring data to an electronic format, but the process is laborious....... Automated forms processing may be an alternative, but further validation is warranted. Materials and Methods: 200 patients were randomly selected from a cohort of 5777 patients who had previously answered two different questionnaires. The questionnaires were scanned using an automated forms processing...

  8. Recent developments in the way forward for alternative methods: Formation of national consensus platforms in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogiers, Vera

    2005-01-01

    Ecopa, the European Consensus Platform on 3R-Alternatives, is an international not-for-profit organization that wants to stimulate the development of 3R-alternatives, increase awareness among the public, scientists and regulatory bodies, and help their implementation into the different national legislations. This is done by networking and bringing together National Consensus Platforms on 3R-alternatives. Consensus means that all parties concerned are represented, namely, animal welfare, industry, academia, and governmental institutions. Actually, 14 Member State Platforms exist. Fully complying with the criteria, set by ecopa, are the platforms of Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. Under development are the platforms of Denmark, Norway, and Poland. To reach its goals, ecopa uses conventional scientific tools such as workshops and meetings but it also makes scientific-political statements. A recent realization in particular is the involvement of ecopa in several European projects of the Sixth Framework Programme, either as coordinator, research partner, or board member

  9. Evaluating energy-system alternatives in the context of sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.

    1993-01-01

    Growing awareness of the negative social, environmental and economic impacts caused by the production, distribution and end-use consumption of energy has led the search for alternatives to become increasingly urgent and complex. The need for analytical methods and tools for evaluating options and opportunities is particularly acute in rapidly developing countries. The aim of this article is to illustrate the broad range of issues and impacts that are important for evaluating and comparing energy-system alternatives in the context of sustainable development. The feasibility of producing and utilizing biomass-based ethanol as an alternative transportation fuel in Thailand is explored herein to provide examples and a forum for discussion of these issues. Scenarios describe the conditions under which a significant potential for fuel-switching to domestically-produced ethanol appears to exist. Harnessing this potential could lead to important improvements in the energy system's impacts on human health, Thailand's economy, and the environment. Achieving these improvements, however, would require comprehensive and long-term planning and support on the part of the Thai government

  10. LRRTM3 Regulates Excitatory Synapse Development through Alternative Splicing and Neurexin Binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Won Um

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The four members of the LRRTM family (LRRTM1-4 are postsynaptic adhesion molecules essential for excitatory synapse development. They have also been implicated in neuropsychiatric diseases. Here, we focus on LRRTM3, showing that two distinct LRRTM3 variants generated by alternative splicing regulate LRRTM3 interaction with PSD-95, but not its excitatory synapse-promoting activity. Overexpression of either LRRTM3 variant increased excitatory synapse density in dentate gyrus (DG granule neurons, whereas LRRTM3 knockdown decreased it. LRRTM3 also controlled activity-regulated AMPA receptor surface expression in an alternative splicing-dependent manner. Furthermore, Lrrtm3-knockout mice displayed specific alterations in excitatory synapse density, excitatory synaptic transmission and excitability in DG granule neurons but not in CA1 pyramidal neurons. Lastly, LRRTM3 required only specific splice variants of presynaptic neurexins for their synaptogenic activity. Collectively, our data highlight alternative splicing and differential presynaptic ligand utilization in the regulation of LRRTMs, revealing key regulatory mechanisms for excitatory synapse development.

  11. Alternative electro-chemically based processing routes for joining of plasma facing components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, Wolfgang, E-mail: wolfgang.krauss@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Materials Research III, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Lorenz, Julia; Holstein, Nils; Konys, Juergen [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Materials Research III, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Tungsten is considered in fusion technology as functional and structural material in the area of blanket and divertor for future application in DEMO. The KIT design of a He-cooled divertor includes joints between W and W-alloys as well as of W with Eurofer-steel. The main challenges range from expansion mismatch problem for tungsten/steel joints over metallurgical reactions with brittle phase formation to crack stopping ability and excellent surface wetting. These requirements were only met partly and insufficiently in the past e.g. by direct Cu-casting of tungsten onto steel. Both, the joining needs and the observed failure scenarios of conventionally joined components initiated the development of improved joining technologies based on electro-chemical processing routes. As electrolytes aqueous and aprotic, water free, system are integrated into this development line. In the first step principle requirements are presented to guarantee a reproducible and adherent deposition of scales based on Ni and Cu acting as inter layers and filler, respectively, to generate a real metallurgical bonding as demonstrate by 1100 deg. C joining tests. The development field aprotic systems based on ionic liquids is discussed with respect to enable development of refractory metal based fillers with focus high temperature W-W brazing.

  12. Diagnosis of an alternative ammonia process technology to reduce exergy losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghannadzadeh, Ali; Sadeqzadeh, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Pinpointed non-efficient units by visualized exergetic ammonia process flowsheets. • Recommended ways towards sustainable ammonia productions based on exergy-loss sources. • Demonstrated applicability of the exergetic solutions panel on an ammonia process. - Abstract: Ammonia production through more efficient technologies can be achieved using exergy analysis. Ammonia production is one of the most important but also one of most energy consuming processes in the chemical industry. Based on a panel of solutions previously developed, this study helps to identify potential areas of improvement using an exergy analysis that covers all aspects of conventional ammonia synthesis and separation. The total internal and external exergy losses are calculated as 3,152 and 6,364 kJ/kg, respectively. The process is then divided into five main functional blocks based on their exergy losses. The reforming block contains the largest exergy loss (3,098 kJ/kg) and thus the largest potential for improvement including preheating cold feed through an economizer, developing technology towards isobaric mixing, and pressure drop reduction in the secondary reformer as the main contributors to the irreversibility (1,302 kJ/kg) in this block. The second largest exergy loss resides in the ammonia synthesis block (3,075 kJ/kg) where solutions such as reduced temperature rise across the compressor, proper compressor isolation, reducing undesired components such as argon in the reactor feed, and using lower temperatures for reactor outlet streams, are proposed to decrease the exergy losses. Throttling process in the syngas separator is the key contributing mechanism for the irreversibility (1,635 kJ/kg exergy losses) in the gas upgrading block. The exergy losses in the residual ammonia removal block (833 kJ/kg exergy losses) are mainly due to the stripper and the absorber column where a modified column design might be helpful. The highest exergy loss in the preheating block

  13. LEAN PRACTICES FOR PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Luz Tortorella

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lean product development (LPD is an approach that comprises lean principles and management practices that aim to reduce waste and improve operational effectiveness throughout the entire value stream in continuous improvement endless journey. Due to that, the ability to innovate, change and learn continuously is a key element in order to minimize product development problems. Several LPD techniques are presented in the literature as possible enablers for lean implementation. However, little has been known about the impact of these enablers on the problems related to product development processes. Thus, this paper aims to examine the relationship between five LPD practices’ constructs and the occurrence frequency of eleven LPD problems’ constructs in companies that are implementing lean. Moreover, the identification of relevant relationships between LPD practices’ and problems’ constructs may contribute to specify the contexts in which problems are expected to occur. The study sample comprises sixty four companies already undergoing lean implementation both in shop floor and offices area. The results indicate that the same practices’ constructs, which are deemed as influential for minimizing LPD problems, present different relationship intensities among them.

  14. Pretreatment status report on the identification and evaluation of alternative processes. Milestone Report No. C064

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, D.G. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Brothers, A.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Beary, M.M.; Nicholson, G.A. [Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to support the development and demonstration of a pretreatment system that will (1) destroy organic materials and ferrocyanide in tank wastes so that the wastes can be stored safely, (2) separate the high-activity and low-activity fractions, (3) remove radionuclides and remove or destroy hazardous chemicals in LLW as necessary to meet waste form feed requirements, (4) support development and demonstration of vitrification technology by providing representative feeds to the bench-scale glass melter, (5) support full-scale HLW vitrification operations, including near-term operation, by providing feed that meets specifications, and (6) design and develop pretreatment processes that accomplish the above objectives and ensure compliance with environmental regulations. This report is a presentation of candidate technologies for pretreatment of Hanford Site tank waste. Included are descriptions of studies by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory of Battelle Memorial Institute; Science Applications International Corporation, an independent consultant; BNFL, Inc. representing British technologies; Numatec, representing French technologies; and brief accounts of other relevant activities.

  15. Pretreatment status report on the identification and evaluation of alternative processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, D.G.; Brothers, A.J.; Beary, M.M.; Nicholson, G.A.

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to support the development and demonstration of a pretreatment system that will (1) destroy organic materials and ferrocyanide in tank wastes so that the wastes can be stored safely, (2) separate the high-activity and low-activity fractions, (3) remove radionuclides and remove or destroy hazardous chemicals in LLW as necessary to meet waste form feed requirements, (4) support development and demonstration of vitrification technology by providing representative feeds to the bench-scale glass melter, (5) support full-scale HLW vitrification operations, including near-term operation, by providing feed that meets specifications, and (6) design and develop pretreatment processes that accomplish the above objectives and ensure compliance with environmental regulations. This report is a presentation of candidate technologies for pretreatment of Hanford Site tank waste. Included are descriptions of studies by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory of Battelle Memorial Institute; Science Applications International Corporation, an independent consultant; BNFL, Inc. representing British technologies; Numatec, representing French technologies; and brief accounts of other relevant activities

  16. Technological development with reference to hydro-power, nuclear, and alternative energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, T R; Baumgartner, T

    1985-01-01

    This report outlines a theoretical framework for describing and analyzing the introduction of new technologies and the development of socio-technical systems associated with such innovations. While the report is largely theoretical in nature, it refers to certain strategic aspects of the development of nuclear, hydro-power and alternative energy systems. The ease with which technological innovation and development occur, the directions they take, and the impacts they have on the social and physical environments depend not only on purely technical and economic factors. Barriers, regulators and facilitators are inherent in the socio-political, institutional and cultural structures within which any attempts at innovation and technological development take place. The final section of the report explores some of the implications of the theory for policy and strategy, including consideration of environmental policy.

  17. DECAB: process development of a phase change absorption process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez Fernandez, E.; Goetheer, E.L.V.

    2011-01-01

    This work describes the conceptual design of a novel separation process for CO2 removal from flue gas based on precipitating solvents. The process here described (DECAB) is an enhanced CO2 absorption based on the Le Chatelier's principle, which states that reaction equilibrium can be shifted by

  18. Development and Characterisation of a Human Chronic Skin Wound Cell Line-Towards an Alternative for Animal Experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caley, Matthew; Wall, Ivan B; Peake, Matthew; Kipling, David; Giles, Peter; Thomas, David W; Stephens, Phil

    2018-03-27

    Background : Chronic skin wounds are a growing financial burden for healthcare providers, causing discomfort/immobility to patients. Whilst animal chronic wound models have been developed to allow for mechanistic studies and to develop/test potential therapies, such systems are not good representations of the human chronic wound state. As an alternative, human chronic wound fibroblasts (CWFs) have permitted an insight into the dysfunctional cellular mechanisms that are associated with these wounds. However, such cells strains have a limited replicative lifespan and therefore a limited reproducibility/usefulness. Objectives : To develop/characterise immortalised cell lines of CWF and patient-matched normal fibroblasts (NFs). Methods and Results : Immortalisation with human telomerase resulted in both CWF and NF proliferating well beyond their replicative senescence end-point (respective cell strains senesced as normal). Gene expression analysis demonstrated that, whilst proliferation-associated genes were up-regulated in the cell lines (as would be expected), the immortalisation process did not significantly affect the disease-specific genotype. Immortalised CWF (as compared to NF) also retained a distinct impairment in their wound repopulation potential (in line with CWF cell strains). Conclusions : These novel CWF cell lines are a credible animal alternative and could be a valuable research tool for understanding both the aetiology of chronic skin wounds and for therapeutic pre-screening.

  19. Development and Characterisation of a Human Chronic Skin Wound Cell Line—Towards an Alternative for Animal Experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Ivan B.; Peake, Matthew; Kipling, David; Giles, Peter; Thomas, David W.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Chronic skin wounds are a growing financial burden for healthcare providers, causing discomfort/immobility to patients. Whilst animal chronic wound models have been developed to allow for mechanistic studies and to develop/test potential therapies, such systems are not good representations of the human chronic wound state. As an alternative, human chronic wound fibroblasts (CWFs) have permitted an insight into the dysfunctional cellular mechanisms that are associated with these wounds. However, such cells strains have a limited replicative lifespan and therefore a limited reproducibility/usefulness. Objectives: To develop/characterise immortalised cell lines of CWF and patient-matched normal fibroblasts (NFs). Methods and Results: Immortalisation with human telomerase resulted in both CWF and NF proliferating well beyond their replicative senescence end-point (respective cell strains senesced as normal). Gene expression analysis demonstrated that, whilst proliferation-associated genes were up-regulated in the cell lines (as would be expected), the immortalisation process did not significantly affect the disease-specific genotype. Immortalised CWF (as compared to NF) also retained a distinct impairment in their wound repopulation potential (in line with CWF cell strains). Conclusions: These novel CWF cell lines are a credible animal alternative and could be a valuable research tool for understanding both the aetiology of chronic skin wounds and for therapeutic pre-screening. PMID:29584680

  20. Influence of forest planning alternatives on landscape pattern and ecosystem processes in northern Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick A. Zollner; L. Jay Roberts; Eric J. Gustafson; Hong S. He; Volker Radeloff

    2008-01-01

    Incorporating an ecosystem management perspective into forest planning requires consideration of the impacts of timber management on a suite of landscape characteristics at broad spatial and long temporal scales. We used the LANDIS forest landscape simulation model to predict forest composition and landscape pattern under seven alternative forest management plans...

  1. New alternatives for the fermentation process in the ethanol production from sugarcane: Extractive and low temperature fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios-Bereche, Reynaldo; Ensinas, Adriano; Modesto, Marcelo; Nebra, Silvia A.

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol is produced in large scale from sugarcane in Brazil by fermentation of sugars and distillation. This is currently considered as an efficient biofuel technology, leading to significant reduction on greenhouse gases emissions. However, some improvements in the process can be introduced in order to improve the use of energy. In current distilleries, a significant fraction of the energy consumption occurs in the purification step – distillation and dehydration – since conventional fermentation systems employed in the industry require low substrate concentration, which must be distilled, consequently with high energy consumption. In this study, alternatives to the conventional fermentation processes are assessed, through computer simulation: low temperature fermentation and vacuum extractive fermentation. The aim of this study is to assess the incorporation of these alternative fermentation processes in ethanol production, energy consumption and electricity surplus produced in the cogeneration system. Several cases were evaluated. Thermal integration technique was applied. Results shown that the ethanol production increases between 3.3% and 4.8% and a reduction in steam consumption happens of up to 36%. About the electricity surplus, a value of 85 kWh/t of cane can be achieved when condensing – extracting steam turbines are used. - Highlights: • Increasing the wine concentration in the ethanol production from sugarcane. • Alternatives to the conventional fermentation process. • Low temperature fermentation and vacuum extractive fermentation. • Reduction of steam consumption through the thermal integration of the processes. • Different configurations of cogeneration system maximizing the electricity surplus

  2. Development of advanced spent fuel management process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seong Won; Shin, Y. J.; Cho, S. H.

    2004-03-01

    The research on spent fuel management focuses on the maximization of the disposal efficiency by a volume reduction, the improvement of the environmental friendliness by the partitioning and transmutation of the long lived nuclides, and the recycling of the spent fuel for an efficient utilization of the uranium source. In the second phase which started in 2001, the performance test of the advanced spent fuel management process consisting of voloxidation, reduction of spent fuel and the lithium recovery process has been completed successfully on a laboratory scale. The world-premier spent fuel reduction hot test of a 5 kgHM/batch has been performed successfully by joint research with Russia and the valuable data on the actinides and FPs material balance and the characteristics of the metal product were obtained with experience to help design an engineering scale reduction system. The electrolytic reduction technology which integrates uranium oxide reduction in a molten LiCl-Li 2 O system and Li 2 O electrolysis is developed and a unique reaction system is also devised. Design data such as the treatment capacity, current density and mass transfer behavior obtained from the performance test of a 5 kgU/batch electrolytic reduction system pave the way for the third phase of the hot cell demonstration of the advanced spent fuel management technology

  3. Reflexive photography: an alternative method for documenting the learning process of cultural competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amerson, Roxanne; Livingston, Wade G

    2014-04-01

    This qualitative descriptive study used reflexive photography to evaluate the learning process of cultural competence during an international service-learning project in Guatemala. Reflexive photography is an innovative qualitative research technique that examines participants' interactions with their environment through their personal reflections on images that they captured during their experience. A purposive sample of 10 baccalaureate nursing students traveled to Guatemala, where they conducted family and community assessments, engaged in home visits, and provided health education. Data collection involved over 100 photographs and a personal interview with each student. The themes developed from the photographs and interviews provided insight into the activities of an international experience that influence the cognitive, practical, and affective learning of cultural competence. Making home visits and teaching others from a different culture increased students' transcultural self-efficacy. Reflexive photography is a more robust method of self-reflection, especially for visual learners.

  4. A comparative analysis for multiattribute selection among renewable energy alternatives using fuzzy axiomatic design and fuzzy analytic hierarchy process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahraman, Cengiz; Kaya, Ihsan; Cebi, Selcuk [Istanbul Technical University, Department of Industrial Engineering, 34367, Macka-Istanbul (Turkey)

    2009-10-15

    Renewable energy is the energy generated from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides and geothermal heat which are renewable. Energy resources are very important in perspective of economics and politics for all countries. Hence, the selection of the best alternative for any country takes an important role for energy investments. Among decision-making methodologies, axiomatic design (AD) and analytic hierarchy process (AHP) are often used in the literature. The fuzzy set theory is a powerful tool to treat the uncertainty in case of incomplete or vague information. In this paper, fuzzy multicriteria decision- making methodologies are suggested for the selection among renewable energy alternatives. The first methodology is based on the AHP which allows the evaluation scores from experts to be linguistic expressions, crisp, or fuzzy numbers, while the second is based on AD principles under fuzziness which evaluates the alternatives under objective or subjective criteria with respect to the functional requirements obtained from experts. The originality of the paper comes from the fuzzy AD application to the selection of the best renewable energy alternative and the comparison with fuzzy AHP. In the application of the proposed methodologies the most appropriate renewable energy alternative is determined for Turkey. (author)

  5. Results of developing and problems of further improvements for WWER-1000 FA of alternative design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molchanov, V.L.; Panyushkin, A.K.; Zheleznyak, V.M.; Samojlov, O.B.; Kuul', V.S.; Kurylev, V.I.

    2001-01-01

    A new fuel assembly of alternative design (FAA) is created for a WWER-1000 reactor which is characteristic of dimensional stability on operation. The FAA includes a frame of 15 alloy Eh-110 spacer grids spot welded to 6 alloy Eh-635 angle sections. In-core tests show that the FAA is stable to form changing. It is concluded that the FAA can serve as a basis for development of promising fuel cycle with high burnups, specifically, for a 4 year cycle with the use of uranium-gadolinium fuel [ru

  6. Nuclear project finance in developing countries: The multi-country financing alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleck, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    It is the basic contention of this paper that, because of certain factors in the financial markets, multi-country financing (MCF) is the new alternative if not the imperative for large scale and turnkey nuclear plant programs in developing countries. The point is made that its successful use depends on the ability of the host country, the credit granting countries and suppliers to both recognize the MCF reality and manage its implicit variables. Those who collectively do so will be successful, and those who cannot will not be states the author. The aspects of MCF are described

  7. Testing an Alternative Method for Estimating the Length of Fungal Hyphae Using Photomicrography and Image Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qinhua; Kirschbaum, Miko U F; Hedley, Mike J; Camps Arbestain, Marta

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to develop and test an unbiased and rapid methodology to estimate the length of external arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) hyphae in soil. The traditional visual gridline intersection (VGI) method, which consists in a direct visual examination of the intersections of hyphae with gridlines on a microscope eyepiece after aqueous extraction, membrane-filtration, and staining (e.g., with trypan blue), was refined. For this, (i) images of the stained hyphae were taken by using a digital photomicrography technique to avoid the use of the microscope and the method was referred to as "digital gridline intersection" (DGI) method; and (ii), the images taken in (i) were processed and the hyphal length was measured by using ImageJ software, referred to as the "photomicrography-ImageJ processing" (PIP) method. The DGI and PIP methods were tested using known grade lengths of possum fur. Then they were applied to measure the hyphal lengths in soils with contrasting phosphorus (P) fertility status. Linear regressions were obtained between the known lengths (Lknown) of possum fur and the values determined by using either the DGI (LDGI) (LDGI = 0.37 + 0.97 × Lknown, r2 = 0.86) or PIP (LPIP) methods (LPIP = 0.33 + 1.01 × Lknown, r2 = 0.98). There were no significant (P > 0.05) differences between the LDGI and LPIP values. While both methods provided accurate estimation (slope of regression being 1.0), the PIP method was more precise, as reflected by a higher value of r2 and lower coefficients of variation. The average hyphal lengths (6.5-19.4 m g-1) obtained by the use of these methods were in the range of those typically reported in the literature (3-30 m g-1). Roots growing in P-deficient soil developed 2.5 times as many hyphae as roots growing in P-rich soil (17.4 vs 7.2 m g-1). These tests confirmed that the use of digital photomicrography in conjunction with either the grid-line intersection principle or image processing is a suitable method for the

  8. Alternative Shear Panel Configurations for Light Wood Construction. Development, Seismic Performance, and Design Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcoski, James; Fischer, Chad; Allison, Tim; Malach, Kelly Jo

    2002-04-01

    Shear panels are used in light wood construction to resist lateral loads resulting from earthquakes or strong winds. These panels are typically made of wooden sheathing nailed to building frame members, but this standard panel design interferes with the installation of sheet insulation. A non-insulated shear panel conducts heat between the building interior and exterior wasting considerable amounts of energy. Several alternative shear panel designs were developed to avoid this insulation-mounting problem and sample panels were tested according to standard cyclic test protocols. One of the alternative designs consisted of diagonal steel straps nailed directly to the structural framing. Several others consisted of sheathing nailed to 2 x 4 framing then set into a larger 2 x 6 structural frame in such a way that no sheathing protruded beyond the edge of the 2 x 6 members. Also samples of industry-standard shear panels were constructed and tested in order to establish a performance baseline. Analytical models were developed to size test panels and predict panel behavior. A procedure was developed for establishing design capacities based on both test data and established baseline panel design capacity. The behavior of each panel configuration is documented and recommended design capacities are presented.

  9. A medium-chain fatty acid as an alternative energy source in mouse preimplantation development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Mitsutoshi; Takanashi, Kazumi; Hamatani, Toshio; Hirayama, Akiyoshi; Akutsu, Hidenori; Fukunaga, Tomoko; Ogawa, Seiji; Sugawara, Kana; Shinoda, Kosaku; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Umezawa, Akihiro; Kuji, Naoaki; Yoshimura, Yasunori; Tomita, Masaru

    2012-01-01

    To further optimize the culturing of preimplantation embryos, we undertook metabolomic analysis of relevant culture media using capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOFMS). We detected 28 metabolites: 23 embryo-excreted metabolites including 16 amino acids and 5 media-derived metabolites (e.g., octanoate, a medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA)). Due to the lack of information on MCFAs in mammalian preimplantation development, this study examined octanoate as a potential alternative energy source for preimplantation embryo cultures. No embryos survived in culture media lacking FAs, pyruvate, and glucose, but supplementation of octanoate rescued the embryonic development. Immunoblotting showed significant expression of acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, important enzymes for ß-oxidation of MCFAs, in preimplantation embryo. Furthermore, CE-TOFMS traced [1-(13)C(8)] octanoate added to the culture media into intermediate metabolites of the TCA cycle via ß-oxidation in mitochondria. These results are the first demonstration that octanoate could provide an efficient alternative energy source throughout preimplantation development.

  10. Present status of development of alternative energy technology from environment protection point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Japan lacks fossil fuel resources. Consequently, almost all fossil fuels are imported from abroad. Therefore, change in international affairs affects on Japan's politics and social life, as learned from experience of economic social life, as learned from experience of economic confusion caused by the oil crisis of 1973. For this reason, research and development (R and D) of alternative energy technologies was initiated in July 1974, which was promoted as one of national energy development programs called Sunshine Project. Presently, their technical developments are being continued to put practical use under this project. However, Japan's dependency of primary energy resources on oil is still high among major advanced countries and energy supply structure is significantly weak. Furthermore, from indetermination of the recent political condition in the Middle East, the importance of security against supply and demand of petroleum in middle and long term is generally recognized with the increasing cost of oil

  11. Energy for sustainable development in Malaysia: Energy policy and alternative energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman Mohamed, Abdul; Lee, Keat Teong

    2006-01-01

    Energy is often known as the catalyst for development. Globally, the per capita consumption of energy is often used as a barometer to measure the level of economic development in a particular country. Realizing the importance of energy as a vital component in economic and social development, the government of Malaysia has been continuously reviewing its energy policy to ensure long-term reliability and security of energy supply. Concentrated efforts are being undertaken to ensure the sustainability of energy resources, both depletable and renewable. The aim of this paper is to describe the various energy policies adopted in Malaysia to ensure long-term reliability and security of energy supply. The role of both, non-renewable and renewable sources of energy in the current Five-Fuel Diversification Strategy energy mix will also be discussed. Apart from that, this paper will also describe the various alternative energy and the implementation of energy efficiency program in Malaysia

  12. ACACIA Project - Development of a Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Process. Case of the DMXTM Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, A.; Briot, P.; Raynal, L.; Broutin, P.; Gimenez, M.; Soazic, M.; Cessat, P.; Saysset, S.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the ACACIA project was to develop processes for post-combustion CO 2 capture at a lower cost and with a higher energetic efficiency than first generation processes using amines such as Monoethanolamine (MEA) which are now considered for the first Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) demonstrators. The partners involved in this project were: Rhodia (Solvay since then), Arkema, Lafarge, GDF SUEZ, Veolia Environnement, IFP Energies nouvelles, IRCE Lyon, LMOPS, LTIM, LSA Armines. To validate the relevance of the breakthrough processes studied in this project, techno-economic evaluations were carried out with comparison to the reference process using a 30 wt% MEA solvent. These evaluation studies involved all the industrial partners of the project, each partner bringing specific cases of CO 2 capture on their industrial facilities. From these studies, only the process using de-mixing solvent, DMX TM , developed by IFPEN appears as an alternative solution to the MEA process. (authors)

  13. Defense IRM: Alternatives Should Be Considered in Developing the New Civilian Personnel System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    ... regional centers, and attempting to improve personnel management business processes. A key part of this initiative is Defense's development of a new information management system-the Defense Civilian Personnel Data System (DCPDs...

  14. Indústrias criativas: alternativa de desenvolvimento regional | Creative industries: regional development alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Sousa Leitão

    2011-10-01

    enterprises and strengthening of the productive chain of creative industries.Thus, this study contributed to the construction of a new way of thinking about the Brazilian northeast. On the one hand, the institutionalization of the Centre for Creative Industries aims to identify the creative potential of that region; on the other, the Creative Business Bureaus aim to consolidate the supply chains of the creative industries, emphasizing the professionalization of entrepreneurs, the training of managers, the building of new skills and competencies for those involved in the creative field. It is, finally, to build and consolidate an alternative for overcoming the social backwardness and economic bias by fostering creative endeavors, where regional development is understood as a multidimensional process, involving the community steeped in history, their relations, their institutions and able to conduct their own destiny. Keywords regional development. creative economy. public policies

  15. A methodology for development of biocatalytic processes

    OpenAIRE

    Lima Ramos, Joana; Woodley, John; Tufvesson, Pär

    2013-01-01

    The potential advantages displayed by biocatalytic processes for organic synthesis (such as exquisite selectivity under mild operating conditions), have prompted the increasing number of processes running on a commercial scale. However, biocatalysis is still a fairly underutilised technology. As a relatively new technology biocatalytic processes often do not immediately fulfil the required process metrics that are key for an economically and/or environmentally competitive process at an indust...

  16. Public Marketing: An Alternative Policy Decision-Making Idea for Small Cities. Community Development Research Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, James; And Others

    The concept of public marketing presents a strategy for the systems approach to community development that would facilitate the community decision making process via improved communication. Basic aspects of the social marketing process include: (1) product policy; (2) channels of distribution; (3) pricing (perceived price vs quality and quantity…

  17. NEO-INSTITUTIONALISM AND ENDOGENOUS DEVELOPMENT AS REGIONAL ALTERNATIVE. MODERNITY AND SUBJECTIVITY, LINKING AND LOCAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mateo Bastidas-Morales

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The reconstruction of subjectivity involves overcoming criticism of individualism, utilitarianism and immediacy as the basis of society and consumer markets. Elemental is, with the addition of the individual as a subject of social action, the principal actor-oriented definition of welfare, community and local development. Obviously, the formation of human capital development. While it is imperative the state-society relationship in the context of the current modernization must also recover the principles of the community before the stressed relationship between the market-state. We intend here to link opposite the dichotomous thinking of Western rationalism, constitute an important element of social sustantivación. Along with this, the neo-institutionalism and institutional economics that questions the current neoliberal approves the participation of the state and, with new rules, can better confront the neoconservative positions. It is revalued, in the present work, interest in the new dynamics of social change in post-national or cosmopolitan side.

  18. Policy of developing alternate vehicles; La politique de developpement des vehicules alternatifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-15

    In most western cities the present-day car is by far the principal mode of transport. The wrong side of it is that automobile circulation is a source of air-pollution, noise and traffic jam, inconveniences against which public opinion shows itself more and more susceptible. Facing this situation governments in succession have since several years encouraged by different measures the development of fitted or alternative vehicles: electric, natural gas (NG) fuelled and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) vehicles. These vehicles have the advantage of responding both to pollution problem and energy diversification challenge. The present-day regulation system gathers a number of attractive provisions: - maintaining para-fiscal taxes upon gas fuels at a level much lower than for other fuels; - VAT refunding for these gas fuels and electricity consumed by vehicles of this type; - general councils can be totally or partially exonerated from automobile taxation; - assigning future green label allowing these vehicles to be excepted from traffic restrictions applied to cope with pollution peaks. Other additional advantages are provided by the law on air and rational use of energy of 30 December 1996. Merits and drawbacks of each of the mentioned types of alternative vehicles are reviewed. So, although entirely un-polluting the electric cars are not cheap and what is even more hindering is their very limited range which for current batteries does not exceed 80 km. Only little over 3000 electric vehicles were sold, a third of them to EDF. The natural gas is rather pure a fuel at burning of which the release of sulfur and solid particles are practically negligible. Due to its characteristics, the short and medium term development of this alternative seems to reside only in buses and service vehicles, the only able to support the supplementary load of high pressure gas tanks. Being formed of liquefied butane and propane at low pressure, LPG is as attractive as NG, with respect to the

  19. F- and H-Area Seepage Basins Water Treatment System Process Optimization and Alternative Chemistry Ion Exchange/Sorbent Material Screening Clearwell Overflow Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serkiz, S.M.

    2000-08-30

    This study investigated alternative ion exchange/sorbent materials and polishing chemistries designed to remove specific radionuclides not removed during the neutralization/precipitation/clarification process.

  20. Achieving partial nitrification in a novel six basins alternately operating activated sludge process treating domestic wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, Rusul Naseer; Arab, Saad; Xiwu, Lu [Southeast University, Nanjing (China)

    2013-11-15

    A novel technology was developed to achieve partial nitrification at moderately low DO and short HRT, which would save the aeration cost and have the capacity to treat a wide range of low-strength real wastewater. The process enables a relatively stable whereas nitrite accumulation rate (NO{sub 2}-AR) was stabilized over 94% in the last aerobic basin on average of each phase through a combination of short HRT and low DO level. Low DO did not produce sludge with poorer settleability. The morphology and internal structure of the granular sludge was observed by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis during a long-term operation. The images indicated that thick clusters of spherical cells and small rod-shaped cells (NOB and AOB are rod-shaped to spherical cells) were the dominant population structure, rather than filamentous and other bacteria under a combination of low DO and short HRT, which gives a good indication of nitrite accumulation achievement. MPN method was used to correlate AOB numbers with nutrient removal. It showed that an ammonia-oxidizing bacterium (AOB) was the dominant nitrifying bacteria, whereas high NO{sub 2}-AR was achieved at AOB number of 5.33x10{sup 8} cell/g MLSS. Higher pollutant removal efficiency of 86.2%, 98% and 96.1%, for TN, NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N, and TP, respectively, was achieved by a novel six basin activated sludge process (SBASP) at low DO level and low C/N ratio which were approximately equal to the complete nitrification-denitrification with the addition of sodium acetate (NaAc) at normal DO level of (1.5-2.5 mg/L)

  1. Development of Food Preservation and Processing Technologies by Radiation Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Won; Kim, Jae Hun

    2007-07-01

    To secure national food resources, development of energy-saving food processing and preservation technologies, establishment of method on improvement of national health and safety by development of alternative techniques of chemicals and foundation of the production of hygienic food and public health related products by irradiation technology were studied. Results at current stage are following: As the first cooperative venture business technically invested by National Atomic Research Development Project, institute/company's [technology-invested technology foundation No. 1] cooperative venture, Sun-BioTech Ltd., was founded and stated its business. This suggested new model for commercialization and industrialization of the research product by nation-found institute. From the notice of newly approved product list about irradiated food, radiation health related legal approval on 7 food items was achieved from the Ministry of health and wellfare, the Korea Food and Drug Administration, and this contributed the foundation of enlargement of practical use of irradiated food. As one of the foundation project for activation of radiation application technology for the sanitation and secure preservation of special food, such as military meal service, food service for patient, and food for sports, and instant food, such as ready-to-eat/ready-to-cook food, the proposal for radiation application to the major military commander at the Ministry of National Defence and the Joint Chiefs of Staff was accepted for the direction of military supply development in mid-termed plan for the development of war supply. Especially, through the preliminary research and the development of foundation technology for the development of the Korean style space food and functional space food, space Kimch with very long shelf life was finally developed. The development of new item/products for food and life science by combining RT/BT, the development of technology for the elimination/reduction of

  2. Development of Food Preservation and Processing Technologies by Radiation Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Won; Kim, Jae Hun [and others

    2007-07-15

    To secure national food resources, development of energy-saving food processing and preservation technologies, establishment of method on improvement of national health and safety by development of alternative techniques of chemicals and foundation of the production of hygienic food and public health related products by irradiation technology were studied. Results at current stage are following: As the first cooperative venture business technically invested by National Atomic Research Development Project, institute/company's [technology-invested technology foundation No. 1] cooperative venture, Sun-BioTech Ltd., was founded and stated its business. This suggested new model for commercialization and industrialization of the research product by nation-found institute. From the notice of newly approved product list about irradiated food, radiation health related legal approval on 7 food items was achieved from the Ministry of health and wellfare, the Korea Food and Drug Administration, and this contributed the foundation of enlargement of practical use of irradiated food. As one of the foundation project for activation of radiation application technology for the sanitation and secure preservation of special food, such as military meal service, food service for patient, and food for sports, and instant food, such as ready-to-eat/ready-to-cook food, the proposal for radiation application to the major military commander at the Ministry of National Defence and the Joint Chiefs of Staff was accepted for the direction of military supply development in mid-termed plan for the development of war supply. Especially, through the preliminary research and the development of foundation technology for the development of the Korean style space food and functional space food, space Kimch with very long shelf life was finally developed. The development of new item/products for food and life science by combining RT/BT, the development of technology for the elimination/reduction of

  3. Development of Food Preservation and Processing Technologies by Radiation Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Won; Kim, Jae Hun (and others)

    2007-07-15

    To secure national food resources, development of energy-saving food processing and preservation technologies, establishment of method on improvement of national health and safety by development of alternative techniques of chemicals and foundation of the production of hygienic food and public health related products by irradiation technology were studied. Results at current stage are following: As the first cooperative venture business technically invested by National Atomic Research Development Project, institute/company's [technology-invested technology foundation No. 1] cooperative venture, Sun-BioTech Ltd., was founded and stated its business. This suggested new model for commercialization and industrialization of the research product by nation-found institute. From the notice of newly approved product list about irradiated food, radiation health related legal approval on 7 food items was achieved from the Ministry of health and wellfare, the Korea Food and Drug Administration, and this contributed the foundation of enlargement of practical use of irradiated food. As one of the foundation project for activation of radiation application technology for the sanitation and secure preservation of special food, such as military meal service, food service for patient, and food for sports, and instant food, such as ready-to-eat/ready-to-cook food, the proposal for radiation application to the major military commander at the Ministry of National Defence and the Joint Chiefs of Staff was accepted for the direction of military supply development in mid-termed plan for the development of war supply. Especially, through the preliminary research and the development of foundation technology for the development of the Korean style space food and functional space food, space Kimch with very long shelf life was finally developed. The development of new item/products for food and life science by combining RT/BT, the development of technology for the elimination/reduction of

  4. Component-based development process and component lifecycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crnkovic, I.; Chaudron, M.R.V.; Larsson, S.

    2006-01-01

    The process of component- and component-based system development differs in many significant ways from the "classical" development process of software systems. The main difference is in the separation of the development process of components from the development process of systems. This fact has a

  5. CRADA Final Report for CRADA Number NFE-10-02991 "Development and Commercialization of Alternative Carbon Precursors and Conversion Technologies"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, Rober [ORNL; Paulauskas, Felix [ORNL; Naskar, Amit [ORNL; Kaufman, Michael [ORNL; Yarborough, Ken [ORNL; Derstine, Chris [The Dow Chemical Company

    2013-10-01

    The overall objective of the collaborative research performed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Dow Chemical Company under this Cooperative Research And Development Agreement (CRADA NFE-10-02991) was to develop and establish pathways to commercialize new carbon fiber precursor and conversion technology. This technology is to produce alternative polymer fiber precursor formulations as well as scaled energy-efficient advanced conversion technology to enable continuous mode conversion to obtain carbonized fibers that are technically and economically viable in industrial markets such as transportation, wind energy, infrastructure and oil drilling applications. There have been efforts in the past to produce a low cost carbon fiber. These attempts have to be interpreted against the backdrop of the market needs at the time, which were strictly military aircraft and high-end aerospace components. In fact, manufacturing costs have been reduced from those days to current practice, where both process optimization and volume production have enabled carbon fiber to become available at prices below $20/lb. However, the requirements of the lucrative aerospace market limits further price reductions from current practice. This approach is different because specific industrial applications are targeted, most specifically wind turbine blade and light vehicle transportation, where aircraft grade carbon fiber is not required. As a result, researchers are free to adjust both manufacturing process and precursor chemistry to meet the relaxed physical specifications at a lower cost. This report documents the approach and findings of this cooperative research in alternative precursors and advanced conversion for production of cost-effective carbon fiber for energy missions. Due to export control, proprietary restrictions, and CRADA protected data considerations, specific design details and processing parameters are not included in this report.

  6. What Do You Know about Alternative Energy? Development and Use of a Diagnostic Instrument for Upper Secondary School Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Irene Poh-Ai; Johari, Marliza; Said, Hardimah; Treagust, David F.

    2015-01-01

    The need for renewable and non-fossil fuels is now recognised by nations throughout the world. Consequently, an understanding of alternative energy is needed both in schools and in everyday life-long learning situations. This study developed a two-tier instrument to diagnose students' understanding and alternative conceptions about alternative…

  7. BIOGAS AS AN ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCE TO PROMOTE INDIGENOUS COMMUNITIES DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos SABORÍO VÍQUEZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The key areas that determine the food and nutrition security are: availability, access, consumption and biological utilization. For this reason it is necessary to promote the health of vulnerable groups, in this case, indigenous communities, protecting and establishing conditions to ensure the human right to food. The initial plan focuses ondeveloping facilities for small swine and poultry farms, familiar, non-commercial. The main objective of the pigs raised at the site will be the production of animal waste in order to implement digesters for the production of biogas as an alternative energy source, the production of meat stays in the background, thinking only about the community consumption and helping to ensure their food source, from this perspective, the technologies applied to rural and indigenous progress are environmentally friendly, socially just, economically viable and culturally acceptable. The theme of rural and indigenous Development is focused on their food security and the use of alternative energies, considering that energy is a key element in achieving sustainable development in all sectors, therefore sought from a broad perspective solidarity and actively promote greater and more rational use of energy and the environment in remote communities, through diversification of supply sources and efficient use, thereby contributing toenvironmental conservation and reduction of health problems through the use of appropriate technologies.

  8. [Early development of language in small children with autism spectrum disorder using alternative systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortea-Sevilla, M Sol; Escandell-Bermúdez, M Olga; Castro-Sánchez, José Juan; Martos-Pérez, Juan

    2015-02-25

    The latest research findings show the importance of early intervention in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in all areas of development, including language. The use of augmentative and alternative communication systems (AACS) favors linguistic and communicative development. To show the effectiveness of AACS to develop oral language in non-verbal toddlers diagnosed with ASD. Thirty children (25 males and 5 females) diagnosed with ASD when they were between 18 and 30 months of age, through the instruments ADOS and ADIR. None of them displayed oral language development at the time of assessment. An intervention program in the area of language was designed based on the use of total communication by the therapist and training the child in the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS). One year later, the formal aspects of language were assessed with the PLON-R because oral language had been developed. All the children had developed oral language to some extent over a one-year period. Early intervention and the use of AACS with visual props favor the development of oral language in children with ASD in the first years of life.

  9. Sustainable development of gree solvent separation process

    OpenAIRE

    Lisickov, Kiril; Fidancevska, Emilija; Grujic, Radoslav; Srebrenkoska, Vineta; Kuvendziev, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Solvents defi ne a major part of the environmental performance of processes in the chemical industry and impact on cost, safety and health issues. The idea of green solvents expresses the goal to minimize the environmental impact resulting from the use of solvents in chemical production. In spite of conventional separation methods, precise process green technologies are based on the application of modern processes and process equipment as well as control and management...

  10. An investigation of air emission levels from distinct iron and steel production processes with the adoption of pollution control and pollution prevention alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, M.M.; Schaeffer, R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate environmental aspects from different iron and steel production processes. A methodology based on material flows is developed in order to verify some air emission levels attained by Pollution Control and Pollution Prevention alternatives. The data basis for modeling energy and materials flows in iron and steel production is obtained from a literature review on different technological processes, energy and materials consumption and pollutant releases to the environmental Modeling combines both process analysis and input-output techniques to simulate the different iron and steel production routes and to estimate the resulting total atmospheric pollution releases based on air emission factors for several pollutants by each production step. Processes examined include: (1) Conventional Integrated (100% ore-based and partly scrap-based); (2) Mini-mill with EAF (100% scrap-based and partly DRI-based); and (3) New Integrated based on the COREX smelting reduction process. Among the alternatives considered for air emissions reductions are those related to Pollution Control (mainly gas cleaning systems) and to Pollution Prevention (change/reduction in input materials, operational procedures and housekeeping improvements, on-site recycling and technology innovations and modifications). Results indicate higher air pollution intensity for the Conventional Integrated Route over the Mini-mill with EAF and COREX smelting reduction processes, though pointing out that final figures are strongly affected by the systems' boundaries and the different air emission levels of each production step

  11. Intron-Mediated Alternative Splicing of WOOD-ASSOCIATED NAC TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR1B Regulates Cell Wall Thickening during Fiber Development in Populus Species1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunjun; Sun, Jiayan; Xu, Peng; Zhang, Rui; Li, Laigeng

    2014-01-01

    Alternative splicing is an important mechanism involved in regulating the development of multicellular organisms. Although many genes in plants undergo alternative splicing, little is understood of its significance in regulating plant growth and development. In this study, alternative splicing of black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) wood-associated NAC domain transcription factor (PtrWNDs), PtrWND1B, is shown to occur exclusively in secondary xylem fiber cells. PtrWND1B is expressed with a normal short-transcript PtrWND1B-s as well as its alternative long-transcript PtrWND1B-l. The intron 2 structure of the PtrWND1B gene was identified as a critical sequence that causes PtrWND1B alternative splicing. Suppression of PtrWND1B expression specifically inhibited fiber cell wall thickening. The two PtrWND1B isoforms play antagonistic roles in regulating cell wall thickening during fiber cell differentiation in Populus spp. PtrWND1B-s overexpression enhanced fiber cell wall thickening, while overexpression of PtrWND1B-l repressed fiber cell wall thickening. Alternative splicing may enable more specific regulation of processes such as fiber cell wall thickening during wood formation. PMID:24394777

  12. Intron-mediated alternative splicing of WOOD-ASSOCIATED NAC TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR1B regulates cell wall thickening during fiber development in Populus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunjun; Sun, Jiayan; Xu, Peng; Zhang, Rui; Li, Laigeng

    2014-02-01

    Alternative splicing is an important mechanism involved in regulating the development of multicellular organisms. Although many genes in plants undergo alternative splicing, little is understood of its significance in regulating plant growth and development. In this study, alternative splicing of black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) wood-associated NAC domain transcription factor (PtrWNDs), PtrWND1B, is shown to occur exclusively in secondary xylem fiber cells. PtrWND1B is expressed with a normal short-transcript PtrWND1B-s as well as its alternative long-transcript PtrWND1B-l. The intron 2 structure of the PtrWND1B gene was identified as a critical sequence that causes PtrWND1B alternative splicing. Suppression of PtrWND1B expression specifically inhibited fiber cell wall thickening. The two PtrWND1B isoforms play antagonistic roles in regulating cell wall thickening during fiber cell differentiation in Populus spp. PtrWND1B-s overexpression enhanced fiber cell wall thickening, while overexpression of PtrWND1B-l repressed fiber cell wall thickening. Alternative splicing may enable more specific regulation of processes such as fiber cell wall thickening during wood formation.

  13. Development And Testing Of Biogas-Petrol Blend As An Alternative Fuel For Spark Ignition Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awogbemi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This research is on the development and testing of a biogas-petrol blend to run a spark ignition engine. A2080 ratio biogaspetrol blend was developed as an alternative fuel for spark ignition engine test bed. Petrol and biogas-petrol blend were comparatively tested on the test bed to determine the effectiveness of the fuels. The results of the tests showed that biogas petrol blend generated higher torque brake power indicated power brake thermal efficiency and brake mean effective pressure but lower fuel consumption and exhaust temperature than petrol. The research concluded that a spark ignition engine powered by biogas-petrol blend was found to be economical consumed less fuel and contributes to sanitation and production of fertilizer.

  14. Alternative input medium development for wheelchair user with severe spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihsan, Izzat Aqmar; Tomari, Razali; Zakaria, Wan Nurshazwani Wan; Othman, Nurmiza

    2017-09-01

    Quadriplegia or tetraplegia patients have restricted four limbs as well as torso movement caused by severe spinal cord injury. Undoubtedly, these patients face difficulties when operating their powered electric wheelchair since they are unable to control the wheelchair by means of a standard joystick. Due to total loss of both sensory and motor function of the four limbs and torso, an alternative input medium for the wheelchair will be developed to assist the user in operating the wheelchair. In this framework, the direction of the wheelchair movement is determined by the user's conscious intent through a brain control interface (BCI) based on Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal. A laser range finder (LFR) is used to perceive environment information for determining a safety distance of the wheelchair's surrounding. Local path planning algorithm will be developed to provide navigation planner along with user's input to prevent collision during control operation.

  15. RANCANG ULANG MESIN FERMENTASI ROTI DENGAN PENDEKATAN REKAYASA NILAI DAN ANALITICAL HIRARCHY PROCESS DIGUNAKAN SEBAGAI PEMBOBOTAN ALTERNATIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakam Muzakki

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dalam makalah ini dibahas mengenai rekayasa ulang mesin fermentasi dengan beberapa alternatif rancangan dan komponen untuk meningkatkan kinerja dari mesin, serta juga dibahas mengenai analisa biaya dari masing-masin rancangan sehingga harga dari mesin yang baru lebih terjangkau oleh home industri. Agar pembahasan makalah ini lebih fokus maka studi kasus dilakukan pada perusahaan home industri roti UD XYZ di kabupaten Bangkalan. Metode dan teknik yang digunakan dalam merancang ulang mesin fermentasi roti pada home industry UD XYZ dengan pendekatan rekayasa nilai, sistem pakar dipergunakan untuk langkah informasi, langkah kreative, dan penetuan kriteria dan pembobotan. fishbone diagram dan Pareto diagram dipergunakan untuk tahap identifikasi dan kreative. AHP dipergunakan untuk pembobotan dan penentuan kriteria atau alternatif. Alternatif 1 merupakan rancangan yang paling baik dibandingkan dengan alternatif-alternatif yang lain, dan mempunyai kinerja hampir dua kali lipat dibandingkan dengan mesin awal. Kata kunci : mesin fermentasi roti, rekayasa nilai, analitical hyrarchy process   Abstract This paper is discussed about redesign fermentation machine by some design alternatives and componens to improve performance of machine, it is also explained about cost analysis each design so the price of machine is cheaper so the home industries can buy it. To focuse, this paper has token in a home indutry. It is UD XYZ in Bangkalan distric. Teknique and method has been used to redesign fermentation cake at the home industry UD XYZ by value engineering, expert system is used to information stage, creative stage, and criteria decission stage and wight. Fishbone diagram and pareto diagram are used to identification and creative stage. AHP is used to wight and creative or alternative decission. Alternative 1, one of some alternative, is the best alternative when compared with another and it has more than the old machine. Keyword : baerd fermentation machine

  16. Alternative co-digestion scenarios for efficient fixed-dome reactor biomethanation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotidis, Ioannis; Laranjeiro, Tiago; Angelidaki, Irini

    2016-01-01

    where low-tech reactors have been abandoned. Thus, the aims of this study were: a) to identify and evaluate alternative biomasses as anaerobic digestion substrates at a remote rural area site in India; b) to propose an efficient continuous biomethanation scenario for low-tech reactors; c) to assess......-digestion scenario with 45% and 13% higher energy recovery from biomasses' utilization and 69% and 25% less greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, compared to R30 and R45, respectively. These results indicate that it is possible to operate efficiently low-tech biogas reactors with utilized biomasses as anaerobic digestion...

  17. BENCH SCALE SALTSTONE PROCESS DEVELOPMENT MIXING STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzi, A.; Hansen, E.

    2011-08-03

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to develop a bench scale test facility, using a mixer, transfer pump, and transfer line to determine the impact of conveying the grout through the transfer lines to the vault on grout properties. Bench scale testing focused on the effect the transfer line has on the rheological property of the grout as it was processed through the transfer line. Rheological and other physical properties of grout samples were obtained prior to and after pumping through a transfer line. The Bench Scale Mixing Rig (BSMR) consisted of two mixing tanks, grout feed tank, transfer pump and transfer hose. The mixing tanks were used to batch the grout which was then transferred into the grout feed tank. The contents of the feed tank were then pumped through the transfer line (hose) using a progressive cavity pump. The grout flow rate and pump discharge pressure were monitored. Four sampling stations were located along the length of the transfer line at the 5, 105 and 205 feet past the transfer pump and at 305 feet, the discharge of the hose. Scaling between the full scale piping at Saltstone to bench scale testing at SRNL was performed by maintaining the same shear rate and total shear at the wall of the transfer line. The results of scaling down resulted in a shorter transfer line, a lower average velocity, the same transfer time and similar pressure drops. The condition of flow in the bench scale transfer line is laminar. The flow in the full scale pipe is in the transition region, but is more laminar than turbulent. The resulting plug in laminar flow in the bench scale results in a region of no-mixing. Hence mixing, or shearing, at the bench scale should be less than that observed in the full scale, where this plug is non existent due to the turbulent flow. The bench scale tests should be considered to be conservative due to the highly laminar condition of flow that exists. Two BSMR runs were performed. In both cases, wall

  18. Selection of the Best Wastewater Treatment Alternative for RIPI Based on Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP and Expert Choice Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    faramarz Tarkian

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available RIPI as one of the largest and most important research centers in Iran is located in zone 22 of Tehran municipality. According to the environmental priorities in the region taking all necessary measures to control pollution sources is necessary. In this paper, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP method is used for the selection of the best wastewater treatment method for RIPI. For this purpose four alternatives including SBR, Extended aeration activated sludge, Rotating MBR, Fix MBR were evaluated. These alternatives were weighted by four main criteria: Environment, Economic, Technical, Management and the defined sub-criteria ,then paired compared with respect to any form of wastewater treatment alternatives and ultimately the results was evaluated by Expert Choice software. The evaluation results indicate that Rotating MBR was the most suitable alternative of wastewater treatment method for RIPI. After the Rotating MBR, the Fix MBR, SBR and Extended activated sludge were considered suitable respectively. Degree of inconsistency is equal to 0.07, indicating that the number of paired comparisons is consistent.

  19. Simulation Modeling of Software Development Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calavaro, G. F.; Basili, V. R.; Iazeolla, G.

    1996-01-01

    A simulation modeling approach is proposed for the prediction of software process productivity indices, such as cost and time-to-market, and the sensitivity analysis of such indices to changes in the organization parameters and user requirements. The approach uses a timed Petri Net and Object Oriented top-down model specification. Results demonstrate the model representativeness, and its usefulness in verifying process conformance to expectations, and in performing continuous process improvement and optimization.

  20. Alternative method of highway traffic safety analysis for developing countries using delphi technique and Bayesian network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbakwe, Anthony C; Saka, Anthony A; Choi, Keechoo; Lee, Young-Jae

    2016-08-01

    Highway traffic accidents all over the world result in more than 1.3 million fatalities annually. An alarming number of these fatalities occurs in developing countries. There are many risk factors that are associated with frequent accidents, heavy loss of lives, and property damage in developing countries. Unfortunately, poor record keeping practices are very difficult obstacle to overcome in striving to obtain a near accurate casualty and safety data. In light of the fact that there are numerous accident causes, any attempts to curb the escalating death and injury rates in developing countries must include the identification of the primary accident causes. This paper, therefore, seeks to show that the Delphi Technique is a suitable alternative method that can be exploited in generating highway traffic accident data through which the major accident causes can be identified. In order to authenticate the technique used, Korea, a country that underwent similar problems when it was in its early stages of development in addition to the availability of excellent highway safety records in its database, is chosen and utilized for this purpose. Validation of the methodology confirms the technique is suitable for application in developing countries. Furthermore, the Delphi Technique, in combination with the Bayesian Network Model, is utilized in modeling highway traffic accidents and forecasting accident rates in the countries of research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Maritime Content in Indonesian History Education: The Development and Alternative Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasino Wasino

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available For a long time ago, Indonesia was identified as maritime country. The collective memory remembered from several islands in Indonesia shows that Indonesia is a large maritime space. The original name of the country was Nusantara, (called archipelago in English. From historical data in some location, there are some evidences about the glorious of the maritime kingdom in the continent. However, maritime perspective is not to be ‘important issue” in the mind of Indonesian people nowadays. History education makes an important rule at the moment. Indonesian independence needs history education based on political perspective, especially to enhance nationalism. The orientation is continued until the New Order, and it is especially focused on the rule of Indonesia military. Reformation since 1998 should make democratization in Indonesian history teaching, but the reality, the tradition of writer in history education, was still stagnant. The content of maritime history in Indonesian History Education still become a big problem. This paper aims to analyze the development of the maritime content in Indonesian History education at school and to give the new alternative in teaching history based on maritime content. The alternative curriculum based on local competitiveness in maritime history related with regional and global region, is the best solution for it.

  2. Developing a Hierarchical Decision Model to Evaluate Nuclear Power Plant Alternative Siting Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingga, Marwan Mossa

    A strong trend of returning to nuclear power is evident in different places in the world. Forty-five countries are planning to add nuclear power to their grids and more than 66 nuclear power plants are under construction. Nuclear power plants that generate electricity and steam need to improve safety to become more acceptable to governments and the public. One novel practical solution to increase nuclear power plants' safety factor is to build them away from urban areas, such as offshore or underground. To date, Land-Based siting is the dominant option for siting all commercial operational nuclear power plants. However, the literature reveals several options for building nuclear power plants in safer sitings than Land-Based sitings. The alternatives are several and each has advantages and disadvantages, and it is difficult to distinguish among them and choose the best for a specific project. In this research, we recall the old idea of using the alternatives of offshore and underground sitings for new nuclear power plants and propose a tool to help in choosing the best siting technology. This research involved the development of a decision model for evaluating several potential nuclear power plant siting technologies, both those that are currently available and future ones. The decision model was developed based on the Hierarchical Decision Modeling (HDM) methodology. The model considers five major dimensions, social, technical, economic, environmental, and political (STEEP), and their related criteria and sub-criteria. The model was designed and developed by the author, and its elements' validation and evaluation were done by a large number of experts in the field of nuclear energy. The decision model was applied in evaluating five potential siting technologies and ranked the Natural Island as the best in comparison to Land-Based, Floating Plant, Artificial Island, and Semi-Embedded plant.

  3. Africa energy future: Alternative scenarios and their implications for sustainable development strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouedraogo, Nadia S.

    2017-01-01

    The long-term forecasting of energy supply and demand is of prime importance in Africa due to the steady increase in energy requirements, the non-availability of sufficient resources, the high dependence on fossil-fuels to meet these requirements, and the global concerns over the energy-induced environmental issues. This paper is concerned with modelling possible future paths for Africa's energy future and the related emissions. Future energy demand is forecasted based on socio-economic variables such as gross domestic product, income per capita, population, and urbanisation. The Long-range Energy Alternative Planning System (LEAP) modelling framework is employed to analyse and project energy demand and the related emissions under alternative strategies for the period of 2010–2040. Results of scenarios including business-as-usual (BAU) policies, moderate energy access and accelerate energy access policies, renewable energies promotion and energy efficiency policies and their environmental implications are provided. The study provides some policy insights and identifies synergies and trade-offs relating to the potential for energy policies to promote universal energy access, enable a transition to renewable energy, and mitigate climate change for a sustainable development. - Highlights: • Possible future paths for Africa's energy future and the related emissions are modelled. • Scenarios using an adaptation of Schwartz's scenario approach, under LEAP are developed. • Under the current energy policies, the universal access to modern energy will not be met by 2030. • Policies to accelerate the changes in energy structure are required for sustainable development. • Investing in Energy efficient strategies has emerged as one of the best solution.

  4. A methodological framework for the development of feasible CO2 conversion processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roh, Kosan; Lee, Jay H.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-01-01

    combined reforming (CR) of methane reaction is developed. To supply the CO2 feedstock, the aMDEA-based CO2 capture applied to a SMR-based H2 plant is considered. A baseline process is developed and is compared with a non-CO2 utilizing conventional methanol plant (process substitution) and a gasoline...... that the feasibility of the CO2-based methanol as an alternative fuel to gasoline highly depends on the type and price of the raw materials. To improve the developed baseline CO2 conversion process further, (1) some of the combined reforming reaction related design variables are fine-tuned using a sensitivity analysis...

  5. The Skill Development Processes of Apprenticeship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolek, Francis W.

    1999-01-01

    Case studies of apprenticeship in the Japanese tea ceremony, traditional crafts, and strategic thinking illustrate novices' growth in internal knowledge through reflective practice of skilled processes. As skilled experts, adult educators are engaged in continually improving the skilled processes they model. (SK)

  6. Development and design of a cementation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicente, R.

    1986-01-01

    The conceptual design of a facility for the immobilization of intermediate level liquid waste in cement is presented. The cementation process adopted a vibration assisted mixing process. The solidified waste is packed in 200 litres drum with barite concrete lining. The waste package is classified as Type A package for transport. (Author) [pt

  7. Development and design of a cementation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicente, R.

    1987-01-01

    The conceptual design of a facility for the immobilization of intermediate-level liquid wastes in cement is presented. The cementation process adopted a vibration assisted mixing process. The solidified waste is packed in 200 litres drum with barite concrete lining. The waste package is classified as Type A package for transport. (Author) [pt

  8. Developing Cultural Differences in Face Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, David J.; Liu, Shaoying; Rodger, Helen; Miellet, Sebastien; Ge, Liezhong; Caldara, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Perception and eye movements are affected by culture. Adults from Eastern societies (e.g. China) display a disposition to process information "holistically," whereas individuals from Western societies (e.g. Britain) process information "analytically." Recently, this pattern of cultural differences has been extended to face…

  9. Exploring Critical Alternatives for Youth Development through Lifestyle Sport: Surfing and Community Development in Aotearoa/New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Wheaton

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available While competition-based team sports remain dominant in community and sport-for-development programs, researchers are exploring the value of alternative, less “sportized” activities such as lifestyle/action sports. In this paper, we explore the ways in which surfing is being used in development programs in Aotearoa/New Zealand, examining the perceived social benefits and impact. Our methods involved: (a mapping the range of surfing projects; and (b 8 in-depth interviews with program personnel. Widespread conviction in the positive developmental benefits of surfing was evident, and that surfing had a “special” capacity to reform or heal those who participate in it. However, the ways in which individuals’ self-developments were promoted appear to be following the traditional sport/youth development path. They focus on policies aimed at improved life chances, equipping youth with the tools for self-improvement and self-management, inculcating self-governance and self-reliance. However, a counter narrative co-existed, highlighting surfing as a freeing experience, which, rather than restoring social order, works to instigate a personal transformation or awakening. Despite the range of challenges presented by surfing as a tool for positive development, surfing presents a potentially “critical alternative” which if sport-for-development programs are to be a form of social change, we should remain open to exploring.

  10. Environmental assessment of alternative pasteurization technologies for fluid milk production using process simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluid milk processing (FMP) has significant environmental impact because of its high energy use. High temperature short time (HTST) pasteurization is the third most energy intensive operation comprising about 16% of total energy use, after clean-in-place operations and packaging. Nonthermal processe...

  11. SINTERING, A PROCESS OF METAL FORMING AS AN ECONOMIC ALTERNATIVE WITH A LOW ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Silvio Machado Rodríguez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sintering is a process of metal forming using metal powders, and it has a wide range of applications including for example, the manufacturing of parts for automotive components, home appliances, cutting tools, power tools, for the manufacturing of dental devices, among others. The process is characterized by the production of large-scale low cost parts and has a low environmental impact compared to other existing technologies, it requires less energy for processing and enables high utilization of raw materials. Also, it has the characteristic of obtaining, in most cases, the parts with final tolerances necessary for direct use by the customer, which ultimately reduces considerably the cost of production. The process is characterized by minimizing the loss of raw materials; facilitating precise control of the desired chemical composition; eliminating or reducing machining operations; providing a good surface finish; being an easy production process of automation; obtaining high purity; and ensuring exactly resistance characteristics required for each project.

  12. Alternative Processes for Manufacturing of Metal Oxide-based Potentiometric Chemosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winfried VONAU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available New possibilities for the preparation of partially selective redox electrodes based on passivated metals of the subgroups IV to VI of the periodic system are presented by the example of vanadium. The gas phase oxidation at controlled oxygen partial pressures (CPO and the pulsed laser deposition (PLD as an high-vacuum method are utilised as alternative methods beside the well- established chemical and electrochemical passivation which usually lead to the highest possible oxidation state of the passivated metal. These newly available methods enable in principle the tailoring of oxidation states in the sensitive layer and therefore the optimisation of the electrochemical sensitivity and selectivity of sensors equipped with it. The use of vanadium as basic electrode material is crucial because it shows in several matrices a remarkable corrosion susceptibility. This problem can be solved by the introduction of stable alloys with high vanadium contents. These materials can be efficiently produced by pulsed laser deposition (PLD.

  13. An alternative analytical formulation for the Voigt function applied to resonant effects in nuclear processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palma, Daniel A.P.; Goncalves, Alessandro da C; Martinez, Aquilino S.

    2011-01-01

    The Voigt function H(a,v) is defined as the convolution of the Gaussian and Lorentzian functions. Recent papers puplished in different areas of physics emphasize the importance of the fast and accurate calculation of the Voigt function for different orders of magnitude of variables a and v. An alternative analytical formulation for the Voigt function is proposed in this paper. This formulation is based on the solution of the non-homogeneous ordinary differential equation, satisfied by the Voigt function, using the Frobenius and parameter variation methods. The functional form of the Voigt function, as proposed, proved simple and precise. Systematic tests are accomplished demonstrating some advantages with other existent methods in the literature and with the numeric method of reference.

  14. An alternative analytical formulation for the Voigt function applied to resonant effects in nuclear processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palma, Daniel A.P., E-mail: dpalmaster@gmail.com [CNEN-Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, 22290-901, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Goncalves, Alessandro da C; Martinez, Aquilino S. [COPPE/UFRJ-Programa de Engenharia Nuclear, 21941-972, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2011-10-21

    The Voigt function H(a,v) is defined as the convolution of the Gaussian and Lorentzian functions. Recent papers puplished in different areas of physics emphasize the importance of the fast and accurate calculation of the Voigt function for different orders of magnitude of variables a and v. An alternative analytical formulation for the Voigt function is proposed in this paper. This formulation is based on the solution of the non-homogeneous ordinary differential equation, satisfied by the Voigt function, using the Frobenius and parameter variation methods. The functional form of the Voigt function, as proposed, proved simple and precise. Systematic tests are accomplished demonstrating some advantages with other existent methods in the literature and with the numeric method of reference.

  15. Emission characteristics in solution-processed asymmetric white alternating current field-induced polymer electroluminescent devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yonghua; Xia, Yingdong; Smith, Gregory M.; Gu, Yu; Yang, Chuluo; Carroll, David L.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the emission characteristics of a blue fluorophor poly(9, 9-dioctylfluorene) (PFO) combined with a red emitting dye: Bis(2-methyl-dibenzo[f,h]quinoxaline)(acetylacetonate)iridium (III) [Ir(MDQ)2(acac)], are examined in two different asymmetric white alternating current field-induced polymer electroluminescent (FIPEL) device structures. The first is a top-contact device in which the triplet transfer is observed resulting in the concentration-dependence of the emission similar to the standard organic light-emitting diode (OLED) structure. The second is a bottom-contact device which, however, exhibits concentration-independence of emission. Specifically, both dye emission and polymer emission are found for the concentrations as high as 10% by weight of the dye in the emitter. We attribute this to the significant different carrier injection characteristics of the two FIPEL devices. Our results suggest a simple and easy way to realize high-quality white emission.

  16. Batching alternatives for Phase I retrieval wastes to be processed in WRAP Module 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayancsik, B.A.

    1994-01-01

    During the next two decades, the transuranic (TRU) waste now stored in the 200 Area burial trenches and storage buildings is to be retrieved, processed in the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 1 facility, and shipped to a final disposal facility. The purpose of this document is to identify the criteria that can be used to batch suspect TRU waste, currently in retrievable storage, for processing through the WRAP Module 1 facility. These criteria are then used to generate a batch plan for Phase 1 Retrieval operations, which will retrieve the waste located in Trench 4C-04 of the 200 West Area burial ground. The reasons for batching wastes for processing in WRAP Module 1 include reducing the exposure of workers and the environment to hazardous material and ionizing radiation; maximizing the efficiency of the retrieval, processing, and disposal processes by reducing costs, time, and space throughout the process; reducing analytical sampling and analysis; and reducing the amount of cleanup and decontamination between process runs. The criteria selected for batching the drums of retrieved waste entering WRAP Module 1 are based on the available records for the wastes sent to storage as well as knowledge of the processes that generated these wastes. The batching criteria identified in this document include the following: waste generator; type of process used to generate or package the waste; physical waste form; content of hazardous/dangerous chemicals in the waste; radiochemical type and quantity of waste; drum weight; and special waste types. These criteria were applied to the waste drums currently stored in Trench 4C-04. At least one batching scheme is shown for each of the criteria listed above

  17. Sodium hypochlorite as an alternative to hydrogen peroxide in Fenton process for industrial scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behin, Jamshid; Akbari, Abbas; Mahmoudi, Mohsen; Khajeh, Mehdi

    2017-09-15

    In present work, the treatment of aromatic compounds of simulated wastewater was performed by Fenton and NaOCl/Fe 2+ processes. The model solution was prepared based on the wastewater composition of Diisocyanate unit of Karoon Petrochemical Company/Iran containing Diamino-toluenes, Nitro-phenol, Mononitro-toluene, Nitro-cresol, and Dinitro-toluene. Experiments were conducted in a batch mode to examine the effects of operating variables such as pH, oxidant dosages, ferrous ion concentration and numbers of feeding on COD removal. Taguchi experimental design was used to determine the optimum conditions. The COD removal efficiency under optimum conditions (suggested by Taguchi design) in Fenton and NaOCl/Fe 2+ processes was 88.7% and 83.4%, respectively. The highest contribution factor in Fenton process belongs to pH (47.47%) and in NaOCl/Fe 2+ process belongs to NaOCl/pollutants (50.26%). High regression coefficient (R 2 : 0.98) obtained for Taguchi method, indicates that models are statistically significant and are in well agreement with each other. The NaOCl/Fe 2+ process utilizing a conventional oxidant, in comparison to hydrogen peroxide, is an efficient cost effective process for COD removal from real wastewater, although the removal efficiency is not as high as in Fenton process; however it is a suitable process to replace Fenton process in industrial scale for wastewater involved aromatic compounds with high COD. This process was successfully applied in Karoon Petrochemical Company/Iran. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 20 CFR 641.930 - Is there an alternative dispute resolution process that may be used in place of an OALJ hearing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Is there an alternative dispute resolution... EMPLOYMENT PROGRAM Grievance Procedures and Appeals Process § 641.930 Is there an alternative dispute resolution process that may be used in place of an OALJ hearing? (a) Parties to a complaint that has been...

  19. A Review on the Development of Gravitational Water Vortex Power Plant as Alternative Renewable Energy Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M. M.; Tan, J. H.; Fadzlita, M. T.; Khairul Muzammil, A. R. Wan

    2017-07-01

    Gravitational water vortex power plant is a green technology that generates electricity from alternative or renewable energy source. In the vortex power plant, water is introduced into a circular basin tangentially that creates a free vortex and energy is extracted from the free vortex by using a turbine. The main advantages of this type of power plant is the generation of electricity from ultra-low hydraulic pressure and it is also environmental friendly. Since the hydraulic head requirement is as low as 1m, this type of power plant can be installed at a river or a stream to generate electricity for few houses. It is a new and not well-developed technology to harvest electricity from low pressure water energy sources. There are limited literatures available on the design, fabrication and physical geometry of the vortex turbine and generator. Past researches focus on the optimization of turbine design, inlets, outlets and basin geometry. However, there are still insufficient literatures available for the technology to proceed beyond prototyping stage. The maximum efficiency obtained by the researchers are approximately 30% while the commercial companies claimed about 50% of efficiency with 500W to 20kW of power generated. Hence, the aim of this paper is to determine the gap in the vortex power plant technology development through past works and a set of research recommendations will be developed as efforts to accelerate the development of GWVPP.

  20. Aspects of Sino-Japan Complementary and Alternative Medicine and Development on the Traditional Uighur Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusup, Abdiryim

    2009-01-01

    Two consecutive conferences on ‘Sino-Japan Complementary and Alternative Medicine and Development on the Traditional Uighur Medicine’ were held in Xinjiang Medical University on July 3 and Kanazawa Medical University on October 6, 2007. The Vice president Halmurat Upur presided over the meeting and gave congratulatory address on holding of the conference. In order to understand mutually and discuss the possibility of the Uighur Medicine as CAM and the situation of medicine in the global sense, specialist scholars of Traditional Uighur Medicine and postgraduates attended this conference. In the meeting of the CAM, the achievements on the research of Traditional Uighur Medicine were exchanged and warmly discussed. Presentations were made in the consecutive conference. PMID:19470524

  1. Alternative possibilities of development in the power economy of the FRG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rath-Nagel, S.

    1975-06-01

    In the investigation presented here, problem areas of the energy supply as reserves, reliability of supply, environmental pollution and investment and financial questions are discussed. The author tries to represent quantitatively the boundary conditions of our energy supply system and the cause-effect relations determining the energy market. For the Federal Republic of Germany a simulation model consisting of coupled differential equations is developed, which is able to demonstrate the variations of the energy economic structure of supply and demand under various external conditions. There is in particular a close analysis of the strength of feedback between energy consumption and economic growth, the effects of various modes of supply under abnormal conditions and of realizable alternative supply patterns during the investigatory period. (orig.) [de

  2. Software Development Process Improvement in Datacom Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Trabelsi, Walid

    2008-01-01

    Masteroppgave i Informasjons- og Kommunikasjonsteknologi 2008, Universitetet i Agder, Grimstad Ericsson Mobile Platform (EMP) is responsible of the development of a software platform and also to some extend responsible for related hardware parts. EMP is developing the data communication parts of the platform which is used by EMP customers. The platform development is done in large development programs and each program span over a quite a long time period. However, as we see eve...

  3. Purifying, concentrating and anhydriding bio-ethanol: Alternative process schemes and innovative separation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerreri, G.; Lovati, A.

    1992-01-01

    Starting with the conventional process scheme for bio-ethanol production, this paper illustrates how the anhydriding section, which incorporates an azeotropic distillation process, can be conveniently substituted with a plate and frame pervaporation process which makes use of optimum heat exchange with the stripping section. This technical feasibility study, which proves the superior energy efficiency of the pervaporation scheme as compared with the conventional scheme, is followed by a cost benefit analysis which evidences the economic benefits also to be had with pervaporation

  4. New progressive technology of flat gears processing development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Михайло Володимирович Маргуліс

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Relevant scientific and technical problems in relation to mechanical engineering is development of new technological processes that make it possible to achieve high accuracy and durability of machine parts that meet the requirements imposed on them. So it is important to develop a new method to make a flat gear teeth by plastic deformation of the ingot. The article deals with the actual problem of improving productivity and quality of plane wheels teeth that are widely used in advanced wave, planetary and other transmissions. A progressive method to produce flat gear teeth gear by plastic deformation of the ingot with two knurl rollers alternately moving reciprocally in the direction not intersecting the axis of the ingot mounting surface has been described in the article. The working surface of the rollers corresponds to the resulting shape of the teeth. The schemes of the teeth installing and knurling have been shown. The necessary material and the heat treatment of the knurling tools have been described. Its use will significantly increase the wear resistance of the working surfaces of the teeth and their durability as well as to increase productivity and its manufacturing costs. The material of the rollers is BC15steel. The surface layer of the knurling tools was subjected to nitration, surface hardness being up to 65 HRC. Knurling is made in the5236P shaper suited for this purpose

  5. Developments in quantum information processing by nuclear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    qubits, the 2n energy levels of the spin-system can be treated as an n-qubit system. ... Quantum information processing; qubit; nuclear magnetic resonance quantum comput- ing. ..... The equilibrium spectrum has theoretical intensities in the ra-.

  6. Site-wide remedial alternative development in Bear Creek Valley, Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.

    1995-07-01

    This paper presents a case study of an environmental restoration project at a major mixed waste site that poses unique challenges to remediation efforts. Bear Creek Valley is located immediately west of the Y-12 Plant on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The Y-12 Plant was built in 1943 as part of the Manhattan Project, with its original mission being electromagnetic separation of uranium. Since being completed, the Y-12 Plant has also been used for chemical processing of uranium and lithium compounds as well as precision fabrication of components containing these and other materials. Wastes containing radionuclides, metals, chlorinated solvents, oils, coolants, polychlorinated biphenyis (PCBs), and others were disposed of in large quantities at Bear Creek Valley as a result of manufacturing operations at the Y-12 Plant. The Bear Creek Valley feasibility study is using innovative strategies to efficiently and thoroughly consider the information available regarding Bear Creek Valley and process options that could be combined into its remedial alternatives

  7. Information Processing Approaches to Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    Craik . F.I.M., & Lockhart , R.S. (1972). Levels of processing : A framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 11...task at both levels of performance, then one would, in both cases, postulate systems that had the ability to process symbols at the microscopic level ...821760s and early 70s. (cf. Atkinson & Shiffrin. 1968: Craik & Lockhart . 1972: Norman, Rumelhart, & LNR, 1975). This architecture is comprised of several

  8. GREENER CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN ALTERNATIVES ARE REVEALED USING THE WASTE REDUCTION DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM (WAR DSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Waste Reduction Decision Support System (WAR DSS) is a Java-based software product providing comprehensive modeling of potential adverse environmental impacts (PEI) predicted to result from newly designed or redesigned chemical manufacturing processes. The purpose of this so...

  9. 24 CFR 3288.105 - Time when Alternative Process is available.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., commercial carrier, or fax by the screening neutral, in accordance with § 3288.30. If within 7 days of the... may invoke the Mediation and Arbitration Process in the HUD Manufactured Home Dispute Resolution...

  10. The alternative strategies of the development of the nuclear power industry in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goverdovskii, A. A.; Kalyakin, S. G.; Rachkov, V. I.

    2014-05-01

    This paper emphasizes the urgency of scientific-and-technical and sociopolitical problems of the modern nuclear power industry without solving of which the transition from local nuclear power systems now in operation to a large-scale nuclear power industry would be impossible. The existing concepts of the longterm strategy of the development of the nuclear power industry have been analyzed. On the basis of the scenarios having been developed it was shown that the most promising alternative is the orientation towards the closed nuclear fuel cycle with fast neutron reactors (hereinafter referred to as fast reactors) that would meet the requirements on the acceptable safety. It was concluded that the main provisions of "The Strategy of the Development of the Nuclear Power Industry of Russia for the First Half of the 21st Century" approved by the Government of the Russian Federation in the year 2000 remain the same at present as well, although they require to be elaborated with due regard for new realities in the market for fossil fuels, the state of both the Russian and the world economy, as well as tightening of requirements related to safe operation of nuclear power stations (NPSs) (for example, after the severe accident at the Fukushima nuclear power station, Japan) and nonproliferation of nuclear weapons.

  11. Customer Involvement in the Game Development Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaja Prystupa-Rządca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The creative industry is a fast developing sector of economy in many countries. Growing competition in this area has led many companies to implement strategy of users' involvement in product development in order to deliver products that are more aligned with customers’ needs. On the other hand, the attempt to align the customers’ expectations with artistic creativity may create tensions. Therefore, the aim of the research is to examine the methods of users’ involvement in product development and real impact of the users on project design. The obtained findings are based on two-year qualitative research project conducted in game development companies.

  12. Americium-curium vitrification process development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellinger, A.P.; Baich, M.A.; Hardy, B.J

    1999-01-01

    The successful demonstration of sequentially drying, calcining and vitrifying an oxalate slurry in the Drain Tube Test Stand (DTTS) vessel provided the process basis for testing on a larger scale in a cylindrical induction heated melter. A single processing issue, that of batch volume expansion, was encountered during the initial stage of testing. The increase in batch volume centered on a sintered frit cap and high temperature bubble formation. The formation of a sintered frit cap expansion was eliminated with the use of cullet. Volume expansions due to high temperature bubble formation (oxygen liberation from cerium reduction) were mitigated in the DTTS melter vessel through a vessel temperature profile that effectively separated the softening point of the glass cullet and the evolving oxygen from cerium reduction. An increased processing temperature of 1,470 C and a two hour hold time to find any remaining bubbles successfully reduced bubbles in the poured glass to an acceptable level. The success of the preliminary process demonstrations provided a workable process basis that was directly applicable to the newly installed Cylindrical Induction Melter (CIM) system, making the batch flowsheet the preferred option for vitrification of the americium-curium surrogate feed stream

  13. Alternative crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreasen, L.M.; Boon, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    Surplus cereal production in the EEC and decreasing product prices, mainly for cereals, has prompted considerable interest for new earnings in arable farming. The objective was to examine whether suggested new crops (fibre, oil, medicinal and alternative grains crops) could be considered as real alternatives. Whether a specific crop can compete economically with cereals and whether there is a market demand for the crop is analyzed. The described possibilities will result in ca. 50,000 hectares of new crops. It is expected that they would not immediately provide increased earnings, but in the long run expected price developments are more positive than for cereals. The area for new crops will not solve the current surplus cereal problem as the area used for new crops is only 3% of that used for cereals. Preconditions for many new crops is further research activities and development work as well as the establishment of processing units and organizational initiatives. Presumably, it is stated, there will then be a basis for a profitable production of new crops for some farmers. (AB) (47 refs.)

  14. Developing alternative resources of rare earth elements in Europe - EURARE and the red mud challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deady, Eimear; Mouchos, Evangelos; Goodenough, Kathryn; Wall, Frances; Williamson, Ben

    2015-04-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) are considered to be highly "critical" by the European Commission [1], owing to the concentration of global supply [2] and their use in a wide range of emerging technologies (e.g. smart phones, electric cars and wind turbines). The main source of REE is the mineral bastnäsite, which is primarily extracted from carbonatites. Alternative resources of REE have been identified in a variety of other environments such as alluvial placers, bauxites and ore tailings. The EURARE project (www.eurare.eu), funded by the European Commission, aims to improve understanding of potential REE resources in Europe with the overall objective of establishing the basis for a European REE industry. As a part of this project, alternative sources of rare earth elements in Europe are being considered. REE have been identified as being particularly enriched in karst-bauxites and hence in the red muds generated as a waste product from the processing of these bauxites to alumina through the Bayer process [3]. Karst-bauxites are widely distributed with deposits known across the Mediterranean and with intermittent exploitation occurring over many decades. REE become concentrated in the bauxite deposits by the bauxitisation process and are retained due to the geochemical barrier created by the limestone bedrock below. This can result in several processes, including the crystallisation of authigenic REE-bearing minerals, the accumulation of residual phases and the adsorption of ions onto clays and other mineral surfaces [4]. Red muds produced from alumina processing represent a potentially important concentration of REE as it has been demonstrated that the REE pass through the alumina extraction process into the waste, and the total REE concentrations are typically enriched by a factor of two compared with the original bauxite ore [5]. Bauxites and red muds from the Parnassus Ghiona region of Greece [6] and the Seydişehir-Akseki region of Turkey have been assessed as

  15. Laser Processed Condensing Heat Exchanger Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Scott; Wright, Sarah; Wallace, Sarah; Hamilton, Tanner; Dennis, Alexander; Zuhlke, Craig; Roth, Nick; Sanders, John

    2017-01-01

    The reliance on non-permanent coatings in Condensing Heat Exchanger (CHX) designs is a significant technical issue to be solved before long-duration spaceflight can occur. Therefore, high reliability CHXs have been identified by the Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) as critical technologies needed to move beyond low earth orbit. The Laser Processed Condensing Heat Exchanger project aims to solve these problems through the use of femtosecond laser processed surfaces, which have unique wetting properties and potentially exhibit anti-microbial growth properties. These surfaces were investigated to identify if they would be suitable candidates for a replacement CHX surface. Among the areas researched in this project include microbial growth testing, siloxane flow testing in which laser processed surfaces were exposed to siloxanes in an air stream, and manufacturability.

  16. Corrosion Testing of Monofrax K-3 Refractory in Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Alternate Reductant Feeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jantzen, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-04-06

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) uses a combination of reductants and oxidants while converting high level waste (HLW) to a borosilicate waste form. A reducing flowsheet is maintained to retain radionuclides in their reduced oxidation states which promotes their incorporation into borosilicate glass. For the last 20 years of processing, the DWPF has used formic acid as the main reductant and nitric acid as the main oxidant. During reaction in the Chemical Process Cell (CPC), formate and formic acid release measurably significant H2 gas which requires monitoring of certain vessel’s vapor spaces. A switch to a nitric acid-glycolic acid (NG) flowsheet from the nitric-formic (NF) flowsheet is desired as the NG flowsheet releases considerably less H2 gas upon decomposition. This would greatly simplify DWPF processing from a safety standpoint as close monitoring of the H2 gas concentration could become less critical. In terms of the waste glass melter vapor space flammability, the switch from the NF flowsheet to the NG flowsheet showed a reduction of H2 gas production from the vitrification process as well. Due to the positive impact of the switch to glycolic acid determined on the flammability issues, evaluation of the other impacts of glycolic acid on the facility must be examined.

  17. Alternating-current transport losses of melt-cast processed Bi-2212 bulk superconductor bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, T; Inada, R; Inagaki, N; Andoh, H; Sugiura, T; Oota, A

    2003-01-01

    Using a melt-casting method, we have fabricated two pieces of Bi-2212 bulk superconductor bar with square and rectangular cross-sections, and we have investigated the alternating-current (ac) transport self-field losses at 77 K. Despite the main contribution of hysteresis loss of the superconductor, there is some difference in the loss behaviour between these two samples. To elucidate the origin, we make numerical calculations on the ac transport self-field losses as a function of current amplitude I 0 below the critical current I c . At a fixed I 0 , the calculated values using the uniform J c distribution and the actual cross-sectional geometry are much higher than the experimental data for the sample with a square cross-section 7.5 x 7.5 mm 2 , while there is good agreement between the calculation and the experiment for the sample with a rectangular cross-section 4.5 x 13.6 mm 2 . The discrepancy appearing in the sample with a square cross-section is ascribed to the actual J c distribution, which is confirmed by critical current measurements when scraping off the sample. The local J c value decreases significantly in going from the surface to the interior of the sample. This suppresses the extension of the flux-penetration region to the interior under ac current transmission and lowers the loss generation compared with the calculated results obtained by the uniform J c distribution

  18. Comparison of alternative flue gas dry treatment technologies in waste-to-energy processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Pozzo, Alessandro; Antonioni, Giacomo; Guglielmi, Daniele; Stramigioli, Carlo; Cozzani, Valerio

    2016-05-01

    Acid gases such as HCl and SO2 are harmful both for human health and ecosystem integrity, hence their removal is a key step of the flue gas treatment of Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants. Methods based on the injection of dry sorbents are among the Best Available Techniques for acid gas removal. In particular, systems based on double reaction and filtration stages represent nowadays an effective technology for emission control. The aim of the present study is the simulation of a reference two-stage (2S) dry treatment system performance and its comparison to three benchmarking alternatives based on single stage sodium bicarbonate injection. A modelling procedure was applied in order to identify the optimal operating configuration of the 2S system for different reference waste compositions, and to determine the total annual cost of operation. Taking into account both operating and capital costs, the 2S system appears the most cost-effective solution for medium to high chlorine content wastes. A Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis was carried out to assess the robustness of the results. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. DATA AND PROCESSING IN DEVELOPING ECCONOMIC APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIAN GHENCEA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Economic Informatics originates in the industry economy and the electronic processing of information. A clear distinction is made between IT and economic informatics, and further between general and particular economic informatics (the particular economic informatics meaning administration, industrial informatics etc. Economic informatics is deemed to be an applicative science relating to the conception, working modality and representation of IT and communication systems, oriented towards companies which are using electronic computers. This paper pursues to integrate applications allowing the information systems to interconnect at informational level, by information sharing, and at service level, considering the control of the related processes in real time.

  20. SustainPro - A tool for systematic process analysis, generation and evaluation of sustainable design alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, Ana; Matos, Henrique A.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    the user through the necessary steps according to work-flow of the implemented methodology. At the end the design alternatives, are evaluated using environmental impact assessment tools and safety indices. The extended features of the methodology incorporate Life Cycle Assessment analysis and economic....... The software tool is based on the implementation of an extended systematic methodology for sustainable process design (Carvalho et al. 2008 and Carvalho et al. 2009). Using process information/data such as the process flowsheet, the associated mass / energy balance data and the cost data, SustainPro guides...... analysis. The application and the main features of SustainPro are illustrated through a case study of ß-Galactosidase production....

  1. Integrated electrochemical-biological process as an alternative mean for ammonia monitoring during anaerobic digestion of organic wastes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Nannan; Li, Xiaohu; Jin, Xiangdan

    2017-01-01

    Ammonia monitoring is important to control anaerobic digestion (AD) process due to inhibition effect. Here, an electrolysis cell (EC) was integrated with a complete nitrification reactor as an alternative approach for online monitoring of ammonia during AD processes. The AD effluent was pumped...... into nitrification reactor to convert ammonia to nitrate, followed by the introduction of nitrate-rich effluent to EC cathode. It was first evaluated with synthetic ammonia-rich digesters and was observed that the current at 5 min were linearly corresponding to the ammonia levels (from 0 to 7.5 mM NH4+-N, R2....... The simple and reliable biosensor showed great promising for online ammonia monitoring of AD processes....

  2. A socio-anthropological analysis of deficits of transition process in Serbia 2005-2006 and possibilities for elaborating alternative projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golubović Zagorka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is an outline of the author’s research project to be undertaken in 2006. It is focused on the process of transition from authoritarian to democratic order in Serbia after 2000. Starting from the findings of previous studies of transition, in Serbia and in other post socialist countries, the research will adopt a socio-anthropological approach and deal with the following topics: the model of transition being applied in Serbia preconditions for democratic transformation; a balance sheet of positive achievements accomplished and, on the other hand, "lost chances"; socio economic, political and cultural obstacles to articulating a coherent strategy of democratic development; psychological and anthropological aspects of current processes; alternative paths of democratic development feasible within given conditions. A central question the research will aim at resolving is why the current situation in Serbia is often described as suffering from a "democratic deficit".

  3. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Yook, Hong Sun; Lee, Ju Woon and others

    1999-03-01

    Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation was performed. Gamma irradiation at 2-10 kGy is considered to be an effective method to control pathogenic bacteria in species including Escherichia coli O157:H7. Gamma irradiation at 5 kGy completely eliminated pathogenic bacteria in beef. Gamma irradiation at such doses and subsequent storage at less than 4 deg C could ensure hygienic quality and prolong the microbiological shelf-life resulting from the reduction of spoilage microorganisms. Gamma irradiation on pre-rigor beef shortens the aging-period, improves tenderness and enhances the beef quality. And, a new beef processing method using gamma irradiation, such as in the low salt sausage and hygienic beef patty was developed. Safety tests of gamma-irradiated meats(beefs: 0-5 kGy; porks: 0-30 kGy) in areas such as genotoxicity, acute toxicity, four-week oral toxicity, rat hepato carcinogenesis and the anti oxidative defense system, were not affected by gamma irradiation. To pre-establish an alternative technique to the toxic fumigant, methyl bromide, which is the current quarantine measure of agricultural products for export and import, some selected agricultural products, such as chestnuts, acorns, red beans and mung beans, were subjected to a preliminary study to confirm the comparative effects of gamma irradiation and MBr fumigant on their disinfestation and quality, thereby preparing the basic data for the practical approach.Current fumigation(MBr) was perfect in its disinfecting capability, but it caused detrimental effects on the physical quality of agricultural produce. However, irradiation doses suitable for controlling pests did not induce any significant changes in the quality of the products. (author)

  4. Action Research for Curriculum Development: An Alternative Approach in the Algerian Centralised Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhlas GHERZOULI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Literature in the field of curriculum is debating the extent to which teachers should or could participate in the developmental process of the curriculum they enact. Being the practitioners, teachers are the ones who transmit theory into practice. However, they are not only consumers of curriculum knowledge, but also significant producers of it. Thus, teachers’ active participation as primary stakeholders in the curriculum development process is a necessity. The paper outlines one approach for teacher participation in curriculum development, which is action research. The main aim of this paper is twofold; first: it explores literature about ‘curriculum’, ‘curriculum development’ and ‘action research’; and second, it emphasizes the prominence of teachers’ involvement and research in curriculum development, paying specific attention to the Algerian secondary school educational reform, which is highly controlled and centralised.

  5. Resveratrol, by modulating RNA processing factor levels, can influence the alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Andrea Markus

    Full Text Available Alternative pre-mRNA splicing defects can contribute to, or result from, various diseases, including cancer. Aberrant mRNAs, splicing factors and other RNA processing factors have therefore become targets for new therapeutic interventions. Here we report that the natural polyphenol resveratrol can modulate alternative splicing in a target-specific manner. We transfected minigenes of several alternatively spliceable primary mRNAs into HEK293 cells in the presence or absence of 1, 5, 20 and 50 µM resveratrol and measured exon levels by semi-quantitative PCR after separation by agarose gel electrophoresis. We found that 20 µg/ml and 50 µg/ml of resveratrol affected exon inclusion of SRp20 and SMN2 pre-mRNAs, but not CD44v5 or tau pre-mRNAs. By Western blotting and immunofluorescence we showed that this effect may be due to the ability of resveratrol to change the protein level but not the localization of several RNA processing factors. The processing factors that increased significantly were ASF/SF2, hnRNPA1 and HuR, but resveratrol did not change the levels of RBM4, PTBP1 and U2AF35. By means of siRNA-mediated knockdown we depleted cells of SIRT1, regarded as a major target of resveratrol, and showed that the effect on splicing was not dependent on SIRT1. Our results suggest that resveratrol might be an attractive small molecule to treat diseases in which aberrant splicing has been implicated, and justify more extensive research on the effects of resveratrol on the splicing machinery.

  6. Resveratrol, by modulating RNA processing factor levels, can influence the alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, M Andrea; Marques, Francine Z; Morris, Brian J

    2011-01-01

    Alternative pre-mRNA splicing defects can contribute to, or result from, various diseases, including cancer. Aberrant mRNAs, splicing factors and other RNA processing factors have therefore become targets for new therapeutic interventions. Here we report that the natural polyphenol resveratrol can modulate alternative splicing in a target-specific manner. We transfected minigenes of several alternatively spliceable primary mRNAs into HEK293 cells in the presence or absence of 1, 5, 20 and 50 µM resveratrol and measured exon levels by semi-quantitative PCR after separation by agarose gel electrophoresis. We found that 20 µg/ml and 50 µg/ml of resveratrol affected exon inclusion of SRp20 and SMN2 pre-mRNAs, but not CD44v5 or tau pre-mRNAs. By Western blotting and immunofluorescence we showed that this effect may be due to the ability of resveratrol to change the protein level but not the localization of several RNA processing factors. The processing factors that increased significantly were ASF/SF2, hnRNPA1 and HuR, but resveratrol did not change the levels of RBM4, PTBP1 and U2AF35. By means of siRNA-mediated knockdown we depleted cells of SIRT1, regarded as a major target of resveratrol, and showed that the effect on splicing was not dependent on SIRT1. Our results suggest that resveratrol might be an attractive small molecule to treat diseases in which aberrant splicing has been implicated, and justify more extensive research on the effects of resveratrol on the splicing machinery.

  7. Consolidation processing parameters and alternative processing methods for powder metallurgy Al-Cu-Mg-X-X alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, K. K.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of varying the vacuum degassing parameters on the microstructure and properties of Al-4Cu-1Mg-X-X (X-X = 1.5Li-0.2Zr or 1.5Fe-0.75Ce) alloys processed from either prealloyed (PA) or mechanically alloyed (M) powder, and consolidated by either using sealed aluminum containers or containerless vacuum hot pressing were studied. The consolidated billets were hot extruded to evaluate microstructure and properties. The MA Li-containing alloy did not include Zr, and the MA Fe- and Ce-containing alloy was made from both elemental and partially prealloyed powder. The alloys were vacuum degassed both above and below the solution heat treatment temperature. While vacuum degassing lowered the hydrogen content of these alloys, the range over which the vacuum degassing parameters were varied was not large enough to cause significant changes in degassing efficiency, and the observed variations in the mechanical properties of the heat treated alloys were attributed to varying contributions to strengthening by the sub-structure and the dispersoids. Mechanical alloying increased the strength over that of alloys of similar composition made from PA powder. The inferior properties in the transverse orientation, especially in the Li-containing alloys, suggested deficiencies in degassing. Among all of the alloys processed for this study, the Fe- and Ce-containing alloys made from MA powder possessed better combinations of strength and toughness.

  8. A Test of Two Alternative Cognitive Processing Models: Learning Styles and Dual Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Joshua; Dawson, Bryan L.

    2018-01-01

    This study tested two cognitive models, learning styles and dual coding, which make contradictory predictions about how learners process and retain visual and auditory information. Learning styles-based instructional practices are common in educational environments despite a questionable research base, while the use of dual coding is less…

  9. High pressure-temperature processing as an alternative for preserving basil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krebbers, B.; Matser, A.; Koets, M.; Bartels, P.; Berg, van den R.

    2002-01-01

    In this study the effect of sterilisation by high pressure (HP) on the quality of basil was compared to conventional processing techniques. By means of freezing, or blanching followed by drying, microbial reduction of spores was maximal one-log. Pulsed HP-temperature treatment yielded a reduction of

  10. An alternative internal control to improve the educational process in elementary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Piñera Montesino

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The article suggests how to achieve and maintain high indicators efficiency more than 600 centers studied tes, applying different alternativas, which convert to control democratic and participatory style of all the factors that have to do with the educational process at school.

  11. Islamic Public Infrastructure Financing: An Analysis of Alternative Financing Instruments with Application in Developing Countries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Islam, Saiful

    2004-01-01

    This project examines the structure of public infrastructure financing in Indonesia and examines whether financing based on Islamic principles is a feasible alternative to current financing mechanisms...

  12. ALTERNATIVE METHODOLOGIES FOR THE ESTIMATION OF LOCAL POINT DENSITY INDEX: MOVING TOWARDS ADAPTIVE LIDAR DATA PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Lari

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, LiDAR systems have been established as a leading technology for the acquisition of high density point clouds over physical surfaces. These point clouds will be processed for the extraction of geo-spatial information. Local point density is one of the most important properties of the point cloud that highly affects the performance of data processing techniques and the quality of extracted information from these data. Therefore, it is necessary to define a standard methodology for the estimation of local point density indices to be considered for the precise processing of LiDAR data. Current definitions of local point density indices, which only consider the 2D neighbourhood of individual points, are not appropriate for 3D LiDAR data and cannot be applied for laser scans from different platforms. In order to resolve the drawbacks of these methods, this paper proposes several approaches for the estimation of the local point density index which take the 3D relationship among the points and the physical properties of the surfaces they belong to into account. In the simplest approach, an approximate value of the local point density for each point is defined while considering the 3D relationship among the points. In the other approaches, the local point density is estimated by considering the 3D neighbourhood of the point in question and the physical properties of the surface which encloses this point. The physical properties of the surfaces enclosing the LiDAR points are assessed through eigen-value analysis of the 3D neighbourhood of individual points and adaptive cylinder methods. This paper will discuss these approaches and highlight their impact on various LiDAR data processing activities (i.e., neighbourhood definition, region growing, segmentation, boundary detection, and classification. Experimental results from airborne and terrestrial LiDAR data verify the efficacy of considering local point density variation for

  13. An Alternative Consent Process for Minimal Risk Research in the ICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Melissa A; Freedberg, Daniel E; Morris, Marilyn C

    2017-09-01

    Seeking consent for minimal risk research in the ICU poses challenges, especially when the research is time-sensitive. Our aim was to determine the extent to which ICU patients or surrogates support a deferred consent process for a minimal risk study without the potential for direct benefit. Prospective cohort study. Five ICUs within a tertiary care hospital. Newly admitted ICU patients 18 years old or older. We administered an eight-item verbal survey to patients or surrogates approached for consent to participate in a minimal risk, ICU-based study. The parent study involved noninvasive collection of biosamples and clinical data at the time of ICU admission and again 3 days later. If patients had capacity at the time of ICU admission, or if a surrogate was readily available, consent was sought prior to initial sample collection; otherwise, a waiver of consent was granted, and deferred consent was sought 3 days later. Quantitative and qualitative data were analyzed. One hundred fifty-seven individuals were approached for consent to participate in the parent study; none objected to the consent process. One hundred thirty-five of 157 (86%) competed the survey, including 94 who consented to the parent study and 41 who declined. Forty-four of 60 individuals (73%) approached for deferred consent responded positively to the question "Did we make the right choice in waiting until now to ask your consent?" three of 60 (5%) responded negatively, and 13 of 60 (22%) made a neutral or unrelated response. The most common reason given for endorsing the deferred consent process was the stress of the early ICU experience 25 of 44 (61%). Most patients and surrogates accept a deferred consent process for minimal risk research in the ICU. For appropriate ICU-based research, investigators and Institutional Review Boards should consider a deferred consent process if the subject lacks capacity and an appropriate surrogate is not readily available.

  14. Forests, environment, sustainable development and peace process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orozco Munoz, Jose Miguel

    1998-01-01

    The paper tries about the perspectives of the peace and the environment in the negotiation calendar with the armed groups and their thought about if the sustainable development is a common objective between the government and these groups

  15. PARTICIPATORY DIAGNOSIS TO DEVELOP TOURISM PROJECT IN THE COMMUNITY ALTERNATIVE AGIABAMPO, HUATABAMPO, SONORA, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adán Guillermo Ramírez-García

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Agiabampo is a fishing community facing the lack of options for productive activities, which puts enormous pressure on natural resources. This paper aims to identify the areas with tourism potential through a participatory diagnosis to assess the relevance of such projects that contribute to sustainable development. It is located at coordinates 26 ° 21 'north latitude and 58''de 109 ° 08' 37 '' west longitude, down from 15 meters altitude. It is within the Ramsar site called "lagoon system Agiabampo-Bacorehuis-Rio Fuerte Old" also form part of the priority terrestrial region "Las Bocas" (RTP-21 and program CONABIO Areas of Importance for the Conservation of Birds (IBA, AICA 131 "Agiabampo". According to the rules of operation of CONAFOR (2009 for the tourist diagnosis proceeded to conduct the inventory and prioritization of natural and cultural resources, also five workshops with community residents and municipal authorities were carried out interviews semi structured with key players in the CONANP and three field trips to community guides. The identified natural attractions are the Horseshoe bay, cove San Lucas, Isla Bocanita Beach Baths, Bamocha Peninsula and Isle of ducks. The identified cultural appeal considered gastronomy, traditional medicine, crafts, customs and traditions. Two paths are proposed by the Laguna maritime lasts 3.5 hours, the Earth is Bamocha Peninsula lasting 3 hours. It is indisputable Agiabampo the potential to develop alternative tourism project due to its geographical location and natural and cultural attractions are there, allowing preserve and create jobs in the community.

  16. Development of dose calculation program (DBADOSE) incorporating alternative source term due to design basis accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Young Jig; Nam, Ki Mun; Lee, Yu Jong; Chung, Chan Young

    2003-01-01

    Source terms presented in TID-14844 and Regulatory Guide 1.4 have been used for radiological analysis of design basis accidents for licensing existing pressurized water reactor (PWR). However, more realistic and physically-based source term based on results of study and experiments for about 30 years after the publication of TID-14844 was developed and presented in NUREG-1465 published by U.S NRC in 1995. In addition, ICRP has revised dose concepts and criteria through the publication of ICRP-9, 26, 60 and recommended effective dose concepts rather than critical organ concept since the publication of ICRP-26. Accordingly, multipurpose computer program called DBADOSE incorporating alternative source terms in NUREG-1465 and effective dose concepts in ICRP-60 was developed. Comparison of results of DBADOSE with those of POSTDBA and STARDOSE was performed and verified and no significant difference and inaccuracy were found. DBADOSE will be used to evaluate accidental doses for licensing application according to the domestic laws that are expected to be revised in the near future

  17. Linear programming: an alternative approach for developing formulations for emergency food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibani, Ershad; Dabbagh Moghaddam, Arasb; Sharifan, Anousheh; Afshari, Zahra

    2018-03-01

    To minimize the mortality rates of individuals affected by disasters, providing high-quality food relief during the initial stages of an emergency is crucial. The goal of this study was to develop a formulation for a high-energy, nutrient-dense prototype using linear programming (LP) model as a novel method for developing formulations for food products. The model consisted of the objective function and the decision variables, which were the formulation costs and weights of the selected commodities, respectively. The LP constraints were the Institute of Medicine and the World Health Organization specifications of the content of nutrients in the product. Other constraints related to the product's sensory properties were also introduced to the model. Nonlinear constraints for energy ratios of nutrients were linearized to allow their use in the LP. Three focus group studies were conducted to evaluate the palatability and other aspects of the optimized formulation. New constraints were introduced to the LP model based on the focus group evaluations to improve the formulation. LP is an appropriate tool for designing formulations of food products to meet a set of nutritional requirements. This method is an excellent alternative to the traditional 'trial and error' method in designing formulations. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Evaluation of complementary-alternative medicine (CAM) questionnaire development for Indonesian clinical psychologists: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Andrian; Newcombe, Peter A; Pohlman, Annie

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate questionnaire development to measure the knowledge of Complementary-Alternative Medicine (CAM), attitudes towards CAM, CAM experiences, and CAM educational needs of clinical psychologists in Indonesia. A 26-item questionnaire was developed through an extensive literature search. Data was obtained from provisional psychologists from the Master of Professional Clinical Psychology programs at two established public universities in urban areas of Indonesia. To validate the questionnaire, panel reviews by executive members of the Indonesian Clinical Psychology Association (ICPA), experts in health psychology, and experts in public health and CAM provided their professional judgements. The self-reporting questionnaire consisted of four scales including: knowledge of CAM (6 items), attitudes towards CAM (10 items), CAM experiences (4 items), and CAM educational needs (6 items). All scales, except CAM Experiences, were assessed on a 7-point Likert scale. Sixty provisional psychologists were eligible to complete the questionnaire with a response rate of 73% (N=44). The results showed that the CAM questionnaire was reliable (Cronbach's coefficient alpha range=0.62-0.96; item-total correlation range=0.14-0.92) and demonstrated content validity. Following further psychometric evaluation, the CAM questionnaire may provide the evidence-based information to inform the education and practice of Indonesian clinical psychologists. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Selection of an Alternative Production Part Approval Process to Improve Weapon Systems Production Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    production outcomes: 1) knowledge gaps in technology, 2) design instability and 3) manufacturing knowledge gaps. Only manufacturing knowledge gaps...ability to produce at a desired production rate. Each item produced under this manufacturing development is to meet that item’s design requirements. The...represented with respect to assessing manufacturing design and development with a verification and demonstration. DOD acquisition waits to assess production

  20. Development of Souvenir Production Transaction Processing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumambi, H.; Kaparang, R.; Lintong, J.

    2018-01-01

    This research aims to design a souvenir production transaction processing system for the craftsmen in North Sulawesi. The craftsmen make very simple recordings about souvenir production transactions and use documents that are not in accordance with the generally accepted accounting practices. This research uses qualitative method. The data is collected through interviews, observations, documents and literatures studies. The research stages are conducted in preliminary studies, data collection, data analyzed and system design. The design of system is built from chart of account, accounting cycle and documents as input and get processed in accounting recording. The outputs are financial statements. The system design provides benefits for the craftsmen in assessing the financial performance and getting financing from bank.