WorldWideScience

Sample records for alternative design solutions

  1. Seal design alternatives study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Sambeek, L.L.; Luo, D.D.; Lin, M.S.; Ostrowski, W.; Oyenuga, D.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results from a study of various sealing alternatives for the WIPP sealing system. Overall, the sealing system has the purpose of reducing to the extent possible the potential for fluids (either gas or liquid) from entering or leaving the repository. The sealing system is divided into three subsystems: drift and panel seals within the repository horizon, shaft seals in each of the four shafts, and borehole seals. Alternatives to the baseline configuration for the WIPP seal system design included evaluating different geometries and schedules for seal component installations and the use of different materials for seal components. Order-of-magnitude costs for the various alternatives were prepared as part of the study. Firm recommendations are not presented, but the advantages and disadvantages of the alternatives are discussed. Technical information deficiencies are identified and studies are outlined which can provide required information

  2. State alternative route designations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a ''state routing agency,'' defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective

  3. Enhanced Design Alternative IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, N.E.

    1999-01-01

    This report evaluates Enhanced Design Alternative (EDA) IV as part of the second phase of the License Application Design Selection (LADS) effort. The EDA IV concept was compared to the VA reference design using criteria from the Design Input Request for LADS Phase II EDA Evaluations (CRWMS M and O 1999b) and (CRWMS M and O 1999f). Briefly, the EDA IV concept arranges the waste packages close together in an emplacement configuration known as line load. Continuous pre-closure ventilation keeps the waste packages from exceeding their 350 C cladding and 200 C (4.3.6) drift wall temperature limits. This EDA concept keeps relatively high, uniform emplacement drift temperatures (post-closure) to drive water away from the repository and thus dry out the pillars between emplacement drifts. The waste package is shielded to permit human access to emplacement drifts and includes an integral filler inside the package to reduce the amount of water that can contact the waste form. Closure of the repository is desired 50 years after first waste is emplaced. Both backfill and drip shields will be emplaced at closure to improve post-closure performance. The EDA IV concept includes more defense-in-depth layers than the VA reference design because of its backfill, drip shield, waste package shielding, and integral filler features. These features contribute to the low dose-rate to the public achieved during the first 10,000 years of repository life as shown in Figure 3. Investigation of the EDA IV concept has led to the following general conclusions: (1) The total life cycle cost for EDA IV is about $21.7 billion which equates to a $11.3 billion net present value (both figures rounded up). (2) The incidence of design basis events for EDA IV is similar to the VA reference design. (3) The emplacement of the waste packages in drifts will be similar to the VA reference design. However, heavier equipment may be required because the shielded waste package will be heavier. (4) The heavier

  4. TWTF design alternates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayers, A.L. Sr.

    1982-03-01

    The Transuranic Waste Treatment Facility (TWTF) will process transuranic (TRU) waste in retrievable storage at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The costs for a TWTF concept using a slagging pyrolysis incinerator were excessive. Alternate concepts using a slow speed shredder, a rotary kiln incinerator, and concrete immobilization should result in significant cost reductions. These will be included in future TWTF considerations

  5. Alternative Fleet Architecture Design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Stuart E; Cebrowski, Arthur K

    2005-01-01

    .... Indeed, designing a fleet architecture composed of large numbers of manned and unmanned systems, networked together, provides coherence between building the force and operating the force against both challenges...

  6. Fashion design solutions for environmentally conscious consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, M.; Chen, Y.; Curteza, A.; Thomassey, S.; Perwuelz, A.; Zeng, X.

    2017-10-01

    This paper intends to give an overview of the design solutions in fashion for environmentally conscious consumers, presenting green and ethical practices in contemporary clothing design. The results introduce the concept of slow fashion and discuss available fashion design solutions, giving most prominent examples of sustainable products and brands, these contain one or more design features. By this, the discussion extracts the main contemporary ideas. The presented examples of current offers are all envisioning less impact on the environment and society. Sustainable design solutions use more environmentally friendly materials such as organic cotton, incorporate circular design or design for recycling, e.g., replacing button closures with alternative closing possibilities or leather labels with printed versions, or ensure long product life through durability, among other methods. There are differing designs due to creators’ individuality. This overview can be beneficial for the future development of new solutions for more environmentally friendly fashion.

  7. Alternative Design of Boat Fenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banke, Lars

    1996-01-01

    On offshore platforms the purpose of fenders is to protect the oil-risers against minor accidental collisions with supply vessels. Normally, the fender is designed by use of thin-walled tubes. However, the tube itself is not capable of resisting the impact load of the boat. Therefore, alternative...

  8. The Effect of Alternative Solutions on Problem Solving Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shin-Yi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of instruction in alternative solutions on Taiwanese eighth-grade students' mathematical problem solving performance. This study was exploratory rather than experimental. Alternative-Solution Worksheet (ASW) was developed to encourage students' engagement with alternative solutions to…

  9. Alternative sewerage solution: Condominial method and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türker, Umut

    In this study, the fundamental of the theory of condominial sewer design is discussed through a readily available computer program and the theory is used to bring out the effect of pipe diameter and sewer gradient on design calculations through alternative solutions. It is proved that the roughness of the pipe is effective on the size, lifetime, and cost-saving property of the condominial sewer system, whereas the pipe diameter is not a vital parameter for the same criteria. Any expansion on the pipe roughness increased the gradient of flow and thus enlarged the excavation area hence; undermine the cost-saving property of the condominial method.

  10. DESIGN OF ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popa Stefania

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available By energy sources we understand technologies and materials used to obtain various forms of energy necessary for the development of society. These sources must be in adequate quantities and be conveniently exploited in terms of technical, economic and sustainable perspective. Alternative energy uses the inherent power of natural sources like wind, tides, the sun. Alternative energy is a term used for some energy sources and energy storage technologies. Generally it indicates energies that are nontraditional and have low impact to the environment. The alternative energy term is used in contrast with the term fossil fuel according to some sources, while other sources use it with the meaning of renewable energy purposes.

  11. Silverlight 4 Problem - Design - Solution

    CERN Document Server

    Lecrenski, Nick

    2010-01-01

    A hands-on guide to Microsoft's latest rich application development technology: Silverlight 4. Silverlight 4 is the newest version of the rich Internet application toolkit that provides support for .NET capabilities over the Internet. With this latest release of Silverlight, Microsoft has revolutionized the way that Web applications can be created. This book uses the popular Problem – DesignSolution strategy to demonstrate how to harness the power and abilities of Silverlight 4 to add value to the overall user experience of a Web site. Using a Web site created by the author as a reference p

  12. British Columbia : an alternative design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostergaard, P.

    2003-01-01

    This PowerPoint presentation outlined the British Columbia Ministry of Energy and Mines' approach to the electricity market. A brief overview of the electric system in the province was provided, examining capacity (primarily hydro based) and the utility sector with its public ownership. In British Columbia, 80 per cent of the electricity is generated by British Columbia Hydro (BC Hydro). The rates are based on cost of service. British Columbia's market is western North America. A comparison of monthly bills for several large cities, both Canadian and American, was displayed. The market reviews conducted in 1995, 1998, and 2002 were reviewed and the major recommendations discussed. The author identified the opportunities in the province, discussing natural gas and coal for electricity production, resource potential, demand, and private sector capacity. The challenges facing the province are: cost effective development of resources to meet energy demand; aging infrastructure, high reliability requirements and economic growth; evolving electricity market structure in the United States; and, monopoly. The transmission system was reviewed with reference to trade with the Pacific Northwest, flexibility and storage. The energy plan objectives for the future were presented, including low rates and public ownership, secure and reliable supply, more private sector opportunities, and environmental responsibility. The alternative market structure includes regulated market characteristics, access to trade, and customer focus. figs

  13. Schema Design Alternatives for Multi-Granular Data Warehousing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2010-01-01

    Data warehousing is widely used in industry for reporting and analysis of huge volumes of data at different levels of detail. In general, data warehouses use standard dimensional schema designs to organize their data. However, current data warehousing schema designs fall short in their ability...... that the schema designs are intended to simply store data at the same single level of granularity. This paper on the other hand, presents several extended dimensional data warehousing schema design alternatives to store both detail and aggregated data at different levels of granularity. The paper presents three...... solutions to design the time dimension tables and four solutions to design the fact tables. Moreover, each of these solutions is evaluated in different combinations of the time dimension and the fact tables based on a real world farming case study....

  14. Designing Hyper-V solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Grover, Saurabh

    2015-01-01

    This book is aimed at IT admins, consultants, and architects alike who wish to deploy, manage, and maintain Hyper-V solutions in organizations of various sizes. You are expected to have a working knowledge of managing Windows Server and a fair understanding of networking and storage concepts.

  15. Engineering report (conceptual design) PFP solution stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witt, J.B.

    1997-01-01

    This Engineering Report (Conceptual Design) addresses remediation of the plutonium-bearing solutions currently in inventory at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The recommendation from the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is that the solutions be treated thermally and stabilized as a solid for long term storage. For solutions which are not discardable, the baseline plan is to utilize a denitration process to stabilize the solutions prior to packaging for storage

  16. Engineering report (conceptual design) PFP solution stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, J.B.

    1997-07-17

    This Engineering Report (Conceptual Design) addresses remediation of the plutonium-bearing solutions currently in inventory at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The recommendation from the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is that the solutions be treated thermally and stabilized as a solid for long term storage. For solutions which are not discardable, the baseline plan is to utilize a denitration process to stabilize the solutions prior to packaging for storage.

  17. Mobilizing the Courage to Implement Sustainable Design Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Hoffmann, Birgitte; Quitzau, Maj-Britt

    2009-01-01

    Within the built environment, stakeholders tend to implement well-known design solutions, even though sustainable alternatives exist. The key question posed in this paper is: what characterizes successful processes of implementing sustainable design solutions? In an attempt to answer the question...... of design managers and others to develop socio-technical networks and storylines to integrate sustainability in the design and building processes. Implementation of sustainable design solutions takes more than courage; it requires key competences in catalysing network changes.......Within the built environment, stakeholders tend to implement well-known design solutions, even though sustainable alternatives exist. The key question posed in this paper is: what characterizes successful processes of implementing sustainable design solutions? In an attempt to answer the question......, the work focuses on examples of successful implementation in an attempt to understand the competences required. Danish frontrunner projects are described and analysed: one case concerns the implementation of lowenergy houses and another describes innovative planning processes in the water sector in order...

  18. Solution Prototyping with Design Thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efeoglu, Arkin; Møller, Charles; Serie, Michel

    Information and knowledge workers as well as other employees who are not part of a research or product development team are barely exposed to innovation creation processes. Design Thinking as an innovation method is typi- cally used in R&D. This research analyses whether a short-cycled Design Think......- ing method can be developed, so employees outside R&D can be taken out of their daily jobs and innovate without falling too much behind with their opera- tional work. Alongside with short-cycled DT session there are potential impacts on business and hence on management. Business Thinking barriers...... are tried to be broken and Design Thinking advantages are increasingly preferred by man- agement. This case study based paper provides key insights into how DT phases and behavior can be changed for creating synergy across employees, manage- ment and products from which the end-consumer benefits. The Social...

  19. Solution Prototyping with Design Thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efeoglu, Arkin; Møller, Charles; Serie, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Information and knowledge workers as well as other employees who are not part of a research or product development team are barely exposed to innovation creation processes. Design Thinking as an innovation method is typi- cally used in R&D. This research analyses whether a short-cycled Design Think......- ing method can be developed, so employees outside R&D can be taken out of their daily jobs and innovate without falling too much behind with their opera- tional work. Alongside with short-cycled DT session there are potential impacts on business and hence on management. Business Thinking barriers...... are tried to be broken and Design Thinking advantages are increasingly preferred by man- agement. This case study based paper provides key insights into how DT phases and behavior can be changed for creating synergy across employees, manage- ment and products from which the end-consumer benefits. The Social...

  20. Refuge alternatives relief valve testing and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, T J; Bissert, P T; Homce, G T; Yonkey, J A

    2016-10-01

    The U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has been researching refuge alternatives (RAs) since 2007. RAs typically have built-in pressure relief valves (PRVs) to prevent the unit from reaching unsafe pressures. The U.S. Mine Safety and Health Administration requires that these valves vent the chamber at a maximum pressure of 1.25 kPa (0.18 psi, 5.0 in. H 2 O), or as specified by the manufacturer, above mine atmospheric pressure in the RA. To facilitate PRV testing, an instrumented benchtop test fixture was developed using an off-the-shelf centrifugal blower and ductwork. Relief pressures and flow characteristics were measured for three units: (1) a modified polyvinyl chloride check valve, (2) an off-the-shelf brass/cast-iron butterfly check valve and (3) a commercially available valve that was designed specifically for one manufacturer's steel prefabricated RAs and had been adapted for use in one mine operator's built-in-place RA. PRVs used in tent-style RAs were not investigated. The units were tested with different modifications and configurations in order to check compliance with Title 30 Code of Federal Regulations, or 30 CFR, regulations. The commercially available relief valve did not meet the 30 CFR relief pressure specification but may meet the manufacturer's specification. Alternative valve designs were modified to meet the 30 CFR relief pressure specification, but all valve designs will need further design research to examine survivability in the event of a 103 kPa (15.0 psi) impulse overpressure during a disaster.

  1. Alternative solutions for public and private catastrophe funding in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, M.

    2008-07-01

    The impacts of natural hazards as well as their frequency of occurrence during the last decades have increased decisively. Therefore, the public as well as the private sector are expected to react to this development by providing sufficient funds, in particular for the improvement of protection measures and an enhanced funding of damage compensation for affected private individuals, corporate and public entities. From the public stance, the establishment of an appropriate regulatory environment seems to be indispensable. Structural and legal changes should, on the one hand, renew and improve the current distribution system of public catastrophe funds as well as the profitable investment of these financial resources, and on the other hand, facilitate the application of alternative mechanisms provided by the capital and insurance markets. In particular, capital markets have developed alternative risk transfer and financing mechanisms, such as captive insurance companies, risk pooling, contingent capital solutions, multi-trigger products and insurance securitisation for hard insurance market phases. These instruments have already been applied to catastrophic (re-)insurance in other countries (mainly the US and off-shore domiciles), and may contribute positively to the insurability of extreme weather events in Austria by enhancing financial capacities. Not only private individuals and corporate entities may use alternative mechanisms in order to retain, thus, to finance certain risks, but also public institutions. This contribution aims at analysing potential solutions for an improved risk management of natural hazards in the private and the public sector by considering alternative mechanisms of the capital and insurance markets. Also the establishment of public-private-partnerships, which may contribute to a more efficient cat funding system in Austria, is considered.

  2. Alternative solutions for public and private catastrophe funding in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gruber

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of natural hazards as well as their frequency of occurrence during the last decades have increased decisively. Therefore, the public as well as the private sector are expected to react to this development by providing sufficient funds, in particular for the improvement of protection measures and an enhanced funding of damage compensation for affected private individuals, corporate and public entities.

    From the public stance, the establishment of an appropriate regulatory environment seems to be indispensable. Structural and legal changes should, on the one hand, renew and improve the current distribution system of public catastrophe funds as well as the profitable investment of these financial resources, and on the other hand, facilitate the application of alternative mechanisms provided by the capital and insurance markets.

    In particular, capital markets have developed alternative risk transfer and financing mechanisms, such as captive insurance companies, risk pooling, contingent capital solutions, multi-trigger products and insurance securitisation for hard insurance market phases. These instruments have already been applied to catastrophic (re-insurance in other countries (mainly the US and off-shore domiciles, and may contribute positively to the insurability of extreme weather events in Austria by enhancing financial capacities. Not only private individuals and corporate entities may use alternative mechanisms in order to retain, thus, to finance certain risks, but also public institutions.

    This contribution aims at analysing potential solutions for an improved risk management of natural hazards in the private and the public sector by considering alternative mechanisms of the capital and insurance markets. Also the establishment of public-private-partnerships, which may contribute to a more efficient cat funding system in Austria, is considered.

  3. Alternative Solutions to the Agency Conflict in the Firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    Agency theory is concerned about the conflict of interests in the employer-employee relations. But the theory is framed purely from the perspective of the principal (i.e., the owners or stockholders of the firm), without taking into consideration of the perspective of the agent (e.g., managers...... or employees), the conventional mechanism, i.e., monitoring and bonding, though useful, are not always effective and efficient for motivating employees. In this paper, we propose two alternative solutions to the agency conflict problem, i.e., aspiration facilitation and aspiration internalization, that adopts...

  4. ADVANCED DESIGN SOLUTIONS FOR HIGH-PRECISION WOODWORKING MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Lucisano

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available With the aim at performing the highest precision during woodworking, a mix of alternative approaches, fruitfully integrated in a common design strategy, is essential. This paper represents an overview of technical solutions, recently developed by authors, in design of machine tools and their final effects on manufacturing. The most advanced solutions in machine design are reported side by side with common practices or little everyday expedients. These design actions are directly or indirectly related to the rational use of materials, sometimes very uncommon, as in the case of magnetorheological fluids chosen to implement an active control in speed and force on the electro-spindle, and permitting to improve the quality of wood machining. Other actions are less unusual, as in the case of the adoption of innovative anti-vibration supports for basement. Tradition or innovation, all these technical solutions contribute to the final result: the highest precision in wood machining.

  5. International Companies Withdrawal from Lithuania: Problematics and Alternative Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktorija Tauraitė

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The main attention in this article is focused on the problematic of international companies’ withdrawal from Lithuania and presentation of alternative solutions of this problem. The macro(Sweden, Austria, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Poland level analysis and micro (“Coca-Cola”, “Nordea” and DNB, “Orkla” level analysis showed that competitiveness, business conditions, employment relations, institutional environment and innovation should be improved and the corruption should be reduced in Lithuania. It is advisable that current Lithuanian Labour Code should be revised in order to increase the efficiency of labour relations. It is found out that the significance of “Coca-Cola”company is the highest in the context of the withdrawing companies from Lithuania. It is assumed that the most rational solution for each company is to move from Lithuania to another country.

  6. Considerations Regarding Designing and Administrating SOA Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad DIACONITA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Solutions like SOA, Cloud, SaaS, Iaas or PaaS are not only buzzwords, they became a business reality because they are relative cheap and easy to use. SOA and Cloud are tightly linked because most cloud solutions are being defined using SOA making them feasible from the business perspective, because it’s hard to move to cloud when you are using a tightly coupled architecture. Big companies such as Oracle, Microsoft, IBM or Amazon offer many commercial solutions providing software as a service, as well as hosted and managed alternatives to classical deployment. For firms that are building private clouds and for service providers that are building public clouds, diverse solutions are offered by the big players for platform as a service and infrastructure as a service.

  7. Demand Response an Alternative Solution to Prevent Load Shedding Triggering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mollah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates an alternative solution to prevent Load Shedding (LS triggering during underfrequency and proposes a new technique to restore the frequency during emergency events. Demand response (DR is considered as one of the most promising Smart Grid concepts that can be used to support the peak demand, whereas, LS is an existing last resort method during emergency grid situations. Both schemes aim to balance the load and generation in real-time and restore the frequency very quickly. This paper incorporates integrating Incentive based Demand Response (IDR with spinning reserve for smaller underfrequency events to manage the system peak demand. It also introduces a new frequency band for an Emergency Demand Response (EDR as an alternative inexpensive solution that can replace costly spinning reserves and help to prevent LS. An energy index factor is used to identify the consumption pattern of consumers to enable them to participate in IDR. An illustrative example of the performance of the proposed scheme on a modified 15 bus test system is shown. Simulation results on different scenarios confirm that the proposed method is effective to improve the frequency restoration process along with enabling participation of new services.

  8. Problem and design drawing for solution of precision design drawing and machine design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, Gil

    1982-04-01

    The contents of this book are basic of design drawing, problem of machine design, problem of precision design drawing, problem of planar figure of sheet metal, design drawing for solution of machine design, design drawing for solution of precision design drawing and design drawing for planar figure of sheet metal. It tells of the problems and gives the solutions on precision design drawing and machine design.

  9. Creating An Alternative Design for Asita Corporate Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Elise

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to find the solution to the problem outlined, which is to create an alternative design for corporate identity of ASITA. ASITA is a non-profit organization to foster tours and travel agencies in Indonesia. The writer conducted interview to the ASITA Jakarta Chapter, which was appointed to represent ASITA in providing the data needed by the writer. The writer interviewed the advisor of the organization, which had once served as chairperson of ASITA. The result of the research is new corporate identity system of ASITA based on a concept that ASITA as an organization, serves as a compass that guides and assists in every direction. The writer found that corporate identity is an important element to define an organization as well as giving impact on its first impression. To create good corporate identity, several things such as elements of design, color, typography, etc need to be put into attention. 

  10. Analytical solutions to SSC coil end design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossert, R.C.; Brandt, J.S.; Carson, J.A.; Fulton, H.J.; Lee, G.C.; Cook, J.M.

    1989-03-01

    As part of the SCC magnet effort, Fermilab will build and test a series of one meter model SSC magnets. The coils in these magnets will be constructed with several different end configurations. These end designs must satisfy both mechanical and magnetic criteria. Only the mechanical problem will be addressed. Solutions will attempt to minimize stresses and provide internal support for the cable. Different end designs will be compared in an attempt to determine which is most appropriate for the SSC dipole. The mathematics required to create each end configuration will be described. The computer aided design, programming and machine technology needed to make the parts will be reviewed. 2 refs., 10 figs

  11. 40 CFR 60.4111 - Alternate Hg designated representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternate Hg designated representative... Times for Coal-Fired Electric Steam Generating Units Hg Designated Representative for Hg Budget Sources § 60.4111 Alternate Hg designated representative. (a) A certificate of representation under § 60.4113...

  12. Mixed waste: An alternative solution. The utility perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seizert, R.D.

    1988-01-01

    The issue of mixed waste is one of significant interest to the utility industry. The interest is focused on the current regulatory scheme of dual regulation. A fundamental concern of the commercial nuclear utilities resulting from dual regulation is that there are currently no facilities in the US to dispose of mixed low-level radioactive and hazardous waste. The lack of available sites renders mixed waste an orphan, requiring generators of such material to store the waste on-site. This in turn causes commercial nuclear power plants to be subjected to the full gamut of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulation in addition to the existing Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. Superimposing dual regulatory schemes will have impacts which extend far beyond the mere management of mixed waste. Certainly the burdens, complexities and costs of complying with the overlapping regulatory schemes will not have a commensurate increase in protection from the real risks being addressed. For these reasons, the commercial nuclear utility industry is working toward an alternative solution which will protect the public health and the environment from all hazards of mixed waste and will minimize the impacts on both the regulators and the regulated community

  13. Refuge alternatives relief valve testing and design

    OpenAIRE

    Lutz, T.J.; Bissert, P.T.; Homce, G.T.; Yonkey, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has been researching refuge alternatives (RAs) since 2007. RAs typically have built-in pressure relief valves (PRVs) to prevent the unit from reaching unsafe pressures. The U.S. Mine Safety and Health Administration requires that these valves vent the chamber at a maximum pressure of 1.25 kPa (0.18 psi, 5.0 in. H2O), or as specified by the manufacturer, above mine atmospheric pressure in the RA. To facilitate PRV testing, ...

  14. PHP Solutions Dynamic Web Design Made Easy

    CERN Document Server

    Powers, David

    2010-01-01

    This is the second edition of David Power's highly-respected PHP Solutions: Dynamic Web Design Made Easy. This new edition has been updated by David to incorporate changes to PHP since the first edition and to offer the latest techniques - a classic guide modernized for 21st century PHP techniques, innovations, and best practices. You want to make your websites more dynamic by adding a feedback form, creating a private area where members can upload images that are automatically resized, or perhaps storing all your content in a database. The problem is, you're not a programmer and the thought o

  15. Wireless device connection problems and design solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ji-Won; Norman, Donald; Nam, Tek-Jin; Qin, Shengfeng

    2016-09-01

    Users, especially the non-expert users, commonly experience problems when connecting multiple devices with interoperability. While studies on multiple device connections are mostly concentrated on spontaneous device association techniques with a focus on security aspects, the research on user interaction for device connection is still limited. More research into understanding people is needed for designers to devise usable techniques. This research applies the Research-through-Design method and studies the non-expert users' interactions in establishing wireless connections between devices. The "Learning from Examples" concept is adopted to develop a study focus line by learning from the expert users' interaction with devices. This focus line is then used for guiding researchers to explore the non-expert users' difficulties at each stage of the focus line. Finally, the Research-through-Design approach is used to understand the users' difficulties, gain insights to design problems and suggest usable solutions. When connecting a device, the user is required to manage not only the device's functionality but also the interaction between devices. Based on learning from failures, an important insight is found that the existing design approach to improve single-device interaction issues, such as improvements to graphical user interfaces or computer guidance, cannot help users to handle problems between multiple devices. This study finally proposes a desirable user-device interaction in which images of two devices function together with a system image to provide the user with feedback on the status of the connection, which allows them to infer any required actions.

  16. Design Alternative Evaluation No. 3: Post-Closure Ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, R.C.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study is to provide input to the Enhanced Design Alternatives (EDA) for License Application Design Selection (LADS). Its purpose is to develop and evaluate conceptual designs for post-closure ventilation alternatives that enhance repository performance. Post-closure ventilation is expected to enhance repository performance by limiting the amount of water contacting the waste packages. Limiting the amount of water contacting the waste packages will reduce corrosion

  17. Design of sustainable chemical processes: Systematic retrofit analysis, generation and evaluation alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, Ana; Gani, Rafiqul; Matos, Henrique

    2008-01-01

    eliminating the need to identify trade-off-based solutions. These indicators are also able to reduce (where feasible) a set of safety indicators. An indicator sensitivity analysis algorithm has been added to the methodology to define design targets and to generate sustainable process alternatives. A computer......The objective of this paper is to present a generic and systematic methodology for identifying the feasible retrofit design alternatives of any chemical process. The methodology determines a set of mass and energy indicators from steady-state process data, establishes the operational and design...... targets, and through a sensitivity-based analysis, identifies the design alternatives that can match a set of design targets. The significance of this indicator-based method is that it is able to identify alternatives, where one or more performance criteria (factors) move in the same direction thereby...

  18. Towards for Analyzing Alternatives of Interaction Design Based on Verbal Decision Analysis of User Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Soares Mendes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In domains (as digital TV, smart home, and tangible interfaces that represent a new paradigm of interactivity, the decision of the most appropriate interaction design solution is a challenge. HCI researchers have promoted in their works the validation of design alternative solutions with users before producing the final solution. User experience with technology is a subject that has also gained ground in these works in order to analyze the appropriate solution(s. Following this concept, a study was accomplished under the objective of finding a better interaction solution for an application of mobile TV. Three executable applications of mobile TV prototypes were built. A Verbal Decision Analysis model was applied on the investigations for the favorite characteristics in each prototype based on the user’s experience and their intentions of use. This model led a performance of a qualitative analysis which objectified the design of a new prototype.

  19. Can false memories prime alternative solutions to ambiguous problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Mark L; Garner, Sarah R

    2018-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that false memories are capable of priming and facilitating insight-based problem-solving tasks by increasing solution rates and decreasing solution times. The present research extended this finding by investigating whether false memories could be used to bias ambiguous insight-based problem-solving tasks in a similar manner. Compound remote associate task (CRAT) problems with two possible correct answers, a dominant and a non-dominant solution, were created and normed (Experiment 1). In Experiment 2, participants were asked to solve these CRAT problems after they were given Deese/Roediger-McDermott lists whose critical lures were also the non-dominant solution to half of the corresponding CRATs. As predicted, when false memories served as primes, solution rates were higher and solution times were faster for non-dominant than dominant CRAT solutions. This biasing effect was only found when participants falsely recalled the critical lure, and was not found when participants did not falsely recall the critical lure, or when they were not primed. Results are discussed with regard to spreading activation models of solution competition in problem-solving tasks and current theories of false memory priming effects.

  20. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Station design alternatives report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This report provides the results of investigating the basis for including Station Design Alternatives (SDAs) in the regulatory guidance given for nuclear plant environmental reports (ERs), explains approaches or processes for evaluating SDAs at the early site permit (ESP) stage, and applies one of the processes to each of the ten systems or subsystems considered as SDAS. The key objective o this report s to demonstrate an adequate examination of alternatives can be performed without the extensive development f design data. The report discusses the Composite Suitability Approach and the Established Cutoff Approach in evaluating station design alternatives and selects one of these approaches to evaluate alternatives for each of the plant or station that were considered. Four types of ALWRs have been considered due to the availability of extensive plant data: System 80+, AP600, Advanced Boiling Reactor (ABWR), and Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR). This report demonstrates the feasibility of evaluating station design alternatives when reactor design detail has not been determined, quantitatively compares the potential ental impacts of alternatives, and focuses the ultimate selection of a alternative on cost and applicant-specific factors. The range of alternatives system is deliberately limited to a reasonable number to demonstrate the or to the three most commonly used at operating plants

  1. Alternate cap designs under RCRA regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manrod, W.E. III; Yager, R.E.; Craig, P.M.

    1988-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste and mixed wastes have been disposed of in several sites in the vicinity of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant in Tennessee. Most of these materials have been placed in shallow land burial pits (SLB). Closure plans have been developed and approved by appropriate regulatory agencies for several of these sites. A variety of cap (final cover) designs for closure of these sites were investigated to determine their ability to inhibit infiltration of precipitation to the waste. The most effective designs are those that use synthetic materials as drainage layers and/or impermeable liners. The more complex, multi-layer systems perform no better than simpler covers and would complicate construction and increase costs. Despite the successful analytical results described in this paper, additional considerations must be factored into use of geosynthetic as well as natural materials

  2. Insights Gained from Testing Alternate Cell Designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, J.E.; Stoots, C.M.; Herring, J.S.; Housley, G.K.; Sohal, M.S.; Milobar, D.G.; Cable, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been researching the application of solid-oxide electrolysis cell for large-scale hydrogen production from steam over a temperature range of 800 to 900 C. The INL has been testing various solid oxide cell designs to characterize their electrolytic performance operating in the electrolysis mode for hydrogen production. Some results presented in this report were obtained from cells, initially developed by the Forschungszentrum Juelich and now manufactured by the French ceramics firm St. Gobain. These cells have an active area of 16 cm2 per cell. They were initially developed as fuel cells, but are being tested as electrolytic cells in the INL test stands. The electrolysis cells are electrode-supported, with ∼10 (micro)m thick yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes, ∼1400 (micro)m thick nickel-YSZ steam-hydrogen electrodes, and manganite (LSM) air-oxygen electrodes. The experiments were performed over a range of steam inlet mole fractions (0.1 to 0.6), gas flow rates, and current densities (0 to 0.6 A/cm2). Steam consumption rates associated with electrolysis were measured directly using inlet and outlet dewpoint instrumentation. On a molar basis, the steam consumption rate is equal to the hydrogen production rate. Cell performance was evaluated by performing DC potential sweeps at 800, 850, and 900 C. The voltage-current characteristics are presented, along with values of area-specific resistance as a function of current density. Long-term cell performance is also assessed to evaluate cell degradation. Details of the custom single-cell test apparatus developed for these experiments are also presented. NASA, in conjunction with the University of Toledo, has developed another fuel cell concept with the goals of reduced weight and high power density. The NASA cell is structurally symmetrical, with both electrodes supporting the thin electrolyte and containing micro-channels for gas diffusion. This configuration is

  3. Supporting Exploration of Design Alternatives using Multivariate Analysis Algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Šileryte, R.; D'Aquilio, A.; Di Stefano, D.; Yang, D.; Turrin, M.; Attar, Ramtin; Chronis, Angelos; Hanna, Sean; Turrin, Michela

    2016-01-01

    Parametric modelling allows quick generation of a large number of design alternatives. Ultimately, it can be combined with optimization algorithms for obtaining optimal performance-driven design. However, setup of design space for optimization is a very complex task requiring designer’s a priori

  4. 40 CFR 72.22 - Alternate designated representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... designated representative is selected shall include a procedure for the owners and operators of the source and affected units at the source to authorize the alternate designated representative to act in lieu...) In the event of a conflict, any action taken by the designated representative shall take precedence...

  5. Alternative solutions for the CFC fluids in the refrigerating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciconkov, Risto

    1997-01-01

    This paper deals with: -Characteristics that the alternative refrigerants should satisfy: chemical, thermal, health, safety, environmental, etc. -A survey of the newest refrigerants on the world market from the biggest well known companies. -Dilemmas about the choice of new refrigerants depending to the appliance in refrigerating systems. -Specific requirements that have to be known concerning the introduction of new refrigerants in exploitation. -Alternative refrigerants with natural origin, their positive and negative characteristics from the aspect of application. -Different viewpoints of the actual situation and perspective developing ways in this field, expecting new, more restrictive regulations to environment qualities. -The role of the national strategy now and in the future. (author)

  6. Comparison of different SFL design alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivars Neretnieks, Ivars; Moreno, Luis

    2013-04-01

    Four different design options for a repository for long-lived nuclear waste from the future dismantling of the nuclear power plants have been compared. The time scales considered range up to 100,000 years. The repository is to be located at about 500 m depth in granitic rock. The vault can be a tunnel about 200 m long and on the order of 15 X 15 meters, in which the waste is surrounded by either a hydraulic cage, a concrete buffer or a bentonite buffer about 2 m thick. A fourth option is to make a silo, called Supersilo, about as high as wide, surrounded by both concrete and bentonite. In order to compare potential release rates of radionuclides from the waste to the seeping water in the rock a number of simple models have been devised. Some of these models allow the water flow rates through vaults to be assessed under various conditions and configurations. Other models are used to calculate the uptake by molecular diffusion to the water in the rock that seeps past the vaults. Moreover other models are used to calculate the rate of transport of nuclides by diffusion and flow through the buffer and waste. The decay of the nuclides during their passage from the waste to the flowing water through and past the vaults is accounted for. Many nuclides of interest decay considerably in the buffer. The mathematical form of the models is made so simple that essentially hand calculations can be used to explore the strength of different barriers and design options. The simple models are validated against more complex coupled models accounting for simultaneously competing processes. The more complex models are solved by numerical methods. The toolbox of simple models is used to calculate the strength of the barriers in the different design options under various conditions. Examples of activity releases of three nuclides with different sorption characteristics and half-lives are presented. It is found that a hydraulic cage is not a good option as it promotes the release of

  7. Comparison of different SFL design alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivars Neretnieks, Ivars [Chemima AB, Taeby (Sweden); Moreno, Luis [LMQuimica, Vaarby (Sweden)

    2013-04-15

    Four different design options for a repository for long-lived nuclear waste from the future dismantling of the nuclear power plants have been compared. The time scales considered range up to 100,000 years. The repository is to be located at about 500 m depth in granitic rock. The vault can be a tunnel about 200 m long and on the order of 15 X 15 meters, in which the waste is surrounded by either a hydraulic cage, a concrete buffer or a bentonite buffer about 2 m thick. A fourth option is to make a silo, called Supersilo, about as high as wide, surrounded by both concrete and bentonite. In order to compare potential release rates of radionuclides from the waste to the seeping water in the rock a number of simple models have been devised. Some of these models allow the water flow rates through vaults to be assessed under various conditions and configurations. Other models are used to calculate the uptake by molecular diffusion to the water in the rock that seeps past the vaults. Moreover other models are used to calculate the rate of transport of nuclides by diffusion and flow through the buffer and waste. The decay of the nuclides during their passage from the waste to the flowing water through and past the vaults is accounted for. Many nuclides of interest decay considerably in the buffer. The mathematical form of the models is made so simple that essentially hand calculations can be used to explore the strength of different barriers and design options. The simple models are validated against more complex coupled models accounting for simultaneously competing processes. The more complex models are solved by numerical methods. The toolbox of simple models is used to calculate the strength of the barriers in the different design options under various conditions. Examples of activity releases of three nuclides with different sorption characteristics and half-lives are presented. It is found that a hydraulic cage is not a good option as it promotes the release of

  8. Process of establishing design requirements and selecting alternative configurations for conceptual design of a VLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Young Bae

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a process for establishing design requirements and selecting alternative configurations for the conceptual phase of aircraft design has been proposed. The proposed process uses system-engineering-based requirement-analysis techniques such as objective tree, analytic hierarchy process, and quality function deployment to establish logical and quantitative standards. Moreover, in order to perform a logical selection of alternative aircraft configurations, it uses advanced decision-making methods such as morphological matrix and technique for order preference by similarity to the ideal solution. In addition, a preliminary sizing tool has been developed to check the feasibility of the established performance requirements and to evaluate the flight performance of the selected configurations. The present process has been applied for a two-seater very light aircraft (VLA, resulting in a set of tentative design requirements and two families of VLA configurations: a high-wing configuration and a low-wing configuration. The resulting set of design requirements consists of three categories: customer requirements, certification requirements, and performance requirements. The performance requirements include two mission requirements for the flight range and the endurance by reflecting the customer requirements. The flight performances of the two configuration families were evaluated using the sizing tool developed and the low-wing configuration with conventional tails was selected as the best baseline configuration for the VLA.

  9. 31 CFR 0.104 - Designated Agency Ethics Official and Alternate Designated Agency Ethics Official.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Designated Agency Ethics Official and Alternate Designated Agency Ethics Official. 0.104 Section 0.104 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the... Responsibilities § 0.104 Designated Agency Ethics Official and Alternate Designated Agency Ethics Official. The...

  10. SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN: REVIVING TRADITIONAL DESIGN AND ADAPTING MODERN SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Mostafa Eldemery

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Architecture is the art and science of designing which involves the manipulation of mass, space, volume, texture, light, shadow, materials, program and other elements in order to achieve an end which is aesthetic, functional and sustainable. Sustainability is a growing trend within the field of architecture, it is currently the most pressing, complex and challenging agenda facing architects. The industrialization and modernization of the world has led to increased initiatives regarding sustainability debate, where recently the word ‘sustainable’ entered into the consciousness of architects and became an essential concern in the discourse of architecture. What is more, we are nowadays witnessing the defense of former ways of life that affect not only the architecture, but also the habitat, work, and, in short, what can be called sustainability. Although sustainability at the human settlement scale has received great attention so far in most of the developing countries, it still remains the most glaring challenge in terms of its demand on resources and expertise. The aim today is to bring modern technologies and knowledge representing design solutions as guidelines like double skin façade, adapting traditional concepts, in tune with such practices to develop solutions that provide us with sustainable buildings that interact and are in harmony with natural climatic conditions. The paper will make an attempt at highlighting sustainability challenges we currently face including its implications for the built environment, in order to propose a sustainability evaluation framework, drawing out transferable lessons learned for future development.

  11. Alternative solutions for inhibiting Legionella in domestic hot water systems based on low-temperature district heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Xiaochen; Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend

    2015-01-01

    , and includes a comprehensive overview of their efficiency, installation, operation and costs, so as to give adequate information for selecting appropriate solutions. In addition to sterilization methods, alternative system design implemented with new technologies can also help prevent Legionella in hot water...... systems. They have the additional benefit of reducing the heat loss of the hot water system. The alternative design solutions both enrich our options for water sanitation and improve the energy efficiency of our energy systems....... methods, thermal treatment, ionization, chlorine, chlorine dioxide, ultraviolet light, photocatalysis and filtration are discussed as the most frequently used methods in hot water systems. The characteristics, efficacy and operation methods of LTDH using the solutions investigated are documented...

  12. Subsurface barrier design alternatives for confinement and controlled advection flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.J.; Stewart, W.E.; Alexander, R.G.; Cantrell, K.J.; McLaughlin, T.J.

    1994-02-01

    Various technologies and designs are being considered to serve as subsurface barriers to confine or control contaminant migration from underground waste storage or disposal structures containing radioactive and hazardous wastes. Alternatives including direct-coupled flood and controlled advection designs are described as preconceptual examples. Prototype geotechnical equipment for testing and demonstration of these alternative designs tested at the Hanford Geotechnical Development and Test Facility and the Hanford Small-Tube Lysimeter Facility include mobile high-pressure injectors and pumps, mobile transport and pumping units, vibratory and impact pile drivers, and mobile batching systems. Preliminary laboratory testing of barrier materials and additive sequestering agents have been completed and are described

  13. 29 CFR 2703.2 - Designated agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Designated agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official. 2703.2 Section 2703.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL... agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official. The Chairman shall appoint an...

  14. Lightened plaster: alternative solutions to cellular solids addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del Río, M.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The following paper pretends to analyze different processes in order to lightweighters gypsum as an alternative way at the cellular fillers addition, in order to establish the most suitable ones for the manufacture of plasterboard. Outstanding the process which uses foamings addition to lighten gypsum uses nowdays only to manufacture cellular concrete.

    En este artículo se presenta el análisis de diferentes procedimientos para aligerar la escayola, como alternativas a la adición de sólidos celulares, determinando los más adecuados para la realización de prefabricados. Dentro de estos procedimientos cabe destacar la adición de espumantes, hasta ahora sólo utilizados para la fabricación de hormigones celulares.

  15. Alternative Data Storage Solution for Mobile Messaging Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. C. Ong

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, mobile devices have become relatively more powerful with additional features which have the capability to provide multimedia streaming. Better, faster and more reliable data storage solutions in the mobile messaging platform have become more essential with these additional improvements. The existing mobile messaging infrastructure, in particular the data storage platform has become less proficient in coping with the increased demand for its services. This demand especially in the mobile messaging area (i.e. SMS – Short Messaging Service, MMS – Multimedia Messaging Service, which may well exceeded 250,000 requests per second, means that the need to evaluate competing data management systems has become not only necessary but essential. This paper presents an evaluation of SMS and MMS platforms using different database management systems – DBMS and recommends the best data management strategies for these platforms.

  16. Design alternatives report for the cesium removal demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, J.F. Jr.; Youngblood, E.L.

    1995-09-01

    The Cesium Removal Demonstration (CRD) project will use liquid low-level waste (LLLW) stored in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Melton Valley Storage Tanks to demonstrate cesium removal from sodium nitrate-based supernates. This report presents the results of a conceptual design study to scope the alternatives for conducting the demonstration at ORNL. Factors considered included (1) sorbent alternatives, (2) facility alternatives, (3) process alternatives, (4) process disposal alternatives, and (5) relative cost comparisons. Recommendations included (1) that design of the CRD system move forward based on information obtained to date from tests with Savannah River Resin, (2) that the CRD system be designed so it could use crystalline silicotitanates (CST) if an engineered form of CST becomes available prior to the CRD, (3) that the system be designed without the capability for resin regeneration, (4) that the LLLW solidification facility be used for the demonstration (5) that vitrification of the loaded resins from the CRD be demonstrated at the Savannah River Site, and (6) that permanent disposal of the loaded and/or vitrified resin at the Nevada Test Site be pursued.

  17. Design alternatives report for the cesium removal demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, J.F. Jr.; Youngblood, E.L.

    1995-09-01

    The Cesium Removal Demonstration (CRD) project will use liquid low-level waste (LLLW) stored in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Melton Valley Storage Tanks to demonstrate cesium removal from sodium nitrate-based supernates. This report presents the results of a conceptual design study to scope the alternatives for conducting the demonstration at ORNL. Factors considered included (1) sorbent alternatives, (2) facility alternatives, (3) process alternatives, (4) process disposal alternatives, and (5) relative cost comparisons. Recommendations included (1) that design of the CRD system move forward based on information obtained to date from tests with Savannah River Resin, (2) that the CRD system be designed so it could use crystalline silicotitanates (CST) if an engineered form of CST becomes available prior to the CRD, (3) that the system be designed without the capability for resin regeneration, (4) that the LLLW solidification facility be used for the demonstration (5) that vitrification of the loaded resins from the CRD be demonstrated at the Savannah River Site, and (6) that permanent disposal of the loaded and/or vitrified resin at the Nevada Test Site be pursued

  18. Interpretation and nonuniqueness of CTRW transition distributions: Insights from an alternative solute transport formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Scott K.; Berkowitz, Brian

    2014-12-01

    The continuous time random walk (CTRW) has both an elegant mathematical theory and a successful record at modeling solute transport in the subsurface. However, there are some interpretation ambiguities relating to the relationship between the discrete CTRW transition distributions and the underlying continuous movement of solute that have not been addressed in existing literature. These include the exact definition of ;transition;, and the extent to which transition probability distributions are unique/quantifiable from data. Here, we present some theoretical results which address these uncertainties in systems with an advective bias. Simultaneously, we present an alternative, reduced parameter CTRW formulation for general advective transport in heterogeneous porous media, which models early- and late-time transport by use of random transition times between sparse, imaginary planes normal to flow. We show that even in the context of this reduced-parameter formulation there is nonuniqueness in the definitions of both transition lengths and waiting time distributions, and that neither may be uniquely determined from experimental data. For practical use of this formulation, we suggest Pareto transition time distributions, leading to a two-degree-of-freedom modeling approach. We then demonstrate the power of this approach in fitting two sets of existing experimental data. While the primary focus is the presentation of new results, the discussion is designed to be pedagogical and to provide a good entry point into practical modeling of solute transport with the CTRW.

  19. Alternative design concept for the second Glass Waste Storage Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainisch, R.

    1992-10-01

    This document presents an alternative design concept for storing canisters filled with vitrified waste produced at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The existing Glass Waste Storage Building (GWSB1) has the capacity to store 2,262 canisters and is projected to be completely filled by the year 2000. Current plans for glass waste storage are based on constructing a second Glass Waste Storage Building (GWSB2) once the existing Glass Waste Storage Building (GWSB1) is filled to capacity. The GWSB2 project (Project S-2045) is to provide additional storage capacity for 2,262 canisters. This project was initiated with the issue of a basic data report on March 6, 1989. In response to the basic data report Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) prepared a draft conceptual design report (CDR) for the GWSB2 project in April 1991. In May 1991 WSRC Systems Engineering issued a revised Functional Design Criteria (FDC), the Rev. I document has not yet been approved by DOE. This document proposes an alternative design for the conceptual design (CDR) completed in April 1991. In June 1992 Project Management Department authorized Systems Engineering to further develop the proposed alternative design. The proposed facility will have a storage capacity for 2,268 canisters and will meet DWPF interim storage requirements for a five-year period. This document contains: a description of the proposed facility; a cost estimate of the proposed design; a cost comparison between the proposed facility and the design outlined in the FDC/CDR; and an overall assessment of the alternative design as compared with the reference FDC/CDR design

  20. Design of a nonscaling fixed field alternating gradient accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Trbojevic

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a design of nonscaling fixed field alternating gradient accelerators (FFAG minimizing the dispersion action function H. The design is considered both analytically and via computer modeling. We present the basic principles of a nonscaling FFAG lattice and discuss optimization strategies so that one can accelerate over a broad range of momentum with reasonable apertures. Acceleration schemes for muons are discussed.

  1. Expert System Approach For Generating And Evaluating Engine Design Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Stewart N. T.; Chew, Meng-Sang; Issa, Ghassan F.

    1989-03-01

    Artificial intelligence is becoming an increasingly important subject of study for computer scientists, engineering designers, as well as professionals in other fields. Even though AI technology is a relatively new discipline, many of its concepts have already found practical applications. Expert systems, in particular, have made significant contributions to technologies in such fields as business, medicine, engineering design, chemistry, and particle physics. This paper describes an expert system developed to aid the mechanical designer with the preliminary design of variable-stroke internal-combustion engines. The expert system accomplished its task by generating and evaluating a large number of design alternatives represented in the form of graphs. Through the application of structural and design rules directly to the graphs, optimal and near optimal preliminary design configurations of engines are deduced.

  2. Alternate Design of ITER Cryostat Skirt Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Manish Kumar; Jha, Saroj Kumar; Gupta, Girish Kumar; Bhattacharya, Avik; Jogi, Gaurav; Bhardwaj, Anil Kumar

    2017-04-01

    The skirt support of ITER cryostat is a support system which takes all the load of cryostat cylinder and dome during normal and operational condition. The present design of skirt support has full penetration weld joints at the bottom (shell to horizontal plate joint). To fulfil the requirements of tolerances and control the welding distortions, we have proposed to change the full penetration weld into fillet weld. A detail calculation is done to check the feasibility and structural impact due to proposed design. The calculations provide the size requirements of fillet weld. To verify the structural integrity during most severe load case, finite element analysis (FEA) has been done in line with ASME section VIII division 2 [1]. By FEA ‘Plastic Collapse’ and ‘Local Failure’ modes has been assessed. 5° sector of skirt clamp has been modelled in CATIA V5 R21 and used in FEA. Fillet weld at shell to horizontal plate joint has been modelled and symmetry boundary condition at ± 2.5° applied. ‘Elastic Plastic Analysis’ has been performed for the most severe loading case i.e. Category IV loading. The alternate design of Cryostat Skirt support system has been found safe by analysis against Plastic collapse and Local Failure Modes with load proportionality factor 2.3. Alternate design of Cryostat skirt support system has been done and validated by FEA. As per alternate design, the proposal of fillet weld has been implemented in manufacturing.

  3. 40 CFR 60.4112 - Changing Hg designated representative and alternate Hg designated representative; changes in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Changing Hg designated representative and alternate Hg designated representative; changes in owners and operators. 60.4112 Section 60.4112... Generating Units Hg Designated Representative for Hg Budget Sources § 60.4112 Changing Hg designated...

  4. Alternative designs of high-temperature superconducting synchronous generators

    OpenAIRE

    Goddard, K. F.; Lukasik, B.; Sykulski, J. K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the different possible designs of both cored and coreless superconducting synchronous generators using high-temperature superconducting (HTS) tapes, with particular reference to demonstrators built at the University of Southampton using BiSCCO conductors. An overview of the electromagnetic, thermal, and mechanical issues is provided, the advantages and drawbacks of particular designs are highlighted, the need for compromises is explained, and practical solutions are offer...

  5. Irradiation alternative method of manganese sulfate solution by a Pu-Be source for efficiency measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Fellipe Souza da; Martins, Marcelo Marques; Pereira, Walsan Wagner

    2015-01-01

    This study intends to create an alternative irradiation system from a Plutonium-Beryllium source for manganese sulphate solution using the Monte Carlo code. Thus seeking to eliminate the issue of institutes that do not have reactors or particle accelerators in its infrastructure, in order to optimize and provide independence for them to carry out efficiency measurements of MnSO 4 solution in their own locality. The Monte Carlo simulations defined the technical features of this new system so that the solution reaches the maximum neutron capture by manganese in solution. (author)

  6. Environmental comparison of a railway bridge with alternative designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Guangli; Karoumi, Raid

    2012-01-01

    Railway bridges are complex structures that remain for a long life span and consume large amount of material and energy throughout the life span. All of those lead to considerable resource depletion and environmental burdens. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has proved to be a comprehensive tool...... for quantifying and assessing the environmental impacts of the products through its whole life cycle. This paper presents a comparative case study between two alternative designs of Banafjäl Bridge: ballast track design and fixed slab track design. The methodology of LCA is utilized as a supporting tool....... The assessment considers the key environmental category of global warming potential from 'cradle to gate', which covers the material production and distribution process. The result shows that the fixed-slab design indicates a better environmental performance than the ballast track design....

  7. The Alternative Design Features for Safety Enhancement in Shutdown Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Hae Cheol; Kim, Myung Ki; Chung, Bag Soon; Seo, Mi Ro

    2009-01-01

    PSA can be used to confirm that the new plant design is complied with the applicable safety goals, and to select among the alternate design options. A shutdown PSA provides insight for outage planning schedule, outage management practices, and design modifications. Considering the results of both LPSD PSA studies and operating experiences for low power and shutdown, the improvements can be proposed to reduce the high risk contribution. The improvements/enhancements during shutdown operation may be divided into categories such as hardware, administrative management, and operational procedure. This paper presents on an example how the risk related to an accidental situation can be reduced, focusing the hardware design changes for the newly designed NPPs

  8. Micromachined gyroscopes: challenges, design solutions, and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkel, Andrei M.

    2001-08-01

    Micromachined gyroscopes are probably the most challenging type of transducers ever attempted to be designed in micro-world. A nail-size dynamic system integrated with control electronics on the same silicon chip is designed to be a very sensitive sensor which is potentially able to detect maneuvers and motions beyond human perception. Along with exciting opportunities which MEMS gyroscopes could bring to everyday life, the miniaturization introduces many new technical challenges. Multi-degree of freedom dynamics, sensitivity to fabrication imperfections, dynamic instability, limited control resources - all these raise a number of fundamentally challenging issues in the design, analysis, and control of micromachined gyroscopes. In this paper, we summarize principles of operation, review recent research and development efforts, and discuss potential applications and the future market of silicon based micromachined gyroscopes.

  9. Designing Solutions using Response Surface Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COMAN Ovidiu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study a design of experiments method was used to obtain the most suitable responses. The variables that occur in the optimization are the movement of a dielectric material on Oy and Oz axis of a waveguide and the microwave power. The responses refer to the thermal field distribution, the reflected power, dielectric's temperature and the absorbed power.

  10. Designing Integrated Product- Service System Solutions in Manufacturing Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Nina; Patrício, Lia; Morelli, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Manufacturing firms are increasingly evolving towards the design of integrated product-service solutions but servitization literature does not provide specific guidance on how to design these integrated solutions. Building upon ProductService System (PSS) and Service Design (SD) approaches......, this paper proposes an integrative method that joins PSS’s systems and network approach with the creative, human-centered, value cocreation approach of SD. The paper also describes the development and application of this method to the creation of integrated solutions for the laboratory industry, highlighting...

  11. Degreasing with detergents in automatic aspersion machine: alternative solution to trichloroethylene; Degraissage lessiviel en machine d'aspersion automatique: solution alternative au trichlorethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lallenec, S. [SNECMA, 75 - Paris (France); Ruimi, M. [SNECMA Moteurs - 27 - Vernon (France)

    2005-07-01

    The taking into account of the toxicological and eco-toxicological risks relative to the use of chlorinated organic solvents oblige the aeronautic and spatial sector to answer to the imposed communal requirements. Consequently, in front of more and more severe environmental measures, the Snecma firm has paid particular attention for ten years to work out a progress actions policy aiming at anticipating the fast evolvement of the European and international legislations. The detergents in automatic aspersion machine is one of the alternative solutions to the organic solvent trichloroethylene; this technique is particularly described in this work. (O.M.)

  12. An alternative LEU design for the FRM-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanan, N.A.; Mo, S.C.; Smith, R.S.; Matos, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    The Alternative LEU Design for the FRM-II proposed by the RERTR Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has a compact core consisting of a single fuel element that uses LEU silicide fuel with a uranium density of 4.5 g/cm 3 and has a power level of 32 MW. Both the HEU design by the Technical University of Munich (TUM) and the alternative LEU design by ANL have the same fuel lifetime (50 days) and the same neutron flux performance. LEU silicide fuel with 4.5 g/cm 3 has been thoroughly tested and is fully-qualified, licensable, and available now for use in a high flux reactor such as the FRM-II. The following issues raised by TUM were addressed in Ref. 1: qualification of HEU and LEU silicide fuels, gamma heating in the heavy water reflector, radiological consequences of larger fission product and plutonium inventories in the LEU core, and cost and schedule. The conclusions of these analyses are summarized below. This paper addresses three additional safety issues that were raised by TUM in Ref. 2: stability of the involute fuel plates, a hypothetical accident involving the configuration of the reflector, and a loss of primary coolant flow transient due to an interrupted power supply. Based on the excellent results for the Alternative LEU Design that were obtained in these analyses, the RERTR Program concludes that all of the major technical issues regarding use of LEU fuel instead of HEU fuel in the FRM-II have been successfully resolved and that it is definitely feasible to use LEU fuel in the FRM-II without compromising the safety or performance of the facility

  13. Alternative Solution for Consumption Hot Water Recirculation for the Civil Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodor Mateescu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The sanitary comfort and the effective cost of maintenance in the civil buildings (block of flats are badly affected by the absence of the consumption hot water recirculation. From the technical point of view, the classical solution imposes the doubling of the transport and distribution pipes on the entire route, between the source and the consumption points. The materialization of the solution requires important financial investment, discouraging most of the time and the postponement of the problem solving with important consequences. This paper proposes an alternative technical solution which limits to a minimum the intervention, only in the interior hot water distribution system.

  14. Risk Sensitivity, Independence of Irrelevant Alternatives and Continuity of Bargaining Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B.M. de Koster (René); H.J.M. Peters (Hans); S.H. Tijs; P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    1983-01-01

    textabstractBargaining solutions are considered which have the following four properties: individual rationality, Pareto optimality, independence of equivalent utility representations, and independence of irrelevant alternatives. A main result of this paper is a simple proof of the fact that all

  15. LARM PKM solutions for torso design in humanoid robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarelli, Marco

    2014-12-01

    Human-like torso features are essential in humanoid robots. In this paper problems for design and operation of solutions for a robotic torso are discussed by referring to experiences and designs that have been developed at Laboratory of Robotics and Mechatronics (LARM) in Cassino, Italy. A new solution is presented with conceptual views as waist-trunk structure that makes a proper partition of the performance for walking and arm operations as sustained by a torso.

  16. Arizona Public Service - Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James E. Francfort

    2003-12-01

    Hydrogen has promise to be the fuel of the future. Its use as a chemical reagent and as a rocket propellant has grown to over eight million metric tons per year in the United States. Although use of hydrogen is abundant, it has not been used extensively as a transportation fuel. To assess the viability of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and the viability of producing hydrogen using off-peak electric energy, Pinnacle West Capital Corporation (PNW) and its electric utility subsidiary, Arizona Public Service (APS) designed, constructed, and operates a hydrogen and compressed natural gas fueling station—the APS Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant. This report summarizes the design of the APS Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant and presents lessons learned from its design and construction. Electric Transportation Applications prepared this report under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory manages these activities for the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity.

  17. Design as co-evolution of problem, solution, and audience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halstrøm, Per Liljenberg; Galle, Per

    2014-01-01

    design beyond the level of definitions, reviewing canonical theories about design as a professional enterprise. We find that the well-established theoretical notion of ‘co-evolution’ of problem and solution in design has its merits in regard to understanding design deliberations; but also that existing......The meaning of ‘design’ can be captured in a general way by a good definition, but even the best definition cannot provide an understanding sufficiently deep to guide the professional designer or the student of design in the intricate deliberations of doing design in practice. Therefore we explore...

  18. Human factors in design modifications: panel alternative stop in Almaraz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, Y.; Bote, J.

    2015-01-01

    Human Factors Engineering has acquired a crucial role in the development of any design modification (DM), where every aspect relative to any interaction with the human user has to be taken into account at any stage thereof. Considering this, during the last years, Almaraz Nuclear Powe Plants has developed a program of Human Factors Engineering in order to reach the internationally recognized standards or systematic collected on NUREG 0711 Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model (NRC). One of the most important projects of this program at Almaraz Nuclear Power Plant has been the implementation of the Alternative Stop Panel and their corresponding Transfer Panels. (Author)

  19. Improving conditions for reuse of design solutions - by means of a context based solution library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Grothe-Møller, Thorkild; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    1997-01-01

    Among the most important reasoning mechanisms in design is reasoning by analogy. One precondition for being able to reason about the properties and functionalitues of a product or subsystem is that the context of the solution is known. This paper presents a computer based solution library where...

  20. Alternative bipolar plates design and manufacturing for PEM fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Chang Chuan; Norhamidi Muhamad; Jaafar Sahari

    2006-01-01

    Bipolar plates is one of the important components in fuel cell stack, it comprise up to 80% of the stack volume. Traditionally, these plates have been fabricated from graphite, owing to its chemical nobility, and high electrical and thermal conductivity; but these plates are brittle and relatively thick. Therefore increasing the stack volume and size. Alternatives to graphite are carbon-carbon composite, carbon-polymer composite and metal (aluminum, stainless steel, titanium and nickel based alloy). The use of coated and uncoated metal bipolar plates has received attention recently due to the simplicity of plate manufacturing. The thin nature of the metal substrate allows for smaller stack design with reduced weight. Lightweight coated metals as alternative to graphite plate is being developed. Beside the traditional method of machining and slurry molding, metal foam for bipolar plates fabrication seems to be a good alternative. The plates will be produced with titanium powder by Powder Metallurgy method using space holders technique to produce the meal foam flow-field. This work intends to facilitate the materials and manufacturing process requirements to produce cost effective foamed bipolar plates for fuel cell

  1. Total System Performance Assessment: Enhanced Design Alternative IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.D. Mattie

    1999-06-23

    The purpose of this calculation is to document total system performance assessment modeling of Enhanced Design Alternative (EDA) Feature IV. Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) calculations for EDA IV are based on the TSPA-VA Base Case which has been modified with a quartz sand invert, quartz sand backfill, line loading and 21 PWR waste packages that have 2-cm thick titanium grade 7 corrosion resistant material (CRM) drip shields that are placed over a 30 cm thick carbon steel (A5 16) waste package with an integral filler material (CRWMS M&O 1999a & 1999b). This document details the changes and assumptions made to the VA reference Performance Assessment Model (CRWMS M&O 1998a) to incorporate the design changes detailed for EDA IV. The performance measure for this evaluation is the expected value dose-rate history at 20 km from the repository boundary.

  2. Rational solutions of the discrete time Toda lattice and the alternate discrete Painleve II equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Common, Alan K; Hone, Andrew N W

    2008-01-01

    The Yablonskii-Vorob'ev polynomials y n (t), which are defined by a second-order bilinear differential-difference equation, provide rational solutions of the Toda lattice. They are also polynomial tau-functions for the rational solutions of the second Painleve equation (P II ). Here we define two-variable polynomials Y n (t, h) on a lattice with spacing h, by considering rational solutions of the discrete time Toda lattice as introduced by Suris. These polynomials are shown to have many properties that are analogous to those of the Yablonskii-Vorob'ev polynomials, to which they reduce when h = 0. They also provide rational solutions for a particular discretization of P II , namely the so-called alternate discrete P II , and this connection leads to an expression in terms of the Umemura polynomials for the third Painleve equation (P III ). It is shown that the Baecklund transformation for the alternate discrete Painleve equation is a symplectic map, and the shift in time is also symplectic. Finally we present a Lax pair for the alternate discrete P II , which recovers Jimbo and Miwa's Lax pair for P II in the continuum limit h → 0

  3. On solution to the problem of criticality by alternative MONTE CARLO method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyncl, J.

    2005-01-01

    The contribution deals with solution to the problem of criticality for neutron transport equation. The problem is transformed to equivalent one in a suitable set of complex functions and existence and uniqueness of its solution is shown. Then the source iteration method of the solution is discussed. It is pointed out that final result of iterative process is strongly affected by the fact that individual iterations are not computed with sufficient accuracy. To avoid this problem a modified method of the solution is suggested and presented. The modification is based on results of the theory of positive operators and problem of criticality is solved by Monte Carlo method constructing special random process and variable so that differences between results obtained and the exact ones would be arbitrarily small. Efficiency of this alternative method is analysed as well (Author)

  4. SOLUTIONS AND MEANS OF ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORT IN THE CONCEPT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CATALIN POPESCU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to achieve an overview of innovative initiatives on alternative transport in recent years in the context of increasing emissions of greenhouse gases. In this context are presented the main problems caused by motorized traffic in the urban agglomerations. Also, there are mentioned measures that could be implemented in busy urban areas. On this occasion are mentioned both new technical solutions and new means of alternative transport type. Additional, specific projects and programs are highlighted using bicycle transportation. There are mentioned initiatives regarding urban transportation completed in European projects such as: CIVITAS, EFFECTS etc. The examples and figures are mainly focused on Romania.

  5. Total System Performance Assessment: Enhanced Design Alternative V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N. Erb; S. Miller; V. Vallikat

    1999-01-01

    This calculation documents the total system performance assessment modeling of Enhanced Design Analysis (EDA) V. EDA V is based on the TSPA-VA base design which has been modified with higher thermal loading, a quartz sand invert, and line loading with 21 PWR waste packages that have 2-cm thick titanium grade 7 corrosion resistance material (CRM) drip shields placed over dual-layer waste packages composed of 'inside out' VA reference material (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This document details the changes and assumptions made to the VA reference Performance Assessment Model (CRWMS M and O 1998a) to incorporate the design changes detailed for EDA V. The performance measure for this evaluation is expected value dose-rate history. Time histories of dose rate are presented for EDA V and a Defense in Depth (DID) analysis base on EDA V. Additional details concerning the Enhanced Design Alternative II are provided in the 'LADS 3-12 Requests' interoffice correspondence (CRWMS M and O 1999a)

  6. Android design patterns interaction design solutions for developers

    CERN Document Server

    Nudelman, Greg

    2013-01-01

    Master the challenges of Android user interface development with these sample patterns With Android 4, Google brings the full power of its Android OS to both smartphone and tablet computing. Designing effective user interfaces that work on multiple Android devices is extremely challenging. This book provides more than 75 patterns that you can use to create versatile user interfaces for both smartphones and tablets, saving countless hours of development time. Patterns cover the most common and yet difficult types of user interactions, and each is supported with richly illustrate

  7. Design principles for radiation-resistant solid solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Thomas; Trinkle, Dallas R.; Bellon, Pascal; Averback, Robert

    2017-05-01

    We develop a multiscale approach to quantify the increase in the recombined fraction of point defects under irradiation resulting from dilute solute additions to a solid solution. This methodology provides design principles for radiation-resistant materials. Using an existing database of solute diffusivities, we identify Sb as one of the most efficient solutes for this purpose in a Cu matrix. We perform density-functional-theory calculations to obtain binding and migration energies of Sb atoms, vacancies, and self-interstitial atoms in various configurations. The computed data informs the self-consistent mean-field formalism to calculate transport coefficients, allowing us to make quantitative predictions of the recombined fraction of point defects as a function of temperature and irradiation rate using homogeneous rate equations. We identify two different mechanisms according to which solutes lead to an increase in the recombined fraction of point defects; at low temperature, solutes slow down vacancies (kinetic effect), while at high temperature, solutes stabilize vacancies in the solid solution (thermodynamic effect). Extension to other metallic matrices and solutes are discussed.

  8. QR Code, Face Recognition, and Google Location as Alternative Solution for Employee's Attendance in Small Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Wongso, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    RFID and biometric time attendance have been used to taking employee's attendances in attendances. But they have disadvantage which is cost a lot in terms of prices when need to be used in several places at the same time. An alternative solution was given by using android application which utilizing QR-Code, Face Recognition, and Google Map Location technologies implemented in smartphone to taking employee's attendances. A test for this system was conduct on one of private colouring studios i...

  9. Screening of one-well hydraulic barrier design alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Hillel; Shoemaker, Christine A; Köngeter, Jürgen

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This study develops a robust method for screening one-well hydraulic barrier design alternatives that can be easily computed without a numerical simulation model. The paper outlines the general method and shows its implementation with hydraulic barriers using a single pumping well. For such barriers, the method is easily computable with spreadsheets and/or charts depicted within the paper and posted online. The method applies the potential flow theory, which leads to using a curvilinear coordinate system for all types of calculations. For contaminant transport calculations, the method applies the boundary layer theory. For calculations of aquifer remediation, the method refers to bulk characteristics of the domain. As an example, the method has been applied to calculate the possible containment of a wide part of the coastal plain aquifer in Israel, which is contaminated by entrapped kerosene (a light nonaqueous phase liquid).

  10. Collaborative Problem-solution Co-evolution in Creative Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiltschnig, Stefan; Christensen, Bo; J. Ball, Linden

    2013-01-01

    . The analysis revealed that co-evolution episodes occurred regularly and embodied various directional transitions between problem and solution spaces. Moreover, the team leader often initiated this co-evolution. Co-evolution episodes linked with other creative activities such as analogising and mental......Creative design concepts are often viewed as developing iteratively, with the design problem and solutions ‘co-evolving’ in a mutually adaptive manner. We report a study examining whether the co-evolution concept captures the creativity arising in collaborative, team-based design practice...... simulation and there was a clear association between co-evolution and expressions of epistemic uncertainty, suggesting that designers were dealing with considerable complexity and ambiguity. Our findings support the view that co-evolution is the ‘engine’ of creativity in collaborative design....

  11. Incorporating alternative design clinical trials in network meta-analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorlund K

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kristian Thorlund,1–3 Eric Druyts,1,4 Kabirraaj Toor,1,5 Jeroen P Jansen,1,6 Edward J Mills1,3 1Redwood Outcomes, Vancouver, BC, 2Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; 3Stanford Prevention Research Center, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA; 4Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, 5School of Population and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 6Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA Introduction: Network meta-analysis (NMA is an extension of conventional pairwise meta-analysis that allows for simultaneous comparison of multiple interventions. Well-established drug class efficacies have become commonplace in many disease areas. Thus, for reasons of ethics and equipoise, it is not practical to randomize patients to placebo or older drug classes. Unique randomized clinical trial designs are an attempt to navigate these obstacles. These alternative designs, however, pose challenges when attempting to incorporate data into NMAs. Using ulcerative colitis as an example, we illustrate an example of a method where data provided by these trials are used to populate treatment networks. Methods: We present the methods used to convert data from the PURSUIT trial into a typical parallel design for inclusion in our NMA. Data were required for three arms: golimumab 100 mg; golimumab 50 mg; and placebo. Golimumab 100 mg induction data were available; however, data regarding those individuals who were nonresponders at induction and those who were responders at maintenance were not reported, and as such, had to be imputed using data from the rerandomization phase. Golimumab 50 mg data regarding responses at week 6 were not available. Existing relationships between the available components were used to impute the expected proportions in this missing subpopulation. Data for placebo maintenance

  12. Titanium Implant Osseointegration Problems with Alternate Solutions Using Epoxy/Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C. Petersen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to present recent developments in material research with bisphenyl-polymer/carbon-fiber-reinforced composite that have produced highly influential results toward improving upon current titanium bone implant clinical osseointegration success. Titanium is now the standard intra-oral tooth root/bone implant material with biocompatible interface relationships that confer potential osseointegration. Titanium produces a TiO2 oxide surface layer reactively that can provide chemical bonding through various electron interactions as a possible explanation for biocompatibility. Nevertheless, titanium alloy implants produce corrosion particles and fail by mechanisms generally related to surface interaction on bone to promote an inflammation with fibrous aseptic loosening or infection that can require implant removal. Further, lowered oxygen concentrations from poor vasculature at a foreign metal surface interface promote a build-up of host-cell-related electrons as free radicals and proton acid that can encourage infection and inflammation to greatly influence implant failure. To provide improved osseointegration many different coating processes and alternate polymer matrix composite (PMC solutions have been considered that supply new designing potential to possibly overcome problems with titanium bone implants. Now for important consideration, PMCs have decisive biofunctional fabrication possibilities while maintaining mechanical properties from addition of high-strengthening varied fiber-reinforcement and complex fillers/additives to include hydroxyapatite or antimicrobial incorporation through thermoset polymers that cure at low temperatures. Topics/issues reviewed in this manuscript include titanium corrosion, implant infection, coatings and the new epoxy/carbon-fiber implant results discussing osseointegration with biocompatibility related to nonpolar molecular attractions with secondary bonding, carbon fiber in vivo

  13. Titanium Implant Osseointegration Problems with Alternate Solutions Using Epoxy/Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Richard C

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the article is to present recent developments in material research with bisphenyl-polymer/carbon-fiber-reinforced composite that have produced highly influential results toward improving upon current titanium bone implant clinical osseointegration success. Titanium is now the standard intra-oral tooth root/bone implant material with biocompatible interface relationships that confer potential osseointegration. Titanium produces a TiO 2 oxide surface layer reactively that can provide chemical bonding through various electron interactions as a possible explanation for biocompatibility. Nevertheless, titanium alloy implants produce corrosion particles and fail by mechanisms generally related to surface interaction on bone to promote an inflammation with fibrous aseptic loosening or infection that can require implant removal. Further, lowered oxygen concentrations from poor vasculature at a foreign metal surface interface promote a build-up of host-cell-related electrons as free radicals and proton acid that can encourage infection and inflammation to greatly influence implant failure. To provide improved osseointegration many different coating processes and alternate polymer matrix composite (PMC) solutions have been considered that supply new designing potential to possibly overcome problems with titanium bone implants. Now for important consideration, PMCs have decisive biofunctional fabrication possibilities while maintaining mechanical properties from addition of high-strengthening varied fiber-reinforcement and complex fillers/additives to include hydroxyapatite or antimicrobial incorporation through thermoset polymers that cure at low temperatures. Topics/issues reviewed in this manuscript include titanium corrosion, implant infection, coatings and the new epoxy/carbon-fiber implant results discussing osseointegration with biocompatibility related to nonpolar molecular attractions with secondary bonding, carbon fiber in vivo properties, electrical

  14. Alternative Ultrasound Gel for a Sustainable Ultrasound Program: Application of Human Centered Design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Salmon

    Full Text Available This paper describes design of a low cost, ultrasound gel from local products applying aspects of Human Centered Design methodology. A multidisciplinary team worked with clinicians who use ultrasound where commercial gel is cost prohibitive and scarce. The team followed the format outlined in the Ideo Took Kit. Research began by defining the challenge "how to create locally available alternative ultrasound gel for a low-resourced environment? The "End-Users," were identified as clinicians who use ultrasound in Democratic Republic of the Congo and Ethiopia. An expert group was identified and queried for possible alternatives to commercial gel. Responses included shampoo, oils, water and cornstarch. Cornstarch, while a reasonable solution, was either not available or too expensive. We then sought deeper knowledge of locally sources materials from local experts, market vendors, to develop a similar product. Suggested solutions gleaned from these interviews were collected and used to create ultrasound gel accounting for cost, image quality, manufacturing capability. Initial prototypes used cassava root flour from Great Lakes Region (DRC, Rwanda, Uganda, Tanzania and West Africa, and bula from Ethiopia. Prototypes were tested in the field and resulting images evaluated by our user group. A final prototype was then selected. Cassava and bula at a 32 part water, 8 part flour and 4 part salt, heated, mixed then cooled was the product design of choice.

  15. Alternative Ultrasound Gel for a Sustainable Ultrasound Program: Application of Human Centered Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Margaret; Salmon, Christian; Bissinger, Alexa; Muller, Mundenga Mutendi; Gebreyesus, Alegnta; Geremew, Haimanot; Wendel, Sarah K; Wendell, Sarah; Azaza, Aklilu; Salumu, Maurice; Benfield, Nerys

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes design of a low cost, ultrasound gel from local products applying aspects of Human Centered Design methodology. A multidisciplinary team worked with clinicians who use ultrasound where commercial gel is cost prohibitive and scarce. The team followed the format outlined in the Ideo Took Kit. Research began by defining the challenge "how to create locally available alternative ultrasound gel for a low-resourced environment? The "End-Users," were identified as clinicians who use ultrasound in Democratic Republic of the Congo and Ethiopia. An expert group was identified and queried for possible alternatives to commercial gel. Responses included shampoo, oils, water and cornstarch. Cornstarch, while a reasonable solution, was either not available or too expensive. We then sought deeper knowledge of locally sources materials from local experts, market vendors, to develop a similar product. Suggested solutions gleaned from these interviews were collected and used to create ultrasound gel accounting for cost, image quality, manufacturing capability. Initial prototypes used cassava root flour from Great Lakes Region (DRC, Rwanda, Uganda, Tanzania) and West Africa, and bula from Ethiopia. Prototypes were tested in the field and resulting images evaluated by our user group. A final prototype was then selected. Cassava and bula at a 32 part water, 8 part flour and 4 part salt, heated, mixed then cooled was the product design of choice.

  16. Reduction of lead pollution from vehicular emissions in cairo Part 1: Comparison of alternative solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Haggar, S.M.; Saleh, S.K.; El-Kady, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    It has been recognized for decades that the major source of lead pollution is lead additives to automotive fuels. This problem has been countered in most countries in europe and Usa by introducing alternative anti-knock chemicals and unleaded gasoline. In egypt lead is still being added to gasoline in large quantities. However, progress has been made, and unleaded gasoline is currently being produced in Alexandria. Nevertheless, the major pollution problem remains in the Greater Cairo region as indicated by the atmospheric lead levels and the lead blood levels of the children in Cairo. The aim of the present study is to find an optimum solution to this problem. A comparison of the different solutions is conducted in order to come up with the most feasible solution to this urgent problem. In conclusion it has been demonstrated that the elimination of lead additives, with its huge positives effects on the country environment, proved to be profitable. 4 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Engineering Value-Effective Healthcare Solutions: A Systems Design Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patou, François; Maier, Anja

    2017-01-01

    Our modern healthcare systems commonly face an important dilemma. While they depend on innovation to provide continuously greater healthcare value, they also struggle financially with the burden of adopting a continuous flow of new products and services. Although several disruptive healthcare...... of Design for Evolvability and by elaborating on two examples: MRI systems and Point-of-Care in-vitro diagnostics solutions. We specifically argue that Design for Evolvability can realign the agendas of various healthcare stakeholders, serving both individual and national interests. We finally acknowledge...... the limitations of current engineering design practices and call for new theoretical and empirical research initiatives taking a systems perspective on healthcare product and service design....

  18. Crafting decision options and alternatives for designing cultural observation system using general morphological modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaber Moghaddampour

    2018-09-01

    Full Text Available According to connoisseurs, cultural system is encountering a fully new space in future decades and cultural indicators will be exposed by some dangers; for the same reason, cultural observation activities in management dialogue of Iran are emphasized; the concept of “observation” in Iran is facing with challenges including being far from the concepts of futures studies and the focus on “cultural indicators monitoring” while cultural engineering needs foresight and identification of affecting progressive and deterring factors on the culture. The present study aims at providing alternatives to design an observation system by considering the monitoring and scanning simultaneously to bring out strategic and futurist vision for cultural organizations. To this end, the solution space and morphological field of observation (parameters and values by using MA/Carma Viewer software package is designed based on the literature review and forming a five-member expert group and specialized conversations. Upon Internal Consistency Assessment of parameters and by considering some values as drivers, Parameters Activity Check was conducted to study the reactions by other parameters and values. After sense-making and proper understanding of the model behavior, an Inference and “What-If” model were devised; some configurations were studied and provided in order to aware a part of proper alternatives for designing a cultural observation system (two scenarios. Scenario selection is different due to contingencies and conditions of executing the process as well as the users’ needs and goals in cultural observation system and cultural organizations can make decisions and design detailed observation systems by using morphological models, solution space and alternatives provided in the present study and depended on their goals and needs.

  19. NASA Alternative Orion Small Cell Battery Design Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Chuck

    2016-01-01

    and analysis were completed and reviewed for endorsement by NASA Engineering and Safety Center team members. All Key Test Objectives were met and the small cell design alternative was demonstrated and selected to be a feasible drop in replacement for the MPCV Orion CM Battery for EM2 mission.

  20. Chitosan scaffold as an alternative adsorbent for the removal of hazardous food dyes from aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquerdo, V M; Cadaval, T R S; Dotto, G L; Pinto, L A A

    2014-06-15

    The dye adsorption with chitosan is considered an eco-friendly alternative technology in relation to the existing water treatment technologies. However, the application of chitosan for dyes removal is limited, due to its low surface area and porosity. Then we prepared a chitosan scaffold with a megaporous structure as an alternative adsorbent to remove food dyes from solutions. The chitosan scaffold was characterized by infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and structural characteristics. The potential of chitosan scaffold to remove five food dyes from solutions was investigated by equilibrium isotherms and thermodynamic study. The scaffold-dyes interactions were elucidated, and desorption studies were carried out. The chitosan scaffold presented pore sizes from 50 to 200 μm, porosity of 92.2±1.2% and specific surface area of 1135±2 m(2) g(-1). The two-step Langmuir model was suitable to represent the equilibrium data. The adsorption was spontaneous, favorable, exothermic and enthalpy-controlled process. Electrostatic interactions occurred between chitosan scaffold and dyes. Desorption was possible with NaOH solution (0.10 mol L(-1)). The chitosan megaporous scaffold showed good structural characteristics and high adsorption capacities (788-3316 mg g(-1)). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Printing of highly conductive solution by alternating current electrohydrodynamic direct-write

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiaxin; Zheng, Gaofeng; Wang, Xiang; Zheng, Jianyi; Liu, Juan; Liu, Yifang; Li, Wenwang; Guo, Shumin

    2018-03-01

    Electrohydrodynamic Direct-Write (EDW) is a novel technology for the printing of micro/nano structures. In this paper, Alternating Current (AC) electrical field was introduced to improve the ejection stability of jet with highly conductive solution. By alternating the electrical field, the polarity of free charges on the surface of jet was changed and the average density of charge, as well as the repulsive force, was reduced to stabilize the jet. When the frequency of AC electrical field increased, the EDW process became more stable and the shape of deposited droplets became more regular. The diameter of printed droplets decreased and the deposition frequency increased with the increase of voltage frequency. The phenomenon of corona discharge was overcome effectively as well. To further evaluate the performance of AC EDW for highly conductive solution, more NaCl was added to the solution and the conductivity was increased to 2810μs/cm. With such high conductivity, the problem of serious corona discharge could still be prevented by AC EDW, and the diameter of printed droplets decreased significantly. This work provides an effective way to accelerate industrial applications of EDW.

  2. Alternative Filament Loading Solution for Accurate Analysis of Boron Isotopes by Negative Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, G. S.; Vengosh, A.

    2008-12-01

    The negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry technique has become the major tool for investigating boron isotopes in the environment. The high sensitivity of BO2- ionization enables measurements of ng levels of boron. However, B isotope measurement by this technique suffers from two fundamental problems (1) fractionation induced by selective ionization of B isotopes in the mass spectrometer; and (2) CNO- interference on mass 42 that is often present in some load solutions (such as B-free seawater processed through ion-exchange resin). Here we report a potentially improved methodology using an alternative filament loading solution with a recently-installed Thermo Scientific TRITON thermal ionization mass spectrometer. Our initial results suggest that this solution -- prepared by combining high-purity single- element standard solutions of Ca, Mg, Na, and K in proportions similar to those in seawater in a 5% HCl matrix -- may offer significant improvement over some other commonly used load solutions. Total loading blank is around 15pg as determined by isotope dilution (NIST952). Replicate analyses of NIST SRM951 and modern seawater thus far have yielded 11B/10B ratios of 4.0057 (±0.0008, n=14) and 4.1645 (±0.0017, n=7; δ11B=39.6 permil), respectively. Replicate analyses of samples and SRM951 yield an average standard deviation (1 σ) of approximately 0.001 (0.25 permil). Fractionation during analysis (60-90 minutes) has thus far typically been less than 0.002 (0.5 permil). The load solution delivers ionization efficiency similar to directly-loaded seawater and has negligible signal at mass 26 (CN-), a proxy for the common interfering molecular ion (CNO-) on mass 42. Standards and samples loaded with the solution behave fairly predictably during filament heating and analysis, thus allowing for the possibility of fully automated data collection.

  3. Updates since Brown v. Plata: alternative solutions for prison overcrowding in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Christopher; Newman, William J

    2015-03-01

    With the number of inmates under the care of the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation (CDCR) swelling over the past few decades, California faces a challenge. The U.S. Supreme Court ruled in their 2011 decision in Brown v. Plata that overcrowding violates inmates' Eighth Amendment rights, specifically that they are denied adequate medical and mental health care. Federally mandated release programs have historically raised some concerns regarding public safety and fiscal efficiency. Given the large number of mentally ill inmates in the United States, alternatives such as assisted outpatient treatment, mental health courts, and increased funding for substance use treatment can be used proactively to reduce the CDCR population and provide long-term solutions to the overcrowding problem. These alternatives have already shown long-term cost savings in addition to reducing the recidivism of individuals involved and would help provide appropriate diversion for mentally ill individuals. © 2015 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  4. Alternative designs for petroleum product storage tanks for groundwater protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oke Adeleke, Samson

    In developing countries, there are numerous occurrences of petroleum product spillage in groundwater. The current practice of burying storage tanks beneath the surface without adequate safety devices facilitates this phenomenon. Underground tanks rust and leak, and spilled petroleum products migrate downward. The movement of the oil in the soil depends on its viscosity and quantity, the permeability of the soil/rock, and the presence of fractures within the rock. The oil spreads laterally in the form of a thin pancake due to its lower specific gravity, and soluble components dissolve in water. The pollution plume of petroleum products and dissolved phases moves in the direction of groundwater flow in the aquifer within the pores of soil and sediments or along fractures in basement complex areas. Most communities reply heavily on groundwater for potable and industrial supplies. However, the sustainability of this resource is under threat in areas where there are filling stations as a result of significant groundwater contamination from petroleum product spillage. Drinking water becomes unpalatable when it contains petroleum products in low concentrations, and small quantities may contaminate large volumes of water. Considering the losses incurred from spillage, the cost of cleaning the aquifer, and the fact that total cleansing and attenuation is impossible, the need to prevent spillage and if it happens to prevent it from getting into the groundwater system is of paramount importance. This paper proposes alternative design procedures with a view to achieving these objectives.

  5. Alternatives to Anti-Personnel Landmines (Solutions de remplacement aux mines antipersonnel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-05-01

    remplacement ont un prix : elles sont plus pesantes sur le plan logistique et impliquent des risques opérationnels pour les forces de l’OTAN. En...très importante, de l’interopérabilité dans le transfert de secteurs qui ont été minés par un pays non-signataire de la Convention d’Ottawa. Le...SEINE CEDEX, FRANCE RTO TECHNICAL REPORT 40(I) Alternatives to Anti-Personnel Landmines (Solutions de remplacement aux mines antipersonnel) Military

  6. The study, design and simulation of a free piston Stirling engine linear alternatorThe study, design and simulation of a free piston Stirling engine linear alternator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Susana Oros

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study, design and simulation of a Free Piston Stirling Engine Linear Alternator. There are presented the main steps of the magnetic and electric calculations for a permanent magnet linear alternator of fixed coil and moving magnets type. Finally, a detailed thermal, mechanical and electrical model for a Stirling engine linear alternator have been made in SIMULINK simulation program. The linear alternator simulation model uses a controllable DC voltage which simulates the linear alternator combined with a rectifier, a variable load and a DC-DC converter, which compensates for the variable nature of Stirling engine operation, and ensures a constant voltage output regardless of the load.

  7. A Visual Analytics Based Decision Support Methodology For Evaluating Low Energy Building Design Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Ranojoy

    The ability to design high performance buildings has acquired great importance in recent years due to numerous federal, societal and environmental initiatives. However, this endeavor is much more demanding in terms of designer expertise and time. It requires a whole new level of synergy between automated performance prediction with the human capabilities to perceive, evaluate and ultimately select a suitable solution. While performance prediction can be highly automated through the use of computers, performance evaluation cannot, unless it is with respect to a single criterion. The need to address multi-criteria requirements makes it more valuable for a designer to know the "latitude" or "degrees of freedom" he has in changing certain design variables while achieving preset criteria such as energy performance, life cycle cost, environmental impacts etc. This requirement can be met by a decision support framework based on near-optimal "satisficing" as opposed to purely optimal decision making techniques. Currently, such a comprehensive design framework is lacking, which is the basis for undertaking this research. The primary objective of this research is to facilitate a complementary relationship between designers and computers for Multi-Criterion Decision Making (MCDM) during high performance building design. It is based on the application of Monte Carlo approaches to create a database of solutions using deterministic whole building energy simulations, along with data mining methods to rank variable importance and reduce the multi-dimensionality of the problem. A novel interactive visualization approach is then proposed which uses regression based models to create dynamic interplays of how varying these important variables affect the multiple criteria, while providing a visual range or band of variation of the different design parameters. The MCDM process has been incorporated into an alternative methodology for high performance building design referred to as

  8. Optimal Design Solutions for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPESCU, M.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents optimal design solutions for reducing the cogging torque of permanent magnets synchronous machines. A first solution proposed in the paper consists in using closed stator slots that determines a nearly isotropic magnetic structure of the stator core, reducing the mutual attraction between permanent magnets and the slotted armature. To avoid complications in the windings manufacture technology the stator slots are closed using wedges made of soft magnetic composite materials. The second solution consists in properly choosing the combination of pole number and stator slots number that typically leads to a winding with fractional number of slots/pole/phase. The proposed measures for cogging torque reduction are analyzed by means of 2D/3D finite element models developed using the professional Flux software package. Numerical results are discussed and compared with experimental ones obtained by testing a PMSM prototype.

  9. RIP INPUT TABLES FROM WAPDEG FOR LA DESIGN SELECTION: ENHANCED DESIGN ALTERNATIVE V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. Mon

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to document (1) the Waste Package Degradation (WAPDEG) version 3.09 (CRWMS M and O 1998b, Software Routine Report for WAPDEG (Version 3.09)) simulations used to analyze degradation and failure of 2-cm thick titanium grade 7 corrosion resistant material (CRM) drip shields (that are placed over waste packages composed of a 2-cm thick Alloy 22 corrosion resistant material (CRM) as the outer barrier and an unspecified material to provide structural support as the inner barrier) as well as degradation and failure of the waste packages themselves, and (2) post-processing of these results into tables of drip shield/waste package degradation time histories suitable for use as input into the Integrated Probabilistic Simulator for Environmental Systems (RIP) version 5.19.01 (Golder Associates 1998) computer code. Performance credit of the inner barrier material is not taken in this calculation. This calculation supports Performance Assessment analysis of the License Application Design Selection (LADS) Enhanced Design Alternative V. Additional details concerning the Enhanced Design Alternative V are provided in a Design Input Request (CRWMS M and O 1999e, Design Input Request for LADS Phase II EDA Evaluations, Item 3)

  10. Designing a Construction Service Using Service Design : Case Study: Sealing Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Nyblom, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor’s thesis was to create a new service using service design methods for Sealing Solutions LLC, a construction services company in the Upstate of South Carolina, USA. The main goal of the thesis was to use service design methods to create a new consumer service for Sealing Solutions that increases the number of jobs won through the free basement inspection program, improves customer satisfaction in post sales, and reduces the strain on management in managing the basement...

  11. Design of non-molecular coordination solids from aqueous solution ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. Chem. Sci. Vol. 126, No. 5, September 2014, pp. 1433–1442. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Design of non-molecular coordination solids from aqueous solution: [Cu. II. LnX(H2O)], where X=SO4, Cl or H2O and L=pyrazole, imidazole or glutamic acid and n=1 or 4. VINEET KUMARa, ARITRA KUNDUa, MONIKA SINGHa,.

  12. Potential of Cinnamon Oil Emulsions as Alternative Washing Solutions of Carrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Chen, Huaiqiong; Critzer, Faith; Davidson, P Michael; Zhong, Qixin

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of cinnamon oil emulsions as alternative washing solutions to improve the microbial safety of carrots. Whey protein concentrate (WPC), gum arabic (GA), lecithin, and their combinations were used to prepare cinnamon oil emulsions. The emulsions were characterized for their hydrodynamic diameter (D h ) during 7 days of storage and their antimicrobial activity against cocktails of Salmonella enterica , Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes . The D h of the emulsion prepared with the GA+WPC blend did not change significantly (195.0 to 184.1 nm), whereas all other emulsions showed varying degrees of increases in D h . Compared with free cinnamon oil dissolved in 5% ethanol, all emulsions showed similar or lower MICs and MBCs. Emulsions prepared with GA and equal masses of GA and WPC were chosen and diluted to 0.2 and 0.5% cinnamon oil to wash carrots that were surface inoculated with bacterial cocktails because of their lower MICs and MBCs than free oil. Emulsions resulted in significantly higher reductions of pathogens on carrots than free cinnamon oil, 3.0 to 3.7 versus 2.1 to 2.3 log CFU/g at 0.5% cinnamon oil and 2.0 to 3.0 versus 1.0 to 1.7 log CFU/g at 0.2% cinnamon oil. No transfer of bacteria from inoculated carrots to wash solutions and no effects of organic load on log reductions were only observed for wash treatments with 0.5% emulsified cinnamon oil. Thus, the cinnamon oil emulsions are potential alternative postharvest washing solutions for fresh produce production.

  13. BIM Application to Select Appropriate Design Alternative with Consideration of LCA and LCCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-su Shin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Advancements in building materials and technology have led to the rapid development of various design solutions. At the same time, life cycle assessment (LCA and life cycle cost analysis (LCCA of such solutions have become a great burden to engineers and project managers. To help conduct LCA and LCCA conveniently, this study (i analyzed the information needed to conduct LCA and LCCA, (ii evaluated a way to obtain such information in an easy and accurate manner using a building information modeling tool, and (iii developed an Excel spreadsheet-based framework that allowed for the simultaneous implementation of LCA and LCCA. The framework developed for LCA and LCCA was applied to a real building case to evaluate three possible alternatives for an external skin system. The framework could easily and accurately determine which skin system had good properties in terms of the LCA and LCCA performance. Therefore, these results are expected to assist in decision making based on the perspectives of economic and environmental performances in the early phases of a project, where various alternatives can be created and evaluated.

  14. Cost-benefit analysis of alternative fuels and motive designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    This project was funded by the Federal Railroad Administration to better understand the potential cost and benefits of using alternative fuels for U.S. freight and passenger locomotive operations. The framework for a decision model was developed by T...

  15. On solution to the problem of criticality by alternative Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyncl, J.

    2005-03-01

    The problem of criticality for the neutron transport equation is analyzed. The problem is transformed into an equivalent problem in a suitable set of complex functions, and the existence and uniqueness of its solution is demonstrated. The source iteration method is discussed. It is shown that the final result of the iterative process is strongly affected by the insufficient accuracy of the individual iterations. A modified method is suggested to circumvent this problem based on the theory of positive operators; the criticality problem is solved by the Monte Carlo method constructing special random process and variable so that the difference between the result and the true value can be arbitrarily small. The efficiency of this alternative method is analysed

  16. Mounting of a group of Chinese scrolls from the Camilo Pessanha collection: an alternative solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel J. L. Lourenço

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is presented an alternative mounting solution that was developed after the treatment of a group of twelve Chinese scrolls of paintings and calligraphy. These art works are part of the Camilo Pessanha (1867 – 1926 collection that belongs to the Museu Nacional de Machado de Castro, and are currently on loan to the Museu do Oriente in Lisbon. The mounting of these scrolls was part of a project that was managed by the Fundação Oriente, and was supervised and carried out at the paper conservation and restoration department of the Instituto dos Museus e da Conservação. Issues pertaining to exhibition, environmental factors, handling and storage of oriental scrolls are discussed.

  17. Solution-Processed Rare-Earth Oxide Thin Films for Alternative Gate Dielectric Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jiaqing; Sun, Qi-Jun; Zhou, Ye; Han, Su-Ting; Zhou, Li; Yan, Yan; Peng, Haiyan; Venkatesh, Shishir; Wu, Wei; Li, Robert K Y; Roy, V A L

    2016-11-16

    Previous investigations on rare-earth oxides (REOs) reveal their high possibility as dielectric films in electronic devices, while complicated physical methods impede their developments and applications. Herein, we report a facile route to fabricate 16 REOs thin insulating films through a general solution process and their applications in low-voltage thin-film transistors as dielectrics. The formation and properties of REOs thin films are analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), spectroscopic ellipsometry, water contact angle measurement, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), and electrical characterizations, respectively. Ultrasmooth, amorphous, and hydrophilic REO films with thickness around 10 nm have been obtained through a combined spin-coating and postannealing method. The compositional analysis results reveal the formation of RE hydrocarbonates on the surface and silicates at the interface of REOs films annealed on Si substrate. The dielectric properties of REO films are investigated by characterizing capacitors with a Si/Ln 2 O 3 /Au (Ln = La, Gd, and Er) structure. The observed low leakage current densities and large areal capacitances indicate these REO films can be employed as alternative gate dielectrics in transistors. Thus, we have successfully fabricated a series of low-voltage organic thin-film transistors based on such sol-gel derived REO films to demonstrate their application in electronics. The optimization of REOs dielectrics in transistors through further surface modification has also been studied. The current study provides a simple solution process approach to fabricate varieties of REOs insulating films, and the results reveal their promising applications as alternative gate dielectrics in thin-film transistors.

  18. Implementing a method of screening one-well hydraulic barrier design alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Hillel; Shoemaker, Christine A; Köngeter, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    This article provides details of applying the method developed by the authors (Rubin et al. 2008b) for screening one-well hydraulic barrier design alternatives. The present article with its supporting information (manual and electronic spreadsheets with a case history example) provides the reader complete details and examples of solving the set of nonlinear equations developed by Rubin et al. (2008b). It allows proper use of the analytical solutions and also depicting the various charts given by Rubin et al. (2008b). The final outputs of the calculations are the required position and the discharge of the pumping well. If the contaminant source is nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) entrapped within the aquifer, then the method provides an estimate of the aquifer remediation progress (which is a by-product) due to operating the hydraulic barrier.

  19. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF AUGMENTATIVE AND ALTERNATIVE DIGITAL HOME CONTROL INTERFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Pastorino

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An inquiry of the National Statistics Institute of Spain shows that 74% of the Spanish population with disabilities suffers some kind of limitation performing Daily Basic Activities, while 1.39 million cannot perform them at all without the assistance of specialized personnel. Digital Home Systems could mitigate disabled people’s difficulties to carry out those activities, giving the opportunity to manage home appliances through a single control. Digital Home Systems have to provide specific and adapted control interfaces based on Augmentative and Alternative Communication languages in order to be an efficient solution to the problem and to allow most vulnerable groups of people with disabilities to reach the highest level of autonomy.  This paper describes a Digital Home Interface capable of adapting layouts, styles and contents to device capability, user preferences and appliances’ features; designed with a combination of web technologies, standard languages for abstract interface definition and AAC systems.

  20. Designing a total data solution technology, implementation, and deployment

    CERN Document Server

    Burkey, Roxanne

    2000-01-01

    Your company's global competitiveness depends on the utilization and maintenance of information. Current data handling practices-storing, updating, and accessing data-can be either a problem or a significant strategic advantage for your company. Designing a Total Data Storage Solution: Technology, Implementation, and Deployment gives you the information you need to compare current technologies and determine which is best suited to your enterprise.This book defines and explains the components that make up total cost of ownership along with the impact of integrating current changes in technology

  1. Energy savings solutions: passive solar design in Iranian cold climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nassehzadeh Tabriz, Shahram [Department of Architecture, Miyaneh Branch, Islamic Azad University (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], email: sh_nassehzadeh@m-iau.ac.ir; Mahdavi Tabatabaei Fard, Fariborz [SABAT TARH CO. (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], email: sabat_arc@yahoo.com; Aliyev, Fagan [International Eco-energy Academy (Azerbaijan)], email: ie_academy@yahoo.com

    2011-07-01

    In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the cost of fuel gas, fuel oil and electricity and much thought has been given to the use of solar energy. Living in a solar heated house gives peace of mind and body and it makes good sense in mountainous regions. Severe winters in such regions make more energy for standard living activities in buildings necessary. This paper discusses passive solar building design as an energy saving solution. In this type of design, windows, walls and floors act as storage and distribution devices for solar energy in winter and deflect solar heat in summer. Passive solar design techniques influence the choice of building site, design and materials within the general framework of enriching the quality of life of the inhabitants. As a result, natural resources are saved and the environment is conserved for future generations. In conclusion, it is seen that passive design keeps a home cool and comfortable in summer and warm and cozy in winter with minimal heating and cooling requirements.

  2. Solution structures of proteins from NMR data and modeling: Alternative folds for neutrophil peptide 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, R.M.; Bassolino, D.A.; Kitchen, D.B.; Pardi, A.

    1989-01-01

    The structure of neutrophil peptide 5 in solution has recently reported. The structure determination was accomplished by using a distance geometry algorithm and 107 interproton distances constrains obtained from 2D NMR data. In each of the eight independent solutions to the distance geometry equations, the overall fold of the polypeptide backbone was identical and the root mean square (rms) deviation between backbone atoms of the superimposed structures was small. In this paper the authors report additional NP-5 structures obtained by using a new structure generation algorithm: a Monte Carlo search in torsion angle space. These structures have a large rms backbone deviation from the distance geometry structures. The backbone topologies differ in significant respects from the distance geometry structures and from each other. Structures are found that are pseudo mirror images of part or all of the fold corresponding to that first obtained with the distance geometry procedure. The results demonstrate that the previously accepted criteria for defining the accuracy and precision of a peptide structure generated from NMR data are inadequate. An energetic analysis of structures corresponding to the different folding topologies has been carried out. The molecular mechanics energies obtained by minimization and molecular dynamics refinement provide sufficient information to eliminate certain alternative structures. On the basis of a careful comparison of the different trial structures with the experimental data, it is concluded that the NP-5 peptide fold which was originally reported is most consistent with the data

  3. Designing e-learning solutions with a client centred approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Nielsen, Janni; Levinsen, Karin

    2008-01-01

      This paper claims that the strategies applied in designing e-learning solutions tend to focus on how to proceed after the precondition, e.g., learners requirements, pedagogical choice, etc., have been decided upon. Investigating the HCI research field, we find that the methodological approaches...... as the organisation that has initiated the e-learning project and needs to manage the e-learning system after its development. Through the Client Centred Design and in close collaboration with the client, three strategic issues are uncovered and strategic models are presented for each. These models are complementary...... perspectives in a Client Centred framework that is useable as the starting point for others in developing large scale e-learning projects....

  4. Values-led Participatory Design as a pursuit of meaningful alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leong, Tuck Wah; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    2015-01-01

    Participatory Design (PD) is inherently concerned with inquiring into and supporting human values when designing IT. We argue that a PD approach that is led by a focus upon participants' values can allow participants to discover meaningful alternatives -- alternative uses and alternative...... conceptualizations for IT that are particularly meaningful to them. However, how PD works with values in the design process has not been made explicit. In this paper, we aim to (i) explicate this values-led PD approach, (ii) illustrate how this approach can lead to outcomes that are meaningful alternatives, and (iii...

  5. RIP Input Tables from WAPDEG for LA Design Selection: Enhanced Design Alternative II-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A.M. Monib

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to document (1) the Waste Package Degradation (WAPDEG) version 3.09 (CRWMS M and O 1998b. ''Software Routine Report for WAPDEG'' (Version 3.09)) simulations used to analyze degradation and failure of 2-cm thick titanium grade 7 corrosion resistant material (CRM) drip shields (that are placed over waste packages composed of a 2-cm thick Alloy 22 corrosion resistant material (CRM) as the outer barrier and an unspecified material to provide structural support as the inner barrier) as well as degradation and failure of the waste packages themselves, and (2) post-processing of these results into tables of drip shield/waste package degradation time histories suitable for use as input into the Integrated Probabilistic Simulator for Environmental Systems (RIP) version 5.19.01 (Golder Associates 1998) computer code. This calculation supports Performance Assessment analysis of the License Application Design Selection (LADS) Enhanced Design Alternative (EDA) II-3. The aging period in the EDA II design (CRWMS M and O 1999f. ''Design Input Request for LADS Phase II EDA Evaluations'', Item 1 Row 9 Column 3) was replaced in the case of EDA II-3 with 25 years preclosure ventilation, leading to a total of 50 years preclosure ventilation. The waste packages are line loaded in the repository and no backfill is used

  6. An alternative retainer design for cleft patients: the "aesthetic" retainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Joanne M; Witcher, Thomas P; Jones, Vaughan S; Noar, Joseph H; Naini, Farhad B

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this report is to describe an original retainer design for retention following orthodontic treatment in cleft lip and palate patients in order to improve the aesthetics of anterior maxillary dentoalveolar cleft defects. The technique incorporates features of both traditional and modern retainer design. The advantages of the technique and fabrication process are described.

  7. Alternative designs of a superconducting synchronous generator: the Southampton approach

    OpenAIRE

    Goddard, K.F.; Lukasik, B.; Sykulski, J.K.

    2008-01-01

    The paper describes various designs undertaken at the University of Southampton for building both cored and coreless superconducting synchronous generators using high temperature superconducting (HTS) tapes. An overview of electromagnetic and mechanical design issues is presented and scalability is considered. Results are included for the full (original) size machine and extended to a double size unit.

  8. Implications of solar energy alternatives for community design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, A.; Steinitz, C.

    1980-06-01

    A graduate-level studio at the Harvard School of Design explored how a policy of solar-based energy independence will influence the design of a new community of approximately 4500 housing units and other uses. Three large sites outside Tucson (a cooling problem), Atlanta (a humidity problem), and Boston (a heating problem) were selected. Each is typical of its region. A single program was assumed and designed for. Each site had two teams, one following a compact approach and one following a more dispersed approach. Each was free to choose the most appropriate mix of (solar) technology and scale, and was free to integrate energy and community in the design as it saw fit. These choice and integration issues are key areas where our experience may be of interest to those involved in community design and solar energy.

  9. RIP Input From WAPDEG for LA Design Selection: Enhanced Design Alternative II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B.E. Bullard

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to identify and analyze concepts for the acquisition of data in support of the Performance Confirmation (PC) program at the potential subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. This analysis is being prepared to document an investigation of design concepts, current available technology, technology trends, and technical issues associated with data acquisition during the PC period. This analysis utilizes the ''Performance Confirmation Plan'' (CRWMS M and O 2000b) to help define the scope for the PC data acquisition system. The focus of this analysis is primarily on the PC period for a minimum of 30 years after emplacement of the last waste package. The design of the data acquisition system shall allow for a closure deferral up to 300 years from initiation of waste emplacement. (CRWMS M and O 2000h, page 5-1). This analysis is a revision to and supercedes analysis, ''Performance Confirmation Data Acquisition System'', DI No. BCAI00000-017 17-0200-00002 Rev 00 (CRWMS M and O 1997), and incorporates the latest repository design changes following the M and O and DOE evaluation of a series of Enhanced Design Alternatives (EDAs), as described in the ''Enhanced Design Alternatives II Report'' (CRWMS M and O 1999d). Significant design changes include: thermal line loading of the emplacement drifts, closer spacing of the waste packages (WPs), wider spacing and fewer emplacement drifts, continuous ventilation of all active emplacement drifts, thinner walled WP designs which will increase external radiation levels, a 50-year repository closure option, inclusion of a drip-shield, exclusion of backfill, and new conceptual designs for the waste emplacement vehicles and equipment (Stroupe 2000). The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Review the criteria for design as presented in the Performance Confirmation Data Acquisition/Monitoring System Description Document, by way of the Input Transmittal, ''Performance

  10. Alternative Designs for the NSLS-II Injection Straight Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaftan,T.; Heese, R.; Weihreter, E.; Willeke, F.; Rehak, M.; Meier, R.; Fliller, R.; Johnson, E. D.

    2009-05-04

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is developing a state-of-the-art 3 GeV synchrotron light source, the NSLS-II [1]. The 9.3 meter-long injection straight section of its storage ring now fits a conventional injection set-up consisting of four kickers producing a closed bump, together with a DC septum and a pulsed septum. In this paper, we analyze an alternative option based on injection via a pulsed sextupole magnet. We discuss the dynamics of the injected and stored beams and, subsequently, the magnet's specifications and tolerances. We conclude by summarized the advantages and drawbacks of each injection scheme.

  11. Design Anthropology, Emerging Technologies and Alternative Computational Futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Rachel Charlotte

    Emerging technologies are providing a new field for design anthropological inquiry that unite experiences, imaginaries and materialities in complex way and demands new approaches to developing sustainable computational futures....

  12. The challenges facing ethnographic design research: A proposed methodological solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Hicks, Ben; Culley, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Central to improving and maintaining high levels of performance in emerging ethnographic design research is a fundamental requirement to address some of the problems associated with the subject. In particular seven core issues are identified and include the complexity of test development, variabi......Central to improving and maintaining high levels of performance in emerging ethnographic design research is a fundamental requirement to address some of the problems associated with the subject. In particular seven core issues are identified and include the complexity of test development......, variability of methods, resource intensiveness, subjectivity, comparability, common metrics and industrial acceptance. To address these problems this paper describes a structured methodological approach in which three main areas are proposed, the modularisation of the research process, the standardisation...... of the dataset and the stratification of the research context. The paper then examines the fundamental requirements of this scheme and how these relate to a Design Observatory approach. Following this, the proposed solution is related back to the initial problem set and potential issues are discussed. Finally...

  13. Reliability improvement through alternative designs-A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Saurabh; Chattopadhyay, Gopi; Kumar, Uday

    2007-01-01

    In today's competitive world, reliability of equipment is extremely important to maintain quality and delivery deadlines. This is achieved by using proper maintenance and design changes for unreliable subsystems and components of a complex system. It is significant to develop a strategy for maintenance, replacement and design changes related to those subsystems and components. An analysis of down time along with causes is essential to identify the unreliable components and subsystems. This paper presents an analysis of failure data of solenoid coils of automatic internal grinding machine used in a bearing manufacturing plant. It analyses various replacement and change of design options such as introduction of pneumatic system in place of electromagnetic solenoids for improvement of reliability of the plunger movement mechanism

  14. An Analysis of Students’ Difficulties in Solving Story Based Problems and Its Alternative Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tika Karlina Rachmawati

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the students’ difficulties of MTs Negeri Surakarta 1 in solving story based problems on the subject of Pythagoras along with its alternative solutions. This is a qualitative descriptive research. This study illustrates the difficulties of students in solving story based problemsof the subject of Pythagoras. Research subjects in this study is composed of three students of class IX with each capable of high, medium and low. The data collection was condducted using the test method and the method of interview. The results of this study indicate that low-ability students have difficulty in determining the direction of wind direction, understand the intent of the language that is understood about the story, the difficulty in making a mathematical model as well as difficulties in the calculation. Difficulties experienced by the studentswith medium capability are determining the drawing of wind direction, understanding the intent of the language that is understood about the story, and making a mathematical model. While the high-ability students have no significant problems in understanding a story about the subject of Pythagoras, they just forgot to add ± sign in the answers, and the unit of length in the final calculation. However, the unit length was written in the final conclusions.

  15. Skill mastery inhibits adoption of observed alternative solutions among chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrubesch, Christine; Preuschoft, Signe; van Schaik, Carel

    2009-03-01

    Geographic variation in socially transmitted skills and signals, similar to human culture, has been well documented for great apes. The rules governing the adoption of novel behaviours, however, are still largely unknown. We conducted an innovation-and-transmission experiment with two groups of chimpanzees living at hopE Primate Sanctuary Gänserndorf, Austria, presenting a board on which food had to be manoeuvred around obstacles to be acquired. Most chimpanzees used sticks to acquire the food, but five adults independently invented a novel technique, rattling, which was subsequently tested by almost all group members. However, individuals who had become proficient with sticks were reluctant to switch to rattling, despite it being more efficient. Similarly, after rattling was prevented, rattle specialists kept trying to rattle and made no attempt to use the stick technique, despite their knowledge about its existence. We conclude that innovators stimulate others to experiment with the solutions they display, but that chimpanzees are nevertheless conservative; mastery of a skill inhibits further exploration, and hence adoption of alternative techniques even if these are more efficient. Consequently, conformity among group members should not be expected in great apes when individuals develop proficiency at different techniques. Conservatism thus joins conformity as a mechanism to bring about cultural uniformity and stability.

  16. Study of surface potential contamination in radioisotope and radiopharmaceutical production facilities and alternative solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhaedi Muhammad; Rimin Sumantri; Farida Tusafariah; Djarwanti Rahayu Pipin Soedjarwo

    2013-01-01

    Radioisotope and radiopharmaceutical production facilities that exist in their operations around the world in the form of radiological impacts of radiation exposure, contamination of surface and air contamination. Given the number of existing open source in radioisotope and radiopharmaceutical production facility, then the possibility of surface contamination in the work area is quite high. For that to protect the safety and health of both workers, the public and the environment, then the licensee must conduct an inventory of some of the potential that could result in contamination of surfaces in radioisotope and radiopharmaceutical production facilities. Several potential to cause surface contamination in radioisotope and radiopharmaceutical production facilities consist of loss of resources, the VAC system disorders, impaired production facilities, limited resources and lack of work discipline and radioactive waste handling activities. From the study of some potential, there are several alternative solutions that can be implemented by the licensee to address the contamination of the surface so as not to cause adverse radiological impacts for both radiation workers, the public or the environment. (author)

  17. Powdered grape seeds (PGS) as an alternative biosorbent to remove pharmaceutical dyes from aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanni, Gabriel; Escudero, Leticia Belén; Dotto, Guilherme Luiz

    2017-09-01

    An alternative, low-cost and efficient biosorbent, powdered grape seeds (PGS), was prepared from wastes of a wine industry, and used to remove brilliant blue (BB) and amaranth red (AR) dyes from aqueous solutions. The biosorbent was properly characterized before and after the biosorption operation. The potential of PGS to remove BB and AR dyes was investigated thought kinetic, isotherm and thermodynamic studies. The biosorption of BB and AR was favored at pH 1.0 using biosorbent dosage of 0.500 g L -1 , being attained more than 85% of removal percentage. For BB and AR dyes, pseudo-second-order and Elovich models were able to explain the biosorption kinetic. The biosorption equilibrium of BB on PGS was well represented by the Langmuir model, while for AR, the Sips model was the most adequate. The maximum biosorption capacities were 599.5 and 94.2 mg g -1 for BB and AR, respectively. The biosorption of BB and AR on PGS was a spontaneous, favorable and endothermic process. These findings indicated that PGS is a low-cost and efficient biosorbent, which can be used to treat dye containing waters.

  18. Multi-phase alternative current machine winding design | Khan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... single-phase to 18-phase excitation. Experimental results of a five-phase induction machine supplied from a static five-phase supply are provided to support the proposed design. Keywords: AC machine, Multi-phase machine, Stator winding, Five-phase. International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology, Vol.

  19. Design element alternatives for stress-management intervention websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Reg A; Gatien, Gary; Hagerty, Bonnie

    2011-01-01

    Typical public and military-sponsored websites on stress and depression tend to be prescriptive. Some require users to complete lengthy questionnaires. Others reproduce printed flyers, papers, or educational materials not adapted for online use. Some websites require users to follow a prescribed path through the material. Stress Gym was developed as a first-level, evidence-based, website intervention to help U.S. military members learn how to manage mild to moderate stress and depressive symptoms using a self-help intervention with progress tracking and 24/7 availablility. It was designed using web-based, health-management intervention design elements that have been proven effective and users reported they prefer. These included interactivity, self-pacing, and pleasing aesthetics. Users learned how to manage stress by accessing modules they choose, and by practicing proven stress management strategies interactively immediately after login. Test results of Stress Gym with Navy members demonstrated that it was effective, with significant decreases in reported perceived stress levels from baseline to follow-up assessment. Stress Gym used design elements that may serve as a model for future websites to emulate and improve upon, and as a template against which to compare and contrast the design and functionality of future online, health-intervention websites. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Alternate Materials In Design Of Radioactive Material Packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of design and testing of material and composites for use in radioactive material packages. These materials provide thermal protection and provide structural integrity and energy absorption to the package during normal and hypothetical accident condition events as required by Title 10 Part 71 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Testing of packages comprising these materials is summarized.

  1. Alternative Spring Break at the Savannah College of Art and Design: Engaging Art and Design Students in Community Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoey, J. Joseph; Feld-Gore, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter describes the impact of an alternative spring break program on students at the Savannah College of Art and Design over a set of years as well as its effectiveness as a service-learning tool.

  2. RIP Input Tables From Wapdeg For LA Design Selection: Enhanced Design Alternative IIIb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K.G. Mon; K.G. Mast; J.H. Lee

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to document the Waste Package Degradation (WAPDEG) version 3.09 (CRWMS M and O 1998b. 'Software Routine Report for WAPDEG' (Version 3.09)) simulations used to analyze degradation and failure of 2-cm thick titanium grade 7 corrosion resistant material (CRM) drip shields as well as degradation and failure of the waste packages over which they are placed. The waste packages are composed of two corrosion resistant materials (CRM) barriers. The outer barrier is composed of 2 cm of Alloy 22 and the inner barrier is composed of 1.5 cm of titanium grade 7. The WAPDEG simulation results are post-processed into tables of drip shield/waste package degradation time histories suitable for use as input into the Integrated Probabilistic Simulator for Environmental Systems (RIP) version 5.19.01 (Golder Associates 1998) computer code. This calculation supports Performance Assessment analysis of the License Application Design Selection (LADS) Enhanced Design Alternative IIIb

  3. Design study of CEPC Alternating Magnetic Field Booster

    CERN Document Server

    Bian, T; Cai, Y; Cui, X; Gao, J; Koratzinos, M; Su, F; Wang, D; Wang, Y; Xiao, M; Zhang, C

    2017-01-01

    The CEPC is a next generation circular e+e- collider proposed by China. The design of the full energy booster ring of the CEPC is especially challenging. The ejected beam energy is 120 GeV, but that of the injected beam is only 6 GeV. In a conventional approach, the low magnetic field of the main dipole magnets creates problems. We propose operating the booster ring as a large wiggler at low beam energies and as a normal ring at high energies to avoid the problem of very low dipole magnet fields.

  4. Electric market models, competitive model and alternative design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnedillo, O.

    2007-01-01

    Almost ten years after the liberalization of the Spanish electric system, its market design has remained basically unchanged. Therefore, it is reasonable to consider whether the current model continues to be adequate or whether it should be changed. However, although the current model is far from the absolute optimum, it is suited to the current state of the Spanish system. Only some improvements, such as the reform of the capacity guarantee payment can be undertaken immediately. It will only be possible to undertake other improvements as distribution companies cover all of their electricity needs in forward contracts acquired through a competitive process. (Author)

  5. Alternative Design for Visual Identity of Yayasan Batik Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puspita Putri Nugroho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research objective is to create a logo as the main visual identity. It is together with the graphic elements to support the overall visual identity of the organization and also apply the corporate identity to various applications to effectively foster the professional and trustworthy image of the organization as the foundation in Indonesia aiming for preserving and advancing Batik as the national asset. The writer used qualitative and quantitative method. Qualitative method included Face-to-face interview with the vice secretary of YBI, e-mail interview with the previous logo designer and direct survey to Textile Museum Jakarta and Batik Gallery; and Quantitative method through online survey. The result of the project is a new visual identity for Yayasan Batik Indonesia, which portrays its vision and mission. Design is the core in attaining an advantageous visual identity that could portray the image of the respected organization. When a consistency is applied through the whole visual identity, professional character of the organization is achieved. 

  6. 10 CFR 61.54 - Alternative requirements for design and operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alternative requirements for design and operations. 61.54 Section 61.54 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Technical Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.54 Alternative requirements for...

  7. Alternatives generation and analysis for phase I intermediate waste feed staging system design requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton, M.D.

    1996-10-02

    This document provides; a decision analysis summary; problem statement; constraints, requirements, and assumptions; decision criteria; intermediate waste feed staging system options and alternatives generation and screening; intermediate waste feed staging system design concepts; intermediate waste feed staging system alternative evaluation and analysis; and open issues and actions.

  8. Using monochromatic design views to avoid a premature fixation on design solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damle, Amod

    2010-02-01

    This study investigates whether the availability of a monochromatic design view can prevent an early fixation on details during the preliminary stages of a design task. Design students are trained to tentatively sketch the overall form of a design concept before attending to its details. Literature suggests that using multiple colors for sketching a concept causes a gestalt-like grouping phenomenon and influences designers to adopt a contrasting strategy of adding details before sketching the overall form. An empirical study was conducted to assess the validity of these findings. In the study, 20 participants, randomly assigned to two groups, were allowed to use multiple colors to sketch a design concept within a digital sketching environment. However, only the single-color group had the ability to view a sketch, as it would appear in monochrome. Both groups parsed the design concepts into their basic components and used colors as a means of distinguishing one component from another. However, the single-color group added significantly more details than the first or the multicolor group after sketching the overall form. Verbal reports suggest that the single-color group was able to avoid an early fixation on details because the single-color view eliminated the discontinuities induced by the variation in color and allowed the participants to attend to the overall form instead of the individual components. The current findings highlight the importance of providing a monochrome design view within a sketching environment to avoid an early fixation on a specific design solution.

  9. Inequality aspects of alternative CO2 agreement designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsch, Heinz

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, the expected climate change, due to the atmospheric accumulation of CO 2 and other trace gases, has become an increasingly important issue in energy policy. Given the important contribution of CO 2 to the greenhouse effect, and the global character of the problem, an international agreement on curbing CO 2 emissions is under current consideration. The design of such an agreement inevitably raises significant questions of equity and efficiency. In the international political debate, most emphasis is generally put on the distributive aspect. Interestingly, the discussion usually focuses on equity in terms of the distribution of emissions. From an economic perspective, it appears more natural to address the equity issue from the point of view of income. It is obvious that a given degree of abatement can have dramatically different economic effects in different countries. Of course, this aspect is implicitly at the centre of all CO 2 related equity considerations. In what follows, this issue will be addressed explicitly, by examining the applicability and the implications of various economic approaches to distributive justice. (author)

  10. Analog circuit design a tutorial guide to applications and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Jim

    2011-01-01

    * Covers the fundamentals of linear/analog circuit and system design to guide engineers with their design challenges. * Based on the Application Notes of Linear Technology, the foremost designer of high performance analog products, readers will gain practical insights into design techniques and practice. * Broad range of topics, including power management tutorials, switching regulator design, linear regulator design, data conversion, signal conditioning, and high frequency/RF design. * Contributors include the leading lights in analog design, Robert Dobkin, Jim Willia

  11. Alternative Fuels and Hybrid Technology: A Classroom Activity Designed to Evaluate a Contemporary Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy MacArthur, Amy H.; Copper, Christine L.

    2009-01-01

    As petroleum reserves are being depleted worldwide and energy costs are increasing, the use of alternative fuels is being more widely considered as a solution to the impending energy crisis. In this classroom activity students are presented with a real-world problem in which they must evaluate the properties and environmental impacts of a variety…

  12. Design analysis of engineered alternatives for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, J.; Djordjevic, S.; Adams, M.; Spangler, L.; Valdez, J.; Vetter, D.; Drez, P.

    1991-01-01

    The effectiveness of several engineered alternatives, designed to enhance the performance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), were evaluated relative to the performance of the baseline design. This evaluation was performed using a computer program referred to as the Design Analysis Model which couples salt creep closure, brine inflow, gas generation and dissipation to realistically simulate these interrelated processes over a 10,000 year period following the decommissioning of the repository. Analyses of the baseline design and nine alternative designs were performed for the undisturbed repository conditions, as well as three human intrusion events. Improvements in repository performance of up to four orders of magnitude were predicted for various engineered alternative waste forms. 6 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  13. Generating Alternative Engineering Designs by Integrating Desktop VR with Genetic Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramouli, Magesh; Bertoline, Gary; Connolly, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    This study proposes an innovative solution to the problem of multiobjective engineering design optimization by integrating desktop VR with genetic computing. Although, this study considers the case of construction design as an example to illustrate the framework, this method can very much be extended to other engineering design problems as well.…

  14. Privacy by Design: An alternative to existing practice in safeguarding privacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout, M.J. van; Kool, L.; Schoonhoven, B. van; Jonge, M. de

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop/elaborate the concept Privacy by Design (PbD) and to explore the validity of the PbD framework. Design/methodology/approach: Attention for alternative concepts, such as PbD, which might offer surplus value in safeguarding privacy, is growing. Using

  15. Detailed design, fabrication and testing of an engineering prototype compensated pulsed alternator. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, W.L. Jr.; Woodson, H.H.

    1980-03-01

    The design, fabrication, and test results of a prototype compensated pulsed alternator are discussed. The prototype compulsator is a vertical shaft single phase alternator with a rotating armature and salient pole stator. The machine is designed for low rep rate pulsed duty and is sized to drive a modified 10 cm Beta amplifier. The load consists of sixteen 15 mm x 20 mm x 112 cm long xenon flashlamps connected in parallel. The prototype compulsator generates an open circuit voltage of 6 kV, 180 Hz, at a maximum design speed of 5400 rpm. At maximum speed, the inertial energy stored in the compulsator rotor is 3.4 megajoules

  16. Alternate Solution to Generalized Bernoulli Equations via an Integrating Factor: An Exact Differential Equation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisdell, C. C.

    2017-01-01

    Solution methods to exact differential equations via integrating factors have a rich history dating back to Euler (1740) and the ideas enjoy applications to thermodynamics and electromagnetism. Recently, Azevedo and Valentino presented an analysis of the generalized Bernoulli equation, constructing a general solution by linearizing the problem…

  17. Total System Performance Assessment- License Appication Design Selection (LADS) Phase 1 Analysis for Post-Closure Ventilation (Design Alternative 3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Erb

    1999-06-21

    The objective of this report is to evaluate the effect of potential changes to the TSPA-VA base case design on long-term repository performance. The design changes that are evaluated in this report include two configurations for post-closure ventilation. bow tie and open loop (Design Alternative 3 or D3). The following paragraphs briefly describe the motivation for evaluating post-closure ventilation. The bow tie configuration for post closure ventilation has been identified as a design alternative to the TSPA-VA base case model (CRWMS M&O, 1998a) that may provide improved performance by reducing the temperature and relative humidity within the waste package drifts. The bow tie configuration for post-closure ventilation is a closed-loop design. In this design. cross drifts are placed in pairs with each drift angling up on opposite sides of the repository. From the side, the cross drifts and side drifts form the shape of a bow tie. Movement of air through the system is driven by convective heating from the waste packages in the cross drifts. The open loop configuration is also being considered for its potential to improve post-closure performance of the repository. As with the bow tie configuration, the open loop is designed to decrease temperature and relative humidity within the waste package drifts. For the open loop configuration, air is drawn into the drifts from outside the mountain. The configuration for the repository with open-loop ventilation is similar to the base case repository design with a few added shafts to increase air flow through the drifts. This report documents the modeling assumptions and calculations conducted to evaluate the long-term performance of Design Alternative 3. The performance measure for this evaluation is dose rate. Results are presented that compare the dose-rate time histories with the new design alternatives to that for the TSPA-VA base case calculation (CRWMS M&O, 1998a).

  18. Practical solution concepts for planning and designing roadways in Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    Kentucky's highway agency has embarked upon an initiative tagged "Practical Solutions" which sets its goal toward reducing costs throughout the project development process extended into operations and maintenance of all highway facilities. This study...

  19. Design of one evaporation system for uranyl nitrate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancilla Romero, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    The authors propose an instant evaporation system with recirculation of the concentrated solution to raise the concentration from 50 to 1500 g of uranium per litre of solution. The capacity of the plant is to be 14.1 kg of uranium per hour. The main equipment used in the system is as follows: 1. Ring-type heat exchanger, for increasing the temperature of the mixture of fresh and recirculated solution from 80 to 115 0 C; 2. Separation tank, in which instant evaporation is carried out. The absolute pressure inside the tank will be 500 mmHg, with steam separation from a concentrated (78.5 wt.%) uranyl nitrate solution; 3. Desuperheater-condenser of horizontal tubular type for condensing water vapour and recovering any uranyl nitrate that may have been entrained; 4. Storage tank for the concentrate, with a capacity for one day's normal operation, and a heating coil to prevent crystallization of the concentrated solution; 5. Two storage tanks for feed and condensate with capacity for one day's normal operation; 6. Supporting structure for the above components. Virtually all equipment in contact with the uranyl nitrate solution will be made of 304 stainless steel. Saturated steam at 143.3 0 C will be required. The cost of the proposed system is $543 030.00. (author)

  20. Permutation Test Approach for Ordered Alternatives in Randomized Complete Block Design: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    GOKPINAR, Esra; GUL, Hasan; GOKPINAR, Fikri; BAYRAK, Hülya; OZONUR, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    Randomized complete block design is one of the most used experimental designs in statistical analysis. For testing ordered alternatives in randomized complete block design, parametric tests are used if random sample are drawn from Normal distribution. If normality assumption is not provide, nonparametric methods are used. In this study, we are interested nonparametric tests and we introduce briefly the nonparametric tests, such as Page, Modified Page and Hollander tests. We also give Permutat...

  1. New design solutions for low-power energy production in water pipe systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena M. Ramos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is the result of ongoing research for a European Union 7th Framework Program Project regarding energy converters for very low heads, and aims to analyze optimization of new cost-effective hydraulic turbine designs for possible implementation in water supply systems (WSSs or in other pressurized water pipe infrastructures, such as irrigation, wastewater, or drainage systems. A new methodology is presented based on a theoretical, technical and economic analysis. Viability studies focused on small power values for different pipe systems were investigated. Detailed analyses of alternative typical volumetric energy converters were conducted on the basis of mathematical and physical fundamentals as well as computational fluid dynamics (CFD associated with the interaction between the flow conditions and the system operation. Important constraints (e.g., size, stability, efficiency, and continuous steady flow conditions can be identified and a search for alternative rotary volumetric converters is being conducted. As promising cost-effective solutions for the coming years, adapted rotor-dynamic turbomachines and non-conventional axial propeller devices were analyzed based on the basic principles of pumps operating as turbines, as well as through an extensive comparison between simulations and experimental tests.

  2. Developmental problems and their solution for the Space Shuttle main engine alternate liquid oxygen high-pressure turbopump: Anomaly or failure investigation the key

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, R.; Gross, L. A.

    1995-01-01

    The Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) alternate high-pressure liquid oxygen pump experienced synchronous vibration and ball bearing life problems that were program threatening. The success of the program hinged on the ability to solve these development problems. The design and solutions to these problems are engirded in the lessons learned and experiences from prior programs, technology programs, and the ability to properly conduct failure or anomaly investigations. The failure investigation determines the problem cause and is the basis for recommending design solutions. For a complex problem, a comprehensive solution requires that formal investigation procedures be used, including fault trees, resolution logic, and action items worked through a concurrent engineering-multidiscipline team. The normal tendency to use an intuitive, cut-and-try approach will usually prove to be costly, both in money and time and will reach a less than optimum, poorly understood answer. The SSME alternate high-pressure oxidizer turbopump development has had two complex problems critical to program success: (1) high synchronous vibrations and (2) excessive ball bearing wear. This paper will use these two problems as examples of this formal failure investigation approach. The results of the team's investigation provides insight into the complexity of the turbomachinery technical discipline interacting/sensitivities and the fine balance of competing investigations required to solve problems and guarantee program success. It is very important to the solution process that maximum use be made of the resources that both the contractor and Government can bring to the problem in a supporting and noncompeting way. There is no place for the not-invented-here attitude. The resources include, but are not limited to: (1) specially skilled professionals; (2) supporting technologies; (3) computational codes and capabilities; and (4) test and manufacturing facilities.

  3. The exact solution of the Ising quantum chain with alternating single and sector defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Degang; Li Bozang; Li Yun

    1992-10-01

    The Ising quantum chain with alternating single and sector defects is solved exactly by using the technique of Lieb, Schultz and Mattis. The energy spectrum of this model is shown to have a tower structure if and only if these defects constitute a commensurate configuration. This means that conformal invariance is preserved under these circumstances. (author). 13 refs

  4. Macro and micro observations on mortar alternation mechanism under the various solution conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, A.; Tashiro, S.; Takemura, T.; Sakogaichi, K.; Yokomoto, S.; Katsuyama, K.

    1995-01-01

    Accelerated aging tests have been conducted to evaluate the long-term durability of cementitious material against aggressive ions. In tests, cementitious specimens were immersed in the solutions containing concentrated aggressive ions at high temperature and it promoted diffusion of the ions in the specimen. This method would be suitable for the evaluation on the aging as the alteration of the specimen would be expected to resemble the natural behavior. This paper presents a classification of alteration mechanism in the immersion tests using MgCl 2 and Na 2 SO 4 solution. This classification was done by relating the changes of compressive strength to microscopic and mineralogical changes

  5. Cell and stack design alternatives. Final report, August 1, 1978-December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, Jr., D. Q.; King, Robert B.

    1980-02-01

    The work described comprised the first phase of a planned six phase program to develop commercially viable phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) driven on-site integrated energy systems (OS/IES). The Phase I effort was organized as three major technical tasks; (1) study of system design alternatives; (2) fuel cell design alternatives; and (3) methane conditioner study. It was decided that comprehensive modeling of one application would most effectively utilize the resources available for the study of systems design alternatives. A 48 unit apartment complex located in Albany, New York and built to HUD minimum standards was selected as being typical of the applications that will be served by the systems. The time varying space conditioning (HVAC) and electrical requirements including the effects of varying weather conditions, living habits and occupancy patterns were modeled. These requirements formed the basis for comparing the performance and cost of the alternative configurations with each other and with a conventional system. Five basic alternative OS/IES configurations plus four variations were selected from a preliminary list of 13 basic configurations for detailed performance nd cost evaluations. Study procedures and results are presented in detail. (WHK)

  6. Designing, developing, and facilitating smart cities urban design to IoT solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Tragos, Elias; Pöhls, Henrich; Kapovits, Adam; Bassi, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses how smart cities strive to deploy and interconnect infrastructures and services to guarantee that authorities and citizens have access to reliable and global customized services. The book addresses the wide range of topics present in the design, development and running of smart cities, ranging from big data management, Internet of Things, and sustainable urban planning. The authors cover - from concept to practice – both the technical aspects of smart cities enabled primarily by the Internet of Things and the socio-economic motivations and impacts of smart city development. The reader will find smart city deployment motivations, technological enablers and solutions, as well as state of the art cases of smart city implementations and services. · Provides a single compendium of the technological, political, and social aspects of smart cities; · Discusses how the successful deployment of smart Cities requires a unified infrastructure to support the diverse set of applications that can be ...

  7. Alternatives generation and analysis for the Phase I intermediate waste feed staging system design requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claghorn, R.D., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-06

    This alternatives generation and analysis (AGA) addresses the question: What is the design basis for the facilities required to stage low-level waste (LLW) feed to the Phase I private contractors? Alternative designs for the intermediate waste feed staging system were developed, analyzed, and compared. Based on these analyses, this document recommends installing mixer pumps in the central pump pit of double-shell tanks 241-AP-102 and 241-AP-104. Also recommended is installing decant/transfer pumps at these tanks. These recommendations have clear advantages in that they provide a low shedule impact/risk and the highest operability of all the alternatives investigated. This revision incorporates comments from the decision board.

  8. DESIGN WITH THE SENSES AND FOR THE SENSES: AN ALTERNATIVE TEACHING MODEL FOR DESIGN STUDIO

    OpenAIRE

    May al-Ibrashy; Tammy Gaber

    2010-01-01

    In the 1990s, Juhani Pallasmaa wrote a compact, yet, eye-opening book expressing his growing concern about the architectural profession’s waning ability to reference all the senses of the body in the design process. Bit by bit, the perceptive chasm between the architect and architecture was widening both in the design process and in the cognitive experience of existing architecture. More than a decade later, these concerns have heightened as the ramifications of this design divide appear in t...

  9. Demonstration of risk-based decision analysis in remedial alternative selection and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, E.K.; Duffield, G.M.; Massmann, J.W.; Freeze, R.A.; Stephenson, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    This study demonstrates the use of risk-based decision analysis (Massmann and Freeze 1987a, 1987b) in the selection and design of an engineering alternative for groundwater remediation at a waste site at the Savannah River Site, a US Department of Energy facility in South Carolina. The investigation focuses on the remediation and closure of the H-Area Seepage Basins, an inactive disposal site that formerly received effluent water from a nearby production facility. A previous study by Duffield et al. (1992), which used risk-based decision analysis to screen a number of ground-water remediation alternatives under consideration for this site, indicated that the most attractive remedial option is ground-water extraction by wells coupled with surface water discharge of treated effluent. The aim of the present study is to demonstrate the iterative use of risk-based decision analysis throughout the design of a particular remedial alternative. In this study, we consider the interaction between two episodes of aquifer testing over a 6-year period and the refinement of a remedial extraction well system design. Using a three-dimensional ground-water flow model, this study employs (1) geostatistics and Monte Carlo techniques to simulate hydraulic conductivity as a stochastic process and (2) Bayesian updating and conditional simulation to investigate multiple phases of aquifer testing. In our evaluation of a remedial alternative, we compute probabilistic costs associated with the failure of an alternative to completely capture a simulated contaminant plume. The results of this study demonstrate the utility of risk-based decision analysis as a tool for improving the design of a remedial alternative through the course of phased data collection at a remedial site

  10. Computational issues in alternating projection algorithms for fixed-order control design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beran, Eric Bengt; Grigoriadis, K.

    1997-01-01

    Alternating projection algorithms have been introduced recently to solve fixed-order controller design problems described by linear matrix inequalities and non-convex coupling rank constraints. In this work, an extensive numerical experimentation using proposed benchmark fixed-order control desig...

  11. Long-term strategies for flood risk management: scenario definition and strategic alternative design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, de K.; Klijn, F.; McGahey, C.; Mens, M.; Wolfert, H.P.

    2008-01-01

    This report reviews some mainstream existing methods of scenario development and use, as well as experiences with the design and assessment of strategic alternatives for flood risk management. Next, a procedure and methods are proposed and discussed. Thirdly, the procedure and methods are tried on

  12. Single-Case Research Design: An Alternative Strategy for Evidence-Based Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Drue; Hawkins, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The trend of utilizing evidence-based practice (EBP) in athletic training is now requiring clinicians, researchers, educators, and students to be equipped to both engage in and make judgments about research evidence. Single-case design (SCD) research may provide an alternative approach to develop such skills and inform clinical and…

  13. A comparison of alternative 60-mer probe designs in an in-situ synthesized oligonucleotide microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fairbanks Benjamin D

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA microarrays have proven powerful for functional genomics studies. Several technologies exist for the generation of whole-genome arrays. It is well documented that 25mer probes directed against different regions of the same gene produce variable signal intensity values. However, the extent to which this is true for probes of greater length (60mers is not well characterized. Moreover, this information has not previously been reported for whole-genome arrays designed against bacteria, whose genomes may differ substantially in characteristics directly affecting microarray performance. Results We report here an analysis of alternative 60mer probe designs for an in-situ synthesized oligonucleotide array for the GC rich, β-proteobacterium Burkholderia cenocepacia. Probes were designed using the ArrayOligoSel3.5 software package and whole-genome microarrays synthesized by Agilent, Inc. using their in-situ, ink-jet technology platform. We first validated the quality of the microarrays as demonstrated by an average signal to noise ratio of >1000. Next, we determined that the variance of replicate probes (1178 total probes examined of identical sequence was 3.8% whereas the variance of alternative probes (558 total alternative probes examined designs was 9.5%. We determined that depending upon the definition, about 2.4% of replicate and 7.8% of alternative probes produced outlier conclusions. Finally, we determined none of the probe design subscores (GC content, internal repeat, binding energy and self annealment produced by ArrayOligoSel3.5 were predictive or probes that produced outlier signals. Conclusion Our analysis demonstrated that the use of multiple probes per target sequence is not essential for in-situ synthesized 60mer oligonucleotide arrays designed against bacteria. Although probes producing outlier signals were identified, the use of ratios results in less than 10% of such outlier conclusions. We also determined that

  14. The implementation limitations of and alternative policy solutions for Indonesia's REDD+ program concerning peatland restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Guzick

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent increases in global demand for palm oil have resulted in rapid, widespread deforestation in Indonesia, making Indonesia the third largest emitter of greenhouse gases in the world. Although the Indonesian government has sought to pursue progressive environmental policies to curb deforestation, such as through REDD+, implementation has been hampered by legal loopholes, corruption and weak rule of law. This paper will examine two alternative carbon sequestration policies to REDD+: a drying up of the palm oil market and a buy-out of palm oil plantations.

  15. Limitations of amorphous content quantification by isothermal calorimetry using saturated salt solutions to control relative humidity: alternative methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalef, Nawel; Pinal, Rodolfo; Bakri, Aziz

    2010-04-01

    Despite the high sensitivity of isothermal calorimetry (IC), reported measurements of amorphous content by this technique show significant variability even for the same compound. An investigation into the reasons behind such variability is presented using amorphous lactose and salbutamol sulfate as model compounds. An analysis was carried out on the heat evolved as a result of the exchange of water vapor between the solid sample during crystallization and the saline solution reservoir. The use of saturated salt solutions as means of control of the vapor pressure of water within sealed ampoules bears inherent limitations that lead in turn to the variability associated with the IC technique. We present an alternative IC method, based on an open cell configuration that effectively addresses the limitations encountered with the sealed ampoule system. The proposed approach yields an integral whose value is proportional to the amorphous content in the sample, thus enabling reliable and consistent quantifications. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  16. Technology Solutions Case Study: Hydronic Systems: Designing for Setback Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-05-01

    For years, conventional wisdom surrounding space heating has specified two points: size the mechanical systems to the heating loads, and setting the thermostat back at night will result in energy savings. The problem is these two recommendations oppose each other. A system that is properly sized to the heating load will not have the extra capacity necessary to recover from a thermostat setback, especially at design conditions. Properly designing a hydronic system for setback operation can be accomplished but depends on several factors. Determining the appropriateness of setback for a particular project is the first step. This is followed by proper sizing of the boiler and baseboard to ensure the needed capacity can be met. Finally, control settings must be chosen that result in the most efficient and responsive performance. This guide provides step-by-step instructions for heating contractors and hydronic designers for selecting the proper control settings to maximize system performance and improve response time when using a thermostat setback.

  17. Alternate MIMO AF relaying networks with interference alignment: Spectral efficient protocol and linear filter design

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Kihong

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, we study a two-hop relaying network consisting of one source, one destination, and three amplify-and-forward (AF) relays with multiple antennas. To compensate for the capacity prelog factor loss of 1/2$ due to the half-duplex relaying, alternate transmission is performed among three relays, and the inter-relay interference due to the alternate relaying is aligned to make additional degrees of freedom. In addition, suboptimal linear filter designs at the nodes are proposed to maximize the achievable sum rate for different fading scenarios when the destination utilizes a minimum mean-square error filter. © 1967-2012 IEEE.

  18. DESIGN WITH THE SENSES AND FOR THE SENSES: AN ALTERNATIVE TEACHING MODEL FOR DESIGN STUDIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May al-Ibrashy

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the 1990s, Juhani Pallasmaa wrote a compact, yet, eye-opening book expressing his growing concern about the architectural profession’s waning ability to reference all the senses of the body in the design process. Bit by bit, the perceptive chasm between the architect and architecture was widening both in the design process and in the cognitive experience of existing architecture. More than a decade later, these concerns have heightened as the ramifications of this design divide appear in the form of architecture whose divorced virtual quality has spilled over from the design process into built reality. The illusion of virtual reality – as achieved by 3D simulation in all its glories – has pulled the architect into a zone of false confidence where he/she feels that the design has come to life before it is built and that every corner and detail can be simulated and therefore understood. But can it be touched, smelt, tasted or heard? In fact, is even what we see on the screen anywhere close to what we see as we move bodily through its spaces? This phenomenon is addressed in a design studio run by the two authors of this paper. The purpose of the design studio, which is held in the Department of Architectural Engineering, of the Faculty of Engineering of the British University in Egypt, is to design a community centre linked to a place of worship within a residential compound currently under construction on the outskirts of Cairo. The graduating class of ten students is in the final and fourth year of a program that emphasized the engineering and project management aspects of architecture at the expense of theory and history of art and architecture. The university has no humanities or liberal arts program as yet, and students have minimal contact to arts within the university system. Contact hours in design studios are limited and design is mostly computer-aided. The need to re-emphasize the physical, tactile, polemic and holistic aspects

  19. Alternative Muon Front-end for the International Design Study (IDS)

    CERN Document Server

    Alekou, A; Martini, M; Prior, G; Rogers, C; Stratakis, D; Yoshikawa, C; Zisman, M

    2010-01-01

    We discuss alternative designs of the muon capture front end of the Neutrino Factory International Design Study (IDS). In the front end, a proton bunch on a target creates secondary pions that drift into a capture channel, decaying into muons. A sequence of RF cavities forms the resulting muon beams into strings of bunches of differing energies, aligns the bunches to (nearly) equal central energies, and initiates ionization cooling. This design is affected by limitations on accelerating gradients within magnetic fields. The effects of gradient limitations are explored, and mitigation strategies are presented

  20. Liquid metals as alternative solution for the power exhaust of future fusion devices: status and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coenen, J W; Philipps, V; Sergienko, G; Terra, A; Unterberg, B; Wegener, T; De Temmerman, G; Van den Bekerom, D C M; Federici, G; Strohmayer, G

    2014-01-01

    Applying liquid metals as plasma facing components for fusion power-exhaust can potentially ameliorate lifetime issues as well as limitations to the maximum allowed surface heat loads by allowing for a more direct contact with the coolant. The material choice has so far been focused on lithium (Li), as it showed beneficial impact on plasma operation. Here materials such as tin (Sn), gallium (Ga) and aluminum (Al) are discussed as alternatives potentially allowing higher operating temperatures without strong evaporation. Power loads of up to 25 MW m −2 for a Sn/W component can be envisioned based on calculations and modeling. Reaching a higher operating temperature due to material re-deposition will be discussed. Liquids typically face stability issues due to j × B forces, potential pressure and magnetohydrodynamic driven instabilities. The capillary porous system is used for stabilization by a mesh (W and Mo) substrate and replenishment by means of capillary action. (paper)

  1. Designing Intuitive Web Solutions for Monitoring Patients’ Rehabilitation at Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raihana Ferdous

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design of web-based remote monitoring interfaces aimed at supporting therapists and caregivers in supervising motor-cognitive rehabilitation plans of care to be performed by patients at home. This work was part of a three years’ research project where game-based environments for upper body motor rehabilitation of post-stroke patients were developed in collaboration with two main rehabilitation centers in Italy and Austria, for a subsequent deployment at patients’ homes. The paper will specifically focus on describing the iterative design of the home rehabilitation features for clinicians over the first two years of the project to enable the delivery and monitoring of more personalized, engaging plans of care for home therapy by rehabilitation centers and services.

  2. Army Gas-Cooled Reactor Systems program: alternator final design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1964-06-01

    The development and testing of a demonstration brushless alternator for the ML-1 mobile nuclear power plant is described. The brushless concept was selected after it became apparent that a conventional power generator could not satisfy the ML-1 weight and size requirements. The demonstration alternator fabricated and tested under this program did not meet all performance specifications; the efficiency was low and the unit could not be operated for significant periods of time without overheating. However, a large body of useful data was accumulated during the extensive development program. Of special interest are data on the rotor and stator design, the cooling requirements and on the distribution of eddy current losses. Analysis of the data indicates that a brushless alternator, only slightly larger and heavier than was specified for the ML-1, could be developed with a modest additional effort.

  3. Design of batch operations: Systematic methodology for generation and analysis of sustainable alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, Ana; Matos, Henrique A.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2010-01-01

    the operational, environmental, economical and safety related problems inherent in the process (batch or continuous). Alternatives that are more sustainable, compared to a reference, are generated and evaluated by addressing one or more of the identified problems. A decomposition technique as well as a set......The objective of this paper is to present a new methodology that is able to generate, screen and identify sustainable alternatives to continuous chemical processes as well as processes operating in the batch mode. The methodology generates the sustainable (design) alternatives by locating...... of batch indicators for batch operations has been developed and added to the methodology so that a wide range of processes that operate in continuous mode, in semi-continuous and/or in batch modes can be improved. The principal calculation steps of the methodology for applications to continuous and batch...

  4. Standard practice for exposure of metals and alloys by alternate immersion in neutral 3.5% Sodium Chloride solution

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for making alternate immersion stress corrosion tests in 3.5 % sodium chloride (NaCl) (). It is primarily for tests of aluminum alloys (Test Method G 47) and ferrous alloys, but may be used for other metals exhibiting susceptibility to chloride ions. It sets forth the environmental conditions of the test and the means for controlling them. Note 1 Alternate immersion stress corrosion exposures are sometimes made in substitute ocean water (without heavy metals) prepared in accordance with Specification D 1141. The general requirements of this present practice are also applicable to such exposures except that the reagents used, the solution concentration, and the solution pH should be as specified in Specification D 1141. 1.2 This practice can be used for both stressed and unstressed corrosion specimens. Historically, it has been used for stress-corrosion cracking testing, but is often used for other forms of corrosion, such as uniform, pitting, intergranular, and galvanic. ...

  5. Guided synthesis of accumulative solutions for the conceptual design of an efficient stove working with biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez Cabrales, Alexis; Gaskins Espinosa, Benjamín Gabriel; Pérez Rodríguez, Roberto; Simeón Monet, Rolando Esteban

    2014-01-01

    The conceptual design is closely related to a product functional structure and the search of solution principles for its definition. This work exposes an accumulative method for the traceability of the functional structure that implements the guided conceptual synthesis of solutions in the preliminary analysis of this designing process stage. The method constitutes a contribution to Pahls and Beitzs classic design model. In it, the functional information system is manipulated, providing the designer with a help so that he can examine the different solutions that are obtained, giving him the possibility of selecting the most convenient one. The guided analysis of the accumulative solutions synthesis is illustrated by means of the conceptual design of an efficient stove working with biomass. (author)

  6. Mind Wandering "Ahas" versus Mindful Reasoning: Alternative Routes to Creative Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M Zedelius

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on mixed results linking both mindfulness and its opposing construct mind wandering to enhanced creativity, we predicted that the relationship between mindfulness and creativity might depend on whether creative problems are approached through analytic strategy or through insight (i.e., sudden awareness of a solution. Study 1 investigated the relationship between trait mindfulness and compound remote associates problem solving as a function of participants’ self-reported approach to each problem. The results revealed a negative relationship between mindfulness and problem-solving overall. However, more detailed analysis revealed that mindfulness was associated with impaired problem solving when approaching problems with insight, but increased problem solving when using analysis. In Study 2, we manipulated participants’ problem-solving approach through instructions. We again found a negative relationship between mindfulness and creative performance in general, however, more mindful participants again performed better when instructed to approach problems analytically.

  7. The Henry-Saltwater Intrusion Benchmark – Alternatives in Multiphysics Formulations and Solution Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Holzbecher

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In a classical paper Henry set up a conceptual model for simulating saltwater intrusion into coastal aquifers. Up to now the problem has been taken up by software developers and modellers as a benchmark for codes simulating coupled flow and transport in porous media. The Henry test case has been treated using different numerical methods based on various formulations of differential equations. We compare several of these approaches using multiphysics software. We model the problem using Finite Elements, utilizing the primitive variables and the streamfunction approach, both with and without using the Oberbeck-Boussinesq assumption. We compare directly coupled solvers with segregated solver strategies. Changing finite element orders and mesh refinement, we find that models based on the streamfunction converge 2-4 times faster than runs based on primitive variables. Concerning the solution strategy, we find an advantage of Picard iterations compared to monolithic Newton iterations.

  8. Investigation of Alternative Return Strategies for Orion Trans-earth Injection Design Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Belinda G.; Scarritt, Sara K.; Howell, Kathleen C.; Weeks, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate alternative return strategies for the Orion trans-Earth injection (TEI) phase. A dynamical systems analysis approach considers the structure of the stable and unstable Sun perturbed Earth-Moon manifolds near the Earth-Moon interface region. A hybrid approach, then, combines the results from this analysis with classical two-body methods in a targeting process that seeks to expand the window of return opportunities in a precision entry scenario. The resulting startup arcs can be used, for instance, to enhance the block set of solutions available onboard during an autonomous targeting process.

  9. Subsea Tie-in, design solutions and optimisation methods

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Loyd Kjetil H.

    2015-01-01

    Master's thesis in Mechanical engineering Subsea Tie-in Systems is used to connect pipes between subsea structures in the offshore oil and gas industry. Subsea Tie-in system has been developed for many decades by the industry, and is used throughout the world in many subsea oil and gas fields of today. Industry experience and various piping codes have been developed and used in the design over the years. However there has been a lack of recommended standard practice and guideline for desig...

  10. Economic evaluation of alternatives for the residues solution of an alcohol plant integrated to a sugar cane manufacturing company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soriano, Raquel de la Cruz; Gonzales Suarez, Erenio; Lopez Gonzalez, Lisbet

    2004-01-01

    This work is based on a previous study of analysis of alternatives for the use of the residues of an alcohol distilling facility of the central region of Cuba. The most accepted alternatives are related to the use of vinaza as fluidising of cement pastas for the humid process, the fertirriego, the re-circulation for the production of alcohol. Because of the economic advantages of tortula production and the nutrition needs in a country like Cuba and in the Latin-American context, different variables studied in other projects are analyzed, combined with this alternative to determine the investment requirements and the economic and environmental viability of this production. Three strategies are proposed, based on the production level of the alcohol plant. For the production of 550 HL/d, combine fertirriego with the re-circulation of vinaza to the process. For the production of 700 HL/d, combine the re-circulation with the installation of a tortula plant with 7 t/d. For the production of 900 HL/ d, install a yeast plant with capacity of 15 t/d, and to complement the solution of the residuals with fertirriego

  11. ACCESS MARS: Study of the viability of Mars Caves as an alternative to surface-based habitation solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Poch, Antoni; Laufer, Ren; Zavaleta, Jhony; Davila, Alfonso; Gallardo, Beatriz; Antonakopoulos, Konstantinos; de Carufel, Guy

    This paper summarizes a team project report that was produced during the Summer Space Program of the International Space University, held at NASA-Ames Research Center (CA, USA), by 56 students from 15 countries. Chair of the team project was René Laufer. Facilitators were Alfonso Dévila and Jhonny Zavaleta, and teacher associate supporting the team was a Beatriz Gallardo. Currently proposed Mars missions have identified a number of challenges such as high levels of radiation, harsh climate and limited launch windows. Recently discovered lava tubes on Mars present potential solutions to some of these issues, but raise a variety of intriguing new challenges. These encompass not only technological and engineering considerations, but also legal, ethical and societal issues such as planetary protection and crew safety. This paper assesses the feasibility of overcoming such challenges through the exploitation of Mars caves. Cave suitability is considered with respect to size, type, location and their potential to mitigate hazards. They are also assessed with respect to their potential for scientific work adhering to astrobiology guidelines and the search for extra-terrestrial life. This report compares surface and subsurface habitat options. Engineering challenges arising from the use of caves are addressed along with proposals for alternate architecture solutions. Different types of habitat are described and evaluated. The implications of sub-surface operations on thermal control, communications and power systems are investigated, and recommendations given. Crew selection, training methods and life support system solutions are also addressed. A Mission architecture analysis from the same Team Project is given in another paper from the same authors, at COSPAR 2010 B02 Technical Session. The ACCESS Mars Team concludes that using lava tubes as human habitats is not merely a viable habitat solution for a Mars expedition, but also potentially more beneficial than proposed

  12. An alternative solution of a gantry for light-ion cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlovic, M.

    1997-09-01

    Beams of protons and light ions (Z≤10) have favourable physical and biological properties for their application in radiotherapy. Their advantages such as high physical selectivity and higher biological effectiveness can even be enhanced by using active beam-scanning delivery systems [1] in conjunction with 3D-conformal treatment techniques developed and used in conventional radiotherapy [2]. Such an approach can only be realised if a rotating gantry for light-ion therapy beams is available. So far, rotating gantries have been built only for protons. Their parameters, including the gantries under construction, are collected in the paper. For light ions heavier than protons, the construction of a gantry is more difficult due to the higher rigidity of the therapy beams. The alternatives for a light-ion therapy gantry are briefly reviewed. A novel gantry concept with an oblique 60 output beam is introduced and the gantry is compared with a usual 90 -gantry. Beam transport system for the 60 -gantry containing a two-direction beam scanning option is presented and its ion-optical properties are discussed. (orig.)

  13. Gasification: An alternative solution for energy recovery and utilization of vegetable market waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narnaware, Sunil L; Srivastava, Nsl; Vahora, Samir

    2017-03-01

    Vegetables waste is generally utilized through a bioconversion process or disposed of at municipal landfills, dumping sites or dumped on open land, emitting a foul odor and causing health hazards. The presents study deals with an alternative way to utilize solid vegetable waste through a thermochemical route such as briquetting and gasification for its energy recovery and subsequent power generation. Briquettes of 50 mm diameter were produced from four different types of vegetable waste. The bulk density of briquettes produced was increased 10 to 15 times higher than the density of the dried vegetable waste in loose form. The lower heating value (LHV) of the briquettes ranged from 10.26 MJ kg -1 to 16.60 MJ kg -1 depending on the type of vegetable waste. The gasification of the briquettes was carried out in an open core downdraft gasifier, which resulted in syngas with a calorific value of 4.71 MJ Nm -3 at the gasification temperature between 889°C and 1011°C. A spark ignition, internal combustion engine was run on syngas and could generate a maximum load up to 10 kW e . The cold gas efficiency and the hot gas efficiency of the gasifier were measured at 74.11% and 79.87%, respectively. Energy recovery from the organic vegetable waste was possible through a thermochemical conversion route such as briquetting and subsequent gasification and recovery of the fuel for small-scale power generation.

  14. An alternative solution of a gantry for light-ion cancer therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlovic, M.

    1997-09-01

    Beams of protons and light ions (Z{<=}10) have favourable physical and biological properties for their application in radiotherapy. Their advantages such as high physical selectivity and higher biological effectiveness can even be enhanced by using active beam-scanning delivery systems [1] in conjunction with 3D-conformal treatment techniques developed and used in conventional radiotherapy [2]. Such an approach can only be realised if a rotating gantry for light-ion therapy beams is available. So far, rotating gantries have been built only for protons. Their parameters, including the gantries under construction, are collected in the paper. For light ions heavier than protons, the construction of a gantry is more difficult due to the higher rigidity of the therapy beams. The alternatives for a light-ion therapy gantry are briefly reviewed. A novel gantry concept with an oblique 60 output beam is introduced and the gantry is compared with a usual 90 -gantry. Beam transport system for the 60 -gantry containing a two-direction beam scanning option is presented and its ion-optical properties are discussed. (orig.)

  15. Two innovative solutions based on fibre concrete blocks designed for building substructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazderka, J.; Hájek, P.

    2017-09-01

    Using of fibers in a high-strength concrete allows reduction of the dimensions of small precast concrete elements, which opens up new ways of solution for traditional construction details in buildings. The paper presents two innovative technical solutions for building substructure: The special shaped plinth block from fibre concrete and the fibre concrete elements for new technical solution of ventilated floor. The main advantages of plinth block from fibre concrete blocks (compared with standard plinth solutions) is: easier and faster assembly, higher durability and thanks to the air cavity between the vertical part of the block, the building substructure reduced moisture level of structures under the waterproofing layer and a comprehensive solution to the final surface of building plinth as well as the surface of adjacent terrain. The ventilated floor based on fibre concrete precast blocks is an attractive structural alternative for tackling the problem of increased moisture in masonry in older buildings, lacking a functional waterproof layer in the substructure.

  16. Alternative routes for highway shipments of radioactive materials and lessons learned from state designations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under docket numbers HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select altemative routes. First, the state must establish a ''state routing agency'', defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with DOTs Guidelines for Selecting Preferred Highway Routes for Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice to DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective. The purpose of this report is to discuss the ''lessons learned'' by the five states within the southern region that have designated alternative or preferred routes under the regulations of the Department of Transportation (DOT) established for the transportation of radioactive materials. The document was prepared by reviewing applicable federal laws and regulations, examining state reports and documents and contacting state officials and routing agencies involved in making routing decisions. In undertaking this project, the Southern States Energy Board hopes to reveal the process used by states that have designated alternative routes and thereby share their experiences (i.e., lessons learned) with other southern states that have yet to make designations

  17. Non-homologous isofunctional enzymes: a systematic analysis of alternative solutions in enzyme evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omelchenko, Marina V; Galperin, Michael Y; Wolf, Yuri I; Koonin, Eugene V

    2010-04-30

    Evolutionarily unrelated proteins that catalyze the same biochemical reactions are often referred to as analogous - as opposed to homologous - enzymes. The existence of numerous alternative, non-homologous enzyme isoforms presents an interesting evolutionary problem; it also complicates genome-based reconstruction of the metabolic pathways in a variety of organisms. In 1998, a systematic search for analogous enzymes resulted in the identification of 105 Enzyme Commission (EC) numbers that included two or more proteins without detectable sequence similarity to each other, including 34 EC nodes where proteins were known (or predicted) to have distinct structural folds, indicating independent evolutionary origins. In the past 12 years, many putative non-homologous isofunctional enzymes were identified in newly sequenced genomes. In addition, efforts in structural genomics resulted in a vastly improved structural coverage of proteomes, providing for definitive assessment of (non)homologous relationships between proteins. We report the results of a comprehensive search for non-homologous isofunctional enzymes (NISE) that yielded 185 EC nodes with two or more experimentally characterized - or predicted - structurally unrelated proteins. Of these NISE sets, only 74 were from the original 1998 list. Structural assignments of the NISE show over-representation of proteins with the TIM barrel fold and the nucleotide-binding Rossmann fold. From the functional perspective, the set of NISE is enriched in hydrolases, particularly carbohydrate hydrolases, and in enzymes involved in defense against oxidative stress. These results indicate that at least some of the non-homologous isofunctional enzymes were recruited relatively recently from enzyme families that are active against related substrates and are sufficiently flexible to accommodate changes in substrate specificity.

  18. Sports Specialization, Part II: Alternative Solutions to Early Sport Specialization in Youth Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Gregory D; Jayanthi, Neeru; DiFiori, John P; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Kiefer, Adam W; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J

    2016-01-01

    Many coaches, parents, and children believe that the best way to develop elite athletes is for them to participate in only 1 sport from an early age and to play it year-round. However, emerging evidence to the contrary indicates that efforts to specialize in 1 sport may reduce opportunities for all children to participate in a diverse year-round sports season and can lead to lost development of lifetime sports skills. Early sports specialization may also reduce motor skill development and ongoing participation in games and sports as a lifestyle choice. The purpose of this review is to employ the current literature to provide evidence-based alternative strategies that may help to optimize opportunities for all aspiring young athletes to maximize their health, fitness, and sports performance. Nonsystematic review with critical appraisal of existing literature. Clinical review. Level 4. Based on the current evidence, parents and educators should help provide opportunities for free unstructured play to improve motor skill development and youth should be encouraged to participate in a variety of sports during their growing years to influence the development of diverse motor skills. For those children who do choose to specialize in a single sport, periods of intense training and specialized sport activities should be closely monitored for indicators of burnout, overuse injury, or potential decrements in performance due to overtraining. Last, the evidence indicates that all youth should be involved in periodized strength and conditioning (eg, integrative neuromuscular training) to help them prepare for the demands of competitive sport participation, and youth who specialize in a single sport should plan periods of isolated and focused integrative neuromuscular training to enhance diverse motor skill development and reduce injury risk factors. B. © 2015 The Author(s).

  19. Predicting the effectiveness of road safety campaigns through alternative research designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamos, Giannis; Nathanail, Eftihia

    2016-12-01

    A large number of road safety communication campaigns have been designed and implemented in the recent years; however their explicit impact on driving behavior and road accident rates has been estimated in a rather low proportion. Based on the findings of the evaluation of three road safety communication campaigns addressing the issues of drinking and driving, seat belt usage, and driving fatigue, this paper applies different types of research designs (i.e., experimental, quasi-experimental, and non-experimental designs), when estimating the effectiveness of road safety campaigns, implements a cross-design assessment, and conducts a cross-campaign evaluation. An integrated evaluation plan was developed, taking into account the structure of evaluation questions, the definition of measurable variables, the separation of the target audience into intervention (exposed to the campaign) and control (not exposed to the campaign) groups, the selection of alternative research designs, and the appropriate data collection methods and techniques. Evaluating the implementation of different research designs in estimating the effectiveness of road safety campaigns, results showed that the separate pre-post samples design demonstrated better predictability than other designs, especially in data obtained from the intervention group after the realization of the campaign. The more constructs that were added to the independent variables, the higher the values of the predictability were. The construct that most affects behavior is intention, whereas the rest of the constructs have a lower impact on behavior. This is particularly significant in the Health Belief Model (HBM). On the other hand, behavioral beliefs, normative beliefs, and descriptive norms, are significant parameters for predicting intention according to the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The theoretical and applied implications of alternative research designs and their applicability in the evaluation of road safety

  20. Crossbar H-mode drift-tube linac design with alternative phase focusing for muon linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, M.; Futatsukawa, K.; Hasegawa, K.; Kitamura, R.; Kondo, Y.; Kurennoy, S.

    2017-07-01

    We have developed a Crossbar H-mode (CH) drift-tube linac (DTL) design with an alternative phase focusing (APF) scheme for a muon linac, in order to measure the anomalous magnetic moment and electric dipole moment (EDM) of muons at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC). The CH-DTL accelerates muons from β = v/c = 0.08 to 0.28 at an operational frequency of 324 MHz. The design and results are described in this paper.

  1. Alternatives for implementing burnup credit in the design and operation of spent fuel transport casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, T.L.; Lake, W.H.

    1989-01-01

    It is possible to develop an optimal strategy for implementing burnup credit in spent fuel transport casks. For transport, the relative risk is rapidly reduced if additional pre-transport controls such as a cavity dryness verifications are conducted prior to transport. Some other operational and design features that could be incorporated into a burnup credit cask strategy are listed. These examples represent many of the system features and alternatives already available for use in developing a broadly based criticality safety strategy for implementing burnup credit in the design and operation of spent fuel transport casks. 4 refs., 1 tab

  2. Design solutions to interface flow problems. Figures - Tables - Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    All published proposals for the deep level burial of radioactive waste recognise that the access shafts, tunnels and boreholes must be sealed, and that the sealing of these openings plays an integral role in the overall isolation of the waste. Previous studies have identified the interface between the host ground formation and the various sealing materials as potential defects in the overall quality of the waste isolation. The significance of groundwater flow at and near the interface has been assessed for representative conditions in generic repository materials. A range of design options to minimise the significance of flow in the interface zone have been proposed, and the most practical of these options have been selected for quantitative analysis. It has been found that isolated high impermability collars are of limited value unless a highly effective method of minimising ground disturbance during excavation can be developed. It has also been found that control of radionuclide migration by sorptive processes provides an attractive option. The effect of various geometrical arrangements of sorptive materials has been investigated. Consideration has also been given to the particular conditions in the near field, to the behaviour of weak plastic clay host formations and to the mechanical interaction between the backfill material and the host formation

  3. Overview of CEA’s R&D on GFR fuel element design: From challenges to solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabiégo, M.; Ingremeau, J.J.; Ravenet, A.; Guédeney, P.; Sauder, C.; Guéneau, C.; Lorrette, C.; Chaffron, L.; Séran, J.L.; Le Flem, M.; David, P.; Briottet, L.

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions and perspectives: Designing GFR fuel elements represents a considerable challenge. There does seem to be little (if any) alternative to relying on SiC/SiC-based solutions. This resulted in CEA’s R&D program facing several technological bottlenecks. Innovative solutions were proposed and patented in the recent years: • Mixed ceramic/metal SA-duct; • “Buffer” bond; • Blind-end SiC/SiC cladding; • “Sandwich” cladding. Much progress has been accomplished and many perspectives have been open… …but proof is yet to be established that the proposed concepts are truly viable. Despite the present slowing down of GFR-dedicated R&D, limited studies are still conducted by CEA within the frame of LWR/SFR-dedicated programs

  4. Characterization of interference thin films grown on stainless steel surface by alternate pulse current in a sulphochromic solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Rabelo Junqueira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to characterize thin interference films grown on the surface of AISI 304 stainless steel for decorative purposes. Films were grown in a sulphochromic solution at room temperature by an alternating pulse current method. The morphology and chemical state of the elements in the films were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM, glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (GDOES, and infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTIR. Depth-sensing indentation (DSI experiments and wear abrasion tests were employed to assess the mechanical resistance of the films. The coloration process resulted in porous thin films which increased the surface roughness of the substrate. The interference films mainly consisted of hydrated chromium oxide containing iron. Increasing film thickness produced different colors and affected the mechanical properties of the coating-substrate system. Thicker films, such as those producing gold and green colors, were softer but more abrasion resistant.

  5. Solar energised transport solution and customer preferences and opinions about alternative fuel Vehicles – the case of slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž KNEZ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Authorities in Slovenia and other EU member states are confronted with problems of city transportation. Fossil-fuel based transport poses two chief problems – local and global pollution, and dwindling supplies and ever increasing costs. An elegant solution is to gradually replace the present automobile fleet with low emission vehicles. This article first explores the economics and practical viability of the provision of solar electricity for the charging of electric vehicles by installation of economical available PV modules and secondly the customer preferences and opinions about alternative low emission vehicles. Present estimates indicate that for the prevailing solar climate of Celje – a medium-sized Slovenian town – the cost would be only 2.11€ cents/kWh of generated solar electricity. Other results have also revealed that the most relevant factor for purchasing low emission vehicle is total vehicle price.

  6. Alternative design of inductive pointing device for oral interface for computers and wheelchairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lontis, Eugen R; Andreasen Struijk, Lotte N S

    2012-01-01

    An inductive pointing device was designed and implemented successfully in a tongue controlled oral interface. Sensors were manufactured as an assembly of multilayer coils in the printed circuit board technology on two pads. The sensor pads were encapsulated together with electronics and battery in a mouthpiece, placed in the upper palate of the oral cavity. The PCB technology allowed surface activation of one or more sensors by gliding over the surface of the coils assembly of a small cylindrical unit attached to the tongue. The model consisted of 8 sensors and allowed real time proportional control of both speed and direction similar to a joystick. However, the size of the oral cavity, the number and geometry of the coil loops and characteristics of the activation unit impose limits in designing the sensors and call for an alternative layout design. Two alternative sensor designs are proposed in this paper, aiming to reduce the size of the sensor pad by one third, extending the target group, including children, and increasing the easiness of wear of the oral interface.

  7. Evaluation of alternative public transportation systems in Izmit urban transportation via axiomatic design method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülşen AKMAN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the world and in our country, most of urban transportation is performed by public transportation. Public transportation is a system which provides transportation easiness and opportunity to people, not to vehicles. Therefore, giving priority to public transportation system is necessary in organizing urban transportation. In this study, in order to reduce traffic intensity and to facilitate passenger transportation in Izmit urban transportation, It is tried to determine appropriate public transportation system. For this, firstly, alternatives which could be used for public transportation were determined. These alternatives are metro, metrobus, tram, light rail system and monorail. Afterwards, the variables affecting decision making about public transportation were determined. These variables are cost, transportation line features, vehicle characteristics, sensitivity to environment and customer satisfaction. Lastly, most appropriate public transportation system is proposed by using the axiomatic design method. As a result, light trail system and metrobus are determined as the most appropriate alternatives for Izmit public transportation system.Keywords: Urban transportation, Multi criteria decision making, Axiomatic design

  8. A Alternative Analog Circuit Design Methodology Employing Integrated Artificial Intelligence Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Jeffery L.

    In consideration of the computer processing power now available to the designer, an alternative analog circuit design methodology is proposed. Computer memory capacities no longer require the reduction of the transistor operational characteristics to an imprecise formulation. Therefore, it is proposed that transistor modelling be abandoned in favor of fully characterized transistor data libraries. Secondly, availability of the transistor libraries would facilitate an automated selection of the most appropriate device(s) for the circuit being designed. More specifically, a preprocessor computer program to a more sophisticated circuit simulator (e.g. SPICE) is developed to assist the designer in developing the basic circuit topology and the selection of the most appropriate transistor. Once this is achieved, the circuit topology and selected transistor data library would be downloaded to the simulator for full circuit operational characterization and subsequent design modifications. It is recognized that the design process is enhanced by the use of heuristics as applied to iterative design results. Accordingly, an artificial intelligence (AI) interface is developed to assist the designer in applying the preprocessor results. To demonstrate the retrofitability of the AI interface to established programs, the interface is specifically designed to be as non-intrusive to the host code as possible. Implementation of the proposed methodology offers the potential to speed the design process, since the preprocessor both minimizes the required number of simulator runs and provides a higher acceptance potential of the initial and subsequent simulator runs. Secondly, part count reductions may be realizable since the circuit topologies are not as strongly driven by transistor limitations. Thirdly, the predicted results should more closely match actual circuit operations since the inadequacies of the transistor models have been virtually eliminated. Finally, the AI interface

  9. An alternative design of reference blocks during the ultrasonic of ferritic welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rondon Torriente, S.; Galeano Alvarez, N.J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes an alternative design which can be used to construct the reference blocks required to make the sensibility adjustment during the ultrasonic control ferritic welded joints. The major possibilities of this design are seen when it's used together with the well known AVG method, however it can be properly used with the reference block technique. In addition, the most general facts to keep in mind during the construction of this means are outlined, and besides advantages and problems involved with the use of some basics reference reflectors of wide spread use. Also formulates are given that can be used to obtain the size of the disk shaped reflector corresponding to the basics reference reflectors that this design includes

  10. Design and first measurements of an alternative calorimetry chamber for the HZB quadrupole resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Keckert, Sebastian; Knobloch, Jens; Kugeler, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The systematic research on superconducting thin films requires dedicated testing equipment. The Quadrupole Resonator (QPR) is a specialized tool to characterize the superconducting RF properties of circular planar samples. A calorimetric measurement of the RF surface losses allows the surface resistance to be measured with sub nano-ohm resolution. This measurement can be performed over a wide temperature and magnetic field range, at frequencies of 433, 866 and 1300 MHz. The system at Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) is based on a resonator built at CERN and has been optimized to lower peak electric fields and an improved resolution. In this paper the design of an alternative calorimetry chamber is presented, providing flat samples for coating which are easy changeable. All parts are connected by screwing connections and no electron beam welding is required. Furthermore this design enables exchangeability of samples between the resonators at HZB and CERN. First measurements with the new design show ambiguous r...

  11. Fly ash: An alternative to powdered activated carbon for the removal of eosin dye from aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.O. Njoku

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the use of powdered activated carbon (PAC and raw coal fly ash (RFA in the removal of eosin dye from aqueous solution in batch processes. Operational parameters such as contact time, initial dye concentration, pH and temperature were investigated. Adsorption equilibrium was established in 120 min for the two adsorbents. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were used to fit the adsorption data. Langmuir model gave the best fit in both cases. The adsorption capacities of PAC and RFA were found to be 62.28 mg/g and 43.48 mg/g, respectively. The highest percentage of eosin dye removal for both PAC (98% and RFA (90% was observed at pH 2. Pseudo first-order and pseudo second-order kinetic models were used to fit the adsorption data. Pseudo second-order kinetic model gave the best description of the adsorption of eosin dye onto the two adsorbents. Thermodynamic parameters, ΔH0, ΔS0 and ΔG0 confirmed the physical nature, spontaneity and the endothermic nature of the adsorption process. A regeneration technique and a process calculation for evaluating the adsorbent dose required were carried out. This study has shown that RFA is a good alternative adsorbent in the removal of eosin dye from aqueous solution.

  12. Novel Alternating Current Electrospinning of Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose Acetate Succinate (HPMCAS) Nanofibers for Dissolution Enhancement: The Importance of Solution Conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Attila; Farkas, Balázs; Pálvölgyi, Ádám; Domokos, András; Démuth, Balázs; Marosi, György; Nagy, Zsombor Kristóf

    2017-06-01

    Novel, high-yield alternating current electrospinning (ACES) and direct current electrospinning methods were investigated to prepare high-quality hydroxypropylmethylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS) fibers for the dissolution enhancement of poorly soluble spironolactone. Although HPMCAS is of great pharmaceutical importance as a carrier of marketed solid dispersion-based products, it was found to be unprocessable using electrospinning. Addition of small amounts of polyethylene oxide as aid polymer provided smooth fibers with direct current electrospinning but strongly beaded products with ACES. Solution characteristics were thus modified by introducing further excipients. In the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate, high-quality, HPMCAS-based fibers were obtained even at higher throughput rates of ACES owing to the change in conductivity (rather than surface tension). Replacement of sodium dodecyl sulfate with non-surface-active salts (calcium chloride and ammonium acetate) maintained the fine quality of nanofibers, confirming the importance of conductivity in ACES process. The HPMCAS-based fibers contained spironolactone in an amorphous form according to differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray powder diffraction. In vitro dissolution tests revealed fast drug release rates depending on the salt used to adjust conductivity. The presented results signify that ACES can be a prospective process for high-scale production of fibrous solid dispersions in which conductivity of solution has a fundamental role. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Anaerobic digestion of residues from production and refining of vegetable oils as an alternative to conventional solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrijos, M; Thalla, Arun Kumar; Sousbie, P; Bosque, F; Delgenès, J P

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the anaerobic digestion of by-products generated during the production and refining of oil with the objective of proposing an alternative solution (methanisation) to the conventional solutions while reducing the energy consumption of fossil origin on refinery sites. The production of sunflower oil was taken as example. Glycerine from the production of biodiesel was also included in this study. The results show that glycerine has a high potential for methanisation because of its high methane potential (465 ml CH4/g VS) and high metabolization rates (0.42 g VS/g VSS.d). The use of oil cake as substrate for anaerobic digestion is not interesting because it has a low methane potential of 215 ml CH4/g VS only and because it is easily recovered in animal feed. Six residues have quite a high methane potential (465 to 850 ml CH4/g VS) indicating a good potential for anaerobic digestion. However, they contain a mixture of rapidly and slowly biodegradable organic matter and the loading rates must remain quite low (0.03 to 0.09 g VS/g VSS.d) to prevent any accumulation of slowly biodegradable solids in the digesters. IWA Publishing 2008.

  14. Influence of Design Training and Spatial Solution Strategies on Spatial Ability Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hanyu

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported that spatial ability improves through training. This study investigated the following: (1) whether design training enhances spatial ability and (2) whether differing solution strategies are applied or generated following design training. On the basis of these two research objectives, this study divided the…

  15. Preliminary Assessment of Two Alternative Core Design Concepts for the Special Purpose Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterbentz, James W. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Werner, James E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hummel, Andrew J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kennedy, John C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); O' Brien, Robert C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Dion, Axel M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wright, Richard N. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ananth, Krishnan P. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-11-01

    The Special Purpose Reactor (SPR) is a small 5 MWt, heat pipe-cooled, fast reactor based on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Mega-Power concept. The LANL concept features a stainless steel monolithic core structure with drilled channels for UO2 pellet stacks and evaporator sections of the heat pipes. Two alternative active core designs are presented here that replace the monolithic core structure with simpler and easier to manufacture fuel elements. The two new core designs are simply referred to as Design A and Design B. In addition to ease of manufacturability, the fuel elements for both Design A and Design B can be individually fabricated, assembled, inspected, tested, and qualified prior to their installation into the reactor core leading to greater reactor system reliability and safety. Design A fuel elements will require the development of a new hexagonally-shaped UO2 fuel pellet. The Design A configuration will consist of an array of hexagonally-shaped fuel elements with each fuel element having a central heat pipe. This hexagonal fuel element configuration results in four radial gaps or thermal resistances per element. Neither the fuel element development, nor the radial gap issue are deemed to be serious and should not impact an aggressive reactor deployment schedule. Design B uses embedded arrays of heat pipes and fuel pins in a double-wall tank filled with liquid metal sodium. Sodium is used to thermally bond the heat pipes to the fuel pins, but its usage may create reactor transportation and regulatory challenges. An independent panel of U.S. manufacturing experts has preliminarily assessed the three SPR core designs and views Design A as simplest to manufacture. Herein are the results of a preliminary neutronic, thermal, mechanical, material, and manufacturing assessment of both Design A and Design B along with comparisons to the LANL concept (monolithic core structure). Despite the active core differences, all three reactor concepts behave

  16. Feed-water heaters alternative design comparison; Comparacion de disenos alternativos de calentadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Toledano, Gerardo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1988-12-31

    A procedure is presented for the alternative design comparison of feed water heaters, based in the failure records of damaged tubes during operation. The procedure is used for cases in which non-continuous or random inspections are made to the feed-water heaters. [Espanol] Se presenta un procedimiento para comparar disenos alternativos de calentadores, basandose en los registros de fallas de los tubos rotos acumuladas durante su operacion. El procedimiento se emplea para casos en los que se realizan inspecciones a los calentadores no continuas, ya sea periodicas o al azar.

  17. A framework to support decision making in the selection of sustainable drainage system design alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingming; Sweetapple, Chris; Fu, Guangtao; Farmani, Raziyeh; Butler, David

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents a new framework for decision making in sustainable drainage system (SuDS) scheme design. It integrates resilience, hydraulic performance, pollution control, rainwater usage, energy analysis, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and costs, and has 12 indicators. The multi-criteria analysis methods of entropy weight and Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) were selected to support SuDS scheme selection. The effectiveness of the framework is demonstrated with a SuDS case in China. Indicators used include flood volume, flood duration, a hydraulic performance indicator, cost and resilience. Resilience is an important design consideration, and it supports scheme selection in the case study. The proposed framework will help a decision maker to choose an appropriate design scheme for implementation without subjectivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Solution-verified reliability analysis and design of bistable MEMS using error estimation and adaptivity.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldred, Michael Scott; Subia, Samuel Ramirez; Neckels, David; Hopkins, Matthew Morgan; Notz, Patrick K.; Adams, Brian M.; Carnes, Brian; Wittwer, Jonathan W.; Bichon, Barron J.; Copps, Kevin D.

    2006-10-01

    This report documents the results for an FY06 ASC Algorithms Level 2 milestone combining error estimation and adaptivity, uncertainty quantification, and probabilistic design capabilities applied to the analysis and design of bistable MEMS. Through the use of error estimation and adaptive mesh refinement, solution verification can be performed in an automated and parameter-adaptive manner. The resulting uncertainty analysis and probabilistic design studies are shown to be more accurate, efficient, reliable, and convenient.

  19. Envelope periodic solutions for a discrete network with the Jacobi elliptic functions and the alternative (G'/G)-expansion method including the generalized Riccati equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tala-Tebue, E.; Tsobgni-Fozap, D. C.; Kenfack-Jiotsa, A.; Kofane, T. C.

    2014-06-01

    Using the Jacobi elliptic functions and the alternative ( G'/ G-expansion method including the generalized Riccati equation, we derive exact soliton solutions for a discrete nonlinear electrical transmission line in (2+1) dimension. More precisely, these methods are general as they lead us to diverse solutions that have not been previously obtained for the nonlinear electrical transmission lines. This study seeks to show that it is not often necessary to transform the equation of the network into a well-known differential equation before finding its solutions. The solutions obtained by the current methods are generalized periodic solutions of nonlinear equations. The shape of solutions can be well controlled by adjusting the parameters of the network. These exact solutions may have significant applications in telecommunication systems where solitons are used to codify or for the transmission of data.

  20. Alternative Energy Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowley, David E.; Berman, Marc J.; Breinlinger, Helmut; Gilly, Ladina; Graves, Sam; Kovatch, Patricia; Kulesza, Pete; Martinez, Dave; Minyard, Tommy; Prucnal, Dave; Seager, Mark; Vadgama, Ash

    2011-03-19

    How can HPC centers reduce cost and environmental impact by making creative use of local natural resources? Energy efficiency inside the data center is only part of the story. In keeping with the principle of reduce, reuse, recycle, we should be able to take advantage of local resources to increase efficiency either at new or existing locations. Are there creative ways to reduce PUE below 1? Is a more meaningful way needed to express and measure the environmental effects of operating HPC centers? We will explore approaches such as sustainable energy sources, use of ambient external air or water temperatures, and reuse of "waste" heat.

  1. Alternative method of portable irradiation of manganese sulphate solution by an plutonium-beryllium source for manganese sulphate bath efficiency measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Fellipe Souza da; Martins, Marcelo Marques; Pereira, Walsan Wagner

    2016-01-01

    This study intends to create an alternative irradiation system from a Plutonium-Beryllium source for manganese sulphate solution using the Monte Carlo code. Thus seeking to eliminate the issue of institutes that do not have reactors or particle accelerators in its infrastructure, in order to optimize and provide independence for them to carry out efficiency measurements of MnSO 4 solution in their own locality. The Monte Carlo simulations defined the technical features of this new system so that the solution reaches the maximum neutron capture by manganese in solution. (author)

  2. Retrofitting a spent fuel pool spray system for alternative cooling as a strategy for beyond design basis events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Christoph; Vujic, Zoran [Westinghouse Electric Germany GmbH, Mannheim (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    Due to requirements for nuclear power plants to withstand beyond design basis accidents, including events such as happened in 2011 in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan, alternative cooling of spent fuel is needed. Alternative spent fuel cooling can be provided by a retrofitted spent fuel pool spray system based on the AP1000 plant design. As part of Krsko Nuclear Power Plant's Safety Upgrade Program, Krsko Nuclear Power Plant decided on, and Westinghouse successfully designed a retrofit of the AP1000 {sup registered} plant spent fuel pool spray system to provide alternative spent fuel cooling.

  3. Two preliminary alternative designs for the gravity support of ITER toroidal field magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Binglin; Pan Chuanhong; Li Pengyuan; Zhang Nianman

    2009-01-01

    According to the original reference design, the gravity support pedestal (GSP) of ITER toroidal field magnet will be very difficult to fabricate because of large vacuum electronic welding, and therefore, two conceptual alternative designs, 'split vacuum electronic welding option' and 'bolt clamping option', are put forward. The preliminary buckling analyses with FEM (finite element method) and hand calculation show that there are enough safety margin in two options and both of them are feasible. Even though the 'split vacuum electronic welding option' makes the welding easier (in which GSP is split into two halves and thereby no large vacuum-chamber is needed), there are more advantages in the 'bolt clamping option' (where no welding is needed), such as the GSP fabrication is simple, the reject rate is low, the cost is much lower, and the producing time is shortened. Comparably, the 'bolt clamping option' is strongly recommended. (authors)

  4. Preliminary design study of an alternate heat source assembly for a Brayton isotope power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumpf, H. J.

    1978-01-01

    Results are presented for a study of the preliminary design of an alternate heat source assembly (HSA) intended for use in the Brayton isotope power system (BIPS). The BIPS converts thermal energy emitted by a radioactive heat source into electrical energy by means of a closed Brayton cycle. A heat source heat exchanger configuration was selected and optimized. The design consists of a 10 turn helically wound Hastelloy X tube. Thermal analyses were performed for various operating conditions to ensure that post impact containment shell (PICS) temperatures remain within specified limits. These limits are essentially satisfied for all modes of operation except for the emergency cooling system for which the PICS temperatures are too high. Neon was found to be the best choice for a fill gas for auxiliary cooling system operation. Low cycle fatigue life, natural frequency, and dynamic loading requirements can be met with minor modifications to the existing HSA.

  5. A Modified Jonckheere Test Statistic for Ordered Alternatives in Repeated Measures Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Tül Kübra AKDUR

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a new test based on Jonckheere test [1] for  randomized blocks which have dependent observations within block is presented. A weighted sum for each block statistic rather than the unweighted sum proposed by Jonckheereis included. For Jonckheere type statistics, the main assumption is independency of observations within block. In the case of repeated measures design, the assumption of independence is violated. The weighted Jonckheere type statistic for the situation of dependence for different variance-covariance structure and the situation based on ordered alternative hypothesis structure of each block on the design is used. Also, the proposed statistic is compared to the existing test based on Jonckheere in terms of type I error rates by performing Monte Carlo simulation. For the strong correlations, circular bootstrap version of the proposed Jonckheere test provides lower rates of type I error.

  6. SustainPro - A tool for systematic process analysis, generation and evaluation of sustainable design alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, Ana; Matos, Henrique A.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    . The software tool is based on the implementation of an extended systematic methodology for sustainable process design (Carvalho et al. 2008 and Carvalho et al. 2009). Using process information/data such as the process flowsheet, the associated mass / energy balance data and the cost data, SustainPro guides......Chemical processes are continuously facing challenges from the demands of the global market related to economics, environment and social issues. This paper presents the development of a software tool (SustainPro) and its application to chemical processes operating in batch or continuous modes...... the user through the necessary steps according to work-flow of the implemented methodology. At the end the design alternatives, are evaluated using environmental impact assessment tools and safety indices. The extended features of the methodology incorporate Life Cycle Assessment analysis and economic...

  7. A better alternative to stratified permuted block design for subject randomization in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenle

    2014-12-30

    Stratified permuted block randomization has been the dominant covariate-adaptive randomization procedure in clinical trials for several decades. Its high probability of deterministic assignment and low capacity of covariate balancing have been well recognized. The popularity of this sub-optimal method is largely due to its simplicity in implementation and the lack of better alternatives. Proposed in this paper is a two-stage covariate-adaptive randomization procedure that uses the block urn design or the big stick design in stage one to restrict the treatment imbalance within each covariate stratum, and uses the biased-coin minimization method in stage two to control imbalances in the distribution of additional covariates that are not included in the stratification algorithm. Analytical and simulation results show that the new randomization procedure significantly reduces the probability of deterministic assignments, and improve the covariate balancing capacity when compared to the traditional stratified permuted block randomization. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Exploring Alternatives for Representing and Accessing Design Knowledge About Enterprise Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umapathy, Karthikeyan; Purao, Sandeep

    Enterprise integration refers to solutions that facilitate meaningful interactions among heterogeneous legacy applications. The scale, complexity and specificity of most enterprise integration efforts mean that design knowledge for enterprise integration has resisted codification. Important exceptions to this include: use of Business Process Models (BPM) to understand integration requirements; and Enterprise Integration Patterns (EIP), which present designers with abstract descriptions of recurring design tactics for integrating applications. The two, however, can be at odds. BPM encourages the control flow perspective; whereas EIP codifies an operational perspective. Mapping between the two to develop coherent solutions, therefore, tends to be problematic. To bridge the gap, we suggest an approach that builds on the theory of speech acts. We develop essential components of such an approach, including a re-representation of EIP as structures of speech acts, a characterization of tasks in BPM with action types, and a mapping between speech acts and action types. These components are accompanied by inference rules that produce a mapping between sets of tasks in a business process and structures of speech acts to allow reasoning on identification of appropriate EIPs for given set of tasks. We demonstrate usefulness of the proposed approach by application to industry cases.

  9. Closed-form solutions for linear regulator design of mechanical systems including optimal weighting matrix selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Brantley R.; Skelton, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    Vibration in modern structural and mechanical systems can be reduced in amplitude by increasing stiffness, redistributing stiffness and mass, and/or adding damping if design techniques are available to do so. Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) theory in modern multivariable control design, attacks the general dissipative elastic system design problem in a global formulation. The optimal design, however, allows electronic connections and phase relations which are not physically practical or possible in passive structural-mechanical devices. The restriction of LQR solutions (to the Algebraic Riccati Equation) to design spaces which can be implemented as passive structural members and/or dampers is addressed. A general closed-form solution to the optimal free-decay control problem is presented which is tailored for structural-mechanical system. The solution includes, as subsets, special cases such as the Rayleigh Dissipation Function and total energy. Weighting matrix selection is a constrained choice among several parameters to obtain desired physical relationships. The closed-form solution is also applicable to active control design for systems where perfect, collocated actuator-sensor pairs exist.

  10. Data Management for the Internet of Things: Design Primitives and Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Elkheir, Mervat; Hayajneh, Mohammad; Ali, Najah Abu

    2013-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is a networking paradigm where interconnected, smart objects continuously generate data and transmit it over the Internet. Much of the IoT initiatives are geared towards manufacturing low-cost and energy-efficient hardware for these objects, as well as the communication technologies that provide objects interconnectivity. However, the solutions to manage and utilize the massive volume of data produced by these objects are yet to mature. Traditional database management solutions fall short in satisfying the sophisticated application needs of an IoT network that has a truly global-scale. Current solutions for IoT data management address partial aspects of the IoT environment with special focus on sensor networks. In this paper, we survey the data management solutions that are proposed for IoT or subsystems of the IoT. We highlight the distinctive design primitives that we believe should be addressed in an IoT data management solution, and discuss how they are approached by the proposed solutions. We finally propose a data management framework for IoT that takes into consideration the discussed design elements and acts as a seed to a comprehensive IoT data management solution. The framework we propose adapts a federated, data- and sources-centric approach to link the diverse Things with their abundance of data to the potential applications and services that are envisioned for IoT. PMID:24240599

  11. Clean Air Program : Design Guidelines for Bus Transit Systems Using Alcohol Fuel (Methanol and Ethanol) as an Alternative Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Although there are over one thousand transit buses in revenue service in the U.S. that are powered by alternative fuels, there are no comprehensive guidelines for the safe design and operation of alternative fuel facilities and vehicles for transit s...

  12. Design as a Problem and Design as a Solution for Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    The role of industrial design has been essential in the definition of an industrial model based on large production volumes for broad markets, but industrial designers also contributed to the maturation of such a model towards sophisticated models that are now proving to be unsustainable. This made...

  13. Sıkışma: An Alternative Information Design Project for Ihlamur Pavilions Istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özmen, Melike

    2016-01-01

    Sıkışma is a transmedia information design project, which focuses on Ihlamur Pavilions and Ihlamur area. Ihlamur hosts Ihlamur Pavilions since 19th Century. It is located within Beşiktaş district in Istanbul. Nowadays the buildings belong to TBMM (The Grand National Assembly of Turkey) National Palaces and used as a Museum- Café. There is a conventional wayfinding & signage system for outdoor areas of the Pavilions. The system also includes two separate boards focusing on the history of Ihlamur and Ihlamur Pavilions. However, the information provided on these boards seems inadequate and the boards are physically damaged. According Universal Design approach it is possible to achieve good and functional design and solve the inadequacy problem by physically fixing information boards and re-setting the environment around the information boards according to Universal Design principles. Although, these principles provide solutions for important issues such as mobility, stability and accessibility, it doesn't provide sufficient proof of user engagement in terms of the creation of the content. The project Sıkışma offers an approach, which is concerned with content as with form and suggests that it is possible to infer a universal form from the content created through personal experience of the designer as a user. It is also intended to represent the past and the present through the project and to create an understanding of plausible scenarios of the unknown future in the viewers' mind.

  14. An alternative design for a metal image slicing IFU for EAGLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubbeldam, Cornelis M.; Robertson, David J.; Rolt, Stephen; Talbot, R. Gordon

    2012-09-01

    The Centre for Advanced Instrumentation (CfAI) of Durham University (UK) has developed a conceptual design for the Integral Field Unit (IFU) for EAGLE based on diamond-machined monolithic multi-faceted metal-mirror arrays as an alternative to the glass IFU which is currently baselined. The CfAI has built up substantial expertise with the design, manufacture, integration, alignment and acceptance testing of such systems, through the successful development of IFUs for the Gemini Near-InfraRed Spectrograph (GNIRS) and JWST NIRSpec and 24 IFUs for ESO’s K-band Multi-Object Spectrometer (KMOS). The unprecedented performance of the KMOS IFUs (Strehl risks and cost. Through the timely completion of the KMOS IFUs, which required the fabrication of an unprecedented 1152 optical surfaces, the CfAI have demonstrated that they have the capacity to produce the required volume within reasonable schedule constraints. All the facilities (design, fabrication e.g. diamond machining, metrology, integration and test) required for the successful realisation of such systems are available in-house, thus minimising programmatic risks. This paper presents the opto-mechanical design and predicted performance (based on the actual measured performance of the KMOS IFUs) of the proposed metal IFU.

  15. Selection of the variant solution of forest road alignment conceptual design using multicriteria optimisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanović Bogdan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the three studied variant solutions of forest road conceptual design was selected based on the linear distribution of criteria, as the method of multicriteria optimization. The selection was performed with 25 parameters classified as economic, technical, production and social criteria. The parameters of technical criteria were grouped into design, construction and building parameters. Based on calculated nominal values of parameters by the given criteria, their ranking, comparison, point rating and scoring, the selected most favorable solution was variant 1.

  16. Designing a case for the study of solutions in Secondary Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dolores Sánchez González

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present the process followed to design a case study entitled Quién mató a Nemo Blue? (Who Killed Nemo Blue?. The case is classified as Design for a solution and is addressed to Chemistry students aged 14 - 16. The case is developed through eight different stages that show different aspects of the problem to study.The case is aimed to improve knowledge about water solutions and environmental attitudes regarding groundwater pollution, contained in the curriculum of Secondary Compulsory Education. At the same time, we intend to develop some of the key competences proposed by the new Spanish Education Law (LOE.

  17. Design principles for lymphatic drainage of fluid and solutes from collagen scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Rebecca L; Margolis, Emily A; Ryan, Tyler J; Coisman, Brent J; Price, Gavrielle M; Wong, Keith H K; Tien, Joe

    2018-01-01

    In vivo, tissues are drained of excess fluid and macromolecules by the lymphatic vascular system. How to engineer artificial lymphatics that can provide equivalent drainage in biomaterials remains an open question. This study elucidates design principles for engineered lymphatics, by comparing the rates of removal of fluid and solute through type I collagen gels that contain lymphatic vessels or unseeded channels, or through gels without channels. Surprisingly, no difference was found between the fluid drainage rates for gels that contained vessels or bare channels. Moreover, solute drainage rates were greater in collagen gels that contained lymphatic vessels than in those that had bare channels. The enhancement of solute drainage by lymphatic endothelium was more pronounced in longer scaffolds and with smaller solutes. Whole-scaffold imaging revealed that endothelialization aided in solute drainage by impeding solute reflux into the gel without hindering solute entry into the vessel lumen. These results were reproduced by computational models of drainage with a flow-dependent endothelial hydraulic conductivity. This study shows that endothelialization of bare channels does not impede the drainage of fluid from collagen gels and can increase the drainage of macromolecules by preventing solute transport back into the scaffold. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 106A: 106-114, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Hank's balanced salt solution: an alternative resuspension medium to label autologous leukocytes. Experience in inflammatory bowel disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Comin, Joseph; Plaza, Pedro; Roca, Manoel [Hospital de Bellvitge (Spain). Servico de Medicina Nuclear]. E-mail: jmartincomin@csub.scs.es; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia

    2002-09-01

    In this work Hank balanced salt solution (HBSS) has been used as resuspension medium, instead of leukocyte poor plasma (LPP) to label autologous white blood cells in 28 patients with suspicion of active inflammatory bowel disease. Labelled cells were reinjected and anterior and caudo-cranial views were obtained at 30 min, 2 h and 6 h p.i. Regions of interest were outlined on liver, spleen, lung, bone marrow (spine), background and lesions and the organ/background activity ratios were calculated in all scans. Patients were classified into 2 groups: Group 1: LPP, 30 patients and Groups 2: HBSS, 28 patients. labelling efficiency was higher in HBSS group (89.0 +- 3.2%) than in the LPP group (6.5 +- 6.3%). Organ/background activity ratios were similar in both groups. Concerning diagnostic accuracy was similar at 30 min and 2 h but the false positive rate increased at 6 h p.i. in the HBSS group. HBSS seems to be a valid alternative as resuspension medium in the labeling of autologous leukocytes but leukocyte poor plasma seem to induce less leukocyte damage. Based on these results, in our center HBSS is the currently used medium to label leukocytes. (author)

  19. Randomized controlled trials and neuro-oncology: should alternative designs be considered?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Alireza; Shin, Samuel; Cooper, Benjamin; Srivastava, Archita; Bhandari, Mohit; Kondziolka, Douglas

    2015-09-01

    quality of design/reporting of RCTs in neuro-oncology persist. Quality improvement is necessary. Consideration of alternative strategies should be considered.

  20. Preliminary study for alternative conceptual core design of the MTR research reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surbakti, T.; Pinem, S.; Sembiring, T. M.; Subekti, M.; Sunaryo, G. R.

    2018-02-01

    The utilization of the research reactor is increasingly widespread, especially for radioisotope production and testing of advanced materials and preference to use a compact core. The reactor core design has been determined on the maximum thermal flux in the middle of the core per MW. BATAN has designed several alternative research reactor cores. The purpose of this research reactor is to obtain the optimum reactor core configurations with the criteria to have a thermal neutron flux in the centre of the core with minimum of 1.0×1015 n/cm2 s. Power level of the research reactor is 60 MWthwith U9Mo/Al fuel 85 cm of height. Design of plate-type fuels with a higher core results in the heat transfer to the coolant optimal. All 16 fuel assemblies and the 4 control rodsare inserted into the core for this reactor. The core design calculations were carried out with the WIMSD-5B and BATAN-FUEL codes. Conceptual design calculation results show that the core configuration with 5 × 5 grids, all the fresh fuel, fuel loading of 470 g, a D2O reflector, a maximum thermal neutron flux in the central core is 1.09 x 1015 n/cm2s and the cycle length is 33 days. The reactor core design is the most optimal for MTR type. For the equilibrium core, a fuel loading of 600 g results in the maximum thermal flux of 1.07x1015 n/cm2s and the two safety rods should be used in the core.

  1. A note on “An alternative multiple attribute decision making methodology for solving optimal facility layout design selection problems”

    OpenAIRE

    R. Venkata Rao

    2012-01-01

    A paper published by Maniya and Bhatt (2011) (An alternative multiple attribute decision making methodology for solving optimal facility layout design selection problems, Computers & Industrial Engineering, 61, 542-549) proposed an alternative multiple attribute decision making method named as “Preference Selection Index (PSI) method” for selection of an optimal facility layout design. The authors had claimed that the method was logical and more appropriate and the method gives directly the o...

  2. RIP Input From WAPDEG for LA Desgin Selection: Enhanced Design Alternative II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.E. Bullard

    1999-07-16

    The purpose of this analysis is to identify and analyze concepts for the acquisition of data in support of the Performance Confirmation (PC) program at the potential subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. This analysis is being prepared to document an investigation of design concepts, current available technology, technology trends, and technical issues associated with data acquisition during the PC period. This analysis utilizes the ''Performance Confirmation Plan'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) to help define the scope for the PC data acquisition system. The focus of this analysis is primarily on the PC period for a minimum of 30 years after emplacement of the last waste package. The design of the data acquisition system shall allow for a closure deferral up to 300 years from initiation of waste emplacement. (CRWMS M&O 2000h, page 5-1). This analysis is a revision to and supercedes analysis, ''Performance Confirmation Data Acquisition System'', DI No. BCAI00000-017 17-0200-00002 Rev 00 (CRWMS M&O 1997), and incorporates the latest repository design changes following the M&O & DOE evaluation of a series of Enhanced Design Alternatives (EDAs), as described in the ''Enhanced Design Alternatives II Report'' (CRWMS M&O 1999d). Significant design changes include: thermal line loading of the emplacement drifts, closer spacing of the waste packages (WPs), wider spacing and fewer emplacement drifts, continuous ventilation of all active emplacement drifts, thinner walled WP designs which will increase external radiation levels, a 50-year repository closure option, inclusion of a drip-shield, exclusion of backfill, and new conceptual designs for the waste emplacement vehicles and equipment (Stroupe 2000). The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Review the criteria for design as presented in the Performance Confirmation Data Acquisition/Monitoring System Description Document, by way of the

  3. Alternative design of pipe sleeve for liquid removal mechanism in mortar slab layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazri, W. M. H. Wan; Anting, N.; Lim, A. J. M. S.; Prasetijo, J.; Shahidan, S.; Din, M. F. Md; Anuar, M. A. Mohd

    2017-11-01

    Porosity is one of the mortar’s characteristics that can cause problems, especially in the room space that used high amount of water, such as bathrooms. Waterproofing is one of the technology that normally used to minimize this problem which is preventing deep penetration of liquid water or moisture into underlying concrete layers. However, without the proper mechanism to remove liquid water and moisture from mortar system, waterproofing layer tends to be damaged after a long period of time by the static formation of liquid water and moisture at mortar layer. Thus, a solution has been proposed to drain out water that penetrated into the mortar layer. This paper introduces a new solution using a Modified Pipe Sleeve (MPS) that installed at the mortar layer. The MPS has been designed considering the percentage surface area of the pipe sleeve that having contact with mortar layer (2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10%) with angle of holes of 60°. Infiltration test and flow rate test have been conducted to identify the effectiveness of the MPS in order to drain out liquid water or moisture from the mortar layer. In this study shows that, MPS surface area 10%, angled 60°, function effectively as a water removal compared to other design.

  4. A general solution to the material performance index for bending strength design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, S.C.; Pasini, D.; Smith, D.J.; Alemzadeh, K.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a general solution to the material performance index for the bending strength design of beams. In general, the performance index for strength design is ρ f q /ρ where σ f is the material strength, ρ is the material density and q is a function of the direction of scaling. Previous studies have only solved q for three particular cases: proportional scaling of width and height (q=2/3), constrained height (q=1) and constrained width (q=1/2). This paper presents a general solution to the exponent q for any arbitrary direction of scaling. The index is used to produce performance maps that rank relative material performance for particular design cases. The performance index and the performance maps are applied to a design case study

  5. Fractional Factorial Design Study on the Performance of GAC-Enhanced Electrocoagulation Process Involved in Color Removal from Dye Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Gabriela Breaban

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of main factors and interactions on the color removal performance from dye solutions using the electrocoagulation process enhanced by adsorption on Granular Activated Carbon (GAC. In this study, a mathematical approach was conducted using a two-level fractional factorial design (FFD for a given dye solution. Three textile dyes: Acid Blue 74, Basic Red 1, and Reactive Black 5 were used. Experimental factors used and their respective levels were: current density (2.73 or 27.32 A/m2, initial pH of aqueous dye solution (3 or 9, electrocoagulation time (20 or 180 min, GAC dose (0.1 or 0.5 g/L, support electrolyte (2 or 50 mM, initial dye concentration (0.05 or 0.25 g/L and current type (Direct Current—DC or Alternative Pulsed Current—APC. GAC-enhanced electrocoagulation performance was analyzed statistically in terms of removal efficiency, electrical energy, and electrode material consumptions, using modeling polynomial equations. The statistical significance of GAC dose level on the performance of GAC enhanced electrocoagulation and the experimental conditions that favor the process operation of electrocoagulation in APC regime were determined. The local optimal experimental conditions were established using a multi-objective desirability function method.

  6. SOA enabled ELTA: approach in designing business intelligence solutions in Era of Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Dmitriyev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current work presents a new approach for designing business intelligence solutions. In the Era of Big Data, former and robust analytical concepts and utilities need to adapt themselves to the changed market circumstances. The main focus of this work is to address the acceleration of building process of a “data-centric” Business Intelligence (BI solution besides preparing BI solutions for Big Data utilization. This research addresses the following goals: reducing the time spent during business intelligence solution’s design phase; achieving flexibility of BI solution by adding new data sources; and preparing BI solution for utilizing Big Data concepts. This research proposes an extension of the existing Extract, Load and Transform (ELT approach to the new one Extract, Load, Transform and Analyze (ELTA supported by service-orientation concept. Additionally, the proposed model incorporates Service-Oriented Architecture concept as a mediator for the transformation phase. On one side, such incorporation brings flexibility to the BI solution and on the other side; it reduces the complexity of the whole system by moving some responsibilities to external authorities.

  7. Preliminary Evaluation of Alternate Designs for HFIR Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renfro, David G [ORNL; Chandler, David [ORNL; Cook, David Howard [ORNL; Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Jain, Prashant K [ORNL; Valentine, Jennifer R [ORNL

    2014-11-01

    Engineering design studies of the feasibility of conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel are ongoing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of an effort sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy s Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI)/Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program. The fuel type selected by the program for the conversion of the five high-power research reactors in the U.S. that still use HEU fuel is a new U-Mo monolithic fuel. Studies by ORNL have previously indicated that HFIR can be successfully converted using the new fuel provided (1) the reactor power can be increased from 85 MW to 100 MW and (2) the fuel can be fabricated to a specific reference design. Fabrication techniques for the new fuel are under development by the program but are still immature, especially for the complex aspects of the HFIR fuel design. In FY 2012, the program underwent a major shift in focus to emphasize developing and qualifying processes for the fabrication of reliable and affordable LEU fuel. In support of this new focus and in an effort to ensure that the HFIR fuel design is as suitable for reliable fabrication as possible, ORNL undertook the present study to propose and evaluate several alternative design features. These features include (1) eliminating the fuel zone axial contouring in the previous reference design by substituting a permanent neutron absorber in the lower unfueled region of all of the fuel plates, (2) relocating the burnable neutron absorber from the fuel plates of the inner fuel element to the side plates of the inner fuel element (the fuel plates of the outer fuel element do not contain a burnable absorber), (3) relocating the fuel zone inside the fuel plate to be centered on the centerline of the depth of the plate, and (4) reshaping the radial contour of the relocated fuel zone to be symmetric about this centerline. The present

  8. Preliminary Evaluation of Alternate Designs for HFIR Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renfro, David [ORNL; Chandler, David [ORNL; Cook, David [ORNL; Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Jain, Prashant [ORNL; Valentine, Jennifer [ORNL

    2014-10-30

    Engineering design studies of the feasibility of conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel are ongoing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of an effort sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI)/Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program. The fuel type selected by the program for the conversion of the five high-power research reactors in the U.S. that still use HEU fuel is a new U-Mo monolithic fuel. Studies by ORNL have previously indicated that HFIR can be successfully converted using the new fuel provided (1) the reactor power can be increased from 85 MW to 100 MW and (2) the fuel can be fabricated to a specific reference design. Fabrication techniques for the new fuel are under development by the program but are still immature, especially for the “complex” aspects of the HFIR fuel design. In FY 2012, the program underwent a major shift in focus to emphasize developing and qualifying processes for the fabrication of reliable and affordable LEU fuel. In support of this new focus and in an effort to ensure that the HFIR fuel design is as suitable for reliable fabrication as possible, ORNL undertook the present study to propose and evaluate several alternative design features. These features include (1) eliminating the fuel zone axial contouring in the previous reference design by substituting a permanent neutron absorber in the lower unfueled region of all of the fuel plates, (2) relocating the burnable neutron absorber from the fuel plates of the inner fuel element to the side plates of the inner fuel element (the fuel plates of the outer fuel element do not contain a burnable absorber), (3) relocating the fuel zone inside the fuel plate to be centered on the centerline of the depth of the plate, and (4) reshaping the radial contour of the relocated fuel zone to be symmetric about this centerline. The

  9. User-Centered Design and Augmentative and Alternative Communication Apps for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Lubas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Communication difficulties are among the most frequent characteristics of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Lack of communication can have a significant impact on the child’s life. Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC apps are a common form of AAC interventions that involve a combination of affordable technology with software that can be utilized to assist with communication. While AAC apps have been found to have some impact on improving the communication skills of children with ASD, current research exploring this topic is still limited. Focusing on the design process of AAC apps may provide better insight into improving clinical outcomes and user success. The user-centered design process incorporates a continuous cycle of user feedback to help inform and improve the functions and the capabilities of the technology, and it is an essential component in AAC app development. This article outlines how the user-centered design process could be adopted for the development of AAC apps for children with ASD.

  10. A Synthesis of Relevant Literature on the Development of Emotional Competence: Implications for Design of Augmentative and Alternative Communication Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Ji Young; Wilkinson, Krista; Karny, Meredith; Blackstone, Sarah; Stifter, Cynthia

    2016-08-01

    Emotional competence refers to the ability to identify, respond to, and manage one's own and others' emotions. Emotional competence is critical to many functional outcomes, including making and maintaining friends, academic success, and community integration. There appears to be a link between the development of language and the development of emotional competence in children who use speech. Little information is available about these issues in children who rely on augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). In this article, we consider how AAC systems can be designed to support communication about emotions and the development of emotional competence. Because limited research exists on communication about emotions in a context of aided AAC, theory and research from other fields (e.g., psychology, linguistics, child development) is reviewed to identify key features of emotional competence and their possible implications for AAC design and intervention. The reviewed literature indicated that the research and clinical attention to emotional competence in children with disabilities is encouraging. However, the ideas have not been considered specifically in the context of aided AAC. On the basis of the reviewed literature, we offer practical suggestions for system design and AAC use for communication about emotions with children who have significant disabilities. Three key elements of discussing emotions (i.e., emotion name, reason, and solution) are suggested for inclusion in order to provide these children with opportunities for a full range of discussion about emotions. We argue that supporting communication about emotions is as important for children who use AAC as it is for children who are learning speech. This article offers a means to integrate information from other fields for the purpose of enriching AAC supports.

  11. Practical solutions for multi-objective optimization: An application to system reliability design problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taboada, Heidi A.; Baheranwala, Fatema; Coit, David W.; Wattanapongsakorn, Naruemon

    2007-01-01

    For multiple-objective optimization problems, a common solution methodology is to determine a Pareto optimal set. Unfortunately, these sets are often large and can become difficult to comprehend and consider. Two methods are presented as practical approaches to reduce the size of the Pareto optimal set for multiple-objective system reliability design problems. The first method is a pseudo-ranking scheme that helps the decision maker select solutions that reflect his/her objective function priorities. In the second approach, we used data mining clustering techniques to group the data by using the k-means algorithm to find clusters of similar solutions. This provides the decision maker with just k general solutions to choose from. With this second method, from the clustered Pareto optimal set, we attempted to find solutions which are likely to be more relevant to the decision maker. These are solutions where a small improvement in one objective would lead to a large deterioration in at least one other objective. To demonstrate how these methods work, the well-known redundancy allocation problem was solved as a multiple objective problem by using the NSGA genetic algorithm to initially find the Pareto optimal solutions, and then, the two proposed methods are applied to prune the Pareto set

  12. Experimental analysis of stereotypy with applications of nonparametric statistical tests for alternating treatments designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Blair P; Finley, Crystal I; Weaver, Emily S

    2015-11-17

    Stereotypy is common in individuals with developmental disabilities and may become disruptive in the context of instruction. The purpose of this study was to embed brief experimental analyses in the context of reading instruction to evaluate effects of antecedent and consequent variables on latencies to and durations of stereotypy. We trained a reading instructor to implement a trial-based functional analysis and a subsequent antecedent analysis of stimulus features for an adolescent with autism in a reading clinic. We used alternating treatments designs with applications of nonparametric statistical analyses to control Type I error rates. Results of the experimental analyses suggested stereotypy was maintained by nonsocial reinforcement and informed the extent to which features of academic materials influenced levels of stereotypy. Results of nonparametric statistical analyses were consistent with conclusions based on visual analysis. Brief experimental analyses may be embedded in academic instruction to inform the stimulus conditions that influence stereotypy.

  13. Designing Alternative Transport Methods for the Distributed Data Collection of ATLAS EventIndex Project

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez Casani, Alvaro; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    One of the key and challenging tasks of the ATLAS EventIndex project is to index and catalog all the produced events not only at CERN but also at hundreds of worldwide grid sites, and convey the data in real time to a central Hadoop instance at CERN. While this distributed data collection is currently operating correctly in production, there are some issues that might impose performance bottlenecks in the future, with an expected rise in the event production and reprocessing rates. In this work, we first describe the current approach based on a messaging system, which conveys the data from the sources to the central catalog, and we identify some weaknesses of this system. Then, we study a promising alternative transport method based on an object store, presenting a performance comparison with the current approach, and the architectural design changes needed to adapt the system to the next run of the ATLAS experiment at CERN.

  14. Relative risk measure suitable for comparison of design alternatives of interim spent nuclear fuel storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferjencik, M.

    1997-01-01

    Accessible reports on risk assessment of interim spent nuclear fuel storage facilities presume that only releases of radioactive substances represent undesired consequences. However, only certain part of the undesired consequences is represented by them. Many other events are connected with safety and are able to cause losses to the operating company. The following two presumptions are pronounced based on this. 1. Any event causing a disturbance of a safety function of the storage facility is an incident event. 2. Any disturbance of a safety function is an undesired consequence. If the facility safety functions are identified and if the severity of their disturbances is quantified, then it is possible to combine consequence severity quantifications and event frequencies into a risk measure. Construction and application of such a risk measure is described in this paper. The measure is shown to be a tool suitable for comparison of interim storage technology design alternatives. (author)

  15. Composting on Mars or the Moon: I. Comparative evaluation of process design alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finstein, M. S.; Strom, P. F.; Hogan, J. A.; Cowan, R. M.; Janes, H. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    As a candidate technology for treating solid wastes and recovering resources in bioregenerative Advanced Life Support, composting potentially offers such advantages as compactness, low mass, near ambient reactor temperatures and pressures, reliability, flexibility, simplicity, and forgiveness of operational error or neglect. Importantly, the interactions among the physical, chemical, and biological factors that govern composting system behavior are well understood. This article comparatively evaluates five Generic Systems that describe the basic alternatives to composting facility design and control. These are: 1) passive aeration; 2) passive aeration abetted by mechanical agitation; 3) forced aeration--O2 feedback control; 4) forced aeration--temperature feedback control; 5) forced aeration--integrated O2 and temperature feedback control. Each of the five has a distinctive pattern of behavior and process performance characteristics. Only Systems 4 and 5 are judged to be viable candidates for ALS on alien worlds, though which is better suited in this application is yet to be determined.

  16. Design Requirements, Epistemic Uncertainty and Solution Development Strategies in Software Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bo Thomas; Onarheim, Balder; Ball, L.J.

    2010-01-01

    that spanned many transcript segments. Furthermore, such depth-first development of complex requirements was linked to increases in epistemic uncertainty, a finding that supports the predicted role of uncertainty in mediating between complex requirements and depth-first design. Overall these findings support...

  17. Novel design of high voltage pulse source for efficient dielectric barrier discharge generation by using silicon diodes for alternating current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Hoa Thi; Hayashi, Misaki; Uesugi, Yoshihiko; Tanaka, Yasunori; Ishijima, Tatsuo

    2017-06-01

    This work focuses on design, construction, and optimization of configuration of a novel high voltage pulse power source for large-scale dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) generation. The pulses were generated by using the high-speed switching characteristic of an inexpensive device called silicon diodes for alternating current and the self-terminated characteristic of DBD. The operation started to be powered by a primary DC low voltage power supply flexibly equipped with a commercial DC power supply, or a battery, or DC output of an independent photovoltaic system without transformer employment. This flexible connection to different types of primary power supply could provide a promising solution for the application of DBD, especially in the area without power grid connection. The simple modular structure, non-control requirement, transformer elimination, and a minimum number of levels in voltage conversion could lead to a reduction in size, weight, simple maintenance, low cost of installation, and high scalability of a DBD generator. The performance of this pulse source has been validated by a load of resistor. A good agreement between theoretically estimated and experimentally measured responses has been achieved. The pulse source has also been successfully applied for an efficient DBD plasma generation.

  18. Predictive Sampling of Rare Conformational Events in Aqueous Solution: Designing a Generalized Orthogonal Space Tempering Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chao; Li, Xubin; Wu, Dongsheng; Zheng, Lianqing; Yang, Wei

    2016-01-12

    analysis suggests that because essential conformational events are mainly driven by the compensating fluctuations of essential solute-solvent and solute-solute interactions, commonly employed "predictive" sampling methods are unlikely to be effective on this seemingly "simple" system. The gOST development presented in this paper illustrates how to employ the OSS scheme for physics-based sampling method designs.

  19. Bio-inspired solutions in design for manufacturing of micro fuel cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omidvarnia, Farzaneh; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the application of biomimetic principles in design for micro manufacturing is investigated. A micro direct methanol fuel cell (μDMFC) for power generation in hearing aid devices is considered as the case study in which the bioinspired functions are replicated. The focus in design of μ......DMFC is mainly on solving the problem of fuel delivery to the anode in the fuel chamber. Two different biological phenomena are suggested, and based on them different bioinspired solutions are proposed and modeled in CAD software. Considering the manufacturing constraints and design specifications...

  20. Greenhouse gas emissions of alternative pavement designs: framework development and illustrative application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Cui, Qingbin; Schwartz, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Pavement rehabilitation is carbon intensive and the choice of pavement type is a critical factor in controlling greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The existing body of knowledge is not able to support decision-making on pavement choice due to a lack of consensus on the system boundaries, the functional units and the estimation periods. Excessive data requirements further inhibit the generalization of the existing methodologies for design evaluation at the early planning stage. This study proposes a practical life-cycle GHG estimation approach, which is arguably effective to benchmark pavement emissions given project bid tabulation. A set of case studies conducted for this study suggest that recycled asphalt pavement (e.g., foam stabilized base (FSB), and warm mix asphalt (WMA)) would prevent up to 50% of GHGs from the initial construction phase. However, from a life-cycle perspective, pavement emissions are dictated largely by the traffic characteristics and the analysis period for the use phase. The benefits from using recycled materials (e.g., FSB) are likely to diminish if the recycled products do not perform as well as those properly proportioned with less recycled materials, or if the recycled materials are locally unavailable. When the AADT reaches 10,000, use phase releases more than 97% of the life cycle emissions and the emissions difference among alternative designs will be within 1%. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Hadron cancer therapy complex using nonscaling fixed field alternating gradient accelerator and gantry design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Keil

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Nonscaling fixed field alternating gradient (FFAG rings for cancer hadron therapy offer reduced physical aperture and large dynamic aperture as compared to scaling FFAGs. The variation of tune with energy implies the crossing of resonances during acceleration. Our design avoids intrinsic resonances, although imperfection resonances must be crossed. We consider a system of three nonscaling FFAG rings for cancer therapy with 250 MeV protons and 400   MeV/u carbon ions. Hadrons are accelerated in a common radio frequency quadrupole and linear accelerator, and injected into the FFAG rings at v/c=0.1294. H^{+}/C^{6+} ions are accelerated in the two smaller/larger rings to 31 and 250  MeV/68.8 and 400   MeV/u kinetic energy, respectively. The lattices consist of doublet cells with a straight section for rf cavities. The gantry with triplet cells accepts the whole required momentum range at fixed field. This unique design uses either high-temperature superconductors or superconducting magnets reducing gantry magnet size and weight. Elements with a variable field at the beginning and at the end set the extracted beam at the correct position for a range of energies.

  2. SOLUTIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Hoyos Guajardo, Ph.D. Candidate, M.Sc., B.Eng.

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The theory that is presented below aims to conceptualise how a group of undergraduate students tackle non-routine mathematical problems during a problem-solving course. The aim of the course is to allow students to experience mathematics as a creative process and to reflect on their own experience. During the course, students are required to produce a written ‘rubric’ of their work, i.e., to document their thoughts as they occur as well as their emotionsduring the process. These ‘rubrics’ were used as the main source of data.Students’ problem-solving processes can be explained as a three-stage process that has been called ‘solutioning’. This process is presented in the six sections below. The first three refer to a common area of concern that can be called‘generating knowledge’. In this way, generating knowledge also includes issues related to ‘key ideas’ and ‘gaining understanding’. The third and the fourth sections refer to ‘generating’ and ‘validating a solution’, respectively. Finally, once solutions are generated and validated, students usually try to improve them further before presenting them as final results. Thus, the last section deals with‘improving a solution’. Although not all students go through all of the stages, it may be said that ‘solutioning’ considers students’ main concerns as they tackle non-routine mathematical problems.

  3. Assessment of Material Solutions of Multi-level Garage Structure Within Integrated Life Cycle Design Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wałach, Daniel; Sagan, Joanna; Gicala, Magdalena

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents an environmental and economic analysis of the material solutions of multi-level garage. The construction project approach considered reinforced concrete structure under conditions of use of ordinary concrete and high-performance concrete (HPC). Using of HPC allowed to significant reduction of reinforcement steel, mainly in compression elements (columns) in the construction of the object. The analysis includes elements of the methodology of integrated lice cycle design (ILCD). By making multi-criteria analysis based on established weight of the economic and environmental parameters, three solutions have been evaluated and compared within phase of material production (information modules A1-A3).

  4. More Stamina, a Gamified mHealth Solution for Persons with Multiple Sclerosis: Research Through Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylonopoulou, Vasiliki; Rivera Romero, Octavio

    2018-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the world’s most common neurologic disorders. Fatigue is one of most common symptoms that persons with MS experience, having significant impact on their quality of life and limiting their activity levels. Self-management strategies are used to support them in the care of their health. Mobile health (mHealth) solutions are a way to offer persons with chronic conditions tools to successfully manage their symptoms and problems. Gamification is a current trend among mHealth apps used to create engaging user experiences and is suggested to be effective for behavioral change. To be effective, mHealth solutions need to be designed to specifically meet the intended audience needs. User-centered design (UCD) is a design philosophy that proposes placing end users’ needs and characteristics in the center of design and development, involving users early in the different phases of the software life cycle. There is a current gap in mHealth apps for persons with MS, which presents an interesting area to explore. Objective The purpose of this study was to describe the design and evaluation process of a gamified mHealth solution for behavioral change in persons with MS using UCD. Methods Building on previous work of our team where we identified needs, barriers, and facilitators for mHealth apps for persons with MS, we followed UCD to design and evaluate a mobile app prototype aimed to help persons with MS self-manage their fatigue. Design decisions were evidence-driven and guided by behavioral change models (BCM). Usability was assessed through inspection methods using Nielsen’s heuristic evaluation. Results The mHealth solution More Stamina was designed. It is a task organization tool designed to help persons with MS manage their energy to minimize the impact of fatigue in their day-to-day life. The tool acts as a to-do list where users can input tasks in a simple manner and assign Stamina Credits, a representation of perceived

  5. More Stamina, a Gamified mHealth Solution for Persons with Multiple Sclerosis: Research Through Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giunti, Guido; Mylonopoulou, Vasiliki; Rivera Romero, Octavio

    2018-03-02

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the world's most common neurologic disorders. Fatigue is one of most common symptoms that persons with MS experience, having significant impact on their quality of life and limiting their activity levels. Self-management strategies are used to support them in the care of their health. Mobile health (mHealth) solutions are a way to offer persons with chronic conditions tools to successfully manage their symptoms and problems. Gamification is a current trend among mHealth apps used to create engaging user experiences and is suggested to be effective for behavioral change. To be effective, mHealth solutions need to be designed to specifically meet the intended audience needs. User-centered design (UCD) is a design philosophy that proposes placing end users' needs and characteristics in the center of design and development, involving users early in the different phases of the software life cycle. There is a current gap in mHealth apps for persons with MS, which presents an interesting area to explore. The purpose of this study was to describe the design and evaluation process of a gamified mHealth solution for behavioral change in persons with MS using UCD. Building on previous work of our team where we identified needs, barriers, and facilitators for mHealth apps for persons with MS, we followed UCD to design and evaluate a mobile app prototype aimed to help persons with MS self-manage their fatigue. Design decisions were evidence-driven and guided by behavioral change models (BCM). Usability was assessed through inspection methods using Nielsen's heuristic evaluation. The mHealth solution More Stamina was designed. It is a task organization tool designed to help persons with MS manage their energy to minimize the impact of fatigue in their day-to-day life. The tool acts as a to-do list where users can input tasks in a simple manner and assign Stamina Credits, a representation of perceived effort, to the task to help energy management

  6. The effect of solution heat treatments on the microstructure and hardness of ZK60 magnesium alloys prepared under low-frequency alternating magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Caixia; Yu, Yan Dong

    2013-01-01

    The solidified structure of ZK60 magnesium alloys in the presence and absence of electromagnetic stirring during the solidification process was compared, and the precipitates of ZK60 magnesium alloys were analyzed after a solution heat treatment using optical microscopy, micro-hardness analysis, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the microstructure of cast alloys under a low-frequency alternating magnetic field (LFAMF) was mainly composed of a primary crystalline Mg matrix and a non-equilibrium eutectic structure (Mg+MgZn+MgZn 2 ). In comparison with the microstructure observed in the absence of the electromagnetic field, the eutectic network structure on the grain boundary under low-frequency alternating magnetic field was finer and exhibited a more uniform grain distribution. The grains under the LFAMF were refined in comparison with those under no electromagnetic field before the solution heat treatment, and the former grain distribution was more uniform than the latter after the solution heat treatment. The more uniform grain distribution is because the solution heat treatment is conducive to the dissolution of the second phase particles. The hardness exhibited a downward trend with increasing solution heat treatment time. Under the same solution heat treatment, the hardness value of the samples prepared under the LFAMF was lower than those prepared in the absence of the electromagnetic field. In contrast, the mechanical properties of alloys prepared under the LFAMF were better than those prepared in the absence of the electromagnetic field.

  7. Analytical design of a parasitic-loading digital speed controller for a 400-hertz turbine driven alternator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingle, B. D.; Ryan, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    A design for a solid-state parasitic speed controller using digital logic was analyzed. Parasitic speed controllers are used in space power electrical generating systems to control the speed of turbine-driven alternators within specified limits. The analysis included the performance characteristics of the speed controller and the generation of timing functions. The speed controller using digital logic applies step loads to the alternator. The step loads conduct for a full half wave starting at either zero or 180 electrical degrees.

  8. New morphing blade section designs and structural solutions for smart blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karakalas, Anargyros A.; Machairas, Theodore; Solomou, Alexandros

    2015-01-01

    of helicopter and wind turbine blade research have shown the potential of shape morphing in reducing blade loads. Morphing technologies, along with other control concepts, are investigated under Task 2.3 of WP “Lightweight Rotor”, against aerodynamic compliance and requirements of the complete wind turbine.......e. no loss of local/global stiffness or strength and/or fatigue life. The purpose is to report efforts towards the use of new morphing blade section designs and the structural solutions for smart blades (developed in Task 2.3). The objective is to define, assess and demonstrate innovative concepts...... and manufacturing processes constraints. Down selection of design based on results of analysis (for input to Task 2.3) was also performed. Following solutions were investigated:  Morphing blade sections with Shape Memory Alloys (SMA) by University of Patras  Morphing blade sections using an elastomer of zero...

  9. State-space solutions to the h_inf/ltr design problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    1993-01-01

    phase case, though, the order of the controllers can be reduced to n in all cases. The control problems corresponding to the various controller types are given as four different singular state-space problems, and the solutions are given in terms of the relevant equations and inequalities......The LTR design problem using an JC optimality criterion is presented for two types of recovery errors, the sensitivity recovery error and the input-output recovery error. For both errors two different approaches are presented. First, following the classical LTR design philosophy, a Luenberger...

  10. Using pilot test data to refine an alternative cover design in northern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smesrud, Jason K; Benson, Craig H; Albright, William H; Richards, James H; Wright, Shannon; Israel, Tim; Goodrich, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Two instrumented test sections were constructed in summer 1999 at the Kiefer Landfill near Sacramento, California to test the hydraulic performance of two proposed alternative final covers. Both test sections simulated monolithic evapotranspiration (ET) designs that differed primarily in thickness. Both were seeded with a mix of two perennial and one annual grass species. Oleander seedlings were also planted in the thicker test section. Detailed hydrologic performance monitoring of the covers was conducted from 1999 through 2005, The thicker test section met the performance criterion (average percolation of percolation (average of 55 mm/y). Both test sections were decommissioned in summer 2005 to investigate changes in soil hydraulic properties, geomorphology, and vegetation and to collect data to support a revised design. Field data from hydrologic monitoring and the decommissioning study were subsequently included in a hydrologic modeling study to estimate the performance of an optimized cover system for full-scale application. The decommissioning study showed that properties of the soils changed over the monitoring period (saturated hydraulic conductivity and water holding capacity increased, density decreased) and that the perennial grasses and shrubs intended for the cover were out-competed by annual species with shallower roots and lesser capacity for water uptake. Of these changes, reduced ET from the shallow-rooted annual vegetation is believed to be the primary cause for the high percolation rate from the thinner test section. Hydrologic modeling suggests that the target hydraulic performance can be achieved using an ET cover with similar thickness to the thin test section if perennial vegetation species observed in surrounding grasslands can be established. This finding underscores the importance of establishing and maintaining the appropriate vegetation on ET covers in this climate.

  11. Concurrent engineering solution for the design of ship and offshore bracket parts and fabrication process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Won Kim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Brackets in ships and offshore structures are added structures that can endure stress concentrations. In this study, a concurrent engineering solution was proposed, and a high strength low carbon cast steel alloy applicable to offshore structures was designed and developed. The yield strength and ultimate tensile strength of the designed steel were 480 and 600 MPa, respectively. The carbon equivalent of the steel was 0.446 with a weld crack susceptibility index of 0.219. The optimal structural design of the brackets for offshore structures was evaluated using ANSYS commercial software. The possibility of replacing an assembly of conventional built-up brackets with a single casting bulb bracket was verified. The casting process was simulated using MAGMAsoft commercial software, and a casting fabrication process was designed. For the proposed bulb bracket, it was possible to reduce the size and weight by approximately 30% and 50%, respectively, compared to the conventional type of bracket.

  12. Properties of alternative microbial hosts used in synthetic biology: towards the design of a modular chassis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Juhyun; Salvador, Manuel; Saunders, Elizabeth; González, Jaime; Avignone-Rossa, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    The chassis is the cellular host used as a recipient of engineered biological systems in synthetic biology. They are required to propagate the genetic information and to express the genes encoded in it. Despite being an essential element for the appropriate function of genetic circuits, the chassis is rarely considered in their design phase. Consequently, the circuits are transferred to model organisms commonly used in the laboratory, such as Escherichia coli, that may be suboptimal for a required function. In this review, we discuss some of the properties desirable in a versatile chassis and summarize some examples of alternative hosts for synthetic biology amenable for engineering. These properties include a suitable life style, a robust cell wall, good knowledge of its regulatory network as well as of the interplay of the host components with the exogenous circuits, and the possibility of developing whole-cell models and tuneable metabolic fluxes that could allow a better distribution of cellular resources (metabolites, ATP, nucleotides, amino acids, transcriptional and translational machinery). We highlight Pseudomonas putida, widely used in many different biotechnological applications as a prominent organism for synthetic biology due to its metabolic diversity, robustness and ease of manipulation. PMID:27903818

  13. Methodology for the nuclear design validation of an Alternate Emergency Management Centre (CAGE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueso, C.; De La Fuente, C.; Janes, A.; Massuet, J.; Zamora, I.; Fabbri, M.; Gasca, C.; Hernandez, H.; Angel Vega, J.

    2017-01-01

    As a consequence of the Fukushima accident, Spanish nuclear authorities have decided to equip each nuclear power plant with an Alternate Emergency Management Centre (CAGE) that will manage safely any emergency occurring on the site. The living conditions of the occupants of the CAGE in the event of a Severe Accident imply that TEDE (Total Effective Dose Equivalent) must be<50 mSv and the equivalent dose to the thyroid<500 mSv within 30 days following the accident. This paper presents the methodology followed to design CAGE in order to comply with above dose limits. The study of weather conditions as part of the data of the site will determine the relative concentrations of radionuclides in the air using ARCON96. The activity in the air is characterized depending on the source and release sequence specified in NUREG-1465 by RADTRAD code, which provides results of the inner cloud source term contribution. Known activities and energy spectra are inferred using ORIGEN-S, which are used as input for the models of the outer cloud, filters and containment generated with MCNP5. The sum of the different contributions must be below radiation dose limits. The radiation dose is optimized by varying parameters including CAGE location on the plant site, flow filtering need for recirculation, thicknesses and compositions of the walls, etc. The calculation codes selected for the development of this methodology are widely available, internationally used and validated in many studies

  14. On the failure modes of alternative containment designs following postulated core meltdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, C.K.; Knee, H.E.; Okrent, D.

    1977-01-01

    The containment response to a postulated core meltdown accident in a PWR ice condenser containment, a BWR Mark III containment and a BWR non-inerted Mark I containment has been examined to see if the WASH-1400 containment failure mode judgement for the Surry large, dry containment and the Peach Bottom Mark I inerted-containment are likely to be appropriate for these alternative containment plant designs. For the PWR, the representative accident chosen for the analysis is a large cold leg break accompanied by a loss of all electric power while the BWR respresentative event chosen is a recirculation line break without adequate core cooling function. Two containment event paths are studied for each of these two cases, depending on whether or not containment vapor suppression function is assumed to be available. Both the core and the containment pressure and temperature response to the accident events are computed for the four time intervals which characterize (a) blowdown of the pipe break, (b) core melt, (c) vessel melt-through, and (d) containment foundation penetration. The calculations are based on a best esimate of the most probable sequence, but certain phenomena and events were followed down multiple tracks. It appears that the non-inerted Mark I containment is not so vulnerable to overpressurization from hydrogen burning as the Mark III; however, acceptable temperatures may be exceeded. (Auth.)

  15. Three-dimensional analysis of the Pratt and Whitney alternate design SSME fuel turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirtley, K. R.; Beach, T. A.; Adamczyk, J. J.

    1991-01-01

    The three dimensional viscous time-mean flow in the Pratt and Whitney alternate design space shuttle main engine fuel turbine is simulated using the average passage Navier-Stokes equations. The migration of secondary flows generated by upstream blade rows and their effect on the performance of downstream blade rows is studied. The present simulation confirms that the flow in this two stage turbine is highly three dimensional and dominated by the tip leakage flow. The tip leakage vortex generated by the first blade persists through the second blade and adversely affects its performance. The greatest mixing of the inlet total temperature distortion occurs in the second vane and is due to the large leakage vortex generated by the upstream rotor. It is assumed that the predominant spanwise mixing mechanism in this low aspect ratio turbine is the radial transport due to the deterministically unsteady vortical flow generated by upstream blade rows. A by-product of the analysis is accurate pressure and heat loads for all blade rows under the influence of neighboring blade rows. These aero loads are useful for advanced structural analysis of the vanes and blades.

  16. The integration of traditional and advanced design in the formation of sustainable New Rural Housing solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khai Tran, Van

    2018-04-01

    Socio-economic growth in Vietnam greatly depends on the new rural development process in this country; the work is considered a strategic position in national development. Thus, the study of the principles of the architectural design of new rural housing solutions in accordance with the New Rural Environment as required by the Vietnam Ministry of Construction has become urgent. Climate change has become a global concern, so the creation of significant impacts by architectural designs to respond to climate change and make the living environment of rural people better is a major demand. Experience has shown that the dogmatic application of current urban-type housing does not reach the requirements of New Rural Housing. This research intends to show that the solutions of the traditional Vietnamese rural house, which retains the advantages of traditional architecture with excellent characteristics that have been challenged over thousands of years, when combined with advanced design methodologies and technologies, will be the appropriate solution for ‘New Rural Housing’.

  17. An industrial design solution for integrating NMR magnetic field sensors into an MRI scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Michael; Lee, Yoojin; Nagy, Zoltan

    2017-12-28

    Neuroimaging research relies on the skills of increasingly multidisciplinary individuals and often requires the installation and use of additional home-built or third-party equipment. The purpose of the present work was the safe, ergonomic, durable, and aesthetically pleasing installation of magnetic field monitoring equipment into a scanner, while keeping the setup compatible with standard operating procedures. An extensive set of steps was required to design a 3D printed solution to install a magnetic field camera into the eight-channel head coil of a 3T MRI scanner. First, the outer surface of the plastic coil housing was recreated into a 3D model, and the installation of the magnetic field sensors around this 3D model was performed in a virtual environment. The 3D printed solution was then assembled and tested for safety, reproducible performance, and image quality. The 3D printed solution holds the probes in stable positions and guides the necessary cables in an organized fashion and away from the volunteer. Assembly is easy and the solution is ergonomic, durable, and safe. We did not find excessive heating in the 3D printed parts, nor in the electronics, that they help to incorporate. The material used interferes minimally with transmit B1+ field. The design met all of the boundary conditions for a durable, safe, cost-effective, attractive, and functional installation. This work will provide the basis for installing the magnetic field sensors into other available head coils, and for designing the experimental setup for projects with varying experimental requirements. Magn Reson Med, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  18. The effect of alternating different water qualities on accumulation and leaching of solutes in a Mediterranean cracking soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crescimanno, G.; Provenzano, G.; Booltink, H.W.G.

    2002-01-01

    The relevance of bypass flow on water flow, solute or pesticide transport is becoming increasingly recognized. Recent investigations proved that soil salinization may be influenced by bypass flow, i.e. the rapid transport of water and solutes via macropores and/or shrinkage cracks to subsoil and

  19. Problems and their solutions in practical application of Eurocodes in seismic design of RC structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milev Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the paper is to present practical application of Eurocodes in the field of RC structures design. The selected examples represent the main problems in practical application of Eurocodes for seismic analysis and design of RC Structures in Bulgarian construction practice. The analysis is focused on some structural and economic problems as well as on some contradictions in Eurocode 8 itself. Special attention is paid to the practical solution of the following problems: recognition of torsionally flexible systems, stiffness reduction of RC elements for linear analysis dimensions and detailing of confined boundary areas of shear walls, detailing of wall structures, etc. Those problems appear during the practical design of some buildings in Bulgaria. Several proposals for solving some problems defined in the paper are presented through some practical examples. Some conclusions are made for further application of Eurocode 8 in the design and construction practice. The importance of some rules and procedures in Eurocode 8 is supported by the examples of damaged RC members during the past earthquakes. The problems of Eurocode 8 and their solutions are illustrated through the experience of Bulgarian construction practice.

  20. Solutions to decomposed branching trajectories with powered flyback using multidisciplinary design optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledsinger, Laura Anne

    2000-10-01

    In the advanced launch vehicle design community, there exists considerable interest in fully reusable, two-stage-to-orbit vehicle designs that use 'branching trajectories' during their missions. For these reusable systems, the booster must fly to a predetermined landing site after staging occurs. The solution to this problem using an industry-standard trajectory optimization code typically requires at least two separate computer jobs---one for the orbital branch from the ground to orbit (in some cases, this can be broken into two computer jobs) and one for the flyback branch from the staging point to the landing site. These jobs are tightly coupled and their data requirements are interdependent. In addition, the objective functions for each computer job differ and conflict. This research produces a method to solve these distributed branching trajectory problems with respect to an overall system-level objective while maintaining data consistency within the problem. This method is used to solve the trajectories of two relevant two-stage-to-orbit vehicles: the Kistler K-1 and the Stargazer launch vehicles. Both of these vehicles require a powered flyback. Thus, optimization contingent on the feedback of the flyback fuel is a relevant part of this study. The solutions of the branching trajectory problems via traditional methods, termed 'One-and-Done' and manual iteration, are compared with those involving the multidisciplinary design optimization techniques of fixed-point iteration, optimization-based decomposition, and collaborative optimization. Optimization-based decomposition was used to solve each problem; the K-1 trajectory includes a fixed-point iteration solution. The use of collaborative optimization as an solution technique for branching trajectories is introduced in the solution to each problem. Results show that proposed method involving collaborative optimization and optimization-based decomposition performed well for both the K-1 and Stargazer branching

  1. Applications of alternating direction methods to the solution of the time-dependent heat conduction equation with source and in transients stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebrin, A.N.

    1981-10-01

    Various types and also some variants of alternating direction methods, (A.D.M.), were applied to the solution of the time-dependent heat conduction equation, with source, in region with axial symetry. The results shown that some of the variants perform consistently better than the Classical Cranck-Nicolson method. Having in mind a combination of accuracy, ability to support larg time steps and computational efficiency, the 'alternating direction explicit', (A.D.E.) method appears as the best choice, being the 'alternating direction checkerboard', (A.D.C), method the second best. Additional operations like the exponential transformation or the truncation pos-correction don't seem to be worth, excect for some special cases. (Author) [pt

  2. Power-Aware Routing and Network Design with Bundled Links: Solutions and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario G. Garroppo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deeply analyzes a novel network-wide power management problem, called Power-Aware Routing and Network Design with Bundled Links (PARND-BL, which is able to take into account both the relationship between the power consumption and the traffic throughput of the nodes and to power off both the chassis and even the single Physical Interface Card (PIC composing each link. The solutions of the PARND-BL model have been analyzed by taking into account different aspects associated with the actual applicability in real network scenarios: (i the time for obtaining the solution, (ii the deployed network topology and the resulting topology provided by the solution, (iii the power behavior of the network elements, (iv the traffic load, (v the QoS requirement, and (vi the number of paths to route each traffic demand. Among the most interesting and novel results, our analysis shows that the strategy of minimizing the number of powered-on network elements through the traffic consolidation does not always produce power savings, and the solution of this kind of problems, in some cases, can lead to spliting a single traffic demand into a high number of paths.

  3. Molecular design of responsive fluids: molecular dynamics studies of viscoelastic surfactant solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boek, E. S.; Jusufi, A.; Löwen, H.; Maitland, G. C.

    2002-10-01

    Understanding how macroscopic properties depend on intermolecular interactions for complex fluid systems is an enormous challenge in statistical mechanics. This issue is of particular importance for designing optimal industrial fluid formulations such as responsive oilfield fluids, based on viscoelastic surfactant solutions. We have carried out extensive molecular dynamics simulations, resolving the full chemical details in order to study how the structure of the lamellar phase of viscoelastic surfactant solutions depends on the head group (HG) chemistry of the surfactant. In particular, we consider anionic carboxylate and quaternary ammonium HGs with erucyl tails in aqueous solutions together with their sodium and chloride counterions at room temperature. We find a strong HG dependence of the lamellar structure as characterized by suitable pair correlation functions and density distributions. The depth of penetration of water into the bilayer membrane, the nature of counterion condensation on the HGs and even the order and correlation of the tails in the lamellae depend sensitively on the chemical details of the HG. We also determine the compressibility of the lamellar system as a first step to using atom-resolved molecular dynamics in order to link the molecular and macroscopic scales of length and time. The results give important insight into the links between molecular details and surfactant phase structure which is being exploited to develop more systematic procedures for the molecular design and formulation of industrial systems.

  4. Closed-form Solution to Directly Design FACE Waveforms for Beampatterns Using Planar Array

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchoucha, Taha

    2015-04-19

    In multiple-input multiple-output radar systems, it is usually desirable to steer transmitted power in the region-of-interest. To do this, conventional methods optimize the waveform covariance matrix, R, for the desired beampattern, which is then used to generate actual transmitted waveforms. Both steps require constrained optimization, therefore, use iterative algorithms. The main challenges encountered in the existing approaches are the computational complexity and the design of waveforms to use in practice. In this paper, we provide a closed-form solution to design covariance matrix for the given beampattern using the planar array, which is then used to derive a novel closed-form algorithm to directly design the finite-alphabet constant-envelope (FACE) waveforms. The proposed algorithm exploits the two-dimensional fast-Fourier-transform. The performance of our proposed algorithm is compared with existing methods that are based on semi-definite quadratic programming with the advantage of a considerably reduced complexity.

  5. Design solutions for improving the lowest buckling loads of a thin laminate plate with notch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkowicz, Katarzyna; Debski, Hubert; Teter, Andrzej

    2018-01-01

    The object of this study are thin-walled rectangular plates with a central cut-out under uniform compression. The load is applied to the shorter and at the same time free-supported edges of the plate. The plates are made of carbon-epoxy laminate. A numerical modal analysis is performed for a number of cases where the plate with a central notch is longitudinally reinforced with isotropic strips fixed on the opposite sides of the plate. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the proposed design solutions on the buckling mode and buckling loads corresponding to the lowest buckling mode. The knowledge of these parameters will enable optimal design of elastic plate elements with predefined mechanical properties and designed mode of buckling. The eigen-problem was solved by numerical analysis using the finite element method.

  6. Alternatives for implementing burnup credit in the design and operation of spent fuel transport casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, T.L.; Lake, W.H.

    1989-01-01

    The traditional assumption used in evaluating criticality safety of spent fuel cask is that the spent fuel is as reactive as when it was fresh (new). This is known as the fresh fuel assumption. It avoids a number of calculational and verification difficulties, but could take a heavy toll in decreased efficiency. The alternative to the fresh fuel assumption is called burnup credit. That is, the reduced reactivity of spent fuel that comes about from depletion of fissile radionuclides and net increase in neutron absorbers (poisons) is taken into account. It is recognizable that the use of burnup credit will in fact increase the percentage of unacceptable or non-specification fuel available for misloading. This could reduce individual cask safety margins if current practices with respect to loading procedures are maintained. As such, additional operational, design, analysis, and validation requirements should be established that, as a minimum, compensate for any potential reduction in fuel loading safety margin. This method is based on a probabilistic (PRA) approach and is called a relative risk comparison. The method assumes a linear risk model, and uses a selected probability function to compare the system of interest and an acceptable reference system by varying the features of each to assess effects on system safety. While risk is the product of an event probability and its consequence, the consequences of criticality in a cask are considered to be both unacceptable and the same, regardless of the initiating sequence. Therefore, only the probability of the event is considered in a relative risk evaluation

  7. Integrating Telemedicine Solutions with Electronic Health Records; Evaluation of Alternatives based on the Proposed Reference Architecture for Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Siqveland, Elisabeth S; Kilen, Elin; Ludvigsen, Ann-Elisabeth; Henriksen, Bjørnar; Brossamain, Thomas; Gudlaugsson, Gunnar; Teodorsen, A; Fensli, Rune Werner

    2016-01-01

    This report studies the way forward for how a telemedicine solution can be integrated for exchange of data with an existing Electronic Health Record (EHR) system. The solution used an example for this report is based on a telemedicine solution for COPD patients (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) developed in the project “Collaborative Point-of-Care Services Agder: Follow-up of COPD patients as part of the United4Health EU Project», with financial support from the Research Council of Norw...

  8. Parametric Optimization of Some Critical Operating System Functions--An Alternative Approach to the Study of Operating Systems Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobh, Tarek M.; Tibrewal, Abhilasha

    2006-01-01

    Operating systems theory primarily concentrates on the optimal use of computing resources. This paper presents an alternative approach to teaching and studying operating systems design and concepts by way of parametrically optimizing critical operating system functions. Detailed examples of two critical operating systems functions using the…

  9. Treating Youths with Selective Mutism with an Alternating Design of Exposure-Based Practice and Contingency Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchio, Jennifer; Kearney, Christopher A.

    2009-01-01

    Selective mutism is a severe childhood disorder involving failure to speak in public situations in which speaking is expected. The present study examined 9 youths with selective mutism treated with child-focused, exposure-based practices and parent-focused contingency management via an alternating treatments design. Broadband measures of…

  10. On-design solutions of hypersonic flows past elliptic-cone derived waveriders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Bok Hyun

    1992-01-01

    The hypersonic flows past a class of elliptic-conederived waverider at the on-design condition are analyzed. A CFD(Computational Fluid Dynamics) algorithm due to Lawrence is utilized to numerically integrate the steady Euler equations. The singular behavior at the sharp leading-edge of a waverider where a bow shock is to be attached for the ideal situation makes the computation extremely difficult for convergence of numerical solution. Various types of grids are generated and tested for converged solutions. A new formula for more accurate waverider shape is established and by means of this new waverider configuration the reason for the shock stand-off which was detected in previous investigations is clarified in this paper. (Author)

  11. The Primary Experiments of an Analysis of Pareto Solutions for Conceptual Design Optimization Problem of Hybrid Rocket Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Fumiya; Yoshikawa, Tomohiro; Furuhashi, Takeshi

    Recentry, Multi-objective Genetic Algorithm, which is the application of Genetic Algorithm to Multi-objective Optimization Problems is focused on in the engineering design field. In this field, the analysis of design variables in the acquired Pareto solutions, which gives the designers useful knowledge in the applied problem, is important as well as the acquisition of advanced solutions. This paper proposes a new visualization method using Isomap which visualizes the geometric distances of solutions in the design variable space considering their distances in the objective space. The proposed method enables a user to analyze the design variables of the acquired solutions considering their relationship in the objective space. This paper applies the proposed method to the conceptual design optimization problem of hybrid rocket engine and studies the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  12. Implantable electronics: emerging design issues and an ultra light-weight security solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Seetharam; Wang, Xinmu; Bhunia, Swarup

    2010-01-01

    Implantable systems that monitor biological signals require increasingly complex digital signal processing (DSP) electronics for real-time in-situ analysis and compression of the recorded signals. While it is well-known that such signal processing hardware needs to be implemented under tight area and power constraints, new design requirements emerge with their increasing complexity. Use of nanoscale technology shows tremendous benefits in implementing these advanced circuits due to dramatic improvement in integration density and power dissipation per operation. However, it also brings in new challenges such as reliability and large idle power (due to higher leakage current). Besides, programmability of the device as well as security of the recorded information are rapidly becoming major design considerations of such systems. In this paper, we analyze the emerging issues associated with the design of the DSP unit in an implantable system. Next, we propose a novel ultra light-weight solution to address the information security issue. Unlike the conventional information security approaches like data encryption, which come at large area and power overhead and hence are not amenable for resource-constrained implantable systems, we propose a multilevel key-based scrambling algorithm, which exploits the nature of the biological signal to effectively obfuscate it. Analysis of the proposed algorithm in the context of neural signal processing and its hardware implementation shows that we can achieve high level of security with ∼ 13X lower power and ∼ 5X lower area overhead than conventional cryptographic solutions.

  13. Analytical quality-by-design approach for sample treatment of BSA-containing solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taevernier, Lien; Wynendaele, Evelien; D Hondt, Matthias; De Spiegeleer, Bart

    2015-02-01

    The sample preparation of samples containing bovine serum albumin (BSA), e.g., as used in transdermal Franz diffusion cell (FDC) solutions, was evaluated using an analytical quality-by-design (QbD) approach. Traditional precipitation of BSA by adding an equal volume of organic solvent, often successfully used with conventional HPLC-PDA, was found insufficiently robust when novel fused-core HPLC and/or UPLC-MS methods were used. In this study, three factors (acetonitrile (%), formic acid (%) and boiling time (min)) were included in the experimental design to determine an optimal and more suitable sample treatment of BSA-containing FDC solutions. Using a QbD and Derringer desirability ( D ) approach, combining BSA loss, dilution factor and variability, we constructed an optimal working space with the edge of failure defined as D <0.9. The design space is modelled and is confirmed to have an ACN range of 83±3% and FA content of 1±0.25%.

  14. Considerations for rigid vs. flexible pavement designs when allowed as alternate bids : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    This report documents the research conducted for the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) : concerning the use of pavement alternates. The scope of the project includes reviewing the state-of-thepractice : in methods used for pavement type sele...

  15. Large-scale bi-level strain design approaches and mixed-integer programming solution techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joonhoon; Reed, Jennifer L; Maravelias, Christos T

    2011-01-01

    The use of computational models in metabolic engineering has been increasing as more genome-scale metabolic models and computational approaches become available. Various computational approaches have been developed to predict how genetic perturbations affect metabolic behavior at a systems level, and have been successfully used to engineer microbial strains with improved primary or secondary metabolite production. However, identification of metabolic engineering strategies involving a large number of perturbations is currently limited by computational resources due to the size of genome-scale models and the combinatorial nature of the problem. In this study, we present (i) two new bi-level strain design approaches using mixed-integer programming (MIP), and (ii) general solution techniques that improve the performance of MIP-based bi-level approaches. The first approach (SimOptStrain) simultaneously considers gene deletion and non-native reaction addition, while the second approach (BiMOMA) uses minimization of metabolic adjustment to predict knockout behavior in a MIP-based bi-level problem for the first time. Our general MIP solution techniques significantly reduced the CPU times needed to find optimal strategies when applied to an existing strain design approach (OptORF) (e.g., from ∼10 days to ∼5 minutes for metabolic engineering strategies with 4 gene deletions), and identified strategies for producing compounds where previous studies could not (e.g., malate and serine). Additionally, we found novel strategies using SimOptStrain with higher predicted production levels (for succinate and glycerol) than could have been found using an existing approach that considers network additions and deletions in sequential steps rather than simultaneously. Finally, using BiMOMA we found novel strategies involving large numbers of modifications (for pyruvate and glutamate), which sequential search and genetic algorithms were unable to find. The approaches and solution

  16. Plant-Scale Concentration Column Designs for SHINE Target Solution Utilizing AG 1 Anion Exchange Resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepinski, Dominique C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vandegrift, G. F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Argonne is assisting SHINE Medical Technologies (SHINE) in their efforts to develop SHINE, an accelerator-driven process that will utilize a uranyl-sulfate solution for the production of fission product Mo-99. An integral part of the process is the development of a column for the separation and recovery of Mo-99, followed by a concentration column to reduce the product volume from 15-25 L to <1 L. Argonne has collected data from batch studies and breakthrough column experiments to utilize the VERSE (Versatile Reaction Separation) simulation program (Purdue University) to design plant-scale product recovery and concentration processes.

  17. Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior Increases Resistance to Extinction: Clinical Demonstration, Animal Modeling, and Clinical Test of One Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, F. Charles; McComas, Jennifer J.; Mauro, Benjamin C.; Progar, Patrick R.; Taylor, Bridget; Ervin, Ruth; Zangrillo, Amanda N.

    2010-01-01

    Basic research with pigeons on behavioral momentum suggests that differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) can increase the resistance of target behavior to change. This finding suggests that clinical applications of DRA may inadvertently increase the persistence of target behavior even as it decreases its frequency. We conducted…

  18. HDPE (High Density Polyethylene) pipeline and riser design in Guanabara Bay: challenges and solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bomfimsilva, Carlos; Jorge, Joao Paulo Carrijo; Schmid, Dominique; Gomes, Rodrigo Klim [INTECSEA, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lima, Alexander Piraja [GDK, Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    Worldwide shipments of plastic pipes are forecasted to increase 5.2% per year since 2008, being commonly used for water supply and sewage disposal. The HDPE (High Density Polyethylene) pipes have been applied recently to deliver potable water and fire fighting water for the main pier of the LNG system in Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro. The system contains three sizes of pipe outside diameter, 110 mm and 160 mm for water supply, and 500 mm for the fire fighting system. The main design challenges of the pipeline system included providing on-bottom stability, a suitable installation procedure and a proper riser design. The on-bottom stability calculations, which are quite different from the conventional steel pipelines, were developed by designing concrete blocks to be assembled on the pipeline in a required spacing to assure long term stability, knowing that plastic pipes are buoyant even in flooded conditions. The installation procedure was developed considering the lay down methodology based on surface towing technique. The riser was designed to be installed together with additional steel support structure to allow the entire underwater system to have the same plastic pipe specification up to the surface. This paper presents the main challenges that were faced during the design of the HDPE pipelines for the LNG system in Guanabara Bay, addressing the solutions and recommendations adopted for the plastic underwater pipeline system.

  19. Critical appraisal of arguments for the delayed-start design proposed as alternative to the parallel-group randomized clinical trial design in the field of rare disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spineli, Loukia M; Jenz, Eva; Großhennig, Anika; Koch, Armin

    2017-08-17

    A number of papers have proposed or evaluated the delayed-start design as an alternative to the standard two-arm parallel group randomized clinical trial (RCT) design in the field of rare disease. However the discussion is felt to lack a sufficient degree of consideration devoted to the true virtues of the delayed start design and the implications either in terms of required sample-size, overall information, or interpretation of the estimate in the context of small populations. To evaluate whether there are real advantages of the delayed-start design particularly in terms of overall efficacy and sample size requirements as a proposed alternative to the standard parallel group RCT in the field of rare disease. We used a real-life example to compare the delayed-start design with the standard RCT in terms of sample size requirements. Then, based on three scenarios regarding the development of the treatment effect over time, the advantages, limitations and potential costs of the delayed-start design are discussed. We clarify that delayed-start design is not suitable for drugs that establish an immediate treatment effect, but for drugs with effects developing over time, instead. In addition, the sample size will always increase as an implication for a reduced time on placebo resulting in a decreased treatment effect. A number of papers have repeated well-known arguments to justify the delayed-start design as appropriate alternative to the standard parallel group RCT in the field of rare disease and do not discuss the specific needs of research methodology in this field. The main point is that a limited time on placebo will result in an underestimated treatment effect and, in consequence, in larger sample size requirements compared to those expected under a standard parallel-group design. This also impacts on benefit-risk assessment.

  20. Development of Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerant Solutions for Commercial Refrigeration Systems using a Life Cycle Climate Performance Design Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Commercial refrigeration systems are known to be prone to high leak rates and to consume large amounts of electricity. As such, direct emissions related to refrigerant leakage and indirect emissions resulting from primary energy consumption contribute greatly to their Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP). In this paper, an LCCP design tool is used to evaluate the performance of a typical commercial refrigeration system with alternative refrigerants and minor system modifications to provide lower Global Warming Potential (GWP) refrigerant solutions with improved LCCP compared to baseline systems. The LCCP design tool accounts for system performance, ambient temperature, and system load; system performance is evaluated using a validated vapor compression system simulation tool while ambient temperature and system load are devised from a widely used building energy modeling tool (EnergyPlus). The LCCP design tool also accounts for the change in hourly electricity emission rate to yield an accurate prediction of indirect emissions. The analysis shows that conventional commercial refrigeration system life cycle emissions are largely due to direct emissions associated with refrigerant leaks and that system efficiency plays a smaller role in the LCCP. However, as a transition occurs to low GWP refrigerants, the indirect emissions become more relevant. Low GWP refrigerants may not be suitable for drop-in replacements in conventional commercial refrigeration systems; however some mixtures may be introduced as transitional drop-in replacements. These transitional refrigerants have a significantly lower GWP than baseline refrigerants and as such, improved LCCP. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on the tradeoffs between refrigerant GWP, efficiency and capacity.

  1. Solution Algorithm for a New Bi-Level Discrete Network Design Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Chen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A new discrete network design problem (DNDP was pro-posed in this paper, where the variables can be a series of integers rather than just 0-1. The new DNDP can determine both capacity improvement grades of reconstruction roads and locations and capacity grades of newly added roads, and thus complies with the practical projects where road capacity can only be some discrete levels corresponding to the number of lanes of roads. This paper designed a solution algorithm combining branch-and-bound with Hooke-Jeeves algorithm, where feasible integer solutions are recorded in searching the process of Hooke-Jeeves algorithm, lend -ing itself to determine the upper bound of the upper-level problem. The thresholds for branch cutting and ending were set for earlier convergence. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

  2. Reducing commercial fishing deck hazards with engineering solutions for winch design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Jennifer M; Lucas, Devin L; McKibbin, Robert W; Woodward, Chelsea C; Bevan, John E

    2008-01-01

    The majority (67%) of hospitalized injuries among Alaska commercial fishermen are associated with deck machinery. This paper describes the "Prevention Through Design" process to mitigate one serious machinery entanglement hazard posed by a capstan deck winch. After observing that the capstan winch provides no entanglement protection and the hydraulic controls are usually out of reach of the entangled person, NIOSH personnel met with fishermen and winch manufacturers to discuss various design solutions to mitigate these hazards. An emergency-stop ("e-stop") system was developed that incorporated a momentary contact button that when pushed, switches a safety-relay that de-energizes the solenoid of an electro-hydraulic valve stopping the rotating winch. The vessel owners that had the e-stop installed enthusiastically recommend it to other fishermen. NIOSH entered into a Proprietary Technology Licensing Agreement with a company to develop the system for commercial use. This is an example of a practical engineering control that effectively protects workers from a hazardous piece of equipment by preventing injuries due to entanglement. This solution could reduce these types of debilitating injuries and fatalities in this industry.

  3. Marriage, Abortion, or Unwed Motherhood? How Women Evaluate Alternative Solutions to Premarital Pregnancies in Japan and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertog, Ekaterina; Iwasawa, Miho

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue that to understand the very low incidence of outside-of-marriage childbearing in contemporary Japan one needs to take into account perceptions of all possible solutions to a premarital pregnancy: marriage, abortion, and childbearing outside wedlock. To demonstrate the particular impact of these perceptions in…

  4. Turbo-alternator-compressor design for supercritical high density working fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Steven A.; Fuller, Robert L.

    2013-03-19

    Techniques for generating power are provided. Such techniques involve a thermodynamic system including a housing, a turbine positioned in a turbine cavity of the housing, a compressor positioned in a compressor cavity of the housing, and an alternator positioned in a rotor cavity between the turbine and compressor cavities. The compressor has a high-pressure face facing an inlet of the compressor cavity and a low-pressure face on an opposite side thereof. The alternator has a rotor shaft operatively connected to the turbine and compressor, and is supported in the housing by bearings. Ridges extending from the low-pressure face of the compressor may be provided for balancing thrust across the compressor. Seals may be positioned about the alternator for selectively leaking fluid into the rotor cavity to reduce the temperature therein.

  5. Alternative Design Study Report: WindPACT Advanced Wind Turbine Drive Train Designs Study; November 1, 2000 -- February 28, 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poore, R.; Lettenmaier, T.

    2003-08-01

    This report presents the Phase I results of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) WindPACT (Wind Partnership for Advanced Component Technologies) Advanced Wind Turbine Drive Train Designs Study. Global Energy Concepts, LLC performed this work under a subcontract with NREL. The purpose of the WindPACT project is to identify technology improvements that will enable the cost of energy (COE) from wind turbines to be reduced. Other parts of the WindPACT project have examined blade and logistics scaling, balance-of-station costs, and rotor design. This study was designed to investigate innovative drive train designs.

  6. Buffer-free therapeutic antibody preparations provide a viable alternative to conventionally buffered solutions: from protein buffer capacity prediction to bioprocess applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrenburg, Sven; Karow, Anne R; Garidel, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Protein therapeutics, including monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), have significant buffering capacity, particularly at concentrations>50 mg/mL. This report addresses pH-related issues critical to adoption of self-buffered monoclonal antibody formulations. We evaluated solution conditions with protein concentrations ranging from 50 to 250 mg/mL. Samples were both buffer-free and conventionally buffered with citrate. Samples were non-isotonic or adjusted for isotonicity with NaCl or trehalose. Studies included accelerated temperature stability tests, shaking stability studies, and pH changes in infusion media as protein concentrate is added. We present averaged buffering slopes of capacity that can be applied to any mAb and present a general method for calculating buffering capacity of buffer-free, highly concentrated antibody liquid formulations. In temperature stability tests, neither buffer-free nor conventionally buffered solution conditions showed significant pH changes. Conventionally buffered solutions showed significantly higher opalescence than buffer-free ones. In general, buffer-free solution conditions showed less aggregation than conventionally buffered solutions. Shaking stability tests showed no differences between buffer-free and conventionally buffered solutions. "In-use" preparation experiments showed that pH in infusion bag medium can rapidly approximate that of self-buffered protein concentrate as concentrate is added. In summary, the buffer capacity of proteins can be predicted and buffer-free therapeutic antibody preparations provide a viable alternative to conventionally buffered solutions. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. A comparative analysis for multiattribute selection among renewable energy alternatives using fuzzy axiomatic design and fuzzy analytic hierarchy process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahraman, Cengiz; Kaya, Ihsan; Cebi, Selcuk [Istanbul Technical University, Department of Industrial Engineering, 34367, Macka-Istanbul (Turkey)

    2009-10-15

    Renewable energy is the energy generated from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides and geothermal heat which are renewable. Energy resources are very important in perspective of economics and politics for all countries. Hence, the selection of the best alternative for any country takes an important role for energy investments. Among decision-making methodologies, axiomatic design (AD) and analytic hierarchy process (AHP) are often used in the literature. The fuzzy set theory is a powerful tool to treat the uncertainty in case of incomplete or vague information. In this paper, fuzzy multicriteria decision- making methodologies are suggested for the selection among renewable energy alternatives. The first methodology is based on the AHP which allows the evaluation scores from experts to be linguistic expressions, crisp, or fuzzy numbers, while the second is based on AD principles under fuzziness which evaluates the alternatives under objective or subjective criteria with respect to the functional requirements obtained from experts. The originality of the paper comes from the fuzzy AD application to the selection of the best renewable energy alternative and the comparison with fuzzy AHP. In the application of the proposed methodologies the most appropriate renewable energy alternative is determined for Turkey. (author)

  8. Design and control of an alternative distillation sequence for bioethanol purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Errico, Massimiliano; Ramírez-Márquez, César; Torres Ortega, Carlo Edgar

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bioethanol is a green fuel considered to be a sustainable alternative to petro-derived gasoline. The transport sector contributes significantly to carbon dioxide emission and consequently has a negative impact on the air quality and is responsible for the increase of the greenhouse...

  9. Including alternative resources in state renewable portfolio standards: Current design and implementation experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heeter, Jenny; Bird, Lori

    2013-01-01

    As of October 2012, 29 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico have instituted a renewable portfolio standard (RPS). Each state policy is unique, varying in percentage targets, timetables, and eligible resources. Increasingly, new RPS polices have included alternative resources. Alternative resources have included energy efficiency, thermal resources, and, to a lesser extent, non-renewables. This paper examines state experience with implementing renewable portfolio standards that include energy efficiency, thermal resources, and non-renewable energy and explores compliance experience, costs, and how states evaluate, measure, and verify energy efficiency and convert thermal energy. It aims to gain insights from the experience of states for possible federal clean energy policy as well as to share experience and lessons for state RPS implementation. - Highlights: • Increasingly, new RPS policies have included alternative resources. • Nearly all states provide a separate tier or cap on the quantity of eligible alternative resources. • Where allowed, non-renewables and energy efficiency are being heavily utilized

  10. The ChemScreen project to design a pragmatic alternative approachto predict reproductive toxicity of chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Burg, B.; Wedebye, E.B.; Dietrich, D.R.; Jaworska, J.; Mangelsdorf, I.; Paune, E.; Schwarz, M.; Piersma, A.H.; Kroese, E.D.

    2015-01-01

    There is a great need for rapid testing strategies for reproductive toxicity testing, avoiding animal use.The EU Framework program 7 project ChemScreen aimed to fill this gap in a pragmatic manner prefer-ably using validated existing tools and place them in an innovative alternative testing

  11. Alternative Fistula Risk Score for Pancreatoduodenectomy (a-FRS): Design and International External Validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mungroop, Timothy H.; van Rijssen, L. Bengt; van Klaveren, David; Smits, F. Jasmijn; van Woerden, Victor; Linnemann, Ralph J.; de Pastena, Matteo; Klompmaker, Sjors; Marchegiani, Giovanni; Ecker, Brett L.; van Dieren, Susan; Bonsing, Bert; Busch, Olivier R.; van Dam, Ronald M.; Erdmann, Joris; van Eijck, Casper H.; Gerhards, Michael F.; van Goor, Harry; van der Harst, Erwin; de Hingh, Ignace H.; de Jong, Koert P.; Kazemier, Geert; Luyer, Misha; Shamali, Awad; Barbaro, Salvatore; Armstrong, Thomas; Takhar, Arjun; Hamady, Zaed; Klaase, Joost; Lips, Daan J.; Molenaar, I. Quintus; Nieuwenhuijs, Vincent B.; Rupert, Coen; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C.; Scheepers, Joris J.; van der Schelling, George P.; Bassi, Claudio; Vollmer, Charles M.; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; Abu Hilal, Mohammed; Groot Koerkamp, Bas; Besselink, Marc G.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an alternative fistula risk score (a-FRS) for postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) after pancreatoduodenectomy, without blood loss as a predictor. Blood loss, one of the predictors of the original-FRS, was not a significant factor during 2 recent external

  12. Mitigation of chromatography adsorbent lot performance variability through control of buffer solution design space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aono, Hiromasa; Iliescu, Ionela; Cecchini, Doug; Wood, Susanne; McCue, Justin T

    2013-11-29

    The separation of undesired product-related impurities often poses a challenge in the purification of protein therapeutic species. Product-related impurity species, which may consist of undesirable isoforms, aggregated, or misfolded variants of the desired monomeric form of the product, can be challenging to remove using preparatory scale chromatographic techniques. When using anion exchange chromatography to remove undesirable product-related impurities, the separation can be highly sensitive to relatively small changes in the chromatography operating conditions, including changes to buffer solution pH, buffer solution conductivity protein loading, and operating temperature. When performing difficult separations, slight changes to the chemical and physical properties of the anion exchange adsorbent lot may also impact the separation profile. Such lot-to-lot variability may not be readily measurable by the adsorbent manufacturer, since variability can be highly dependent on a specific protein separation. Consequently, manufacturers of chromatographic adsorbents may not be able to control adsorbent lot to lot variability tightly enough to prevent differences from occurring when performing difficult product-related separations at the preparatory scale. In such cases, it is desirable to design a chromatography step with a control strategy which accounts for adsorbent lot to lot variability in the separation performance. In order to avoid the undesired changes to process consistency and product quality, a proper adjustment of the column operating conditions can be implemented, based on the performance of each adsorbent lot or lot mixture. In this work, we describe how the adjustment of the column buffer solution composition can be used as a design space based-control strategy used to ensure consistent process performance and product quality are achieved for an anion exchange chromatography step susceptible to adsorbent lot to lot performance variability. In addition, a

  13. Measuring the length distribution of self-assembled lipid nanotubes by orientation control with a high-frequency alternating current electric field in aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Ken; Aoyagi, Masaru; Ishido, Tomomi; Ooie, Toshihiko; Frusawa, Hiroshi; Asakawa, Masumi; Shimizu, Toshimi; Ishikawa, Mitsuru

    2009-02-15

    The present work addresses the length distribution of self-assembled lipid nanotubes (LNTs) by controlling the orientation of the LNTs using an alternating current (ac) electric field in aqueous solutions. The effect of the ac field on the orientation and rotation of individual LNTs was examined to evaluate the optimum orientation frequency by visualizing the individual LNTs in real time. By using the high-frequency ac field, we have successfully measured the length distribution for two different types of LNTs and have quantitatively analyzed the maximum occurrences of the length distribution as well as the extension of the longer length region.

  14. Engineering design solutions of flux swing with structural requirements for ohmic heating solenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    Here a more detailed publication is summarized which presents analytical methods with solutions that describe the structural behavior of ohmic heating solenoids to achieve a better understanding of the relationships between the functional variables that can provide the basis for recommended design improvements. The solutions relate the requirements imposed by structural integrity to the need for producing sufficient flux swing to initiate a plasma current in the tokamak fusion machine. A method is provided to perform a detailed structural analysis of every conducting turn in the radial build of the solenoid, and computer programmed listings for the closed form solutions are made available as part of the reference document. Distinction is made in deriving separate models for the regions of the solenoid where turn-to-turn radial contact is maintained with radial compression or with a bond in the presence of radial tension, and also where there is turn-to-turn radial separation due to the absence or the loss of bonding in the presence of would be radial tension. The derivations follow the theory of elasticity for a body possessing cylindrical anisotropy where the material properties are different in the radial and tangential directions. The formulations are made practical by presenting the methods for reducing stress and for relocating the relative position for potential turn-to-turn radial delamination by permitting an arbitrary traction at the outer radial surface of the solenoid in the form of pressure or displacement such as may be applied by a containment or a shrink fit structural cylinder

  15. Technology Solutions Case Study: Calculating Design Heating Loads for Superinsulated Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    Designing a superinsulated home has many benefits including improved comfort, reduced exterior noise penetration, lower energy bills, and the ability to withstand power and fuel outages under much more comfortable conditions than a typical home. Extremely low heating and cooling loads equate to much smaller HVAC equipment than conventionally required. Sizing the mechanical system to these much lower loads reduces first costs and the size of the distribution system needed. While these homes aren't necessarily constructed with excessive mass in the form of concrete floors and walls, the amount of insulation and the increase in the thickness of the building envelope can lead to a mass effect, resulting in the structures ability to store much more heat than a code built home. This results in a very low thermal inertia making the building much less sensitive to drastic temperature swings thereby decreasing the peak heating load demand. Alternative methods that take this inertia into account along with solar and internal gains result in smaller more appropriate design loads than those calculated using Manual J version 8. During the winter of 2013/2014, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings team monitored the energy use of three homes in climate zone 6 in an attempt to evaluate the accuracy of two different mechanical system sizing methods for low load homes. Based on the results, it is recommended that internal and solar gains be included and some credit for thermal inertia be used in sizing calculations for superinsulated homes.

  16. Optimal design of cluster-based ad-hoc networks using probabilistic solution discovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Jason L. [B62, QESA-ARDEC, Picatinny, NJ 07806 (United States)], E-mail: Jason.Cook1@us.army.mil; Ramirez-Marquez, Jose Emmanuel [Babbio Center, School of Systems and Enterprises, Stevens Institute of Technology, Castle Point on Hudson, Hoboken, NJ 07030 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    The reliability of ad-hoc networks is gaining popularity in two areas: as a topic of academic interest and as a key performance parameter for defense systems employing this type of network. The ad-hoc network is dynamic and scalable and these descriptions are what attract its users. However, these descriptions are also synonymous for undefined and unpredictable when considering the impacts to the reliability of the system. The configuration of an ad-hoc network changes continuously and this fact implies that no single mathematical expression or graphical depiction can describe the system reliability-wise. Previous research has used mobility and stochastic models to address this challenge successfully. In this paper, the authors leverage the stochastic approach and build upon it a probabilistic solution discovery (PSD) algorithm to optimize the topology for a cluster-based mobile ad-hoc wireless network (MAWN). Specifically, the membership of nodes within the back-bone network or networks will be assigned in such as way as to maximize reliability subject to a constraint on cost. The constraint may also be considered as a non-monetary cost, such as weight, volume, power, or the like. When a cost is assigned to each component, a maximum cost threshold is assigned to the network, and the method is run; the result is an optimized allocation of the radios enabling back-bone network(s) to provide the most reliable network possible without exceeding the allowable cost. The method is intended for use directly as part of the architectural design process of a cluster-based MAWN to efficiently determine an optimal or near-optimal design solution. It is capable of optimizing the topology based upon all-terminal reliability (ATR), all-operating terminal reliability (AoTR), or two-terminal reliability (2TR)

  17. Optimal design of cluster-based ad-hoc networks using probabilistic solution discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, Jason L.; Ramirez-Marquez, Jose Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    The reliability of ad-hoc networks is gaining popularity in two areas: as a topic of academic interest and as a key performance parameter for defense systems employing this type of network. The ad-hoc network is dynamic and scalable and these descriptions are what attract its users. However, these descriptions are also synonymous for undefined and unpredictable when considering the impacts to the reliability of the system. The configuration of an ad-hoc network changes continuously and this fact implies that no single mathematical expression or graphical depiction can describe the system reliability-wise. Previous research has used mobility and stochastic models to address this challenge successfully. In this paper, the authors leverage the stochastic approach and build upon it a probabilistic solution discovery (PSD) algorithm to optimize the topology for a cluster-based mobile ad-hoc wireless network (MAWN). Specifically, the membership of nodes within the back-bone network or networks will be assigned in such as way as to maximize reliability subject to a constraint on cost. The constraint may also be considered as a non-monetary cost, such as weight, volume, power, or the like. When a cost is assigned to each component, a maximum cost threshold is assigned to the network, and the method is run; the result is an optimized allocation of the radios enabling back-bone network(s) to provide the most reliable network possible without exceeding the allowable cost. The method is intended for use directly as part of the architectural design process of a cluster-based MAWN to efficiently determine an optimal or near-optimal design solution. It is capable of optimizing the topology based upon all-terminal reliability (ATR), all-operating terminal reliability (AoTR), or two-terminal reliability (2TR)

  18. Alternate current magnetic property characterization of nonstoichiometric zinc ferrite nanocrystals for inductor fabrication via a solution based process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Hongseok [Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Kim, Jungkwun; Allen, Mark G. [Department of Electrical and Systems Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Paik, Taejong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); School of Integrative Engineering, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 06974 (Korea, Republic of); Meng, Lingyao [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Jo, Pil Sung [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Complex Assemblies of Soft Matter, CNRS-SOLVAY-PENN UMI 3254, Bristol, Pennsylvania 19007-3624 (United States); Kikkawa, James M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Kagan, Cherie R. [Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Department of Electrical and Systems Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Murray, Christopher B., E-mail: cbmurray@sas.upenn.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

    2016-03-21

    We investigate the ac magnetic behavior of solution processable, non-stoichiometric zinc ferrite nanocrystals with a series of sizes and zinc concentrations. Nearly monodisperse Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 3−x}O{sub 4} nanocrystals (x = 0–0.25) with an average size ranging from 7.4 nm to 13.8 nm are synthesized by using a solvothermal method. All the nanocrystals are in a superparamagnetic state at 300 K, which is confirmed by Superconductive Quantum Interference Device magnetometry. Due to the doping of non-magnetic Zn{sup 2+} into A site of ferrite, the saturation magnetization of nanocrystals increases as the size and Zn concentration increases. The ac magnetic permeability measurements at radio frequencies reveal that the real part of the magnetic permeability of similarly sized ferrite nanocrystals can be enhanced by almost twofold as the Zn{sup 2+} doping level increases from 0 to 0.25. The integration of 12.3 nm Zn{sub 0.25}Fe{sub 2.75}O{sub 4} nanocrystals into a toroidal inductor and a solenoid inductor prepared via a simple solution cast process yields a higher quality factors than air core inductors with the same geometries up to 5 MHz and 9 MHz, respectively, which is in the regime of the switching frequencies for the advanced integrated power converters.

  19. Selection and development of innovative design alternatives : Ethical, social and uncertainty issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, J.F.

    2015-01-01

    Innovative engineering design shapes the development of novel technologies and is ethically as well as socially relevant, because it affects what kind of possibilities and consequences will arise. A major challenge in engineering design work on innovative technologies is the multitude of

  20. DESIGNING CULTURALLY CONSCIOUS ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION TO FOSTER ASIAN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrs. Herliana

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Creating an Asian model of alternative dispute resolution which considers Asian cultures is important. A mere adoption of western standard will less likely accommodate Asian’s unique way of handling disputes. Culture-related problems can be avoided if international commercial mediation or arbitration is tuned in to cultural needs and expectations. Penyusunan model alternatif penyelesaian sengketa gaya Asia yang mengakomodasi budaya setempat penting untuk dilakukan. Penerapan standar barat tidak selamanya cocok dengan cara unik orang Asia dalam memandang suatu sengketa. Konflik kultural dapat dihindari apabila mediasi atau arbitrase bisnis internasional disesuaikan dengan kebutuhan budaya setempat.

  1. Thermal/mechanical simulation and laboratory fatigue testing of an alternative yttria tetragonal zirconia polycrystal core-veneer all-ceramic layered crown design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfante, Estevam A; Rafferty, Brian; Zavanelli, Ricardo A; Silva, Nelson R F A; Rekow, Elizabeth D; Thompson, Van P; Coelho, Paulo G

    2010-04-01

    This study evaluated the stress levels at the core layer and the veneer layer of zirconia crowns (comprising an alternative core design vs. a standard core design) under mechanical/thermal simulation, and subjected simulated models to laboratory mouth-motion fatigue. The dimensions of a mandibular first molar were imported into computer-aided design (CAD) software and a tooth preparation was modeled. A crown was designed using the space between the original tooth and the prepared tooth. The alternative core presented an additional lingual shoulder that lowered the veneer bulk of the cusps. Finite element analyses evaluated the residual maximum principal stresses fields at the core and veneer of both designs under loading and when cooled from 900 degrees C to 25 degrees C. Crowns were fabricated and mouth-motion fatigued, generating master Weibull curves and reliability data. Thermal modeling showed low residual stress fields throughout the bulk of the cusps for both groups. Mechanical simulation depicted a shift in stress levels to the core of the alternative design compared with the standard design. Significantly higher reliability was found for the alternative core. Regardless of the alternative configuration, thermal and mechanical computer simulations showed stress in the alternative core design comparable and higher to that of the standard configuration, respectively. Such a mechanical scenario probably led to the higher reliability of the alternative design under fatigue.

  2. Water balance relationships in four alternative cover designs for radioactive and mixed waste landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, R.W.; Hakonson, T.E.; Trujillo, G.

    1994-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented from a field study to evaluate the relative hydrologic performance of various landfill capping technologies installed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory at Hill Air Force Base, Utah. Four cover designs (two Los Alamos capillary barrier designs, one modified EPA RCRA design, and one conventional design) were installed in large lysimeters instrumented to monitor the fate of natural precipitation between 01 January 1990 and 20 September 1993. After 45 months of study, results showed that the cover designs containing barrier layers were effective in reducing deep percolation as compared to a simple soil cap design. The RCRA cover, incorporating a clay hydraulic barrier, was the most effective of all cover designs in controlling percolation but was not 100% effective. Over 90% of all percolation and barrier lateral flow occurred during the months of February through May of each year, primarily as a result of snow melt, early spring rains and low evapotranspiration. Gravel mulch surface treatments (70--80% coverage) were effective in reducing runoff and erosion. The two plots receiving gravel mulch treatments exhibited equal but enhanced amounts of evapotranspiration despite the fact that one plot was planted with additional shrubs

  3. Active lower limb prosthetics: a systematic review of design issues and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windrich, Michael; Grimmer, Martin; Christ, Oliver; Rinderknecht, Stephan; Beckerle, Philipp

    2016-12-19

    This paper presents a review on design issues and solutions found in active lower limb prostheses. This review is based on a systematic literature search with a methodical search strategy. The search was carried out across four major technical databases and the retrieved records were screened for their relevance. A total of 21 different active prostheses, including 8 above-knee, 9 below-knee and 4 combined knee-ankle prostheses were identified. While an active prosthesis may help to restore the functional performance of an amputee, the requirements regarding the actuation unit as well as for the control system are high and the development becomes a challenging task. Regarding mechanical design and the actuation unit high force/torque delivery, high efficiency, low size and low weight are conflicting goals. The actuation principle and variable impedance actuators are discussed. The control system is paramount for a "natural functioning" of the prosthesis. The control system has to enable locomotion and should react to the amputee's intent. For this, multi-level control approaches are reviewed.

  4. Conceptual design of a closed loop nutrient solution delivery system for CELSS implementation in a micro-gravity environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzkopf, Steven H.; Oleson, Mel W.; Cullingford, Hatice S.

    1990-01-01

    Described here are the results of a study to develop a conceptual design for an experimental closed loop fluid handling system capable of monitoring, controlling, and supplying nutrient solution to higher plants. The Plant Feeder Experiment (PFE) is designed to be flight tested in a microgravity environment. When flown, the PFX will provide information on both the generic problems of microgravity fluid handling and the specific problems associated with the delivery of the nutrient solution in a microgravity environment. The experimental hardware is designed to fit into two middeck lockers on the Space Shuttle, and incorporates several components that have previously been flight tested.

  5. GREENER CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN ALTERNATIVES ARE REVEALED USING THE WASTE REDUCTION DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM (WAR DSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Waste Reduction Decision Support System (WAR DSS) is a Java-based software product providing comprehensive modeling of potential adverse environmental impacts (PEI) predicted to result from newly designed or redesigned chemical manufacturing processes. The purpose of this so...

  6. Evaluation of occupational health interventions using a randomized controlled trial: challenges and alternative research designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schelvis, R.M; Oude Hengel, K.M.; Burdorf, A.; Blatter, B.M.; Strijk, J.E.; Beek, A.J. van

    2015-01-01

    Occupational health researchers regularly conduct evaluative intervention research for which a randomized controlled trial (RCT) may not be the most appropriate design (eg, effects of policy measures, organizational interventions on work schedules). This article demonstrates the appropriateness of

  7. Testing the biocompatibility of a glutathione-containing intra-ocular irrigation solution by using an isolated perfused bovine retina organ culture model - an alternative to animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januschowski, Kai; Zhour, Ahmad; Lee, Albert; Maddani, Ramin; Mueller, Sebastien; Spitzer, Martin S; Schnichels, Sven; Schultheiss, Maximilian; Doycheva, Deshka; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl-Ulrich; Szurman, Peter

    2012-03-01

    The effects of a glutathione-containing intra-ocular irrigation solution, BSS Plus©, on retinal function and on the survival of ganglion cells in whole-mount retinal explants were studied. Evidence is provided that the perfused ex vivo bovine retina can serve as an alternative to in vivo animal testing. Isolated bovine retinas were prepared and perfused with an oxygen-saturated standard irrigation solution, and an electroretinogram was recorded to assess retinal function. After stable b-waves were detected, the isolated retinas were perfused with BSS Plus for 45 minutes. To investigate the effects of BSS Plus on photoreceptor function, 1mM aspartate was added to the irrigation solution in order to obtain a-waves, and the ERG trace was monitored for 75 minutes. For histological analysis, isolated whole retinal mounts were stored for 24 hours at 4°C, in the dark. The percentages of cell death in the retinal ganglion cell layer and in the outer and inner nuclear layers were estimated by using an ethidium homodimer-1 stain and the TUNEL assay. General swelling of the retina was examined with high-resolution optical coherence tomography. During perfusion with BSS Plus, no significant changes in a-wave and b-wave amplitudes were recorded. Retinas stored for 24 hours in BSS Plus showed a statistically significant smaller percentage (52.6%, standard deviation [SD] = 16.1%) of cell death in the retinal ganglion cell layer compared to the control group (69.6%, SD = 3.9, p = 0.0031). BSS Plus did not seem to affect short-term retinal function, and had a beneficial effect on the survival of retinal ganglion cells. This method for analysing the isolated perfused retina represents a valuable alternative for testing substances for their retinal biocompatibility and toxicity. 2012 FRAME.

  8. The Unsuccessful Poverty Reduction Strategies in Indonesia and the Alternatives Solutions (The Study on BLT and Jamkesmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Iriani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia as the 16th largest economy in the world, the 4th in Asia-after China, Japan and India as well as Southeast Asia’s largest-has the potential to be the seventh biggest by 2030, due to the increasing economic. Indonesia also has many potential natural resources that can be utilized to support development in order to increase the nation welfare. However, the number of poor people still has not been significantly reduced, reaching 28.07 million or 11.37% of the total population in 2013. The Government has tried to reduce poverty with some programs such as BLT (Bantuan Langsung Tunai/Direct Cash Assistance and Jamkesmas (Jaminan Kesehatan Masyarakat/ Community Health Protection Scheme. However, the programs are considered not effective and do not make poor people become financially independent. Ironically, in inadequate evaluation, the Government continues to runs the programs. By using a qualitative approach, researchers will provide policy alternatives that can be implemented by Government.

  9. Designing a solution to enable agency-academic scientific collaboration for disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindley A. Mease

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As large-scale environmental disasters become increasingly frequent and more severe globally, people and organizations that prepare for and respond to these crises need efficient and effective ways to integrate sound science into their decision making. Experience has shown that integrating nongovernmental scientific expertise into disaster decision making can improve the quality of the response, and is most effective if the integration occurs before, during, and after a crisis, not just during a crisis. However, collaboration between academic, government, and industry scientists, decision makers, and responders is frequently difficult because of cultural differences, misaligned incentives, time pressures, and legal constraints. Our study addressed this challenge by using the Deep Change Method, a design methodology developed by Stanford ChangeLabs, which combines human-centered design, systems analysis, and behavioral psychology. We investigated underlying needs and motivations of government agency staff and academic scientists, mapped the root causes underlying the relationship failures between these two communities based on their experiences, and identified leverage points for shifting deeply rooted perceptions that impede collaboration. We found that building trust and creating mutual value between multiple stakeholders before crises occur is likely to increase the effectiveness of problem solving. We propose a solution, the Science Action Network, which is designed to address barriers to scientific collaboration by providing new mechanisms to build and improve trust and communication between government administrators and scientists, industry representatives, and academic scientists. The Science Action Network has the potential to ensure cross-disaster preparedness and science-based decision making through novel partnerships and scientific coordination.

  10. Designing a solution to enable agency-academic scientific collaboration for disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mease, Lindley A.; Gibbs-Plessl, Theodora; Erickson, Ashley; Ludwig, Kristin A.; Reddy, Christopher M.; Lubchenco, Jane

    2017-01-01

    As large-scale environmental disasters become increasingly frequent and more severe globally, people and organizations that prepare for and respond to these crises need efficient and effective ways to integrate sound science into their decision making. Experience has shown that integrating nongovernmental scientific expertise into disaster decision making can improve the quality of the response, and is most effective if the integration occurs before, during, and after a crisis, not just during a crisis. However, collaboration between academic, government, and industry scientists, decision makers, and responders is frequently difficult because of cultural differences, misaligned incentives, time pressures, and legal constraints. Our study addressed this challenge by using the Deep Change Method, a design methodology developed by Stanford ChangeLabs, which combines human-centered design, systems analysis, and behavioral psychology. We investigated underlying needs and motivations of government agency staff and academic scientists, mapped the root causes underlying the relationship failures between these two communities based on their experiences, and identified leverage points for shifting deeply rooted perceptions that impede collaboration. We found that building trust and creating mutual value between multiple stakeholders before crises occur is likely to increase the effectiveness of problem solving. We propose a solution, the Science Action Network, which is designed to address barriers to scientific collaboration by providing new mechanisms to build and improve trust and communication between government administrators and scientists, industry representatives, and academic scientists. The Science Action Network has the potential to ensure cross-disaster preparedness and science-based decision making through novel partnerships and scientific coordination.

  11. Impact of Rate Design Alternatives on Residential Solar Customer Bills. Increased Fixed Charges, Minimum Bills and Demand-based Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Davidson, Carolyn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McLaren, Joyce [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    With rapid growth in energy efficiency and distributed generation, electric utilities are anticipating stagnant or decreasing electricity sales, particularly in the residential sector. Utilities are increasingly considering alternative rates structures that are designed to recover fixed costs from residential solar photovoltaic (PV) customers with low net electricity consumption. Proposed structures have included fixed charge increases, minimum bills, and increasingly, demand rates - for net metered customers and all customers. This study examines the electricity bill implications of various residential rate alternatives for multiple locations within the United States. For the locations analyzed, the results suggest that residential PV customers offset, on average, between 60% and 99% of their annual load. However, roughly 65% of a typical customer's electricity demand is non-coincidental with PV generation, so the typical PV customer is generally highly reliant on the grid for pooling services.

  12. Harnessing Alternative Energy Sources to Enhance the Design of a Wave Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, A.

    2017-12-01

    Wave energy has the power to replace a non-renewable source of electricity for a home near the ocean. I built a small-scale wave generator capable of producing approximately 5 volts of electricity. The generator is an array of 16 small generators, each consisting of 200 feet of copper wire, 12 magnets, and a buoy. I tested my design in the Pacific Ocean and was able to power a string of lights I had attached to the generator. While the waves in the ocean moved my buoys, my design was powered by the vertical motion of the waves. My generator was hit with significant horizontal wave motion, and I realized I wasn't taking advantage of that direction of motion. To make my generator produce more electricity, I experimented with capturing the energy of the horizontal motion of water and incorporated that into my generator design. My generator, installed in the ocean, is also exposed to sun and wind, and I am exploring the potential of solar and wind energy collection in my design to increase the electricity output. Once I have maximized my electricity output, I would like to explore scaling up my design.

  13. Applied acoustics concepts, absorbers, and silencers for acoustical comfort and noise control alternative solutions, innovative tools, practical examples

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, Helmut V

    2013-01-01

    The author gives a comprehensive overview of materials and components for noise control and acoustical comfort. Sound absorbers must meet acoustical and architectural requirements, which fibrous or porous material alone can meet. Basics and applications are demonstrated, with representative examples for spatial acoustics, free-field test facilities and canal linings. Acoustic engineers and construction professionals will find some new basic concepts and tools for developments in order to improve acoustical comfort. Interference absorbers, active resonators and micro-perforated absorbers of different materials and designs complete the list of applications.

  14. Alternative concepts for Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal: Conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    This conceptual design report is provided by the Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Low-Level Waste Management Program to assist states and compact regions in developing new low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities in accordance with the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendment Act of 1985. The report provides conceptual designs and evaluations of six widely considered concepts for LLW disposal. These are shallow land disposal (SLD), intermediate depth disposal (IDD), below-ground vaults (BGV), above-ground vaults (AGV), modular concrete canister disposal (MCCD), earth-mounded concrete bunker (EMCB). 40 refs., 45 figs., 77 tabs

  15. Solution pH change in non-uniform alternating current electric fields at frequencies above the electrode charging frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ran; Massa, Katherine; Wipf, David O; Minerick, Adrienne R

    2014-11-01

    AC Faradaic reactions have been reported as a mechanism inducing non-ideal phenomena such as flow reversal and cell deformation in electrokinetic microfluidic systems. Prior published work described experiments in parallel electrode arrays below the electrode charging frequency (fc ), the frequency for electrical double layer charging at the electrode. However, 2D spatially non-uniform AC electric fields are required for applications such as in plane AC electroosmosis, AC electrothermal pumps, and dielectrophoresis. Many microscale experimental applications utilize AC frequencies around or above fc . In this work, a pH sensitive fluorescein sodium salt dye was used to detect [H(+)] as an indicator of Faradaic reactions in aqueous solutions within non-uniform AC electric fields. Comparison experiments with (a) parallel (2D uniform fields) electrodes and (b) organic media were employed to deduce the electrode charging mechanism at 5 kHz (1.5fc ). Time dependency analysis illustrated that Faradaic reactions exist above the theoretically predicted electrode charging frequency. Spatial analysis showed [H(+)] varied spatially due to electric field non-uniformities and local pH changed at length scales greater than 50 μm away from the electrode surface. Thus, non-uniform AC fields yielded spatially varied pH gradients as a direct consequence of ion path length differences while uniform fields did not yield pH gradients; the latter is consistent with prior published data. Frequency dependence was examined from 5 kHz to 12 kHz at 5.5 Vpp potential, and voltage dependency was explored from 3.5 to 7.5 Vpp at 5 kHz. Results suggest that Faradaic reactions can still proceed within electrochemical systems in the absence of well-established electrical double layers. This work also illustrates that in microfluidic systems, spatial medium variations must be considered as a function of experiment time, initial medium conditions, electric signal potential, frequency, and

  16. Closed-form solutions for linear regulator-design of mechanical systems including optimal weighting matrix selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Brantley R.; Skelton, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper addresses the restriction of Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) solutions to the algebraic Riccati Equation to design spaces which can be implemented as passive structural members and/or dampers. A general closed-form solution to the optimal free-decay control problem is presented which is tailored for structural-mechanical systems. The solution includes, as subsets, special cases such as the Rayleigh Dissipation Function and total energy. Weighting matrix selection is a constrained choice among several parameters to obtain desired physical relationships. The closed-form solution is also applicable to active control design for systems where perfect, collocated actuator-sensor pairs exist. Some examples of simple spring mass systems are shown to illustrate key points.

  17. Randomized Controlled Studies and Alternative Designs in Outcome Studies: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadish, William R.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews several decades of the author's meta-analytic and experimental research on the conditions under which nonrandomized experiments can approximate the results from randomized experiments (REs). Several studies make clear that we can expect accurate effect estimates from the regression discontinuity design, though its statistical…

  18. Vehicle perceptibilty : reflectorized registration plates and alternative means : function, design and application.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griep, D.J. Thoenes, E. Schreuder, D.A. & Kranenburg, A.

    1970-01-01

    In November 1967 the Minister of Transport and Waterways in the Netherlands asked the Institute for Road Safety Research SWOV to examine the advisable design of reflectorized registration plates from the aspect of perceptibility. Allowance had to be made for the identification of motor vehicles.

  19. Service design as the ground for alternative social and economic scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sbordone, Maria Antonietta; Morelli, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    , such as experience, time, knowledge, new roles in working and consuming. The actions triggered by service design move the center of value production from material goods to immaterial actions and performances. Services also propose new dynamics of relational mediation among stakeholders in social and economic systems...

  20. Alternative designs for megavoltage machines for cancer treatment in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borras, C.; Svensson, H.; Hanson, G.P.

    1996-01-01

    In developing countries radiation therapy is often performed with antiquated cobalt-60 units, the radioactive sources of which are long decayed and, thus, treatments are ineffective. Furthermore the cost involved in the disposal of spent radionuclide sources discourages owners from proper removal and storage, and accidents occur. Although present design of microwave electron linear accelerators provide excellent beam characteristics, developing countries in many locations do not have the infrastructure to maintain such machines. After an analysis of the radiotherapy situation world-wide - especially from the viewpoint of maintenance - a consensus was reached on the radiotherapy equipment performance requirements. To meet these requirements, several accelerator designs were considered. Among the most promising new designs were the klystron/linac and the high frequency linear accelerator, the microtron in a radiation head, the high frequency betatron, also in a radiation accelerator, and DC accelerators. Possible treatment designs, including those of modular nature, were presented. Since it is estimated that by the year 2015, barring a dramatic and unforeseen cure for cancer, a total of 10,000 machines will be needed to provide treatment for an estimated 10 million new cases per year in developing countries, the impact of such high technology simple machine could be substantial in providing equity and quality for the management of cancer patients. 4 refs, 2 tabs

  1. Non-Parametric Inference for Ordered Alternatives in a Randomized Block Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettmansperger, Thomas P.

    1975-01-01

    Treats the problem of testing an ordered hypothesis based on the ranks of the data. Statistical procedures for the randomized block design with more than one observation per cell are derived. Multiple comparisions and estimation procedures are included. (Author/RC)

  2. Adopting the alternate reality game approach in the design of the Singa environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dlodlo, N

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Playing games, especially electronic games, is a popular free-time activity among children and adolescents and these games seem to have a prominent role in the culture of young people. It is with this in mind that the SINGA environment was designed...

  3. An alternative approach to compensators design for photon beams used in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurkovic, S.; Zauhar, G.; Bistrovic, M.; Faj, D.; Kaliman, Z.; Smilovic Radojcic, D.

    2007-01-01

    The use of compensators in order to achieve desired dose distribution has a long history and is a well-established technique in radiation therapy planning. There are several different calculation methods for determining a compensator's thickness. An alternative method that is based on the Cunningham's modification of Clarkson's method to calculate scattered radiation in beams with an inhomogeneous cross-section is proposed. It is well known that the total dose distribution of radiotherapy photon beam consists of the contributions of the primary beam, attenuated by the tissue layer, and the scattered radiation generated by the primary radiation in single and multiple photon scatter events. The scattered component can be represented as a function of the primary radiation. The central point of our method is the numerical estimation of the primary distribution required to achieve the desired total distribution. Now using the calculated primary distribution, the shape of the modulator could be determined. In this way the contribution of the scattered component is validated in a more accurate way than using effective attenuation coefficients, which is a common practice. The method is verified in various clinical situations and compared with the standard method. The accuracy, although dependent on geometry, was improved by at least 2%. With more complex geometries there is an even higher gain in accuracy with our method when compared to the standard method

  4. Design of Two Alternative Routes for the Synthesis of Naftifine and Analogues as Potential Antifungal Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Abonia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Two practical and efficient approaches have been implemented as alternative procedures for the synthesis of naftifine and novel diversely substituted analogues 16 and 20 in good to excellent yields, mediated by Mannich-type reactions as the key step of the processes. In these approaches, the γ-aminoalcohols 15 and 19 were obtained as the key intermediates and their subsequent dehydration catalyzed either by Brønsted acids like H2SO4 and HCl or Lewis acid like AlCl3, respectively, led to naftifine, along with the target allylamines 16 and 20. The antifungal assay results showed that intermediates 18 (bearing both a β-aminoketo- and N-methyl functionalities in their structures and products 20 were the most active. Particularly, structures 18b, 18c, and the allylamine 20c showed the lowest MIC values, in the 0.5–7.8 µg/mL range, against the dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Interesting enough, compound 18b bearing a 4-Br as the substituent of the phenyl ring, also displayed high activity against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans with MIC80 = 7.8 µg/mL, being fungicide rather than fungistatic with a relevant MFC value = 15.6 µg/mL against C. neoformans.

  5. An experimental design approach for modeling As(V) adsorption from aqueous solution by activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakkal Gula, C; Bilgin Simsek, E; Duranoglu, D; Beker, U

    2015-01-01

    The present paper discusses response surface methodology as an efficient approach for predictive model building and optimization of As(V) adsorption on activated carbon derived from a food industry waste: peach stones. The objectives of the study are application of a three-factor 2³ full factorial and central composite design technique for maximizing As(V) removal by produced activated carbon, and examination of the interactive effects of three independent variables (i.e., solution pH, temperature, and initial concentration) on As(V) adsorption capacity. Adsorption equilibrium was investigated by using Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models. First-order and second-order kinetic equations were used for modeling of adsorption kinetics. Thermodynamic parameters (ΔG °, ΔH °, and ΔS °) were calculated and used to explain the As(V) adsorption mechanism. The negative value of ΔH (-7.778 kJ mol⁻¹) supported the exothermic nature of the sorption process and the Gibbs free energy values (ΔG°) were found to be negative, which indicates that the As(V) adsorption is feasible and spontaneous.

  6. An MPCC Formulation and Its Smooth Solution Algorithm for Continuous Network Design Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangmin Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Continuous network design problem (CNDP is searching for a transportation network configuration to minimize the sum of the total system travel time and the investment cost of link capacity expansions by considering that the travellers follow a traditional Wardrop user equilibrium (UE to choose their routes. In this paper, the CNDP model can be formulated as mathematical programs with complementarity constraints (MPCC by describing UE as a non-linear complementarity problem (NCP. To address the difficulty resulting from complementarity constraints in MPCC, they are substituted by the Fischer-Burmeister (FB function, which can be smoothed by the introduction of the smoothing parameter. Therefore, the MPCC can be transformed into a well-behaved non-linear program (NLP by replacing the complementarity constraints with a smooth equation. Consequently, the solver such as LINDOGLOBAL in GAMS can be used to solve the smooth approximate NLP to obtain the solution to MPCC for modelling CNDP. The numerical experiments on the example from the literature demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is feasible.

  7. A solution for future designs using techniques from vernacular architecture in southern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirahmadi, Fatima; Altan, Hasim

    2018-02-01

    Nowadays in modern life, every technology and technique for comfortable life is available. People with low income, in other words, with low levels of economic power, can also have those facilities to stay warm in winter and stay cool in summer. Many years back when there were no advanced systems for human needs, passive strategies played a big role in peoples' lives. This paper concentrates on a small city in Iran that had used special strategies to solve peoples' environmental issues. The city is called Evaz, which is located in the Fars region of Iran with distance around 20 km from Gerash city and 370 km from south east of Shiraz. Evaz receives minimum rainfall, which is the reason why water is limited in this area and therefore, cisterns (water storage) had been used for many years that is studied in more detail in this paper. In summers, the climate is hot and dry, sometimes the external temperatures reaching around 46 °C during the day. Although the winters are typically cold and likewise dry, moderate climate is available in Evaz during autumn and spring. This study identifies some of the past strategies and describes them in detail with analysis for transformation and connections with the modern and traditional fundamentals. Furthermore, the study develops some solutions utilizing a combination of both modern and traditional techniques in design to suggest better and more effective ways to save energy, and at the same time to remain sustainable for the future.

  8. Evaluation of design alternatives for sewing scissors with respect to hand performance, discomfort and usability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianat, Iman; Asadollahi, Soudabeh; Nedaei, Moein

    2017-09-22

    The effects of three re-designed models of sewing scissors on hand performance measures, discomfort and usability were investigated, and the results were compared with those of conventional scissors. Adjustments were made to the scissors handle with emphasis on more neutral wrist postures (bent handle - model A), correction of the thumb's position and movements (model B) and reducing hand/finger discomfort (model C) while working with the tool. The results showed some improvements in hand performance, muscular effort, usability and discomfort with model B compared to the conventional model. Better hand performance and usability and lower discomfort were recorded with model C compared to the conventional model. The results suggest that the correction of the thumb's position and movement (model B) or even reduced hand/finger discomfort (model C) are perhaps more important considerations in scissors design than improved wrist posture (model A) for improving users' performance and usability of the tool.

  9. Ventilation of high-speed flows, an alternating methodology for the ventilator design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldarriaga V, Juan G.; Navarrete, J.; Galeano B, Luis A.

    1996-01-01

    This article is about a research developed at Universidad de los Andes on the ventilation of high velocity flows as prevention against cavitations erosion. The research was a consequence of the results found in the physical model of the Guavio River Hydroelectric Project near Bogota and was based in a general model study of a spillway with ventilation system, which did not represent a particular prototype. In the Guavio study one conclusion was obtained:in every ventilation system there are three unknowns which are the air discharge injected to the water flow (design object variable), the sub pressure under the water jet and the jump length of that jet. In the research those three variables were studied using dimensional analysis and multivariable regressions in order to find a set of three equations that allow the design of this type of structures. The new equations are more general than those reported in technical literature

  10. Alternative Donor--Acceptor Stacks from Crown Ethers and Naphthalene Diimide Derivatives: Rapid, Selective Formation from Solution and Solid State Grinding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Advanced Light Source; Liu, Yi; Klivansky, Liana; Cao, Dennis; Snauko, Marian; Teat, Simon J.; Struppe, Jochem O.; Koshkakaryan, Gayane

    2009-01-22

    Self assembling {pi}-conjugated molecules into ordered structures are of increasing interest in the field of organic electronics. One particular example is charge transfer complexes containing columnar alternative donor-acceptor (ADA) stacks, where neutral and ionic ground states can be readily tuned to modulate electrical, optical, and ferroelectrical properties. Aromatic-aromatic and charge transfer interactions have been the leading driving forces in assisting the self-assembly of ADA stacks. Various folding structures containing ADA stacks were assembled in solution with the aid of solvophobic or ion-binding interactions. Meanwhile, examples of solid ADA stacks, which are more appealing for practical use in devices, were obtained from cocrystalization of binary components or mesophase assembly of liquid crystals in bulk blends. Regardless of these examples, faster and more controllable approaches towards precise supramolecular order in the solid state are still highly desirable.

  11. Human-centred methods in the design of an e-health solution for patients undergoing weight loss treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Anita; Svanæs, Dag

    2013-01-01

    assessment through a series of participatory design workshops, and system evaluation through a workshop and a number of usability tests before system implementation. Results By using an iterative design approach and by involving patients and healthcare professionals throughout the process, letting them hold...... treatment. Our objective is to describe and report on the design process and suggest implications for human-centred design of such systems. Methods Human-centred design methods were assessed as part of the design process. The process involved a field study to gain domain knowledge, followed by needs...... in the design process. Our findings imply that involving stakeholders separately during specific human-centred activities is important in order to capture subtle, but critical aspects of the users’ requirements. Conclusion Applying human-centred methods in the design of e-health solutions requires...

  12. Removal of thorium(IV) from aqueous solution by biosorption onto modified powdered waste sludge. Experimental design approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yunus Pamukoglu, M.; Mustafa Senyurt; Bulent Kirkan

    2017-01-01

    The biosorption of radioactive Th(IV) ions in the aqueous solutions onto the modified powdered waste sludge (MPWS) has been examined. In this context, the parameters affecting biosorption of Th(IV) from aqueous solutions has been examined by using MPWS biosorbent in Box Behnken statistical experimental design. The structure of MPWS biosorbent was characterized by using SEM and BET techniques. According to the experimental design results, MPWS and Th(IV) concentrations should be kept high to achieve the maximum efficiency in Th(IV) biosorption. On the other hand, MPWS, which is also used as a biosorbent, is an economical, effective and natural biosorbent. (author)

  13. Telemonitoring after discharge from hospital with heart failure: cost-effectiveness modelling of alternative service designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thokala, Praveen; Baalbaki, Hassan; Brennan, Alan; Pandor, Abdullah; Stevens, John W; Gomersall, Tim; Wang, Jenny; Bakhai, Ameet; Al-Mohammad, Abdallah; Cleland, John; Cowie, Martin R; Wong, Ruth

    2013-09-18

    To estimate the cost-effectiveness of remote monitoring strategies versus usual care for adults recently discharged after a heart failure (HF) exacerbation. Decision analysis modelling of cost-effectiveness using secondary data sources. Acute hospitals in the UK. Patients recently discharged (within 28 days) after a HF exacerbation. Structured telephone support (STS) via human to machine (STS HM) interface, (2) STS via human to human (STS HH) contact and (3) home telemonitoring (TM), compared with (4) usual care. The incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained by each strategy compared to the next most effective alternative and the probability of each strategy being cost-effective at varying willingness to pay per QALY gained. TM was the most cost-effective strategy in the scenario using these base case costs. Compared with usual care, TM had an estimated incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) of £11 873/QALY, whereas STS HH had an ICER of £228 035/QALY against TM. STS HM was dominated by usual care. Threshold analysis suggested that the monthly cost of TM has to be higher than £390 to have an ICER greater than £20 000/QALY against STS HH. Scenario analyses performed using higher costs of usual care, higher costs of STS HH and lower costs of TM do not substantially change the conclusions. Cost-effectiveness analyses suggest that TM was an optimal strategy in most scenarios, but there is considerable uncertainty in relation to clear descriptions of the interventions and robust estimation of costs.

  14. Testing alternative designs for a roadside animal detection system using a driving simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly K. Grace

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A Roadside Animal Detection System (RADS was installed in January 2012 along Highway 41 through Big Cypress National Preserve in Florida, USA in an attempt to reduce wildlife-vehicle collisions. The system uses flashing warning signs to alert drivers when a large animal is near the road. However, we suspected that the RADS warning signs could be ignored by drivers because they resemble other conventional signs. We hypothesized that word-based warning signs (current design are less effective than picture-based signs at catching drivers’ attention. Methods: We used a driving simulator to test (1 the effects of the RADS on collision rate, driver speed, and latency to brake; and (2 whether the RADS would be more effective if warning signs were picture-based. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three treatments: no warning (control, word-based RADS signs (current design, and picture-based RADS signs (proposed design. During the simulations, a deer entered the road in front of the driver, and we recorded whether drivers “crashed” or not. Results: Both the picture-based and word-based RADS signs resulted in significantly lower crash probabilities. The picture-based RADS signs performed better than the word-based signs in reducing speed and latency to brake, although the effect varied between twilight and night. However, the word-based RADS signs still did produce significant reductions in speed and braking latency. Conclusions: We conclude that the word-based RADS in Big Cypress should help prevent dangerous wildlife-vehicle collisions, but that redesigning the warning signs to be picture-based could yield even greater benefits.

  15. Environmental and economic benefits resulting from citizens' participation in CO2 emissions trading: An efficient alternative solution to the voluntary compensation of CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousse, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    Over the last few months in the emerging and lucrative carbon project market, a growing number of organizations have proposed to offset citizens' greenhouse gas emissions. The target of these carbon-offset initiatives is to satisfy the increasing demand of individuals wishing to take part in the fight against climate change. In this paper, we review and criticize these carbon-offsetting programs in general terms. We then propose an alternative that, in our opinion, should prove to be a better solution for citizens who are willing to pay for protecting the environment. This alternative is to organize citizens' participation in carbon emissions trading on a large scale in order to purchase and retire (destroy) CO 2 permits. To do so, a benevolent Regulator or non-governmental organization must correct certain CO 2 emissions market failures; this particularly concerns the high transaction costs, which represent an entry barrier and prevent citizens from purchasing and withholding permits. Based on theoretical findings, we demonstrate that implementing citizens' participation in emissions trading is an economically efficient and a morally preferable option

  16. Interplanetary Trajectory Design for the Asteroid Robotic Redirect Mission Alternate Approach Trade Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Raymond Gabriel; Qu, Min; Vavrina, Matthew A.; Englander, Jacob A.; Jones, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents mission performance analysis methods and results for the Asteroid Robotic Redirect Mission (ARRM) option to capture a free standing boulder on the surface of a 100 m or larger NEA. It details the optimization and design of heliocentric low-thrust trajectories to asteroid targets for the ARRM solar electric propulsion spacecraft. Extensive searches were conducted to determine asteroid targets with large pick-up mass potential and potential observation opportunities. Interplanetary trajectory approximations were developed in method based tools for Itokawa, Bennu, 1999 JU3, and 2008 EV5 and were validated by end-to-end integrated trajectories.

  17. COMPARING PUMA ROBOT ARM WITH THE HUMAN ARM MOVEMENTS; AN ALTERNATIVE ROBOTIC ARM SHOULDER DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa BOZDEMİR

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Using the robotic arms instead of human power becomes increasingly widespread nowadays. Widening of the robotic arms usage field is parallel to improvement of movement capability of it. In this study PUMA Robotic Arm System that is a developed system of the robotic arms was compared with a human arm due to movement. A new joint was added to PUMA Robotic Arm System to have the movements similar to the human shoulder joint. Thus, a shoulder was designed that can make movements through the sides in addition to fore and back movement.

  18. COMPARING PUMA ROBOT ARM WITH THE HUMAN ARM MOVEMENTS; AN ALTERNATIVE ROBOTIC ARM SHOULDER DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    BOZDEMİR, Mustafa; ADIGÜZEL, Esat

    1999-01-01

    Using the robotic arms instead of human power becomes increasingly widespread nowadays. Widening of the robotic arms usage field is parallel to improvement of movement capability of it. In this study PUMA Robotic Arm System that is a developed system of the robotic arms was compared with a human arm due to movement. A new joint was added to PUMA Robotic Arm System to have the movements similar to the human shoulder joint. Thus, a shoulder was designed that can make movements through the sides...

  19. A MINE alternative to D-optimal designs for the linear model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda M Bouffier

    Full Text Available Doing large-scale genomics experiments can be expensive, and so experimenters want to get the most information out of each experiment. To this end the Maximally Informative Next Experiment (MINE criterion for experimental design was developed. Here we explore this idea in a simplified context, the linear model. Four variations of the MINE method for the linear model were created: MINE-like, MINE, MINE with random orthonormal basis, and MINE with random rotation. Each method varies in how it maximizes the MINE criterion. Theorem 1 establishes sufficient conditions for the maximization of the MINE criterion under the linear model. Theorem 2 establishes when the MINE criterion is equivalent to the classic design criterion of D-optimality. By simulation under the linear model, we establish that the MINE with random orthonormal basis and MINE with random rotation are faster to discover the true linear relation with p regression coefficients and n observations when p>>n. We also establish in simulations with n<100, p=1000, σ=0.01 and 1000 replicates that these two variations of MINE also display a lower false positive rate than the MINE-like method and additionally, for a majority of the experiments, for the MINE method.

  20. An Efficient Method to Design Premature End-of-Life Trajectories: A Hypothetical Alternate Fate for Cassini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero, Mar; Senent, Juan

    2015-01-01

    What would happen if, hypothetically, the highly successful Cassini mission were to end prematurely due to lack of propellant or sudden subsystem failure? A solid plan to quickly produce a solution for any given scenario, regardless of where the spacecraft is along its reference path, must be in place to safely dispose of the spacecraft and meet all planetary protection requirements. As a contingency plan for this hypothetical situation, a method to design viable high-fidelity terminating trajectories based on a hybrid approach that exploits two-body and three-body flyby transfers combined with a numerical optimization scheme is detailed in this paper.

  1. A review of techniques to determine alternative selection in design for remanufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, A. Z. Mohamed; Fauadi, M. H. F. Md; Jafar, F. A.; Mohamad, N. R.; Yunos, A. S. Mohd

    2017-10-01

    This paper discusses the techniques used for optimization in manufacturing system. Although problem domain is focused on sustainable manufacturing, techniques used to optimize general manufacturing system were also discussed. Important aspects of Design for Remanufacturing (DFReM) considered include indexes, weighted average, grey decision making and Fuzzy TOPSIS. The limitation of existing techniques are most of them is highly based on decision maker’s perspective. Different experts may have different understanding and eventually scale it differently. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to determine available techniques and identify the lacking feature in it. Once all the techniques have been reviewed, a decision will be made by create another technique which should counter the lacking of discussed techniques. In this paper, shows that the hybrid computation of Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is suitable and fill the gap of all discussed technique.

  2. Life cycle assessment of a power tower concentrating solar plant and the impacts of key design alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Michael B; Heath, Garvin A; Burkhardt, John J; Turchi, Craig S

    2013-06-04

    A hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) is used to evaluate four sustainability metrics over the life cycle of a power tower concentrating solar power (CSP) facility: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water consumption, cumulative energy demand (CED), and energy payback time (EPBT). The reference design is for a dry-cooled, 106 MW(net) power tower facility located near Tucson, AZ that uses a mixture of mined nitrate salts as the heat transfer fluid and storage medium, a two-tank thermal energy storage system designed for six hours of full load-equivalent storage, and receives auxiliary power from the local electric grid. A thermocline-based storage system, synthetically derived salts, and natural gas auxiliary power are evaluated as design alternatives. Over its life cycle, the reference plant is estimated to have GHG emissions of 37 g CO2eq/kWh, consume 1.4 L/kWh of water and 0.49 MJ/kWh of energy, and have an EPBT of 15 months. Using synthetic salts is estimated to increase GHG emissions by 12%, CED by 7%, and water consumption by 4% compared to mined salts. Natural gas auxiliary power results in greater than 10% decreases in GHG emissions, water consumption, and CED. The thermocline design is most advantageous when coupled with the use of synthetic salts.

  3. Design and Construction of Experiment for Direct Electron Irradiation of Uranyl Sulfate Solution: Bubble Formation and Thermal Hydraulics Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chemerisov, Sergey [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gromov, Roman [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Makarashvili, Vakho [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Heltemes, Thad [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sun, Zaijing [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wardle, Kent E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bailey, James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Quigley, Kevin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Stepinski, Dominique [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vandegrift, George [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Argonne is assisting SHINE Medical Technologies in developing SHINE, a system for producing fission-product 99Mo using a D/T-accelerator to produce fission in a non-critical target solution of aqueous uranyl sulfate. We have developed an experimental setup for studying thermal-hydraulics and bubble formation in the uranyl sulfate solution to simulate conditions expected in the SHINE target solution during irradiation. A direct electron beam from the linac accelerator will be used to irradiate a 20 L solution (sector of the solution vessel). Because the solution will undergo radiolytic decomposition, we will be able to study bubble formation and dynamics and effects of convection and temperature on bubble behavior. These experiments will serve as a verification/ validation tool for the thermal-hydraulic model. Utilization of the direct electron beam for irradiation allows homogeneous heating of a large solution volume and simplifies observation of the bubble dynamics simultaneously with thermal-hydraulic data collection, which will complement data collected during operation of the miniSHINE experiment. Irradiation will be conducted using a 30-40 MeV electron beam from the high-power linac accelerator. The total electron-beam power will be 20 kW, which will yield a power density on the order of 1 kW/L. The solution volume will be cooled on the front and back surfaces and central tube to mimic the geometry of the proposed SHINE solution vessel. Also, multiple thermocouples will be inserted into the solution vessel to map thermal profiles. The experimental design is now complete, and installation and testing are in progress.

  4. Alternative Evaluation Designs for Data-Centered Technology-Based Geoscience Education Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalles, D. R.

    2012-12-01

    This paper will present different strategies for how to evaluate contrasting K-12 geoscience classroom-based interventions with different goals, leveraging the first author's experiences as principal investigator of four NSF and NASA-funded geoscience education projects. Results will also be reported. Each project had its own distinctive features but all had in common the broad goal of bringing to high school classrooms uses of real place-based geospatial data to study the relationships of Earth system phenomena to climate change and sustainability. The first project's goal was to produce templates and exemplars for curriculum and assessment designs around studying contrasting geoscience topics with different data sets and forms of data representation. The project produced a near transfer performance assessment task in which students who studied climate trends in Phoenix turned their attention to climate in Chicago. The evaluation looked at the technical quality of the assessment instrument as measured by inter-rater reliability. It then analyzed the assessment results against student responses to the instructional tasks about Phoenix. The evaluation proved useful in pinpointing areas of student strength and weakness on different inquiry tasks, from simple map interpretation to analysis of contrasting claims about what the data indicate. The goal of the second project was to produce an exemplar curriculum unit that bridges Western science and traditional American Indian ecological knowledge for student learning and skill building about local environmental sustainability issues. The evaluation looked at the extent to which Western and traditional perspectives were incorporated into the design of the curriculum. The curriculum was not constructed with a separate assessment, yet evidence centered design was utilized to extrapolate from the exemplar unit templates for future instructional and assessment tasks around other places, other sustainability problems, and

  5. 77 FR 14587 - FY 2012 Discretionary Livability Funding Opportunity: Alternatives Analysis Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    ... alternatives designed to address a transportation problem in a corridor or subarea; (B) Sufficient information... public transportation alternatives designed to address a transportation problem in a corridor or subarea... technically sound analysis of alternatives that evaluate solutions to transportation problems and facilitate...

  6. THE EVALUATION SYSTEM OF DESIGN SOLUTIONS FOR RESIDENTIAL PROPERTY ON THE PRE-INVESTMENT STAGE THROUGH NEURAL NETWORK TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Kostsikava

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ever since the Soviet Union design solutions were evaluated according to different criteria and indicators. At the present stage of evaluation systems of design solutions stands systemengineering doctrine is allocated. It is complemented by the theory of efficiency and financial sustainability investment project in view of the general market concept. Also great attention is paid to the virtual object modeling. It is urgent to include the behavior prediction of an investment construction project model at each stage of its life cycle. The high cost of all phases of this life cycle makes it necessary to calculate the feasibility of the investment. Very urgent to do it as accurately as possible and before we start of design works on the stage of the investment plan evaluation. Belarus has legislated pre-investment stage of construction project development. To evaluate the design solution at this stage is necessary to develop an investment justification, a project management plan and a business plan. They will evaluate and will compare several options for future objects by the complex. This requires not only time, but considerable financial costs. In order to optimize the process to develop an evaluation system design solutions based on existing projects. It allows the customer (investor choose design solutions to build the object without developing of pre-design documentations for several options. This system it is advisable to try out the example of apartment house building with the assistance of the national fund of project documentation and objects-analogues data bank. The developed evaluation system of design solutions for residential real estate objects in the pre-investment stage is supposed to use the theory of neural networks and neyroprogramming. This system bases on the input parameters projects. The hidden layer neurons are trained to choose suitable projects of apartment houses with their classification. The projects will be classified

  7. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility: Documentation of impact analysis for design alternatives presented in the Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-05-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is proposing to construct and operate a new Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF). The proposed DWTF would replace the existing Hazardous Waste Management (HWM) facilities at LLNL. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) to assess the environmental consequences of the proposed DWTF and its alternatives. This report presents the assumptions, methodologies, and analyses used to estimate the waste flows, air emissions, ambient air quality impacts, and public health risks that are presented in the DEIS. Two DWTF design alternatives (Level I and Level II) have been designated as reasonable design alternatives considering available technologies, environmental regulations, and current and future LLNL waste generation. Both design alternatives would include new, separate radioactive and nonradioactive liquid waste treatment systems, a solidification unit, a new decontamination facility, storage and treatment facilities for reactive materials, a radioactive waste storage area, receiving and classification areas, and a uranium burn pan. The Level I design alternative would include a controlled-air incinerator system, while the Level II design alternative would include a rotary kiln incinerator system. 43 refs., 4 figs., 24 tabs

  8. Alternative solutions for electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuenstle, K.

    1976-01-01

    Ten illustrations - mainly comparitive ones - dealing with the possibilities of an economical energy conversion, in particular electricity generation, in the FRG are explained and commented upon. (UA) [de

  9. Study of the liquid-film-forming apparatus as an alternative aeration system: design criteria and operating condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongprasith, Narapong; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Painmanakul, Pisut

    2017-06-01

    Aeration is an important factor in aquaculture systems because it is a vital condition for all organisms that live in water and respire aerobically. Generally, mechanical surface aerators are widely used in Thailand due to their advantage for increasing dissolved oxygen (DO) and for their horizontal mixing of aquaculture ponds with large surface areas. However, these systems still have some drawbacks, primarily the low oxygen transfer efficiency (OTE) and energy. Regarding this issue, alternative aeration systems should be studied and applied. Therefore, this research aims to study the aeration mechanism obtained by the diffused-air aeration combined with a liquid-film-forming apparatus (LFFA). The effect of gas flow rates, types, and patterns of aerator installation were investigated in an aquaculture pond of 10 m × 10 m × 1.5 m. The analytical parameters were volumetric mass transfer coefficient (k L a), OTE, and aeration efficiency (AE). From the results, the '4-D' with partitions was proposed as the suitable pattern for the LFFA installation. The advantage could be obtained from high energy performance with 1.2 kg/kW h of AE. Then, the operation conditions can be applied as a design guideline for this alternative aeration system in the aquaculture ponds.

  10. Design Mode Analysis of Pareto Solution Set for Decision-Making Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Hiwa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Decision making in engineering design problems is challenging because they have multiple and conflicting criteria and complex correlation between design parameters. This study proposes a decision-making support methodology named design mode analysis, which consists of data clustering and principal component analysis (PCA. A design mode is indicated by the eigenvector obtained by PCA and reveals the dominant design parameters in a given dataset. The proposed method is a general framework to obtain the design modes from high-dimensional and large datasets. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified on the conceptual design problem of the hybrid rocket engine.

  11. Solution design for low-fluorine trifluoroacetate route to YBa2Cu3O7 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, X.; Pop, C.; Eloussifi, H.; Villarejo, B.; Roura, P.; Farjas, J.; Calleja, A.; Palau, A.; Obradors, X.; Puig, T.; Ricart, S.

    2016-02-01

    We present our work in the preparation of metallorganic precursor solutions with reduced fluorine content, able to fulfil the requirements for high-performance superconducting YBCO epitaxial layers as a promising approach to low cost and scalable coated conductors. Six different solutions using different quantities of fluorine and non-fluorine carboxylate precursors with a total amount of fluorine from 10 to 50% that of standard trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) solutions. For stabilization purposes different coordinating agents have been used and the solution rheology has been modified for proper substrate wettability. Thermal decomposition analysis and infrared spectroscopy performed directly in films, have revealed that the decomposition takes place in two consecutive stages around 265 and 310 °C respectively, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis could unveil the chemical reactions taking place in the solution. Using the solutions with 20% fluorine and upon optimization of the growth process parameters, YBCO layers with T c and J c(77 K) of 90 K and 4 MA cm-2 are obtained.

  12. Hanson Russian River Ponds floodplain restoration: Feasibility study and conceptual design; Appendix G: Physical evaluation of the restoration alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Richard R.; Nelson, Jonathan M.

    2016-01-01

    Appendix G: Hanson Russian River Ponds Floodplain Restoration: Feasibility Study and Conceptual Design |G-1Appendix GPhysical Evaluation of the Restoration AlternativesRichard McDonald and Jonathan Nelson, PhDU.S. Geological Survey Geomorphology and Sediment Transport Laboratory, Golden, ColoradoIntroductionTo assess the relative and overall impacts of the scenarios proposed in Chapters 7 and 9,(Stage I-A–I-D and Stage II-A –II-E), each of the topographic configurations were evaluated over a range of flows. Thisevaluation was carried out using computational flow modeling tools available in the iRIC public-domain river modeling interface (www.i-ric.org, Nelsonet al.in press). Using the iRIC modeling tools described in more detail below, basic hydraulic computations of water-surface elevation, velocity, shear stress, and other hydraulic variables were carried out for the alternatives in the reach surrounding the project area, from the confluence of Dry Creek upstream to the Wohler road bridge downstream, for the full range of observed flows. This methodology allows comparison of the current channel configuration with the proposed alternatives in terms of inundation period and frequency, depth, water velocity, and other hydraulic information. By integrating this kind of information over the reach of interest and the flow record, critical metrics assessing the impacts of various topographic modifications can be compared to those same metrics for the existing condition or other modification scenarios. In addition, because the iRIC tools include predictions of sediment mobility, suspension of fines, and the potential evolution of the land surface in response to flow, these methods provide evaluation of sediment transport, stability of current and proposed surfaces, and evaluation of how these surfaces might evolve into the future. This hydraulic and sediment transport information is critically important for understanding theimpacts of various proposed alternatives on

  13. Randomized Pilot Clinical Trial of Tofacitinib Solution for Plaque Psoriasis: Challenges of the Intra-Subject Study Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ports, William C; Feldman, Steven R; Gupta, Pankaj; Tan, Huaming; Johnson, Theodore R; Bissonnette, Robert

    2015-08-01

    Intra-subject, left-right, randomized, controlled study designs are often used for proof-of-concept studies in dermatology. This design was used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a topical solution of tofacitinib (NCT00678561), a small-molecule Janus kinase inhibitor under investigation for the topical and oral treatment of patients with chronic plaque psoriasis. Eighty-one patients, each with matched left and right target plaques, were randomized to 2%, 0.2%, or 0.02% tofacitinib or vehicle solution once or twice daily. Patients treated one plaque as per their randomization group (2%, 0.2%, 0.02% tofacitinib, or vehicle solution), and used vehicle to treat the contralateral plaque for 4 weeks. Except during clinic visits, study drug applications were performed unsupervised outside the clinical trial site. Intra-subject, vehicle-adjusted mean percent change from baseline in Target Plaque Severity Score at week 4 (primary efficacy endpoint) was not significantly different from baseline for any treatment group (P values of 0.28-0.68). However, skin biopsy analyses detected tofacitinib in both tofacitinib- and vehicle-treated plaques of some patients, suggesting cross-contamination or solution misapplication. Lack of efficacy with tofacitinib relative to vehicle may be due to the intra-subject study design with unsupervised applications. These findings have potential implications for future intra-subject studies of topical treatments.

  14. Design requirements for uranium ion exchange from acidic solutions in a fluidized system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traut, D.E.; Nichols, I.L.; Seidel, D.C.

    1974-01-01

    A fluidized, countercurrent ion-exchange system was developed, operated, and evaluated by the Bureau of Mines in support of its objective to help assure an adequate uranium supply for future national needs. The system consisted of integrated multiple-compartment absorption and elution columns in which the solution flows are continuous, except for short periods when resin increments are withdrawn. The exchange of uranyl sulfate between a simulated acid-leach-uranium solution and a strong-base, ion-exchange resin was studied, together with subsequent elution using an acidified sodium chloride solution. The effects of the number of compartments, compartment height, amount of resin withdrawal, solution flow rate, and column diameter were investigated. Also examined were the kinetic and equilibrium relationships for the absorption and elution steps. The experimental data indicate a strong interdependence between variables. Solution retention time appears to be a major limiting variable in the absorption process, while resin residence time is the determining factor in the elution process. The columns system was efficient over a range of conditions, but close control was needed for optimum operation

  15. Classical and Modern Design Solutions in Conceptual Design of a Pedestrian Bridge over Vistula River in Cracow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryż, Karol; Pańtak, Marek

    2017-10-01

    In the paper the design concept of the steel pedestrian bridge over Vistula river in Cracow, Poland has been characterised. The footbridge was designed as a truss structure with steel pipes, Warren truss configuration, arched bottom chord and spans 15.5+120.0+15.5 m. Intensive tourist traffic around the Wawel Castle in Cracow, directed towards the historic Kazimierz district, Wawel Hill and the Old Town Market Place requires the creation of a bridge structure over the Vistula River that will meet both the communication and recreation functions. An additional aim was to design a structure which architectural form will not unduly and negatively interfere in the environment and will join the technical capabilities of the XXI century with the charm of nearby historic buildings.

  16. Priorities in urban traffic problems and implications for the design of solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, Jacob Dirk; van Berkum, Eric C.; van Arem, Bart; ITS,

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of ICT in the traffic domain showed great potential, but the many opportunities this brings seems to have distracted engineers. To solve urban traffic problems, many potentially effective solutions have been developed, but deployment rates are low. The main reason seems to be that

  17. Dual-Frequency Alternating Current Designer Waveform for Reliable Voltammetric Determination of Electrode Kinetics Approaching the Reversible Limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiezhen; Bentley, Cameron L; Bond, Alan M; Zhang, Jie

    2016-02-16

    Alternating current (ac) voltammetry provides access to faster electrode kinetics than direct current (dc) methods. However, difficulties in ac and other methods arise when the heterogeneous electron-transfer rate constant (k(0)) approaches the reversible limit, because the voltammetric characteristics become insensitive to electrode kinetics. Thus, in this near-reversible regime, even small uncertainties associated with bulk concentration (C), diffusion coefficient (D), electrode area (A), and uncompensated resistance (Ru) can lead to significant systematic error in the determination of k(0). In this study, we have introduced a kinetically sensitive dual-frequency designer waveform into the Fourier-transformed large-amplitude alternating current (FTAC) voltammetric method that is made up of two sine waves having the same amplitude but with different frequencies (e.g., 37 and 615 Hz) superimposed onto a dc ramp to quantify the close-to-reversible Fc(0/+) process (Fc = ferrocene) in two nonhaloaluminate ionic liquids. The concept is that from a single experiment the lower-frequency data set, collected on a time scale where the target process is reversible, can be used as an internal reference to calibrate A, D, C, and Ru. These calibrated values are then used to calculate k(0) from analysis of the harmonics of the higher-frequency data set, where the target process is quasi-reversible. With this approach, k(0) values of 0.28 and 0.11 cm·s(-1) have been obtained at a 50 μm diameter platinum microdisk electrode for the close-to-diffusion-controlled Fc(0/+) process in two ionic liquids, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, respectively.

  18. Trends in Modelling, Simulation and Design of Water Hydraulic Systems – Motion Control and Open-Ended Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    2006-01-01

    is that the components operate with pure water from the tap without additives of any kind. Hence water hydraulics takes the benefit of pure water as fluid being environmentally friendly, easy to clean sanitary design, non-toxic, non-flammable, inexpensive, readily available and easily disposable. The low-pressure tap......, dedicated pumps and accessories running with sea-water as fluid are available. A unique solution is to use reverse osmosis to generate drinking water from sea-water, and furthermore for several off-shore applications. Furthermore, tap water hydraulic components of the Nessie® family and examples of measured......The paper presents and discusses a R&D-view on trends in development and best practise in modelling, simulation and design of both low-pressure and high-pressure tap water hydraulic components and systems for motion control as well as open-ended solutions various industrial applications. The focus...

  19. Bicycle-friendly infrastructure planning in Beijing and Copenhagen - between adapting design solutions and learning local planning cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Chunli; Carstensen, Trine Agervig; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Cities around the world are constructing bicycle infrastructure to increase cycling. However, identifying efficient design solutions and determining how bicycle infrastructure planning knowledge can be integrated into comprehensive policy remains a challenge. The objective of this paper...... is to shed light on the strengths and weaknesses of current bicycle infrastructure planning in both an experienced city, Copenhagen, and in a less experienced city, Beijing. The paper examines how local design solutions are identified, how efficient they are and to what extent bicycle infrastructure planning....... It employs the Dutch CROW principles to assess the efficiency of the bicycle infrastructure planning. The analysis of the role of the local planning culture is framed by the ‘culturized planning model’. The study finds that bicycle-friendly infrastructure planning could be strengthened in Beijing...

  20. Sampling design for groundwater solute transport: Tests of methods and analysis of Cape Cod tracer test data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopman, Debra S.; Voss, Clifford I.; Garabedian, Stephen P.

    1991-01-01

    Tests of a one-dimensional sampling design methodology on measurements of bromide concentration collected during the natural gradient tracer test conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, demonstrate its efficacy for field studies of solute transport in groundwater and the utility of one-dimensional analysis. The methodology was applied to design of sparse two-dimensional networks of fully screened wells typical of those often used in engineering practice. In one-dimensional analysis, designs consist of the downstream distances to rows of wells oriented perpendicular to the groundwater flow direction and the timing of sampling to be carried out on each row. The power of a sampling design is measured by its effectiveness in simultaneously meeting objectives of model discrimination, parameter estimation, and cost minimization. One-dimensional models of solute transport, differing in processes affecting the solute and assumptions about the structure of the flow field, were considered for description of tracer cloud migration. When fitting each model using nonlinear regression, additive and multiplicative error forms were allowed for the residuals which consist of both random and model errors. The one-dimensional single-layer model of a nonreactive solute with multiplicative error was judged to be the best of those tested. Results show the efficacy of the methodology in designing sparse but powerful sampling networks. Designs that sample five rows of wells at five or fewer times in any given row performed as well for model discrimination as the full set of samples taken up to eight times in a given row from as many as 89 rows. Also, designs for parameter estimation judged to be good by the methodology were as effective in reducing the variance of parameter estimates as arbitrary designs with many more samples. Results further showed that estimates of velocity and longitudinal dispersivity in one-dimensional models based on data from only five

  1. Catalysis for alternative energy generation

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Summarizes recent problems in using catalysts in alternative energy generation and proposes novel solutions  Reconsiders the role of catalysis in alternative energy generation  Contributors include catalysis and alternative energy experts from across the globe

  2. Modeling Design Iteration in Product Design and Development and Its Solution by a Novel Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Due to fierce market competition, how to improve product quality and reduce development cost determines the core competitiveness of enterprises. However, design iteration generally causes increases of product cost and delays of development time as well, so how to identify and model couplings among tasks in product design and development has become an important issue for enterprises to settle. In this paper, the shortcomings existing in WTM model are discussed and tearing approach as well as inner iteration method is used to complement the classic WTM model. In addition, the ABC algorithm is also introduced to find out the optimal decoupling schemes. In this paper, firstly, tearing approach and inner iteration method are analyzed for solving coupled sets. Secondly, a hybrid iteration model combining these two technologies is set up. Thirdly, a high-performance swarm intelligence algorithm, artificial bee colony, is adopted to realize problem-solving. Finally, an engineering design of a chemical processing system is given in order to verify its reasonability and effectiveness. PMID:25431584

  3. Letting the Learner Learn--Interface Design that Promotes Learning--Problems and Solutions at UPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiader, Lawrence; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Discussion of interactive, multimedia instructional material development and the development of computer-based training focuses on experiences at UPS (United Parcel Service). Topics include opening screen design; log-on screens; main menus; and lesson design, including color, sound, graphics and video, icons, and directions and instruction…

  4. A genetic algorithm solution to the design of slat-type shading system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsangrassoulis, A. [Architectural Department, School of Engineering, University of Thessaly, 38334 Volos (Greece); Bourdakis, V. [Department of Planning and Regional Development, School of Engineering, University of Thessaly, 38334 Volos (Greece); Geros, V.; Santamouris, M. [Group of Building Environmental Studies, University of Athens, Building Physics 5, 15784, Athens (Greece)

    2006-11-15

    This article presents a technique for the design of slat-type blinds based on the their relative light intensity distribution under a uniform light source. The technique offers a new approach using a genetic algorithm in order to evolve the design according to a set of parameters. (author)

  5. Design of attitude solution algorithm for tail-sitter VTOL UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghui LIU

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The tail-sitter Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL Unmanned Aerial Vehicle(UAV, flying in a fixed-wing model, overcomes many shortcomings of traditional fixed-wing UAVs, and inherits the advantage of high overall efficiency, which means it has great development potential and very broad application prospects. The attitude of tail-sitter VTOL UAV shows a wide change range in its takeoff and landing stages, and when the attitude sensor changes more than 90 degrees in pitch direction, the Euler angles converted by the Quaternions will have singular points, which means gimbal deadlock appears. From the solution algorithm, this paper provides a method of changing the order of rotation to avoid the appearance of singular points. The results show that this method can be well applied to the attitude solution of the VTOL UAV.

  6. DESIGN AND TECHNOLOGICAL SOLUTIONS FOR THE RESTORATION OF SEWERS USING ELEMENTS OF RECYCLED POLYMER COMPOSITE MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GONCHARENKO D. F.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. Currently sanitary drainage systems of large cities in Ukraine are significantly worn down with prolonged use and due to inefficient solutions for protection of the structures from aggressive effects of the environment, poor quality of materials and construction and installation works during building. Restoration of performance characteristics, reliability and durability of sewer tunnels is the costly and technically complex task, which is urgently needed to be fulfilled to prevent accidents including those with serious environmental impact. Modern work technique and the materials used for restoration allow us to solve these problems with different levels of efficiency, while reducing the cost of restoration due to use of recycled polymeric raw material, as well as to improvement of technological solutions is a currently important direction of research. Purpose of the article. To develop solutions for restoring serviceability, reliability and durability of sewer tunnels taking into account the accumulated experience in renovation of water disposal networks. Conclusion. Use of components made of recycled polymer composite materials during restoring sewer tunnels has significant economic and environmental effects and allows to undertake repair work in hard-to-reach areas.

  7. Design of Distributed Controllers Seeking Optimal Power Flow Solutions Under Communication Constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall' Anese, Emiliano; Simonetto, Andrea; Dhople, Sairaj

    2016-12-29

    This paper focuses on power distribution networks featuring inverter-interfaced distributed energy resources (DERs), and develops feedback controllers that drive the DER output powers to solutions of time-varying AC optimal power flow (OPF) problems. Control synthesis is grounded on primal-dual-type methods for regularized Lagrangian functions, as well as linear approximations of the AC power-flow equations. Convergence and OPF-solution-tracking capabilities are established while acknowledging: i) communication-packet losses, and ii) partial updates of control signals. The latter case is particularly relevant since it enables asynchronous operation of the controllers where DER setpoints are updated at a fast time scale based on local voltage measurements, and information on the network state is utilized if and when available, based on communication constraints. As an application, the paper considers distribution systems with high photovoltaic integration, and demonstrates that the proposed framework provides fast voltage-regulation capabilities, while enabling the near real-time pursuit of solutions of AC OPF problems.

  8. Design of Distributed Controllers Seeking Optimal Power Flow Solutions under Communication Constraints: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall' Anese, Emiliano; Simonetto, Andrea; Dhople, Sairaj

    2016-12-01

    This paper focuses on power distribution networks featuring inverter-interfaced distributed energy resources (DERs), and develops feedback controllers that drive the DER output powers to solutions of time-varying AC optimal power flow (OPF) problems. Control synthesis is grounded on primal-dual-type methods for regularized Lagrangian functions, as well as linear approximations of the AC power-flow equations. Convergence and OPF-solution-tracking capabilities are established while acknowledging: i) communication-packet losses, and ii) partial updates of control signals. The latter case is particularly relevant since it enables asynchronous operation of the controllers where DER setpoints are updated at a fast time scale based on local voltage measurements, and information on the network state is utilized if and when available, based on communication constraints. As an application, the paper considers distribution systems with high photovoltaic integration, and demonstrates that the proposed framework provides fast voltage-regulation capabilities, while enabling the near real-time pursuit of solutions of AC OPF problems.

  9. Evaluation of Visualization Using a 50/50 (Contrast Media/Glucose 5% Solution) Technique for Radioembolization as an Alternative to a Standard Sandwich Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paprottka, Karolin J; Todica, Andrei; Ilhan, Harun; Rübenthaler, Johannes; Schoeppe, Franziska; Michl, Marlies; Heinemann, Volker; Bartenstein, Peter; Reiser, Maximilian F; Paprottka, Philipp M

    2017-11-01

    Radioembolization (RE) with 90 yttrium ( 90 Y) resin microspheres generally employs a sandwich technique with separate sequential administration of contrast medium (CM), followed by vehicle (e.g., glucose 5% [G5] solution), then 90 Y resin microspheres (in G5), then G5, and then CM again to avoid contact of CM and microspheres under fluoroscopic guidance. This study evaluates the visualization quality and safety of a modified sandwich technique with a 50/50-mixture of CM (Imeron 300) and G5 for administration of 90 Y resin microspheres. A retrospective analysis of 81 RE procedures in patients with primary or secondary liver tumors was performed. The quality of angiographic visualization of the hepatic vessels was assessed before the first injection and immediately before the whole dose has been injected. Visualization and flow rate were graded on a 5-point scale: 1 = very good to 5 = not visible/no antegrade flow. Univariate logistic regression models and multiple linear regression models were used to evaluate the prognostic variables associated with visualization and flow scores. Visualization quality was inversely related to flow rate, the lower the flow rate the better the grade of the visualization. Visualization quality was also inversely related to body-mass-index (BMI). Performing RE with the 50/50-CM/G5 mixture resulted in a mean injection time for 1 GBq of 15 min. No clinically significant adverse events, including radiation-induced liver disease were reported. RE with a 50/50-mixture of CM and G5 for administration of 90 Y resin microspheres in a modified sandwich technique is a safe administration alternative and provides good visualization of hepatic vessels, which is inversely dependent on flow rate and BMI. Injection time was reduced compared with our experience with the standard sandwich technique.

  10. Electromagnetic Design and Losses Analysis of a High-Speed Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor with Toroidal Windings for Pulsed Alternator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Wan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The configuration of conventional high-speed Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (PMSMs is usually long and thin, with overlong axial end winding lengths, which is not suitable for those applications that place severe restrictions on the axial length, such as pulsed alternators. This paper first studied the key design aspects of a flat-structure high-speed PMSM. The toroidal-windings, low-conductivity material of the retaining sleeve, large airgap and segmentation of magnets were studied to reduce the axial length of the motor. The division of the stator and the employment of a non-magnetic outer stator were used to improve overall performance. Then the losses of the prototype were calculated and the factors having an influence on the losses were also investigated, after which, their effects on the total loss were evaluated. The total loss could be effectively reduced by the decrease of strand number of conductors and the division of stator, while only being slightly reduced by epoxy resin pole fillers. Metal-stack pole fillers have the same effect on the reduction of rotor loss as epoxy resin, while maintaining the good thermal-conductivity of metal. In addition, the influence of the carrier frequency of the inverter on the losses was analyzed, and it was found that high carrier frequency was helpful to reduce rotor losses. Finally, a small-scale prototype was manufactured and the experimental results were provided.

  11. Removal of xylenol orange from its aqueous solution using SDS self-microemulsifying systems: optimization by Box-Behnken statistical design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeel, Faiyaz; Haq, Nazrul; Alanazi, Fars K; Alsarra, Ibrahim A

    2014-04-01

    The aim of present study was to develop and evaluate sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) self-microemulsifying systems (SMES) for the removal of an anionic dye xylenol orange (XO) from its bulk aqueous media via liquid-liquid adsorption. The composition of SDS SMES was optimized by Box-Behnken statistical design for the maximum removal of XO from its aqueous solution. Various SDS formulations were prepared by spontaneous emulsification method and characterized for thermodynamic stability, self-microemulsification efficiency, droplet size, and viscosity. Adsorption studies were conducted at 8, 16, and 24 h by mixing small amounts of SDS formulations with relatively large amounts of bulk aqueous solution of XO. Droplet size and viscosity of SDS formulations were significantly influenced by oil phase concentration (triacetin), while surfactant concentration had little impact on droplet size and viscosity. However, the percentage of removal of XO was influenced by triacetin concentration, surfactant concentration, and adsorption time. Based on lowest droplet size (35.97 nm), lowest viscosity (29.62 cp), and highest percentage of removal efficiency (89.77 %), formulation F14, containing 2 % w/w of triacetin and 40 % w/w of surfactant mixture (20 % w/w of SDS and 20 % w/w of polyethylene glycol 400), was selected as an optimized formulation for the removal of XO from its bulk aqueous media after 16 h. These results indicated that SDS SMES could be suitable alternates of solid-liquid adsorption for the removal of toxic dyes such as XO from its aqueous solution through liquid-liquid adsorption.

  12. Organizational factors in design and implementation of technological and organizational solutions in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macchi, L.; Reiman, T.; Savioja, P.; Kahlbom, U.; Rollenhagen, C.

    2012-02-01

    Design is often found as one of the contributing factors in accident in the nuclear industry. The design of new technological systems and organisational structures has to take into account and be driven by the future users' needs and has to consider how their role and work practices within the organisation will be affected. The SADE project explores to which extend the concepts of safety culture and resilience engineering can contribute to the prevention of design errors when no hindsight data are available. In 2011, the SADE project focused on gathering experience and clarifying the current issues and challenges related to the design process. During 2011 seventeen interviews have been conducted in Finland and Sweden to identify some of the major challenges the nuclear industry is currently facing. At the same time a literature review has been conducted to establish a sound common theoretical ground. This progress report presents some of the relevant theoretical findings and preliminary results from the interviews. (Author)

  13. Design study of a 15 kW free-piston Stirling engine-linear alternator for dispersed solar electric power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dochat, G. R.; Chen, H. S.; Bhate, S.; Marusak, T.

    1979-01-01

    A conceptual design of a free piston solar Stirling engine-linear alternator which can be designed and developed to meet the requirements of a near-term solar test bed engine with minimum risks was developed. The conceptual design was calculated to have an overall system efficiency of 38% and provide 15kW electric output. The free piston engine design incorporates features such as gas bearings, close clearance seals, and gas springs. This design is hermetically sealed to provide long life, reliability, and maintenance free operation. An implementation assessment study performed indicates that the free piston solar Stirling engine-linear alternator can be manufactured at a reasonable price cost (direct labor plus material) of $2,500 per engine in production quantities of 25,000 units per year. Opportunity for significant reduction of cost was also identified.

  14. Solid solution trends that impact electrical design of submicron layers in dielectric capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Roni D.

    It is predictable that future thin layer multilayer dielectrics and thin films embedded capacitors will require higher field and higher reliability performance. This thesis explores the fundamental factors that would limit the high field and reliability performance in thin layer dielectrics based on BaTiO3. Those factors have different origins: On one side, the nature of the metal-dielectric interface was shown to affect the high field dielectric properties of capacitive structures. In addition to that, the intrinsic bulk properties of BaTiO3 based solid solutions affect the high field properties of thin dielectric layers depending on composition and annealing conditions. Both effects were investigated in this study. The temperature dependence of the electrical leakage current density of chemical solution deposited BaTiO3 films on high purity Ni foils was investigated as function of the underlying Ni microstructure. The electrical properties were then characterized on capacitors with and without the presence of Ni grain boundaries. When a Ni grain boundary from the substrate was present in the capacitor used during the electrical measurements, the loss tangent of the capacitor rose rapidly for dc biases exceeding ˜25kV/cm. The critical bias increases to ˜100kV/cm when no substrate grain boundaries are included in the capacitor. In addition, the capacitance-voltage curves are much more symmetric when grain boundaries are absent. This disparity in the electrical behavior was analyzed in terms of the mechanisms of charge conduction across the Ni-dielectric interface. While a reverse biased Schottky emission mechanism dominates the current in areas free of Ni grain boundaries, the Schottky barrier at the cathode is less effective when Ni grain boundaries are present due to local enhancement of the electric field. This, leads to a larger leakage current dominated by the forward biased Schottky barrier at the anode. In addition to the interface influence, the

  15. SOLUTION OF SIGNAL UNCERTAINTY PROBLEM AT ANALYTICAL DESIGN OF CONSECUTIVE COMPENSATOR IN PIEZO ACTUATOR CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Bystrov

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research.We present research results for the signal uncertainty problem that naturally arises for the developers of servomechanisms, including analytical design of serial compensators, delivering the required quality indexes for servomechanisms. Method. The problem was solved with the use of Besekerskiy engineering approach, formulated in 1958. This gave the possibility to reduce requirements for input signal composition of servomechanisms by using only two of their quantitative characteristics, such as maximum speed and acceleration. Information about input signal maximum speed and acceleration allows entering into consideration the equivalent harmonic input signal with calculated amplitude and frequency. In combination with requirements for maximum tracking error, the amplitude and frequency of the equivalent harmonic effects make it possible to estimate analytically the value of the amplitude characteristics of the system by error and then convert it to amplitude characteristic of open-loop system transfer function. While previously Besekerskiy approach was mainly used in relation to the apparatus of logarithmic characteristics, we use this approach for analytical synthesis of consecutive compensators. Main Results. Proposed technique is used to create analytical representation of "input–output" and "error–output" polynomial dynamic models of the designed system. In turn, the desired model of the designed system in the "error–output" form of analytical representation of transfer functions is the basis for the design of consecutive compensator, that delivers the desired placement of state matrix eigenvalues and, consequently, the necessary set of dynamic indexes for the designed system. The given procedure of consecutive compensator analytical design on the basis of Besekerskiy engineering approach under conditions of signal uncertainty is illustrated by an example. Practical Relevance. The obtained theoretical results are

  16. Social Innovation and New Industrial Contexts: Can Designers "Industrialize" Socially Responsible Solutions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Nicola

    2007-01-01

      Many years ago Viktor Papanek urgently called for a radical revision of the design profession based on an exploration of new territories outside the market oriented logic. For many years Papanek's call was ignored, but the urgency of those theme is re-emerging, together with the need to overcome...... Papanek's approach, in view of the changed context in which industrial companies are now operating. While industrial production is globalising, local needs are becoming more and more complex, generating demand patterns and opportunities that are often ignored in the mainstream market-oriented perspective...... framework for this paper. An investigation is proposed beyond the traditional links between design and industry, emphasising new insights into the changes in the social role of industrial production. Furthermore, the paper proposes a methodological exploration to help designers focus on new actors and new...

  17. Mechatronic futures challenges and solutions for mechatronic systems and their designers

    CERN Document Server

    Bradley, David

    2016-01-01

    Offering a comprehensive overview of the challenges, risks and options facing the future of mechatronics, this book provides insights into how these issues are currently assessed and managed. Building on the previously published book ‘Mechatronics in Action,’ it identifies and discusses the key issues likely to impact on future mechatronic systems. It supports mechatronics practitioners in identifying key areas in design, modeling and technology and places these in the wider context of concepts such as cyber-physical systems and the Internet of Things. For educators it considers the potential effects of developments in these areas on mechatronic course design, and ways of integrating these. Written by experts in the field, it explores topics including systems integration, design, modeling, privacy, ethics and future application domains. Highlighting novel innovation directions, it is intended for academics, engineers and students working in the field of mechatronics, particularly those developing new conc...

  18. 2-d and 1-d Nanomaterials Construction through Peptide Computational Design and Solution Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochan, Darrin

    Self-assembly of molecules is an attractive materials construction strategy due to its simplicity in application. By considering peptidic molecules in the bottom-up materials self-assembly design process, one can take advantage of inherently biomolecular attributes; intramolecular folding events, secondary structure, and electrostatic/H-bonding/hydrophobic interactions to define hierarchical material structure and consequent properties. Importantly, while biomimicry has been a successful strategy for the design of new peptide molecules for intermolecular assembly, computational tools have been developed to de novo design peptide molecules required for construction of pre-determined, desired nanostructures and materials. A new system comprised of coiled coil bundle motifs theoretically designed to assemble into designed, one and two-dimensional nanostructures will be introduced. The strategy provides the opportunity for arbitrary nanostructure formation, i.e. structures not observed in nature, with peptide molecules. Importantly, the desired nanostructure was chosen first while the peptides needed for coiled coil formation and subsequent nanomaterial formation were determined computationally. Different interbundle, two-dimensional nanostructures are stabilized by differences in amino acid composition exposed on the exterior of the coiled coil bundles. Computation was able to determine molecules required for different interbundle symmetries within two-dimensional sheets stabilized by subtle differences in amino acid composition of the inherent peptides. Finally, polymers were also created through covalent interactions between bundles that allowed formation of architectures spanning flexible network forming chains to ultra-stiff polymers, all with the same building block peptides. The success of the computational design strategy is manifested in the nanomaterial results as characterized by electron microscopy, scattering methods, and biophysical techniques. Support

  19. Co-design and implementation research: challenges and solutions for ethics committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodyear-Smith, Felicity; Jackson, Claire; Greenhalgh, Trisha

    2015-11-16

    Implementation science research, especially when using participatory and co-design approaches, raises unique challenges for research ethics committees. Such challenges may be poorly addressed by approval and governance mechanisms that were developed for more traditional research approaches such as randomised controlled trials. Implementation science commonly involves the partnership of researchers and stakeholders, attempting to understand and encourage uptake of completed or piloted research. A co-creation approach involves collaboration between researchers and end users from the onset, in question framing, research design and delivery, and influencing strategy, with implementation and broader dissemination strategies part of its design from gestation. A defining feature of co-creation is its emergent and adaptive nature, making detailed pre-specification of interventions and outcome measures impossible. This methodology sits oddly with ethics committee protocols that require precise pre-definition of interventions, mode of delivery, outcome measurements, and the role of study participants. But the strict (and, some would say, inflexible) requirements of ethics committees were developed for a purpose - to protect participants from harm and help ensure the rigour and transparency of studies. We propose some guiding principles to help square this circle. First, ethics committees should acknowledge and celebrate the diversity of research approaches, both formally (through training) and informally (by promoting debate and discussion); without active support, their members may not understand or value participatory designs. Second, ground rules should be established for co-design applications (e.g. how to judge when 'consultation' or 'engagement' becomes research) and communicated to committee members and stakeholders. Third, the benefits of power-sharing should be recognised and credit given to measures likely to support this important goal, especially in research with

  20. Application of Sensitivity Analysis in Design of Sustainable Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Brohus, Henrik; Hesselholt, Allan Tind

    2007-01-01

    satisfies the design requirements and objectives. In the design of sustainable Buildings it is beneficial to identify the most important design parameters in order to develop more efficiently alternative design solutions or reach optimized design solutions. A sensitivity analysis makes it possible...

  1. Sensitivity Analysis Applied in Design of Low Energy Office Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Brohus, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    satisfies the design requirements and objectives. In the design of sustainable Buildings it is beneficial to identify the most important design parameters in order to develop more efficiently alternative design solutions or reach optimized design solutions. A sensitivity analysis makes it possible...

  2. Development of a Virtual Reality Solution for End User Involvement in Interior Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svidt, Kjeld; Sørensen, Jesper Bendix

    2016-01-01

    , a prototype is developed based on a multitouch display for manipulating room layout in a floor plan view and a set of Oculus Rift glasses for experiencing the design in Virtual Reality. Together with users from the studied cases, test scenarios were performed to identify possible benefits, challenges......This paper describes development and test of a prototype Virtual Reality system aimed at user involvement in hospital design. User needs and functional requirements are captured by interviews and observations in three case studies of ongoing projects in Denmark. Based on the identified requirements...

  3. The air transportation hub-and-spoke design problem: comparison between a continuous and a discrete solution method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guina Sotomayor Alzamora

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The hub-and-spoke network design problem, also known as the hub location problem, aims to find the concentration points in a given network flow so that the sum of the distances of the linkages is minimized. In this work, we compare discrete solutions of this problem, given by the branch-and-cut method applied to the p-hub median model, with continuous solutions, given by the hyperbolic smoothing technique applied to a min-sum-min model. Computational experiments for particular instances of the Brazilian air transportation system, with the number of hubs varying from 2 to 8, are conducted with the support of a discretization heuristic and the Voronoi diagram.

  4. Towards appropriate design solutions for drug-resistant TB facilities in SA

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Parsons, SA

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has a high and increasing burden of both drugs-susceptible and drug-resistant tuberculosis. This disease has been declared an emergency in Africa. South Africa has committed itself to addressing this national crises by designing...

  5. Systematic network synthesis and design: Problem formulation, superstructure generation, data management and solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quaglia, Alberto; Gargalo, Carina L.; Chairakwongsa, Siwanat

    2015-01-01

    is still limited by the complexity associated with the mathematical formulation of some problems. In particular, the tasks of design space definition and representation as superstructure, as well as the data collection, validation and handling may become too complex and cumbersome to execute, especially...

  6. Participatory design of ehealth solutions for women from vulnerable populations with perinatal depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Mara; Henderson, Rebecca; Holmes, John H; Wolters, Maria K; Bennett, Ian M

    2016-01-01

    Cultural and health service obstacles affect the quality of pregnancy care that women from vulnerable populations receive. Using a participatory design approach, the Stress in Pregnancy: Improving Results with Interactive Technology group developed specifications for a suite of eHealth applications to improve the quality of perinatal mental health care. We established a longitudinal participatory design group consisting of low-income women with a history of antenatal depression, their prenatal providers, mental health specialists, an app developer, and researchers. The group met 20 times over 24 months. Applications were designed using rapid prototyping. Meetings were documented using field notes. The group achieved high levels of continuity and engagement. Three apps were developed by the group: an app to support high-risk women after discharge from hospital, a screening tool for depression, and a patient decision aid for supporting treatment choice. Longitudinal participatory design groups are a promising, highly feasible approach to developing technology for underserved populations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Grade 3 Learners' Representation of Their Solutions to a Design Problem through Drawing: A Semiotic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alant, Busisiwe P.; Sherwood, Marion P.

    2017-01-01

    Literature suggests that drawing has an important role in the development of learning and thinking skills and the communication of ideas. However, the role and use of drawing by young learners within the process of designing is poorly understood. Working with 22 Grade 3 learners from a well-resourced school in KwaZulu-Natal, this study sought to…

  8. Organizational factors in design and implementation of technological and organizational solutions in the nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macchi, L.; Reiman, T.; Savioja, P. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland)); Kahlbom, U. (Risk Pilot AB, Stockholm (Sweden)); Rollenhagen, C. (Vattenfall (Sweden))

    2012-03-15

    Design is often found as one of the contributing factors in accident in the nuclear industry. The design of new technological systems and organisational structures has to take into account and be driven by the future users' needs and has to consider how their role and work practices within the organisation will be affected. The SADE project explores to which extend the concepts of safety culture and resilience engineering can contribute to the prevention of design errors when no hindsight data are available. In 2011, the SADE project focused on gathering experience and clarifying the current issues and challenges related to the design process. During 2011 seventeen interviews have been conducted in Finland and Sweden to identify some of the major challenges the nuclear industry is currently facing. At the same time a literature review has been conducted to establish a sound common theoretical ground. This progress report presents some of the relevant theoretical findings and preliminary results from the interviews. (Author)

  9. A Design Based Research Framework for Implementing a Transnational Mobile and Blended Learning Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palalas, Agnieszka; Berezin, Nicole; Gunawardena, Charlotte; Kramer, Gretchen

    2015-01-01

    The article proposes a modified Design-Based Research (DBR) framework which accommodates the various socio-cultural factors that emerged in the longitudinal PA-HELP research study at Central University College (CUC) in Ghana, Africa. A transnational team of stakeholders from Ghana, Canada, and the USA collaborated on the development,…

  10. Interaction design challenges and solutions for ALMA operations monitoring and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietriga, Emmanuel; Cubaud, Pierre; Schwarz, Joseph; Primet, Romain; Schilling, Marcus; Barkats, Denis; Barrios, Emilio; Vila Vilaro, Baltasar

    2012-09-01

    The ALMA radio-telescope, currently under construction in northern Chile, is a very advanced instrument that presents numerous challenges. From a software perspective, one critical issue is the design of graphical user interfaces for operations monitoring and control that scale to the complexity of the system and to the massive amounts of data users are faced with. Early experience operating the telescope with only a few antennas has shown that conventional user interface technologies are not adequate in this context. They consume too much screen real-estate, require many unnecessary interactions to access relevant information, and fail to provide operators and astronomers with a clear mental map of the instrument. They increase extraneous cognitive load, impeding tasks that call for quick diagnosis and action. To address this challenge, the ALMA software division adopted a user-centered design approach. For the last two years, astronomers, operators, software engineers and human-computer interaction researchers have been involved in participatory design workshops, with the aim of designing better user interfaces based on state-of-the-art visualization techniques. This paper describes the process that led to the development of those interface components and to a proposal for the science and operations console setup: brainstorming sessions, rapid prototyping, joint implementation work involving software engineers and human-computer interaction researchers, feedback collection from a broader range of users, further iterations and testing.

  11. Design and Solution of a Surrogate Model for Portfolio Optimization Based on Project Ranking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fernandez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Characterizing the preferences of a decision maker in a multicriteria decision is a complex task that becomes even harder if the information available is limited. This paper addresses a particular case of project portfolio selection; in this case, the measures of project impacts are not assumed, and the available information is only projects’ ranking and costs. Usually, resource allocation follows the ranking priorities until they are depleted. This action leads to a feasible solution, but not necessarily to a good portfolio. In this paper, a good portfolio is found by solving a multiobjective problem. To effectively address such dimensionality, the decision maker’s preferences in the form of a fuzzy relational system are incorporated in an ant-colony algorithm. The Region of Interest is approached by solving a surrogate triobjective problem. The results show that the reduction of the dimensionality supports the decision maker in choosing the best portfolio.

  12. Creating CAD designs and performing their subsequent analysis using opensource solutions in Python

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakushkin, Oleg O.; Sedova, Olga S.

    2018-01-01

    The paper discusses the concept of a system that encapsulates the transition from geometry building to strength tests. The solution we propose views the engineer as a programmer who is capable of coding the procedure for working with the modeli.e., to outline the necessary transformations and create cases for boundary conditions. We propose a prototype of such system. In our work, we used: Python programming language to create the program; Jupyter framework to create a single workspace visualization; pythonOCC library to implement CAD; FeniCS library to implement FEM; GMSH and VTK utilities. The prototype is launched on a platform which is a dynamically expandable multi-tenant cloud service providing users with all computing resources on demand. However, the system may be deployed locally for prototyping or work that does not involve resource-intensive computing. To make it possible, we used containerization, isolating the system in a Docker container.

  13. Analysis and design of machine learning techniques evolutionary solutions for regression, prediction, and control problems

    CERN Document Server

    Stalph, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Manipulating or grasping objects seems like a trivial task for humans, as these are motor skills of everyday life. Nevertheless, motor skills are not easy to learn for humans and this is also an active research topic in robotics. However, most solutions are optimized for industrial applications and, thus, few are plausible explanations for human learning. The fundamental challenge, that motivates Patrick Stalph, originates from the cognitive science: How do humans learn their motor skills? The author makes a connection between robotics and cognitive sciences by analyzing motor skill learning using implementations that could be found in the human brain – at least to some extent. Therefore three suitable machine learning algorithms are selected – algorithms that are plausible from a cognitive viewpoint and feasible for the roboticist. The power and scalability of those algorithms is evaluated in theoretical simulations and more realistic scenarios with the iCub humanoid robot. Convincing results confirm the...

  14. The Design of Data-Structure-Neutral Libraries for the Iterative Solution of Sparse Linear Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry F. Smith

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years several proposals have been made for the standardization of sparse matrix storage formats in order to allow for the development of portable matrix libraries for the iterative solution of linear systems. We believe that this is the wrong approach. Rather than define one standard (or a small number of standards for matrix storage, the community should define an interface (i.e., the calling sequences for the functions that act on the data. In addition, we cannot ignore the interface to the vector operations because, in many applications, vectors may not be stored as consecutive elements in memory. With the acceptance of shared memory, distributed memory, and cluster memory parallel machines, the flexibility of the distribution of the elements of vectors is also extremely important. This issue is ignored in most proposed standards. In this article we demonstrate how such libraries may be written using data encapsulation techniques.

  15. Natural Ventilation of Buildings through Light Shafts. Design-Based Solution Proposals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ángel Padilla-Marcos, Miguel; Meiss, Alberto; Feijó-Muñoz, Jesús

    2017-10-01

    This work analyses how the built environment affects the quality of the air to be introduced into buildings from light shafts. Several factors such as urban environment and building design intervene in the ability of the light shaft to produce its air change process. Urban areas continuously pollute the air in cities which affects the human health and the environment sustainability. Poor air quality outside buildings supposes a big energy waste to promote an acceptable air quality inside buildings. That requires a large flow rate to maintain the indoor air quality which is translated to an energy efficiency term. The main objective focuses on the impact of standardized architecture design in the quality of the indoor air dependent on the air change in the light shaft. The air change capacity of the outdoor space is numbered analysed using the concept of air change efficiency (ACE). ACE is determined by the built environment, the wind conditions and the design of the building containing light shafts. This concept is comparatively evaluated inside a control domain virtually defined to obtain the mean age of the air for a known air volume. The longer the light shaft in the wind direction is, the better the ACE is compared with other options. Light shafts up to 12 metres high are the most suitable in order to obtain acceptable efficiency results. Other studied cases verify that assumption. Different simplified tools for the technicians to evaluate the design of buildings containing light shafts are proposed. Some strategies of architectural design of buildings with light shafts to be used for ventilation are presented.

  16. Neutralization of sulfuric acid solutions by calcite dissolution and the application to anoxic limestone drain design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huminicki, Danielle M.C.; Rimstidt, J. Donald

    2008-01-01

    Batch reactor (BR) experiments were conducted to measure the effect of hydrodynamics and gypsum coatings on calcite neutralization rates. A factorial array of BR experiments measured the H + concentration change by calcite dissolution over a pH range of 1.5-3.5 and Na 2 SO 4 concentrations of 0-1 M. The rate of H + concentration change with time was determined by numerical differentiation of H + concentration versus time. Regression modeling showed that for uncoated calcite, rates are only significantly affected by pH, r=-10 -2.32 a H + 0.76 . Whereas, for calcite coated with gypsum only time had a significant effect on calcite dissolution rates, r = -10 -1.96 t -0.53 . Because transport-limited dissolution rates for uncoated calcite are a function of the pH and Reynolds number, a model was developed to express the effects of these two variables on the rate of H + consumption for a solution with a Darcy velocity, q, through a porous medium with a particle radius, r p , such that r ' =1.08x10 -3 q 0.31 r p -0.69 m H + 0.87 . This equation was integrated via a numerical model to simulate the performance of an idealized anoxic limestone drain (ALD). This model predicts the pH and alkalinity change along the length of an ALD. The model shows that the efficiency of an ALD is greater when the Darcy velocity is low and the particle radius is small. In addition, the growth of gypsum coatings causes the rate of H + neutralization to decline as the square root of time as they form and block the H + transport to the calcite surface. Supersaturation with respect to gypsum, leading to coating formation, can be avoided by diluting the ALD feed solution or by replacing limestone with dolomite

  17. Closed-form solution to directly design frequency modulated waveforms for beampatterns

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Sajid

    2018-03-12

    The targets image performance depends on the transmit beampattern and power-spectral-density of the probing signal. To design such probing signals for multiple-input multiple output (MIMO) radar, conventional algorithms are iterative in nature, therefore high computational complexity restricts their use in real time applications. In this paper, to achieve the desired beampattern, a novel closed-form algorithm to design frequency-modulated (FM) waveforms for MIMO radar is proposed. The proposed algorithm has negligible computational complexity and yields unity peak-to-average power ratio constant envelope waveforms. Moreover, in contrast to the narrow band algorithms, it has almost flat main and side lobes. In the proposed algorithm, a relationship between the width of symmetric beampattern and the product of initial frequency and duration of the baseband FM waveforms is developed.

  18. Designing solution-processable air-stable liquid crystalline crosslinkable semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCulloch, I.; Bailey, C.; Genevicius, K.

    2006-01-01

    organic light emitting diode displays, low frequency radio frequency identification tag and other low performance electronics. Organic semiconductors that offer both electrical performance and stability with respect to storage and operation under ambient conditions are required. This work describes...... the development of reactive mesogen semiconductors, which form large crosslinked LC domains on polymerization within mesophases. These crosslinked domains offer mechanical stability and are inert to solvent exposure in further processing steps. Reactive mesogens containing conjugated aromatic cores, designed...

  19. The Development of Mini Portable Digester Designs for Domestic and Restaurant Solid Waste Processing to be Clean Biogas as Energy's Alternative to Replace LPG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansur, A; Janari dan, D; Setiawan, N

    2016-01-01

    Biofuel is developed as an alternative source of second generation energy that could be attained from organic waste. This research is purposed to create applicative and cheap Portable digester unit for society. The design concepts’ screening that was made under considerations of the experts is finally resumed. Design 1 with final weight score of 1, design 2 with final weight score of -1, design 3 with final weight score of 2, design 4 with final weight score 3, design 5 with final weight score of -1, design 6 with final weight score of 0. Accepted designs for further concept assessment are design 1, 2 and 6. The result of concept assessment applies weighting for the scoring. Design 1 resulting 2.67, design 2 results 2.15 while design 3 results 2.52. Design 1 is concluded as the design with biggest result, which is 2.67. Its specification is explained as follows: tank capacity of 60 liters, manual rotating crank pivot, tank's material is plastic with symbol 1, material of axle swivel arm is grey cast iron, 2 mm rotary blades with hole. The experiment 1 contained 23.78% methane and 13.65 carbon dioxide that resulted from content test. (paper)

  20. The Spectrum Analysis Solution (SAS) System: Theoretical Analysis, Hardware Design and Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Ram M; Pooler, Richard K; Martone, Anthony F; Gallagher, Kyle A; Sherbondy, Kelly D

    2018-02-22

    This paper describes a multichannel super-heterodyne signal analyzer, called the Spectrum Analysis Solution (SAS), which performs multi-purpose spectrum sensing to support spectrally adaptive and cognitive radar applications. The SAS operates from ultrahigh frequency (UHF) to the S-band and features a wideband channel with eight narrowband channels. The wideband channel acts as a monitoring channel that can be used to tune the instantaneous band of the narrowband channels to areas of interest in the spectrum. The data collected from the SAS has been utilized to develop spectrum sensing algorithms for the budding field of spectrum sharing (SS) radar. Bandwidth (BW), average total power, percent occupancy (PO), signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR), and power spectral entropy (PSE) have been examined as metrics for the characterization of the spectrum. These metrics are utilized to determine a contiguous optimal sub-band (OSB) for a SS radar transmission in a given spectrum for different modalities. Three OSB algorithms are presented and evaluated: the spectrum sensing multi objective (SS-MO), the spectrum sensing with brute force PSE (SS-BFE), and the spectrum sensing multi-objective with brute force PSE (SS-MO-BFE).

  1. Designing solutions for the retirement system – in search of balance between economy and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Romaniuk

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Social security system currently face a number of difficulties arising of changes in the demographic structure of societies, like the decrease in fertility, lengthening of life expectancy and unfavorable change in the proportion of the population receiving retirement benefits to the population in working age. In result social security systems are being subjects to transition aimed ad securing their financial stability, part of which is a tendency to rise the retirement age and eliminate all the incentives to prematurely exit the labor market. On the other hand, this process of transition, as observed in Poland, is being driven mainly by political processes and due to economic reasons, while lacking public health evidence. This rises a danger that in final result the financial savings will be illusory only, and that the final configuration of the system will be inconsistent with the actual social needs of the population and will not efficiently protect against the social risks. In the article we present arguments for using the Healthy Life Years indicator in analyzes relating to the performance of social security systems, so that its construction will reflect differences in health status of different professional groups and system’s solutions in terms of both risk protection and prevention might be adjusted to conditions characterizing these groups.

  2. Computational benefits using artificial intelligent methodologies for the solution of an environmental design problem: saltwater intrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Maria P; Nikolos, Ioannis K; Karatzas, George P

    2010-01-01

    Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) comprise a powerful tool to approximate the complicated behavior and response of physical systems allowing considerable reduction in computation time during time-consuming optimization runs. In this work, a Radial Basis Function Artificial Neural Network (RBFN) is combined with a Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm to solve a water resources management problem, using an optimization procedure. The objective of the optimization scheme is to cover the daily water demand on the coastal aquifer east of the city of Heraklion, Crete, without reducing the subsurface water quality due to seawater intrusion. The RBFN is utilized as an on-line surrogate model to approximate the behavior of the aquifer and to replace some of the costly evaluations of an accurate numerical simulation model which solves the subsurface water flow differential equations. The RBFN is used as a local approximation model in such a way as to maintain the robustness of the DE algorithm. The results of this procedure are compared to the corresponding results obtained by using the Simplex method and by using the DE procedure without the surrogate model. As it is demonstrated, the use of the surrogate model accelerates the convergence of the DE optimization procedure and additionally provides a better solution at the same number of exact evaluations, compared to the original DE algorithm.

  3. Design Solutions for the Treatment of DMSD in the ISS Water Recovery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jay; Carter, Donald; Kayatin, Matthew; Bowman, Elizabeth; Gentry, Greg; Muirhead, Brian; Gazda, Daniel; Wilson, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Dimethylsilanediol (DMSD) has been identified as a problematic organic on ISS. This contaminant was initially identified in the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) product water in 2010 by the Total Organic Carbon Analyzer (TOCA). DMSD is not a crew health hazard at the levels observed in the product water, but it may degrade the performance of the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) which uses the WPA product water for electrolysis and does impact the effective operation of the WPA catalytic reactor. To mitigate these impacts, early replacement of the Multifiltration Beds in the WPA is required. An investigation has determined that the decomposition of atmospheric polydimethylsiloxanes (PDMSs) is the primary source of DMSD in the condensate. PDMSs are prevalent on ISS from a variety of sources, including crew hygiene products, adhesives, caulks, lubricants, and various nonmetallics. These PDMSs also contribute to degradation of the CHX hydrophilic coating, rendering it hydrophobic and therefore affecting its ability to transmit water to the condensate bus. In addition, literature research has determined that PDMSs are likely oxidized to DMSD in the atmosphere when exposed to hydroxyl radicals in the ISS atmosphere. To address these mechanisms, filters have been developed for removal of PDMSs from the ISS atmosphere. However, ongoing analysis indicates a significant reduction in atmospheric PDMSs is required to achieve a measurable reduction of DMSD in the condensate. As a result, additional measures are being pursued to mitigate this issue. First, credible sources are being investigated to quantity to the extent possible the significant sources of PDMSs and identify sources that can be reasonably removed from ISS. Second, a Reverse Osmosis technology is being investigated as an alternate means for removing DMSD from the condensate. This paper summarizes the current status of the overall effort to mitigate DMSD in the US condensate.

  4. Generic Mathematical Programming Formulation and Solution for Computer-Aided Molecular Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lei; Cignitti, Stefano; Gani, Rafiqul

    2015-01-01

    This short communication presents a generic mathematical programming formulation for Computer-Aided Molecular Design (CAMD). A given CAMD problem, based on target properties, is formulated as a Mixed Integer Linear/Non-Linear Program (MILP/MINLP). The mathematical programming model presented here......, which is formulated as an MILP/MINLP problem, considers first-order and second-order molecular groups for molecular structure representation and property estimation. It is shown that various CAMD problems can be formulated and solved through this model....

  5. Cu-Containing Fe-Ni Corrosion-Resistant Alloys Designed by a Cluster-Based Stable Solid Solution Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baozeng; Wang, Qing; Wang, Yingmin; Li, Chunyan; Qiang, Jianbing; Ji, Chunjun; Dong, Chuang

    2012-02-01

    Copper is a good corrosion resisting element, but due to its immiscibility with Fe, it is only used as a minor-alloying element in stainless steels. In this work, we introduced a double-cluster structure model [CuNi12][NiFe12] m for stable solid solutions in Cu-containing Fe-Ni corrosion-resistant invar alloys. Our model takes into account all of the enthalpies between the element pairs by assuming Fe-Ni and Ni-Cu nearest neighbors and by avoiding Fe-Cu ones, so that the ideally stabilized structures are described by mixing two cuboctahedral clusters in the fcc lattice, NiFe12 and CuNi12. Two alloy series were designed by varying the relative proportions of the two clusters and the Cu contents. It was proved that the alloys with Cu contents below those prescribed by this model could easily be solutionized and water-quenched to a monolithic fcc solid solution, and resultant alloys possessed good corrosion-resisting properties in 3.5 wt pct NaCl solution.

  6. Clean air program : design guidelines for bus transit systems using electric and hybrid electric propulsion as an alternative fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-01

    The use of alternative fuels to power transit buses is steadily increasing. Several fuels, including : Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), and : Methanol/Ethanol, are already being used. At presen...

  7. Customer Relationship Management System in Occupational Safety & Health Companies: Research on Practice and Preliminary Design Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Fabac

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most prominent contemporary trends in formation of companies is the approach to development of a customer-oriented company. In this matter, various versions related to the intensity of this orientation are differentiated. Customer relationship management (CRM system is a well-known concept, and its practice is being studied and improved in connection to various sectors. Companies providing services of occupational safety and health (OHS mainly cooperate with a large number of customers and the quality of this cooperation largely affects the occupational safety and health of employees. Therefore, it is of both scientific and wider social interest to study and improve the relationship of these companies with their customers. This paper investigates the practice of applying CRM in Croatian OHS companies. It identifies the existing conditions and suggests possible improvements in the practice of CRM, based on experts’ assessments using analytic hierarchy process evaluation. Universal preliminary design was created as a framework concept for the formation of a typical customer-oriented OHS services company. Preliminary design includes a structural view, which provides more details through system diagrams, and an illustration of main cooperation processes of a company with its customer.

  8. THE SOLUTION OF THE ALGORITHM FOR SOLVING THE DIMENSIONAL CHAINS DURING THE DESIGNING COURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Marius CÎRŢÎNĂ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The methodology of solving the designing problems and calculus formulasdependent upon the way of showing the sourcing data and the required results of the calculus. Thegiven operative dimensional chain is made up of three primary constitutive elements, respectivelyof the closing element. When solving the designing problem the rated size of the determinativeelement shall be circled and checked up, without exceeding the limit values of the calculus of theclosing element, since they are its regulating values. As a result solving the size chain nthe ratedvalue of the constitutive element shall be found out. At such a rated value, the closing elementshall be made up within the regulating limits of the reserve on the lower, respectively upperlimits. If the reserve on the tolerance of the closing element ist else than zero, then the output ofthe actual values of the closing elements on the settled limits cannot be avoided. If the reserve onthe tolerance of the closing element ist equal withn zero, then the rounding off of the rateddetermined value of this chain could not be possible.

  9. Problems and solutions in high-rate multichannel hybrid photodiode design The CMS experience

    CERN Document Server

    Cushman, P B

    2002-01-01

    The unique conditions of the CMS experiment (4 T magnetic field, restricted access, high neutron radiation, and 25-ns bunch-crossings) necessitated the development of a new type of high-rate multichannel hybrid photodiode for the tile/fiber hadronic calorimeter. New complexities arose in the push toward high-rate operation, necessitating design changes in the diode structure and surface treatment. The product is now capable of high-rate operation with low crosstalk and leakage current. Lifetime studies of high-voltage behavior, total charge, and irradiation have shown that the tubes will survive the ten years of CMS running with only a few percent change in gain and manageable leakage current rise. (13 refs).

  10. The design of Smart Energy Systems for 100% renewable energy and transport solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Connolly, David

    2013-01-01

    , heating and transport sectors, and on using the flexibility in demands and various short term and longer term storage in the different sectors. Such a redesign also entails that the Smart Energy System is comprised of a number of smart grid infrastructures for different sectors in the energy system, i......In this paper we launch the design of Smart Energy Systems through the 100% renewable energy system analyses and research behind the CEESA research project. The transition from fossil fuels towards the integration of more and more renewable energy requires rethinking and redesign of the energy...... system. Traditionally a lot of focus internationally is put on the electricity sector to solve the integration puzzle focusing on electricity storage technologies e.g. batteries, hydrogen storage and on (electricity) smart grids. In Smart Energy Systems the focus is integration of the electricity...

  11. Designing Digital Solutions for Preserving Penan Sign Language: A Reflective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Zaman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oroo’ is a language of nomadic Penans in the rainforests of Borneo and the only way of asynchronous communication between nomadic groups in the forest journey. Like many other indigenous languages, the Oroo’ language is also facing imminent extinction. In this paper, we present the research process and reflections of a multidisciplinary community-based research project on digitalizing and preserving the Oroo’ sign language. As a methodology for project activities, we are employing Participatory Action Research in Software Development Methodology Augmentation (PRISMA. Preliminary results show a general interest in digital contents and a positive impact of the project activities. In this paper, we present scenario of a research project that is retooled to fit the need of communities, informing language revitalization efforts and assisting with the evolution of community-based research design.

  12. Fully Decoupled Compliant Parallel Mechanism: a New Solution for the Design of Multidimensional Accelerometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen GAO

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel multidimensional accelerometer is proposed based on fully decoupled compliant parallel mechanism. Three separated chains, which are served as the elastic body, are perpendicular to each other for sensing the kinetic information in different directions without decoupling process. As the crucial part of the whole sensor structure, the revolute and prismatic joints in three pairwise orthogonal branches of the parallel mechanism are manufactured with the alloy aluminium as flexure hinge-based compliant joints. The structure development is first introduced, followed by the comprehensive finite-element analysis including the strain of the sensitive legs, modal analysis for total deformation under different frequency, and the performance of harmonic response. Then, the shape optimization is conducted to reduce the unnecessary parts. Compliance optimization with particle swarm algorithm is implemented to redesign the dimension of the sensitive legs. The research supplies a new viewpoint for the mechanical design of physical sensor, especially acceleration sensor.

  13. Point-of-care solution for osteoporosis management design, fabrication, and validation of new technology

    CERN Document Server

    Khashayar, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses the important clinical problem of accurately diagnosing osteoporosis, and analyzes how Bone Turnover Markers (BTMs) can improve osteoporosis detection. In her research, the author integrated microfluidic technology with electrochemical sensing to embody a reaction/detection chamber to measure serum levels of different biomarkers, creating a microfluidic proteomic platform that can easily be translated into a biomarker diagnostic. The Osteokit System, a result of the integration of electrochemical system and microfluidic chips, is a unique design that offers the potential for greater sensitivity. The implementation, feasibility, and specificity of the Osteokit platform is demonstrated in this book, which is appropriate for researchers working on bone biology and mechanics, as well as clinicians.

  14. Artisanal fishing net float loss and a proposal for a float design solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Tarso Chaves

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Plastic floats from fishing nets are commonly found washed up on beaches in southern Brazil. They are usually broken and show signs of having been repaired. Characteristics of floats and interviews with fishermen suggest two main causes of float loss. First, collisions between active gear, bottom trawl nets for shrimp, and passive gear, drift nets for fish, destroy nets and release fragments of them, including floats. Second, the difficulty with which floats are inserted on the float rope of the nets when they are used near the surface. Floats are inserted to replace damaged or lost floats, or they may be removed if it is desired that the nets be used in deeper waters. Floats may thus be poorly fixed to the cables and lost. Here a new float design that offers greater safety in use and for the replacement of floats is described and tested.

  15. Designing local solutions for emptying pit latrines in low-income urban settlements (Malawi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipeta, W. C.; Holm, R. H.; Kamanula, J. F.; Mtonga, W. E.; de los Reyes, F. L.

    2017-08-01

    A lack of effective options in local technology poses challenges when onsite household sanitation facilities are eventually filled to capacity in unplanned settlement areas within Mzuzu City, located in northern Malawi. Vacuum trucks currently dominate the market but focus on emptying septic tanks in the more easily accessible planned settlement areas, rather than servicing the pit latrines common in unplanned settlement areas. As a result, households in the unplanned settlement areas within Mzuzu rely primarily on manual pit emptying (i.e., shoveling by hand) or digging a new pit latrine. These practices have associated health risks and are limited by space constraints. This research focused on filling the technological gap through the design, development, and testing of a pedal powered modified Gulper pump using locally available materials and fabrication. A modified pedal powered Gulper technology was developed and demonstrated to be capable of lifting fecal sludge from a depth of 1.5 m with a mean flow rate of 0.00058 m3/s. If the trash content was low, a typical pit latrine with a volume of 1-4 m3 could be emptied within 1-2 h. Based on the findings in our research Phase IV, the pedal powered Gulper modification is promising as a potential emptying technology for lined pit latrines in unplanned settlement areas. The success rate of the technology is about 17% (5 out 30 sampled lined pit latrines were successful) and reflects the difficulty in finding a single technology that can work well in all types of pit latrines with varying contents. We note that cost should not be the only design criteria and acknowledge the challenge of handling trash in pit latrines.

  16. Design and simulations of a spectral efficient optical code division multiple access scheme using alternated energy differentiation and single-user soft-decision demodulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Garba, Aminata

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to optical Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) network transmission scheme using alternated amplitude sequences and energy differentiation at the transmitters to allow concurrent and secure transmission of several signals. The proposed system uses error control encoding and soft-decision demodulation to reduce the multi-user interference at the receivers. The design of the proposed alternated amplitude sequences, the OCDMA energy modulators and the soft decision, single-user demodulators are also presented. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme allows achieving spectral efficiencies higher than several reported results for optical CDMA and much higher than the Gaussian CDMA capacity limit.

  17. New solutions for waste management centers of new Russian-type nuclear power plant designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buettner, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    There has been a change of mind with respect to waste management among power plant operators in Russia and planners of the new VVER reactor line. Solid waste no longer is to be stored on the site of the power plant; instead, a functioning direct method of treatment of the different categories of waste arising in operation is favored. Waste conditioning and reduced storage volumes are indispensable arguments in selling reactor technology to markets outside Russia. Reference often is made to the internationally discussed volume of 50 m 3 of waste per reactor unit and year, which is then defined as a target. NUKEM Technologies verified existing technical concepts and worked out proposals of improved waste management. One project proposal accepted by ASE (Atomstroyexport) was elaborated to the Technical Project (corresponding to Basic Design) status. Specific management of materials flows, the use of processes tailored to the waste stream, and adaptation of the throughputs of these plants to the waste arisings actually expected are able to reduce clearly both the volume of conditioned waste to be stored and the capital costs. (orig.)

  18. An Electronic Tongue Designed to Detect Ammonium Nitrate in Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Campos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available An electronic tongue has been developed to monitor the presence of ammonium nitrate in water. It is based on pulse voltammetry and consists of an array of eight working electrodes (Au; Pt; Rh; Ir; Cu; Co; Ag and Ni encapsulated in a stainless steel cylinder. In a first step the electrochemical response of the different electrodes was studied in the presence of ammonium nitrate in water in order to further design the wave form used in the voltammetric tongue. The response of the electronic tongue was then tested in the presence of a set of 15 common inorganic salts; i.e.; NH4NO3; MgSO4; NH4Cl; NaCl; Na2CO3; (NH42SO4; MgCl2; Na3PO4; K2SO4; K2CO3; CaCl2; NaH2PO4; KCl; NaNO3; K2HPO4. A PCA plot showed a fairly good discrimination between ammonium nitrate and the remaining salts studied. In addition Fuzzy Art map analyses determined that the best classification was obtained using the Pt; Co; Cu and Ni electrodes. Moreover; PLS regression allowed the creation of a model to correlate the voltammetric response of the electrodes with concentrations of ammonium nitrate in the presence of potential interferents such as ammonium chloride and sodium nitrate.

  19. Design solutions to interface flow problems: Text - List of symbols - References

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    All published proposals for the deep level burial of radioactive waste recognise that the access shafts, tunnels and boreholes must be sealed, and that the sealing of these openings plays an integral role in the overall isolation of the waste. Previous studies have identified the interface between the host ground formation and the various sealing materials as potential defects in the overall quality of the waste isolation. The significance of groundwater flow at and near the interface has been assessed for representative conditions in generic repository materials. A range of design options to minimise the significance of flow in the interface zone have been proposed, and the most practical of these options have been selected for quantitative analysis. It has been found that isolated high impermeability collars are of limited value unless a highly effective method of minimising ground disturbance during excavation can be developed. It has also been found that control of radionuclide migration by sorptive processes provides an attractive option. The effect of various geometrical arrangements of sorptive materials has been investigated. Consideration has also been given to the particular conditions in the near field, to the behaviour of weak plastic clay host formations and to the mechanical interaction between the backfill material and the host formation

  20. Design of future municipal wastewater treatment plants: A mathematical approach to manage complexity and identify optimal solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozkurt, Hande; Quaglia, Alberto; Gernaey, Krist

    The increasing number of alternative wastewater treatment (WWT) technologies and stricter effluent requirements imposed by regulations make the early stage decision making for WWTP layout design, which is currently based on expert decisions and previous experiences, much harder. This paper...... therefore proposes a new approach based on mathematical programming to manage the complexity of the problem and generate/identify novel and optimal WWTP layouts for municipal/domestic wastewater treatment. Towards this end, after developing a database consisting of primary, secondary and tertiary WWT...... solved to obtain the optimal WWT network and the optimal wastewater and sludge flow through the network. The tool is evaluated on a case study, which was chosen as the Benchmark Simulation Model no.1 (BSM1) and many retrofitting options for obtaining a cost-effective treatment were investigated...

  1. The passive system for reflooding of the VVER reactor core from the second-stage hydro-accumulators: design and basic design solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandr D Efanov; Sergey G Kalyakin; Andrey V Morozov; Oleg V Remizov; Vladimir M Berkovich; Victor N Krushelnitskiy; Vladimir G Peresadko; Yuri G Dragunov; Alexey K Podshibyakin; Sergey I Zaitcev

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The fundamental difference in the safety assurance of the operating NPPs and those under design implies that the safety in the existing NPPs is achieved by energy-dependent (active) systems and depends on the proficiency of attending personnel. To provide safety, the new NPP designs use the physical processes proceeding in the facility without power supply; and they are unaffected by human errors. As to the safety level, the design of the new generation nuclear power plant NPP-92 relates to the class of the improved NPPs; and it applies a principle of diversity in the structure of systems responsible for critical safety functions. In accordance with the above-mentioned safety concept, the design development required a complex of experimental investigations and numerical modeling to be conducted. Among the passive safety systems of the NPP with RP-392 is the system of the second stage hydro-accumulators (GE-2). The system of the second-stage hydro-accumulators consists of four groups of hydro-accumulating tanks with a total coolant volume of 960 m 3 . The system is intended for the core flooding with coolant during 24 hours. In each group of the hydro-accumulators, the graded coolant flowrate is provided, which depends on residual heat in the reactor. The special check valves are tuned to open at the pressure drop in the circuit below 1.5 MPa. The paper presents the thermalhydraulic substantiation of the serviceability of the second-stage hydro-accumulators system for passive heat removal from the VVER reactor core and the basic design solutions on the GE-2 system. (authors)

  2. Integrating Telemedicine Solutions with Electronic Health Records; Evaluation of Alternatives based on the Proposed Reference Architecture for Norway. Report 02-2016

    OpenAIRE

    Siqveland, E.; Kilen, E.; Ludvigsen, A.; Henriksen, B; Brossamain, T.; Gudlaugsson, G.; Teodorsen, A.; Fensli, R.

    2016-01-01

    This report studies the way forward for how a telemedicine solution can be integrated for exchange of data with an existing Electronic Health Record (EHR) system. The solution used an example for this report is based on a telemedicine solution for COPD patients (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) developed in the project “Collaborative Point-of-Care Services Agder: Follow-up of COPD patients as part of the United4Health EU Project», with financial support from the Research Council of Norw...

  3. Cross-infrastructure learnings for alternative bridge system designs : a case study on the hybrid composite bridge system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-30

    The hybrid composite beam (HCB) technology has been presented as a system for short and medium span beam bridges as an alternative to traditional materials such as concrete and steel. A HCB consists of a concrete tied arch encased in a fiber-reinforc...

  4. Clean air program : design guidelines for bus transit systems using compressed natural gas as an alternative fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-06-01

    This report documents design guidelines for the safe use of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG). The report is designed to provide guidance, information on safe industry practices, applicable national codes and standards, and reference data that transit age...

  5. CIRCUIT-DESIGN SOLUTIONS AND INFORMATION SUPPORT OF CITY ELECTRIC NETWORKS IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE SMART GRID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Fursanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure, circuit-design solutions and information support of the city electric networks in the conditions of the SMART GRID have been analyzed. It is demonstrated that the new conditions of functioning of electric power engineering, increasing demands for its technological state and reliability in most countries determined the transition to a restructuring of electrical networks to be based on the SMART GRID (intelligent power networks innovative new structure. The definitions of the SMART GRID, its various attributes and characteristics in most developed countries including Belarus are presented. It is revealed that the existing and future circuit and constructive solutions that can automate the process of managing modes of urban electric networks under the SMART GRID conditions are manifold. At present, the most common in distribution networks are the sources of distributed generation (combustion turbines, wind turbines, photovoltaic installations, mini-hydro, etc.. The patterns and problems of information traceability of a traditional urban networks of the unified energy system of Belarus have been analyzed, and it is demonstrated that in the conditions of the SMART GRID most of the problems of the control mode that are characteristic for traditional distribution networks 6–10 kV and 0.38 kV, lose their relevance. Therefore, the present article presents and features the main directions of development of automatic control modes of the SMART GRID.

  6. Designing and Performing Biological Solution Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Contrast Variation Experiments on Multi-component Assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Solution small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) combined with contrast variation provides information about the size and shape of individual components of a multi-component biological assembly, as well as the spatial arrangements between the components. The large difference in the neutron scattering properties between hydrogen and deuterium is key to the method. Isotopic substitution of deuterium for some or all of the hydrogen in either the molecule or the solvent can greatly alter the scattering properties of the biological assembly, often with little or no change to its biochemical properties. Thus, SANS with contrast variation provides unique information not easily obtained using other experimental techniques.If used correctly, SANS with contrast variation is a powerful tool for determining the solution structure of multi-component biological assemblies. This chapter discusses the principles of SANS theory that are important for contrast variation, essential considerations for experiment design and execution, and the proper approach to data analysis and structure modeling. As sample quality is extremely important for a successful contrast variation experiment, sample issues that can affect the outcome of the experiment are discussed as well as procedures used to verify the sample quality. The described methodology is focused on two-component biological complexes. However, examples of its use for multi-component assemblies are also discussed.

  7. The increase of surface area of a Brazilian palygorskite clay activated with sulfuric acid solutions using a factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N. Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Palygorskite is fibrous clay in which the structural tetrahedral and octahedral layers are organized in a way that structural channels are formed, leading to high surface area. However, impurities inside the channels and aggregated ones considerably reduce the available area. In order to increase the surface area, an activation treatment can be considered useful. The goal of this work is the activation of palygorskite from Guadalupe, Piauí, via sulfuric acid treatment using a two-level factorial design. The influence of three parameters (solution molarity, temperature and time on BET surface area was determined. Moreover, samples were characterized via X-ray diffraction (XRD and fluorescence (XRF, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The largest surface area (282 m²/g without considerable changes in clay structure and morphology was found in a sample treated with 5M H2SO4 at 70°C for 1h. The main parameters that favored the improvement of the surface area were the solution's molarity, temperature and their interaction.

  8. Response surface modeling of boron adsorption from aqueous solution by vermiculite using different adsorption agents: Box-Behnken experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirçivi, Pelin; Saygılı, Gülhayat Nasün

    2017-07-01

    In this study, a different method was applied for boron removal by using vermiculite as the adsorbent. Vermiculite, which was used in the experiments, was not modified with adsorption agents before boron adsorption using a separate process. Hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HDTMA) and Gallic acid (GA) were used as adsorption agents for vermiculite by maintaining the solid/liquid ratio at 12.5 g/L. HDTMA/GA concentration, contact time, pH, initial boron concentration, inert electrolyte and temperature effects on boron adsorption were analyzed. A three-factor, three-level Box-Behnken design model combined with response surface method (RSM) was employed to examine and optimize process variables for boron adsorption from aqueous solution by vermiculite using HDTMA and GA. Solution pH (2-12), temperature (25-60 °C) and initial boron concentration (50-8,000 mg/L) were chosen as independent variables and coded x 1 , x 2 and x 3 at three levels (-1, 0 and 1). Analysis of variance was used to test the significance of variables and their interactions with 95% confidence limit (α = 0.05). According to the regression coefficients, a second-order empirical equation was evaluated between the adsorption capacity (q i ) and the coded variables tested (x i ). Optimum values of the variables were also evaluated for maximum boron adsorption by vermiculite-HDTMA (HDTMA-Verm) and vermiculite-GA (GA-Verm).

  9. Impact of Energetic Management on the Development of LEVS as an Mode Alternative Transport Solutions Mobility to Urban/Metropolitan; Impacto de la Gestion Energetica sobre el Desarrollo de los LEVS como Modo de Transporte Alternativo en las Soluciones de Movilidad Urbana/Metropolitana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes, M.

    2011-05-13

    This work presents the study of the impact of energy and social management on the development of pedal assisted electric bikes as an alternative mode of personal transport in displacement of workers within the workplace and between their homes from/to the work, with the purpose of finding new solutions to urban/metropolitan mobility. Given the multidisciplinary nature of the project, designing a methodology that has focused on the achievement of five tasks covers the basic parameters of continuous improvement strategies, apply them throughout the project in three phases each of them centered in a specific mobility scenario urban/metropolitan setting the necessary interactions between the factors: physical, sociological and technical: Phase 1 (Mobility located in a workplace), Phase 2 (mobility between home and workplace) and Phase 3 (Integration of mobility pedal assisted electric bicycle in the context of public transportation). In addition, we introduce what we think may be two new alternatives to current mobility solutions posed environments: the design of a system of BIPA on demand for the internal displacement of a workplace and the system of mobility BIPA for displacement between a massive public transport node and the workplace. (Author) 32 refs.

  10. Graphics Translators for Computer-Aided Drafting and Design: Interface Alternatives for the A/E Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-01

    7B. M. Smith and J. Wellington. 8C. Machover , "Status Report: Vendor Update," Presentation to the CAD/CAM Standards Conference on ICES and Alternatives...5/82, (2) telephone contact, (3) third-party source, (4) Machover survey 5/83, (5) press release, (6) ICES Corn- mittee. * 16 Other Capabilities. ICES...Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory, January 1979). Machover , C., "Status Report: Vendor Update," Presentation to the CAD/CAM Standards

  11. Removal of Malachite Green Dye from Aqueous Solution Using Multi-Walled Carbon Nano tubes: An Application of Experimental Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Aminah Zulkepli; Md Pauzi Abdullah; Md Pauzi Abdullah; Wan Mohd Afiq Wan Mohd Khalik

    2016-01-01

    An experimental design methodology was performed in the optimization of removal of malachite green dye by multi-walled carbon nano tubes. A Central Composite Design (25) was chosen to develop a mathematical model and determine the optimum condition for adsorption of malachite green by carbon nano tubes. Five experimental factors, namely initial dye concentration, mass of adsorbent, pH, contact time and agitation speed were studied. Maximum adsorption of malachite green was achieved at the suggested optimum conditions: initial dye concentration (20 ppm), weight of adsorbent (0.03 g), pH solution (7) contact time (17 min) and agitation speed (150 strokes per min). The experimental value of adsorption by multi-walled carbon nano tubes were found to be in good agreement with the predicted value (R 2 = 0.922).The experimental equilibrium data were best fitted to isotherm model (Langmuir) and kinetic model (pseudo second-order) respectively. Maximum adsorption by carbon nano tubes at monolayer for malachite green was obtained at 112.36 mg/ g while kinetic rate constant was calculated to be 0.0017 g mg -1 min -1 . (author)

  12. Thermal design of lithium bromide-water solution vapor absorption cooling system for indirect evaporative cooling for IT pod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Digvijay Ramkrishna

    Nowadays with increase use of internet, mobile there is increase in heat which ultimately increases the efficient cooling system of server room or IT POD. Use of traditional ways of cooling system has ultimately increased CO2 emission and depletion of CFC's are serious environmental issues which led scientific people to improve cooling techniques and eliminate use of CFC's. To reduce dependency on fossil fuels and 4environmental friendly system needed to be design. For being utilizing low grade energy source such as solar collector and reducing dependency on fossil fuel vapour absorption cooling system has shown a great driving force in today's refrigeration systems. This LiBr-water aabsorption cooling consists of five heat exchanger namely: Evaporator, Absorber, Solution Heat Exchanger, Generator, Condenser. The thermal design was done for a load of 23 kW and the procedure was described in the thesis. There are 120 servers in the IT POD emitting 196 W of heat each on full load and some of the heat was generated by the computer placed inside the IT POD. A detailed procedure has been discussed. A excel spreadsheet was to prepared with varying tube sizes to see the effect on flows and ultimately overall heat transfer coefficient.

  13. Alternative solution model for the ternary carbonate system CaCO3 - MgCO3 - FeCO3 - I. A ternary Bragg-Williams ordering model

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwiggen, P.L.

    1993-01-01

    The minerals of the ternary carbonate system CaCO3 - MgCO3 - FeCO3 represent a complex series of solid solutions and ordering states. An understanding of those complexities requires a solution model that can both duplicate the subsolidus phase relationships and generate correct values for the activities. Such a solution model must account for the changes in the total energy of the system resulting from a change in the ordering state of the individual constituents. Various ordering models have been applied to binary carbonate systems, but no attempts have previously been made to model the ordering in the ternary system. This study derives a new set of equations that allow for the equilibrium degree of order to be calculated for a system involving three cations mixing on two sites, as in the case of the ternary carbonates. The method is based on the Bragg-Williams approach. From the degree of order, the mole fractions of the three cations in each of the two sites can be determined. Once the site occupancies have been established, a Margules-type mixing model can be used to determine the free energy of mixing in the solid solution and therefore the activities of the various components. ?? 1993 Springer-Verlag.

  14. Two alternative methods to predict amylose content in rice grain by using tristimulus CIELAB values and developing a specific color board of starch-iodine complex solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amylose content was predicted by measuring tridimensional L*a*b* values in starch-iodine solutions and building a regression model. The developed regression model showed a highly significant relationship (R2= 0.99) between the L*a*b values and the amylose content. Apparent amylose content was strong...

  15. Design challenges and gaps in standards in developing an interoperable zero footprint DI thin client for use in image-enabled electronic health record solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Arun; Koff, David; Bak, Peter; Bender, Duane; Castelli, Jane

    2015-03-01

    The deployment of regional and national Electronic Health Record solutions has been a focus of many countries throughout the past decade. A major challenge for these deployments has been support for ubiquitous image viewing. More specifically, these deployments require an imaging solution that can work over the Internet, leverage any point of service device: desktop, tablet, phone; and access imaging data from any source seamlessly. Whereas standards exist to enable ubiquitous image viewing, few if any solutions exist that leverage these standards and meet the challenge. Rather, most of the currently available web based DI viewing solutions are either proprietary solutions or require special plugins. We developed a true zero foot print browser based DI viewing solution based on the Web Access DICOM Objects (WADO) and Cross-enterprise Document Sharing for Imaging (XDS-I.b) standards to a) demonstrate that a truly ubiquitous image viewer can be deployed; b) identify the gaps in the current standards and the design challenges for developing such a solution. The objective was to develop a viewer, which works on all modern browsers on both desktop and mobile devices. The implementation allows basic viewing functionalities of scroll, zoom, pan and window leveling (limited). The major gaps identified in the current DICOM WADO standards are a lack of ability to allow any kind of 3D reconstruction or MPR views. Other design challenges explored include considerations related to optimization of the solution for response time and low memory foot print.

  16. Coral Reef Management in Padaido Marine Tourism Park, Biak Numfor Case Study for the Alternative Solution to Destructive Fishing Practices on Coral Reefs

    OpenAIRE

    Supriharyono

    2003-01-01

    Coral reef is the most productive marine ecosystem in coastal waters. Unfortunately, this ecosystem has already suffered from non-sustainable human use including destructive fishing practices (bombing and cyanide), coral mining, over fishing, settlement pollution and uncontrolled tourism development. These affected the production of those fisheries resources in coral reefs. In order to manage those resources, such alternative to destructive use need to be studied. This paper reports alternat...

  17. Alternative security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weston, B.H.

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters: The Military and Alternative Security: New Missions for Stable Conventional Security; Technology and Alternative Security: A Cherished Myth Expires; Law and Alternative Security: Toward a Just World Peace; Politics and Alternative Security: Toward a More Democratic, Therefore More Peaceful, World; Economics and Alternative Security: Toward a Peacekeeping International Economy; Psychology and Alternative Security: Needs, Perceptions, and Misperceptions; Religion and Alternative Security: A Prophetic Vision; and Toward Post-Nuclear Global Security: An Overview

  18. Method and software to solution of inverse and inverse design fluid flow and heat transfer problems is compatible with CFD-software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krukovsky, P.G. [Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1997-12-31

    The description of method and software FRIEND which provide a possibility of solution of inverse and inverse design problems on the basis of existing (base) CFD-software for solution of direct problems (in particular, heat-transfer and fluid-flow problems using software PHOENICS) are presented. FRIEND is an independent additional module that widens the operational capacities of the base software unified with this module. This unifying does not require any change or addition to the base software. Interfacing of FRIEND and the base software takes place through input and output files of the base software. A brief description of the computational technique applied for the inverse problem solution, same detailed information on the interfacing of FRIEND and CFD-software and solution results for testing inverse and inverse design problems, obtained using the tandem CFD-software PHOENICS and FRIEND, are presented. (author) 9 refs.

  19. An alternative integral-balance solutions to transient diffusion of heat (mass by time-fractional semi-derivatives and semi-integrals: Fixed boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new approach to integral-balance solutions of the diffusion equation of heat (mass with constant transport properties by applying time-fractional semi-derivatives and semi-integrals of Riemann-Liouville sense has been developed. The time-fractional semiderivatives and semiintegrals replace the surface gradient (temperature which in the classical Heat-balance integral method (HBIM of Goodman and the Double-integration method (DIM should be expressed through the assumed profile. The application of semiderivatives and semiintegrals reduces the approximation errors to levels less than the ones exhibited by the classical HBIM and DIM. The method is exemplified by solutions of Dirichlet and Neumann boundary condition problems.

  20. Exploration of a capability-focused aerospace system of systems architecture alternative with bilayer design space, based on RST-SOM algorithmic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhifei; Qin, Dongliang; Yang, Feng

    2014-01-01

    In defense related programs, the use of capability-based analysis, design, and acquisition has been significant. In order to confront one of the most challenging features of a huge design space in capability based analysis (CBA), a literature review of design space exploration was first examined. Then, in the process of an aerospace system of systems design space exploration, a bilayer mapping method was put forward, based on the existing experimental and operating data. Finally, the feasibility of the foregoing approach was demonstrated with an illustrative example. With the data mining RST (rough sets theory) and SOM (self-organized mapping) techniques, the alternative to the aerospace system of systems architecture was mapping from P-space (performance space) to C-space (configuration space), and then from C-space to D-space (design space), respectively. Ultimately, the performance space was mapped to the design space, which completed the exploration and preliminary reduction of the entire design space. This method provides a computational analysis and implementation scheme for large-scale simulation.

  1. Future high school teachers' difficulties and alternatives found to planning electromagnetism activities designed for visual handicapped students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder Pires de Camargo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We report here partial outcomes of a study aimed to verify future High School teachers' performance when, during the development of a called "Teaching Practice" undergraduate course, were asked to plan, elaborate and teach, in classroom situations, electromagnetism topics to a students class which included visual handicapped pupils. Data analyzed show that the main difficulties presented by the future Physics High School teachers are related to the approach to know physics phenomena as dependent of vision and to break with some elements of the traditional pedagogy. By other hand, as alternatives, future teachers showed creativity in order to surpass passive aptitudes related to this educational problem, working out methodological strategies deprived of the relation knowing/seeing, as well as, the work with orality in a physics education context.

  2. Experimental design to measure the anchoring energy on substrate surface by using the alternating-current bridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Hui-Ming; Liu Yao-Yao; Zhang Ping; Zhu Ji-Liang; Ye Wen-Jiang; Cai Ming-Lei; Wang Xiao-Yan

    2017-01-01

    The anchoring property of the substrate surface of liquid crystal cells plays an important role in display and nondisplay fields. This property directly affects the deformation of liquid crystal molecules to change the phase difference through liquid crystal cells. In this paper, a test method based on the alternating-current bridge is proposed to determine the capacitance of liquid crystal cells and thus measure the anchoring energy of the substrate surface. The anchoring energy can be obtained by comparing the capacitance–voltage curves of twisted nematic liquid crystal cells with different anchoring properties in experimental and theoretical results simulated on the basis of Frank elastic theory. Compared with the other methods to determine the anchoring energy, our proposed method requires a simple treatment of liquid crystal cells and allows easy and high-accuracy measurements, thereby expanding the test ideas on the performance parameters of liquid crystal devices. (paper)

  3. Evaluation of removal efficiency of residual diclofenac in aqueous solution by nanocomposite tungsten-carbon using design of experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmani, M H; Mokhtari, M; Raeisi, Z; Ehrampoush, M H; Sadeghian, H A

    2017-09-01

    Wastewater containing pharmaceutical residual components must be treated before being discharged to the environment. This study was conducted to investigate the efficiency of tungsten-carbon nanocomposite in diclofenac removal using design of experiment (DOE). The 27 batch adsorption experiments were done by choosing three effective parameters (pH, adsorbent dose, and initial concentration) at three levels. The nanocomposite was prepared by tungsten oxide and activated carbon powder in a ratio of 1 to 4 mass. The remaining concentration of diclofenac was measured by a spectrometer with adding reagents of 2, 2'-bipyridine, and ferric chloride. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to determine the main and interaction effects. The equilibrium time for removal process was determined as 30 min. It was observed that the pH had the lowest influence on the removal efficiency of diclofenac. Nanocomposite gave a high removal at low concentration of 5.0 mg/L. The maximum removal for an initial concentration of 5.0 mg/L was 88.0% at contact time of 30 min. The results of ANOVA showed that adsorbent mass was among the most effective variables. Using DOE as an efficient method revealed that tungsten-carbon nanocomposite has high efficiency in the removal of residual diclofenac from the aqueous solution.

  4. Design and Implementation of a CoAP-Compliant Solution for RFID Inclusion in the Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Farris

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent technological advancements allowed widening the applicability scope of the RFID (Radio Frequency Identification technology from item identification to sensor-enabled computation platforms. This feature, added to the native radio energy-harvesting capability and the extremely low power consumption, has attracted the interest of research and industrial communities and pushed them to include the RFID technology into a global network of interconnected objects, as envisaged by the Internet of Things paradigm. In the last few years, standardization bodies have made significant efforts to design lightweight approaches, such as CoAP (Constrained Application Protocol, to efficiently manage resource-constrained nodes by using traditional web interfaces; nevertheless, RFID integration is not addressed yet. In this paper, we propose a CoAP-compliant solution where RFID tags, behaving as virtual CoAP servers, are directly accessible by remote CoAP clients via a reader, which acts as a CoAP proxy. A real testbed, addressing key aspects, such as tag addressing, discovery and management of CoAP requests via RFID operations, is deployed to validate the feasibility of the proposal. Experimental results show rapid response times: less than 60 ms are requested for resource retrieval, while from 80 to 360 ms for sending data to the RFID device, depending on the tag memory dimension.

  5. Using Central Composite Experimental Design to Optimize the Degradation of Tylosin from Aqueous Solution by Photo-Fenton Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Elaziz Sarrai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of the application of the Photo-Fenton process in the treatment of aqueous solution contaminated by Tylosin antibiotic was evaluated. The Response Surface Methodology (RSM based on Central Composite Design (CCD was used to evaluate and optimize the effect of hydrogen peroxide, ferrous ion concentration and initial pH as independent variables on the total organic carbon (TOC removal as the response function. The interaction effects and optimal parameters were obtained by using MODDE software. The significance of the independent variables and their interactions was tested by means of analysis of variance (ANOVA with a 95% confidence level. Results show that the concentration of the ferrous ion and pH were the main parameters affecting TOC removal, while peroxide concentration had a slight effect on the reaction. The optimum operating conditions to achieve maximum TOC removal were determined. The model prediction for maximum TOC removal was compared to the experimental result at optimal operating conditions. A good agreement between the model prediction and experimental results confirms the soundness of the developed model.

  6. AN IMPROVEMENT OF DESIGN, TECHNOLOGICAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL SOLUTIONS IN THE RECONSTRUCTION OF INSPECTION SHAFTS OF SEWAGE TUNNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GONCHARENKO D. F.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Formulation of the problem. Ensuring reliable operation of wastewater systems is one of the important tasks of community services Ukrainian cities. Sewer pipelines and collectors in Ukrainian cities have different operation life. In some cases, the operation life of wastewater working systems is more than 100 years. Significant operating costs, maintenance and inspection of sewer networks are made to keep them in reliable condition. Sewer pipes, sewers and inspection of the mine are operated at highly aggressive conditions. The concentrations of carbon dioxide, ammonia, methane, hydrogen sulfide and other corrosive substances greater than the maximum allowable concentration in the gas environment of collectors and inspection shafts. This leads to corrosion of concrete nutrient. The problem of preservation and revitalization of existing collectors is relevant because to environmental requirements increase. An important environmental challenge is the protection of groundwater against aggressive reagents, which can get into the groundwater through a rotten constructions of wastewater systems. Purpose. Consolidation of experience survey dredging well collector in Kharkiv, an improvement of technical solutions and recommendations of ensure their continued reliable and safe operation with development, which provide resistance to dredging well construction of biogenic corrosion. Conclusion. Technology and recommendations were designed to bring construction of dredging well to normal technical condition. The aggression of the environment has been taken into account. The decisions will ensure the normal operation of dredging well for 20 years. At work was used modern corrosion-resistant materials: concrete of sulfate-resistant cement, glass-plastic composite reinforcement.

  7. Fusion energy for alternate applications: the design of a high temperature falling bed as a long-lived blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harkness, S.D.; Stevens, H.C.; Hall, M.M.; Gohar, M.Y.A.; de Paz, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    The high temperature falling bed conceptual design work has consisted of a coordinated effort in neutronics, materials science, thermal hydraulics and mechanical design. The neutronics work has been based on a one-dimensional transport analysis and has been used to scope the implication of blanket dimensions, breeding materials, ceramic pebble material and coolant choice on both tritium breeding capabilities and energy deposition into the high temperature region of the blanket. The materials science effort has concentrated on defining the selection of a particular ceramic material. The thermal hydraulic analysis has been concerned with sizing the heat transfer system and defining the temperature gradients in the high temperature blanket. The mechanical design work has evaluated how such a system might be constructed from the point of view of maintainability and structural support

  8. Design of a high-gain laser diode-array pumped Nd:YAG alternating precessive slab amplifier (APS amplifier)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, D. B.

    1991-01-01

    In the design of space-qualifiable laser systems for ranging and altimetry, such as NASA's Geodynamic Laser Ranging System (GLRS), the transmitter must be kept small, powerful yet efficient, and must consist of as few components as possible. A novel preamplifier design is examined which requires no external beam steering optics, yielding a compact component with simple alignment procedures. The gains achieved are comparable to multipass zigzag amplifiers using two or more sets of external optics for extra passes through the amplifying medium.

  9. Kinetic modeling of the biosorption of Cd2+ ions from aqueous solutions onto Eichhornia crassipes roots using potentiometry: low-cost alternative to conventional methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Martínez-Sánchez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the use of potentiometric measurements for kinetic studies of biosorption of Cd2+ ions from aqueous solutions on Eichhornia crassipes roots. The open circuit potential of the Cd/Cd2+ electrode of the first kind was measured during the bioadsorption process. The amount of Cd2+ ions accumulated was determined in real time. The data were fit to different models, with the pseudo-second-order model proving to be the best in describing the data. The advantages and limitations of the methodology proposed relative to the traditional method are discussed.

  10. Solving Real World Problems with Alternate Reality Gaming: Student Experiences in the Global Village Playground Capstone Course Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondlinger, Mary Jo; McLeod, Julie K.

    2015-01-01

    The Global Village Playground (GVP) was a capstone learning experience designed to address institutional assessment needs while providing an integrated and authentic learning experience for students aimed at fostering complex problem solving, as well as critical and creative thinking. In the GVP, students work on simulated and real-world problems…

  11. Restricted mean survival time: an alternative to the hazard ratio for the design and analysis of randomized trials with a time-to-event outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royston, Patrick; Parmar, Mahesh K B

    2013-12-07

    Designs and analyses of clinical trials with a time-to-event outcome almost invariably rely on the hazard ratio to estimate the treatment effect and implicitly, therefore, on the proportional hazards assumption. However, the results of some recent trials indicate that there is no guarantee that the assumption will hold. Here, we describe the use of the restricted mean survival time as a possible alternative tool in the design and analysis of these trials. The restricted mean is a measure of average survival from time 0 to a specified time point, and may be estimated as the area under the survival curve up to that point. We consider the design of such trials according to a wide range of possible survival distributions in the control and research arm(s). The distributions are conveniently defined as piecewise exponential distributions and can be specified through piecewise constant hazards and time-fixed or time-dependent hazard ratios. Such designs can embody proportional or non-proportional hazards of the treatment effect. We demonstrate the use of restricted mean survival time and a test of the difference in restricted means as an alternative measure of treatment effect. We support the approach through the results of simulation studies and in real examples from several cancer trials. We illustrate the required sample size under proportional and non-proportional hazards, also the significance level and power of the proposed test. Values are compared with those from the standard approach which utilizes the logrank test. We conclude that the hazard ratio cannot be recommended as a general measure of the treatment effect in a randomized controlled trial, nor is it always appropriate when designing a trial. Restricted mean survival time may provide a practical way forward and deserves greater attention.

  12. Irreversible Conversion of a Water-Ethanol Solution into an Organized Two-Dimensional Network of Alternating Supramolecular Units in a Hydrophobic Zeolite under Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arletti, Rossella; Fois, Ettore; Gigli, Lara; Vezzalini, Giovanna; Quartieri, Simona; Tabacchi, Gloria

    2017-02-13

    Turning disorder into organization is a key issue in science. By making use of X-ray powder diffraction and modeling studies, we show herein that high pressures in combination with the shape and space constraints of the hydrophobic all-silica zeolite ferrierite separate an ethanol-water liquid mixture into ethanol dimer wires and water tetramer squares. The confined supramolecular blocks alternate in a binary two-dimensional (2D) architecture that remains stable upon complete pressure release. These results support the combined use of high pressures and porous networks as a viable strategy for driving the organization of molecules or nano-objects towards complex, pre-defined patterns relevant for the realization of novel functional nanocomposites. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Alternative additives; Alternative additiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-08-15

    In this project a number of industrial and agricultural waste products have been characterised and evaluated in terms of alkali-getter performance. The intended use is for biomass-fired power stations aiming at reducing corrosion or slagging related problems. The following products have been obtained, characterised and evaluated: 1) Brewery draff 2) Danish de-gassed manure 3) Paper sludge 4) Moulding sand 5) Spent bleaching earth 6) Anorthosite 7) Sand 8) Clay-sludge. Most of the above alternative additive candidates are deemed unsuitable due to insufficient chemical effect and/or expensive requirements for pre-treatment (such as drying and transportation). 3 products were selected for full-scale testing: de-gassed manure, spent bleaching earth and clay slugde. The full scale tests were undertaken at the biomass-fired power stations in Koege, Slagelse and Ensted. Spent bleaching earth (SBE) and clay sludge were the only tested additive candidates that had a proven ability to react with KCl, to thereby reduce Cl-concentrations in deposits, and reduce the deposit flux to superheater tubes. Their performance was shown to nearly as good as commercial additives. De-gassed manure, however, did not evaluate positively due to inhibiting effects of Ca in the manure. Furthermore, de-gassed manure has a high concentration of heavy metals, which imposes a financial burden with regard to proper disposal of the ash by-products. Clay-sludge is a wet clay slurring, and drying and transportation of this product entails substantial costs. Spent bleaching does not require much pre-treatment and is therefore the most promising alternative additive. On the other hand, bleaching earth contains residual plant oil which means that a range of legislation relating to waste combustion comes into play. Not least a waste combustion fee of 330 DKK/tonne. For all alternative (and commercial) additives disposal costs of the increase ash by-products represents a significant cost. This is

  14. Observational Study Designs for Comparative Effectiveness Research: An Alternative Approach to Close Evidence Gaps in Head-and-Neck Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulart, Bernardo H.L.; Ramsey, Scott D.; Parvathaneni, Upendra

    2014-01-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) has emerged as an approach to improve quality of care and patient outcomes while reducing healthcare costs by providing evidence to guide healthcare decisions. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have represented the ideal study design to support treatment decisions in head-and-neck (H and N) cancers. In RCTs, formal chance (randomization) determines treatment allocation, which prevents selection bias from distorting the measure of treatment effects. Despite this advantage, only a minority of patients qualify for inclusion in H and N RCTs, which limits the validity of their results to the broader H and N cancer patient population seen in clinical practice. Randomized controlled trials often do not address other knowledge gaps in the management of H and N cancer, including treatment comparisons for rare types of H and N cancers, monitoring of rare or late toxicity events (eg, osteoradionecrosis), or in some instances an RCT is simply not feasible. Observational studies, or studies in which treatment allocation occurs independently of investigators' choice or randomization, may address several of these gaps in knowledge, thereby complementing the role of RCTs. This critical review discusses how observational CER studies complement RCTs in generating the evidence to inform healthcare decisions and improve the quality of care and outcomes of H and N cancer patients. Review topics include a balanced discussion about the strengths and limitations of both RCT and observational CER study designs; a brief description of design and analytic techniques to handle selection bias in observational studies; examples of observational studies that inform current clinical practices and management of H and N cancers; and suggestions for relevant CER questions that could be addressed by an observational study design

  15. Applying visual attention theory to transportation safety research and design: evaluation of alternative automobile rear lighting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Scott E; Gugerty, Leo

    2014-06-01

    This field experiment takes a novel approach in applying methodologies and theories of visual search to the subject of conspicuity in automobile rear lighting. Traditional rear lighting research has not used the visual search paradigm in experimental design. It is our claim that the visual search design uniquely uncovers visual attention processes operating when drivers search the visual field that current designs fail to capture. This experiment is a validation and extension of previous simulator research on this same topic and demonstrates that detection of red automobile brake lamps will be improved if tail lamps are another color (in this test, amber) rather than the currently mandated red. Results indicate that when drivers miss brake lamp onset in low ambient light, RT and error are reduced in detecting the presence and absence of red brake lamps with multiple lead vehicles when tail lamps are not red compared to current rear lighting which mandates red tail lamps. This performance improvement is attributed to efficient visual processing that automatically segregates tail (amber) and brake (red) lamp colors into distractors and targets respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Designing augmentative and alternative communication applications: the results of focus groups with speech-language pathologists and parents of children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boster, Jamie B; McCarthy, John W

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain insight from speech-language pathologists (SLPs) and parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) regarding appealing features of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) applications. Two separate 1-hour focus groups were conducted with 8 SLPs and 5 parents of children with ASD to identify appealing design features of AAC Apps, their benefits and potential concerns. Participants were shown novel interface designs for communication mode, play mode and incentive systems. Participants responded to poll questions and provided benefits and drawbacks of the features as part of structured discussion. SLPs and parents identified a range of appealing features in communication mode (customization, animation and colour-coding) as well as in play mode (games and videos). SLPs preferred interfaces that supported motor planning and instruction while parents preferred those features such as character assistants that would appeal to their child. Overall SLPs and parents agreed on features for future AAC Apps. SLPs and parents have valuable input in regards to future AAC app design informed by their experiences with children with ASD. Both groups are key stakeholders in the design process and should be included in future design and research endeavors. Implications for Rehabilitation AAC applications for the iPad are often designed based on previous devices without consideration of new features. Ensuring the design of new interfaces are appealing and beneficial for children with ASD can potentially further support their communication. This study demonstrates how key stakeholders in AAC including speech language pathologists and parents can provide information to support the development of future AAC interface designs. Key stakeholders may be an untapped resource in the development of future AAC interfaces for children with ASD.

  17. Removal of Mefenamic acid from aqueous solutions by oxidative process: Optimization through experimental design and HPLC/UV analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Renata; Ferreira, Tanare C R; Ferreira, Renato A; Lanza, Marcos R V

    2016-02-01

    Mefenamic acid (MEF) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug indicated for relief of mild to moderate pain, and for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea. The presence of MEF in raw and sewage waters has been detected worldwide at concentrations exceeding the predicted no-effect concentration. In this study, using experimental designs, different oxidative processes (H2O2, H2O2/UV, fenton and Photo-fenton) were simultaneously evaluated for MEF degradation efficiency. The influence and interaction effects of the most important variables in the oxidative process (concentration and addition mode of hydrogen peroxide, concentration and type of catalyst, pH, reaction period and presence/absence of light) were investigated. The parameters were determined based on the maximum efficiency to save time and minimize the consumption of reagents. According to the results, the photo-Fenton process is the best procedure to remove the drug from water. A reaction mixture containing 1.005 mmol L(-1) of ferrioxalate and 17.5 mmol L(-1) of hydrogen peroxide, added at the initial reaction period, pH of 6.1 and 60 min of degradation indicated the most efficient degradation, promoting 95% of MEF removal. The development and validation of a rapid and efficient qualitative and quantitative HPLC/UV methodology for detecting this pollutant in aqueous solution is also reported. The method can be applied in water quality control that is generated and/or treated in municipal or industrial wastewater treatment plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. NOEC and LOEC as merely concessive expedients: two unambiguous alternatives and some criteria to maximize the efficiency of dose-response experimental designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murado, M A; Prieto, M A

    2013-09-01

    NOEC and LOEC (no and lowest observed effect concentrations, respectively) are toxicological concepts derived from analysis of variance (ANOVA), a not very sensitive method that produces ambiguous results and does not provide confidence intervals (CI) of its estimates. For a long time, despite the abundant criticism that such concepts have raised, the field of the ecotoxicology is reticent to abandon them (two possible reasons will be discussed), adducing the difficulty of clear alternatives. However, this work proves that a debugged dose-response (DR) modeling, through explicit algebraic equations, enables two simple options to accurately calculate the CI of substantially lower doses than NOEC. Both ANOVA and DR analyses are affected by the experimental error, response profile, number of observations and experimental design. The study of these effects--analytically complex and experimentally unfeasible--was carried out using systematic simulations with realistic data, including different error levels. Results revealed the weakness of NOEC and LOEC notions, confirmed the feasibility of the proposed alternatives and allowed to discuss the--often violated--conditions that minimize the CI of the parametric estimates from DR assays. In addition, a table was developed providing the experimental design that minimizes the parametric CI for a given set of working conditions. This makes possible to reduce the experimental effort and to avoid the inconclusive results that are frequently obtained from intuitive experimental plans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. MRS Action Plan Task B report: Analyses of alternative designs and operating approaches for a Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, W.D.; Jowdy, A.K.; Keehn, C.H.; Gale, R.M.; Smith, R.I.

    1988-12-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act (NWPAA) instituted a number of changes in the DOE commercial nuclear waste management system. After passage of the Act, the DOE initiated a number of systems studies to reevaluate the role of Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) within the federal waste management system. This report summarizes the results of a study to determine the schedules and costs of developing those MRS facilities needed under a number of scenarios, with differing functions allocated to the MRS and/or different spent fuel acceptance schedules. Nine cases were defined for the system study, seven of which included an MRS Facility. The study cases or scenarios evaluated varied relative to the specific functions to be performed at the MRS. The scenarios ranged in magnitude from storage and shipment of bare, intact spent fuel to consolidating the spent fuel into repository emplacement containers prior to storage and shipment. Each scenario required specific modifications to be made to the design developed for the MRS proposal to Congress (the Conceptual Design Report). 41 figs., 326 tabs

  20. Design and validation of realistic breast models for use in multiple alternative forced choice virtual clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elangovan, Premkumar; Mackenzie, Alistair; Dance, David R; Young, Kenneth C; Cooke, Victoria; Wilkinson, Louise; Given-Wilson, Rosalind M; Wallis, Matthew G; Wells, Kevin

    2017-04-07

    A novel method has been developed for generating quasi-realistic voxel phantoms which simulate the compressed breast in mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). The models are suitable for use in virtual clinical trials requiring realistic anatomy which use the multiple alternative forced choice (AFC) paradigm and patches from the complete breast image. The breast models are produced by extracting features of breast tissue components from DBT clinical images including skin, adipose and fibro-glandular tissue, blood vessels and Cooper's ligaments. A range of different breast models can then be generated by combining these components. Visual realism was validated using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) study of patches from simulated images calculated using the breast models and from real patient images. Quantitative analysis was undertaken using fractal dimension and power spectrum analysis. The average areas under the ROC curves for 2D and DBT images were 0.51  ±  0.06 and 0.54  ±  0.09 demonstrating that simulated and real images were statistically indistinguishable by expert breast readers (7 observers); errors represented as one standard error of the mean. The average fractal dimensions (2D, DBT) for real and simulated images were (2.72  ±  0.01, 2.75  ±  0.01) and (2.77  ±  0.03, 2.82  ±  0.04) respectively; errors represented as one standard error of the mean. Excellent agreement was found between power spectrum curves of real and simulated images, with average β values (2D, DBT) of (3.10  ±  0.17, 3.21  ±  0.11) and (3.01  ±  0.32, 3.19  ±  0.07) respectively; errors represented as one standard error of the mean. These results demonstrate that radiological images of these breast models realistically represent the complexity of real breast structures and can be used to simulate patches from mammograms and DBT images that are indistinguishable from

  1. Design and validation of realistic breast models for use in multiple alternative forced choice virtual clinical trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elangovan, Premkumar; Mackenzie, Alistair; Dance, David R.; Young, Kenneth C.; Cooke, Victoria; Wilkinson, Louise; Given-Wilson, Rosalind M.; Wallis, Matthew G.; Wells, Kevin

    2017-04-01

    A novel method has been developed for generating quasi-realistic voxel phantoms which simulate the compressed breast in mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). The models are suitable for use in virtual clinical trials requiring realistic anatomy which use the multiple alternative forced choice (AFC) paradigm and patches from the complete breast image. The breast models are produced by extracting features of breast tissue components from DBT clinical images including skin, adipose and fibro-glandular tissue, blood vessels and Cooper’s ligaments. A range of different breast models can then be generated by combining these components. Visual realism was validated using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) study of patches from simulated images calculated using the breast models and from real patient images. Quantitative analysis was undertaken using fractal dimension and power spectrum analysis. The average areas under the ROC curves for 2D and DBT images were 0.51  ±  0.06 and 0.54  ±  0.09 demonstrating that simulated and real images were statistically indistinguishable by expert breast readers (7 observers); errors represented as one standard error of the mean. The average fractal dimensions (2D, DBT) for real and simulated images were (2.72  ±  0.01, 2.75  ±  0.01) and (2.77  ±  0.03, 2.82  ±  0.04) respectively; errors represented as one standard error of the mean. Excellent agreement was found between power spectrum curves of real and simulated images, with average β values (2D, DBT) of (3.10  ±  0.17, 3.21  ±  0.11) and (3.01  ±  0.32, 3.19  ±  0.07) respectively; errors represented as one standard error of the mean. These results demonstrate that radiological images of these breast models realistically represent the complexity of real breast structures and can be used to simulate patches from mammograms and DBT images that are indistinguishable from

  2. Design of an accelerated test to determine the attack of the sulphates on concrete structures, and the suggest alternative to design a container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malanca, Rodrigo Sebastian

    2003-01-01

    This work at demonstrating one of the accelerated tests in the frame of the Norm ASTM E-632-82, in order to evaluate the life of service for Reinforced Concrete Structures with High Performance.These will be used as barriers of engineering in containers for Radioactive Wastes.The results of the evaluation are necessary for the probabilistic and deterministic analysis, which are required to obtain licentiate for the emplacement and construction of this type of installations.Since concrete is the principal material used in this type of containers, its properties, in particular, its durability must be evaluated taking into accounts both, intrinsic factors and the extrinsic factors.Within the intrinsic factors we can mention your formulation, including design of armors of steel, production, treated and structural design.As extrinsic factors, weather and environmental, soil characteristic and service operation must be considered.It is important to emphasize that within the criteria used in the conceptual design of these types of repositories, the structures that act of barrier must not alter their insulation properties during all the period of service, which may be several hundreds of years.Although it is not possible to guarantee that repository's performance will not be altered throughout its time of service, the fact to obtain results of accelerated tests and the long term, it will enable us to estimate the durability of such structures, across the support of mathematical suitable models.The different stages which should be taken into account for the development of the evaluation tests, determining the relevant parameters to be considered in them and results obtained so far, are showing in this work

  3. Structural characterization of the husks from modified rice as an alternative absorbant and effective for the removal of Cr (VI in solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria María Doria Herrera

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the structural characterization of the husk of modified rice through the process of advanced oxidation with the reagent Fenton; the transformation was carried out with the intention of increasing the number of active sites on the material’s surface, and consequently to generate an absorbent with a greater capacity for the removal of Cr (VI ions in solution, compared to the husk of natural rice. The characterization of modified material was determined through distinct experimental techniques that include the analysis of the functional groups present on the absorbent’s surface through infrared spectroscopy with diffuse reflectance, (DRIFT, likewise, a surface morphology analysis of the husk through a scanning electron microscope (SEM, a compositional analysis and thermogavimetric (TGA. All of these tests were carried out before and after the modification process. The results of the DRIFT point towards a slight shift and attenuation in the vibration frequencies of the functional groups implicated in the structural modification, whereas the SEM analysis indicated noticeable changes in the morphology of the absorbent material. Meanwhile, the compositional analysis showed considerable changes in the percentage of the material components, whose presence was confirmed through the TGA analysis, after decomposing at the expected temperatures. In short, all results confirm the structural modification of the absorbent tested.

  4. Climate Regulation of Rearing-Related Buildings - Evaluating the Factors Related to the Energy Requirement of Heating/Cooling, and Analysis of Alternative Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toth Laszló

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The most notable role in the energy usage of rearing-related buildings belongs to barn climate. For animals, one of the most important climate parameter is the temperature of the barn atmosphere. This can be kept in the proper interval by either heating or cooling. Apart from the operation of technological solutions, the need for airing barns must be taken into consideration. This means there are special technical requirements for airing. Also, they can cause significant energy losses. The temperature limit of heating is mainly influenced by the technological temperature related to keeping the animal in question, its acceptable differences, the heat loss of the barn, and the airing requirement. Energy sources applicable to heating can be traditional sources (coal, oil, gas, renewable sources (solar, biomass, wind, water, or geothermal energy, or transformed energy (electricity. As these have specific operation systems, they also mean further challenges in implementing efficient energy usage. The usage of heating energy can either be optimised by the rational usage of the heating system, or machinery explicitly made for reserving energy. Sparing heating energy via recuperative heating exchange may cut costs significantly, which we also proved in this research with actual calculations. However, we have to state that the efficient usage of heat exchangers requires that the internal and external temperatures differ greatly, which has a huge impact on heat recovery performance.

  5. SEARCHING FOR CFC’s AND HCFC’s ALTERNATIVES. Part I: A REFRIGERANT DESIGN STRATEGY USING GROUP CONTRIBUTION METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y KHETIB

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available It is now well established that the chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s, the hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC’s and other chlororinated hydrocarbons which are compounds mostly used as refrigerants, are causing more damages than benefits to the environment and particularly to the ozone layer. Therefore one can see how important it is to search for substitutes to these compounds with desirable combination of physical properties to meet the needs of specific applications but, ultimately, with no harms to the environment. In this paper, although the bases of a computer-aided design of refrigerants (CADR method being developed are outlined, the main purpose still remains the demonstration of the great ability and importance of group contribution methods in the development of such techniques, particularly for predicting vapour-liquid equilibria and other thermodynamic properties like the enthalpy or entropy of generated systems, by the use of models like the UNIFAC.

  6. Nanoemulsions containing a synthetic chalcone as an alternative for treating cutaneous leshmaniasis: optimization using a full factorial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mattos, Cristiane Bastos; Argenta, Débora Fretes; Melchiades, Gabriela de Lima; Cordeiro, Marlon Norberto Sechini; Tonini, Maiko Luis; Moraes, Milene Hoehr; Weber, Tanara Beatriz; Roman, Silvane Souza; Nunes, Ricardo José; Teixeira, Helder Ferreira; Steindel, Mário; Koester, Letícia Scherer

    2015-01-01

    Nanoemulsions are drug delivery systems that may increase the penetration of lipophilic compounds through the skin, enhancing their topical effect. Chalcones are compounds of low water solubility that have been described as promising molecules for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). In this context, the aim of this work was to optimize the development of a nanoemulsion containing a synthetic chalcone for CL treatment using a 2(2) full factorial design. The formulations were prepared by spontaneous emulsification and the experimental design studied the influence of two independent variables (type of surfactant - soybean lecithin or sorbitan monooleate and type of co-surfactants - polysorbate 20 or polysorbate 80) on the physicochemical characteristics of the nanoemulsions, as well as on the skin permeation/retention of the synthetic chalcone in porcine skin. In order to evaluate the stability of the systems, the antileishmanial assay was performed against Leishmania amazonensis 24 hours and 60 days after the preparation of the nanoemulsions. The formulation composed of soybean lecithin and polysorbate 20 presented suitable physicochemical characteristics (droplet size 171.9 nm; polydispersity index 0.14; zeta potential -39.43 mV; pH 5.16; and viscosity 2.00 cP), drug content (91.09%) and the highest retention in dermis (3.03 µg·g(-1)) - the main response of interest - confirmed by confocal microscopy. This formulation also presented better stability of leishmanicidal activity in vitro against L. amazonensis amastigote forms (half maximal inhibitory concentration value 0.32±0.05 µM), which confirmed the potential of the nanoemulsion soybean lecithin and polysorbate 20 for CL treatment.

  7. An Alternative Approach to "Identification of Unknowns": Designing a Protocol to Verify the Identities of Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Vaz, Betsy M; Denny, Roxanne; Young, Nevin D; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Microbiology courses often include a laboratory activity on the identification of unknown microbes. This activity consists of providing students with microbial cultures and running biochemical assays to identify the organisms. This approach lacks molecular techniques such as sequencing of genes encoding 16S rRNA, which is currently the method of choice for identification of unknown bacteria. A laboratory activity was developed to teach students how to identify microorganisms using 16S rRNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and validate microbial identities using biochemical techniques. We hypothesized that designing an experimental protocol to confirm the identity of a bacterium would improve students' knowledge of microbial identification techniques and the physiological characteristics of bacterial species. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria were isolated from the root nodules of Medicago truncatula and prepared for 16S rRNA PCR analysis. Once DNA sequencing revealed the identity of the organisms, the students designed experimental protocols to verify the identity of rhizobia. An assessment was conducted by analyzing pre- and posttest scores and by grading students' verification protocols and presentations. Posttest scores were higher than pretest scores at or below p = 0.001. Normalized learning gains (G) showed an improvement of students' knowledge of microbial identification methods (LO4, G = 0.46), biochemical properties of nitrogen-fixing bacteria (LO3, G = 0.45), and the events leading to the establishment of nitrogen-fixing symbioses (LO1&2, G = 0.51, G = 0.37). An evaluation of verification protocols also showed significant improvement with a p value of less than 0.001.

  8. An Alternative Approach to “Identification of Unknowns”: Designing a Protocol to Verify the Identities of Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsy M. Martinez- Vaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Microbiology courses often include a laboratory activity on the identification of unknown microbes. This activity consists of providing students with microbial cultures and running biochemical assays to identify the organisms. This approach lacks molecular techniques such as sequencing of genes encoding 16S rRNA, which is currently the method of choice for identification of unknown bacteria. A laboratory activity was developed to teach students how to identify microorganisms using 16S rRNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR and validate microbial identities using biochemical techniques. We hypothesized that designing an experimental protocol to confirm the identity of a bacterium would improve students’ knowledge of microbial identification techniques and the physiological characteristics of bacterial species. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria were isolated from the root nodules of Medicago truncatula and prepared for 16S rRNA PCR analysis. Once DNA sequencing revealed the identity of the organisms, the students designed experimental protocols to verify the identity of rhizobia. An assessment was conducted by analyzing pre- and posttest scores and by grading students’ verification protocols and presentations. Posttest scores were higher than pretest scores at or below p = 0.001. Normalized learning gains (G showed an improvement of students’ knowledge of microbial identification methods (LO4, G = 0.46, biochemical properties of nitrogen-fixing bacteria (LO3, G = 0.45, and the events leading to the establishment of nitrogen-fixing symbioses (LO1&2, G = 0.51, G = 0.37. An evaluation of verification protocols also showed significant improvement with a p value of less than 0.001. Editor's Note:The ASM advocates that students must successfully demonstrate the ability to explain and practice safe laboratory techniques. For more information, read the laboratory safety section of the ASM Curriculum Recommendations: Introductory Course in Microbiology and the

  9. Assessment of off-design performance of a small-scale combined cooling and power system using an alternative operating strategy for gas turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Wei; Chen, Qiang; Lin, Ru-mou; Jin, Hong-guang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We develop an off-design model for a CCP system driven by gas turbine. • An alternative operating strategy is proposed to improve the system performance. • Off-design performance of the combined cooling and power system (CCP) is enhanced. • Effects of both the different operating strategy are analyzed and compared. • Performance enhancement mechanism of the proposed operating strategy is presented. - Abstract: A small-scale combined cooling and power (CCP) system usually serves district air conditioning apart from power generation purposes. The typical system consists of a gas turbine and an exhaust gas-fired absorption refrigerator. The surplus heat of the gas turbine is recovered to generate cooling energy. In this way, the CCP system has a high overall efficiency at the design point. However, the CCP system usually runs under off-design conditions because the users’ demand varies frequently. The operating strategy of the gas turbine will affect the thermodynamic performance of itself and the entire CCP system. The operating strategies for gas turbines include the reducing turbine inlet temperature (TIT) and the compressor inlet air throttling (IAT). A CCP system, consisting of an OPRA gas turbine and a double effects absorption refrigerator, is investigated to identify the effects of different operating strategies. The CCP system is simulated based on the partial-load model of gas turbine and absorption refrigerator. The off-design performance of the CCP system is compared under different operating strategies. The results show that the IAT strategy is the better one. At 50% rated power output of the gas turbine, the IAT operating strategy can increase overall system efficiency by 10% compared with the TIT strategy. In general, the IAT operating strategy is suited for other gas turbines. However, the benefits of IAT should be investigated in the future, when different gas turbine is adopted. This study may provide a new operating

  10. An Alternative to Optimize the Indonesian’s Airport Network Design: An Application of Minimum Spanning Tree (MST Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luluk Lusiantoro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Using minimum spanning tree technique (MST, this exploratory research was done to optimize the interrelation and hierarchical network design of Indonesian’s airports. This research also identifies the position of the Indonesian’s airports regionally based on the ASEAN Open Sky Policy 2015. The secondary data containing distance between airports (both in Indonesia and in ASEAN, flight frequency, and correlation of Gross Domestic Regional Product (GDRP for each region in Indonesia are used as inputs to form MST networks. The result analysis is done by comparing the MST networks with the existing network in Indonesia. This research found that the existing airport network in Indonesia does not depict the optimal network connecting all airports with the shortest distance and maximizing the correlation of regional economic potential in the country. This research then suggests the optimal networks and identifies the airports and regions as hubs and spokes formed by the networks. Lastly, this research indicates that the Indonesian airports have no strategic position in the ASEAN Open Sky network, but they have an opportunity to get strategic positions if 33 airports in 33 regions in Indonesia are included in the network.

  11. Light emitting diodes as an alternative ambient illumination source in photolithography environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corell, Dennis Dan; Ou, Haiyan; Dam-Hansen, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    We explored an alternative light emitting diode (LED) - based solution to replace the existing yellow fluorescent light tubes (YFT) used in photolithography rooms. A no-blue LED lamp was designed and a prototype was fabricated. For both solutions, the spectral power distribution (SPD) was measure...

  12. The Square Curve Paradigm for Research in Alternative, Complementary, and Holistic Medicine: A Cost-Effective, Easy, and Scientifically Valid Design for Evidence-Based Medicine and Quality Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soren Ventegodt

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a new research paradigm for alternative, complementary, and holistic medicine — a low-cost, effective, and scientifically valid design for evidence-based medicine. Our aim is to find the simplest, cheapest, and most practical way to collect data of sufficient quality and validity to determine: (1 which kinds of treatment give a clinically relevant improvement to quality of life, health, and/or functionality; (2 which groups of patients can be aided by alternative, complementary, or holistic medicine; and (3 which therapists have the competence to achieve the clinically relevant improvements. Our solution to the problem is that a positive change in quality of life must be immediate to be taken as caused by an intervention. We define “immediate” as within 1 month of the intervention. If we can demonstrate a positive result with a group of chronic patients (20 or more patients who have had their disease or state of suffering for 1 year or more, who can be significantly helped within 1 month, and the situation is still improved 1 year after, we find it scientifically evidenced that this cure or intervention has helped the patients. We call this characteristic curve a “square curve”. If a global, generic, quality-of-life questionnaire like QOL5 or, even better, a QOL-Health-Ability questionnaire (a quality-of-life questionnaire combined with a self-evaluated health and ability to function questionnaire is administered to the patients before and after the intervention, it is possible to document the effect of an intervention to a cost of only a few thousand Euros/USD. A general acceptance of this new research design will solve the problem that there is not enough money in alternative, complementary, and holistic medicine to pay the normal cost of a biomedical Cochrane study. As financial problems must not hinder the vital research in nonbiomedical medicine, we ask the scientific community to accept this new research

  13. Experimental Design of a Polymeric Solution to Improve the Mobility Ratio in a Reservoir previous implementation of a pilot project of EOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Cuenca

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes experimental formulations of polymeric solutions through lab evaluations with the objective of finding optimum solution concentration to fluid mobility in reservoirs as previous step before implementing a pilot project of enhanced oil recovery. The polymers, firstly, were selected based on the properties from fluids from reservoir. Two types of polymers were used TCC-330 and EOR909 and the experimental tests were: thermal stability, compatibility, adsorption, salinity, and displacement. The design with the best results was with polymer TCC-330 at 1,500 ppm concentration.

  14. Alternative Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative fuels include gaseous fuels such as hydrogen, natural gas, and propane; alcohols such as ethanol, methanol, and butanol; vegetable and waste-derived oils; and electricity. Overview of alternative fuels is here.

  15. Effects of Spatial Experiences & Cognitive Styles in the Solution Process of Space-Based Design Problems in the First Year of Architectural Design Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkan Yazici, Yasemin

    2013-01-01

    There are many factors that influence designers in the architectural design process. Cognitive style, which varies according to the cognitive structure of persons, and spatial experience, which is created with spatial data acquired during life are two of these factors. Designers usually refer to their spatial experiences in order to find solutions…

  16. Comment on the contribution of S.C. Mo, N.A. Hanan and J.E. Matos: 'Comparison of the FRM-II HEU design with an alternative LEU design'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boening, K.

    2004-01-01

    The results of the reference paper, which came to our attention for the first time during this RERTR Meeting, are more or less consistent with neutronic data we have obtained earlier within the FRM-II project (i.e. with own calculations and extrapolations). However, a realistic comparison of the HEU design of the FR.M-II (HEU = highly enriched uranium, 93 % U-235) with an alternative LEU design (LEU = low enriched uranium, 20 % U-235) is only possible on the basis of identical assumptions on the input parameters and has to consider more than neutronic data only. Serious scientists and experts should not confuse the politicians with academic studies touching some aspects of the full story only. The comparison has shown that the performance and reliability of the FRM-II design, which uses HEU fuel, is so advantageous that it can not - not even approximately - be met by an alternative design using LEU fuel. A change of the FRM-II design from HEU to LEU fuel with the results as shown above - i.e. less performance, higher costs, more nuclear waste and higher risk potential, and all of this with a delay of at least 5 years this could never be justified. If a future development of more advanced fuels should allow us to achieve our scientific goals at the conditions as identified above also with uranium of reduced enrichment - there would be no objection to a corresponding later conversion. Activities to realize a new neutron source in Germany go back to the late 70's with the project of a new middle flux beam reactor (MSR), which was abandoned shortly later in favour of an ambitious new spallation neutron source (SNQ). After this project also having been terminated around 1985 because of too high costs and technological risks, the hopes of the German community of neutron scientists focussed on the FRM-II. If non-technical pressure would damage this project this would equally provide irreversible damage to the large and still prospering field of neutron research in Germany

  17. Energy Conservation Alternatives Study (ECAS): Conceptual Design and Implementation Assessment of a Utility Steam Plant with Conventional Furnace and Wet Lime Stack Gas Scrubbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Dale H.

    1976-01-01

    A study was performed to estimate the technical/economic characteristics of a steam power plant (3500 pounds per square inch gauge, 1000 degrees Fahrenheit / 1000 degrees Fahrenheit) with a coal-burning radiant furnace and a wet lime stack gas scrubber to control sulfur emissions. Particulate emissions were controlled by an electrostatic precipitator operating at 300 degrees Fahrenheit. The stack gas from the scrubber was reheated from 125 degrees Fahrenheit to 250 degrees Fahrenheit as a base case, and from 125 degrees Fahrenheit to 175 degrees Fahrenheit as an alternate case. The study was performed on a basis consistent with the General Electric ECAS Phase II evaluation of advanced energy conversion systems for electric utility baseload applications using coal or coal-derived fuels. A conceptual design of the power plant was developed, including the on-site calcination of limestone to lime and the provision of sludge ponds to store the products of flue gas scrubbing. From this design, estimates were derived for power plant efficiency, capital cost, environmental intrusion characteristics, natural resource requirements, and cost of electricity at an assumed capacity factor of 65 percent. An implementation assessment was performed where factors affecting applicability of the conceptual design power plant in electric utility generation systems were appraised. At 250 degrees Fahrenheit and 175 degrees Fahrenheit stack gas temperatures respectively, the plants showed a cost of electricity of 39.8 and 37.0 mills per kilowatt-hours and overall plant efficiencies of 32 percent and 34 percent.

  18. Dimensionless Analytical Solution and New Design Formula for Lateral-Torsional Buckling of I-Beams under Linear Distributed Moment via Linear Stability Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Fu Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Even for the doubly symmetric I-beams under linear distributed moment, the design formulas given by codes of different countries are quite different. This paper will derive a dimensionless analytical solution via linear stability theory and propose a new design formula of the critical moment of the lateral-torsional buckling (LTB of the simply supported I-beams under linear distributed moment. Firstly, the assumptions of linear stability theory are reviewed, the dispute concerning the LTB energy equation is introduced, and then the thinking of Plate-Beam Theory, which can be used to fully resolve the challenge presented by Ojalvo, is presented briefly; secondly, by introducing the new dimensionless coefficient of lateral deflection, the new dimensionless critical moment and Wagner’s coefficient are derived naturally from the total potential energy. With these independent parameters, the new dimensionless analytical buckling equation is obtained; thirdly, the convergence performance of the dimensionless analytical solution is discussed by numerical solutions and its correctness is verified by the numerical results given by ANSYS; finally, a new trilinear mathematical model is proposed as the benchmark of formulating the design formula and, with the help of 1stOpt software, the four coefficients used in the proposed dimensionless design formula are determined.

  19. Explicit parametric solutions of lattice structures with proper generalized decomposition (PGD) - Applications to the design of 3D-printed architectured materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibileau, Alberto; Auricchio, Ferdinando; Morganti, Simone; Díez, Pedro

    2018-01-01

    Architectured materials (or metamaterials) are constituted by a unit-cell with a complex structural design repeated periodically forming a bulk material with emergent mechanical properties. One may obtain specific macro-scale (or bulk) properties in the resulting architectured material by properly designing the unit-cell. Typically, this is stated as an optimal design problem in which the parameters describing the shape and mechanical properties of the unit-cell are selected in order to produce the desired bulk characteristics. This is especially pertinent due to the ease manufacturing of these complex structures with 3D printers. The proper generalized decomposition provides explicit parametic solutions of parametric PDEs. Here, the same ideas are used to obtain parametric solutions of the algebraic equations arising from lattice structural models. Once the explicit parametric solution is available, the optimal design problem is a simple post-process. The same strategy is applied in the numerical illustrations, first to a unit-cell (and then homogenized with periodicity conditions), and in a second phase to the complete structure of a lattice material specimen.

  20. Design of a terminal solution for integration of in-home health care devices and services towards the Internet-of-Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Zhibo; Zheng, Lirong; Tian, Junzhe; Kao-Walter, Sharon; Dubrova, Elena; Chen, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    In-home health care services based on the Internet-of-Things are promising to resolve the challenges caused by the ageing of population. But the existing research is rather scattered and shows lack of interoperability. In this article, a business-technology co-design methodology is proposed for cross-boundary integration of in-home health care devices and services. In this framework, three key elements of a solution (business model, device and service integration architecture and information system integration architecture) are organically integrated and aligned. In particular, a cooperative Health-IoT ecosystem is formulated, and information systems of all stakeholders are integrated in a cooperative health cloud as well as extended to patients' home through the in-home health care station (IHHS). Design principles of the IHHS includes the reuse of 3C platform, certification of the Health Extension, interoperability and extendibility, convenient and trusted software distribution, standardised and secured electrical health care record handling, effective service composition and efficient data fusion. These principles are applied to the design of an IHHS solution called iMedBox. Detailed device and service integration architecture and hardware and software architecture are presented and verified by an implemented prototype. The quantitative performance analysis and field trials have confirmed the feasibility of the proposed design methodology and solution.