WorldWideScience

Sample records for alternative design comparison

  1. Comparison of different SFL design alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivars Neretnieks, Ivars [Chemima AB, Taeby (Sweden); Moreno, Luis [LMQuimica, Vaarby (Sweden)

    2013-04-15

    Four different design options for a repository for long-lived nuclear waste from the future dismantling of the nuclear power plants have been compared. The time scales considered range up to 100,000 years. The repository is to be located at about 500 m depth in granitic rock. The vault can be a tunnel about 200 m long and on the order of 15 X 15 meters, in which the waste is surrounded by either a hydraulic cage, a concrete buffer or a bentonite buffer about 2 m thick. A fourth option is to make a silo, called Supersilo, about as high as wide, surrounded by both concrete and bentonite. In order to compare potential release rates of radionuclides from the waste to the seeping water in the rock a number of simple models have been devised. Some of these models allow the water flow rates through vaults to be assessed under various conditions and configurations. Other models are used to calculate the uptake by molecular diffusion to the water in the rock that seeps past the vaults. Moreover other models are used to calculate the rate of transport of nuclides by diffusion and flow through the buffer and waste. The decay of the nuclides during their passage from the waste to the flowing water through and past the vaults is accounted for. Many nuclides of interest decay considerably in the buffer. The mathematical form of the models is made so simple that essentially hand calculations can be used to explore the strength of different barriers and design options. The simple models are validated against more complex coupled models accounting for simultaneously competing processes. The more complex models are solved by numerical methods. The toolbox of simple models is used to calculate the strength of the barriers in the different design options under various conditions. Examples of activity releases of three nuclides with different sorption characteristics and half-lives are presented. It is found that a hydraulic cage is not a good option as it promotes the release of

  2. Comparison of the FRM-II HEU design with an alternative LEU design. Attachment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After presentation of the foregoing paper by Dr. Nelson Hanan of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) proposing an alternative LEU core with one fuel ring and a power level of 33 MW, a presentation was made by Dr. Klaus Boning of the Technical University of Munich comparing the FRM-II HEU design with an LEU design by Tlm that had two fuel rings and a power level of 40 MW. Dr. Boning raised the following issues concerning the use of LEU fuel in FRM-H reactor designs: (1) qualification of HEU and LEU silicide fuels, (2) gamma heating in the heavy water reflector, (3) the radiological consequences of hypothetical accidents, and (4) cost and schedule. These issues are addressed in this Attachment. In his presentation, Dr. Hanan mentioned that ANL was also investigating other LEU designs. This work led to a second alternative LEU design that has the same neutron flux performance (8 x 1014 n/cm2/s peak neutron flux in the reflector) and the same fuel lifetime (50 full power days) as the HEU design, but uses LEU silicide fuel with a uranium density of only 4.5 g/cm3. This design was achieved by using a fuel plate that has a fuel meat thickness of 0.76 mm, a cladding thickness of 0.38 mm, and a water channel gap of 2.2 mm. A comparison is shown of the main characteristics of this second alternative LEU design with those of the FRM-II HEU design. The ANL core again has one fuel ring with the same dimensions. With this LEU design, a two stage process is no longer necessary because LEU silicide fuel with a uranium density of 4.5 g/cm3 is fully qualified, licensable, and available now for use in a high flux reactor such as the FRM-II

  3. Feed-water heaters alternative design comparison; Comparacion de disenos alternativos de calentadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Toledano, Gerardo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1988-12-31

    A procedure is presented for the alternative design comparison of feed water heaters, based in the failure records of damaged tubes during operation. The procedure is used for cases in which non-continuous or random inspections are made to the feed-water heaters. [Espanol] Se presenta un procedimiento para comparar disenos alternativos de calentadores, basandose en los registros de fallas de los tubos rotos acumuladas durante su operacion. El procedimiento se emplea para casos en los que se realizan inspecciones a los calentadores no continuas, ya sea periodicas o al azar.

  4. A comparison of alternative 60-mer probe designs in an in-situ synthesized oligonucleotide microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fairbanks Benjamin D

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA microarrays have proven powerful for functional genomics studies. Several technologies exist for the generation of whole-genome arrays. It is well documented that 25mer probes directed against different regions of the same gene produce variable signal intensity values. However, the extent to which this is true for probes of greater length (60mers is not well characterized. Moreover, this information has not previously been reported for whole-genome arrays designed against bacteria, whose genomes may differ substantially in characteristics directly affecting microarray performance. Results We report here an analysis of alternative 60mer probe designs for an in-situ synthesized oligonucleotide array for the GC rich, β-proteobacterium Burkholderia cenocepacia. Probes were designed using the ArrayOligoSel3.5 software package and whole-genome microarrays synthesized by Agilent, Inc. using their in-situ, ink-jet technology platform. We first validated the quality of the microarrays as demonstrated by an average signal to noise ratio of >1000. Next, we determined that the variance of replicate probes (1178 total probes examined of identical sequence was 3.8% whereas the variance of alternative probes (558 total alternative probes examined designs was 9.5%. We determined that depending upon the definition, about 2.4% of replicate and 7.8% of alternative probes produced outlier conclusions. Finally, we determined none of the probe design subscores (GC content, internal repeat, binding energy and self annealment produced by ArrayOligoSel3.5 were predictive or probes that produced outlier signals. Conclusion Our analysis demonstrated that the use of multiple probes per target sequence is not essential for in-situ synthesized 60mer oligonucleotide arrays designed against bacteria. Although probes producing outlier signals were identified, the use of ratios results in less than 10% of such outlier conclusions. We also determined that

  5. Seal design alternatives study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results from a study of various sealing alternatives for the WIPP sealing system. Overall, the sealing system has the purpose of reducing to the extent possible the potential for fluids (either gas or liquid) from entering or leaving the repository. The sealing system is divided into three subsystems: drift and panel seals within the repository horizon, shaft seals in each of the four shafts, and borehole seals. Alternatives to the baseline configuration for the WIPP seal system design included evaluating different geometries and schedules for seal component installations and the use of different materials for seal components. Order-of-magnitude costs for the various alternatives were prepared as part of the study. Firm recommendations are not presented, but the advantages and disadvantages of the alternatives are discussed. Technical information deficiencies are identified and studies are outlined which can provide required information

  6. Seal design alternatives study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Sambeek, L.L. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (US); Luo, D.D.; Lin, M.S.; Ostrowski, W.; Oyenuga, D. [Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, Inc., San Francisco, CA (US)

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results from a study of various sealing alternatives for the WIPP sealing system. Overall, the sealing system has the purpose of reducing to the extent possible the potential for fluids (either gas or liquid) from entering or leaving the repository. The sealing system is divided into three subsystems: drift and panel seals within the repository horizon, shaft seals in each of the four shafts, and borehole seals. Alternatives to the baseline configuration for the WIPP seal system design included evaluating different geometries and schedules for seal component installations and the use of different materials for seal components. Order-of-magnitude costs for the various alternatives were prepared as part of the study. Firm recommendations are not presented, but the advantages and disadvantages of the alternatives are discussed. Technical information deficiencies are identified and studies are outlined which can provide required information.

  7. State alternative route designations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a ``state routing agency,`` defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective.

  8. State alternative route designations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a state routing agency,'' defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective.

  9. Alternative Design of Boat Fenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banke, Lars

    1996-01-01

    On offshore platforms the purpose of fenders is to protect the oil-risers against minor accidental collisions with supply vessels. Normally, the fender is designed by use of thin-walled tubes. However, the tube itself is not capable of resisting the impact load of the boat. Therefore, alternative...

  10. Comparison of Alternative Processes for Support Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Martínez-Álvarez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There are many tasks that revolve around combinatorial analysis problems, same tasks found in Decision Support Systems (DSS as most of these are responsible for assessing a number of possibilities to deliver the best options. Within the analysis of possible solutions is performed by the DSS there are alternative procedures inside the engine for making decisions that involve them. As part of these alternative procedures today has highlighted the use of metaheuristics, thus in this paper we propose a comparison of some of them trying to broaden the spectrum we have for the applications nowadays.

  11. Mixed oxide conversion facility alternative conceptual designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allied-General Nuclear Services recently performed studies to evaluate alternative proliferation-resistant flowsheets of the uranium-based LWR fuel cycle. The alternatives evaluated consist of coprocessing schemes with either a gamma or a heat spike added. A literature search and evaluation were performed to select a process technology for mixed oxide coconversion. The COPRECAL process was chosen as the most suitable conversion process technology. Three alternative mixed oxide conversion facility design concepts were prepared based on the COPRECAL technology. These alternative concepts are compared to a pure plutonium conversion facility. Facility designs, relative proliferation resistance, and cost estimates are discussed

  12. Modified Waste Emplacement Mode Design Alternative Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alternative emplacement modes presented in this report provide potential conceptual design options to the VA design that enhance human access to the emplacement drift area during abnormal events. The alternative conceptual designs emplace waste packages in configurations that reduce the level of radiation exposure utilizing shield doors, shield plugs, and concrete slabs to allow for human access during off-normal events. The alternative emplacements modes rank slightly lower than the VA design when evaluated against the eight criteria (i.e., postclosure performance; preclosure performance; assurance of safety; engineering acceptance, construction, operations and maintenance; schedule; cost and environmental considerations) presented in Section 5. However, the alternative emplacement modes allow the waste packages to be more accessible for human access to perform infrequent and unplanned events. The alternative emplacement modes were evaluated by a team of experts in assessing the confidence level that would be presented by each one of the design emplacement mode concepts (See Appendix A). The experts ranked the alternative emplacement mode concepts on a scale from A to E (i.e., A represents a high level of confidence and E represents the lowest level of confidence). The criteria in which the alternative modes were evaluated include the following: postclosure performance; preclosure performance; assurance of safety; engineering acceptance; construction, operations and maintenance; schedule; and cost. The results of the evaluation concluded that the alternative emplacement modes have a moderate level of confidence when evaluated against the selected criteria. Overall, the average rankings for the alternative emplacement modes presented in this report score below the VA reference design when analyzed against the evaluation criteria. Some limited calculations for the postclosure performance criteria were generated to determine the TSPA for each alternative

  13. Modified waste emplacement mode design alternative report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alternative emplacement modes presented in this report provide potential conceptual design options to the VA design that enhance human access to the emplacement drift area during abnormal events. The alternative conceptual designs emplace waste packages in configurations that reduce the level of radiation exposure utilizing shield doors, shield plugs, and concrete slabs to allow for human access during off-normal events. The alternative emplacements modes rank slightly lower than the VA design when evaluated against the eight criteria (i.e., postclosure performance; preclosure performance; assurance of safety; engineering acceptance, construction, operations and maintenance; schedule; cost and environmental considerations) presented in Section 5. However, the alternative emplacement modes allow the waste packages to be more accessible for human access to perform infrequent and unplanned events. The alternative emplacement modes were evaluated by a team of experts in assessing the confidence level that would be presented by each one of the design emplacement mode concepts (See Appendix A). The experts ranked the alternative emplacement mode concepts on a scale from A to E (i.e., A represents a high level of confidence and E represents the lowest level of confidence). The criteria in which the alternative modes were evaluated include the following: postclosure performance; preclosure performance; assurance of safety; engineering acceptance; construction, operations and maintenance; schedule; and cost. The results of the evaluation concluded that the alternative emplacement modes have a moderate level of confidence when evaluated against the selected criteria. Overall, the average rankings for the alternative emplacement modes presented in this report score below the VA reference design when analyzed against the evaluation criteria. Some limited calculations for the postclosure performance criteria were generated to determine the TSPA for each alternative

  14. Alternative Design of Postgraduate English Writing Course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芬

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an alternative design of postgraduate English writing course to meet the requirement of the current postgraduate English teaching reform.The author believes that efficiently-organized writing activities based on practical needs could refresh teaching frame- work and consequently assist postgraduates in English writing.

  15. Piled Embankment Design Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drusa Marián

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There are currently several national standards or regulations for the design of the piled embankment, providing suitable solutions for foundation of transport structure on soft, high compressible subsoil, [1]. The most widely used and the best-known standard is British Standard BS8006 [2], which was confronted with another analytical design methodologies (Ebgeo, CUR. Today’s popularity and versatility of FEM numerical models brings many advantages, which analytical methods cannot achieved, but must be verified by proposed scaled physical model, which was currently being developed by Department of Geotechnics, University of Žilina.

  16. Piled Embankment Design Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drusa, Marián; Kais, Ladislav; Vlček, Jozef; Mečár, Martin

    2015-05-01

    There are currently several national standards or regulations for the design of the piled embankment, providing suitable solutions for foundation of transport structure on soft, high compressible subsoil, [1]. The most widely used and the best-known standard is British Standard BS8006 [2], which was confronted with another analytical design methodologies (Ebgeo, CUR). Today's popularity and versatility of FEM numerical models brings many advantages, which analytical methods cannot achieved, but must be verified by proposed scaled physical model, which was currently being developed by Department of Geotechnics, University of Žilina.

  17. Optimization methods for alternative energy system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Michael Henry

    An electric vehicle heating system and a solar thermal coffee dryer are presented as case studies in alternative energy system design optimization. Design optimization tools are compared using these case studies, including linear programming, integer programming, and fuzzy integer programming. Although most decision variables in the designs of alternative energy systems are generally discrete (e.g., numbers of photovoltaic modules, thermal panels, layers of glazing in windows), the literature shows that the optimization methods used historically for design utilize continuous decision variables. Integer programming, used to find the optimal investment in conservation measures as a function of life cycle cost of an electric vehicle heating system, is compared to linear programming, demonstrating the importance of accounting for the discrete nature of design variables. The electric vehicle study shows that conservation methods similar to those used in building design, that reduce the overall UA of a 22 ft. electric shuttle bus from 488 to 202 (Btu/hr-F), can eliminate the need for fossil fuel heating systems when operating in the northeast United States. Fuzzy integer programming is presented as a means of accounting for imprecise design constraints such as being environmentally friendly in the optimization process. The solar thermal coffee dryer study focuses on a deep-bed design using unglazed thermal collectors (UTC). Experimental data from parchment coffee drying are gathered, including drying constants and equilibrium moisture. In this case, fuzzy linear programming is presented as a means of optimizing experimental procedures to produce the most information under imprecise constraints. Graphical optimization is used to show that for every 1 m2 deep-bed dryer, of 0.4 m depth, a UTC array consisting of 5, 1.1 m 2 panels, and a photovoltaic array consisting of 1, 0.25 m 2 panels produces the most dry coffee per dollar invested in the system. In general this study

  18. Incorporating risk attitude into comparison of reforestation alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By using the approach presented in this paper, the decision-maker's risk can be ascertained and taken into account in the comparison of reforestation alternatives of a forest stand. Risks which reforestation alternatives include are described using distributions of outcomes. Cardinal utility values of five accumulation points of cumulative distributions of outcomes, calculated without considering risk preferences, are the variables included in a preference function. The parameters of that additive preference function represent the importance of the accumulation points in the choice of the reforestation alternatives. They indicate the decision-maker's attitude towards risk. The parameters are estimated on the basis of pairwise comparisons between the importance of variables, using Saaty's eigenvalue method. Estimation, application, and interpretation of preference function are simple to carry out, which is important for an approach applied to practical decision-making. The approach could be applied also, for example, to other forestry decision-making problems. 42 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  19. Incorporating alternative design clinical trials in network meta-analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorlund K

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kristian Thorlund,1–3 Eric Druyts,1,4 Kabirraaj Toor,1,5 Jeroen P Jansen,1,6 Edward J Mills1,3 1Redwood Outcomes, Vancouver, BC, 2Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; 3Stanford Prevention Research Center, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA; 4Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, 5School of Population and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 6Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA Introduction: Network meta-analysis (NMA is an extension of conventional pairwise meta-analysis that allows for simultaneous comparison of multiple interventions. Well-established drug class efficacies have become commonplace in many disease areas. Thus, for reasons of ethics and equipoise, it is not practical to randomize patients to placebo or older drug classes. Unique randomized clinical trial designs are an attempt to navigate these obstacles. These alternative designs, however, pose challenges when attempting to incorporate data into NMAs. Using ulcerative colitis as an example, we illustrate an example of a method where data provided by these trials are used to populate treatment networks. Methods: We present the methods used to convert data from the PURSUIT trial into a typical parallel design for inclusion in our NMA. Data were required for three arms: golimumab 100 mg; golimumab 50 mg; and placebo. Golimumab 100 mg induction data were available; however, data regarding those individuals who were nonresponders at induction and those who were responders at maintenance were not reported, and as such, had to be imputed using data from the rerandomization phase. Golimumab 50 mg data regarding responses at week 6 were not available. Existing relationships between the available components were used to impute the expected proportions in this missing subpopulation. Data for placebo maintenance

  20. 46 CFR 177.340 - Alternate design considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternate design considerations. 177.340 Section 177.340... TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Hull Structure § 177.340 Alternate design considerations. When the... approved in accordance with §§ 177.300, 177.310 or 177.315, the structure may be approved by the...

  1. Digital Hardware Design Teaching: An Alternative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkrid, Khaled; Clayton, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the design and implementation of a complete review of undergraduate digital hardware design teaching in the School of Engineering at the University of Edinburgh. Four guiding principles have been used in this exercise: learning-outcome driven teaching, deep learning, affordability, and flexibility. This has identified…

  2. Designing oligo libraries taking alternative splicing into account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoshan, Avi; Grebinskiy, Vladimir; Magen, Avner; Scolnicov, Ariel; Fink, Eyal; Lehavi, David; Wasserman, Alon

    2001-06-01

    We have designed sequences for DNA microarrays and oligo libraries, taking alternative splicing into account. Alternative splicing is a common phenomenon, occurring in more than 25% of the human genes. In many cases, different splice variants have different functions, are expressed in different tissues or may indicate different stages of disease. When designing sequences for DNA microarrays or oligo libraries, it is very important to take into account the sequence information of all the mRNA transcripts. Therefore, when a gene has more than one transcript (as a result of alternative splicing, alternative promoter sites or alternative poly-adenylation sites), it is very important to take all of them into account in the design. We have used the LEADS transcriptome prediction system to cluster and assemble the human sequences in GenBank and design optimal oligonucleotides for all the human genes with a known mRNA sequence based on the LEADS predictions.

  3. Economic comparison of reforestation alternatives in La Hesperia Biological Station & Reserve, Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Nováková, Zuzana

    2014-01-01

    The master thesis presented an economic comparison of three reforestation alternatives of private natural reserve La Hesperia Biological Station & Reserve, Pichincha province, Ecuador; as well as the identification of the suitable plants and design of plantations or agroforestry plot considering the economic, environmental and social context. Data were collected during the period from September to December 2012 in the natural reserve La Hesperia Biological Station & Reserve through semi-struc...

  4. Practical design of alternating-phase-focused linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Jameson, R A

    2014-01-01

    Conventional magnetic transverse focusing in conventional linear accelerators represents a high fraction of their cost and complexity. Both transverse and longitudinal focusing can be obtained from the radio frequency field by using the technique known as Alternating Phase Focusing. The design of suitable sequences has been difficult, without direct theoretical support, inhibiting Alternating Phase Focusing adoption. Synthesis of reported details and new physics and technique result in a new, general method for designing practical Alternating Phase Focusing linear accelerators. Very long sequences with high energy gain factors are demonstrated, motivated by the desire to accelerate particles over a factor of 500-600 energy gain. The method is demonstrated with simple dynamics and no space charge, later incorporation of space charge and more accurate elements is straight forward. Alternating Phase Focusing can now be another practical approach in the linear accelerator designer repertoire. Alternating Phase Fo...

  5. Insights Gained from Testing Alternate Cell Designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. E. O' Brien; C. M. Stoots; J. S. Herring; G. K. Housley; M. S. Sohal; D. G. Milobar; Thomas Cable

    2009-09-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been researching the application of solid-oxide electrolysis cell for large-scale hydrogen production from steam over a temperature range of 800 to 900ºC. The INL has been testing various solid oxide cell designs to characterize their electrolytic performance operating in the electrolysis mode for hydrogen production. Some results presented in this report were obtained from cells, initially developed by the Forschungszentrum Jülich and now manufactured by the French ceramics firm St. Gobain. These cells have an active area of 16 cm2 per cell. They were initially developed as fuel cells, but are being tested as electrolytic cells in the INL test stands. The electrolysis cells are electrode-supported, with ~10 µm thick yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes, ~1400 µm thick nickel-YSZ steam-hydrogen electrodes, and manganite (LSM) air-oxygen electrodes. The experiments were performed over a range of steam inlet mole fractions (0.1 to 0.6), gas flow rates, and current densities (0 to 0.6 A/cm2). Steam consumption rates associated with electrolysis were measured directly using inlet and outlet dewpoint instrumentation. On a molar basis, the steam consumption rate is equal to the hydrogen production rate. Cell performance was evaluated by performing DC potential sweeps at 800, 850, and 900°C. The voltage-current characteristics are presented, along with values of area-specific resistance as a function of current density. Long-term cell performance is also assessed to evaluate cell degradation. Details of the custom single-cell test apparatus developed for these experiments are also presented. NASA, in conjunction with the University of Toledo, has developed another fuel cell concept with the goals of reduced weight and high power density. The NASA cell is structurally symmetrical, with both electrodes supporting the thin electrolyte and containing micro-channels for gas diffusion. This configuration is called a bi

  6. Part 2. Design and performance characteristics of alternative fuels and fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents performance characteristics of a wide range of fast breeder reactor designs and fuel cycle options to provide the bases for the study of alternatives that is the primary focus of the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. Since breeding performance is at the center of many of the feasibility questions connected with alternative forms of breeder development, particular attention was given to a consistent comparison between various alternatives and quantitative analyses that provide physical understanding of intrinsic differences in their breeding performance

  7. Comparison of LINAC-4 Designs

    CERN Document Server

    Crandall, K; Sargsyan, E; Lallement, J-B; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2009-01-01

    We have studied the expected performance of two drift tube linac (DTL) designs proposed for LINAC-4. The two designs use the same cell geometries but are characterized by different phase (φs) and accelerating field (E0) distributions. In addition we have investigated the expected performance of 3 different quadrupole focusing schemes in each design. The expected performance of these 6 variants is compared with respect to their stability and risk of beam loss with alignment errors.

  8. 46 CFR 116.340 - Alternate design considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ARRANGEMENT Hull Structure § 116.340 Alternate design considerations. The Commanding Officer, Marine Safety Center, may approve the structure of a vessel of novel design, unusual form, or special materials, which... principles that the vessel structure provides adequate safety and strength. An owner seeking approval of...

  9. Subsurface barrier design alternatives for confinement and controlled advection flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various technologies and designs are being considered to serve as subsurface barriers to confine or control contaminant migration from underground waste storage or disposal structures containing radioactive and hazardous wastes. Alternatives including direct-coupled flood and controlled advection designs are described as preconceptual examples. Prototype geotechnical equipment for testing and demonstration of these alternative designs tested at the Hanford Geotechnical Development and Test Facility and the Hanford Small-Tube Lysimeter Facility include mobile high-pressure injectors and pumps, mobile transport and pumping units, vibratory and impact pile drivers, and mobile batching systems. Preliminary laboratory testing of barrier materials and additive sequestering agents have been completed and are described

  10. The cost of ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass -- A comparison of selected alternative processes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grethlein, H.E.; Dill, T.

    1993-04-30

    The purpose of this report is to compare the cost of selected alternative processes for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol. In turn, this information will be used by the ARS/USDA to guide the management of research and development programs in biomass conversion. The report will identify where the cost leverages are for the selected alternatives and what performance parameters need to be achieved to improve the economics. The process alternatives considered here are not exhaustive, but are selected on the basis of having a reasonable potential in improving the economics of producing ethanol from biomass. When other alternatives come under consideration, they should be evaluated by the same methodology used in this report to give fair comparisons of opportunities. A generic plant design is developed for an annual production of 25 million gallons of anhydrous ethanol using corn stover as the model substrate at $30/dry ton. Standard chemical engineering techniques are used to give first order estimates of the capital and operating costs. Following the format of the corn to ethanol plant, there are nine sections to the plant; feed preparation, pretreatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation and dehydration, stillage evaporation, storage and denaturation, utilities, and enzyme production. There are three pretreatment alternatives considered: the AFEX process, the modified AFEX process (which is abbreviated as MAFEX), and the STAKETECH process. These all use enzymatic hydrolysis and so an enzyme production section is included in the plant. The STAKETECH is the only commercially available process among the alternative processes.

  11. A Comparison of Five Alternative Approaches to Information Systems Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Hirschheim

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available The field of information systems (IS has grown dramatically over the past three decades. Recent trends have transformed the IS landscape. These trends include: the evolution of implementation technology from centralized mainframe environments towards distributed client-server architectures, embracing the internet and intranets; changes in user interface technology from character-based to graphical user interfaces, multimedia, and the World Wide Web; changes in applications from transaction processing systems towards systems supporting collaborative work; and the use of information technology as an enabler of business process reengineering and redesign. These technology changes coupled with changes in organizations and their operating environment, such as the growth of the network and virtual organization, internationalization and globalization of many organizations, intensified global competition, changes in values such as customer orientation (service quality and Quality of Working Life, have imposed new demands on the development of information systems. These changes have led to an increasing discussion about information systems development (ISO, and in particular, the various methods, tools, methodologies, and approaches for ISD. We believe such discussion has opened the door for new, alternative IS development approaches and methodologies. Our paper takes up this theme by describing five alternative ISD approaches, namely the Interactionist approach, the Speech Act-based approach, Soft Systems Methodology, the Trade Unionist approach, and the Professional Work Practices approach. Despite the fact that most of these approaches have a history of over 15 years, their relevance to IS development is not well recognized in the mainstream of IS practice and research, nor is their institutional status comparable to traditional approaches such as structured analysis and design methods. Therefore we characterize the five approaches as 'alternative' in

  12. 29 CFR 2703.2 - Designated agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Designated agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official. 2703.2 Section 2703.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL... agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official. The Chairman shall appoint...

  13. An alternative tensiometer design for deep vadose zone monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, A. B.; Kandelous, M. M.; Hopmans, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    The conventional tensiometer is among the most accurate devices for soil water matric potential measurements, as well as for estimations of soil water flux from soil water potential gradients. Uncertainties associated with conventional tensiometers such as caused by ambient temperature effects and the draining of the tensiometer tube, as well as their limitation for deep soil monitoring has prevented their widespread use for vadose zone monitoring, despite their superior accuracy, in general. We introduce an alternative tensiometer design that offers the accuracy of the conventional tensiometer, while minimizing afore-mentioned uncertainties and limitations. The proposed alternative tensiometer largely eliminates temperature-induced diurnal fluctuations and uncertainties associated with the draining of the tensiometer tube, and removes the limitation in installation depth. In addition, the manufacturing costs of this alternative tensiometer design is close to that of the conventional tensiometer, while it is especially suited for monitoring of soil water potential gradients as required for soil water flux measurements.

  14. Optimized operation and design of alternating activated sludge processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukasse, L.J.S.; Keesman, K.J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation study with the scope to optimise the plant design and operation strategy of 2-reactors alternating activated sludge processes with only flow schedule and aeration on/off as control inputs. The methodology is to simulate the application of receding horizon optimal con

  15. Arizona Public Service - Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James E. Francfort

    2003-12-01

    Hydrogen has promise to be the fuel of the future. Its use as a chemical reagent and as a rocket propellant has grown to over eight million metric tons per year in the United States. Although use of hydrogen is abundant, it has not been used extensively as a transportation fuel. To assess the viability of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and the viability of producing hydrogen using off-peak electric energy, Pinnacle West Capital Corporation (PNW) and its electric utility subsidiary, Arizona Public Service (APS) designed, constructed, and operates a hydrogen and compressed natural gas fueling station—the APS Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant. This report summarizes the design of the APS Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant and presents lessons learned from its design and construction. Electric Transportation Applications prepared this report under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory manages these activities for the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity.

  16. Comparison of alternative improved perturbative methods for nonlinear oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amore, Paolo [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal Diaz del Castillo 340, Colima (Mexico)]. E-mail: paolo@ucol.mx; Raya, Alfredo [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal Diaz del Castillo 340, Colima (Mexico); Fernandez, Francisco M. [INIFTA (Conicet, UNLP), Diag. 113 y 64 S/N, Sucursal 4, Casilla de Correo 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2005-06-06

    We discuss and compare two alternative perturbation approaches for the calculation of the period of nonlinear systems based on the Lindstedt-Poincare technique. As illustrative examples we choose one-dimensional anharmonic oscillators and the Van der Pol equation. Our results show that each approach is better for just one type of model considered here.

  17. An Evaluation of Alternative Designs for a Grid Information Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Warren; Waheed, Abdul; Meyers, David; Yan, Jerry; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Globus information service wasn't working well. There were many updates of data from Globus daemons which saturated the single server and users couldn't retrieve information. We created a second server for NASA and Alliance. Things were great on that server, but a bit slow on the other server. We needed to know exactly how the information service was being used. What were the best servers and configurations? This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the evaluation of alternative designs for a Grid Information Service. Details are given on the workload characterization, methodology used, and the performance evaluation.

  18. 31 CFR 0.104 - Designated Agency Ethics Official and Alternate Designated Agency Ethics Official.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Standards and Treasury Supplemental Standards and Rules. See 5 CFR 2638.203. The Senior Counsel for Ethics... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Designated Agency Ethics Official and Alternate Designated Agency Ethics Official. 0.104 Section 0.104 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of...

  19. Creating an alternative design for ASITA Corporate identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Elise

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to find the solution to the problem outlined,which is to create an alternative design for corporate identity of ASITA. ASITA is anonprofit organization to foster tour and travel agencies in Indonesia.The writer had conducted interview to the ASITA Jakarta Chapter, whichwas appointed to represent ASITA in providing the data needed by the writer. Thewriter interviewed the advisor of the organization, Mrs. Meity Robot, which had onceserved as chairperson of ASITA.The result of the research is new corporate identity system of ASITA basedon a concept that ASITA as an organization, serves as a compass that guides andassists in every directions.The writer found that corporate identity is an important element to definean organization as well as giving impact on its first impression. To create goodcorporate identity, several things such as elements of design, color, typography, etc.need to be put into attention.

  20. An alternative LEU design for the FRM-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Alternative LEU Design for the FRM-II proposed by the RERTR Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has a compact core consisting of a single fuel element that uses LEU silicide fuel with a uranium density of 4.5 g/cm3 and has a power level of 32 MW. Both the HEU design by the Technical University of Munich (TUM) and the alternative LEU design by ANL have the same fuel lifetime (50 days) and the same neutron flux performance (8 x 1014 n/cm2/s in the reflector). LEU silicide fuel with 4.5 g/cm3 has been thoroughly tested and is fully-qualified, licensable, and available now for use in a high flux reactor such as the FRM-II. The following issues raised by TUM were addressed: qualification of HEU and LEU silicide fuels, gamma heating in the heavy water reflector, radiological consequences of larger fission product and plutonium inventories in the LEU core, and cost and schedule. The conclusions of these analyses are summarized below. This paper addresses three additional safety issues that were raised by TUM: stability of the involute fuel plates, a hypothetical accident involving the configuration of the reflector, and a loss of primary coolant flow transient due to an interrupted power supply. Calculations were also done to address the possibility that new high density fuels could be developed that would allow conversion of the TUM HEU design to LEU fuel. Based on the excellent results for the Alternative LEU Design that were obtained in these analyses, the RERTR Program concludes that all of the major technical issues regarding use of LEU fuel instead of HEU fuel in the FRM-II have been successfully resolved and that it is definitely feasible to use LEU fuel in the FRM-II without compromising the safety or performance of the facility. In this regard, the RERTR Program would like to reiterate its strong support for construction of the FRM-II reactor using LEU silicide fuel and its readiness to exchange information with the TUM to resolve any technical

  1. Commercial and economic comparison of traditional and alternative fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořáková, Monika

    2010-01-01

    Negative predictions about oil stocks combined with the instability in the Middle East encourage development of alternative fuels, which would reduce dependence of the world's economies on oil. The oil and petroleum derivatives are the main dependencies for vehicular traffic, which contributes to the greenhouse gas emissions by a large part. It is therefore necessary to focus on trying to reduce the fuel consumption of cars used for personal transportation. One way to achieve this goal is, fo...

  2. A life-cycle comparison of alternative automobile fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, H L; Lave, L B; Lankey, R; Joshi, S

    2000-10-01

    We examine the life cycles of gasoline, diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), and ethanol (C2H5OH)-fueled internal combustion engine (ICE) automobiles. Port and direct injection and spark and compression ignition engines are examined. We investigate diesel fuel from both petroleum and biosources as well as C2H5OH from corn, herbaceous bio-mass, and woody biomass. The baseline vehicle is a gasoline-fueled 1998 Ford Taurus. We optimize the other fuel/powertrain combinations for each specific fuel as a part of making the vehicles comparable to the baseline in terms of range, emissions level, and vehicle lifetime. Life-cycle calculations are done using the economic input-output life-cycle analysis (EIO-LCA) software; fuel cycles and vehicle end-of-life stages are based on published model results. We find that recent advances in gasoline vehicles, the low petroleum price, and the extensive gasoline infrastructure make it difficult for any alternative fuel to become commercially viable. The most attractive alternative fuel is compressed natural gas because it is less expensive than gasoline, has lower regulated pollutant and toxics emissions, produces less greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and is available in North America in large quantities. However, the bulk and weight of gas storage cylinders required for the vehicle to attain a range comparable to that of gasoline vehicles necessitates a redesign of the engine and chassis. Additional natural gas transportation and distribution infrastructure is required for large-scale use of natural gas for transportation. Diesel engines are extremely attractive in terms of energy efficiency, but expert judgment is divided on whether these engines will be able to meet strict emissions standards, even with reformulated fuel. The attractiveness of direct injection engines depends on their being able to meet strict emissions standards without losing their greater efficiency. Biofuels offer lower GHG emissions, are sustainable, and

  3. A Cost Comparison of Alternative Approaches to Distance Education in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventre, Gerard G.; Kalu, Alex

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a cost comparison of three approaches to two-way interactive distance learning systems for developing countries. Included are costs for distance learning hardware, terrestrial and satellite communication links, and designing instruction for two-way interactive courses. As part of this project, FSEC is developing a 30-hour course in photovoltaic system design that will be used in a variety of experiments using the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS). A primary goal of the project is to develop an instructional design and delivery model that can be used for other education and training programs. Over two-thirds of the world photovoltaics market is in developing countries. One of the objectives of this NASA-sponsored project was to develop new and better energy education programs that take advantage of advances in telecommunications and computer technology. The combination of desktop video systems and the sharing of computer applications software is of special interest. Research is being performed to evaluate the effectiveness of some of these technologies as part of this project. The design of the distance learning origination and receive sites discussed in this paper were influenced by the educational community's growing interest in distance education. The following approach was used to develop comparative costs for delivering interactive distance education to developing countries: (1) Representative target locations for receive sites were chosen. The originating site was assumed to be Cocoa, Florida, where FSEC is located; (2) A range of course development costs were determined; (3) The cost of equipment for three alternative two-way interactive distance learning system configurations was determined or estimated. The types of system configurations ranged from a PC-based system that allows instructors to originate instruction from their office using desktop video and shared application software, to a high cost system that uses a

  4. Code comparison for accelerator design and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a comparison between results obtained from standard accelerator physics codes used for the design and analysis of sychrotrons and storage rings, with programs SYNCH, MAD, HARMON, PATRICIA, PATPET, BETA, DIMAD, MARYLIE and RACETRACK. In the analysis the authors have considered 5 (various size) lattices with large and small bend angles including AGS Booster (10 degrees bend) RHIC (2.24 degrees), SXLS, XLS (XUV ring with 45 degrees bend) and X-RAY rings. The differences in the integration methods used and the treatment of the fringe fields in these codes could lead to different results. The inclusion of nonlinear (e.g. dipole) terms may be necessary in these calculations specially for a small ring

  5. Code comparison for accelerator design and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a comparison between results obtained from standard accelerator physics codes used for the design and analysis of synchrotrons and storage rings, with programs SYNCH, MAD, HARMON, PATRICIA, PATPET, BETA, DIMAD, MARYLIE and RACE-TRACK. In our analysis we have considered 5 (various size) lattices with large and small angles including AGS Booster (10/degree/ bend), RHIC (2.24/degree/), SXLS, XLS (XUV ring with 45/degree/ bend) and X-RAY rings. The differences in the integration methods used and the treatment of the fringe fields in these codes could lead to different results. The inclusion of nonlinear (e.g., dipole) terms may be necessary in these calculations specially for a small ring. 12 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs

  6. Cost comparison of the satellite power system and six alternative technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolsko, T.; Samsa, M.

    1981-04-01

    A framework is described for comparing the Satellite Power System (SPS) with various projected alternative energy sources on the basis of technical possibility, economic viability, and social and environmental acceptability. Each of the following energy sources is briefly described: conventional coal, light water reactor, coal gasification/combined cycle, liquid-metal fast-breeder reactor, central station terrestrial photovoltaic, fusion, and the SPS. The analysis consists of comparison of characterizations, side-by-side analysis, and alternative futures analysis. (LEW)

  7. The study, design and simulation of a free piston Stirling engine linear alternatorThe study, design and simulation of a free piston Stirling engine linear alternator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Susana Oros

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study, design and simulation of a Free Piston Stirling Engine Linear Alternator. There are presented the main steps of the magnetic and electric calculations for a permanent magnet linear alternator of fixed coil and moving magnets type. Finally, a detailed thermal, mechanical and electrical model for a Stirling engine linear alternator have been made in SIMULINK simulation program. The linear alternator simulation model uses a controllable DC voltage which simulates the linear alternator combined with a rectifier, a variable load and a DC-DC converter, which compensates for the variable nature of Stirling engine operation, and ensures a constant voltage output regardless of the load.

  8. Alternatives for the battery cage system: a comparison of economic, environmental and societal performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijpp, van der A.J.; Mollenhorst, H.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    The ban on the battery cage system in the European Union after 2012, mainly due to impaired hen welfare, forces farmers to change to alternative housing systems for laying hens. Large-scale introduction of more hen-friendly systems, however, requires a comparison of these systems on their economic,

  9. Stiffness analysis and comparison of a Biglide parallel grinder with alternative spatial modular parallelograms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Guanglei; Zou, Ping

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the stiffness modeling, analysis and comparison of a Biglide parallel grinder with two alternative modular parallelograms. It turns out that the Cartesian stiffness matrix of the manipulator has the property that it can be decoupled into two homogeneous matrices, correspondi...

  10. An alternative parameterization of Bayesian logistic hierarchical models for mixed treatment comparisons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pechlivanoglou, Petros; Abegaz, Fentaw; Postma, Maarten J; Wit, Ernst

    2015-01-01

    Mixed treatment comparison (MTC) models rely on estimates of relative effectiveness from randomized clinical trials so as to respect randomization across treatment arms. This approach could potentially be simplified by an alternative parameterization of the way effectiveness is modeled. We introduce

  11. Values-led Participatory Design as a pursuit of meaningful alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leong, Tuck Wah; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    2015-01-01

    Participatory Design (PD) is inherently concerned with inquiring into and supporting human values when designing IT. We argue that a PD approach that is led by a focus upon participants' values can allow participants to discover meaningful alternatives -- alternative uses and alternative conceptu......Participatory Design (PD) is inherently concerned with inquiring into and supporting human values when designing IT. We argue that a PD approach that is led by a focus upon participants' values can allow participants to discover meaningful alternatives -- alternative uses and alternative...... conceptualizations for IT that are particularly meaningful to them. However, how PD works with values in the design process has not been made explicit. In this paper, we aim to (i) explicate this values-led PD approach, (ii) illustrate how this approach can lead to outcomes that are meaningful alternatives, and (iii...

  12. Alternative design for extremely large telescopes and options to use the VATT for ELT design demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Mark R.; McGraw, John T.; Zimmer, Peter C.

    2013-12-01

    A variety of optical designs for extremely large telescopes (ELTs) can be found throughout the technical literature. Most feature very fast primary mirrors of either conic or spherical figure. For those designs with conic primary mirrors, many of the optical approaches tend to be derivatives of either the aplanatic Cassegrain or Gregorian systems. The Cassegrain approach is more common as it results in a shorter optical system, but it requires a large convex aspheric secondary mirror, which is extremely difficult and expensive to test. The Gregorian approach is physically longer and suffers from greater field curvature. In some design variations, additional mirrors are added to reimage and possibly flatten a Cassegrain focus. An interesting alternative ELT design uses a small Cassegrain system to image the collimated output of a Gregorian-Mersenne concentrator. Another alternative approach, currently in favor for use on the European ELT, uses three powered mirrors and two flat mirrors to reimage a Cassegrain focus out the side similar to a Nasmyth system. A preliminary examination suggests that a small, fast primary mirror, such as that used on the VATT, might be used for a subscale prototype of current ELT optical design options.

  13. One shots and alternatives in synchronous digital system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Undesirable features of nonostable multivibrators (one shots) in digital integrated circuits are described and some alternatives to their use are discussed. These include flip-flops and gates, delay lines, and other methods

  14. Modular Design/Phased Construction Alternative Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartztrauber, K.

    1999-05-28

    Modular design concepts are being considered for the license application during the surface facility design phase of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). The Viability Assessment (VA) design is used as the reference design for the report. The primary objectives are to spread construction of the WHB and the subsurface repository over time to reduce annual project costs, and to provide a cost-effective design for the surface facilities that supports waste emplacement starting in the year 2010.

  15. Comparison of Problem Solving from Engineering Design to Software Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema; Babar, Muhammad Ali

    2012-01-01

    Observational studies of engineering design activities can inform the research community on the problem solving models that are employed by professional engineers. Design is defined as an ill-defined problem which includes both engineering design and software design, hence understanding problem...... solving models from other design domains is of interest to the engineering design community. For this paper an observational study of two software design sessions performed for the workshop on “Studying professional Software Design” is compared to analysis from engineering design. These findings provide...... useful insights of how software designers move from a problem domain to a solution domain and the commonalities between software designers’ and engineering designers’ design activities. The software designers were found to move quickly to a detailed design phase, employ co-.evolution and adopt...

  16. Application of the Fuzzy Comprehensive Assessment Technique to Optimal Selection of Pipeline Design Alternative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChuFeixue; ChuYanfan; LiuXiumin

    2005-01-01

    Regarding the influencing factors in an optimal selection of pipeline design alternative as fuzzy variables with different weights, a fuzzy comprehensive assessment was applied to an optimal selection of the design alternative. Giving the Lanzhou-Chengdu pipeline as an example to explain the process, the result shows that this method is acceptable.

  17. Comparison of three ICF reactor designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three concepts for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactors are described and compared with each other, and with magnetic fusion and fission reactors on the basis of environmental impact, safety and efficiency. The critical technical developments of each concept are described. The three concepts represent alternative development paths for inertial fusion

  18. The Validity and Precision of the Comparative Interrupted Time-Series Design: Three Within-Study Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Clair, Travis; Hallberg, Kelly; Cook, Thomas D.

    2016-01-01

    We explore the conditions under which short, comparative interrupted time-series (CITS) designs represent valid alternatives to randomized experiments in educational evaluations. To do so, we conduct three within-study comparisons, each of which uses a unique data set to test the validity of the CITS design by comparing its causal estimates to…

  19. Implications of solar energy alternatives for community design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, A.; Steinitz, C.

    1980-06-01

    A graduate-level studio at the Harvard School of Design explored how a policy of solar-based energy independence will influence the design of a new community of approximately 4500 housing units and other uses. Three large sites outside Tucson (a cooling problem), Atlanta (a humidity problem), and Boston (a heating problem) were selected. Each is typical of its region. A single program was assumed and designed for. Each site had two teams, one following a compact approach and one following a more dispersed approach. Each was free to choose the most appropriate mix of (solar) technology and scale, and was free to integrate energy and community in the design as it saw fit. These choice and integration issues are key areas where our experience may be of interest to those involved in community design and solar energy.

  20. Tree Component Alternatives to the Composite Design Pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Sudhir, Arun

    2008-01-01

    The Composite design pattern is commonly employed in object-oriented languages to design a system of objects that form a part-whole hierarchical structure with composite objects formed out of primitive objects. The client does not differentiate between a composite object and a primitive object. The composite hierarchy effectively forms a tree-like hierarchical grouping of objects. From a software engineering perspective, there are at least two problems with the Composite pattern. First, it do...

  1. Designing medical and educational intervention studies. A review of some alternatives to conventional randomized controlled trials

    OpenAIRE

    Bradley, Clare

    1993-01-01

    The advantages and limitations of RCT designs are discussed, and a range of alternative designs for medical and educational intervention studies considered. Designs selected are those that address the much neglected psychological issues involved in the recruitment of patients and allocation of patients to treatments within trials. Designs include Zelen's (18) randomized consent design, Brewin and Bradley's (20) partially randomized patient-centered design, and Korn and Baumrind's (21) partial...

  2. Alternative Spring Break at the Savannah College of Art and Design: Engaging Art and Design Students in Community Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoey, J. Joseph; Feld-Gore, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter describes the impact of an alternative spring break program on students at the Savannah College of Art and Design over a set of years as well as its effectiveness as a service-learning tool.

  3. ALTERNATE MATERIALS IN DESIGN OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2010-07-09

    This paper presents a summary of design and testing of material and composites for use in radioactive material packages. These materials provide thermal protection and provide structural integrity and energy absorption to the package during normal and hypothetical accident condition events as required by Title 10 Part 71 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Testing of packages comprising these materials is summarized.

  4. Designing with transparency: Case studies for alternatives to glazing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antoniadi, K.; Tanuharja, M.K.

    2014-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0533 Innovation & Sustainability. Transparency is an important parameter for many architectural buildings. The need for a large percentage of a transparent envelope often contradicts with other conditions (like thermal or acoustic insulation

  5. Design element alternatives for stress-management intervention websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Reg A; Gatien, Gary; Hagerty, Bonnie

    2011-01-01

    Typical public and military-sponsored websites on stress and depression tend to be prescriptive. Some require users to complete lengthy questionnaires. Others reproduce printed flyers, papers, or educational materials not adapted for online use. Some websites require users to follow a prescribed path through the material. Stress Gym was developed as a first-level, evidence-based, website intervention to help U.S. military members learn how to manage mild to moderate stress and depressive symptoms using a self-help intervention with progress tracking and 24/7 availablility. It was designed using web-based, health-management intervention design elements that have been proven effective and users reported they prefer. These included interactivity, self-pacing, and pleasing aesthetics. Users learned how to manage stress by accessing modules they choose, and by practicing proven stress management strategies interactively immediately after login. Test results of Stress Gym with Navy members demonstrated that it was effective, with significant decreases in reported perceived stress levels from baseline to follow-up assessment. Stress Gym used design elements that may serve as a model for future websites to emulate and improve upon, and as a template against which to compare and contrast the design and functionality of future online, health-intervention websites. PMID:21684565

  6. Designing experiments and analyzing data a model comparison perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Maxwell, Scott E

    2013-01-01

    Through this book's unique model comparison approach, students and researchers are introduced to a set of fundamental principles for analyzing data. After seeing how these principles can be applied in simple designs, students are shown how these same principles also apply in more complicated designs. Drs. Maxwell and Delaney believe that the model comparison approach better prepares students to understand the logic behind a general strategy of data analysis appropriate for various designs; and builds a stronger foundation, which allows for the introduction of more complex topics omitt

  7. Alternatives generation and analysis for phase I intermediate waste feed staging system design requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton, M.D.

    1996-10-02

    This document provides; a decision analysis summary; problem statement; constraints, requirements, and assumptions; decision criteria; intermediate waste feed staging system options and alternatives generation and screening; intermediate waste feed staging system design concepts; intermediate waste feed staging system alternative evaluation and analysis; and open issues and actions.

  8. Comparisons of luminaires: Efficacies and system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, L. D.; Both, A. J.

    1994-03-01

    Lighting designs for architectural (aesthetic) purposes, vision and safety, and plant growth have many features in common but several crucial ones that are not. The human eye is very sensitive to the color (wavelength) of light, whereas plants are less so. There are morphological reactions, particularly to the red and blue portions of the light spectrum but, in general, plants appear to accept and use light for photosynthesis everywhere over the PAR region of the spectrum. In contrast, the human eye interprets light intensity on a logarithmic scale, making people insensitive to significant differences of light intensity. As a rough rule, light intensity must change by 30 to 50% for the human eye to recognize the difference. Plants respond much more linearly to light energy, at least at intensities below photosynthetic saturation. Thus, intensity differences not noticeable to the human eye can have significant effects on total plant growth and yield, and crop timing. These factors make luminaire selection and lighting system design particularly important when designing supplemental lighting systems for plant growth. Supplemental lighting for plant growth on the scale of commercial greenhouses is a relatively expensive undertaking. Light intensities are often much higher than required for task (vision) lighting, which increases both installation and operating costs. However, and especially in the northern regions of the United States (and Canada, Europe, etc.), supplemental lighting during winter may be necessary to produce certain crops (e.g., tomatoes) and very useful to achieve full plant growth potential and crop timing with most other greenhouse crops. Operating costs over the life of a luminaire typically will exceed the initial investment, making lighting efficacy a major consideration. This report reviews tests completed to evaluate the efficiencies of various commercially-available High-Pressure Sodium luminaires, and then describes the results of using a

  9. Alternative Design for Visual Identity of Yayasan Batik Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puspita Putri Nugroho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The research objective is to create a logo as the main visual identity. It is together with the graphic elements to support the overall visual identity of the organization and also apply the corporate identity to various applications to effectively foster the professional and trustworthy image of the organization as the foundation in Indonesia aiming for preserving and advancing Batik as the national asset. The writer used qualitative and quantitative method. Qualitative method included Face-to-face interview with the vice secretary of YBI, e-mail interview with the previous logo designer and direct survey to Textile Museum Jakarta and Batik Gallery; and Quantitative method through online survey. The result of the project is a new visual identity for Yayasan Batik Indonesia, which portrays its vision and mission. Design is the core in attaining an advantageous visual identity that could portray the image of the respected organization. When a consistency is applied through the whole visual identity, professional character of the organization is achieved.

  10. A Comparison of Alternative Distributed Dynamic Cluster Formation Techniques for Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Mohammad; Brennan, Robert W

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate alternative distributed clustering techniques for wireless sensor node tracking in an industrial environment. The research builds on extant work on wireless sensor node clustering by reporting on: (1) the development of a novel distributed management approach for tracking mobile nodes in an industrial wireless sensor network; and (2) an objective comparison of alternative cluster management approaches for wireless sensor networks. To perform this comparison, we focus on two main clustering approaches proposed in the literature: pre-defined clusters and ad hoc clusters. These approaches are compared in the context of their reconfigurability: more specifically, we investigate the trade-off between the cost and the effectiveness of competing strategies aimed at adapting to changes in the sensing environment. To support this work, we introduce three new metrics: a cost/efficiency measure, a performance measure, and a resource consumption measure. The results of our experiments show that ad hoc clusters adapt more readily to changes in the sensing environment, but this higher level of adaptability is at the cost of overall efficiency. PMID:26751447

  11. Lentiviral vector design using alternative RNA export elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Frank

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lentiviral vectors have been designed with complex RNA export sequences in both the integrating and packaging plasmids in order to co-ordinate efficient vector production. Recent studies have attempted to replace the existing complex rev/RRE system with a more simplistic RNA export system from simple retroviruses to make these vectors in a rev-independent manner. Results Towards this end, lentiviral transfer plasmids were modified with various cis-acting DNA elements that co-ordinate RNA export during viral production to determine their ability to affect the efficiency of vector titer and transduction in different immortalized cell lines in vitro. It was found that multiple copies of the constitutive transport element (CTE originating from different simian retroviruses, including simian retrovirus type 1 (SRV-1 and type-2 (SRV-2 and Mason-Pfizer (MPV could be used to eliminate the requirement for the rev responsive element (RRE in the transfer and packaging plasmids with titers >106 T.U./mL (n = 4–8 preparations. The addition of multiple copies of the murine intracisternal type A particle, the woodchuck post-regulatory element (WPRE, or single and dual copies of the simian CTE had minimal effect on viral titer. Immortalized cell lines from different species were found to be readily transduced by VSV-G pseudotyped lentiviral vectors containing the multiple copies of the CTE similar to the findings in HeLa cells, although the simian-derived CTE were found to have a lower infectivity into murine cell lines compared to the other species. Conclusion These studies demonstrated that the rev-responsive element (RRE could be replaced with other constitutive transport elements to produce equivalent titers using lentivectors containing the RRE sequence in vitro, but that concatemerization of the CTE or the close proximity of RNA export sequences was needed to enhance vector production.

  12. Evaluation and comparison of alternative fleet-level selective maintenance models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleet-level selective maintenance refers to the process of identifying the subset of maintenance actions to perform on a fleet of repairable systems when the maintenance resources allocated to the fleet are insufficient for performing all desirable maintenance actions. The original fleet-level selective maintenance model is designed to maximize the probability that all missions in a future set are completed successfully. We extend this model in several ways. First, we consider a cost-based optimization model and show that a special case of this model maximizes the expected value of the number of successful missions in the future set. We also consider the situation in which one or more of the future missions may be canceled. These models and the original fleet-level selective maintenance optimization models are nonlinear. Therefore, we also consider an alternative model in which the objective function can be linearized. We show that the alternative model is a good approximation to the other models. - Highlights: • Investigate nonlinear fleet-level selective maintenance optimization models. • A cost based model is used to maximize the expected number of successful missions. • Another model is allowed to cancel missions if reliability is sufficiently low. • An alternative model has an objective function that can be linearized. • We show that the alternative model is a good approximation to the other models

  13. Radiant coolers - Theory, flight histories, design comparisons and future applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohoe, M. J.; Sherman, A.; Hickman, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    Radiant coolers have been developed for application to the cooling of infrared detectors aboard NASA earth observation systems and as part of the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program. The prime design constraints for these coolers are the location of the cooler aboard the satellite and the satellite orbit. Flight data from several coolers indicates that, in general, design temperatures are achieved. However, potential problems relative to the contamination of cold surfaces are also revealed by the data. A comparison among the various cooler designs and flight performances indicates design improvements that can minimize the contamination problem in the future.

  14. Privacy by Design: An alternative to existing practice in safeguarding privacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout, M.J. van; Kool, L.; Schoonhoven, B. van; Jonge, M. de

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop/elaborate the concept Privacy by Design (PbD) and to explore the validity of the PbD framework. Design/methodology/approach: Attention for alternative concepts, such as PbD, which might offer surplus value in safeguarding privacy, is growing. Using Pb

  15. Detailed design, fabrication and testing of an engineering prototype compensated pulsed alternator. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design, fabrication, and test results of a prototype compensated pulsed alternator are discussed. The prototype compulsator is a vertical shaft single phase alternator with a rotating armature and salient pole stator. The machine is designed for low rep rate pulsed duty and is sized to drive a modified 10 cm Beta amplifier. The load consists of sixteen 15 mm x 20 mm x 112 cm long xenon flashlamps connected in parallel. The prototype compulsator generates an open circuit voltage of 6 kV, 180 Hz, at a maximum design speed of 5400 rpm. At maximum speed, the inertial energy stored in the compulsator rotor is 3.4 megajoules

  16. Design of sustainable chemical processes: Systematic retrofit analysis, generation and evaluation alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, Ana; Gani, Rafiqul; Matos, Henrique

    2008-01-01

    -aided tool has been developed to facilitate the calculations needed for the application of the methodology. The application of the indicator-based methodology and the developed software are highlighted through a process flowsheet for the production of vinyl chlorine monomer (VCM).......The objective of this paper is to present a generic and systematic methodology for identifying the feasible retrofit design alternatives of any chemical process. The methodology determines a set of mass and energy indicators from steady-state process data, establishes the operational and design...... targets, and through a sensitivity-based analysis, identifies the design alternatives that can match a set of design targets. The significance of this indicator-based method is that it is able to identify alternatives, where one or more performance criteria (factors) move in the same direction thereby...

  17. Design of batch operations: Systematic methodology for generation and analysis of sustainable alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, Ana; Matos, Henrique A.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a new methodology that is able to generate, screen and identify sustainable alternatives to continuous chemical processes as well as processes operating in the batch mode. The methodology generates the sustainable (design) alternatives by locating...... processes are described, highlighting the main differences between them. Through two case studies, the application of the methodology, to obtain sustainable design alternatives for batch plants, is highlighted....... the operational, environmental, economical and safety related problems inherent in the process (batch or continuous). Alternatives that are more sustainable, compared to a reference, are generated and evaluated by addressing one or more of the identified problems. A decomposition technique as well as a set...

  18. INTELLIGENT SIMULATION FOR ALTERNATIVES COMPARISON AND APPLICATION TO AIR TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Hung CHEN; Donghai HE

    2005-01-01

    We present a simulation run allocation scheme for improving efficiency in simulation experiments for decision making under uncertainty. This scheme is called Optimal Computing Budget Allocation (OCBA). OCBA advances the state-of-the-art by intelligently allocating a computing budget to the candidate alternatives under evaluation. The basic idea is to spend less computational effort on simulating non-critical alternatives to save computation cost. In particular, OCBA is employed to intelligently provide the smallest number of simulation runs for a desired accuracy. In this paper, we present a new and more general OCBA scheme which can consider cases that users are interested not only the best design, but also any one in a good design set. In addition, this paper also presents the application of our OCBA to a design problem in US air traffic management. The national air traffic system in US is modeled as a large, complex, and stochastic network. The numerical examples show that the computation time can be reduced by 54% to 88% with the use of OCBA.

  19. The Design of Treatment Wetlands in the United Kingdom: Successes, Failures, and Alternative Approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Guangzhi; ZHANG Guangxin

    2008-01-01

    Constructed wetland was first introduced into the United Kingdom in the middle of 1980s, following a visit by a group of scientist to Western Germany. In the past 2 decades, the applications of constructed wetlands in this country have expanded substantially, due to the demand for green technologies and rising cost of fossil fuel energies. This paper reported a statistical investigation of the performances of 78 horizontal flow wetlands, representatives of such system in the United Kingdom. Alternative design equations, based on organic matter removal efficiency, have been developed from Monod kinetics, and the accuracy and reliability of current and alternative design approaches have been examined.

  20. Comparison of Alternatives to the 2004 Vacuum Vessel Heat Transfer System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoder Jr, Graydon L [ORNL; Carbajo, Juan J [ORNL; Kim, Seokho H [ORNL

    2010-12-01

    A study comparing different alternatives for the Vacuum Vessel Primary Heat Transfer System has been completed. Three alternatives were proposed in a Project Change Request (PCR-190) by relocating the heat exchangers (HXs) from the roof of the Tokamak building to inside the Vacuum Vessel Pressure Suppression System (VVPSS) tank. The study evaluated the three alternatives and recommended modifications to one of them to arrive at a preferred configuration that included relocating the HXs inside the Tokamak building but outside the VVPSS tank as well as including a small safety-rated pump and HX in parallel to the main circulation pump and HX. The Vacuum Vessel (VV) Primary Heat Transfer System (PHTS) removes heat generated in the VV during normal operation (10 MW, pulsed power) as well as the decay heat from the VV itself and from the structures/components attached to the VV (first wall, blanket, and divertor {approx}0.48 MW peak). Therefore, the VV PHTS has two safety functions: (1) contain contaminated cooling water (similar to the other PHTSs) and (2) provide passive cooling during an accident event. The 2004 design of the VV PHTS consists of two independent loops, each loop cooling half of the 18 VV segments with a nominal flow of 475 kg/s of water at about 1.1 MPa and 100 C. The total flow for both loops is 950 kg/s. Both loops are required to remove the heat load during normal plasma operation. During accident conditions, only one loop is needed to remove by natural convection (no pump needed) the decay heat of the complete VV and attached components. The heat is transferred to heat exchanger (HXs) located on top of the roof, outside the Tokamak building. These HXs are air-to-water (A/W) HXs. Three alternatives have been proposed for this cooling system. For a detailed discussion of these alternatives, please refer to Project Change Request, PCR-190 (Ref. 1). A brief introduction is given here. Alternative 1 includes only one main forced circulation loop with a

  1. Designing an aerobic exercise training in water as an alternative treatment for depression: A new method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Mohammadiyoun

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A highly disruptive emotional disorder is major depression, characterized by abnormal regulation of feelings of sadness and happiness. Traditional treatment for depression was pharmacological treatment. One alternative that has been shown to be effective in alleviating depression is physical activity. Previous observation and interventional studies have suggested that regular aerobic exercise reduced symptoms of depression. Moreover physical activity and exercise in water may have some beneficial effects on mood. However the purpose of this investigation was to design an aerobic exercise pattern in water and evaluate the effects of this pattern on depression.Methods and Materials: Two hundred and forty-nine male undergraduates allocated for this study. The Beck Depression Inventory was used to measure the presence and degree of depression. Fifty –two males (body mass, 67.8  9.3 kg; height, 1.73  0.04 m; age, 22.26  2.4 who obtained a depressive score more than 18 participated in an aerobic exercise program. The aerobic exercise program included unstructured water- polo sessions, 60 minute duration, three times per week for seven weeks. The participants trained at 60-70 % of maximum heart rate. The Beck Depression Inventory was administered before aerobic exercise training, at the first, twelfth, and twenty- first sessions. Results: Analysis of variance with repeated measures (ANOVA showed that levels of depression score were significantly higher pre-treatment than in middle-treatment (P<0.05. A significant change was observed between the pre-treatment and post-treatment (P<0.05, the level of depression score was lower in post-treatment. Comparison of Beck score in the depressed samples at the first day (25.19, twelfth (15.08, and the twenty-first (11.64 of session, after performance of the practice, was significant (P<0.05. The results in control group at pre and post training exercise unchanged significantly. Conclusion

  2. Alternatives generation and analysis for the Phase I intermediate waste feed staging system design requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claghorn, R.D., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-06

    This alternatives generation and analysis (AGA) addresses the question: What is the design basis for the facilities required to stage low-level waste (LLW) feed to the Phase I private contractors? Alternative designs for the intermediate waste feed staging system were developed, analyzed, and compared. Based on these analyses, this document recommends installing mixer pumps in the central pump pit of double-shell tanks 241-AP-102 and 241-AP-104. Also recommended is installing decant/transfer pumps at these tanks. These recommendations have clear advantages in that they provide a low shedule impact/risk and the highest operability of all the alternatives investigated. This revision incorporates comments from the decision board.

  3. Demonstration of risk-based decision analysis in remedial alternative selection and design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, E.K.; Duffield, G.M. (Geraghty and Miller Modeling Group, Reston, VA (United States)); Massmann, J.W. (Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States)); Freeze, R.A. (Freeze (R.A.) Engineering, Inc., White Rock, BC (Canada)); Stephenson, D.E. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States))

    1993-01-01

    This study demonstrates the use of risk-based decision analysis (Massmann and Freeze 1987a, 1987b) in the selection and design of an engineering alternative for groundwater remediation at a waste site at the Savannah River Site, a US Department of Energy facility in South Carolina. The investigation focuses on the remediation and closure of the H-Area Seepage Basins, an inactive disposal site that formerly received effluent water from a nearby production facility. A previous study by Duffield et al. (1992), which used risk-based decision analysis to screen a number of ground-water remediation alternatives under consideration for this site, indicated that the most attractive remedial option is ground-water extraction by wells coupled with surface water discharge of treated effluent. The aim of the present study is to demonstrate the iterative use of risk-based decision analysis throughout the design of a particular remedial alternative. In this study, we consider the interaction between two episodes of aquifer testing over a 6-year period and the refinement of a remedial extraction well system design. Using a three-dimensional ground-water flow model, this study employs (1) geostatistics and Monte Carlo techniques to simulate hydraulic conductivity as a stochastic process and (2) Bayesian updating and conditional simulation to investigate multiple phases of aquifer testing. In our evaluation of a remedial alternative, we compute probabilistic costs associated with the failure of an alternative to completely capture a simulated contaminant plume. The results of this study demonstrate the utility of risk-based decision analysis as a tool for improving the design of a remedial alternative through the course of phased data collection at a remedial site.

  4. Demonstration of risk-based decision analysis in remedial alternative selection and design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, E.K.; Duffield, G.M. [Geraghty and Miller Modeling Group, Reston, VA (United States); Massmann, J.W. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States); Freeze, R.A. [Freeze (R.A.) Engineering, Inc., White Rock, BC (Canada); Stephenson, D.E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1993-05-01

    This study demonstrates the use of risk-based decision analysis (Massmann and Freeze 1987a, 1987b) in the selection and design of an engineering alternative for groundwater remediation at a waste site at the Savannah River Site, a US Department of Energy facility in South Carolina. The investigation focuses on the remediation and closure of the H-Area Seepage Basins, an inactive disposal site that formerly received effluent water from a nearby production facility. A previous study by Duffield et al. (1992), which used risk-based decision analysis to screen a number of ground-water remediation alternatives under consideration for this site, indicated that the most attractive remedial option is ground-water extraction by wells coupled with surface water discharge of treated effluent. The aim of the present study is to demonstrate the iterative use of risk-based decision analysis throughout the design of a particular remedial alternative. In this study, we consider the interaction between two episodes of aquifer testing over a 6-year period and the refinement of a remedial extraction well system design. Using a three-dimensional ground-water flow model, this study employs (1) geostatistics and Monte Carlo techniques to simulate hydraulic conductivity as a stochastic process and (2) Bayesian updating and conditional simulation to investigate multiple phases of aquifer testing. In our evaluation of a remedial alternative, we compute probabilistic costs associated with the failure of an alternative to completely capture a simulated contaminant plume. The results of this study demonstrate the utility of risk-based decision analysis as a tool for improving the design of a remedial alternative through the course of phased data collection at a remedial site.

  5. Single-Case Research Design: An Alternative Strategy for Evidence-Based Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Drue; Hawkins, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The trend of utilizing evidence-based practice (EBP) in athletic training is now requiring clinicians, researchers, educators, and students to be equipped to both engage in and make judgments about research evidence. Single-case design (SCD) research may provide an alternative approach to develop such skills and inform clinical and…

  6. Long-term strategies for flood risk management: scenario definition and strategic alternative design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, de K.; Klijn, F.; McGahey, C.; Mens, M.; Wolfert, H.P.

    2008-01-01

    This report reviews some mainstream existing methods of scenario development and use, as well as experiences with the design and assessment of strategic alternatives for flood risk management. Next, a procedure and methods are proposed and discussed. Thirdly, the procedure and methods are tried on t

  7. Computational issues in alternating projection algorithms for fixed-order control design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beran, Eric Bengt; Grigoriadis, K.

    1997-01-01

    Alternating projection algorithms have been introduced recently to solve fixed-order controller design problems described by linear matrix inequalities and non-convex coupling rank constraints. In this work, an extensive numerical experimentation using proposed benchmark fixed-order control desig...

  8. A comparison of designer activity using core design situations in the laboratory and practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Hicks, Ben J.; Culley, Steve J.

    2013-01-01

    In 2011 one quarter of all articles published in Design Studies and the Journal of Engineering Design used experimental studies. However, there is little work exploring the relationship between laboratory and practice. This paper addresses this by detailing an analysis of designer activity in three...... situations commonly studied by design researchers: information seeking, ideation and design review. This comparison is instantiated through three complementary studies: an observational study of practice and two experimental studies. These reveal a range of similarities and differences that are described...

  9. Alternative core design for the Innovative Research Reactor (RRI) from neutronics aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on its User Requirement Document and main function, RRI shall be able to provide a maximum thermal neutron flux of 1×1015 neutron cm-2s-1. The reason is that the RRI reactor can serve targets requiring a high neutron flux. From the previous results it was obtained that RRI design using fuel of RSG-GAS type was not possible to produce that high neutron flux. One among other reasons is that the geometry dimension is the large, as the neutron flux is inversely proportional to core volume. The objective of the study is to find an alternative core for RRI which meets the high neutron flux requirement. It was chosen an alternative fuel element one like used in JMTR (Japan Material Testing Reactor) that has smaller dimension compared to that of the RSG-GAS reactor. Besides that, active core's height was also varied for 70 cm and 75 cm. Design was carried out by means of analytic codes WIMS-D5B, Batan-FUEL and Batan-3DIFF. Alternative core applied compact core configuration concept of 5×5 with 4 follower control elements. The calculations resulted 3 (three) alternative cores fulfill the requirement, including core using RSG-GAS fuel type but of 70 cm height instead of 60 cm. Through analyzing from over all aspects of core safety and efficiency as well as effectively, core using JMTR fuel type with height of 70 cm represent the best alternative core. (author)

  10. Comparison of alternative flue gas dry treatment technologies in waste-to-energy processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Pozzo, Alessandro; Antonioni, Giacomo; Guglielmi, Daniele; Stramigioli, Carlo; Cozzani, Valerio

    2016-05-01

    Acid gases such as HCl and SO2 are harmful both for human health and ecosystem integrity, hence their removal is a key step of the flue gas treatment of Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants. Methods based on the injection of dry sorbents are among the Best Available Techniques for acid gas removal. In particular, systems based on double reaction and filtration stages represent nowadays an effective technology for emission control. The aim of the present study is the simulation of a reference two-stage (2S) dry treatment system performance and its comparison to three benchmarking alternatives based on single stage sodium bicarbonate injection. A modelling procedure was applied in order to identify the optimal operating configuration of the 2S system for different reference waste compositions, and to determine the total annual cost of operation. Taking into account both operating and capital costs, the 2S system appears the most cost-effective solution for medium to high chlorine content wastes. A Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis was carried out to assess the robustness of the results. PMID:26951719

  11. Alternate MIMO AF relaying networks with interference alignment: Spectral efficient protocol and linear filter design

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Kihong

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, we study a two-hop relaying network consisting of one source, one destination, and three amplify-and-forward (AF) relays with multiple antennas. To compensate for the capacity prelog factor loss of 1/2$ due to the half-duplex relaying, alternate transmission is performed among three relays, and the inter-relay interference due to the alternate relaying is aligned to make additional degrees of freedom. In addition, suboptimal linear filter designs at the nodes are proposed to maximize the achievable sum rate for different fading scenarios when the destination utilizes a minimum mean-square error filter. © 1967-2012 IEEE.

  12. Comparison of ground motion for NPP design of various countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The probability levels for the peak ground motion parameters for the high level design earthquakes specified by the of Canada, U.S. and Japan were estimated to be in the range of 10-3 to 10-4. Comparison between the design response spectra recommended by various codes indicate that various frequency ranges are covered differently. It was found that the hazard philosophy and approaches of various codes are quite different which lead to different ground motions for design. Associated with these different ground motions are load combinations and different design philosophies for the material. Although all countries use two levels of ground motion inputs, the risk probabilities at each of these levels are not the same. Some codes define a low level earthquake that implies that normal plant operations are not interrupted. A higher level earthquake is defined to imply safe shut down. The highest level earthquake defined by some codes represent the safety margin earthquake. It was found that the ground motion recommended by different codes may result in different structural design due to different associated load combinations and allowable material limits. The effect of different ground motions cannot be compared without considering the implication on the design. Although some of these differences may compensate for one another in the final design, the degree of conservatism varies between various codes. (author)

  13. Comparison of alternative treatment systems for DOE mixed low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1993 to 1996, the Department of Energy, Environmental Management, Office of Science and Technology (OST), has sponsored a series of systems analyses to guide its future research and development (R ampersand D) programs for the treatment of mixed low-level waste (MLLW) stored in the DOE complex. The two original studies were of 20 mature and innovative thermal systems. As a result of a technical review of these thermal system studies, a similar study of five innovative nonthermal systems was conducted in which unit operations are limited to temperatures less than 350 degrees C to minimize volatilization of heavy metals and radionuclides, and de novo production of dioxins and furans in the offgas. Public involvement in the INTS study was established through a working group of 20 tribal and stakeholder representatives to provide input to the INTS studies and identify principles against which the systems should be designed and evaluated. Pre-conceptual designs were developed for all systems to treat the same waste input (2927 lbs/hr) in a single centralized facility operating 4032 hours per year for 20 years. This inventory consisted of a wide range of combustible and non-combustible materials such as paper, plastics, metals, concrete, soils, sludges, liquids, etc., contaminated with trace quantities of radioactive materials and RCRA regulated wastes. From this inventory, an average waste profile was developed for simulated treatment using ASPEN PLUS copyright for mass balance calculations. Seven representative thermal systems were selected for comparison with the five nonthermal systems. This report presents the comparisons against the TSWG principles, of total life cycle cost (TLCC), and of other system performance indicators such as energy requirements, reagent requirements, land use, final waste volume, aqueous and gaseous effluents, etc

  14. Comparison of alternative treatment systems for DOE mixed low-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E.

    1997-03-01

    From 1993 to 1996, the Department of Energy, Environmental Management, Office of Science and Technology (OST), has sponsored a series of systems analyses to guide its future research and development (R&D) programs for the treatment of mixed low-level waste (MLLW) stored in the DOE complex. The two original studies were of 20 mature and innovative thermal systems. As a result of a technical review of these thermal system studies, a similar study of five innovative nonthermal systems was conducted in which unit operations are limited to temperatures less than 350{degrees}C to minimize volatilization of heavy metals and radionuclides, and de novo production of dioxins and furans in the offgas. Public involvement in the INTS study was established through a working group of 20 tribal and stakeholder representatives to provide input to the INTS studies and identify principles against which the systems should be designed and evaluated. Pre-conceptual designs were developed for all systems to treat the same waste input (2927 lbs/hr) in a single centralized facility operating 4032 hours per year for 20 years. This inventory consisted of a wide range of combustible and non-combustible materials such as paper, plastics, metals, concrete, soils, sludges, liquids, etc., contaminated with trace quantities of radioactive materials and RCRA regulated wastes. From this inventory, an average waste profile was developed for simulated treatment using ASPEN PLUS{copyright} for mass balance calculations. Seven representative thermal systems were selected for comparison with the five nonthermal systems. This report presents the comparisons against the TSWG principles, of total life cycle cost (TLCC), and of other system performance indicators such as energy requirements, reagent requirements, land use, final waste volume, aqueous and gaseous effluents, etc.

  15. Performance of R-410A Alternative Refrigerants in a Reciprocating Compressor Designed for Air Conditioning Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrestha, Som S [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL; Mumpower, Kevin [Bristol Compressors International, Inc.

    2016-01-01

    In response to environmental concerns raised by the use of refrigerants with high Global Warming Potential (GWP), the Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) has launched an industry-wide cooperative research program, referred to as the Low-GWP Alternative Refrigerants Evaluation Program (AREP), to identify and evaluate promising alternative refrigerants for major product categories. After successfully completing the first phase of the program in December 2013, AHRI launched a second phase of the Low-GWP AREP in 2014 to continue research in areas that were not previously addressed, including refrigerants in high ambient conditions, refrigerants in applications not tested in the first phase, and new refrigerants identified since testing for the program began. Although the Ozone Depletion Potential of R-410A is zero, this refrigerant is under scrutiny due to its high GWP. Several candidate alternative refrigerants have already demonstrated low global warming potential. Performance of these low-GWP alternative refrigerants is being evaluated for Air conditioning and heat pump applications to ensure acceptable system capacity and efficiency. This paper reports the results of a series of compressor calorimeter tests conducted for the second phase of the AREP to evaluate the performance of R-410A alternative refrigerants in a reciprocating compressor designed for air conditioning systems. It compares performance of alternative refrigerants ARM-71A, L41-1, DR-5A, D2Y-60, and R-32 to that of R-410A over a wide range of operating conditions. The tests showed that, in general, cooling capacities were slightly lower (except for the R-32), but energy efficiency ratios (EER) of the alternative refrigerants were comparable to that of R-410A.

  16. Methodology for assessing the impacts of alternative rate designs on industrial energy use. Draft report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-11

    A task was undertaken to develop a method for analyzing industrial user responses to alternative rate designs. The method described considers the fuel switching and conservation responses of industrial users and the impact to a hypothetical utility regarding revenue stability, annual gas demand, and seasonal fluctuations. Twenty-seven hypothetical industrial plant types have been specified. For each combustor in the plant, the fuel consumption by season, initial fuel type, fuel switching costs, conservation costs, and amount of fuel conservable is provided. The decision making takes place at the plant level and is aggregated to determine the impact to the utility. Section 2 discusses the factors affecting an industrial user's response to alternative rate designs. Section 3 describes the methodology, includes an overview of the model and an example industrial user's response to a set of fuel prices. The data describing the 27 hypothetical firms is in an appendix.

  17. SustainPro - A tool for systematic process analysis, generation and evaluation of sustainable design alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, Ana; Matos, Henrique A.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    the user through the necessary steps according to work-flow of the implemented methodology. At the end the design alternatives, are evaluated using environmental impact assessment tools and safety indices. The extended features of the methodology incorporate Life Cycle Assessment analysis and economic...... analysis. The application and the main features of SustainPro are illustrated through a case study of ß-Galactosidase production....

  18. Modification Design of Petrol Engine for Alternative Fueling using Compressed Natural Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Eliezer Uchechukwu Okeke; Barinaadaa Thaddeus Lebele-Alawa

    2013-01-01

    This paper is on the modification design of petrol engine for alternative fuelling using Compressed Natural Gas (CNG). It provides an analytical background in the modification design process. A petrol engine Honda CR-V 2.0 auto which has a compression ratio of 9.8 was selected as case study. In order for this petrol engine to run on CNG, its compression had to be increased. An optimal compression ratio of 11.97 was computed using the standard temperature-specific volume relationsh...

  19. Comparison of Design Research on Manufacturing Firms Moving Towards Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzen, Detlef; Sakao, Tomohiko; Sandström, Gunilla Ölundh

    2007-01-01

    Corresponding to a steadily advancing integration of roducts and service operations in the manufacturing industry, a number of research groups within the design community are working with issues of integrated product and service development. Although closely related, the evolving groups focus...... on different research dimensions, and thus the terminologies and concepts used in research contributions are not fully compatible. This research attempts to promote and support an evolving collaboration between the different research groups within the design community, by analysing and comparing the key....... Furthermore a comparative table of concepts and terms used in the contributions of the three groups in compiled. Based on this comparison, 3 focal research dimensions are identified: the product lifecycle dimension, the customer lifecycle dimension and the provider lifecycle dimension. Finally the research...

  20. A Comparison of Candidate Seal Designs for Future Docking Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Patrick, H., Jr.; Steinetz, Bruce, M.

    2012-01-01

    NASA is developing a new docking system to support future space exploration missions to low Earth orbit, the Moon, and other destinations. A key component of this system is the seal at the main docking interface which inhibits the loss of cabin air once docking is complete. Depending on the mission, the seal must be able to dock in either a seal-on-flange or seal-on-seal configuration. Seal-on-flange mating would occur when a docking system equipped with a seal docks to a system with a flat metal flange. This would occur when a vehicle docks to a node on the International Space Station. Seal-on-seal mating would occur when two docking systems equipped with seals dock to each other. Two types of seal designs were identified for this application: Gask-O-seals and multi-piece seals. Both types of seals had a pair of seal bulbs to satisfy the redundancy requirement. A series of performance assessments and comparisons were made between the candidate seal designs indicating that they meet the requirements for leak rate and compression and adhesion loads under a range of operating conditions. Other design factors such as part count, integration into the docking system tunnel, seal-on-seal mating, and cost were also considered leading to the selection of the multi-piece seal design for the new docking system. The results of this study can be used by designers of future docking systems and other habitable volumes to select the seal design best-suited for their particular application.

  1. Comparison of Explicit Forgiveness Interventions with an Alternative Treatment: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Nathaniel G.; Worthington, Everett L.; Haake, Shawn

    2009-01-01

    Forgiveness interventions can help people forgive past offenses. However, few studies have compared forgiveness interventions with genuine alternative treatments. The authors compared forgiveness interventions with a therapeutic alternative treatment. Participants reduced unforgiveness and increased forgiveness regardless of treatment condition.…

  2. Towards for Analyzing Alternatives of Interaction Design Based on Verbal Decision Analysis of User Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Soares Mendes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In domains (as digital TV, smart home, and tangible interfaces that represent a new paradigm of interactivity, the decision of the most appropriate interaction design solution is a challenge. HCI researchers have promoted in their works the validation of design alternative solutions with users before producing the final solution. User experience with technology is a subject that has also gained ground in these works in order to analyze the appropriate solution(s. Following this concept, a study was accomplished under the objective of finding a better interaction solution for an application of mobile TV. Three executable applications of mobile TV prototypes were built. A Verbal Decision Analysis model was applied on the investigations for the favorite characteristics in each prototype based on the user’s experience and their intentions of use. This model led a performance of a qualitative analysis which objectified the design of a new prototype.

  3. Design and First Measurements of an Alternative Calorimetry Chamber for the HZB Quadrupole Resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Keckert, Sebastian; Knobloch, Jens; Kugeler, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The systematic research on superconducting thin films requires dedicated testing equipment. The Quadrupole Resonator (QPR) is a specialized tool to characterize the superconducting RF properties of circular planar samples. A calorimetric measurement of the RF surface losses allows the surface resistance to be measured with sub nano-ohm resolution. This measurement can be performed over a wide temperature and magnetic field range, at frequencies of 433, 866 and 1300 MHz. The system at Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) is based on a resonator built at CERN and has been optimized to lower peak electric fields and an improved resolution. In this paper the design of an alternative calorimetry chamber is presented, providing flat samples for coating which are easy changeable. All parts are connected by screwing connections and no electron beam welding is required. Furthermore this design enables exchangeability of samples between the resonators at HZB and CERN. First measurements with the new design show ambiguous r...

  4. Experimental design for stable genetic manipulation in mammalian cell lines: lentivirus and alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Robert F; Saunders, Darren N

    2015-01-01

    The use of third-generation lentiviral vectors is now commonplace in most areas of basic biology. These systems provide a fast, efficient means for modulating gene expression, but experimental design needs to be carefully considered to minimize potential artefacts arising from off-target effects and other confounding factors. This review offers a starting point for those new to lentiviral-based vector systems, addressing the main issues involved with the use of lentiviral systems in vitro and outlines considerations which should be taken into account during experimental design. Factors such as selecting an appropriate system and controls, and practical titration of viral transduction are important considerations for experimental design. We also briefly describe some of the more recent advances in genome editing technology. TALENs and CRISPRs offer an alternative to lentivirus, providing endogenous gene editing with reduced off-target effects often at the expense of efficiency.

  5. Alternative Ultrasound Gel for a Sustainable Ultrasound Program: Application of Human Centered Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Margaret; Salmon, Christian; Bissinger, Alexa; Muller, Mundenga Mutendi; Gebreyesus, Alegnta; Geremew, Haimanot; Wendel, Sarah K; Wendell, Sarah; Azaza, Aklilu; Salumu, Maurice; Benfield, Nerys

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes design of a low cost, ultrasound gel from local products applying aspects of Human Centered Design methodology. A multidisciplinary team worked with clinicians who use ultrasound where commercial gel is cost prohibitive and scarce. The team followed the format outlined in the Ideo Took Kit. Research began by defining the challenge "how to create locally available alternative ultrasound gel for a low-resourced environment? The "End-Users," were identified as clinicians who use ultrasound in Democratic Republic of the Congo and Ethiopia. An expert group was identified and queried for possible alternatives to commercial gel. Responses included shampoo, oils, water and cornstarch. Cornstarch, while a reasonable solution, was either not available or too expensive. We then sought deeper knowledge of locally sources materials from local experts, market vendors, to develop a similar product. Suggested solutions gleaned from these interviews were collected and used to create ultrasound gel accounting for cost, image quality, manufacturing capability. Initial prototypes used cassava root flour from Great Lakes Region (DRC, Rwanda, Uganda, Tanzania) and West Africa, and bula from Ethiopia. Prototypes were tested in the field and resulting images evaluated by our user group. A final prototype was then selected. Cassava and bula at a 32 part water, 8 part flour and 4 part salt, heated, mixed then cooled was the product design of choice.

  6. A MILP-based flux alternative generation and NMR experimental design strategy for metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phalakornkule, C; Lee, S; Zhu, T; Koepsel, R; Ataai, M M; Grossmann, I E; Domach, M M

    2001-04-01

    A mixed-integer linear program (MILP) is described that can enumerate all the ways fluxes can distribute in a metabolic network while still satisfying the same constraints and objective function. The multiple solutions can be used to (1) generate alternative flux scenarios that can account for limited experimental observations, (2) forecast the potential responses to mutation (e.g., new reaction pathways may be used), and (3) (as illustrated) design (13)C NMR experiments such that different potential flux patterns in a mutant can be distinguished. The experimental design is enabled by using the MILP results as an input to an isotopomer mapping matrices (IMM)-based program, which accounts for the network circulation of (13)C from a precursor such as glucose. The IMM-based program can interface to common plotting programs with the result that the user is provided with predicted NMR spectra that are complete with splittings and Lorentzian line-shape features. The example considered is the trafficking of carbon in an Escherichia coli mutant, which has pyruvate kinase activity deleted for the purpose of eliminating acetate production. Similar yields and extracellular measurements would be manifested by the flux alternatives. The MILP-IMM results suggest how NMR experiments can be designed such that the spectra of glutamate for two flux distribution scenarios differ significantly.

  7. Alternative Ultrasound Gel for a Sustainable Ultrasound Program: Application of Human Centered Design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Salmon

    Full Text Available This paper describes design of a low cost, ultrasound gel from local products applying aspects of Human Centered Design methodology. A multidisciplinary team worked with clinicians who use ultrasound where commercial gel is cost prohibitive and scarce. The team followed the format outlined in the Ideo Took Kit. Research began by defining the challenge "how to create locally available alternative ultrasound gel for a low-resourced environment? The "End-Users," were identified as clinicians who use ultrasound in Democratic Republic of the Congo and Ethiopia. An expert group was identified and queried for possible alternatives to commercial gel. Responses included shampoo, oils, water and cornstarch. Cornstarch, while a reasonable solution, was either not available or too expensive. We then sought deeper knowledge of locally sources materials from local experts, market vendors, to develop a similar product. Suggested solutions gleaned from these interviews were collected and used to create ultrasound gel accounting for cost, image quality, manufacturing capability. Initial prototypes used cassava root flour from Great Lakes Region (DRC, Rwanda, Uganda, Tanzania and West Africa, and bula from Ethiopia. Prototypes were tested in the field and resulting images evaluated by our user group. A final prototype was then selected. Cassava and bula at a 32 part water, 8 part flour and 4 part salt, heated, mixed then cooled was the product design of choice.

  8. Environmental and economic comparisons of the satellite power system and six alternative energy technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, R. G.; Habegger, L. J.; Levine, E. P.; Tanzman, E.

    1981-04-01

    The satellite power system (SPS) was compared with alternative systems on life cycle cost and environmental impacts. Environmental and economic effects are evaluated and subdivided into the following issue areas: human health and safety, environmental welfare, resources (land, materials, energy, water, labor), macroeconomics, socioeconomics, and institutional. These evaluations are based on technology characterization data and alternative futures scenarios, developed as part of CDEP. The technologies and the scenarios are described. The cost and performance of the SPS and the alternative technologies provide the basis of the macroeconomic analyses.

  9. Interdigital H -mode drift-tube linac design with alternative phase focusing for muon linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, M.; Mibe, T.; Yoshida, M.; Hasegawa, K.; Kondo, Y.; Hayashizaki, N.; Iwashita, Y.; Iwata, Y.; Kitamura, R.; Saito, N.

    2016-04-01

    We have developed an interdigital H-mode (IH) drift-tube linac (DTL) design with an alternative phase focusing (APF) scheme for a muon linac, in order to measure the anomalous magnetic moment and electric dipole moment (EDM) of muons at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC). The IH-DTL accelerates muons from β =v /c =0.08 to 0.28 at an operational frequency of 324 MHz. The output beam emittances are calculated as 0.315 π and 0.195 π mm mrad in the horizontal and vertical directions, respectively, which satisfies the experimental requirement.

  10. Statistical test of Duane-Hunt's law and its comparison with an alternative law

    CERN Document Server

    Perkovac, Milan

    2010-01-01

    Using Pearson correlation coefficient a statistical analysis of Duane-Hunt and Kulenkampff's measurement results was performed. This analysis reveals that empirically based Duane-Hunt's law is not entirely consistent with the measurement data. The author has theoretically found the action of electromagnetic oscillators, which corresponds to Planck's constant, and also has found an alternative law based on the classical theory. Using the same statistical method, this alternative law is likewise tested, and it is proved that the alternative law is completely in accordance with the measurements. The alternative law gives a relativistic expression for the energy of electromagnetic wave emitted or absorbed by atoms and proves that the empirically derived Planck-Einstein's expression is only valid for relatively low frequencies. Wave equation, which is similar to the Schr\\"odinger equation, and wavelength of the standing electromagnetic wave are also established by the author's analysis. For a relatively low energy...

  11. Finite sample comparison of alternative tests on the rank of a cointegration submatrix

    OpenAIRE

    Paruolo Paolo

    2006-01-01

    This paper compares the finite sample performance of alternative tests for rank-dficiency of a submatrix of the cointegrating matrix. The paper focuses on the (implementation of the) likelihood ratio test proposed in Paruolo (2007, Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics), and compares its finite sample performance with the ones of alternative tests proposed in Saikkonen (1999, Econometric Reviews) and Kurozumi (2005, Econometric Theory). All the tests have well-documented limit distribut...

  12. Comparison of coil designs for peripheral magnetic muscle stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, S M; Herzog, H-G; Gattinger, N; Gleich, B

    2011-10-01

    The recent application of magnetic stimulation in rehabilitation is often said to solve key drawbacks of the established electrical method. Magnetic fields cause less pain, allow principally a better penetration of inhomogeneous biologic tissue and do not require skin contact. However, in most studies the evoked muscle force has been disappointing. In this paper, a comparison of a classical round circular geometry, a commercial muscle-stimulation coil and a novel design is presented, with special emphasis on the physical field properties. These systems show markedly different force responses for the same magnetic energy and highlight the enormous potential of different coil geometries. The new design resulted in a slope of the force recruiting curve being more than two and a half times higher than the other coils. The data were analyzed with respect to the underlying physical causes and field conditions. After a parameter-extraction approach, the results for the three coils span a two-dimensional space with clearly distinguishable degrees of freedom, which can be manipulated nearly separately and reflect the two main features of a field; the peak amplitude and its decay with the distance. PMID:21832812

  13. Beyond Fullerenes: Designing Alternative Molecular Electron Acceptors for Solution-Processable Bulk Heterojunction Organic Photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvé, Geneviève; Fernando, Roshan

    2015-09-17

    Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) are promising candidates for providing a low cost, widespread energy source by converting sunlight into electricity. Solution-processable active layers have predominantly consisted of a conjugated polymer donor blended with a fullerene derivative as the acceptor. Although fullerene derivatives have been the acceptor of choice, they have drawbacks such as weak visible light absorption and poor energy tuning that limit overall efficiencies. This has recently fueled new research to explore alternative acceptors that would overcome those limitations. During this exploration, one question arises: what are the important design principles for developing nonfullerene acceptors? It is generally accepted that acceptors should have high electron affinity, electron mobility, and absorption coefficient in the visible and near-IR region of the spectra. In this Perspective, we argue that alternative molecular acceptors, when blended with a conjugated polymer donor, should also have large nonplanar structures to promote nanoscale phase separation, charge separation and charge transport in blend films. Additionally, new material design should address the low dielectric constant of organic semiconductors that have so far limited their widespread application.

  14. A Visual Analytics Based Decision Support Methodology For Evaluating Low Energy Building Design Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Ranojoy

    The ability to design high performance buildings has acquired great importance in recent years due to numerous federal, societal and environmental initiatives. However, this endeavor is much more demanding in terms of designer expertise and time. It requires a whole new level of synergy between automated performance prediction with the human capabilities to perceive, evaluate and ultimately select a suitable solution. While performance prediction can be highly automated through the use of computers, performance evaluation cannot, unless it is with respect to a single criterion. The need to address multi-criteria requirements makes it more valuable for a designer to know the "latitude" or "degrees of freedom" he has in changing certain design variables while achieving preset criteria such as energy performance, life cycle cost, environmental impacts etc. This requirement can be met by a decision support framework based on near-optimal "satisficing" as opposed to purely optimal decision making techniques. Currently, such a comprehensive design framework is lacking, which is the basis for undertaking this research. The primary objective of this research is to facilitate a complementary relationship between designers and computers for Multi-Criterion Decision Making (MCDM) during high performance building design. It is based on the application of Monte Carlo approaches to create a database of solutions using deterministic whole building energy simulations, along with data mining methods to rank variable importance and reduce the multi-dimensionality of the problem. A novel interactive visualization approach is then proposed which uses regression based models to create dynamic interplays of how varying these important variables affect the multiple criteria, while providing a visual range or band of variation of the different design parameters. The MCDM process has been incorporated into an alternative methodology for high performance building design referred to as

  15. 77 FR 14801 - Request for Information (RFI) on Design of a Pilot Operational Study To Assess Alternative Blood...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Request for Information (RFI) on Design of a Pilot Operational Study To Assess... obtain information relevant to the design of a pilot operational study (or studies) on alternative donor... recognition of the challenges of designing such studies. This RFI seeks information from interested...

  16. Project on Alternative Systems Study - PASS. Cost comparison of repository systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of alternative repository systems and different canister alternatives is being studied by SKB within the frame of the 'Project on Alternative Systems Study, PASS', with the objective of presenting a ranking of systems being currently studied. The rankings is primarily made for three different headings: technology, long-term performance and safety, and costs. The ranking for each of these headings are eventually to be merged into one ranking. The present report presents the basis for the ranking regarding costs. The following four systems have been studied and are presented in order of cost (the less expensive first): Medium Long Holes (MLH), KBS-3 (Modified Plan 92 system), Very Long Holes (VLH), and Very Deep Holes (VDH). A significant outcome of the study was the clear difference in cost between the very expensive system VDH and the other three

  17. Evaluating Kinship Care Alternatives: A Comparison of a Private Initiative to Traditional State Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney A. Ellis

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Multiple stressors on the child welfare system have forced innovative solutions to the overburdened foster care program. A promising alternative is kinship care, in which children are placed with biological relatives. Proponents cite the opportunity to place the child in familiar surroundings, the natural access to additional family resources, and the degree to which it is sensitive to the norms and values of non-dominant cultural groups. Various models of kinship care have been implemented in several jurisdictions, yet little or no research has been done to determine which alternatives are the most effective. This paper addresses that deficit. It reports the results of a study that compares stability of placement outcomes between a program operated by a private,not-for-profit organization (n=60 and a more traditional program (n=79 operated by a state child welfare agency. Results support the use of the private alternative over the more traditional state-operated program.

  18. Model‐Based Assessment of Alternative Study Designs in Pediatric Trials. Part II: Bayesian Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smania, G; Baiardi, P; Ceci, A; Magni, P

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a pharmacokinetic‐pharmacodynamic based clinical trial simulation framework for evaluating the performance of a fixed‐sample Bayesian design (BD) and two alternative Bayesian sequential designs (BSDs) (i.e., a non‐hierarchical (NON‐H) and a semi‐hierarchical (SEMI‐H) one). Prior information was elicited from adult trials and weighted based on the expected similarity of response to treatment between the pediatric and adult populations. Study designs were evaluated in terms of: type I and II errors, sample size per arm (SS), trial duration (TD), and estimate precision. No substantial differences were observed between NON‐H and SEMI‐H. BSDs require, on average, smaller SS and TD compared to the BD, which, on the other hand, guarantees higher estimate precision. When large differences between children and adults are expected, BSDs can return very large SS. Bayesian approaches appear to outperform their frequentist counterparts in the design of pediatric trials even when little weight is given to prior information from adults. PMID:27530374

  19. Lithography alternatives meet design style reality: How do they "line" up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smayling, Michael C.

    2016-03-01

    Optical lithography resolution scaling has stalled, giving innovative alternatives a window of opportunity. One important factor that impacts these lithographic approaches is the transition in design style from 2D to 1D for advanced CMOS logic. Just as the transition from 3D circuits to 2D fabrication 50 years ago created an opportunity for a new breed of electronics companies, the transition today presents exciting and challenging time for lithographers. Today, we are looking at a range of non-optical lithography processes. Those considered here can be broadly categorized: self-aligned lithography, self-assembled lithography, deposition lithography, nano-imprint lithography, pixelated e-beam lithography, shot-based e-beam lithography .Do any of these alternatives benefit from or take advantage of 1D layout? Yes, for example SAPD + CL (Self Aligned Pitch Division combined with Complementary Lithography). This is a widely adopted process for CMOS nodes at 22nm and below. Can there be additional design / process co-optimization? In spite of the simple-looking nature of 1D layout, the placement of "cut" in the lines and "holes" for interlayer connections can be tuned for a given process capability. Examples of such optimization have been presented at this conference, typically showing a reduction of at least one in the number of cut or hole patterns needed.[1,2] Can any of the alternatives complement each other or optical lithography? Yes.[3] For example, DSA (Directed Self Assembly) combines optical lithography with self-assembly. CEBL (Complementary e-Beam Lithography) combines optical lithography with SAPD for lines with shot-based e-beam lithography for cuts and holes. Does one (shrinking) size fit all? No, that's why we have many alternatives. For example NIL (Nano-imprint Lithography) has been introduced for NAND Flash patterning where the (trending lower) defectivity is acceptable for the product. Deposition lithography has been introduced in 3D NAND Flash to

  20. Total Program Efficacy: A Comparison of Traditionally and Alternatively Certified Agriculture Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Dennis W.; Ricketts, John C.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine agriculture teachers' perceived levels of efficacy as they relate to managing the total program of agricultural education, both for traditionally and alternatively certified teachers. The constructs used in this study were technical content, FFA/leadership development/SAE, teaching and learning, and…

  1. Environmental assessment of gasification technology for biomass conversion to energy in comparison with other alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Nielsen, Rasmus Glar

    2013-01-01

    This paper assesses the environmental performance of biomass gasification for electricity production based on wheat straw and compares it with that of alternatives such as straw-fired electricity production and fossil fuel-fired electricity production. In the baseline simulation, we assume that t...

  2. Comparison of Alternate and Original Items on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedeva, Elena; Huang, Mei; Koski, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Background The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is a screening tool for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in elderly individuals. We hypothesized that measurement error when using the new alternate MoCA versions to monitor change over time could be related to the use of items that are not of comparable difficulty to their corresponding originals of similar content. The objective of this study was to compare the difficulty of the alternate MoCA items to the original ones. Methods Five selected items from alternate versions of the MoCA were included with items from the original MoCA administered adaptively to geriatric outpatients (N = 78). Rasch analysis was used to estimate the difficulty level of the items. Results None of the five items from the alternate versions matched the difficulty level of their corresponding original items. Conclusions This study demonstrates the potential benefits of a Rasch analysis-based approach for selecting items during the process of development of parallel forms. The results suggest that better match of the items from different MoCA forms by their difficulty would result in higher sensitivity to changes in cognitive function over time. PMID:27076861

  3. Model for the ready definition and approximate comparison of alternative high voltage transmission systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    A model of generic overhead transmission systems in the range of 362 to 1200 kV ac, and +-400 to +-800 kV dc is developed. Such generic systems are to include (a) transmission from generation to load, and (b) interconnection of two large integrated systems, with and without the existence of an underlying, lower voltage network in either case. The model provides a means whereby an engineer with some experience in power systems planning can make a reconnaissance study of alternatives within a relatively short span of time and with fair accuracy. Given an amount of power to be transferred over a specified distance, the model can be used: to define the workable alternatives in terms of voltages, number of lines, series compensation, and certain other factors affecting transfer capability; to delineate other salient features of the selected alternatives, notably shunt compensation requirements; and to compare the alternatives in terms of potentially relevant benefits and costs. The significant properties of the model, the basis and assumptions necessary to its formulation, instructions for its use, and inherent limitations upon the accuracy to be expected are described.

  4. A Comparison of Dense-to-Lean and Fixed Lean Schedules of Alternative Reinforcement and Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagopian, Louis P.; Toole, Lisa M.; Long, Ethan S.; Bowman, Lynn G.; Lieving, Gregory A.

    2004-01-01

    Behavior-reduction interventions typically employ dense schedules of alternative reinforcement in conjunction with operant extinction for problem behavior. After problem behavior is reduced in the initial treatment stages, schedule thinning is routinely conducted to make the intervention more practical in natural environments. In the current…

  5. RIP Input From WAPDEG for LA Desgin Selection: Enhanced Design Alternative II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.E. Bullard

    1999-07-16

    The purpose of this analysis is to identify and analyze concepts for the acquisition of data in support of the Performance Confirmation (PC) program at the potential subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. This analysis is being prepared to document an investigation of design concepts, current available technology, technology trends, and technical issues associated with data acquisition during the PC period. This analysis utilizes the ''Performance Confirmation Plan'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) to help define the scope for the PC data acquisition system. The focus of this analysis is primarily on the PC period for a minimum of 30 years after emplacement of the last waste package. The design of the data acquisition system shall allow for a closure deferral up to 300 years from initiation of waste emplacement. (CRWMS M&O 2000h, page 5-1). This analysis is a revision to and supercedes analysis, ''Performance Confirmation Data Acquisition System'', DI No. BCAI00000-017 17-0200-00002 Rev 00 (CRWMS M&O 1997), and incorporates the latest repository design changes following the M&O & DOE evaluation of a series of Enhanced Design Alternatives (EDAs), as described in the ''Enhanced Design Alternatives II Report'' (CRWMS M&O 1999d). Significant design changes include: thermal line loading of the emplacement drifts, closer spacing of the waste packages (WPs), wider spacing and fewer emplacement drifts, continuous ventilation of all active emplacement drifts, thinner walled WP designs which will increase external radiation levels, a 50-year repository closure option, inclusion of a drip-shield, exclusion of backfill, and new conceptual designs for the waste emplacement vehicles and equipment (Stroupe 2000). The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Review the criteria for design as presented in the Performance Confirmation Data Acquisition/Monitoring System Description Document, by way of the

  6. Preliminary Evaluation of Alternate Designs for HFIR Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renfro, David G [ORNL; Chandler, David [ORNL; Cook, David Howard [ORNL; Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Jain, Prashant K [ORNL; Valentine, Jennifer R [ORNL

    2014-11-01

    Engineering design studies of the feasibility of conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel are ongoing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of an effort sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy s Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI)/Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program. The fuel type selected by the program for the conversion of the five high-power research reactors in the U.S. that still use HEU fuel is a new U-Mo monolithic fuel. Studies by ORNL have previously indicated that HFIR can be successfully converted using the new fuel provided (1) the reactor power can be increased from 85 MW to 100 MW and (2) the fuel can be fabricated to a specific reference design. Fabrication techniques for the new fuel are under development by the program but are still immature, especially for the complex aspects of the HFIR fuel design. In FY 2012, the program underwent a major shift in focus to emphasize developing and qualifying processes for the fabrication of reliable and affordable LEU fuel. In support of this new focus and in an effort to ensure that the HFIR fuel design is as suitable for reliable fabrication as possible, ORNL undertook the present study to propose and evaluate several alternative design features. These features include (1) eliminating the fuel zone axial contouring in the previous reference design by substituting a permanent neutron absorber in the lower unfueled region of all of the fuel plates, (2) relocating the burnable neutron absorber from the fuel plates of the inner fuel element to the side plates of the inner fuel element (the fuel plates of the outer fuel element do not contain a burnable absorber), (3) relocating the fuel zone inside the fuel plate to be centered on the centerline of the depth of the plate, and (4) reshaping the radial contour of the relocated fuel zone to be symmetric about this centerline. The present

  7. Preliminary Evaluation of Alternate Designs for HFIR Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renfro, David [ORNL; Chandler, David [ORNL; Cook, David [ORNL; Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Jain, Prashant [ORNL; Valentine, Jennifer [ORNL

    2014-10-30

    Engineering design studies of the feasibility of conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel are ongoing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of an effort sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI)/Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program. The fuel type selected by the program for the conversion of the five high-power research reactors in the U.S. that still use HEU fuel is a new U-Mo monolithic fuel. Studies by ORNL have previously indicated that HFIR can be successfully converted using the new fuel provided (1) the reactor power can be increased from 85 MW to 100 MW and (2) the fuel can be fabricated to a specific reference design. Fabrication techniques for the new fuel are under development by the program but are still immature, especially for the “complex” aspects of the HFIR fuel design. In FY 2012, the program underwent a major shift in focus to emphasize developing and qualifying processes for the fabrication of reliable and affordable LEU fuel. In support of this new focus and in an effort to ensure that the HFIR fuel design is as suitable for reliable fabrication as possible, ORNL undertook the present study to propose and evaluate several alternative design features. These features include (1) eliminating the fuel zone axial contouring in the previous reference design by substituting a permanent neutron absorber in the lower unfueled region of all of the fuel plates, (2) relocating the burnable neutron absorber from the fuel plates of the inner fuel element to the side plates of the inner fuel element (the fuel plates of the outer fuel element do not contain a burnable absorber), (3) relocating the fuel zone inside the fuel plate to be centered on the centerline of the depth of the plate, and (4) reshaping the radial contour of the relocated fuel zone to be symmetric about this centerline. The

  8. Alternative method for design and optimization of the ring resonator used in micro-optic gyro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kunbo; Feng, Lishuang; Wang, Junjie; Lei, Ming

    2013-03-01

    The ring resonator is one of the key elements in the micro-optic gyro system, but there is not a uniform method for designing the parameters of a ring resonator, especially for its size. In this paper, an alternative method is presented for designing the ring resonator used in micro-optic gyro. Maximization of the resonator output is proposed to be the principle in design and optimization for the first time to our knowledge. The scale factor accuracy and the full range of the gyro system are taken into account to obtain the optimum diameter of the ring. A theoretical optimal diameter of 0.25 m is achieved for SiO(2) waveguide resonator with a dynamic range of ±500°/s by analyzing the influence of resonator parameters on the output in detail, and the corresponding sensitivity of the gyro is less than 1.28°/h, which can meet the demands of a tactical inertia system.

  9. LCA comparison of windrow composting of yard wastes with use as alternative daily cover (ADC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haaren, Rob; Themelis, Nickolas J; Barlaz, Morton

    2010-12-01

    This study compared the environmental impacts of composting yard wastes in windrows with using them in place of soil as alternative daily cover (ADC) in landfills. The Life Cycle Assessment was made using the SimaPro LCA software and showed that the ADC scenario is more beneficial for the environment than windrow composting. ADC use is also a less costly means of disposal of yard wastes. This finding applies only in cases where there are sanitary landfills in the area that are equipped with gas collection systems and can use yard wastes as alternative daily cover. Otherwise, the environmentally preferable method for disposal of source-separated yard wastes is composting rather than landfilling.

  10. A Cross Industry Comparison of Customer Satisfaction: Do More Alternatives Mean More Satisfaction?

    OpenAIRE

    Sulaiman Olanrewaju Adebayo; Tosin Tunrayo Olonisakin

    2014-01-01

    Customer satisfaction and the commitment of a customer to remain with an organisation may not always be as a result of a positive correlation between these two phenomena. Customers may remain with an organisation depending on the alternatives they have of obtaining the same or similar service elsewhere. This study examined customer satisfaction with three service industries in Nigeria that can be considered as oligopolists (banks, GSM and PHCN). Data were generated from a convenience sample o...

  11. Caring for the Uninsured with Prostate Cancer: A Comparison of Four Policy Alternatives in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Jonathan; Logan, Susan; Fink, Arlene; Ganz, David A; Peterson, Mark A; Litwin, Mark S

    2010-02-01

    The IMPACT Program seeks to improve access to prostate cancer care for low-income, uninsured men. The objective of the current study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of four policy alternatives in treating this population. We analyzed the cost-effectiveness of four policy alternatives for providing care to low-income, uninsured men with prostate cancer: (1) IMPACT as originally envisioned, (2) a version of IMPACT with reduced physician fees, (3) a hypothetical Medicaid prostate cancer treatment program, and (4) the existing county safety net. We calculated cost-effectiveness based on incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) with the formula ICER = (Cost(alternative strategy) - Cost(baseline strategy)) / (QALY(alternative strategy) - QALY(baseline strategy)). We measured outcomes as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). "Best-case" scenarios assumed timely access to care in 50% of cases in the county system and 70% of cases in any system that reimbursed providers at Medicaid fee-for-service rates. "Worst-case" scenarios assumed timely access in 35 and 50% of corresponding cases. In fiscal year 2004-2005, IMPACT allocated 11% of total expenditures to administrative functions and 23% to fixed clinical costs, with an overall budget of $5.9 million. The ICERs ($/QALY) assuming "best-case" scenarios for original IMPACT, modified IMPACT, and a hypothetical Medicaid program were $32,091; $64,663; and $10,376; respectively. ICERs assuming "worst-case" scenarios were $27,189; $84,236; and $10,714; respectively. County safety net was used as a baseline. In conclusion, IMPACT provides underserved Californians with prostate cancer care and value-added services with only 11% of funds allocated to administrative fixed costs. Both the original IMPACT program and the hypothetical Medicaid prostate cancer program were cost-effective compared to the county safety net, while the reduced-fees version of IMPACT was not. PMID:19911260

  12. Complexity-based learning—An alternative learning design for the twenty-first century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foo Seong David Ng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In programme delivery, while the international trend in education has seen a shift from teacher-centred to student-centred learning and from transmission to reflective approaches, most leadership programmes have remained heavily teacher-centred. A key feature of teacher-centred learning relies on practices of course-driven programmes. This feature has been remarkably resilient over the years in the face of efforts to effect change in programme delivery and a new understanding of complexity in the world of education. The complexity theoretical framework provides us the advantage of an alternative design for leadership development programmes that is able to meet current and future challenges. Yearly, billions of dollars are spent on training and development. It is important to ensure that the outcome of training, learning and development must yield practical outcomes that are relevant, innovative and implementable solutions.

  13. On the significance of an alternate pathway of melatonin synthesis via 5-methoxytryptamine: comparisons across species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Dun-Xian; Hardeland, Rüdiger; Back, Kyoungwhan; Manchester, Lucien C; Alatorre-Jimenez, Moises A; Reiter, Russel J

    2016-08-01

    Melatonin is a phylogenetically ancient molecule. It is ubiquitously present in almost all organisms from primitive photosynthetic bacteria to humans. Its original primary function is presumable to be that of an antioxidant with other functions of this molecule having been acquired during evolution. The synthetic pathway of melatonin in vertebrates has been extensively studied. It is common knowledge that serotonin is acetylated to form N-acetylserotonin by arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) or arylamine N-acetyltransferase (SNAT or NAT) and N-acetylserotonin is, subsequently, methylated to melatonin by N-acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase (ASMT; also known as hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase, HIOMT). This is referred to as a classic melatonin synthetic pathway. Based on new evidence, we feel that this classic melatonin pathway is not generally the prevailing route of melatonin production. An alternate pathway is known to exist, in which serotonin is first O-methylated to 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MT) and, thereafter, 5-MT is N-acetylated to melatonin. Here, we hypothesize that the alternate melatonin synthetic pathway may be more important in certain organisms and under certain conditions. Evidence strongly supports that this alternate pathway prevails in some plants, bacteria, and, perhaps, yeast and may also occur in animals. PMID:27112772

  14. A Dominant Social Comparison Heuristic Unites Alternative Mechanisms for the Evolution of Indirect Reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Roger M; Colombo, Gualtiero B; Allen, Stuart M; Dunbar, Robin I M

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation is a fundamental human trait but our understanding of how it functions remains incomplete. Indirect reciprocity is a particular case in point, where one-shot donations are made to unrelated beneficiaries without any guarantee of payback. Existing insights are largely from two independent perspectives: i) individual-level cognitive behaviour in decision making, and ii) identification of conditions that favour evolution of cooperation. We identify a fundamental connection between these two areas by examining social comparison as a means through which indirect reciprocity can evolve. Social comparison is well established as an inherent human disposition through which humans navigate the social world by self-referential evaluation of others. Donating to those that are at least as reputable as oneself emerges as a dominant heuristic, which represents aspirational homophily. This heuristic is found to be implicitly present in the current knowledge of conditions that favour indirect reciprocity. The effective social norms for updating reputation are also observed to support this heuristic. We hypothesise that the cognitive challenge associated with social comparison has contributed to cerebral expansion and the disproportionate human brain size, consistent with the social complexity hypothesis. The findings have relevance for the evolution of autonomous systems that are characterised by one-shot interactions. PMID:27515119

  15. A Dominant Social Comparison Heuristic Unites Alternative Mechanisms for the Evolution of Indirect Reciprocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Roger M.; Colombo, Gualtiero B.; Allen, Stuart M.; Dunbar, Robin I. M.

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation is a fundamental human trait but our understanding of how it functions remains incomplete. Indirect reciprocity is a particular case in point, where one-shot donations are made to unrelated beneficiaries without any guarantee of payback. Existing insights are largely from two independent perspectives: i) individual-level cognitive behaviour in decision making, and ii) identification of conditions that favour evolution of cooperation. We identify a fundamental connection between these two areas by examining social comparison as a means through which indirect reciprocity can evolve. Social comparison is well established as an inherent human disposition through which humans navigate the social world by self-referential evaluation of others. Donating to those that are at least as reputable as oneself emerges as a dominant heuristic, which represents aspirational homophily. This heuristic is found to be implicitly present in the current knowledge of conditions that favour indirect reciprocity. The effective social norms for updating reputation are also observed to support this heuristic. We hypothesise that the cognitive challenge associated with social comparison has contributed to cerebral expansion and the disproportionate human brain size, consistent with the social complexity hypothesis. The findings have relevance for the evolution of autonomous systems that are characterised by one-shot interactions. PMID:27515119

  16. Design and Comparison Direct Torque Control Techniques for Induction Motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Kazmierkowski, Marian P.; Zelechowski, Marcin;

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a comparison of two significant control methods of induction motor are presented. The first one is a classical Direct Torque and Flux Control (DTC) and is compared with a scheme, which uses Space Vector Modulator (DTC-SVM). A comparison in respect to dynamic and steady state...

  17. Alternative sanitization methods for minimally processed lettuce in comparison to sodium hypochlorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Lígia Biazotto Bachelli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Lettuce is a leafy vegetable widely used in industry for minimally processed products, in which the step of sanitization is the crucial moment for ensuring a safe food for consumption. Chlorinated compounds, mainly sodium hypochlorite, are the most used in Brazil, but the formation of trihalomethanes from this sanitizer is a drawback. Then, the search for alternative methods to sodium hypochlorite has been emerging as a matter of great interest. The suitability of chlorine dioxide (60 mg L-1/10 min, peracetic acid (100 mg L-1/15 min and ozonated water (1.2 mg L-1 /1 min as alternative sanitizers to sodium hypochlorite (150 mg L-1 free chlorine/15 min were evaluated. Minimally processed lettuce washed with tap water for 1 min was used as a control. Microbiological analyses were performed in triplicate, before and after sanitization, and at 3, 6, 9 and 12 days of storage at 2 ± 1 ºC with the product packaged on LDPE bags of 60 µm. It was evaluated total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., psicrotrophic and mesophilic bacteria, yeasts and molds. All samples of minimally processed lettuce showed absence of E. coli and Salmonella spp. The treatments of chlorine dioxide, peracetic acid and ozonated water promoted reduction of 2.5, 1.1 and 0.7 log cycle, respectively, on count of microbial load of minimally processed product and can be used as substitutes for sodium hypochlorite. These alternative compounds promoted a shelf-life of six days to minimally processed lettuce, while the shelf-life with sodium hypochlorite was 12 days.

  18. The Comparison of Selected Alternative Schools' Pedagogical Systems with the Don Bosco Preventive System

    OpenAIRE

    LAŇKA, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    The Paper discusses the education and upbringing as a system, and is especially aimed at the Preventive system of Saint John Bosco. The Bosco{\\crq}s system is then compared to the selected alternative schools{\\crq} pedagogical systems, which take humanism as the core of approach to the child{\\crq}s soul. The aim of this baccalaureate paper is to compare the selected issues, which the author sees as being important. It is the specification of target group, to which the pedagogical system is ai...

  19. System comparison of hydrogen with other alternative fuels in terms of EPACT requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbir, F.; Oezay, K.; Veziroglu, T.N. [Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The feasibility of several alternative fuels, namely natural gas, methanol, ethanol, hydrogen and electricity, to replace 10% of gasoline by the year 2000 has been investigated. The analysis was divided in two parts: (i) analysis of vehicle technologies, and (ii) analysis of fuel production storage and distribution, from the primary energy sources to the refueling station. Only technologies that are developed to at least demonstration level were considered. The amount and type of the primary energy sources have been determined for each of the fuels being analyzed. A need for a common denominator for different types of energy has been identified.

  20. Modification Design of Petrol Engine for Alternative Fueling using Compressed Natural Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliezer Uchechukwu Okeke

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is on the modification design of petrol engine for alternative fuelling using Compressed Natural Gas (CNG. It provides an analytical background in the modification design process. A petrol engine Honda CR-V 2.0 auto which has a compression ratio of 9.8 was selected as case study. In order for this petrol engine to run on CNG, its compression had to be increased. An optimal compression ratio of 11.97 was computed using the standard temperature-specific volume relationship for an isentropic compression process. This computation of compression ratio is based on an inlet air temperature of 30oC (representative of tropical ambient condition and pre-combustion temperature of 540oC (corresponding to the auto-ignition temperature of CNG. Using this value of compression ratio, a dimensional modification Quantity =1.803mm was obtained using simple geometric relationships. This value of 1.803mm is needed to increase the length of the connecting rod, the compression height of the piston or reducing the sealing plate’s thickness. After the modification process, a CNG engine of air standard efficiency 62.7% (this represents a 4.67% increase over the petrol engine, capable of a maximum power of 83.6kW at 6500rpm, was obtained.

  1. Life cycle comparison of waste-to-energy alternatives for municipal waste treatment in Chilean Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezama, Alberto; Douglas, Carla; Méndez, Jacqueline; Szarka, Nóra; Muñoz, Edmundo; Navia, Rodrigo; Schock, Steffen; Konrad, Odorico; Ulloa, Claudia

    2013-10-01

    The energy system in the Region of Aysén, Chile, is characterized by a strong dependence on fossil fuels, which account for up to 51% of the installed capacity. Although the implementation of waste-to-energy concepts in municipal waste management systems could support the establishment of a more fossil-independent energy system for the region, previous studies have concluded that energy recovery systems are not suitable from an economic perspective in Chile. Therefore, this work intends to evaluate these technical options from an environmental perspective, using life cycle assessment as a tool for a comparative analysis, considering Coyhaique city as a case study. Three technical alternatives were evaluated: (i) landfill gas recovery and flaring without energy recovery; (ii) landfill gas recovery and energy use; and (iii) the implementation of an anaerobic digestion system for the organic waste fraction coupled with energy recovery from the biogas produced. Mass and energy balances of the three analyzed alternatives have been modeled. The comparative LCA considered global warming potential, abiotic depletion and ozone layer depletion as impact categories, as well as required raw energy and produced energy as comparative regional-specific indicators. According to the results, the use of the recovered landfill gas as an energy source can be identified as the most environmentally appropriate solution for Coyhaique, especially when taking into consideration the global impact categories. PMID:23988463

  2. The Potential Use of an Alternative Fluid for SFR Intermediate Loops: Selection and First Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the Generation IV systems, Sodium Fast Reactors (SFR) are promising and benefit of considerable technological experience, but improvements are researched on safety approach and capital cost reduction. One of the main problems to be solved by the standard SFR design is the proper management of the risk of leakage between the intermediate circuit filled with sodium and the energy conversion system using a water Rankine cycle. This risk requires notably an early detection of water leakage to prevent a water-sodium reaction, and adequate draining and pressure resistant components to mitigate the reaction consequences. One can think also to suppress this risk by replacing the sodium in the secondary loops by an alternative fluid, less reactive with water. This alternative fluid might also allow innovative designs, e.g. Intermediate Heat eXchanger (IHX) and Steam Generator Unit (SGU) grouped in the same component. CEA, AREVA and EDF have formed a working group in order to evaluate different 'alternative fluids' that might replace sodium. A first selection retained seven fluids on the bases of 'required properties' as: large operating range (low melting point, high boiling point ...), fluid cost and availability, acceptable corrosion at SFR working temperature. These are three bismuth alloys, two nitrate salts, one molten hydroxide and sodium with nanoparticles. Then, it was decided to evaluate these fluids through a multi-criteria analysis in order to point out advantages and drawbacks of each fluid and to compare them with sodium. Lack of knowledge, impact on materials, design, working conditions and reactor availability should be emphasized by this analysis, in order to provide sound arguments for a research program on one or two most promising fluids. A global note is given to each fluid by evaluating them with respect to 'major criteria', weighted differently according to their importance. The major criteria were: thermal properties, reactivity with structures

  3. Embodied Energy Assessment and Comparisons for a Residential Building Using Conventional and Alternative Materials in Indian Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveen Kishore, K.; Chouhan, J. S.

    2014-06-01

    Building sector is responsible for 40 % of the primary energy use and 24 % of carbon dioxide emissions in India. The main source of green house gas emissions from buildings is due to energy consumption. This paper aims to assess the embodied energy index and environmental impact of a two storied residential building. The study proposes various alternative materials which can be used in day to day construction in order to mitigate the environmental impact and climate change due to construction activity in India. Two types of construction techniques have been considered for the study, namely load bearing and reinforced concrete framed construction. Embodied energy and carbon dioxide emissions of walling and roofing components using conventional and alternative materials has also been analyzed and compared. The comparison is done based on two parameters namely, embodied energy/m2 and CO2 emissions per unit of floor area. The study shows that bricks, cement and steel are the three major contributors to the energy cost of constructing a building by conventional methods. A conventional two storied load bearing structure is 22 % more energy efficient when compared to a reinforced concrete structure. It has also been observed from the study that use of alternative material in the building envelope gives embodied energy savings between 50 and 60 % for a two storey load bearing structure and 30-42 % for a two storey reinforced concrete structure. Hence a load bearing construction is certainly a better alternative to RC framed construction for up to two storied structures in terms of embodied energy and environmental impacts.

  4. A Comparison of Central Composite Design and Taguchi Method for Optimizing Fenton Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anam Asghar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a comparison of central composite design (CCD and Taguchi method was established for Fenton oxidation. Dyeini, Dye : Fe+2, H2O2 : Fe+2, and pH were identified control variables while COD and decolorization efficiency were selected responses. L9 orthogonal array and face-centered CCD were used for the experimental design. Maximum 99% decolorization and 80% COD removal efficiency were obtained under optimum conditions. R squared values of 0.97 and 0.95 for CCD and Taguchi method, respectively, indicate that both models are statistically significant and are in well agreement with each other. Furthermore, Prob > F less than 0.0500 and ANOVA results indicate the good fitting of selected model with experimental results. Nevertheless, possibility of ranking of input variables in terms of percent contribution to the response value has made Taguchi method a suitable approach for scrutinizing the operating parameters. For present case, pH with percent contribution of 87.62% and 66.2% was ranked as the most contributing and significant factor. This finding of Taguchi method was also verified by 3D contour plots of CCD. Therefore, from this comparative study, it is concluded that Taguchi method with 9 experimental runs and simple interaction plots is a suitable alternative to CCD for several chemical engineering applications.

  5. Femtosecond laser assisted design of sutureless intrastromal graft as an alternative to partial thickness keratoplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Francesca; Durkee, Heather; Pini, Roberto; Canovetti, Annalisa; Malandrini, Alex; Lenzetti, Ivo; Rubino, Pierangela; Leaci, Rosachiara; Neri, Alberto; Scaroni, Patrizia; Menabuoni, Luca; Macaluso, Claudio

    2014-02-01

    Minimally invasive laser assisted surgery in ophthalmology is continuously developing in order to find new surgical approaches, preserve patient tissue and improve surgical results in terms of cut precision, restoration of visual acuity, and invasiveness. In order to achieve these goals, the current approach in corneal transplant is lamellar keratoplasty, where only the anterior or posterior part of the patient's cornea is substituted depending on the lesion or pathology. In this work, we present a novel alternative approach: a case study of intrastromal sutureless transplant, where a portion of the anterior stroma of a donor cornea was inserted into the stroma of the recipient cornea, aiming to restore the correct thickness of the patient's cornea. The patient cornea was paracentrally thin, as the result of a trophic ulcer due to ocular pemphigoid. A discoid corneal graft from the anterior stroma of a donor eye was prepared: a femtosecond laser cut with a trapezoidal profile (thickness was 300 μm, minor and major basis were 3.00 and 3.50 mm, respectively). In the recipient eye, an intrastromal cut was also performed with the femtosecond laser using a specifically designed mask; the cut position was 275 μm in depth. The graft was loaded into an injector and inserted as an intrastromal presbyopic implant. The postoperative analysis evidenced a clear and stable graft that selectively restored corneal thickness in the thinned area. Intrastromal corneal transplant surgery is a minimally invasive alternative to anterior or posterior lamellar keratoplasty in select cases. We believe that Sutureless Intrastromal Laser Keratoplasty (SILK) could open up new avenues in the field of corneal transplantation by fully utilizing the potential and precision of existing lasers.

  6. Comparison of theoretical approaches for computing the bond length alternation of polymethineimine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquemin, Denis; Perpète, Eric A.; Chermette, Henry; Ciofini, Ilaria; Adamo, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    Using electron-correlated wavefunction approaches and several pure and hybrid density functionals combined with three atomic basis sets, we have optimized the ground-state geometry of increasingly long polymethineimine oligomers presenting all- trans and gliding-plane symmetries. It turns out that MP2 bond length alternations (BLA) are in good agreement with higher-order electron-correlated wavefunction approaches, whereas, for both conformers, large qualitative and quantitative discrepancies between MP2 and DFT geometries have been found. Indeed, all the selected GGA, meta-GGA and hybrid functionals tend to overestimate bond length equalization in extended polymethineimine structures. On the other hand, self-interaction corrections included in the ADSIC framework provide, in this particular case, a more efficient approach to predict the BLA for medium-size oligomers.

  7. Comparison of theoretical approaches for computing the bond length alternation of polymethineimine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquemin, Denis [Laboratoire de Chimie Theorique Appliquee, Facultes Universitaires Notre-Dame de la Paix, rue de Bruxelles, 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium)], E-mail: denis.jacquemin@fundp.ac.be; Perpete, Eric A. [Laboratoire de Chimie Theorique Appliquee, Facultes Universitaires Notre-Dame de la Paix, rue de Bruxelles, 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Chermette, Henry [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique Theorique, Universite Claude Bernard, Lyon I Bat. 210, and CNRS UMR 5180 43, Boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Ciofini, Ilaria; Adamo, Carlo [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, Laboratoire Electrochimie et Chimie Analytique, UMR CNRS ENSCP no. 7575, rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 11 F-75321 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2007-01-25

    Using electron-correlated wavefunction approaches and several pure and hybrid density functionals combined with three atomic basis sets, we have optimized the ground-state geometry of increasingly long polymethineimine oligomers presenting all-trans and gliding-plane symmetries. It turns out that MP2 bond length alternations (BLA) are in good agreement with higher-order electron-correlated wavefunction approaches, whereas, for both conformers, large qualitative and quantitative discrepancies between MP2 and DFT geometries have been found. Indeed, all the selected GGA, meta-GGA and hybrid functionals tend to overestimate bond length equalization in extended polymethineimine structures. On the other hand, self-interaction corrections included in the ADSIC framework provide, in this particular case, a more efficient approach to predict the BLA for medium-size oligomers.

  8. Levelised unit electricity cost comparison of alternate technologies for baseload generation in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a comparison of the lifetime cost of constructing, operating and decommissioning new generation suitable for supplying baseload power by early in the next decade. New baseload generation options in Ontario are nuclear, coal-fired steam turbines or combined cycle gas turbines (CCGT). Nuclear and coal-fired units are characterised by high capital costs and low operating costs. As such, they are candidates for baseload operation only. Gas-fired generation is characterised by lower capital costs and higher operating costs and thus may meet the requirements for operation as peaking and/or baseload generation. The comparison of baseload generating technologies is made by reference to the estimated levelised unit electricity cost (LUEC). The LUEC can be thought of as a 'supply cost', where the unit cost is the price needed to recover all costs over the period. It is determined by finding the price that sets the sum of all future discounted cash flows (net present value, or NPV) to zero. It can also be thought of as representing the constant real wholesale price of electricity that meets the financing cost, debt repayment, income tax and cash flow constraints associated with the construction operation and decommissioning of a generating plant. Levelised unit cost comparisons are usually made with different sets of financing assumptions. This report considers two base cases, which we describe as 'merchant' and 'public' financing. The term 'merchant plant' is used to refer to ones that are built and operated by private investors. These investors pay for their capital through debt and by raising equity, and thus pay return on equity and interest on debt throughout their lifetime. These projects include income taxes, both provincial and federal. Publicly financed projects typically are not subject to income taxes or to the same constraints on raising finance through issuing debt and equity. However, they are constrained to provide a rate of return. The

  9. Review and comparison of magnet designs for magnetic refrigeration

    CERN Document Server

    Bjørk, R; Smith, A; Pryds, N

    2014-01-01

    One of the key issues in magnetic refrigeration is generating the magnetic field that the magnetocaloric material must be subjected to. The magnet constitutes a major part of the expense of a complete magnetic refrigeration system and a large effort should therefore be invested in improving the magnet design. A detailed analysis of the efficiency of different published permanent magnet designs used in magnetic refrigeration applications is presented in this paper. Each design is analyzed based on the generated magnetic flux density, the volume of the region where this flux is generated and the amount of magnet material used. This is done by characterizing each design by a figure of merit magnet design efficiency parameter, $\\Lambda_\\mathrm{cool}$. The designs are then compared and the best design found. Finally recommendations for designing the ideal magnet design are presented based on the analysis of the reviewed designs.

  10. A comparison of alternative random regression and reaction norm models for whole genome predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, W; Chen, C; Steibel, J P; Ernst, C W; Bates, R O; Zhou, L; Tempelman, R J

    2015-06-01

    Whole genome prediction (WGP) based on high density SNP marker panels is known to improve the accuracy of breeding value (BV) prediction in livestock. However, these accuracies can be compromised when genotype by environment interaction (G×E) exists but is not accounted for. Reaction norm (RN) and random regression (RR) models have proven to be useful in accounting for G×E in pre-WGP evaluations by modeling BV as linear or higher order functions of environmental or temporal covariates. We extend these RR/RN models based on several alternative specifications for SNP-specific intercepts and linear slopes on environmental covariates. One specification is based on bivariate normality (BVN) of SNP-specific intercepts and slopes, whereas 2 others, IW-BayesA and based on inverted Wishart (IW) extensions IW-BayesB, are, respectively, bivariate Student t extensions of currently popular models without (BayesA) or with (BayesB) variable selection. We highlight alternative specifications based on the square root free Cholesky decomposition (CD) of SNP-specific variance-covariance (VCV) matrices in an attempt to better differentially model environmentally sensitive from environmentally robust QTL. Two CD specifications were considered with (CD-BayesB) or without (CD-BayesA) any variable selection on intercept and slope effects. We compared each of the 5 models based on an RN simulation study. Six scenarios were considered based on differences in overall genetic correlations between SNP-specific intercept and slope effects as well as on heritabilities and numbers of environmentally robust versus sensitive QTL. In most scenarios, IW-BayesA had the greatest accuracy, whereas CD-BayesB exhibited the greatest accuracy in low complexity architectures (i.e., low number of QTL). In an RR application of a Duroc × Pietrain resource population at Michigan State University, 5,271 SNP markers and 928 F2 animals with known pedigree were analyzed for backfat thickness at wk 10, 13, 16, 19

  11. N-butanol and isobutanol as alternatives to gasoline: Comparison of port fuel injector characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenkl, Michael; Pechout, Martin; Vojtisek, Michal

    2016-03-01

    The paper reports on an experimental investigation of the relationship between the pulse width of a gasoline engine port fuel injector and the quantity of the fuel injected when butanol is used as a fuel. Two isomers of butanol, n-butanol and isobutanol, are considered as potential candidates for renewable, locally produced fuels capable of serving as a drop-in replacement fuel for gasoline, as an alternative to ethanol which poses material compatibility and other drawbacks. While the injected quantity of fuel is typically a linear function of the time the injector coil is energized, the flow through the port fuel injector is complex, non ideal, and not necessarily laminar, and considering that butanol has much higher viscosity than gasoline, an experimental investigation was conducted. A production injector, coupled to a production fueling system, and driven by a pulse width generator was operated at various pulse lengths and frequencies, covering the range of engine rpm and loads on a car engine. The results suggest that at least at room temperature, the fueling rate remains to be a linear function of the pulse width for both n-butanol and isobutanol, and the volumes of fuel injected are comparable for gasoline and both butanol isomers.

  12. N-butanol and isobutanol as alternatives to gasoline: Comparison of port fuel injector characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenkl Michael

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports on an experimental investigation of the relationship between the pulse width of a gasoline engine port fuel injector and the quantity of the fuel injected when butanol is used as a fuel. Two isomers of butanol, n-butanol and isobutanol, are considered as potential candidates for renewable, locally produced fuels capable of serving as a drop-in replacement fuel for gasoline, as an alternative to ethanol which poses material compatibility and other drawbacks. While the injected quantity of fuel is typically a linear function of the time the injector coil is energized, the flow through the port fuel injector is complex, non ideal, and not necessarily laminar, and considering that butanol has much higher viscosity than gasoline, an experimental investigation was conducted. A production injector, coupled to a production fueling system, and driven by a pulse width generator was operated at various pulse lengths and frequencies, covering the range of engine rpm and loads on a car engine. The results suggest that at least at room temperature, the fueling rate remains to be a linear function of the pulse width for both n-butanol and isobutanol, and the volumes of fuel injected are comparable for gasoline and both butanol isomers.

  13. A comparison of alternating current and direct current electrospray ionization for mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarver, Scott A; Chetwani, Nishant; Dovichi, Norman J; Go, David B; Gartner, Carlos A

    2014-04-01

    A series of studies comparing the performance of alternating current electrospray ionization (AC ESI) mass spectrometry (MS) and direct current electrospray ionization (DC ESI) MS have been conducted, exploring the absolute signal intensity and signal-to-background ratios produced by both methods using caffeine and a model peptide as targets. Because the high-voltage AC signal was more susceptible to generating gas discharges, the operating voltage range of AC ESI was significantly smaller than that for DC ESI, such that the absolute signal intensities produced by DC ESI at peak voltages were one to two orders of magnitude greater than those for AC ESI. Using an electronegative nebulizing gas, sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), instead of nitrogen (N2) increased the operating range of AC ESI by ~50%, but did not appreciably improve signal intensities. While DC ESI generated far greater signal intensities, both ionization methods produced comparable signal-to-background noise, with AC ESI spectra appearing qualitatively cleaner. A quantitative calibration analysis was performed for two analytes, caffeine and the peptide MRFA. AC ESI utilizing SF6 outperforms all other techniques for the detection of MRFA, producing chromatographic limits of detection nearly one order of magnitude lower than that of DC ESI utilizing N2, and one-half that of DC ESI utilizing SF6. However, DC ESI outperforms AC ESI for the analysis of caffeine, indicating that improvements in spectral quality may benefit certain compounds or classes of compounds, on an individual basis. PMID:24464359

  14. Comparison of direct current and 50 Hz alternating current microscopic corona characteristics on conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corona discharge is one of the major design factors for extra-high voltage and ultra-high voltage DC/AC transmission lines. Under different voltages, corona discharge reveals different characteristics. This paper aims at investigating DC and AC coronas on the microscopic scale. To obtain the specific characteristics of DC and AC coronas, a new measurement approach that utilizes a coaxial wire-cylinder corona cage is designed in this paper, and wires of different diameters are used in the experiment. Based on the measurements, the respective microscopic characteristics of DC and AC coronas are analyzed and compared. With differences in characteristics between DC and AC coronas proposed, this study provides useful insights into DC/AC corona discharges on transmission line applications

  15. Using pilot test data to refine an alternative cover design in northern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smesrud, Jason K; Benson, Craig H; Albright, William H; Richards, James H; Wright, Shannon; Israel, Tim; Goodrich, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Two instrumented test sections were constructed in summer 1999 at the Kiefer Landfill near Sacramento, California to test the hydraulic performance of two proposed alternative final covers. Both test sections simulated monolithic evapotranspiration (ET) designs that differed primarily in thickness. Both were seeded with a mix of two perennial and one annual grass species. Oleander seedlings were also planted in the thicker test section. Detailed hydrologic performance monitoring of the covers was conducted from 1999 through 2005, The thicker test section met the performance criterion (average percolation of hydraulic properties, geomorphology, and vegetation and to collect data to support a revised design. Field data from hydrologic monitoring and the decommissioning study were subsequently included in a hydrologic modeling study to estimate the performance of an optimized cover system for full-scale application. The decommissioning study showed that properties of the soils changed over the monitoring period (saturated hydraulic conductivity and water holding capacity increased, density decreased) and that the perennial grasses and shrubs intended for the cover were out-competed by annual species with shallower roots and lesser capacity for water uptake. Of these changes, reduced ET from the shallow-rooted annual vegetation is believed to be the primary cause for the high percolation rate from the thinner test section. Hydrologic modeling suggests that the target hydraulic performance can be achieved using an ET cover with similar thickness to the thin test section if perennial vegetation species observed in surrounding grasslands can be established. This finding underscores the importance of establishing and maintaining the appropriate vegetation on ET covers in this climate. PMID:22574382

  16. Design of Fogging Nozzles as Alternative Stock Pile Dust Suppression Medium at Gold Mining Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Kwasi Adzimah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to design fogging nozzles as alternative stock pile dust suppression medium at gold mining sites. Furthermore, this fogging medium helps to arrest the dust without getting the area wet and without any substantial expenditure. Emission of dust, which is one of the main contributors to the pollution of the environment, has been associated with mining industries for years, especially in the mining towns of Ghana and Liberia. The emission of dust takes place mainly around the haul roads, ore drilling, blasting and trafficking areas, crushers and, and especially, the stock pile unit. The intensity of the emissions of the dust is such that all the plants, objects, living things, gadgets, instruments and structures in the area are engulfed in the dust. Residents, who are hard hit by this phenomenon, backed by their traditional rulers often take the mining companies to task through legal or unlawful actions, which, many a time, become violent and confrontational. Sprinkling of water has been done to alleviate the situation but this process rather creates more problems in that, the area, especially roads, once wet becomes dry again, and the emission of dust gets intensified and aggravated.

  17. Three-dimensional analysis of the Pratt and Whitney alternate design SSME fuel turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirtley, K. R.; Beach, T. A.; Adamczyk, J. J.

    1991-01-01

    The three dimensional viscous time-mean flow in the Pratt and Whitney alternate design space shuttle main engine fuel turbine is simulated using the average passage Navier-Stokes equations. The migration of secondary flows generated by upstream blade rows and their effect on the performance of downstream blade rows is studied. The present simulation confirms that the flow in this two stage turbine is highly three dimensional and dominated by the tip leakage flow. The tip leakage vortex generated by the first blade persists through the second blade and adversely affects its performance. The greatest mixing of the inlet total temperature distortion occurs in the second vane and is due to the large leakage vortex generated by the upstream rotor. It is assumed that the predominant spanwise mixing mechanism in this low aspect ratio turbine is the radial transport due to the deterministically unsteady vortical flow generated by upstream blade rows. A by-product of the analysis is accurate pressure and heat loads for all blade rows under the influence of neighboring blade rows. These aero loads are useful for advanced structural analysis of the vanes and blades.

  18. Comparison of marine spatial planning methods in Madagascar demonstrates value of alternative approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F Allnutt

    Full Text Available The Government of Madagascar plans to increase marine protected area coverage by over one million hectares. To assist this process, we compare four methods for marine spatial planning of Madagascar's west coast. Input data for each method was drawn from the same variables: fishing pressure, exposure to climate change, and biodiversity (habitats, species distributions, biological richness, and biodiversity value. The first method compares visual color classifications of primary variables, the second uses binary combinations of these variables to produce a categorical classification of management actions, the third is a target-based optimization using Marxan, and the fourth is conservation ranking with Zonation. We present results from each method, and compare the latter three approaches for spatial coverage, biodiversity representation, fishing cost and persistence probability. All results included large areas in the north, central, and southern parts of western Madagascar. Achieving 30% representation targets with Marxan required twice the fish catch loss than the categorical method. The categorical classification and Zonation do not consider targets for conservation features. However, when we reduced Marxan targets to 16.3%, matching the representation level of the "strict protection" class of the categorical result, the methods show similar catch losses. The management category portfolio has complete coverage, and presents several management recommendations including strict protection. Zonation produces rapid conservation rankings across large, diverse datasets. Marxan is useful for identifying strict protected areas that meet representation targets, and minimize exposure probabilities for conservation features at low economic cost. We show that methods based on Zonation and a simple combination of variables can produce results comparable to Marxan for species representation and catch losses, demonstrating the value of comparing alternative

  19. Comparison of costs for three hypothetical alternative kitchen waste management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiettecatte, Wim; Tize, Ronald; De Wever, Heleen

    2014-11-01

    Urban water and waste management continues to be a major challenge, with the Earth's population projected to rise to 9 billion by 2050, with 70% of this population expected to live in cities. A combined treatment of wastewater and the organic fraction of municipal solid waste offers opportunities for improved environmental protection and energy recovery, but the collection and transport of organic wastes must be cost effective. This study compares three alternative kitchen waste collection and transportation systems for a virtual modern urban area with 300,000 residents and a population density of 10,000 persons per square kilometre. Door-to-door collection, being the standard practice in modern urban centres, remains the most economically advantageous at a cost of 263 euros per tonne of kitchen waste. Important drawbacks are the difficult logistics, increased city traffic, air and noise pollution. The quieter, cleaner and more hygienic vacuum transport of kitchen waste comes with a higher cost of 367 euros per tonne, mainly resulting from a higher initial investment cost for the system installation. The third option includes the well-known use of under-sink food waste disposers (often called garbage grinders) that are connected to the kitchen's wastewater piping system, with a total yearly cost of 392 euros per tonne. Important advantages with this system are the clean operation and the current availability of a city-wide sewage conveyance pipeline system. Further research is recommended, for instance the application of a life cycle assessment approach, to more fully compare the advantages and disadvantages of each option. PMID:25341873

  20. Quadriceps tendon allografts as an alternative to Achilles tendon allografts: a biomechanical comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabe, Isaac; Hunter, Shawn

    2014-12-01

    Quadriceps tendon with a patellar bone block may be a viable alternative to Achilles tendon for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL-R) if it is, at a minimum, a biomechanically equivalent graft. The objective of this study was to directly compare the biomechanical properties of quadriceps tendon and Achilles tendon allografts. Quadriceps and Achilles tendon pairs from nine research-consented donors were tested. All specimens were processed to reduce bioburden and terminally sterilized by gamma irradiation. Specimens were subjected to a three phase uniaxial tension test performed in a custom environmental chamber to maintain the specimens at a physiologic temperature (37 ± 2 °C) and misted with a 0.9 % NaCl solution. There were no statistical differences in seven of eight structural and mechanical between the two tendon types. Quadriceps tendons exhibited a significantly higher displacement at maximum load and significantly lower stiffness than Achilles tendons. The results of this study indicated a biomechanical equivalence of aseptically processed, terminally sterilized quadriceps tendon grafts with bone block to Achilles tendon grafts with bone block. The significantly higher displacement at maximum load, and lower stiffness observed for quadriceps tendons may be related to the failure mode. Achilles tendons had a higher bone avulsion rate than quadriceps tendons (86 % compared to 12 %, respectively). This was likely due to observed differences in bone block density between the two tendon types. This research supports the use of quadriceps tendon allografts in lieu of Achilles tendon allografts for ACL-R. PMID:24414293

  1. A comparison of estimates of cost-effectiveness of alternative fuels and vehicles for reducing emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadder, G.R.

    1995-11-01

    The cost-effectiveness ratio (CER) is a measure of the monetary value of resources expended to obtain reductions in emissions of air pollutants. The CER can lead to selection of the most effective sequence of pollution reduction options. Derived with different methodologies and technical assumptions, CER estimates for alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) have varied widely among pervious studies. In one of several explanations of LCER differences, this report uses a consistent basis for fuel price to re-estimate CERs for AFVs in reduction of emissions of criteria pollutants, toxics, and greenhouse gases. The re-estimated CERs for a given fuel type have considerable differences due to non-fuel costs and emissions reductions, but the CERs do provide an ordinal sense of cost-effectiveness. The category with CER less than $5,000 per ton includes compressed natural gas and ed Petroleum gas vehicles; and E85 flexible-fueled vehicles (with fuel mixture of 85 percent cellulose-derived ethanol in gasoline). The E85 system would be much less attractive if corn-derived ethanol were used. The CER for E85 (corn-derived) is higher with higher values placed on the reduction of gas emissions. CER estimates are relative to conventional vehicles fueled with Phase 1 California reformulated gasoline (RFG). The California Phase 2 RFG program will be implemented before significant market penetration by AFVs. CERs could be substantially greater if they are calculated incremental to the Phase 2 RFG program. Regression analysis suggests that different assumptions across studies can sometimes have predictable effects on the CER estimate of a particular AFV type. The relative differences in cost and emissions reduction assumptions can be large, and the effect of these differences on the CER estimate is often not predictable. Decomposition of CERs suggests that methodological differences can make large contributions to CER differences among studies.

  2. Review and comparison of magnet designs for magnetic refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Smith, Anders;

    2010-01-01

    the magnet design. A detailed analysis of the efficiency of different published permanent magnet designs used in magnetic refrigeration applications is presented in this paper. Each design is analyzed based on the generated magnetic flux density, the volume of the region where this flux is generated...

  3. Measurement, comparison, and transformation of dynamic magnetization in pulse field and high-frequency alternating field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, K.

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic magnetizations of selected natural samples (sediments and volcanic rocks) were measured in time domain as well as in frequency domain. The time domain measurements were performed in pulse fields with variable lengths (10 μs to 10 ms) and amplitudes (0.5 mT to 0.7 T). To measure hysteresis parameters for small loops, one cycle of positive and negative pulses with different rate of field variation were generated. In the frequency domain, low-field magnetic susceptibility was measured over the frequency rage (1 kHz to 500 kHz) corresponding to the pulse lengths in the time domain measurements. Results in the time domain were characterized by the transient magnetization-field curves that were broadly comparable to the corresponding portions of the hysteresis loops measured by a quasi-static method using a VSM. The dynamic coercivity that is defined as the intersect with the abscissa in the negative regime increased as the pulse length reduced and the pulse peak increased. In strong pulse fields (> 0.5 T), irrespective of the kinds of samples, the magnetization remained at the end of a pulse and decayed exponentially within a few ms, suggesting rapid magnetic relaxations. In weak pulse fields, no such relaxation was observed except for the sediments rich in superparamagnetic (SP) particles. These field dependencies suggest that the relaxations in the strong fields could be due to the dynamics of the domain walls in the MD particles, while those of the sediments in weak fields may be ascribed to the relaxation of the SP particles. Results in the frequency domain were obtained in terms of the frequency spectrum of the real and imaginary components of complex susceptibility. Comparisons and interpretations of the data in these different domains were made in terms of the distribution of relaxation times. Discussions on the numerical conversion and transformation of these data as well as their rock magnetic applications will be provided.

  4. Parametric Optimization of Some Critical Operating System Functions--An Alternative Approach to the Study of Operating Systems Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobh, Tarek M.; Tibrewal, Abhilasha

    2006-01-01

    Operating systems theory primarily concentrates on the optimal use of computing resources. This paper presents an alternative approach to teaching and studying operating systems design and concepts by way of parametrically optimizing critical operating system functions. Detailed examples of two critical operating systems functions using the…

  5. Review and comparison of magnet designs for magnetic refrigeration

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Smith, Anders; Pryds, Nini

    2014-01-01

    One of the key issues in magnetic refrigeration is generating the magnetic field that the magnetocaloric material must be subjected to. The magnet constitutes a major part of the expense of a complete magnetic refrigeration system and a large effort should therefore be invested in improving the magnet design. A detailed analysis of the efficiency of different published permanent magnet designs used in magnetic refrigeration applications is presented in this paper. Each design is analyzed base...

  6. Conceptual design report: Nuclear materials storage facility renovation. Part 6, Alternatives study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Materials Storage Facility (NMSF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was a Fiscal Year (FY) 1984 line-item project completed in 1987 that has never been operated because of major design and construction deficiencies. This renovation project, which will correct those deficiencies and allow operation of the facility, is proposed as an FY 97 line item. The mission of the project is to provide centralized intermediate and long-term storage of special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with defined LANL programmatic missions and to establish a centralized SNM shipping and receiving location for Technical Area (TA)-55 at LANL. Based on current projections, existing storage space for SNM at other locations at LANL will be loaded to capacity by approximately 2002. This will adversely affect LANUs ability to meet its mission requirements in the future. The affected missions include LANL's weapons research, development, and testing (WRD ampersand T) program; special materials recovery; stockpile survelliance/evaluation; advanced fuels and heat sources development and production; and safe, secure storage of existing nuclear materials inventories. The problem is further exacerbated by LANL's inability to ship any materials offsite because of the lack of receiver sites for material and regulatory issues. Correction of the current deficiencies and enhancement of the facility will provide centralized storage close to a nuclear materials processing facility. The project will enable long-term, cost-effective storage in a secure environment with reduced radiation exposure to workers, and eliminate potential exposures to the public. This report is organized according to the sections and subsections outlined by Attachment 111-2 of DOE Document AL 4700.1, Project Management System. It is organized into seven parts. This document, Part VI - Alternatives Study, presents a study of the different storage/containment options considered for NMSF

  7. Lab-Scale Fiber Spinning Experimental Design Cost Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey C. Moreland

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Many statistical experimental designs are too costlyor require too much raw material to be feasible forlab-scale fiber spinning experiments. In this study afour-factor response surface design is presented tostudy the fiber spinning process in detail at the labscale. The time, cost, and amount of raw materialrequired to execute the proposed design are comparedto the typical completely randomized 24 factorialdesign used in fiber spinning experiments and also toa standard four-factor response surface design.Sample fiber data as well as analysis from a typicalstatistical software package is provided to furtherdemonstrate the differences between each design. Bydesignating some treatment factors in the design ashard-to-change, split-plotting is used to reduce thetime, cost, and amount of raw material required tocomplete the experiment. The proposed split-plotdesign is faster and less expensive than a typicalfactorial design and has the advantage of fitting amore complex second-order model to the system.When compared to a standard response surfacedesign, the proposed split-plot design provides thesame second-order modeling capabilities but reducesthe cost of the experiment by 53%, the total time by36%, and the amount of polymer required by 24%.Thus, a split-plot response surface design based onhard-to-change factors is recommended in lab-scalespinning.

  8. Consideration of alternative designs for a Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy feeding tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerrabolu, Santosh Rohit

    The inability of some people to chew or swallow foods (but can digest foods) due to problems associated with various diseases and complications leads them to insufficient nutritional intake and loss of quality of life. These individuals are generally provided with nutritional support by means of injecting or infusing food directly into their stomachs or small intestines via feeding tubes. Gastrostomy feeding tubes (G-tubes) are used when such nutritional support is required for over 3-6 weeks. Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy (PEG) tubes are one of the most widely used G- Tubes and devices which are inserted via an incision through the abdominal wall either through a pull or push method. This investigation proposes conceptual alternative Percutaneous Endoscopy Gastrostomy (PEG) feeding tube designs with optimized materials selection to be used for their construction. The candidate materials were chosen from 18 commercial catheters, 2 reference grade polymers and a commercial polymer; using tissue-catheter-friction testing and surface chemistry characterization (Infrared spectroscopy and Critical Surface Tension approximation). The main objectives considered were to minimize slipping/dislodgement of gastrostomy tube/seal, to reduce peristomal leakage, and to attain size variability of PEG tubes while maintaining a low profile. Scanning Electron Microscope- Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy was employed to further determine the filler materials used in the samples. Nylon coated with fatty ester and filled with Barium sulphate was determined as the optimum material for the construction of the tube part of the feeding tubes to reduce slipping/dislodgment of gastrostomy tube/seal and to minimize peristomal leakage. Nylon coated with fatty ester and filled with Silica is the suggested as a candidate material for construction of the bumper/mushroom sections of the feeding tubes to avoid the Buried Bumper Syndrome. Fused Deposition Modeling, Selective Laser Sintering

  9. Update and Improve Subsection NH –– Alternative Simplified Creep-Fatigue Design Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tai Asayama

    2009-10-26

    This report described the results of investigation on Task 10 of DOE/ASME Materials NGNP/Generation IV Project based on a contract between ASME Standards Technology, LLC (ASME ST-LLC) and Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). Task 10 is to Update and Improve Subsection NH -- Alternative Simplified Creep-Fatigue Design Methods. Five newly proposed promising creep-fatigue evaluation methods were investigated. Those are (1) modified ductility exhaustion method, (2) strain range separation method, (3) approach for pressure vessel application, (4) hybrid method of time fraction and ductility exhaustion, and (5) simplified model test approach. The outlines of those methods are presented first, and predictability of experimental results of these methods is demonstrated using the creep-fatigue data collected in previous Tasks 3 and 5. All the methods (except the simplified model test approach which is not ready for application) predicted experimental results fairly accurately. On the other hand, predicted creep-fatigue life in long-term regions showed considerable differences among the methodologies. These differences come from the concepts each method is based on. All the new methods investigated in this report have advantages over the currently employed time fraction rule and offer technical insights that should be thought much of in the improvement of creep-fatigue evaluation procedures. The main points of the modified ductility exhaustion method, the strain range separation method, the approach for pressure vessel application and the hybrid method can be reflected in the improvement of the current time fraction rule. The simplified mode test approach would offer a whole new advantage including robustness and simplicity which are definitely attractive but this approach is yet to be validated for implementation at this point. Therefore, this report recommends the following two steps as a course of improvement of NH based on newly proposed creep-fatigue evaluation

  10. Comparison between asphalt rubber and conventional mixtures in overlay design

    OpenAIRE

    Fontes, Liseane P. T. L.; Trichês, Glicério; Pereira, Paulo A. A.; Pais, Jorge C.

    2008-01-01

    Asphalt modified with crumb rubber has been used to produce asphalt rubber mixtures for pavement overlays subjected to heavy loads and high temperatures. Under severe conditions, these mixtures are capable of resisting permanent deformations, having an extended fatigue life and resisting crack propagation in comparison to conventional ones. A laboratory research was conducted to determine the performance properties of overlays with asphalt rubber mixtures produced through wet processes using ...

  11. Comparison of flight design of Asian honeybee drones

    OpenAIRE

    Radloff, Sarah; Randall Hepburn, H.; Koeniger, Gudrun

    2003-01-01

    International audience The excess power index (integrating body dry mass, thorax-to-body dry mass and wing surface area) was compared in drones of seven Asian Apis species. There are two statistically distinct groups of drones: drones of the dwarf honeybees form one class, all other Asian species belong to the second. Drones of dwarf honeybees have a 36% ergonomic advantage in power availability and 20% advantage in available excess power over all other drones. Comparisons of flight dimens...

  12. Variance Analysis and Comparison in Computer-Aided Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, T.; Schiffer, T.; Schinko, C.; Fellner, D. W.

    2011-09-01

    The need to analyze and visualize differences of very similar objects arises in many research areas: mesh compression, scan alignment, nominal/actual value comparison, quality management, and surface reconstruction to name a few. In computer graphics, for example, differences of surfaces are used for analyzing mesh processing algorithms such as mesh compression. They are also used to validate reconstruction and fitting results of laser scanned surfaces. As laser scanning has become very important for the acquisition and preservation of artifacts, scanned representations are used for documentation as well as analysis of ancient objects. Detailed mesh comparisons can reveal smallest changes and damages. These analysis and documentation tasks are needed not only in the context of cultural heritage but also in engineering and manufacturing. Differences of surfaces are analyzed to check the quality of productions. Our contribution to this problem is a workflow, which compares a reference / nominal surface with an actual, laser-scanned data set. The reference surface is a procedural model whose accuracy and systematics describe the semantic properties of an object; whereas the laser-scanned object is a real-world data set without any additional semantic information.

  13. Comparison of atmospheric air plasmas excited by high-voltage nanosecond pulsed discharge and sinusoidal alternating current discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai; Wang, Wen-chun; Jiang, Peng-chao; Yang, De-zheng; Jia, Li; Wang, Sen

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, atmospheric pressure air discharge plasma in quartz tube is excited by 15 ns high-voltage nanosecond pulsed discharge (HVNPD) and sinusoidal alternating current discharge (SACD), respectively, and a comparison study of these two kinds of discharges is made through visual imaging, electrical characterization, optical detection of active species, and plasma gas temperature. The peak voltage of the power supplies is kept at 16 kV while the pulse repetition rate of nanosecond pulse power supply is 100 Hz, and the frequency of sinusoidal power supply is 10 kHz. Results show that the HVNPD is uniform while the SACD presents filamentary mode. For exciting the same cycles of discharge, the average energy consumption in HVNPD is about 1/13 of the SACD. However, the chemical active species generated by the HVNPD is about 2-9 times than that excited by the SACD. Meanwhile, the rotational and vibrational temperatures have been obtained via fitting the simulated spectrum of N2 (C3Πu → B3Πg, 0-2) with the measured one, and the results show that the plasma gas temperature in the HVNPD remains close to room temperature whereas the plasma gas temperature in the SACD is about 200 K higher than that in HVNPD in the initial phase and continually increases as discharge exposure time goes on.

  14. Analysis and Comparison of Typical Models within Distribution Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Hans Jacob; Larsen, Allan; Madsen, Oli B.G.

    This paper investigates the characteristics of typical optimisation models within Distribution Network Design. During the paper fourteen models known from the literature will be thoroughly analysed. Through this analysis a schematic approach to categorisation of distribution network design models...... for educational purposes. Furthermore, the paper can be seen as a practical introduction to network design modelling as well as a being an art manual or recipe when constructing such a model....... are covered in the categorisation include fixed vs. general networks, specialised vs. general nodes, linear vs. nonlinear costs, single vs. multi commodity, uncapacitated vs. capacitated activities, single vs. multi modal and static vs. dynamic. The models examined address both strategic and tactical planning...

  15. Acoustic design of open plan schools and comparison of requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Petersen, Claus; Rasmussen, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    In the Nordic countries several new schools have open plan areas for teaching and group work. However, to optimize learning efficiency for pupils and working conditions for teachers and to reduce noise levels, such spaces require special acoustic design to obtain sufficient sound attenuation...... between groups and satisfac¬tory speech intelligibility internally in groups. This paper describes the newest Danish requirements and recommendations for such open plan areas and presents the design, measurements and subjective evaluation of two newer Danish schools. According to the users, the general...

  16. Comparison between Kemp, Smith & Ragan, Dick & Carey's Instructional Design Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgili, Bengi

    2013-01-01

    Instructional design (ID) is systematic way of suggesting a structure and giving meaning to an instructional problem by helping to visualize the problem and breaking into discrete and manageable units. In addition, ID is a systematic reflective process of applying instructional principles into plans by material, activity, resources and evaluation…

  17. A comparison of graphical design techniques for parallel, distributed software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Polman; M.R. van Steen

    1994-01-01

    textabstractWe have compared three graphical design techniques, OMT, ADL, and PARSE, on their suitability for the development of parallel/distributed applications. Our method has been to use all three of them in modeling one, existing, application: a backup facility running within the Andrew File Sy

  18. Analysis and Comparison of Typical Models within Distribution Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Hans Jacob; Larsen, Allan; Madsen, Oli B.G.

    a number of important issues which have been identified when addressing the Distribution Network Design problem from a modelling angle. More specifically, we present an analysis of the research which has been performed in utilizing operational research in developing and optimising distribution systems....

  19. Design Approaches and Comparison of TAPS Packages for Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, S. Manjit

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The paper's purpose is to promote the use of modern technologies such as multimedia packages to engineering students. The aim is to help them to learning in their learning, visualization, problem solving and understanding engineering concepts such as in mechanics dynamics. Design/methodology/approach: TAPS packages are developed to help…

  20. Comparison of two approaches to linear collider design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews linear collider parameters. It aims at analyzing two specific design approachs - the ones for CLIC at CERN and for a TeV linear collider at SLAC - which appear to lead into remarkably different directions although they start from the same premises and try to respect the same boundary conditions. 19 refs

  1. Impact of Binding Site Comparisons on Medicinal Chemistry and Rational Molecular Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrt, Christiane; Brinkjost, Tobias; Koch, Oliver

    2016-05-12

    Modern rational drug design not only deals with the search for ligands binding to interesting and promising validated targets but also aims to identify the function and ligands of yet uncharacterized proteins having impact on different diseases. Additionally, it contributes to the design of inhibitors with distinct selectivity patterns and the prediction of possible off-target effects. The identification of similarities between binding sites of various proteins is a useful approach to cope with those challenges. The main scope of this perspective is to describe applications of different protein binding site comparison approaches to outline their applicability and impact on molecular design. The article deals with various substantial application domains and provides some outstanding examples to show how various binding site comparison methods can be applied to promote in silico drug design workflows. In addition, we will also briefly introduce the fundamental principles of different protein binding site comparison methods.

  2. WEBSITE DESIGN AND LOCALISATION: A COMPARISON OF MALAYSIA AND BRITAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Tanveer Ahmed; Haralambos Mouratidis; David Preston

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to explore the local cultural values on Malaysian and British websites selected from different sectors. In recent years, a number of studies have addressed the issue of local culture in website design, but most of the studies have focused on USA representing western cultures, whereas Chinese and Japanese cultures have been the main focal point of Asian cultures. This study intends to fill this gap, focusing on less-debated cultures: Malaysia and Britain. It applies Hofstede’s ...

  3. Comparison of design methods for axially loaded buckets in sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaitkunaite, Evelina; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2015-01-01

    A study of the present knowledge about the bucket resistance for axial loading was performed considering analytical and numerical design methods as well as physical models. A case study was performed with two bucket foundations of equal diameter, but different skirt lengths installed in dense sand...... of the static tensile resistance for a bucket foundation. Furthermore, the predicted tensile resistance can differ up to 12 times indicating that further analysis is needed approaching this issue....

  4. Numerical Investigation & Comparison of a Tandem-Bladed Turbocharger Centrifugal Compressor Stage with Conventional Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Syed Noman Danish; Shafiq Rehman Qureshi; Abdelrahman EL-Leathy; Salah Ud-Din Khan; Usama Umer; Ma Chaochen

    2014-01-01

    Extensive numerical investigations of the performance and flow structure in an unshrouded tandem-bladed centrifugal compressor are presented in comparison to a conventional compressor.Stage characteristics are explored for various tip clearance levels,axial spacings and circumferential clockings.Conventional impeller was modified to tandem-bladed design with no modifications in backsweep angle,meridional gas passage and camber distributions in order to have a true comparison with conventional design.Performance degradation is observed for both the conventional and tandem designs with increase in tip clearance.Linear-equation models for correlating stage characteristics with tip clearance are proposed.Comparing two designs,it is clearly evident that the conventional design shows better performance at moderate flow rates.However; near choke flow,tandem design gives better results primarily because of the increase in throat area.Surge point flow rate also seems to drop for tandem compressor resulting in increased range of operation.

  5. Numerical investigation & comparison of a tandem-bladed turbocharger centrifugal compressor stage with conventional design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danish, Syed Noman; Qureshi, Shafiq Rehman; EL-Leathy, Abdelrahman; Khan, Salah Ud-Din; Umer, Usama; Ma, Chaochen

    2014-12-01

    Extensive numerical investigations of the performance and flow structure in an unshrouded tandem-bladed centrifugal compressor are presented in comparison to a conventional compressor. Stage characteristics are explored for various tip clearance levels, axial spacings and circumferential clockings. Conventional impeller was modified to tandem-bladed design with no modifications in backsweep angle, meridional gas passage and camber distributions in order to have a true comparison with conventional design. Performance degradation is observed for both the conventional and tandem designs with increase in tip clearance. Linear-equation models for correlating stage characteristics with tip clearance are proposed. Comparing two designs, it is clearly evident that the conventional design shows better performance at moderate flow rates. However; near choke flow, tandem design gives better results primarily because of the increase in throat area. Surge point flow rate also seems to drop for tandem compressor resulting in increased range of operation.

  6. Representation of Ecodesign Practice: International Comparison of Industrial Design Consultancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Giurco

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ecodesign offers significant potential to reduce the environmental impacts of products. Whilst some integration of environmental considerations into design occurs in progressive companies when engineering the product, this only represents a small share of the possible design interventions to improve the environmental performance of products. For example, developing new product concepts to fulfill needs in a less environmentally harmful way and considering user related aspects offers a large, currently under-realized potential. This paper identifies industrial design (ID consultancies as potential agents to tackle this issue on a strategic and operational basis. The extent to which this potential is currently applied was assessed by conducting a content analysis of websites of ID consultancies in Australia, China, and Germany. How ID consultancies represent their ecodesign practice is country-specific. Despite the differences, some ID consultancies in all countries announce and/or show the capability to develop completely new concepts and to influence user related factors to improve environmental performance. This shows their potential to address current shortcomings in ecodesign practice. As ID consultancies embracing that potential still are a minority, further research should be directed to a deeper examination of barriers and stimuli for ID consultancies to take up ecodesign.

  7. Comparison of passive inductor designs for piezoelectric shunt damping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lossouarn, Boris; Thierry, Olivier; Aucejo, Mathieu; Deü, Jean-François

    2016-04-01

    Considering piezoelectric damping, a resonant shunt can lead to a significant vibration reduction when tuned to the mechanical mode to control. However, limits appear when looking at practical applications in a low frequency range: the required inductance is often too high to be satisfied with standard passive components. Moreover, even if the inductor is eventually available, the internal resistance of the component generally exceeds the value which is required for a shunt optimization. Suitable inductors can be designed for applications requiring high inductance and low resistance values. Indeed, the permeance of a magnetic circuit can be significantly increased by the use of closed cores made of high permeability materials. In this paper, three designs are described and compared: an inductor from standard series and two handmade inductors involving a ferrite core and a nanocrystalline toroid. The components are successively integrated into a piezoelectric shunt dedicated to the vibration control of a cantilever beam. Depending on the frequency of the target mechanical mode to control, the benefits and the limits of the different inductors are observed. It is shown that custom designs can definitely extend to lower frequency the application of the passive resonant shunt strategy.

  8. MODELING AND DESIGN STUDY USING HFC-236EA AS AN ALTERNATIVE REFRIGERANT IN A CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of an investigation of the operation of a centrifugal compressor--part of a chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-114 chiller installation--with the new refrigerant hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)-236ea, a proposed alternative to CFC-114. A large set of CFC-236ea operating da...

  9. The ChemScreen project to design a pragmatic alternative approachto predict reproductive toxicity of chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Burg, B.; Wedebye, E.B.; Dietrich, D.R.; Jaworska, J.; Mangelsdorf, I.; Paune, E.; Schwarz, M.; Piersma, A.H.; Kroese, E.D.

    2015-01-01

    There is a great need for rapid testing strategies for reproductive toxicity testing, avoiding animal use.The EU Framework program 7 project ChemScreen aimed to fill this gap in a pragmatic manner prefer-ably using validated existing tools and place them in an innovative alternative testing strategy

  10. On Answering Questions Worth Asking: Alternative Designs for Sport and Exercise Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, John M., III; Parkhouse, Bonnie L.

    1982-01-01

    Alternate approaches to traditional research techniques available for the physical educator are: (1) field research, using structured and unstructured observation in actual settings; (2) survey analysis to ascertain current conditions or practice; (3) field experiments conducted in actual settings with experimenter controls; (4) time series…

  11. Comparison of a Graphical and a Textual Design Language Using Software Quality Metrics

    OpenAIRE

    Henry, Sallie M.; Goff, Roger

    1988-01-01

    For many years the software engineering community has been attacking the software reliability problem on two fronts. First via design methodologies, languages and tools as a precheck on quality and second by measuring the quality of produced software as a postcheck. This research attempts to unify the approach to creating reliable software by providing the ability to measure the quality of a design prior to its implementation. A comparison of a graphical and a textual design language is pres...

  12. Generating Alternative Engineering Designs by Integrating Desktop VR with Genetic Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramouli, Magesh; Bertoline, Gary; Connolly, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    This study proposes an innovative solution to the problem of multiobjective engineering design optimization by integrating desktop VR with genetic computing. Although, this study considers the case of construction design as an example to illustrate the framework, this method can very much be extended to other engineering design problems as well.…

  13. The Civic-Minded Instructional Designers Framework: An Alternative Approach to Contemporary Instructional Designers' Education in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusop, Farrah Dina; Correia, Ana-Paula

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues that an emphasis on training-for-the-job approaches has distracted designers from thinking about the meaning of their profession and the grand purpose of practising instructional design. Drawing from literature in the fields of sociology and educational technology, this paper synthesises discourses on civic professionalism in…

  14. Comparison of advanced high power underground cable designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, advanced high power underground cable designs are compared in the light of available literature, of reports and information supplied by participating industries (AEG, BICC, CGE, Pirelli, Siemens), spontaneous contributions by EdF, France, BBC and Felten and Guilleaume Kabelwerke A.G., Germany, and Hitachi, Furukawa, Fujikura and Sumitomo, Japan, and earlier studies carried out at German public research centres. The study covers cables with forced cooling by oil or water, SF6-cables, polyethylene cables, cryoresistive and superconducting cables. (orig.)

  15. Comparison of Designer's Design Thinking Modes in Digital and Traditional Sketches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun-Chieh; Chen, Cheng-Chi; Chen, Hsin-Chia

    2012-01-01

    The internal design thinking behaviour of designers in the concept development has been an important issue of cognitive psychology. In this study, the design thinking process designers have in applying digital media and traditional paper in the early concept development stage was explored. Special focus was made on the structure and procedure of…

  16. Comparison of Coil Designs for Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Priyam; Hadimani, Ravi; Jiles, David

    2015-03-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive treatment for neurological disorders using time varying magnetic field. The electric field generated by the time varying magnetic field is used to depolarize the brain neurons which can lead to measurable effects. TMS provides a surgical free method for the treatment of neurological brain disorders like depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, traumatic brain injury and Parkinson's disease. Before using TMS on human subjects, it is appropriate that its effects are verified on animals such as mice. The magnetic field intensity and stimulated region of the brain can be controlled by the shape, position and current in the coils. There are few reports on the designs of the coils for mice. In this paper, different types of coils are developed and compared using an anatomically realistic mouse model derived from MRI images. Parameters such as focality, depth of the stimulation, electric field strength on the scalp and in the deep brain regions, are taken into account. These parameters will help researchers to determine the most suitable coil design according to their need. This should result in improvements in treatment of specific disorders. Carver Charitable Trust.

  17. Website Design and Localisation: A Comparison of Malaysia and Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanveer Ahmed

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the local cultural values on Malaysian and British websites selected from different sectors. In recent years, a number of studies have addressed the issue of local culture in website design, but most of the studies have focused on USA representing western cultures, whereas Chinese and Japanese cultures have been the main focal point of Asian cultures. This study intends to fill this gap, focusing on less-debated cultures: Malaysia and Britain. It applies Hofstede’s individualism/collectivism, and power distance, and Hall’s high/low-context cultural dimensions, and analyses how these cultural values are reflected in Malaysian and British websites. A content analysis of the websites highlights considerable differences in representing local cultural values on the local websites.

  18. WEBSITE DESIGN AND LOCALISATION: A COMPARISON OF MALAYSIA AND BRITAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanveer Ahmed

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the local cultural values on Malaysian and British websites selected from different sectors. In recent years, a number of studies have addressed the issue of local culture in website design, but most of the studies have focused on USA representing western cultures, whereas Chinese and Japanese cultures have been the main focal point of Asian cultures. This study intends to fill this gap, focusing on less-debated cultures: Malaysia and Britain. It applies Hofstede’s individualism/collectivism, and power distance, and Hall’s high/low-context cultural dimensions, and analyses how these cultural values are reflected in Malaysian and British websites. A content analysis of the websites highlights considerable differences in representing local cultural values on the local websites.

  19. Individually designed PALs vs. power optimized PALs adaptation comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muždalo, Nataša Vujko; Mihelčič, Matjaž

    2015-03-01

    The practice shows that in everyday life we encounter ever-growing demand for better visual acuity at all viewing distances. The presbyopic population needs correction to far, near and intermediate distance with different dioptric powers. PAL lenses seem to be a comfortable solution. The object of the present study is the analysis of the factors determining adaptation to progressive addition lenses (PAL) of the first-time users. Only novice test persons were chosen in order to avoid the bias of previously worn particular lens design. For optimal results with this type of lens, several individual parameters must be considered: correct refraction, precise ocular and facial measures, and proper mounting of lenses into the frame. Nevertheless, first time wearers encounter various difficulties in the process of adapting to this type of glasses and adaptation time differs greatly between individual users. The question that arises is how much the individual parameters really affect the ease of adaptation and comfort when wearing progressive glasses. To clarify this, in the present study, the individual PAL lenses--Rodenstock's Impression FreeSign (with inclusion of all parameters related to the user's eye and spectacle frame: prescription, pupillary distance, fitting height, back vertex distance, pantoscopic angle and curvature of the frame) were compared to power optimized PAL--Rodenstock's Multigressiv MyView (respecting only prescription power and pupillary distance). Adaptation process was monitored over a period of four weeks. The collected results represent scores of user's subjective impressions, where the users themselves rated their adaptation to new progressive glasses and the degree of subjective visual impression. The results show that adaptation time to fully individually fit PAL is easier and quickly. The information obtained from users is valuable in everyday optometry practice because along with the manufacturer's specifications, the user's experience can

  20. Individually designed PALs vs. power optimized PALs adaptation comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muždalo, Nataša Vujko; Mihelčič, Matjaž

    2015-03-01

    The practice shows that in everyday life we encounter ever-growing demand for better visual acuity at all viewing distances. The presbyopic population needs correction to far, near and intermediate distance with different dioptric powers. PAL lenses seem to be a comfortable solution. The object of the present study is the analysis of the factors determining adaptation to progressive addition lenses (PAL) of the first-time users. Only novice test persons were chosen in order to avoid the bias of previously worn particular lens design. For optimal results with this type of lens, several individual parameters must be considered: correct refraction, precise ocular and facial measures, and proper mounting of lenses into the frame. Nevertheless, first time wearers encounter various difficulties in the process of adapting to this type of glasses and adaptation time differs greatly between individual users. The question that arises is how much the individual parameters really affect the ease of adaptation and comfort when wearing progressive glasses. To clarify this, in the present study, the individual PAL lenses--Rodenstock's Impression FreeSign (with inclusion of all parameters related to the user's eye and spectacle frame: prescription, pupillary distance, fitting height, back vertex distance, pantoscopic angle and curvature of the frame) were compared to power optimized PAL--Rodenstock's Multigressiv MyView (respecting only prescription power and pupillary distance). Adaptation process was monitored over a period of four weeks. The collected results represent scores of user's subjective impressions, where the users themselves rated their adaptation to new progressive glasses and the degree of subjective visual impression. The results show that adaptation time to fully individually fit PAL is easier and quickly. The information obtained from users is valuable in everyday optometry practice because along with the manufacturer's specifications, the user's experience can

  1. Innovative IPV from attenuated Sabin poliovirus or newly designed alternative seed strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Ahd; Bakker, Wilfried A M

    2012-11-01

    This article gives an overview of the patent literature related to innovative inactivated polio vaccine (i-IPV) based on using Sabin poliovirus strains and newly developed alternative recombinant poliovirus strains. This innovative approach for IPV manufacturing is considered to attribute to the requirement for affordable IPV in the post-polio-eradication era, which is on the horizon. Although IPV is a well-established vaccine, the number of patent applications in this field was seen to have significantly increased in the past decade. Currently, regular IPV appears to be too expensive for universal use. Future affordability may be achieved by using alternative cell lines, alternative virus seed strains, improved and optimized processes, dose sparing, or the use of adjuvants. A relatively short-term option to achieve cost-price reduction is to work on regular IPV, using wild-type poliovirus strains, or on Sabin-IPV, based on using attenuated poliovirus strains. This price reduction can be achieved by introducing efficiency in processing. There are also multiple opportunities to work on dose sparing, for example, by using adjuvants or fractional doses. Renewed interest in this field was clearly reflected in the number and diversity of patent applications. In a later stage, several innovative approaches may become even more attractive, for example the use of recombinant virus strains or even a totally synthetic vaccine. Currently, such work is mainly carried out by research institutes and universities and therefore clinical data are not available. PMID:24236927

  2. Project on Alternative Systems Study - PASS. Comparison of technology of KBS-3, MLH, VLH and VDH concepts by using an expert group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report constitutes a technical comparison and ranking of four repository concepts for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel, that have been studied by SKB: KBS-3, Medium Long Holes (MLH), Very Long Holes (VLH) and Very Deep Holes (VDH). The technical comparison is part of the project 'Project on Alternative Systems Study, PASS', which was initiated by SKB. With the objective of presenting a ranking of the four concepts. Besides this comparison of Technology the ranking is separately made for Long-term Performance and Safety, and Costs before the merging into one verdict. The ranking regarding Technology was carried out in accordance with the method Analytical Hierarchy Process, AHP, and by the aid of expert judgement in the form of a group consisting of six experts. The AHP method implies that the criteria for comparison are ordered in a hierarchy and that the ranking is carried out by pairwise comparison of the criteria. In the evaluation process a measure of the relative importance of each criterion is obtained. The result of the expert judgement exercise was that each expert individually ranked the four concepts in the following order with the top ranked alternative first: KBS-3, MLH, VLH and VDH. The common opinion among the experts was that the top ranking of KBS-3 is significant and the the major criteria used in the study could change substantially without changing the top ranking of KBS-3

  3. Design and Comparison of a 1 MW / 5s HTS SMES with Toroidal and Solenoidal Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Morandi, Antonio; Gholizad, Babak; Grilli, Francesco; Sirois, Frédéric; Zermeño, Víctor M R

    2015-01-01

    The design of a HTS SMES coil with solenoidal and toroidal geometry is carried out based on a commercially available 2G HTS conductor. A SMES system of practical interest (1 MW / 5 s) is considered. The comparison between ideal toroidal and solenoidal geometry is first discussed and the criteria used for choosing the geometrical parameters of the coils' bore are explained. The design of the real coil is then carried out and the final amount of conductor needed is compared. A preliminary comparison of the two coils in terms of AC loss during one charge discharge cycle is also discussed.

  4. The Dutch IOR approach to organizational design : An alternative to business process re-engineering?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijnatten, FM; van der Zwaan, AH

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the current Dutch sociotechnical design approach to integral organizational renewal in a contextual way. Both its design theory and intervention processes are reviewed and some aggregated empirical evidence is presented. Next, the paper compares the ideas developed in the Dutch a

  5. COMPARISON OF EXPERIMENTAL-DESIGNS COMBINING PROCESS AND MIXTURE VARIABLES .1. DESIGN CONSTRUCTION AND THEORETICAL EVALUATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DUINEVELD, CAA; SMILDE, AK; DOORNBOS, DA

    1993-01-01

    The combination of process variables and mixture variables in experimental design is a problem which has not yet been solved. It is examined here whether a set of designs can be found which can be used for a series of models of reasonable complexity. The proposed designs are compared with known desi

  6. Assessing the environmental burdens of anaerobic digestion in comparison to alternative options for managing the biodegradable fraction of municipal solid wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haight, M

    2005-01-01

    Biological treatment processes including anaerobic digestion (biogasification) and composting are increasingly being considered by waste management officials and planners as alternatives for managing the mainly organic residues of municipal solid wastes (MSW). The integrated waste management model which is based upon the application of life-cycle analysis was employed to compare the environmental burdens of landfilling, composting and anaerobic digestion of MSW at a mid-sized Canadian community. Energy consumption (or recovery), residue recoveries and emissions to air and water were quantified. Scenario comparisons were analyzed to demonstrate that the environmental burdens associated with anaerobic digestion are reduced in comparison with the alternative options. The major benefit occurs as a result of the electricity produced from burning the biogas and then supplying the 'green power' to the local electrical grid. PMID:16180477

  7. Alternative practices in curriculum design. Participation as a key factor and speaking out as right

    OpenAIRE

    Susana Barco

    2012-01-01

    During the 1990s, in the context of neo-liberal policies, curricular changes ocurred in Latin América which gave a leading role to technicians and experts in education, in the process of writing the curricular documents. Beyond the critiques these policies can receive, it is necessary to find alternative ways of elaborating curricular documents, based on democratic idea of teacher's real participation.In an action-research within the scope of a university and two experiences referred to in th...

  8. Impact of Rate Design Alternatives on Residential Solar Customer Bills. Increased Fixed Charges, Minimum Bills and Demand-based Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Davidson, Carolyn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McLaren, Joyce [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    With rapid growth in energy efficiency and distributed generation, electric utilities are anticipating stagnant or decreasing electricity sales, particularly in the residential sector. Utilities are increasingly considering alternative rates structures that are designed to recover fixed costs from residential solar photovoltaic (PV) customers with low net electricity consumption. Proposed structures have included fixed charge increases, minimum bills, and increasingly, demand rates - for net metered customers and all customers. This study examines the electricity bill implications of various residential rate alternatives for multiple locations within the United States. For the locations analyzed, the results suggest that residential PV customers offset, on average, between 60% and 99% of their annual load. However, roughly 65% of a typical customer's electricity demand is non-coincidental with PV generation, so the typical PV customer is generally highly reliant on the grid for pooling services.

  9. Validating MCNP for LEU Fuel Design via Power Distribution Comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Primm, Trent [ORNL; Maldonado, G Ivan [ORNL; Chandler, David [ORNL

    2008-11-01

    The mission of the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) Program is to minimize and, to the extent possible, eliminate the use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in civilian nuclear applications by working to convert research and test reactors, as well as radioisotope production processes, to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel and targets. Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL) is reviewing the design bases and key operating criteria including fuel operating parameters, enrichment-related safety analyses, fuel performance, and fuel fabrication in regard to converting the fuel of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from HEU to LEU. The purpose of this study is to validate Monte Carlo methods currently in use for conversion analyses. The methods have been validated for the prediction of flux values in the reactor target, reflector, and beam tubes, but this study focuses on the prediction of the power density profile in the core. A current 3-D Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) model was modified to replicate the HFIR Critical Experiment 3 (HFIRCE-3) core of 1965. In this experiment, the power profile was determined by counting the gamma activity at selected locations in the core. Foils (chunks of fuel meat and clad) were punched out of the fuel elements in HFIRCE-3 following irradiation and experimental relative power densities were obtained by measuring the activity of these foils and comparing each foil s activity to the activity of a normalizing foil. The current work consisted of calculating corresponding activities by inserting volume tallies into the modified MCNP model to represent the punchings. The average fission density was calculated for each foil location and then normalized to the normalizing foil. Power distributions were obtained for the clean core (no poison in moderator and symmetrical rod position at 17.5 inches) and fully poisoned-moderator (1.35 g B/liter in moderator and rods fully withdrawn) conditions. The observed deviations between the

  10. GREENER CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN ALTERNATIVES ARE REVEALED USING THE WASTE REDUCTION DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM (WAR DSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Waste Reduction Decision Support System (WAR DSS) is a Java-based software product providing comprehensive modeling of potential adverse environmental impacts (PEI) predicted to result from newly designed or redesigned chemical manufacturing processes. The purpose of this so...

  11. Evaluation of occupational health interventions using a randomized controlled trial: challenges and alternative research designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schelvis, R.M; Oude Hengel, K.M.; Burdorf, A.; Blatter, B.M.; Strijk, J.E.; Beek, A.J. van

    2015-01-01

    Occupational health researchers regularly conduct evaluative intervention research for which a randomized controlled trial (RCT) may not be the most appropriate design (eg, effects of policy measures, organizational interventions on work schedules). This article demonstrates the appropriateness of a

  12. Engaging Alternative High School Students Through the Design, Development, and Crafting of Computationally Enhanced Pets

    OpenAIRE

    DuMont, Maneksha Katrine

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid design technologies, a combination of physical crafting, construction or art, and computing, have the potential to broaden participation in computing by appealing to youth through existing interests and hobbies. Expanding participation in computing is important because computational thinking, for example debugging, is a set of skills fundamental for success in our society. Youth can participate in and gain exposure to multiple disciplines with various hybrid design technologies. Yet al...

  13. PrimerSeq:Design and Visualization of RT-PCR Primers for Alternative Splicing Using RNA-seq Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Collin Tokheim; Juw Won Park; Yi Xing

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of multi-exon genes in higher eukaryotes are alternatively spliced and changes in alternative splicing (AS) can impact gene function or cause disease. High-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has become a powerful technology for transcriptome-wide analysis of AS, but RT-PCR still remains the gold-standard approach for quantifying and validating exon splicing levels. We have developed PrimerSeq, a user-friendly software for systematic design and visualization of RT-PCR primers using RNA-seq data. PrimerSeq incorporates user-provided tran-scriptome profiles (i.e., RNA-seq data) in the design process, and is particularly useful for large-scale quantitative analysis of AS events discovered from RNA-seq experiments. PrimerSeq features a graphical user interface (GUI) that displays the RNA-seq data juxtaposed with the expected RT-PCR results. To enable primer design and visualization on user-provided RNA-seq data and transcript annotations, we have developed PrimerSeq as a stand-alone software that runs on local computers. PrimerSeq is freely available for Windows and Mac OS X along with source code at http://primerseq.sourceforge.net/. With the growing popularity of RNA-seq for transcriptome stud-ies, we expect PrimerSeq to help bridge the gap between high-throughput RNA-seq discovery of AS events and molecular analysis of candidate events by RT-PCR.

  14. OSIRIS and SOMBRERO Inertial Fusion Power Plant Designs, Volume 2: Designs, Assessments, and Comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, W. R.; Bieri, R. L.; Monsler, M. J.; Hendricks, C. D.; Laybourne, P.; Shillito, K. R.

    1992-03-01

    This is a comprehensive design study of two Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) electric power plants. Conceptual designs are presented for a fusion reactor (called Osiris) using an induction-linac heavy-ion beam driver, and another (called SOMBRERO) using a KrF laser driver. The designs covered all aspects of IFE power plants, including the chambers, heat transport and power conversion systems, balance-of-plant facilities, target fabrication, target injection and tracking, as well as the heavy-ion and KrF drivers. The point designs were assessed and compared in terms of their environmental & safety aspects, reliability and availability, economics, and technology development needs.

  15. Sıkışma: An Alternative Information Design Project for Ihlamur Pavilions Istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özmen, Melike

    2016-01-01

    Sıkışma is a transmedia information design project, which focuses on Ihlamur Pavilions and Ihlamur area. Ihlamur hosts Ihlamur Pavilions since 19th Century. It is located within Beşiktaş district in Istanbul. Nowadays the buildings belong to TBMM (The Grand National Assembly of Turkey) National Palaces and used as a Museum- Café. There is a conventional wayfinding & signage system for outdoor areas of the Pavilions. The system also includes two separate boards focusing on the history of Ihlamur and Ihlamur Pavilions. However, the information provided on these boards seems inadequate and the boards are physically damaged. According Universal Design approach it is possible to achieve good and functional design and solve the inadequacy problem by physically fixing information boards and re-setting the environment around the information boards according to Universal Design principles. Although, these principles provide solutions for important issues such as mobility, stability and accessibility, it doesn't provide sufficient proof of user engagement in terms of the creation of the content. The project Sıkışma offers an approach, which is concerned with content as with form and suggests that it is possible to infer a universal form from the content created through personal experience of the designer as a user. It is also intended to represent the past and the present through the project and to create an understanding of plausible scenarios of the unknown future in the viewers' mind.

  16. Sıkışma: An Alternative Information Design Project for Ihlamur Pavilions Istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özmen, Melike

    2016-01-01

    Sıkışma is a transmedia information design project, which focuses on Ihlamur Pavilions and Ihlamur area. Ihlamur hosts Ihlamur Pavilions since 19th Century. It is located within Beşiktaş district in Istanbul. Nowadays the buildings belong to TBMM (The Grand National Assembly of Turkey) National Palaces and used as a Museum- Café. There is a conventional wayfinding & signage system for outdoor areas of the Pavilions. The system also includes two separate boards focusing on the history of Ihlamur and Ihlamur Pavilions. However, the information provided on these boards seems inadequate and the boards are physically damaged. According Universal Design approach it is possible to achieve good and functional design and solve the inadequacy problem by physically fixing information boards and re-setting the environment around the information boards according to Universal Design principles. Although, these principles provide solutions for important issues such as mobility, stability and accessibility, it doesn't provide sufficient proof of user engagement in terms of the creation of the content. The project Sıkışma offers an approach, which is concerned with content as with form and suggests that it is possible to infer a universal form from the content created through personal experience of the designer as a user. It is also intended to represent the past and the present through the project and to create an understanding of plausible scenarios of the unknown future in the viewers' mind. PMID:27534336

  17. Design and control of an alternative distillation sequence for bioethanol purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Errico, Massimiliano; Ramírez-Márquez, César; Torres Ortega, Carlo Edgar;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bioethanol is a green fuel considered to be a sustainable alternative to petro-derived gasoline. The transport sector contributes significantly to carbon dioxide emission and consequently has a negative impact on the air quality and is responsible for the increase of the greenhouse...... separation is presented. The steady state performance and the dynamic beavior are analyzed compared with the classical configuration reported in the literature. RESULTS: Ethanol-water azeotropic separation represents a challenge for bioethanol purification. Usually a three column sequence is used to obtain...... fuel grade bioethanol by extractive distillation. In order to reduce bioethanol purification cost a two column separation sequence is proposed. This configuration shows a 10% saving in capital costs together with higher ethanol recovery and better control properties compared with the classical three...

  18. Human-Centred Design Workshops in Collaborative Strategic Design Projects: An Educational and Professional Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Andre; Sanders, Elizabeth B.-N.

    2013-01-01

    It has been found that the implementation of Human-centred Design (HCD) methods in the Fuzzy Front-End is not likely to lead to diversification in educational product planning exercises, where time lines are short and executors lack experience. Companies, interested to collaborate with Master-level Industrial Design students on strategic design…

  19. COMPARISON OF EXPERIMENTAL-DESIGNS COMBINING PROCESS AND MIXTURE VARIABLES .2. DESIGN EVALUATION ON MEASURED DATA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DUINEVELD, CAA; SMILDE, AK; DOORNBOS, DA

    1993-01-01

    The construction of a small experimental design for a combination of process and mixture variables is a problem which has not been solved completely by now. In a previous paper we evaluated some designs with theoretical measures. This second paper evaluates the capabilities of the best of these desi

  20. Alternative designs for megavoltage machines for cancer treatment in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In developing countries radiation therapy is often performed with antiquated cobalt-60 units, the radioactive sources of which are long decayed and, thus, treatments are ineffective. Furthermore the cost involved in the disposal of spent radionuclide sources discourages owners from proper removal and storage, and accidents occur. Although present design of microwave electron linear accelerators provide excellent beam characteristics, developing countries in many locations do not have the infrastructure to maintain such machines. After an analysis of the radiotherapy situation world-wide - especially from the viewpoint of maintenance - a consensus was reached on the radiotherapy equipment performance requirements. To meet these requirements, several accelerator designs were considered. Among the most promising new designs were the klystron/linac and the high frequency linear accelerator, the microtron in a radiation head, the high frequency betatron, also in a radiation accelerator, and DC accelerators. Possible treatment designs, including those of modular nature, were presented. Since it is estimated that by the year 2015, barring a dramatic and unforeseen cure for cancer, a total of 10,000 machines will be needed to provide treatment for an estimated 10 million new cases per year in developing countries, the impact of such high technology simple machine could be substantial in providing equity and quality for the management of cancer patients. 4 refs, 2 tabs

  1. Vehicle perceptibilty : reflectorized registration plates and alternative means : function, design and application.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griep, D.J. Thoenes, E. Schreuder, D.A. & Kranenburg, A.

    1970-01-01

    In November 1967 the Minister of Transport and Waterways in the Netherlands asked the Institute for Road Safety Research SWOV to examine the advisable design of reflectorized registration plates from the aspect of perceptibility. Allowance had to be made for the identification of motor vehicles. esp

  2. Alternative configurations of Quantile Regression for estimating predictive uncertainty in water level forecasts for the Upper Severn River: a comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. López López

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study comprises an inter-comparison of different configurations of a statistical post-processor that is used to estimate predictive hydrological uncertainty. It builds on earlier work by Weerts et al. (2011, herinafter referred to as wwv2011, who used the Quantile Regression technique to estimate predictive hydrological uncertainty using a deterministic water level forecast as a predictor. The various configurations are designed to address two issues with the wwv2011 implementation: (i quantile crossing, which causes non-strictly rising cumulative predictive distributions, and (ii the use of linear quantile models to describe joint distributions that may not be strictly linear. Thus, four configurations were built: (i the "as is" implementation used by wwv2011, (ii a configuration that implements a non-crossing quantile technique, (iii a configuration where quantile models are built in Normal space after application of the Normal Quantile Transform, and (iv a configuration that builds quantile model separately on separate domains of the predictor. Using each, four re-forecasting series of water levels at fourteen stations in the Upper Severn River were established. The quality of these four series was inter-compared using a set of graphical and numerical verification metrics. Intercomparison showed that reliability and sharpness vary across configurations, but in none of the configurations do these two forecast quality aspects improve simultaneously. Further analysis shows that skills in terms of Brier Skill Score, mean Continuous Ranked Probability Skill Score and Relative Operating Characteristic Score is very similar across the four configurations.

  3. A simple and efficient alternative to implementing systematic random sampling in stereological designs without a motorized microscope stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, Neal R; Poda, Daniel; Sutherland, Robert J

    2007-10-01

    When properly applied, stereology is a very robust and efficient method to quantify a variety of parameters from biological material. A common sampling strategy in stereology is systematic random sampling, which involves choosing a random sampling [corrected] start point outside the structure of interest, and sampling relevant objects at [corrected] sites that are placed at pre-determined, equidistant intervals. This has proven to be a very efficient sampling strategy, and is used widely in stereological designs. At the microscopic level, this is most often achieved through the use of a motorized stage that facilitates the systematic random stepping across the structure of interest. Here, we report a simple, precise and cost-effective software-based alternative to accomplishing systematic random sampling under the microscope. We believe that this approach will facilitate the use of stereological designs that employ systematic random sampling in laboratories that lack the resources to acquire costly, fully automated systems.

  4. Design of an alternating phase focusing Interdigital H-mode Drift-Tube-Linac with low injection energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, L.; Pang, J.; He, X.; Ying, Z.; Shi, J.

    2016-01-01

    An Inter-digital H-mode (IH) Drift Tube Linac (DTL) was designed to accelerate a proton beam in the low energy region with high RF efficiency and high gradient. The IH DTL is 1.078 m long and operates at 200 MHz. Protons could be accelerated from 0.04 MeV to 2.4 MeV (the β range is from 0.0092 to 0.0714). The method of alternating phase focusing (APF) was applied for beam focusing. The simulation results show that the transmission is 38% and the longitudinal acceptance is approximately 140°. The shunt impedance of the entire cavity is 365 MΩ/m. Adjustments of the electric-field were performed, and the beam dynamics design was described. The beam loss and voltage sensitivity were calculated.

  5. Cat dissection and human cadaver prosection versus sculpting human structures from clay: A comparison of alternate approaches to human anatomy laboratory education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, John R.

    Dissection and vivisection are traditional approaches to biology laboratory education. In the case of human anatomy teaching laboratories, there is a long tradition of using human and animal cadaver specimens in the classroom. In a review of the literature comparing traditional dissection and vivisection lessons to alternative lessons designed to reduce the time spent dissecting or the numbers of animals used, we conclude that it is difficult to come to any conclusion regarding the efficacy of different approaches. An analysis of the literature is confounded because many studies have very low statistical power or other methodological weaknesses, and investigators rely on a wide variety of testing instruments to measure an equally varied number of course objectives. Additional well designed studies are necessary before educators can reach any informed conclusions about the efficacy of traditional versus alternative approaches to laboratory education. In our experiments, we compared a traditional cat dissection based undergraduate human anatomy lesson to an alternative where students sculpted human muscles onto plastic human skeletons. Students in the alternative treatment performed significantly better than their peers in the traditional treatment when answering both lower and higher order human anatomy questions. In a subsequent experiment with a similar design, we concluded that the superior performance of the students in the alternative treatment on anatomy exams was likely due to the similarity between the human anatomy representation studied in lab, and the human anatomy questions asked on the exams. When the anatomy questions were presented in the context of a cat specimen, students in the traditional cat dissection treatment outperformed their peers in the alternative treatment. In a final experiment where student performance on a human anatomy exam was compared between a traditional prosected human cadaver treatment and the alternative clay sculpting

  6. An alternative approach to compensators design for photon beams used in radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurkovic, S. [University Hospital, Department of Radiotherapy, Physics Division, Kresimirova 42, 51000 Rijeka (Croatia); Zauhar, G. [School of Medicine, Department of Physics, Brace Branchetta 20, 51000 Rijeka (Croatia)], E-mail: gordz@medri.hr; Bistrovic, M. [Hospital for Tumors, Radiotherapy Department, Ilica 272, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Faj, D. [University Hospital, Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, J. Huttlera 4, 31000 Osijek (Croatia); Kaliman, Z. [Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Department of Physics, Omladinska 14, 51000 Rijeka (Croatia); Smilovic Radojcic, D. [University Hospital, Department of Radiotherapy, Physics Division, Kresimirova 42, 51000 Rijeka (Croatia)

    2007-09-21

    The use of compensators in order to achieve desired dose distribution has a long history and is a well-established technique in radiation therapy planning. There are several different calculation methods for determining a compensator's thickness. An alternative method that is based on the Cunningham's modification of Clarkson's method to calculate scattered radiation in beams with an inhomogeneous cross-section is proposed. It is well known that the total dose distribution of radiotherapy photon beam consists of the contributions of the primary beam, attenuated by the tissue layer, and the scattered radiation generated by the primary radiation in single and multiple photon scatter events. The scattered component can be represented as a function of the primary radiation. The central point of our method is the numerical estimation of the primary distribution required to achieve the desired total distribution. Now using the calculated primary distribution, the shape of the modulator could be determined. In this way the contribution of the scattered component is validated in a more accurate way than using effective attenuation coefficients, which is a common practice. The method is verified in various clinical situations and compared with the standard method. The accuracy, although dependent on geometry, was improved by at least 2%. With more complex geometries there is an even higher gain in accuracy with our method when compared to the standard method.

  7. AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF BROADBAND BEAMSPACE ADAPTIVE ARRAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. SRINIVASA RAO

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The beamwidth of a linear array depends on number of elements in the array and frequency of the input signal. At present designing of wideband antennas and beamformers became important, in the fields of microphone arrays intended for teleconferencing, in transmitting or receiving spread spectrum signals, crip signals etc. A beamspace adaptive planar array for broadband beamforming is proposed based on the filter – and - sum beamforming technique. A detailed design method was provided for both the linear arrays and the adaptivearrays and simulation results are provided for the proposed method. Our proposed method is used to demonstrate that the beam-space adaptive array can suppress interference signals having a wide fractional bandwidth and that the array has fast convergence.

  8. Alternative approaches to fusion. [reactor design and reactor physics for Tokamak fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    The limitations of the Tokamak fusion reactor concept are discussed and various other fusion reactor concepts are considered that employ the containment of thermonuclear plasmas by magnetic fields (i.e., stellarators). Progress made in the containment of plasmas in toroidal devices is reported. Reactor design concepts are illustrated. The possibility of using fusion reactors as a power source in interplanetary space travel and electric power plants is briefly examined.

  9. Testing alternative designs for a roadside animal detection system using a driving simulator

    OpenAIRE

    Molly K. Grace; Smith, Daniel J; Reed F Noss

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: A Roadside Animal Detection System (RADS) was installed in January 2012 along Highway 41 through Big Cypress National Preserve in Florida, USA in an attempt to reduce wildlife-vehicle collisions. The system uses flashing warning signs to alert drivers when a large animal is near the road. However, we suspected that the RADS warning signs could be ignored by drivers because they resemble other conventional signs. We hypothesized that word-based warning signs (current design) are le...

  10. Design Alternatives for a High-Performance Self-Securing Ethernet Network Interface

    OpenAIRE

    Schuff, Derek L.; Pai, Vijay S

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents and evaluates a strategy for integrating the Snort network intrusion detection system into a high-performance programmable Ethernet network interface card (NIC), considering the impact of several possible hardware and software design choices. While currently proposed ASIC, FPGA, and TCAM systems can match incoming string content in real-time, the system proposed also supports the stream reassembly and HTTP content transformation capabilities of Snort. This system, called L...

  11. Life cycle assessment of a parabolic trough concentrating solar power plant and the impacts of key design alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, John J; Heath, Garvin A; Turchi, Craig S

    2011-03-15

    Climate change and water scarcity are important issues for today's power sector. To inform capacity expansion decisions, hybrid life cycle assessment is used to evaluate a reference design of a parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) facility located in Daggett, CA, along four sustainability metrics: life cycle (LC) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water consumption, cumulative energy demand (CED), and energy payback time (EPBT). This wet-cooled, 103 MW plant utilizes mined nitrates salts in its two-tank, thermal energy storage (TES) system. Design alternatives of dry-cooling, a thermocline TES, and synthetically derived nitrate salt are evaluated. During its LC, the reference CSP plant is estimated to emit 26 g of CO(2eq) per kWh, consume 4.7 L/kWh of water, and demand 0.40 MJ(eq)/kWh of energy, resulting in an EPBT of approximately 1 year. The dry-cooled alternative is estimated to reduce LC water consumption by 77% but increase LC GHG emissions and CED by 8%. Synthetic nitrate salts may increase LC GHG emissions by 52% compared to mined. Switching from two-tank to thermocline TES configuration reduces LC GHG emissions, most significantly for plants using synthetically derived nitrate salts. CSP can significantly reduce GHG emissions compared to fossil-fueled generation; however, dry-cooling may be required in many locations to minimize water consumption.

  12. Life Cycle Assessment of a Parabolic Trough Concentrating Solar Power Plant and Impacts of Key Design Alternatives: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heath, G. A.; Burkhardt, J. J.; Turchi, C. S.

    2011-09-01

    Climate change and water scarcity are important issues for today's power sector. To inform capacity expansion decisions, hybrid life cycle assessment is used to evaluate a reference design of a parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) facility located in Daggett, California, along four sustainability metrics: life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water consumption, cumulative energy demand (CED), and energy payback time (EPBT). This wet-cooled, 103 MW plant utilizes mined nitrate salts in its two-tank, thermal energy storage (TES) system. Design alternatives of dry-cooling, a thermocline TES, and synthetically-derived nitrate salt are evaluated. During its life cycle, the reference CSP plant is estimated to emit 26 g CO2eq per kWh, consume 4.7 L/kWh of water, and demand 0.40 MJeq/kWh of energy, resulting in an EPBT of approximately 1 year. The dry-cooled alternative is estimated to reduce life cycle water consumption by 77% but increase life cycle GHG emissions and CED by 8%. Synthetic nitrate salts may increase life cycle GHG emissions by 52% compared to mined. Switching from two-tank to thermocline TES configuration reduces life cycle GHG emissions, most significantly for plants using synthetically-derived nitrate salts. CSP can significantly reduce GHG emissions compared to fossil-fueled generation; however, dry-cooling may be required in many locations to minimize water consumption.

  13. Testing alternative designs for a roadside animal detection system using a driving simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly K. Grace

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A Roadside Animal Detection System (RADS was installed in January 2012 along Highway 41 through Big Cypress National Preserve in Florida, USA in an attempt to reduce wildlife-vehicle collisions. The system uses flashing warning signs to alert drivers when a large animal is near the road. However, we suspected that the RADS warning signs could be ignored by drivers because they resemble other conventional signs. We hypothesized that word-based warning signs (current design are less effective than picture-based signs at catching drivers’ attention. Methods: We used a driving simulator to test (1 the effects of the RADS on collision rate, driver speed, and latency to brake; and (2 whether the RADS would be more effective if warning signs were picture-based. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three treatments: no warning (control, word-based RADS signs (current design, and picture-based RADS signs (proposed design. During the simulations, a deer entered the road in front of the driver, and we recorded whether drivers “crashed” or not. Results: Both the picture-based and word-based RADS signs resulted in significantly lower crash probabilities. The picture-based RADS signs performed better than the word-based signs in reducing speed and latency to brake, although the effect varied between twilight and night. However, the word-based RADS signs still did produce significant reductions in speed and braking latency. Conclusions: We conclude that the word-based RADS in Big Cypress should help prevent dangerous wildlife-vehicle collisions, but that redesigning the warning signs to be picture-based could yield even greater benefits.

  14. Building Low Carbon Cities: Framework to Design and Evaluate Alternative Technologies and Policies for Land Use Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, S.; Hamano, H.; Fujita, T.; Hori, H.

    2008-12-01

    Annex I parties of the Kyoto Protocol are facing even greater pressures to fulfill their commitment for GHG reduction as they enter the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol 2008-2012. In Japanese context, one such challenge is to reduce CO2 emissions from the household and business sectors because CO2 emissions from the both sectors has increased by 12% and 20% respectively since 1990 while the industry has achieved 21% of CO2 emissions reduction. Land use planning, which, either directly or indirectly, controls appropriate uses for land within jurisdictions, might play very important roles to deal with CO2 reductions from the household and business sectors. In this research, aiming at effective reductions of air- conditioning energy consumption and resultant CO2 emissions from the household and business sectors, the framework to design and evaluate land use planning was developed. The design and evaluation processes embraced in this framework consist of GIS database, technology and policy inventory for planning, one- dimensional urban canopy model which evaluate urban climate at neighborhood level and air-conditioning load calculation procedure. The GIS database provides spatial information of target areas such as land use, building use and road networks, which, then, helps design alternative land use plans. The technology and policy inventory includes various planning options ranging from those for land over control to those for building energy control, which, combined with the GIS database, serves for planning process. The urban canopy model derives vertical profiles of local climate, such as temperature and humidity, using the information of land use, building height and so on, aided by the GIS database. Vertical profiles of the urban climate are then utilized to derive air-conditioning load and associated CO2 emissions for each building located in target areas. The framework developed was applied to the coastal district of Kawasaki, Japan, with an

  15. Cell and stack design alternatives. First quarterly report, August 1, 1978-October 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, D.Q.

    1979-01-01

    An apartment house in Albany, New York with HUD minimum insulation was selected as the application to be used in evaluating various system configurations of on-site fuel cell total energy systems. Methods for calculating the static and dynamic thermal loads for a simulated season were developed. Computer models of some major subsystems are now being developed. Finite element models of the electrochemistry, thermodynamics and heat transfer relationships for fuel cells were developed and have been used to calculate current density and temperature distributions for sets of large cells and cooling plates. The results obtained led to several innovative ideas for advanced stack designs. A single lump model of a fuel cell stack was developed for use in the systems study. The available information on methane conditioning was collected and reviewed and a plan for attaining the missing design data has been developed. Simple models of reformer and water-gas shift reactors were developed for use in the systems study. The lines of communication among technical tasks were established, required documentation of plans and progress was prepared and delivered and the monthly review meetings were held as planned.

  16. Thermal Dissipation Modelling and Design of ITER PF Converter Alternating Current Busbar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bin; Song, Zhiquan; Fu, Peng; Jiang, Li; Li, Jinchao; Wang, Min; Dong, Lin

    2016-10-01

    Because the larger metallic surrounds are heated by the eddy current, which is generated by the AC current flowing through the AC busbar in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) poloidal field (PF) converter system, shielding of the AC busbar is required to decrease the temperature rise of the surrounds to satisfy the design requirement. Three special types of AC busbar with natural cooling, air cooling and water cooling busbar structure have been proposed and investigated in this paper. For each cooling scheme, a 3D finite model based on the proposed structure has been developed to perform the electromagnetic and thermal analysis to predict their operation behavior. Comparing the analysis results of the three different cooling patterns, water cooling has more advantages than the other patterns and it is selected to be the thermal dissipation pattern for the AC busbar of ITER PF converter unit. The approach to qualify the suitable cooling scheme in this paper can be provided as a reference on the thermal dissipation design of AC busbar in the converter system. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51407179)

  17. Pentameric models as alternative molecular targets for the design of new antiaggregant agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera Guisasola, Exequiel E; Gutierrez, Lucas J; Andujar, Sebastián A; Angelina, Emilio; Rodríguez, Ana M; Enriz, Ricardo D

    2016-01-01

    The structure-based drug design has been an extremely useful technique used for searching and developing of new therapeutic agents in various biological systems. In the case of AD, this approach has been difficult to implement. Among other several causes, the main problem might be the lack of a specific stable and reliable molecular target. In this paper the results obtained using a pentameric amyloid beta (Aβ) model as a molecular target are discussed. Our MD simulations have shown that this system is relatively structured and stable, displaying a lightly conformational flexibility during 2.0 μs of simulation time. This study allowed us to distinguish characteristic structural features in specific regions of the pentamer which should be taken into account when choosing this model as a molecular target. This represents a clear advantage compared to the monomer or dimer models which are highly flexible structures with large numbers of possible conformers. Using this pentameric model we performed two types of studies usually carried out on a molecular target: a virtual screening and the design on structural basis of new mimetic peptides with antiaggregant properties. Our results indicate that this pentameric model might be a good molecular target for these particular studies of molecular modeling. Details about the predictive power of our virtual screening as well as about the molecular interactions that stabilize the mimetic peptide-pentamer Aβ complexes are discussed in this paper.

  18. A MINE alternative to D-optimal designs for the linear model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda M Bouffier

    Full Text Available Doing large-scale genomics experiments can be expensive, and so experimenters want to get the most information out of each experiment. To this end the Maximally Informative Next Experiment (MINE criterion for experimental design was developed. Here we explore this idea in a simplified context, the linear model. Four variations of the MINE method for the linear model were created: MINE-like, MINE, MINE with random orthonormal basis, and MINE with random rotation. Each method varies in how it maximizes the MINE criterion. Theorem 1 establishes sufficient conditions for the maximization of the MINE criterion under the linear model. Theorem 2 establishes when the MINE criterion is equivalent to the classic design criterion of D-optimality. By simulation under the linear model, we establish that the MINE with random orthonormal basis and MINE with random rotation are faster to discover the true linear relation with p regression coefficients and n observations when p>>n. We also establish in simulations with n<100, p=1000, σ=0.01 and 1000 replicates that these two variations of MINE also display a lower false positive rate than the MINE-like method and additionally, for a majority of the experiments, for the MINE method.

  19. Life cycle assessment of a power tower concentrating solar plant and the impacts of key design alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Michael B; Heath, Garvin A; Burkhardt, John J; Turchi, Craig S

    2013-06-01

    A hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) is used to evaluate four sustainability metrics over the life cycle of a power tower concentrating solar power (CSP) facility: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water consumption, cumulative energy demand (CED), and energy payback time (EPBT). The reference design is for a dry-cooled, 106 MW(net) power tower facility located near Tucson, AZ that uses a mixture of mined nitrate salts as the heat transfer fluid and storage medium, a two-tank thermal energy storage system designed for six hours of full load-equivalent storage, and receives auxiliary power from the local electric grid. A thermocline-based storage system, synthetically derived salts, and natural gas auxiliary power are evaluated as design alternatives. Over its life cycle, the reference plant is estimated to have GHG emissions of 37 g CO2eq/kWh, consume 1.4 L/kWh of water and 0.49 MJ/kWh of energy, and have an EPBT of 15 months. Using synthetic salts is estimated to increase GHG emissions by 12%, CED by 7%, and water consumption by 4% compared to mined salts. Natural gas auxiliary power results in greater than 10% decreases in GHG emissions, water consumption, and CED. The thermocline design is most advantageous when coupled with the use of synthetic salts.

  20. Advances in implosion physics, alternative targets design, and neutron effects on heavy ion fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coupling of a new radiation transport (RT) solver with an existing multimaterial fluid dynamics code (ARWEN) using Adaptive Mesh Refinement named DAFNE, has been completed. In addition, improvements were made to ARWEN in order to work properly with the RT code, and to make it user-friendlier, including new treatment of Equations of State, and graphical tools for visualization. The evaluation of the code has been performed, comparing it with other existing RT codes (including the one used in DAFNE, but in the single-grid version). These comparisons consist in problems with real input parameters (mainly opacities and geometry parameters). Important advances in Atomic Physics, Opacity calculations and NLTE atomic physics calculations, with participation in significant experiments in this area, have been obtained. Early published calculations showed that a DTx fuel with a small tritium initial content (xe and to enhance radiation losses, reducing the plasma temperature, Ti. The neutron activation of all natural elements in First Structural Wall (FSW) component of an Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) reactor for waste management, and the analysis of activation of target debris in NIF-type facilities has been completed. Using an original efficient modeling for pulse activation, the FSW behavior in inertial fusion has been studied. A radiological dose library coupled to the ACAB code is being generated for assessing impact of environmental releases, and atmospheric dispersion analysis from HIF reactors indicate the uncertainty in tritium release parameters. The first recognition of recombination barriers in SiC, modify the understanding of the calculation of displacement per atom, dpa, to quantify the collisional damage. An important analysis has been the confirmation, using Molecular Dynamics (MD) with an astonishing agreement, of the experimental evidence of low-temperature amorphization by damage accumulation in SiC, which could modify extensively its viability as a

  1. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility: Documentation of impact analysis for design alternatives presented in the Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is proposing to construct and operate a new Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF). The proposed DWTF would replace the existing Hazardous Waste Management (HWM) facilities at LLNL. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) to assess the environmental consequences of the proposed DWTF and its alternatives. This report presents the assumptions, methodologies, and analyses used to estimate the waste flows, air emissions, ambient air quality impacts, and public health risks that are presented in the DEIS. Two DWTF design alternatives (Level I and Level II) have been designated as reasonable design alternatives considering available technologies, environmental regulations, and current and future LLNL waste generation. Both design alternatives would include new, separate radioactive and nonradioactive liquid waste treatment systems, a solidification unit, a new decontamination facility, storage and treatment facilities for reactive materials, a radioactive waste storage area, receiving and classification areas, and a uranium burn pan. The Level I design alternative would include a controlled-air incinerator system, while the Level II design alternative would include a rotary kiln incinerator system. 43 refs., 4 figs., 24 tabs

  2. Comparison in the design and thermodynamic calculation of BNPP steam plant with the previous design (PWR-1300) and the new design (VVER-1000) using CXEMAcomputer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a general view, the steam cycle of the Bushehr nuclear power plant is similar to that of thermal power plants using fossil fuel. However, dissimilarities appear in design and fabrication of the turbin unit components, due to the necessity of using the saturated steam through the cycle. At the same time and considering the modifications implemented in the new design of the Bushehr nuclear power plant (to say, adoption of the Russia VVER-1000 instead of the previous german PWR-1300 plants), the turbine unit has also undergone some modification. The major changes include the employment of 3 low pressure turbine cylinders instead of the ex-2 ones of the german design and RPM of 3000 as the turbine rotation rate instead of the 1500 one for the german design. In this paper in addition to the comparison of the two designs, the turbine parameters of both designs are also calculated with the CXEMAcode and the achieved results are brought into comparison and analysis. This paper has been prepared on the basis of the results represented in the author's (D.Golmoradi) Master of Sciences thesis

  3. Alternative Evaluation Designs for Data-Centered Technology-Based Geoscience Education Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalles, D. R.

    2012-12-01

    This paper will present different strategies for how to evaluate contrasting K-12 geoscience classroom-based interventions with different goals, leveraging the first author's experiences as principal investigator of four NSF and NASA-funded geoscience education projects. Results will also be reported. Each project had its own distinctive features but all had in common the broad goal of bringing to high school classrooms uses of real place-based geospatial data to study the relationships of Earth system phenomena to climate change and sustainability. The first project's goal was to produce templates and exemplars for curriculum and assessment designs around studying contrasting geoscience topics with different data sets and forms of data representation. The project produced a near transfer performance assessment task in which students who studied climate trends in Phoenix turned their attention to climate in Chicago. The evaluation looked at the technical quality of the assessment instrument as measured by inter-rater reliability. It then analyzed the assessment results against student responses to the instructional tasks about Phoenix. The evaluation proved useful in pinpointing areas of student strength and weakness on different inquiry tasks, from simple map interpretation to analysis of contrasting claims about what the data indicate. The goal of the second project was to produce an exemplar curriculum unit that bridges Western science and traditional American Indian ecological knowledge for student learning and skill building about local environmental sustainability issues. The evaluation looked at the extent to which Western and traditional perspectives were incorporated into the design of the curriculum. The curriculum was not constructed with a separate assessment, yet evidence centered design was utilized to extrapolate from the exemplar unit templates for future instructional and assessment tasks around other places, other sustainability problems, and

  4. Designing instruction to support mechanical reasoning: Three alternatives in the simple machines learning environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Ann Frances

    2001-07-01

    Creating a classroom environment that fosters a productive learning experience and engages students in the learning process is a complex endeavor. A classroom environment is dynamic and requires a unique synergy among students, teacher, classroom artifacts and events to achieve robust understanding and knowledge integration. This dissertation addresses this complex issue by developing, implementing, and investigating the simple machines learning environment (SIMALE) to support students' mechanical reasoning and understanding. SIMALE was designed to support reflection, collaborative learning, and to engage students in generative learning through multiple representations of concepts and successive experimentation and design activities. Two key components of SIMALE are an original web-based software tool and hands-on Lego activities. A research study consisting of three treatment groups was created to investigate the benefits of hands-on and web-based computer activities on students' analytic problem solving ability, drawing/modeling ability, and conceptual understanding. The study was conducted with two populations of students that represent a diverse group with respect to gender, ethnicity, academic achievement and social/economic status. One population of students in this dissertation study participated from the Mathematics, Engineering, and Science Achievement (MESA) program that serves minorities and under-represented groups in science and mathematics. The second group was recruited from the Academic Talent Development Program (ATDP) that is an academically competitive outreach program offered through the University of California at Berkeley. Results from this dissertation show success of the SIMALE along several dimensions. First, students in both populations achieved significant gains in analytic problem solving ability, drawing/modeling ability, and conceptual understanding. Second, significant differences that were found on pre-test measures were eliminated

  5. Comparison of Facially Amphiphilic versus Segregated Monomers in the Design of Antibacterial Copolymers

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel, Gregory J.; Maegerlein, Janet A.; Nelson, Christopher F.; Dabkowski, Jeffrey M.; Eren, Tarik; Nüsslein, Klaus; Tew, Gregory N.

    2009-01-01

    A direct comparison of two strategies for designing antimicrobial polymers is presented. Previously, we published several reports on the use of facially amphiphilic (FA) monomers which led to polynorbornenes with excellent antimicrobial activities and selectivities. Our polymers obtained by copolymerization of structurally similar segregated monomers, in which cationic and non-polar moieties reside on separate repeat units, led to polymers with less pronounced activities. A wide range of poly...

  6. Comparison of Planar Parallel Manipulator Architectures based on a Multi-objective Design Optimization Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Chablat, Damien; Caro, Stéphane; Ur-Rehman, Raza; Wenger, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the comparison of planar parallel manipulator architectures based on a multi-objective design optimization approach. The manipulator architectures are compared with regard to their mass in motion and their regular workspace size, i.e., the objective functions. The optimization problem is subject to constraints on the manipulator dexterity and stiffness. For a given external wrench, the displacements of the moving platform have to be smaller than given values throughout t...

  7. Store design : A comparison between luxurious and normal/regular fashion stores

    OpenAIRE

    Alazzawi, Jinan Riadh; Farcuta, Loredana Alexandrina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to do a comparison between luxurious fashion stores and normal/regular ones, describe the differences in terms of the store design and discuss the influences and their impact on the customer experience. The second purpose is to give suggestions to normal/regular fashion stores from Sweden regarding improvements that they might need to enhance the customer’s shopping experience. In order to complete this study, both primary and secondary data were collected. Primar...

  8. Overall scores as an alternative to global ratings in patient experience surveys: a comparison of four methods.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krol, M.W.; Boer, D. de; Rademakers, J.J.D.J.M.; Delnoij, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Global ratings of healthcare by patients are a popular way of summarizing patients' experiences. Summary scores can be used for comparing healthcare provider performance and provider rankings. As an alternative, overall scores from actual patient experiences can be constructed as summary

  9. Land suitability evaluation for greenhouse cultivation of cucumber in comparison with alternative plantations in Mobarakeh- Zarrinshahr district using AHP

    OpenAIRE

    Ayoubi, S.; V. Shahrokh; A Jalalian

    2012-01-01

    Land suitability evaluation is the fitness of a given tract of land based on its production potential for a defined use. This study was conducted to evaluate the land suitability of Mobarakeh-Zarrinshahr district located in west of Isfahan province using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) technique. To do the evaluation, firstly the hierarchy structure was established, which consisted of objectives, criteria, sub-criteria and alternatives. The objective was determination of landuse priority i...

  10. Observational Study Designs for Comparative Effectiveness Research: An Alternative Approach to Close Evidence Gaps in Head-and-Neck Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) has emerged as an approach to improve quality of care and patient outcomes while reducing healthcare costs by providing evidence to guide healthcare decisions. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have represented the ideal study design to support treatment decisions in head-and-neck (H and N) cancers. In RCTs, formal chance (randomization) determines treatment allocation, which prevents selection bias from distorting the measure of treatment effects. Despite this advantage, only a minority of patients qualify for inclusion in H and N RCTs, which limits the validity of their results to the broader H and N cancer patient population seen in clinical practice. Randomized controlled trials often do not address other knowledge gaps in the management of H and N cancer, including treatment comparisons for rare types of H and N cancers, monitoring of rare or late toxicity events (eg, osteoradionecrosis), or in some instances an RCT is simply not feasible. Observational studies, or studies in which treatment allocation occurs independently of investigators' choice or randomization, may address several of these gaps in knowledge, thereby complementing the role of RCTs. This critical review discusses how observational CER studies complement RCTs in generating the evidence to inform healthcare decisions and improve the quality of care and outcomes of H and N cancer patients. Review topics include a balanced discussion about the strengths and limitations of both RCT and observational CER study designs; a brief description of design and analytic techniques to handle selection bias in observational studies; examples of observational studies that inform current clinical practices and management of H and N cancers; and suggestions for relevant CER questions that could be addressed by an observational study design

  11. Land suitability evaluation for greenhouse cultivation of cucumber in comparison with alternative plantations in Mobarakeh- Zarrinshahr district using AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ayoubi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Land suitability evaluation is the fitness of a given tract of land based on its production potential for a defined use. This study was conducted to evaluate the land suitability of Mobarakeh-Zarrinshahr district located in west of Isfahan province using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP technique. To do the evaluation, firstly the hierarchy structure was established, which consisted of objectives, criteria, sub-criteria and alternatives. The objective was determination of landuse priority in each land unit; the criteria comprised of soil suitability, climate suitability, gross income, market accessibility, water resources availability, physical environmental-impacts and chemical environmental-impacts; two alternative landuse types were chosen to be cultivation of rice and establishment of greenhouse. The questionnaires were filled out by experts and then the overall weight for each element at each level was calculated by multiplying its local weight, obtained from Expert Choice 2000 software. The results showed that climate suitability and market accessibility had the highest and least weights, respectively, for selection of the proper land use, and the inconsistency ratio was 9%. In all the land units, the greenhouse establishment had higher priority. Climate suitability and gross income were identified the major factors affecting the suitability for greenhouse establishment. In general, cultivation of rice is not recommended in the studied area, because of negative environmental impacts including soil physical-destruction, low water use efficiency, raising the groundwater levels and increasing soil salinity.

  12. Comparison of Model Error for Alternative Conceptual Models of Sediment Geometry at the Hanford Site, Southeast Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, C. J.; Savelieva-Trofimova, E. A.; Thorne, P. D.; Xie, Y.; Scheibe, T. D.; Cole, C. R.; Kanevski, M.

    2002-12-01

    A number of uncertainties exist in the hydrogeology of the Hanford Site, and the high costs and risks associated with cleanup of sites contaminated with radioactive wastes requires that the uncertainty associated with alternative remediation decisions must fully reflect the uncertainty associated with these decisions. Prior uncertainty analyses of Hanford groundwater model predictions have focused on uncertainties in model parameters (e.g., hydraulic conductivity) given an assumed conceptual model of hydrogeologic structure. In this study we evaluated predictive uncertainty related to the model structure conceptualization. Our study has focused on two major elements of the hydrogeologic structure of the Hanford Site: the geometry of mud units that occur within the aquifer, and the parameter zonation for hydrologic properties of the uppermost conductive portion of the aquifer. For each structural element, we have developed alternative conceptual models that have been evaluated by inverse modeling. The geometry and continuity of mud units exert a strong influence on groundwater flow and contaminant transport at the site. A detailed study of the spatial distribution of the three mud units was performed using a data set consisting of the presence/absence of each mud unit at several hundred boreholes, as well as the thickness if a mud unit was present. The spatial analysis proceeded in two stages. A series of stochastic simulations of the mud units were prepared using geostatistical methods. The stochastic simulations were numerically ranked and a subset of the best and worst simulations (as determined by the connectedness of the aquifer given the simulated mud distributions) was used as inputs to an inverse model. Inverse modeling was performed using UCODE and a finite element flow and transport code (CFEST) and used to test the fit of over 76,000 observed potentiometric head data for several alternative models of the mud distribution. Those conceptual models included

  13. Moving virtuality into reality: A comparison study of the effectiveness of traditional and alternative assessments of learning in a multisensory, fully immersive physics program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamor, Keysha Ingram

    This paper contains a research study that investigated the relative efficacy of using both a traditional paper-and-pencil assessment instrument and an alternative, virtual reality (VR) assessment instrument to assist educators and/or instructional designers in measuring learning in a virtual reality learning environment. To this end, this research study investigated assessment in VR, with the goal of analyzing aspects of student learning in VR that are feasible to access or capture by traditional assessments and alternative assessments. The researcher also examined what additional types of learning alternative assessments may offer. More specifically, this study compared the effectiveness of a traditional method with an alternative (performance-based) method of assessment that was used to examine the ability of the tools to accurately evidence the levels of students' understanding and learning. The domain area was electrostatics, a complex, abstract multidimensional concept, with which students often experience difficulty. Outcomes of the study suggest that, in the evaluation of learning in an immersive VR learning environment, assessments would most accurately manifest student learning if the assessment measure matched the learning environment itself. In this study, learning and assessing in the VR environment yielded higher final test scores than learning in VR and testing with traditional paper-and-pencil. Being able to transfer knowledge from a VR environment to other situations is critical in demonstrating the overall level of understanding of a concept. For this reason, the researcher recommends a combination of testing measures to enhance understanding of complex, abstract concepts.

  14. Comparison of an alternative and existing binning methods to reduce the acquisition duration of 4D PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Didierlaurent, David, E-mail: dadidierlaurent@gmail.com; Ribes, Sophie; Caselles, Olivier [SIMAD, LU 50, Université Toulouse III Paul Sabatier, Toulouse 31062 (France); Jaudet, Cyril; Dierickx, Lawrence O.; Zerdoud, Slimane; Brillouet, Severine; Weits, Kathleen [Institut Claudius Regaud, 20-24 Rue du Pont Saint-Pierre, Toulouse 31052 (France); Batatia, Hadj [IRIT-INPT, Université Toulouse III Paul Sabatier, Toulouse 31071 (France); Courbon, Frédéric [GCS CHU-CLCC, Université Toulouse III Paul Sabatier, Toulouse 31052 (France)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Respiratory motion is a source of artifacts that reduce image quality in PET. Four dimensional (4D) PET/CT is one approach to overcome this problem. Existing techniques to limiting the effects of respiratory motions are based on prospective phase binning which requires a long acquisition duration (15–25 min). This time is uncomfortable for the patients and limits the clinical exploitation of 4D PET/CT. In this work, the authors evaluated an existing method and an alternative retrospective binning method to reduce the acquisition duration of 4D PET/CT. Methods: The authors studied an existing mixed-amplitude binning (MAB) method and an alternative binning method by mixed-phases (MPhB). Before implementing MPhB, they analyzed the regularity of the breathing patterns in patients. They studied the breathing signal drift and missing CT slices that could be challenging for implementing MAB. They compared the performance of MAB and MPhB with current binning methods to measure the maximum uptake, internal volume, and maximal range of tumor motion. Results: MPhB can be implemented depending on an optimal phase (in average, the exhalation peak phase −4.1% of the entire breathing cycle duration). Signal drift of patients was in average 35% relative to the breathing amplitude. Even after correcting this drift, MAB was feasible in 4D CT for only 64% of patients. No significant differences appeared between the different binning methods to measure the maximum uptake, internal volume, and maximal range of tumor motion. The authors also determined the inaccuracies of MAB and MPhB to measure the maximum amplitude of tumor motion with three bins (less than 3 mm for movement inferior to 12 mm, up to 6.4 mm for a 21 mm movement). Conclusions: The authors proposed an alternative binning method by mixed-phase binning that halves the acquisition duration of 4D PET/CT. Mixed-amplitude binning was challenging because of signal drift and missing CT slices. They showed that more

  15. Comparison of methods for controlling dental caries in the classical medicine and alternative medical practices and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabbani Khorasgani Mohammad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is a multi-factorial disease and the most common human infection that annually are spent millions dollars to control and treat it. Several methods have been proposed so far to control it. The most important control methods it is now include : dental hygiene, proper nutrition , fluoride therapy , the use of non- cariogenic sweeteners . Also, the use of probiotics , nanomaterials , bacteriophages , antimicrobial peptides and anti- caries vaccines can be considered as new perspective of human in the dental caries control field. In addition, the use of complementary and alternative therapies , especially herbal drug therapy recently has been considered . Demonstrating the efficacy of complementary medicine against dental caries and its use in combination with conventional medicine or trial of new methods for decline of dental caries in the future would be hopeful.

  16. Alternatives to relational databases in precision medicine: Comparison of NoSQL approaches for big data storage using supercomputers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Enrique Israel

    Improvements in medical and genomic technologies have dramatically increased the production of electronic data over the last decade. As a result, data management is rapidly becoming a major determinant, and urgent challenge, for the development of Precision Medicine. Although successful data management is achievable using Relational Database Management Systems (RDBMS), exponential data growth is a significant contributor to failure scenarios. Growing amounts of data can also be observed in other sectors, such as economics and business, which, together with the previous facts, suggests that alternate database approaches (NoSQL) may soon be required for efficient storage and management of big databases. However, this hypothesis has been difficult to test in the Precision Medicine field since alternate database architectures are complex to assess and means to integrate heterogeneous electronic health records (EHR) with dynamic genomic data are not easily available. In this dissertation, we present a novel set of experiments for identifying NoSQL database approaches that enable effective data storage and management in Precision Medicine using patients' clinical and genomic information from the cancer genome atlas (TCGA). The first experiment draws on performance and scalability from biologically meaningful queries with differing complexity and database sizes. The second experiment measures performance and scalability in database updates without schema changes. The third experiment assesses performance and scalability in database updates with schema modifications due dynamic data. We have identified two NoSQL approach, based on Cassandra and Redis, which seems to be the ideal database management systems for our precision medicine queries in terms of performance and scalability. We present NoSQL approaches and show how they can be used to manage clinical and genomic big data. Our research is relevant to the public health since we are focusing on one of the main

  17. Comparison of two design methods of aerodynamic biobjectives for airfoil and wing shapes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU; Ziqiang; FU; Hongyan; LIU; Hang; WANG; Xiaolu

    2004-01-01

    A simplified adaptive wing, which deflects its leading edge and trailing edge flaps to vary its shape, is calculated to investigate the potential aerodynamic gains and compared with a biobjective optimization (BO) wing in the present paper. In subsonic-transonic flights the deflection angle of a flap is determined through optimization using a deterministic method. In supersonic flight the flaps are not deflected due to the requirement of having a minimum drag. For comparison the aerodynamic characteristics of a BO airfoil and wing is calculated. A parallel genetic algorithm is used in BO. Euler equations served as governing equations in flow field calculation. Numerical results in both 2D (airfoil) and 3D (wing) cases show that aerodynamic performances of the two design airfoils and wings are much better than those of the original ones, with the adaptive design one the best.

  18. Design of axial-flux permanent-magnet low-speed machines and performance comparison between radial-flux and axial-flux machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parviainen, A.

    2005-07-01

    This thesis presents an alternative approach to the analytical design of surface-mounted axial-flux permanent-magnet machines. Emphasis has been placed on the design of axial-flux machines with a one-rotor-two-stators configuration. The design model developed in this study incorporates facilities to include both the electromagnetic design and thermal design of the machine as well as to take into consideration the complexity of the permanent-magnet shapes, which is a typical requirement for the design of high-performance permanent-magnet motors. A prototype machine with rated 5 kW output power at 300 min{sup -1} rotation speed has been designed and constructed for the purposes of ascertaining the results obtained from the analytical design model. A comparative study of low-speed axial-flux and low-speed radial-flux permanent-magnet machines is presented. The comparative study concentrates on 55 kW machines with rotation speeds 150 min{sup -1}, 300 min{sup -1} and 600 min{sup -1} and is based on calculated designs. A novel comparison method is introduced. The method takes into account the mechanical constraints of the machine and enables comparison of the designed machines, with respect to the volume, efficiency and cost aspects of each machine. It is shown that an axial-flux permanent-magnet machine with one-rotor-two-stators configuration has generally a weaker efficiency than a radial-flux permanent-magnet machine if for all designs the same electric loading, air-gap flux density and current density have been applied. On the other hand, axial-flux machines are usually smaller in volume, especially when compared to radial-flux machines for which the length ratio (axial length of stator stack vs. air-gap diameter) is below 0.5. The comparison results show also that radial-flux machines with a low number of pole pairs, p < 4, outperform the corresponding axial-flux machines. (orig.)

  19. Comparison of instructor-led automated external defibrillation training and three alternative DVD-based training methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. de Vries; N.M. Turner; K.G. Monsieurs; J.J.L.M. Bierens; R.W. Koster

    2010-01-01

    Background: Self-directed BLS-training, using a personal training manikin with video has been shown to be as effective as instructor-led training. This has not previously been investigated for AED-training. Materials and methods: This prospective, randomized study with a non-inferiority design compa

  20. COMPAS: a European project on the ''comparison of alternative waste management strategies for long-lived radioactive wastes''. Scope, working methods and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the content and major findings of a project on the ''COMParison of Alternative waste management Strategies for long-lived radioactive wastes'' (COMPAS) carried out within the 5th framework programme of the European commission. Under the leadership of NNC (UK), the project was carried out by individuals representing waste management organisations from 15 European countries. After having compiled information on the nature and amount of long-lived radioactive waste to be managed, issues influencing the selection of waste management strategies and options, presently adopted national strategies as well as options for the future were addressed. Conclusions concerning key issues for the success or otherwise of strategies and management solutions were drawn. (orig.)

  1. Comparison of haematopoietic stem cell engraftment through the retro-orbital venous sinus and the lateral vein: alternative routes for bone marrow transplantation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon-Rico, D; Fernández-García, M; Aldea, M; Sánchez, R; Peces-Barba, M; Martinez-Palacio, J; Yáñez, R M; Almarza, E

    2015-04-01

    Bone marrow transplantation in mice is performed by intravenous administration of haematopoietic repopulating cells, usually via the lateral tail vein. This technique can be technically challenging to carry out and may cause distress to the mice. The retro-orbital sinus is a large area where there is a confluence of several vessels that provides an alternative route for intravenous access. Retro-orbital injection, although aesthetically unpleasant, can be performed rapidly without requiring mechanical restriction or heat-induced vasodilation. In addition, this technique can be easily learned by novice manipulators. This route of administration has been reported for use in bone marrow transplantation but there is no comparison of retro-orbital and tail vein injections reported for this specific purpose, although both routes have been compared for many other applications. Here, we provide for the first time a comprehensive comparison between tail vein and retro-orbital injections for two different bone marrow transplant scenarios in P3B and B6D2F1 mice. In both cases, no significant differences regarding donor engraftment were observed between mice transplanted using each of the techniques. Haematological counts and leukocyte subpopulation distribution were practically identical between both animal groups. Moreover, donor engraftment levels were less homogenous when cells were transplanted by tail vein injection, probably due to a higher risk of failure associated with this technique. All these data suggest that retro-orbital injection is a compelling alternative to conventional tail vein injection for bone marrow transplant in mice, providing similar and more homogenous haematopoietic reconstitution.

  2. Comparison of hot-hole injections in ultrashort channel LDD nMOSFETs with ultrathin oxide under an alternating stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The behaviours of three types of hot-hole injections in ultrashort channel lightly doped drain (LDD) nMOSFETs with ultrathin oxide under an alternating stress have been compared. The three types of hot-hole injections, i.e. low gate voltage hot hole injection (LGVHHI), gate-induced drain leakage induced hot-hole injection (GIDLIHHI) and substrate hot-hole injection (SHHI), have different influences on the devices damaged already by the previous hot electron injection (HEI) because of the different locations of trapping holes and interface states induced by the three types of injections,i.e. three types of stresses. Experimental results show that GIDLIHHI and LGVHHI cannot recover the degradation of electron trapping, but SHHI can. Although SHHI can recover the device's performance, the recovery is slight and reaches saturation quickly, which is suggested here to be attributed to the fact that trapped holes are too few and the equilibrium is reached between the trapping and releasing of holes which can be set up quickly in the ultrathin oxide.

  3. Comparison of Alternative Crop Phenology Detection Algorithms using MODIS NDVI Time Series Data in US Corn Belt Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Hong, S. Y.; Kang, S.

    2015-12-01

    Predicting crop phenology is important for understanding of crop development and growth processes and improving the accuracy of crop model. Remote sensing offers a feasible tool for monitoring spatio-temporal patterns of crop phenology in region and continental scales. Various methods have developed to determine the timing of crop phenological stages using spectral vegetation indices (i.e. NDVI and EVI) derived from satellite data. In our study, it was compared four alternative detection methods to identify crop phenological stages (i.e. the emergence and harvesting date) using high quality NDVI time series data derived from MODIS. In threshold method assumes the emergence and harvesting date when NDVI values exceed and decreases down to a given threshold, respectively. Two kind of threshold values were applied for NDVI and it increment for eight days. The other two methods use a logistic fitting model and inflection points on fitted curve, respectively. It was compared the four methods for corn and soybean, respectively. For validation, three kinds of datasets were utilized: AmeriFlux biological data of planting and harvest dates, and emergence date estimated from growing degree days (AGDDs) at flux tower sites, and state-level USDA Crop Progress Report (CPR). All methods showed substantial uncertainty but the threshold method showed relatively better agreement against with both site- and state-level data for soybean phenology. For better NDVI-based regional estimation of crop phenology, factors of uncertainty were examined and discussed in this study.

  4. Timing of Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Yield: Comparison of Alternative Methods with the Classic Method for CD34+ Cell Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Fatorova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs, still represent a certain mystery in biology, have a unique property of dividing into equal cells and repopulating the hematopoietic tissue. This potential enables their use in transplantation treatments. The quality of the HSC grafts for transplantation is evaluated by flow cytometric determination of the CD34+ cells, which enables optimal timing of the first apheresis and the acquisition of maximal yield of the peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs. To identify a more efficient method for evaluating CD34+ cells, we compared the following alternative methods with the reference method: hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC enumeration (using the Sysmex XE-2100 analyser, detection of CD133+ cells, and quantification of aldehyde dehydrogenase activity in the PBSCs. 266 aphereses (84 patients were evaluated. In the preapheretic blood, the new methods produced data that were in agreement with the reference method. The ROC curves have shown that for the first-day apheresis target, the optimal predictive cut-off value was 0.032 cells/mL for the HPC method (sensitivity 73.4%, specificity 69.3%. HPC method exhibited a definite practical superiority as compared to other methods tested. HPC enumeration could serve as a supplementary method for the optimal timing of the first apheresis; it is simple, rapid, and cheap.

  5. Assessment of Control Tissue for Gene and Protein Expression Studies: A Comparison of Three Alternative Lung Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret R. Passmore

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of an appropriate control group in human research is essential in investigating the level of a pathological disorder. This study aimed to compare three alternative sources of control lung tissue and to determine their suitability for gene and protein expression studies. Gene and protein expression levels of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and gelatinase families and their receptors were measured using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The gene expression levels of VEGFA, placental growth factor (PGF, and their receptors, fms-related tyrosine kinase 1 (FLT1, and kinase insert domain receptor (KDR as well as matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 and the inhibitors, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 were significantly higher in lung cancer resections. The gene expression level of MMP-9 was significantly lower in the corresponding samples. Altered protein expression was also detected, depending on the area assessed. The results of this study show that none of the three control groups studied are completely suitable for gene and protein studies associated with the VEGF and gelatinase families, highlighting the need for researchers to be selective in which controls they opt for.

  6. A comparison of methods to compute the "effective duration" of the autocorrelation function and an alternative proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orazio, Dario; De Cesaris, Simona; Garai, Massimo

    2011-10-01

    The "effective duration" of the autocorrelation function (ACF), τ(e), is an important factor in architectural and musical acoustics. For a general application, an accurate evaluation of τ(e) is relevant. This paper is focused to the methods for the extraction of τ(e) values from the ACF. Various methods have been proposed in literature for the extraction of the τ(e) from a given signal, but these methods are not unambiguously defined or may not work properly in case of particular signals. Therefore, the general use of these methods may sometimes give rise to questionable results. In the present work, the methods existing in literature for extracting τ(e) are analyzed, their advantages and drawbacks are summarized, and finally an alternative method is proposed. The proposed algorithm is compared to those found in previous literature, applying them on the same sound signals (classic literature references and other ones publicly available on the Internet). It is shown that the results obtained with the proposed method are consistent with the results of the previous literature; moreover the proposed method may overcome some of the limitations of the existing methods. PMID:21973350

  7. A comparison of the effect of doxorubicin and phenol on the skeletal muscle. May doxorubicin be a new alternative treatment agent for spasticity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullu, Emre; Ozkan, Ilhan; Culhaci, Nil; Alparslan, Bulent

    2005-03-01

    Since spasticity is still an unsolved problem for orthopaedic surgeons, different chemical agents are tried before surgery. Phenol is a chemical agent which has been used for spasticity treatment for a long time. Doxorubicin is an antitumoral agent that has recently been used for chemomyectomy. The intramuscular effects of phenol and two different dose of doxorubicin were compared in that experimental study. In the first group 0.5 mg/0.5 cm3 doxorubicin, in the second group 1 mg/0.5 doxorubicin and in the third group 5% aqueous solution of fenol/0.5 injection were applied into left quadriceps muscle of rats. Degeneration areas were wider in the high dose doxorubicin group (29.9%; 8.5-61), in comparison with the low dose doxorubicin group (6.4%; 3.1-12) and phenol group (4%; 0-14) after 6 weeks. Differences in degeneration area among three groups were statistically significant (P<0.001). The difference was significant between the high dose doxorubicin group and the phenol group (P=0.001) and also between the high dose doxorubicin group and the low dose doxorubicin group (P<0.001). The results of this study suggested that doxorubicin could provide an alternative treatment modality for neuromuscular disease causing spasticity and it has a dose-dependent effect. Further studies are needed for long-term comparison and clinical use of doxorubicin for spasticity treatment. PMID:15703526

  8. Comparison of joint designs for laser welding of cast metal plates and wrought wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Yasuko; Nomoto, Rie; Nakajima, Hiroyuki; Ohkubo, Chikahiro

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare joint designs for the laser welding of cast metal plates and wrought wire, and to evaluate the welded area internally using X-ray micro-focus computerized tomography (micro-CT). Cast metal plates (Ti, Co-Cr) and wrought wires (Ti, Co-Cr) were welded using similar metals. The specimens were welded using four joint designs in which the wrought wires and the parent metals were welded directly (two designs) or the wrought wires were welded to the groove of the parent metal from one or both sides (n = 5). The porosity and gap in the welded area were evaluated by micro-CT, and the maximum tensile load of the welded specimens was measured with a universal testing machine. An element analysis was conducted using an electron probe X-ray microanalyzer. The statistical analysis of the results was performed using Bonferroni's multiple comparisons (α = 0.05). The results included that all the specimens fractured at the wrought wire when subjected to tensile testing, although there were specimens that exhibited gaps due to the joint design. The wrought wires were affected by laser irradiation and observed to melt together and onto the filler metal. Both Mo and Sn elements found in the wrought wire were detected in the filler metal of the Ti specimens, and Ni was detected in the filler metal of the Co-Cr specimens. The four joint designs simulating the designs used clinically were confirmed to have adequate joint strength provided by laser welding. PMID:22080283

  9. TO "LIMITATIONS OF ROI TESTING FOR VENTING DESIGN: DESCRIPTION OF AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH BASED ON ATTAINMENT OF A CRITICAL PORE-GAS VELOCITY IN CONTAMINATED MEDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this paper, we describe the limitations of radius of influence (ROI) evaluation for venting design in more detail than has been done previously and propose an alternative method based on specification and attainment of critical pore-gas velocities in contaminated subsurface me...

  10. Lepidopteran cell lines after long-term culture in alternative media: comparison of growth rates and baculovirus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Dwight E

    2006-01-01

    Three insect cell lines, IPLB-LdFB and IPLB-LdEIta from gypsy moth fat body and embryos and UFL-AG-286 from velvetbean caterpillar embryos, have been concurrently maintained for 1 to 12 yr on two media formulations, modified TC-100 containing 9% fetal bovine serum and Ex-cell 400, a commercial serum-free medium (SFM). Cells grown in each medium were tested for susceptibility to and productivity of various multiply embedded nucleopolyhedroviruses. The three lines chosen for these experiments fall into three categories of relative growth in SFM versus TC-100: LdFB cells grew similarly in each medium, LdEIta grew better in Ex-Cell than in TC-100, and AG-286 grew better in TC-100 than in Ex-Cell. The susceptibility of cells to infection also varies, although without any apparent correlation to which medium was best for supporting growth. Endpoint assays suggested that LdFB cells grown in serum-containing medium are more susceptible to virus infection than their SFM counterparts, while the opposite is true for LdEIta cells. Production of virus, based on numbers of occlusion bodies, showed fewer differences with only AcMNPV production with AG-286 in TC-100 being statistically higher than production of the same virus in Ex-cell 400. These studies suggest that long-term passage in alternative media may impact the ability of cells to support virus infection and replication, but the effects on each cell line and virus system need to be determined. PMID:16848634

  11. The Development of Mini Portable Digester Designs for Domestic and Restaurant Solid Waste Processing to be Clean Biogas as Energy's Alternative to Replace LPG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, A.; Janari dan, D.; Setiawan, N.

    2016-02-01

    Biofuel is developed as an alternative source of second generation energy that could be attained from organic waste. This research is purposed to create applicative and cheap Portable digester unit for society. The design concepts’ screening that was made under considerations of the experts is finally resumed. Design 1 with final weight score of 1, design 2 with final weight score of -1, design 3 with final weight score of 2, design 4 with final weight score 3, design 5 with final weight score of -1, design 6 with final weight score of 0. Accepted designs for further concept assessment are design 1, 2 and 6. The result of concept assessment applies weighting for the scoring. Design 1 resulting 2.67, design 2 results 2.15 while design 3 results 2.52. Design 1 is concluded as the design with biggest result, which is 2.67. Its specification is explained as follows: tank capacity of 60 liters, manual rotating crank pivot, tank's material is plastic with symbol 1, material of axle swivel arm is grey cast iron, 2 mm rotary blades with hole. The experiment 1 contained 23.78% methane and 13.65 carbon dioxide that resulted from content test.

  12. Multivariate classification of animal communication signals: a simulation-based comparison of alternative signal processing procedures using electric fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampton, William G R; Davis, Justin K; Lovejoy, Nathan R; Pensky, Marianna

    2008-01-01

    Evolutionary studies of communication can benefit from classification procedures that allow individual animals to be assigned to groups (e.g. species) on the basis of high-dimension data representing their signals. Prior to classification, signals are usually transformed by a signal processing procedure into structural features. Applications of these signal processing procedures to animal communication have been largely restricted to the manual or semi-automated identification of landmark features from graphical representations of signals. Nonetheless, theory predicts that automated time-frequency-based digital signal processing (DSP) procedures can represent signals more efficiently (using fewer features) than can landmark procedures or frequency-based DSP - allowing more accurate classification. Moreover, DSP procedures are objective in that they require little previous knowledge of signal diversity, and are relatively free from potentially ungrounded assumptions of cross-taxon homology. Using a model data set of electric organ discharge waveforms from five sympatric species of the electric fish Gymnotus, we adopted an exhaustive simulation approach to investigate the classificatory performance of different signal processing procedures. We considered a landmark procedure, a frequency-based DSP procedure (the fast Fourier transform), and two kinds of time-frequency-based DSP procedures (a short-time Fourier transform, and several implementations of the discrete wavelet transform -DWT). The features derived from each of these signal processing procedures were then subjected to dimension reduction procedures to separate those features which permit the most effective discrimination among groups of signalers. We considered four alternative dimension reduction methods. Finally, each combination of reduced data was submitted to classification by linear discriminant analysis. Our results support theoretical predictions that time-frequency DSP procedures (especially DWT

  13. Internally gas-cooled radiofrequency applicators as an alternative to conventional radiofrequency and microwave ablation devices: An in vivo comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rempp, Hansjörg, E-mail: Hansjoerg.rempp@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen, Tübingen University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hoppe-Seyler-Straße 3, Tübingen, 72076 (Germany); Voigtländer, Matthias [ERBE Elektromedizin GmbH, Waldhörnlestraße 17, 72072 Tübingen (Germany); Schenk, Martin [Eberhard Karls University of Tuebingen, Tübingen University Hospital, Department of General, Visceral and Transplant Surgery, Hoppe-Seyler-Straße 3, 72076 Tübingen (Germany); Enderle, Markus D. [ERBE Elektromedizin GmbH, Waldhörnlestraße 17, 72072 Tübingen (Germany); Scharpf, Marcus [Eberhard Karls University of Tuebingen, Insitute of Pathology, Department on General Pathology and Pathological Anatomy, Liebermeisterstraße 8, 72076 Tübingen (Germany); Greiner, Tim O. [Eberhard Karls University of Tuebingen, Tübingen University Hospital, Department of General, Visceral and Transplant Surgery, Hoppe-Seyler-Straße 3, 72076 Tübingen (Germany); Neugebauer, Alexander [ERBE Elektromedizin GmbH, Waldhörnlestraße 17, 72072 Tübingen (Germany); and others

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: To test the efficacy of internally CO{sub 2}-cooled radiofrequency (RF) ablation in vivo and to compare its effectiveness to a standard water-cooled RF probe and to a gas-cooled microwave (MW) device. Method and materials: 49 ablations were performed on 15 pigs under general anesthesia using 15G monopolar CO{sub 2}-cooled RF applicators, 17G monopolar water-cooled RF applicators and 15G internally CO{sub 2}-cooled microwave devices. The power of the MW device was 45 W, the current of the gas-cooled RF device was 1200–1600 mA. At the water-cooled RF probe, maximum power of 200 W was set. Ablation time was 15 min. The short and long axes of the ablation zone were measured. Histological analyses and NADH-staining were performed. The diameters and the ablation volumes were compared using an analysis of variance. Results: No spots of untreated tissue were observed close to the cooled needle track in any of the ablation zones. The largest short axis diameter was 3.4 ± 0.5 cm achieved with the gas-cooled monopolar applicator. With the water-cooled applicators, short axis diameter was significantly smaller, reaching 2.5 ± 0.4 cm. Gas-cooled MW probes achieved 2.9 ± 1.0 cm. The largest ablation volume was 31.5 ± 12 ml (gas-cooled RF), and the smallest was 12.7 ± 4 ml (water-cooled RF). Short/long axis ratio was largest for gas-cooled RF probes with 0.73 ± 0.08 versus 0.64 ± 0.04 for the water-cooled probes and 0.49 ± 0.25 for the microwave applicator. Conclusion: Gas-cooled RF applicators may have a higher potential for effective destruction of liver lesions than comparable water-cooled RF systems, and may be an alternative to standard RF and MW ablation devices.

  14. Computer-aided design system for technical and economical comparison of crane electrical drives

    OpenAIRE

    Gerasymiak, Rostyslav; Busher, Viktor; Shvets, Liudmyla; Savich, Svitlana

    2012-01-01

    Computer-aided design system for technical and economic comparison of crane electrical drives, considering the ratio of static and dynamic modes, load and moment inertia, relative running time with reduced speed, is designed. The computer-aided design system provides an opportunity to make a better informed decision about the choice or upgrading of electrical drives. Розроблено програмний комплекс для техніко-економічного порівняння кранових електроприводів з урахуванням співвідношення ста...

  15. Treatment Comparison in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Head-to-Head Trials and Innovative Study Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ennio Giulio Favalli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the increasing knowledge in the area of rheumatoid arthritis has progressively expanded the arsenal of available drugs, especially with the introduction of novel targeted therapies such as biological disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs. In this situation, rheumatologists are offered a wide range of treatment options, but on the other side the need for comparisons between available drugs becomes more and more crucial in order to better define the strategies for the choice and the optimal sequencing. Indirect comparisons or meta-analyses of data coming from different randomised controlled trials (RCTs are not immune to conceptual and technical challenges and often provide inconsistent results. In this review we examine some of the possible evolutions of traditional RCTs, such as the inclusion of active comparators, aimed at individualising treatments in real-life conditions. Although head-to-head RCTs may be considered the best tool to directly compare the efficacy and safety of two different DMARDs, surprisingly only 20 studies with such design have been published in the last 25 years. Given the recent advent of the first RCTs truly comparing biological DMARDs, we also review the state of the art of head-to-head trials in RA.

  16. Is 161Tb and alternative to 177Lu? In vitro and in vivo comparison using DOTA-Folate conjugates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows. Background: The radio-lanthanide 161Tb decays with a half-life of 165.4 h by emission of low energy β- particles and Auger-e- for therapeutic purposes and γ-radiation suitable for SPECT. 161Tb was recently proposed as a potential alternative to 177Lu for targeted radionuclide tumor therapy [Refs.1,2]. The goal of this study was to compare 161Tb and 177Lu using a tumor targeted DOTA-folate conjugate (cm09 [Ref.3]). Methods. 161Tb was produced by a previously published procedure at PSI [Refs.2,3]. 177Lu was obtained from ITG GmbH, Munich, Germany). Radiolabeling of cm09 was carried out by incubation of the reaction mixture at 95 C. degrees for 10 min. In vitro the effects of 161Tb-cm09 and 177Lu-cm09 were tested on folate receptor (FR)-positive KB cells using an MTT viability assay. In vivo the therapeutic effects of 161Tb-cm09 and 177Lu-cm09 (10 MBq, 0.5 nmol) were compared over 7 weeks in KB tumor bearing mice. Results: 161TbCl3 was prepared in an excellent quality and at high radioactivity concentration. Both, 161Tb-cm09 and 177Lu-cm09 were obtained at high purity (> 98%) at a specific activity of > 40 MBq/nmol. In KB tumor cells, 161Tb-cm09 reduced cell viability more effectively than 177Lu-cm09 (161Tb-cm09: IC50 ∼ 0.014 MBq/ml versus 177Lu-cm09: IC50: ∼ 0.063 MBq/ml). In vivo 161Tb-cm09 showed an increased therapeutic efficacy to reduce tumor growth compared to 177Lu-cm09 which was in agreement with an increased absorbed tumor dose (3.3 Gy/MBq for 161Tb-cm09 versus 2.4 Gy/MBq for 177Lu-cm09). Hence an increased average survival time was observed for mice treated with 161Tb-cm09 (54 d) compared to 177Lu-cm09 (35 d). Conclusions. In this study we demonstrated increased therapeutic efficacy of 161Tb-cm09 compared to 177Lu-cm09 to reduce tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Further investigations with other tumor targeting agents will be necessary to draw final conclusions about the future clinical perspectives of 161Tb

  17. EAF Steel Slag Filters for Phosphorus Removal from Milk Parlor Effluent: The Effects of Solids Loading, Alternate Feeding Regimes and In-Series Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon C. Bird

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Electric arc furnace (EAF steel slag filters were investigated for their efficiency at reducing the concentration of phosphorus (P from dairy farm wastewater in Vermont. The primary objective for this study was to examine the use of in series design on filters’ performance in P removal from dairy farm wastewater at subzero temperatures. Other research objectives were to investigate operational parameters such as the effects of total suspended solids (TSS daily mass loading rates and of alternating feeding and resting periods on EAF steel slag filters’ TSS, dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP and total phosphorus (TP removal efficiencies and filter system life-span. The utilization of in series filter design increased filter DRP removal efficiency by 35%. In series design also allows for alternating feeding and resting periods, which resulted in a 16%, 57% and 74% increase in TSS, DRP and TP removal efficiencies, respectively, by the first filter in series over a single period. Additionally, the system life span was extended 3.25 fold (from 52 to 169 day. Based on this research, we recommend alternate feeding and resting cycles and in series design to be integrated in the design of EAF steel slag filter systems for highly concentrated agricultural effluents in cold climates.

  18. Comparison of HTGR fuel design, manufacture and quality control methods between Japan and China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first-loading fuel for the HTTR was started to fabricate at Nuclear Fuel Industries (NFI) in 1995 and the HTTR reached criticality in 1998. Meanwhile, 10 MW high temperature reactor (HTR-10) was constructed in Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology (INET) of Tsinghua University, and the first-loading fuel was fabricated concurrently. The HTR-10 reached criticality in December 2000. Though fuel type is different, i.e., pin-in-block type for the HTTR and pebble bed type for the HTR-10, the fabrication method of TRISO coated fuel particles is similar to each other. This report describes comparison of fuel design, fabrication process and quality inspection between them. (author)

  19. Comparison of different Kerr-lens mode locking laser design techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Larios, José Agustín.; Rosete-Aguilar, Martha; Garduño-Mejía, Jesús

    2016-04-01

    Three numerical methods for the design of Kerr Lens Mode-Locking (KLML) ultrashort pulse cavities that use a solid state Brewster-cut nonlinear gain medium are compared. The nonlinear medium is modeled first deploying a matrix approximation that considers non-coupled (tangential analysis is independent of sagittal analysis) Kerr and thermal self-focusing; and second with a differential equation that relates the real and imaginary parts of the inverse of the complex Gaussian beam parameter. The third comparison is against a matrix analysis method that considers the coupling between the sagittal and tangential modes inside the nonlinear medium in order to determine the impact of this effect. The three methods search the self-consistency condition for the complex beam parameter and the results are compared.

  20. Target selection and comparison of mission design for space debris removal by DLR's advanced study group

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Pas, Niels; Lousada, Joao; Terhes, Claudia; Bernabeu, Marc; Bauer, Waldemar

    2014-09-01

    Space debris is a growing problem. Models show that the Kessler syndrome, the exponential growth of debris due to collisions, has become unavoidable unless an active debris removal program is initiated. The debris population in LEO with inclination between 60° and 95° is considered as the most critical zone. In order to stabilize the debris population in orbit, especially in LEO, 5 to 10 objects will need to be removed every year. The unique circumstances of such a mission could require that several objects are removed with a single launch. This will require a mission to rendezvous with a multitude of objects orbiting on different altitudes, inclinations and planes. Removal models have assumed that the top priority targets will be removed first. However this will lead to a suboptimal mission design and increase the ΔV-budget. Since there is a multitude of targets to choose from, the targets can be selected for an optimal mission design. In order to select a group of targets for a removal mission the orbital parameters and political constraints should also be taken into account. Within this paper a number of the target selection criteria are presented. The possible mission targets and their order of retrieval is dependent on the mission architecture. A comparison between several global mission architectures is given. Under consideration are 3 global missions of which a number of parameters are varied. The first mission launches multiple separate deorbit kits. The second launches a mother craft with deorbit kits. The third launches an orbital tug which pulls the debris in a lower orbit, after which a deorbit kit performs the final deorbit burn. A RoM mass and cost comparison is presented. The research described in this paper has been conducted as part of an active debris removal study by the Advanced Study Group (ASG). The ASG is an interdisciplinary student group working at the DLR, analyzing existing technologies and developing new ideas into preliminary

  1. Comparison of design, materials selection and characterization of pacifiers produced in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliprandini P

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundA pacifier is an object designed for use by children aged twoweeks to around five years old. Although a convenient andan efficient alternative to children sucking their thumb, itsuse is highly questionable. With the advancement ofmedicine and technology, harms related to its use werediscovered and were related to poor development of theteeth. Furthermore, the use of some industrial rawmaterials may cause damage to the child’s health during thegrowing process.MethodThis study evaluates different models of pacifiers availableon the market, taking into consideration the design,materials and attendance to Brazilian Standards.ResultsThe Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR analysisof the five different models of pacifiers indicates the use ofdifferent materials. For models A, B and E, the nipple isbasically composed of silicone, while the guard is made ofpolycarbonate. For model C and D, the nipple is basicallycomposed of natural rubber, while the guard and the ringare made of polycarbonate. For model D and E, however,the presence of Bisphenol A (BPA was also used incomposition. For the tensile strength tests, only model Cwas disapproved.ConclusionSilicon and natural rubber satisfy the requirements fortechnical performance. However, this does not take intoaccount hygiene and toxicity as parameters for theselection, which are also important when considering childhealth.

  2. Energy conversion alternatives study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shure, L. T.

    1979-01-01

    Comparison of coal based energy systems is given. Study identifies and compares various advanced energy conversion systems using coal or coal derived fuels for baselaoad electric power generation. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS) reports provede government, industry, and general public with technically consistent basis for comparison of system's options of interest for fossilfired electric-utility application.

  3. Comparison of Permeability and Groutability of Ostur Dam Site Rock Mass for Grout Curtain Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghiyeh, S. M.; Hashemi, M.; Ajalloeian, R.

    2013-03-01

    The focus of this study is the empirical hydromechanical behaviour of the Ostur dam site rock mass. The area surrounding the dam mostly consists of diorite and andesite, with primary fractures and hydrothermal veins. The hydromechanical behaviour of the rocks was determined using 500 water pressure tests at 5-m intervals. The hydrothermal veins and 2,739 discontinuities were studied and mapped along the dam axis. As a result, it was possible to design an optimum grout curtain for the dam axis. The empirical hydromechanical behaviour of the rock was studied to determine water flow and grout pressurised flow during the field tests that were conducted on two representative A-series grouting operation boreholes (one borehole for each abutment). The secondary permeability index (SPI), Lugeon value (LU), rock quality designation (RQD) and cement take (CT) values are presented and compared in this article. It is concluded that permeability and groutability are mostly controlled by the specifications and characteristics of the veins, especially in shallow areas and lower depths. A procedure is proposed based on a comparison of the trends in the RQD-SPI and LU-CT, and it is suggested that the areas with diverging trends require no treatment and that those with converging trends require heavy treatment. Additional complementary studies that were conducted during the construction stage have validated these results.

  4. A Comparison of Model Reduction Approaches for Feedback Control Design of Thermal Flows in Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borggaard, Jeff; Ahuja, Sunil; Burns, John; Cliff, Eugene; Surana, Amit

    2010-11-01

    The application of distributed parameter control to spatiotemporal thermo-fluid systems requires the use of model reduction methods. The form of the optimal feedback control can inform design decisions, such as sensor and actuator selection and placement. A number of model reduction approaches for fluid systems have been put forward that are based on the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). In this talk, we examine three approaches, the traditional POD-Galerkin model, the POD-Sensitivity model, and the Balanced-POD models. Our work is motivated by the building indoor environment control problem. Energy performance in building cooling and heating systems can be substantially improved by exploiting spatial temperature stratification and buoyancy that are prevalent in passive systems. We consider the control of airflow in a room with a passively cooled radiant ceiling and displacement ventilation provided near the room floor. For this problem, we approximate the full-order solution to compute the control gains, develop reduced-order models and associated controllers, and simulate the full-order closed-loop system for comparison with the reduced-order model-based control design.

  5. E-beam inspection system for comparison of wafer and design data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Oliver D.; Lee, Julie; Monkowski, Michael D.; Ryan, Deborah A.; Chen, Shih-tsung; Lei, Shuen C.; Wang, Fei; Lee, Chung H.; Tomlinson, Derek; Fang, Wei; Jau, Jack

    2012-03-01

    Effectively patterning the intended design on the wafer for all possible geometries allowed by the design rule document is one of the most critical challenges for semiconductor manufacturing. Despite new lithography techniques like OPC, double patterning and the latest patterning simulation methods, and on-wafer evaluation using brightfield inspection and SEM review tools, patterning problems still occur and can result in a major delay in the qualification of a technology or product. Of particular concern are shorts and opens that cause product chip failure. Initial discovery of yield issues when a chip is being functionally tested is highly undesirable. A system for in-line, die to database (D2DB) comparison using E-beam inspection has been developed to address this risk. This system offers a substantial new line of defense against these patterning issues. The D2DB system is described along with a methodology for applying it for pattern fidelity inspection. Some examples illustrating the system operation are presented.

  6. The azido ligand: a useful tool in designing chain compounds exhibiting alternating ferro- and antiferro-magnetic interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Viau, Guillaume; Lombardi, Maria Grazia; De Munno, Giovanni; Julve Olcina, Miguel; Lloret Pastor, Francisco; Faus, Juan; Caneschi, Andrea; Clemente Juan, Juan Modesto

    1997-01-01

    A one-pot reaction of NiII 1, CoII 2, FeII 3 and MnII 4 with 2,2A-bipyridine (bipy) and azide in water leads to [M(bipy)(N3)2]n chains where the metal ion is alternatively bridged by double end-on (EO) and end-to-end (EE) azido bridges; theoretical analysis of the variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility data of 1 and 4 reveals the occurrence of intrachain alternating ferro- (through EO) and antiferro-magnetic (through EE) interactions. Julve Olcina, Miguel, ; Lloret...

  7. Comparison of alternative representations of hydraulic-conductivity anisotropy in folded fractured-sedimentary rock: Modeling groundwater flow in the Shenandoah Valley (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, R.M.; Voss, C.I.; Southworth, S.

    2009-01-01

    A numerical representation that explicitly represents the generalized three-dimensional anisotropy of folded fractured-sedimentary rocks in a groundwater model best reproduces the salient features of the flow system in the Shenandoah Valley, USA. This conclusion results from a comparison of four alternative representations of anisotropy in which the hydraulic-conductivity tensor represents the bedrock structure as (model A) anisotropic with variable strikes and dips, (model B) horizontally anisotropic with a uniform strike, (model C) horizontally anisotropic with variable strikes, and (model D) isotropic. Simulations using the US Geological Survey groundwater flow and transport model SUTRA are based on a representation of hydraulic conductivity that conforms to bedding planes in a three-dimensional structural model of the valley that duplicates the pattern of folded sedimentary rocks. In the most general representation, (model A), the directions of maximum and medium hydraulic conductivity conform to the strike and dip of bedding, respectively, while the minimum hydraulic-conductivity direction is perpendicular to bedding. Model A produced a physically realistic flow system that reflects the underlying bedrock structure, with a flow field that is significantly different from those produced by the other three models. ?? Springer-Verlag 2009.

  8. Passion-based learning:the design and implementation of a new approach to project-based learning (PBL) for alternative education

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, Joanne Amelia

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the factors that influence the design and implementation of a project-based learning (PBL) curriculum within an alternative education program in a suburban public school district. The study sought to tell the story of the implementation of PBL from the perspectives of staff and students at the school. A narrative inquiry methodology was selected. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with twelve staff members and eight students. Data also included field notes made ...

  9. Alternative security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains the following chapters: The Military and Alternative Security: New Missions for Stable Conventional Security; Technology and Alternative Security: A Cherished Myth Expires; Law and Alternative Security: Toward a Just World Peace; Politics and Alternative Security: Toward a More Democratic, Therefore More Peaceful, World; Economics and Alternative Security: Toward a Peacekeeping International Economy; Psychology and Alternative Security: Needs, Perceptions, and Misperceptions; Religion and Alternative Security: A Prophetic Vision; and Toward Post-Nuclear Global Security: An Overview

  10. Complexity measurement of a graphical programming language and comparison of a graphical and a textual design language

    OpenAIRE

    Goff, Roger Allen

    1987-01-01

    For many years the software engineering community has been attacking the software reliability problem on two fronts. First via design methodologies, languages and tools as a precheck on quality and second by measuring the quality of produced software as a postcheck. This research attempts to unify the approach to creating reliable software by providing the ability to measure the quality of a design prior to its implementation. Also presented is a comparison of a graphical and a...

  11. Comparison of seismic actions and structural design requirements in Chinese Code GB 50011 and International Standard ISO 3010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚勇

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison between the Chinese Code GB50011-2001 and the International Standard ISO3010: 2001(E), emphasizing the similarities and differences related to design requirements, seismic actions and analytical approaches. Similarities include: earthquake return period, conceptual design, site classification, structural strength and ductility requirements, deformation limits, response spectra, seismic analysis procedures, isolation and energy dissipation,and nonstructural elements. Differences exist in the following areas: seismic levels, earthquake loading, mode damping factors and structural control.

  12. Comparison of Sampling Designs for Estimating Deforestation from Landsat TM and MODIS Imagery: A Case Study in Mato Grosso, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Shanyou Zhu; Hailong Zhang; Ronggao Liu; Yun Cao; Guixin Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Sampling designs are commonly used to estimate deforestation over large areas, but comparisons between different sampling strategies are required. Using PRODES deforestation data as a reference, deforestation in the state of Mato Grosso in Brazil from 2005 to 2006 is evaluated using Landsat imagery and a nearly synchronous MODIS dataset. The MODIS-derived deforestation is used to assist in sampling and extrapolation. Three sampling designs are compared according to the estimated deforestation...

  13. Comparison of 2-compartment, 3-compartment and stack designs for electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from harbour sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kristine B.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland;

    2015-01-01

    Comparisons of cell and stack designs for the electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from two harbour sediments, were made. Multivariate modelling showed that sediment properties and experimental set-ups had the highest influence on the heavy metal removal indicating that they should be modelled...

  14. Integrating a Comparison Group Design into a Theory of Change Evaluation: The Case of the Urban Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzman, Beth C.; Silver, Diana; Dillman, Keri-Nicole

    2002-01-01

    Strengthened the theory of change approach to evaluating a complex social initiative by integrating it with a quasi-experimental comparison group design. Used the approach in an evaluation of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Urban Health Initiative. Initial findings support the usefulness of the initiative. (SLD)

  15. Comparison of facially amphiphilic versus segregated monomers in the design of antibacterial copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Gregory J; Maegerlein, Janet A; Nelson, Christopher F; Dabkowski, Jeffrey M; Eren, Tarik; Nüsslein, Klaus; Tew, Gregory N

    2009-01-01

    A direct comparison of two strategies for designing antimicrobial polymers is presented. Previously, we published several reports on the use of facially amphiphilic (FA) monomers which led to polynorbornenes with excellent antimicrobial activities and selectivities. Our polymers obtained by copolymerization of structurally similar segregated monomers, in which cationic and non-polar moieties reside on separate repeat units, led to polymers with less pronounced activities. A wide range of polymer amphiphilicities was surveyed by pairing a cationic oxanorbornene with eleven different non-polar monomers and varying the comonomer feed ratios. Their properties were tested using antimicrobial assays and copolymers possessing intermediate hydrophobicities were the most active. Polymer-induced leakage of dye-filled liposomes and microscopy of polymer-treated bacteria support a membrane-based mode of action. From these results there appears to be profound differences in how a polymer made from FA monomers interacts with the phospholipid bilayer compared with copolymers from segregated monomers. We conclude that a well-defined spatial relationship of the whole polymer is crucial to obtain synthetic mimics of antimicrobial peptides (SMAMPs): charged and non-polar moieties need to be balanced locally, for example, at the monomer level, and not just globally. We advocate the use of FA monomers for better control of biological properties. It is expected that this principle will be usefully applied to other backbones such as the polyacrylates, polystyrenes, and non-natural polyamides. PMID:19021176

  16. Alternative energies; Energies alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonal, J.; Rossetti, P

    2007-07-01

    The earth took millions years to made the petroleum, the gas the coal and the uranium. Only a few centuries will be needed to exhaust these fossil fuels and some years to reach expensive prices. Will the wold continue on this way of energy compulsive consumption? The renewable energies and some citizen attitudes are sufficient to break this spiral. This book proposes to discuss these alternative energies. It shows that this attitude must be supported by the government. It takes stock on the more recent information concerning the renewable energies. it develops three main points: the electricity storage, the housing and the transports. (A.L.B.)

  17. Is the Linear Modeling Technique Good Enough for Optimal Form Design? A Comparison of Quantitative Analysis Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Cheng Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available How to design highly reputable and hot-selling products is an essential issue in product design. Whether consumers choose a product depends largely on their perception of the product image. A consumer-oriented design approach presented in this paper helps product designers incorporate consumers’ perceptions of product forms in the design process. The consumer-oriented design approach uses quantification theory type I, grey prediction (the linear modeling technique, and neural networks (the nonlinear modeling technique to determine the optimal form combination of product design for matching a given product image. An experimental study based on the concept of Kansei Engineering is conducted to collect numerical data for examining the relationship between consumers’ perception of product image and product form elements of personal digital assistants (PDAs. The result of performance comparison shows that the QTTI model is good enough to help product designers determine the optimal form combination of product design. Although the PDA form design is used as a case study, the approach is applicable to other consumer products with various design elements and product images. The approach provides an effective mechanism for facilitating the consumer-oriented product design process.

  18. Design and Comparison of a Novel Stator Interior Permanent Magnet Generator for Direct-Drive Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Johan Xi; Chen, Zhe; Cheng, M.

    2007-01-01

    A novel stator interior permanent magnet generator (SIPMG) is presented. A modular stator design is used for convenience in manufacture and maintenance. The generator has the advantages of rugged rotor and concentrated winding design whereas the torque ripple is smaller than that produced...... by a doubly salient machine. Several low-speed multi-pole SIPMGs are designed for direct-drive wind turbines with ratings from 3 to 10 MW. Comparisons between the SIPMG and rotor-surface-mounted permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) show that the SIPMGs have about 120% torque density and 78% cost per...

  19. The Evaluation and Testing of Various Bladeless Wind Turbine Designs for use as an alternative renewable energy source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Ian; Ray, Taylor

    2014-03-01

    Over the last two decades wind turbines have proven themselves globally as a reliable, renewable, and clean energy source. Even though wind turbines are simpler in design and do not pollute during operation as compared to conventional energy sources, many improvements can still be made. The design of a bladeless wind turbine offers potential improvements such as cost savings, reduction of operating noise level, simplification of the manufacturing process, reduction of maintenance costs, and incorporation of eco-friendly features. In order to analyze various turbine designs, a wind tunnel with a 30.3 cm x 29.1 cm test section was constructed at Georgia College. Several different wing sections are being evaluated in order to determine the turbine design and engineered for optimal aerodynamic efficiency over a Range of Reynolds numbers. Other factors like Pressure coefficients and overall drag profile of the designs will also be analyzed as well.

  20. Identification and evolutionary analysis of novel exons and alternative splicing events using cross-species EST-to-genome comparisons in human, mouse and rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Jar-Yi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alternative splicing (AS is important for evolution and major biological functions in complex organisms. However, the extent of AS in mammals other than human and mouse is largely unknown, making it difficult to study AS evolution in mammals and its biomedical implications. Results Here we describe a cross-species EST-to-genome comparison algorithm (ENACE that can identify novel exons for EST-scanty species and distinguish conserved and lineage-specific exons. The identified exons represent not only novel exons but also evolutionarily meaningful AS events that are not previously annotated. A genome-wide AS analysis in human, mouse and rat using ENACE reveals a total of 758 novel cassette-on exons and 167 novel retained introns that have no EST evidence from the same species. RT-PCR-sequencing experiments validated ~50 ~80% of the tested exons, indicating high presence of exons predicted by ENACE. ENACE is particularly powerful when applied to closely related species. In addition, our analysis shows that the ENACE-identified AS exons tend not to pass the nonsynonymous-to-synonymous substitution ratio test and not to contain protein domain, implying that such exons may be under positive selection or relaxed negative selection. These AS exons may contribute to considerable inter-species functional divergence. Our analysis further indicates that a large number of exons may have been gained or lost during mammalian evolution. Moreover, a functional analysis shows that inter-species divergence of AS events may be substantial in protein carriers and receptor proteins in mammals. These exons may be of interest to studies of AS evolution. The ENACE programs and sequences of the ENACE-identified AS events are available for download. Conclusion ENACE can identify potential novel cassette exons and retained introns between closely related species using a comparative approach. It can also provide information regarding lineage- or species

  1. Clinician judgments of clinical utility: A comparison of DSM-IV-TR personality disorders and the alternative model for DSM-5 personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Leslie C; Skodol, Andrew E; Oldham, John M

    2014-05-01

    This study compared the perceived clinical utility of DSM-IV-TR personality disorder diagnoses (retained in DSM-5) with the alternative model presented in DSM-5 Section III, using a national sample of clinicians applying both systems to their own patients. A sample of 337 mental health clinicians (26% psychiatrists, 63% psychologists, and 11% other professional disciplines) provided a complete assessment of all personality disorder features listed in DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 Section III. After applying each diagnostic model, clinicians evaluated the clinical utility of that model with respect to communication with patients and with other professionals, comprehensiveness, descriptiveness, ease of use, and utility for treatment planning. These perceptions were compared across DSM-IV-TR and the 3 components of the DSM-5 Section III model, and between psychiatrists and nonpsychiatrists. Although DSM-IV-TR was seen as easy to use and useful for professional communication, in every other respect the DSM-5 Section III model was viewed as being equally or more clinically useful than DSM-IV-TR. In particular, the DSM-5 dimensional trait model was seen as more useful than DSM-IV-TR in 5 of 6 comparisons-by psychiatrists as well as other professionals. Although concerns were expressed about the clinical utility of the DSM-5 personality disorder system during its development, these criticisms were offered without data on the proposed system. The results of this study demonstrate that aside from the current familiarity of the DSM-IV-TR approach, it offers little advantage in perceived clinical utility over the DSM-5 Section III system, whereas the latter is viewed as being more useful in several respects.

  2. Comparison of the Performances of APEX and SWAT Models in Simulating the Impacts of Alternate Grazing Management Practices on Hydrology and Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale, S.; Park, J.; Teague, W. R.

    2015-12-01

    Comparison of hydrologic and water quality models is useful to contrast merits and demerits of each model and enable user to select an appropriate model for an intended purpose. In this study, the performances of APEX and SWAT models in evaluating the effects of alternate grazing management practices on water balances, and sediment and nutrient losses in a rangeland-dominated Clear Creek watershed (763 km2) located in north central Texas, were compared. Three grazing management practices including the light continuous (LC), heavy continuous (HC) and planned multi-paddock (MP) grazing were simulated. Measured data on vegetation, soil physical and hydrological properties, and grazing management at four study ranches within the study watershed (two under planned MP and one each under LC and HC grazing management), was used to parameterize both APEX and SWAT models. Both models were calibrated and validated using the measured streamflow (1980-2013), sediment (1994-2009), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorous (TP) (1986-2009) load data at the watershed outlet. Preliminary results indicated that in general, both models performed equally well in terms of hydrology, but the APEX model performed better in predicting sediment and nutrient losses. At the watershed level, shifting grazing management from the baseline HC scenario to planned MP grazing decreased annual streamflow by 29% and 27%, and TN load by 47% and 35%, according to the APEX and SWAT models, respectively. The simulated reduction in sediment load with the change in grazing management from the baseline HC to the planned MP grazing was about the same (40%) according to both models.

  3. Alternative additives; Alternative additiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-08-15

    In this project a number of industrial and agricultural waste products have been characterised and evaluated in terms of alkali-getter performance. The intended use is for biomass-fired power stations aiming at reducing corrosion or slagging related problems. The following products have been obtained, characterised and evaluated: 1) Brewery draff 2) Danish de-gassed manure 3) Paper sludge 4) Moulding sand 5) Spent bleaching earth 6) Anorthosite 7) Sand 8) Clay-sludge. Most of the above alternative additive candidates are deemed unsuitable due to insufficient chemical effect and/or expensive requirements for pre-treatment (such as drying and transportation). 3 products were selected for full-scale testing: de-gassed manure, spent bleaching earth and clay slugde. The full scale tests were undertaken at the biomass-fired power stations in Koege, Slagelse and Ensted. Spent bleaching earth (SBE) and clay sludge were the only tested additive candidates that had a proven ability to react with KCl, to thereby reduce Cl-concentrations in deposits, and reduce the deposit flux to superheater tubes. Their performance was shown to nearly as good as commercial additives. De-gassed manure, however, did not evaluate positively due to inhibiting effects of Ca in the manure. Furthermore, de-gassed manure has a high concentration of heavy metals, which imposes a financial burden with regard to proper disposal of the ash by-products. Clay-sludge is a wet clay slurring, and drying and transportation of this product entails substantial costs. Spent bleaching does not require much pre-treatment and is therefore the most promising alternative additive. On the other hand, bleaching earth contains residual plant oil which means that a range of legislation relating to waste combustion comes into play. Not least a waste combustion fee of 330 DKK/tonne. For all alternative (and commercial) additives disposal costs of the increase ash by-products represents a significant cost. This is

  4. Exploration of a capability-focused aerospace system of systems architecture alternative with bilayer design space, based on RST-SOM algorithmic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhifei; Qin, Dongliang; Yang, Feng

    2014-01-01

    In defense related programs, the use of capability-based analysis, design, and acquisition has been significant. In order to confront one of the most challenging features of a huge design space in capability based analysis (CBA), a literature review of design space exploration was first examined. Then, in the process of an aerospace system of systems design space exploration, a bilayer mapping method was put forward, based on the existing experimental and operating data. Finally, the feasibility of the foregoing approach was demonstrated with an illustrative example. With the data mining RST (rough sets theory) and SOM (self-organized mapping) techniques, the alternative to the aerospace system of systems architecture was mapping from P-space (performance space) to C-space (configuration space), and then from C-space to D-space (design space), respectively. Ultimately, the performance space was mapped to the design space, which completed the exploration and preliminary reduction of the entire design space. This method provides a computational analysis and implementation scheme for large-scale simulation.

  5. Exploration of a capability-focused aerospace system of systems architecture alternative with bilayer design space, based on RST-SOM algorithmic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhifei; Qin, Dongliang; Yang, Feng

    2014-01-01

    In defense related programs, the use of capability-based analysis, design, and acquisition has been significant. In order to confront one of the most challenging features of a huge design space in capability based analysis (CBA), a literature review of design space exploration was first examined. Then, in the process of an aerospace system of systems design space exploration, a bilayer mapping method was put forward, based on the existing experimental and operating data. Finally, the feasibility of the foregoing approach was demonstrated with an illustrative example. With the data mining RST (rough sets theory) and SOM (self-organized mapping) techniques, the alternative to the aerospace system of systems architecture was mapping from P-space (performance space) to C-space (configuration space), and then from C-space to D-space (design space), respectively. Ultimately, the performance space was mapped to the design space, which completed the exploration and preliminary reduction of the entire design space. This method provides a computational analysis and implementation scheme for large-scale simulation. PMID:24790572

  6. Exploration of a Capability-Focused Aerospace System of Systems Architecture Alternative with Bilayer Design Space, Based on RST-SOM Algorithmic Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifei Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In defense related programs, the use of capability-based analysis, design, and acquisition has been significant. In order to confront one of the most challenging features of a huge design space in capability based analysis (CBA, a literature review of design space exploration was first examined. Then, in the process of an aerospace system of systems design space exploration, a bilayer mapping method was put forward, based on the existing experimental and operating data. Finally, the feasibility of the foregoing approach was demonstrated with an illustrative example. With the data mining RST (rough sets theory and SOM (self-organized mapping techniques, the alternative to the aerospace system of systems architecture was mapping from P-space (performance space to C-space (configuration space, and then from C-space to D-space (design space, respectively. Ultimately, the performance space was mapped to the design space, which completed the exploration and preliminary reduction of the entire design space. This method provides a computational analysis and implementation scheme for large-scale simulation.

  7. A large volume striped bass egg incubation chamber: design and comparison with a traditional method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, C.J.

    2009-01-01

    I conducted a comparative study of a new jar design (experimental chamber) with a standard egg incubation vessel (McDonald jar). Experimental chambers measured 0.4 m in diameter by 1.3 m in height and had a volume of 200 L. McDonald hatching jars measured 16 cm in diameter by 45 cm in height and had a volume of 6 L. Post-hatch survival was estimated at 48, 96 and 144 h. Stocking rates resulted in an average egg density of 21.9 eggs ml-1 (range = 21.6 – 22.1) for McDonald jars and 10.9 eggs ml-1 (range = 7.0 – 16.8) for experimental chambers. I was unable to detect an effect of container type on survival to 48, 96 or 144 h. At 144 h striped bass fry survival averaged 37.3% for McDonald jars and 34.2% for experimental chambers. Survival among replicates was significantly different. Survival of striped bass significantly decreased between 96 and 144 h. Mean survival among replicates ranged from 12.4 to 57.3%. I was unable to detect an effect of initial stocking density on survival. Experimental jars allow for incubation of a larger number of eggs in a much smaller space. As hatchery production is often limited by space or water supply, experimental chambers offer an alternative to extending spawning activities, thereby reducing manpower and cost. However, the increase in the number of eggs per rearing container does increase the risk associated with catastrophic loss of a production unit. I conclude the experimental chamber is suitable for striped bass egg incubation.

  8. Climate Change, Coastal Vulnerability and the Need for Adaptation Alternatives: Planning and Design Examples from Egypt and the USA

    OpenAIRE

    S Jeffress Williams; Nabil Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Planning and design of coastal protection for high-risk events with low to moderate or uncertain probabilities are a challenging balance of short- and long-term cost vs. protection of lives and infrastructure. The pervasive, complex, and accelerating impacts of climate change on coastal areas, including sea-level rise, storm surge and tidal flooding, require full integration of the latest science into strategic plans and engineering designs. While the impacts of changes occurring are global, ...

  9. Using Behavioral Science to Design a Peer Comparison Intervention for Postabortion Family Planning in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Hannah; Datta, Saugato; Sapkota, Sabitri

    2016-01-01

    Despite the provision of free and subsidized family planning services and clients' demonstrated intentions to delay pregnancies, family planning uptake among women who receive abortion and postabortion services at Sunaulo Parivar Nepal (SPN), one of Nepal's largest non-governmental sexual and reproductive health (SRH) providers, remains low. Through meetings, interviews, and observations with SPN's stakeholders, service providers, and clients at its 36 SRH centers, we developed hypotheses about client- and provider-side barriers that may inhibit postabortion family planning (PAFP) uptake. On the provider side, we found that the lack of benchmarks (such as the performance of other facilities) against which providers could compare their own performance and the lack of feedback on the performance were important barriers to PAFP uptake. We designed several variants of three interventions to address these barriers. Through conversations with team members at SPN's centralized support office and service providers at SPN centers, we prioritized a peer-comparison tool that allows providers at one center to compare their performance with that of other similar centers. We used feedback from the community of providers on the tools' usability and features to select a variant of the tool that also leverages and reinforces providers' strong intrinsic motivation to provide quality PAFP services. In this paper, we detail the process of identifying barriers and creating an intervention to overcome those barriers. The intervention's effectiveness will be tested with a center-level, stepped-wedge randomized control trial in which SPN's 36 centers will be randomly assigned to receive the intervention at 1-month intervals over a 6-month period. Existing medical record data will be used to monitor family planning uptake.

  10. Using Behavioral Science to Design a Peer Comparison Intervention for Postabortion Family Planning in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Hannah; Datta, Saugato; Sapkota, Sabitri

    2016-01-01

    Despite the provision of free and subsidized family planning services and clients' demonstrated intentions to delay pregnancies, family planning uptake among women who receive abortion and postabortion services at Sunaulo Parivar Nepal (SPN), one of Nepal's largest non-governmental sexual and reproductive health (SRH) providers, remains low. Through meetings, interviews, and observations with SPN's stakeholders, service providers, and clients at its 36 SRH centers, we developed hypotheses about client- and provider-side barriers that may inhibit postabortion family planning (PAFP) uptake. On the provider side, we found that the lack of benchmarks (such as the performance of other facilities) against which providers could compare their own performance and the lack of feedback on the performance were important barriers to PAFP uptake. We designed several variants of three interventions to address these barriers. Through conversations with team members at SPN's centralized support office and service providers at SPN centers, we prioritized a peer-comparison tool that allows providers at one center to compare their performance with that of other similar centers. We used feedback from the community of providers on the tools' usability and features to select a variant of the tool that also leverages and reinforces providers' strong intrinsic motivation to provide quality PAFP services. In this paper, we detail the process of identifying barriers and creating an intervention to overcome those barriers. The intervention's effectiveness will be tested with a center-level, stepped-wedge randomized control trial in which SPN's 36 centers will be randomly assigned to receive the intervention at 1-month intervals over a 6-month period. Existing medical record data will be used to monitor family planning uptake. PMID:27446891

  11. Simulated annealing method for electronic circuits design: adaptation and comparison with other optimization methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The circuit design problem consists in determining acceptable parameter values (resistors, capacitors, transistors geometries ...) which allow the circuit to meet various user given operational criteria (DC consumption, AC bandwidth, transient times ...). This task is equivalent to a multidimensional and/or multi objective optimization problem: n-variables functions have to be minimized in an hyper-rectangular domain ; equality constraints can be eventually specified. A similar problem consists in fitting component models. In this way, the optimization variables are the model parameters and one aims at minimizing a cost function built on the error between the model response and the data measured on the component. The chosen optimization method for this kind of problem is the simulated annealing method. This method, provided by the combinatorial optimization domain, has been adapted and compared with other global optimization methods for the continuous variables problems. An efficient strategy of variables discretization and a set of complementary stopping criteria have been proposed. The different parameters of the method have been adjusted with analytical functions of which minima are known, classically used in the literature. Our simulated annealing algorithm has been coupled with an open electrical simulator SPICE-PAC of which the modular structure allows the chaining of simulations required by the circuit optimization process. We proposed, for high-dimensional problems, a partitioning technique which ensures proportionality between CPU-time and variables number. To compare our method with others, we have adapted three other methods coming from combinatorial optimization domain - the threshold method, a genetic algorithm and the Tabu search method - The tests have been performed on the same set of test functions and the results allow a first comparison between these methods applied to continuous optimization variables. Finally, our simulated annealing program

  12. FIRE DESIGN: DIRECT COMPARISON BETWEEN FIRE CURVES. THE CASE STUDY OF A NURSERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Lombardi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available According to fire safety engineering, the present study analyzes fire design settings for simulation of fire in a nursery and proposes to compare simulations developed with a natural fire curve and nominal fire curve. Comparative analysis was developed according to thermo-fluid dynamic parameters that are relevant to the safety of the exposed and for the representative period of the danger flow to the exposed, which are mainly children between 0 and 3 years of age, helpless under ordinary conditions and even more so in case of emergency. Defined conditions of structure and ventilation, Two fire simulations, differentiated by fire curve, have been implemented: First simulation: the parameters have been derived from the simulation of a fire, characterized by analytic function of Heat Release Rate (HRR Second simulation: the HRR function was obtained ex post by making a simulation of natural fire in realistically furnished room by imposing a minimum effective primer. The simulated HRR curve, appropriately linearized, allows to estimate a Likely Fire Curve (LFC. The simulations have been developed for a time of about 15 min, starting from the ignition of fire whereas the flow of the danger is serious for exposed mainly in this first phase of fire. The comparison between the parameters of fire involved the Temperature-Time Curve and HRR-Time Curve of both simulations and the ISO 834 Curve, which is a consolidated benchmark in Fire Safety Engineering (FSE. The nominal curves have been introduced for the purpose of checking whether the structural strength and integrity: the adoption of these curves in the fire safety engineering was made by analogy, on the assumption that the phenomena of major intensity, that these curves represent, ensure a safe approach on the choice of the fire design. The study showed indeed that the analytical curve, adopted in order to verify the structural strength, produces fields of both temperature and toxic concentrations

  13. Future high school teachers' difficulties and alternatives found to planning electromagnetism activities designed for visual handicapped students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder Pires de Camargo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We report here partial outcomes of a study aimed to verify future High School teachers' performance when, during the development of a called "Teaching Practice" undergraduate course, were asked to plan, elaborate and teach, in classroom situations, electromagnetism topics to a students class which included visual handicapped pupils. Data analyzed show that the main difficulties presented by the future Physics High School teachers are related to the approach to know physics phenomena as dependent of vision and to break with some elements of the traditional pedagogy. By other hand, as alternatives, future teachers showed creativity in order to surpass passive aptitudes related to this educational problem, working out methodological strategies deprived of the relation knowing/seeing, as well as, the work with orality in a physics education context.

  14. Problem Decomposition and Recomposition in Engineering Design: A Comparison of Design Behavior between Professional Engineers, Engineering Seniors, and Engineering Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ting; Becker, Kurt; Gero, John; DeBerard, Scott; DeBerard, Oenardi; Reeve, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated the differences in using problem decomposition and problem recomposition between dyads of engineering experts, engineering seniors, and engineering freshmen. Participants worked in dyads to complete an engineering design challenge within 1 hour. The entire design process was video and audio recorded. After the design…

  15. Human factors in design modifications: panel alternative stop in Almaraz; Factores humanos en modificaciones de diseno: panel deparada alternativa en CN Almaraz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman, Y.; Bote, J.

    2015-07-01

    Human Factors Engineering has acquired a crucial role in the development of any design modification (DM), where every aspect relative to any interaction with the human user has to be taken into account at any stage thereof. Considering this, during the last years, Almaraz Nuclear Powe Plants has developed a program of Human Factors Engineering in order to reach the internationally recognized standards or systematic collected on NUREG 0711 Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model (NRC). One of the most important projects of this program at Almaraz Nuclear Power Plant has been the implementation of the Alternative Stop Panel and their corresponding Transfer Panels. (Author)

  16. Preliminary Structural Design Using Topology Optimization with a Comparison of Results from Gradient and Genetic Algorithm Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Adam O.; Tinker, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, genetic algorithm based and gradient-based topology optimization is presented in application to a real hardware design problem. Preliminary design of a planetary lander mockup structure is accomplished using these methods that prove to provide major weight savings by addressing the structural efficiency during the design cycle. This paper presents two alternative formulations of the topology optimization problem. The first is the widely-used gradient-based implementation using commercially available algorithms. The second is formulated using genetic algorithms and internally developed capabilities. These two approaches are applied to a practical design problem for hardware that has been built, tested and proven to be functional. Both formulations converged on similar solutions and therefore were proven to be equally valid implementations of the process. This paper discusses both of these formulations at a high level.

  17. Osiris and SOMBRERO inertial confinement fusion power plant designs. Volume 2, Designs, assessments, and comparisons, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, W.R.; Bieri, R.L.; Monsler, M.J.

    1992-03-01

    The primary objective of the of the IFE Reactor Design Studies was to provide the Office of Fusion Energy with an evaluation of the potential of inertial fusion for electric power production. The term reactor studies is somewhat of a misnomer since these studies included the conceptual design and analysis of all aspects of the IFE power plants: the chambers, heat transport and power conversion systems, other balance of plant facilities, target systems (including the target production, injection, and tracking systems), and the two drivers. The scope of the IFE Reactor Design Studies was quite ambitious. The majority of our effort was spent on the conceptual design of two IFE electric power plants, one using an induction linac heavy ion beam (HIB) driver and the other using a Krypton Fluoride (KrF) laser driver. After the two point designs were developed, they were assessed in terms of their (1) environmental and safety aspects; (2) reliability, availability, and maintainability; (3) technical issues and technology development requirements; and (4) economics. Finally, we compared the design features and the results of the assessments for the two designs.

  18. An alternative laboratory designed to address ethical concerns associated with traditional TAS2R38 student genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBonte, Michelle L; Beers, Melissa A

    2015-01-01

    The TAS2R38 alleles that code for the PAV/AVI T2R38 proteins have long been viewed as benign taste receptor variants. However, recent studies have demonstrated an expanding and medically relevant role for TAS2R38. The AVI variant of T2R38 is associated with an increased risk of both colorectal cancer and Pseudomonas aeruginosa-associated sinus infection and T2R38 variants have been implicated in off-target drug responses. To address ethical concerns associated with continued student TAS2R38 gene testing, we developed an alternative to the traditional laboratory genotyping exercise. Instead of determining their own genotype, introductory level students isolated plasmid DNA containing a section of the human TAS2R38 gene from Escherichia coli. Following PCR-mediated amplification of a section of the TAS2R38 gene spanning the SNP at position 785, students determined their assigned genotype by restriction enzyme digestion and agarose gel electrophoresis. Using the course wide genotype and phenotype data, students found that there was an association between TAS2R38 genotype and the age of persistent P. aeruginosa acquisition in cystic fibrosis "patients." Assessment data demonstrated that students taking part in this new TAS2R38 laboratory activity made clear learning gains.

  19. An alternative laboratory designed to address ethical concerns associated with traditional TAS2R38 student genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBonte, Michelle L; Beers, Melissa A

    2015-01-01

    The TAS2R38 alleles that code for the PAV/AVI T2R38 proteins have long been viewed as benign taste receptor variants. However, recent studies have demonstrated an expanding and medically relevant role for TAS2R38. The AVI variant of T2R38 is associated with an increased risk of both colorectal cancer and Pseudomonas aeruginosa-associated sinus infection and T2R38 variants have been implicated in off-target drug responses. To address ethical concerns associated with continued student TAS2R38 gene testing, we developed an alternative to the traditional laboratory genotyping exercise. Instead of determining their own genotype, introductory level students isolated plasmid DNA containing a section of the human TAS2R38 gene from Escherichia coli. Following PCR-mediated amplification of a section of the TAS2R38 gene spanning the SNP at position 785, students determined their assigned genotype by restriction enzyme digestion and agarose gel electrophoresis. Using the course wide genotype and phenotype data, students found that there was an association between TAS2R38 genotype and the age of persistent P. aeruginosa acquisition in cystic fibrosis "patients." Assessment data demonstrated that students taking part in this new TAS2R38 laboratory activity made clear learning gains. PMID:25704857

  20. Applying visual attention theory to transportation safety research and design: evaluation of alternative automobile rear lighting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Scott E; Gugerty, Leo

    2014-06-01

    This field experiment takes a novel approach in applying methodologies and theories of visual search to the subject of conspicuity in automobile rear lighting. Traditional rear lighting research has not used the visual search paradigm in experimental design. It is our claim that the visual search design uniquely uncovers visual attention processes operating when drivers search the visual field that current designs fail to capture. This experiment is a validation and extension of previous simulator research on this same topic and demonstrates that detection of red automobile brake lamps will be improved if tail lamps are another color (in this test, amber) rather than the currently mandated red. Results indicate that when drivers miss brake lamp onset in low ambient light, RT and error are reduced in detecting the presence and absence of red brake lamps with multiple lead vehicles when tail lamps are not red compared to current rear lighting which mandates red tail lamps. This performance improvement is attributed to efficient visual processing that automatically segregates tail (amber) and brake (red) lamp colors into distractors and targets respectively.

  1. Comparison between pressurized design and ambient pressure design of hybrid solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S. K.; Kim, T. S.

    Design performances of the hybrid solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC)-gas turbine (GT) system have been investigated. A pressurized system and an indirectly heated ambient pressure system were analyzed and their performances were compared. In the baseline layout, the basic performance characteristics of the two system configurations were analyzed, with the cell operation temperature and the pressure ratio as the main design parameters. The pressurized system exhibits a better efficiency owing to not only the higher cell voltage but also more effective utilization of gas turbine, i.e., a larger GT power contribution due to a higher turbine inlet temperature. Independent setting of the turbine inlet temperature was simulated by using the additional fuel supply as well as the air bypass. Increasing the pressure ratio of the gas turbine hardly improves the system efficiency, but the efficiency becomes less sensitive to the turbine inlet temperature. In the ambient pressure system, the available design parameter range is much reduced due to the limit on the recuperator temperature. In particular, design of the ambient pressure hybrid system with a gas turbine of a high pressure ratio does not seem quite feasible because the system efficiency that can be achieved at the possible design conditions is even lower than the efficiency of the SOFC only system.

  2. Evaluation of simulation alternatives for the brute-force ray-tracing approach used in backlight design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desnijder, Karel; Hanselaer, Peter; Meuret, Youri

    2016-04-01

    A key requirement to obtain a uniform luminance for a side-lit LED backlight is the optimised spatial pattern of structures on the light guide that extract the light. The generation of such a scatter pattern is usually performed by applying an iterative approach. In each iteration, the luminance distribution of the backlight with a particular scatter pattern is analysed. This is typically performed with a brute-force ray-tracing algorithm, although this approach results in a time-consuming optimisation process. In this study, the Adding-Doubling method is explored as an alternative way for evaluating the luminance of a backlight. Due to the similarities between light propagating in a backlight with extraction structures and light scattering in a cloud of light scatterers, the Adding-Doubling method which is used to model the latter could also be used to model the light distribution in a backlight. The backlight problem is translated to a form upon which the Adding-Doubling method is directly applicable. The calculated luminance for a simple uniform extraction pattern with the Adding-Doubling method matches the luminance generated by a commercial raytracer very well. Although successful, no clear computational advantage over ray tracers is realised. However, the dynamics of light propagation in a light guide as used the Adding-Doubling method, also allow to enhance the efficiency of brute-force ray-tracing algorithms. The performance of this enhanced ray-tracing approach for the simulation of backlights is also evaluated against a typical brute-force ray-tracing approach.

  3. Electric market models, competitive model and alternative design; Modelos de mercado electrico, paradigma competitivo y alternativas de diseno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnedillo, O.

    2007-07-01

    Almost ten years after the liberalization of the Spanish electric system, its market design has remained basically unchanged. Therefore, it is reasonable to consider whether the current model continues to be adequate or whether it should be changed. However, although the current model is far from the absolute optimum, it is suited to the current state of the Spanish system. Only some improvements, such as the reform of the capacity guarantee payment can be undertaken immediately. It will only be possible to undertake other improvements as distribution companies cover all of their electricity needs in forward contracts acquired through a competitive process. (Author)

  4. Comparison of licensing activities for operating plants designed by Babcock and Wilcox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a comparison of a number of licensing activities for the operating Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) plants with emphasis on Rancho Seco. The factors selected were a comparison of staff resources expended in FY84, active licensing action reviews, implementation of NUREG-0737 modifications, exemptions to regulations, SALP reports, enforcement actions, and Licensee Event Reports (LERs). The eight licensed operating plants examined are as follows: Arkansas Nuclear One Unit 1 (ANO-1), Crystal River Unit 3, Davis Besse, Oconee Units 1, 2, and 3, Rancho Seco, and Three Mile Island Unit 1 (TMI-1)

  5. Computing Variances from Data with Complex Sampling Designs: A Comparison of Stata and SPSS

    OpenAIRE

    Alicia C. Dowd; Michael B. Duggan

    2001-01-01

    Most of the data sets available through the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) are based on complex sampling designs involving multi-stage sampling, stratification, and clustering. These complex designs require appropriate statistical techniques to calculate the variance. Stata employs specialized methods that appropriately adjust for the complex designs, while SPSS does not. Researchers using SPSS must obtain the design effects through NCES and adjust the standard errors generat...

  6. Quantitative Comparison of Minimum Inductance and Minimum Power Algorithms for the Design of Shim Coils for Small Animal Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Parisa; Hudson, Stephen D; Handler, William B; Scholl, Timothy J; Chronik, Blaine A

    2010-04-01

    High-performance shim coils are required for high-field magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy. Complete sets of high-power and high-performance shim coils were designed using two different methods: the minimum inductance and the minimum power target field methods. A quantitative comparison of shim performance in terms of merit of inductance (ML) and merit of resistance (MR) was made for shim coils designed using the minimum inductance and the minimum power design algorithms. In each design case, the difference in ML and the difference in MR given by the two design methods was inductance designs tend to feature oscillations within the current density; while minimum power designs tend to feature less rapidly varying current densities and lower power dissipation. Overall, the differences in coil performance obtained by the two methods are relatively small. For the specific case of shim systems customized for small animal imaging, the reduced power dissipation obtained when using the minimum power method is judged to be more significant than the improvements in switching speed obtained from the minimum inductance method.

  7. Comparison of gap frame designs and materials for precision cathode strip chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horvath, J.A.; Pratuch, S.M.; Belser, F.C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-09-16

    Precision cathode strip chamber perimeter designs that incorporate either continuous or discrete-post gap frames are analyzed. The effects of ten design and material combinations on gravity sag, mass, stress, and deflected shape are evaluated. Procedures are recommended for minimizing mass in the chamber perimeter region while retaining structural integrity and electrical design latitude.

  8. Numerical simulation methodologies for design and development of Diffuser-Augmented Wind Turbines – analysis and comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Lipian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Different numerical computation methods used to develop a methodology for fast, efficient, reliable design and comparison of Diffuser-Augmented Wind Turbine (DAWT geometries are presented. The demand for such methods is evident, following the multitude of geometrical parameters that influence the flow character through ducted turbines. The results of the Actuator Disk Model (ADM simulations will be confronted with a simulation method of higher order of accuracy, i.e. the 3D Fully-resolved Rotor Model (FRM in the rotor design point. Both will be checked for consistency with the experimental results measured in the wind tunnel at the Institute of Turbo-machinery (IMP, Lodz University of Technology (TUL. An attempt to find an efficient method (with a compromise between accuracy and design time for the flow analysis pertinent to the DAWT is a novel approach presented in this paper.

  9. Design of an accelerated test to determine the attack of the sulphates on concrete structures, and the suggest alternative to design a container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work at demonstrating one of the accelerated tests in the frame of the Norm ASTM E-632-82, in order to evaluate the life of service for Reinforced Concrete Structures with High Performance.These will be used as barriers of engineering in containers for Radioactive Wastes.The results of the evaluation are necessary for the probabilistic and deterministic analysis, which are required to obtain licentiate for the emplacement and construction of this type of installations.Since concrete is the principal material used in this type of containers, its properties, in particular, its durability must be evaluated taking into accounts both, intrinsic factors and the extrinsic factors.Within the intrinsic factors we can mention your formulation, including design of armors of steel, production, treated and structural design.As extrinsic factors, weather and environmental, soil characteristic and service operation must be considered.It is important to emphasize that within the criteria used in the conceptual design of these types of repositories, the structures that act of barrier must not alter their insulation properties during all the period of service, which may be several hundreds of years.Although it is not possible to guarantee that repository's performance will not be altered throughout its time of service, the fact to obtain results of accelerated tests and the long term, it will enable us to estimate the durability of such structures, across the support of mathematical suitable models.The different stages which should be taken into account for the development of the evaluation tests, determining the relevant parameters to be considered in them and results obtained so far, are showing in this work

  10. CNG/汽油两用燃料发动机ECU设计%Design of Alternative Fuel Engine ECU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴伟斌; 李礼夫; 洪添胜; 罗彩茹; 王康

    2011-01-01

    针对某品牌四缸两用燃料发动机,完成了基于Motorola 16位单片机MC9S12DP256的汽油机ECu和CNG发动机ECU硬件设计.完成汽油机ECU硬件电路的开发和调试,包括PCB图双层板设计、PCB板制作与焊接,硬件调试,模拟信号测试与波形观察.测试结果表明:基于曲轴信号和凸轮轴信号的控制逻辑能很好地满足发动机工作的时序要求,实现分组同步点火、喷油等模块的控制.喷油时间控制准确度达到0.01 ms,误差小于5%;点火提前角最小分辨率为0.01°,误差小于5%.%Enormous natural gas reserves in our country and more complete CNG filling stations in urban city provided a larger space for the development of CNG vehicles.Thus, the use of natural gas and gasoline-fueled dual-fuel engine control system is of great practical significance and dedicated to improving the current dual-fuel vehicle technology in the engine management level, being the driving force to enhance engine performance, minimizing emissions reduction, and making full use of China's natural gas resources.Based on the Motorola 16-bit MCU MC9S12DP256, the gasoline engine and the CNG engine ECU hardware were design.Base on the embedded C language with CodeWarrior IDE,software was design and debugged, and the control stratagy was made according to the data acquisition and data analysis.Through the MAP, with the engine speed and intake manifold absolute pressure signal values, the basic fuel injection pulse width was founded by interpolation method.According to other working condition parameters, the closed-loop feedback control and air-fuel ratio control were modified and realized the fuel injection control.

  11. Dynamic cellular manufacturing system design considering alternative routing and part operation tradeoff using simulated annealing based genetic algorithm

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    KAMAL DEEP; PARDEEP K SINGH

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, an integrated mathematical model of multi-period cell formation and part operation tradeoff in a dynamic cellular manufacturing system is proposed in consideration with multiple part process route. This paper puts emphasize on the production flexibility (production/subcontracting part operation) to satisfy the product demand requirement in different period segments of planning horizon considering production capacity shortage and/or sudden machine breakdown. The proposed model simultaneously generates machine cells and part families and selects the optimum process route instead of the user specifying predetermined routes. Conventional optimization method for the optimal cell formation problem requires substantial amount of time and memory space. Hence a simulated annealing based genetic algorithm is proposed to explore the solution regions efficiently and to expedite the solution search space. To evaluate the computability of the proposed algorithm, different problem scenarios are adopted from literature. The results approve the effectiveness of theproposed approach in designing the manufacturing cell and minimization of the overall cost, considering various manufacturing aspects such as production volume, multiple process route, production capacity, machine duplication, system reconfiguration, material handling and subcontracting part operation.

  12. A Preliminary Study on the Conceptual Design of Thorium/Uranium Mixed Nuclear Fuel for the Alternative of Burnable Poison in Commercial Pressurized Water Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorium has higher neutron absorption cross section than that of U-238. Thus, the thorium mixed uranium oxide nuclear fuel can reduce the initial excessive reactivity and the long-live radio-wastes with increasing the fuel utilization efficiency. In this study, a preliminary study on the application of the thorium/uranium mixed fuel is performed for the alternative of the PLUS7 fuel assembly which includes burnable poison. A conceptual design without geometrical change is proposed and the reactor characteristics are analyzed. In this study, a fuel assembly using the uranium/thorium mixed fuel was designed to substitute the assembly which includes burnable poison. The reactor characteristics, which are kinf, power distribution and plutonium production rate, were evaluated and the results are compared with the E1 assembly which is used in the OPR1000 reactor. The results show that the proposed design can efficiently reduce the excessive reactivity, peak power, and plutonium production with increasing the fuel utilization period

  13. Design Optimization of Induction Motor by Genetic Algorithm and Comparison with Existing Motor

    OpenAIRE

    Çunkaş, Mehmet; AKKAYA, Ramazan

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an optimal design method to optimize three-phase induction motor in manufacturing process. The optimally designed motor is compared with an existing motor having the same ratings. The Genetic Algorithm is used for optimization and three objective functions namely torque, efficiency, and cost are considered. The motor design procedure consists of a system of non-linear equations, which imposes induction motor characteristics, motor performance, magnetic stresses and thermal...

  14. Comparison of alternative versions of the job demand-control scales in 17 European cohort studies: the IPD-Work consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fransson Eleonor I

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Job strain (i.e., high job demands combined with low job control is a frequently used indicator of harmful work stress, but studies have often used partial versions of the complete multi-item job demands and control scales. Understanding whether the different instruments assess the same underlying concepts has crucial implications for the interpretation of findings across studies, harmonisation of multi-cohort data for pooled analyses, and design of future studies. As part of the 'IPD-Work' (Individual-participant-data meta-analysis in working populations consortium, we compared different versions of the demands and control scales available in 17 European cohort studies. Methods Six of the 17 studies had information on the complete scales and 11 on partial scales. Here, we analyse individual level data from 70 751 participants of the studies which had complete scales (5 demand items, 6 job control items. Results We found high Pearson correlation coefficients between complete scales of job demands and control relative to scales with at least three items (r > 0.90 and for partial scales with two items only (r = 0.76-0.88. In comparison with scores from the complete scales, the agreement between job strain definitions was very good when only one item was missing in either the demands or the control scale (kappa > 0.80; good for job strain assessed with three demand items and all six control items (kappa > 0.68 and moderate to good when items were missing from both scales (kappa = 0.54-0.76. The sensitivity was > 0.80 when only one item was missing from either scale, decreasing when several items were missing in one or both job strain subscales. Conclusions Partial job demand and job control scales with at least half of the items of the complete scales, and job strain indices based on one complete and one partial scale, seemed to assess the same underlying concepts as the complete survey instruments.

  15. Design principles of molecular networks revealed by global comparisons and composite motifs

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Haiyuan; Xia, Yu; Trifonov, Valery; Gerstein, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Background Molecular networks are of current interest, particularly with the publication of many large-scale datasets. Previous analyses have focused on topologic structures of individual networks. Results Here, we present a global comparison of four basic molecular networks: regulatory, co-expression, interaction, and metabolic. In terms of overall topologic correlation - whether nearby proteins in one network are close in another - we find that the four are quite similar. However, focusing ...

  16. Treatment Comparison in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Head-to-Head Trials and Innovative Study Designs

    OpenAIRE

    Ennio Giulio Favalli; Serena Bugatti; Martina Biggioggero; Roberto Caporali

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decades, the increasing knowledge in the area of rheumatoid arthritis has progressively expanded the arsenal of available drugs, especially with the introduction of novel targeted therapies such as biological disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). In this situation, rheumatologists are offered a wide range of treatment options, but on the other side the need for comparisons between available drugs becomes more and more crucial in order to better define the strategies fo...

  17. Design and Development Comparison of Rapid Cycle Amine 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chullen, Cinda; Campbell, Colin; Papale, William; Murray, Sean; Wichowski, Robert; Conger, Bruce; McMillin, Summer

    2016-01-01

    The development of the Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) swing-bed technology for carbon dioxide (CO2) removal has been in progress since favorable results were published in 1996. Shortly thereafter, a prototype was designed, developed, and tested successfully and delivered to Johnson Space Center in 1999. An improved prototype (RCA 1.0) was delivered to NASA in 2006 and sized for the extravehicular activity (EVA). The RCA swing-bed technology is a regenerative system which employs two alternating solid-amine sorbent beds to remove CO2 and water. The two-bed design employs a chemisorption process whereby the beds alternate between adsorption and desorption. This process provides for an efficient RCA operation that enables one bed to be in adsorb (uptake) mode, while the other is in the desorb (regeneration) mode. The RCA has progressed through several iterations of technology readiness levels. Test articles have now been designed, developed, and tested for the advanced space suit portable life support system (PLSS) including RCA 1.0, RCA 2.0, and RCA 3.0. The RCA 3.0 was the most recent RCA fabrication and was delivered to NASA-JSC in June 2015. The RCA 1.0 test article was designed with a pneumatically actuated linear motion spool valve. The RCA 2.0 and 3.0 test articles were designed with a valve assembly which allows for switching between uptake and regeneration modes while minimizing gas volume losses to the vacuum source. RCA 2.0 and 3.0 also include an embedded controller design to control RCA operation and provide the capability of interfacing with various sensors and other ventilation loop components. The RCA technology is low power, small, and has fulfilled all test requirements levied upon the technology during development testing thus far. This paper will provide an overview of the design and development of RCA 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 including detail differences between the design specifications of each. Nomenclature.

  18. Comparison of glucose oxidases from Penicillium adametzii, Penicillium Funiculosum and Aspergillus Niger in the design of amperometric glucose biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanavicius, Arunas; Voronovic, Jaroslav; Semashko, Tatiana; Mikhailova, Raisa; Kausaite-Minkstimiene, Asta; Ramanaviciene, Almira

    2014-01-01

    The properties of amperometric glucose biosensors based on three different glucose oxidases and various redox mediators were evaluated. Glucose oxidases (GOx) from Penicillium adametzii, Penicillium funiculosum and Aspergillus niger and artificial redox mediators, such as ferrocene, ferrocenecarboxaldehyde, α-methylferrocene methanol and ferrocenecarboxylic acid, were used for modifying the graphite rod electrode and amperometrical reagent-less glucose detection. The obtained results were compared using N-methylphenazonium methyl sulphate in the solution. Taking into account the experimental kinetic parameters and the stability of the tested enzymatic electrodes, GOx from Penicillium funiculosum proved to be more suitable for glucose biosensor design in comparison with other evaluated enzymes. PMID:25492463

  19. Motivating Students through Positive Learning Experiences: A Comparison of Three Learning Designs for Computer Programming Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykke, Marianne; Coto, Mayela; Jantzen, Christian; Mora, Sonia; Vandel, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Based on the assumption that wellbeing, positive emotions and engagement influence motivation for learning, the aim of this paper is to provide insight into students' emotional responses to and engagement in different learning designs. By comparing students' reports on the experiential qualities of three different learning designs, their…

  20. Comparison of Heuristic Methods for the Design of Edge Disjoint Circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phillipson, F.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper heuristics are studied for the design of edge disjoint circuits. We formulate the Edge Disjoint Circuits Problem (EDCP) in the context of a telecommunication network design problem: the roll-out of Fibre to the Cabinet. This problem setting can be represented by a graph. A small subset

  1. A Comparison of Parallelism in Interface Designs for Computer-Based Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Rik; Yu, Tao; Spenkelink, Gerd; Vos, Hans

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we discuss an experiment that was carried out with a prototype, designed in conformity with the concept of parallelism and the Parallel Instruction theory (the PI theory). We designed this prototype with five different interfaces, and ran an empirical study in which 18 participants completed an abstract task. The five basic designs…

  2. A comparison of parallelism in interface designs for computer-based learning environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Min, Rik; Yu, Tao; Spenkelink, Gerd; Vos, Hans

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we discuss an experiment that was carried out with a prototype, designed in conformity with the concept of parallelism and the Parallel Instruction theory (the PI theory). We designed this prototype with five different interfaces, and ran an empirical study in which 18 participants com

  3. A Comparison of Diary Method Variations for Enlightening Form Generation in the Design Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babapour, Maral; Rehammar, Bjorn; Rahe, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents two studies in which an empirical approach was taken to understand and explain form generation and decisions taken in the design process. In particular, the activities addressing aesthetic aspects when exteriorising form ideas in the design process have been the focus of the present study. Diary methods were the starting point…

  4. Designing Online Interaction to Address Disciplinary Competencies: A Cross-Country Comparison of Faculty Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberà, Elena; Layne, Ludmila; Gunawardena, Charlotte N.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted at colleges in three countries (United States, Venezuela, and Spain) and across three academic disciplines (engineering, education, and business), to examine how experienced faculty define competencies for their discipline, and design instructional interaction for online courses. A qualitative research design employing…

  5. A comparison between prescriptive- and performance-based approaches in fire safety design of structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budny, Iwona; Giuliani, Luisa

    2010-01-01

    A provision of an adequate consideration of both the people and structure safety is a crucial goal in a rational fire design. However, only a partial agreement concerning the general structural fire safety approach exists, and several meaningful discrepancies concerning the design and verification...

  6. Mysid (Mysidopsis bahia) life-cycle test: Design comparisons and assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lussier, S.M.; Champlin, D.; Kuhn, A. [Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, RI (United States). Atlantic Ecology Div.; Heltshe, J.F. [Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This study examines ASTM Standard E1191-90, ``Standard Guide for Conducting Life-cycle Toxicity Tests with Saltwater Mysids,`` 1990, using Mysidopsis bahia, by comparing several test designs to assess growth, reproduction, and survival. The primary objective was to determine the most labor efficient and statistically powerful test design for the measurement of statistically detectable effects on biologically sensitive endpoints. Five different test designs were evaluated varying compartment size, number of organisms per compartment and sex ratio. Results showed that while paired organisms in the ASTM design had the highest rate of reproduction among designs tested, no individual design had greater statistical power to detect differences in reproductive effects. Reproduction was not statistically different between organisms paired in the ASTM design and those with randomized sex ratios using larger test compartments. These treatments had numerically higher reproductive success and lower within tank replicate variance than treatments using smaller compartments where organisms were randomized, or had a specific sex ratio. In this study, survival and growth were not statistically different among designs tested. Within tank replicate variability can be reduced by using many exposure compartments with pairs, or few compartments with many organisms in each. While this improves variance within replicate chambers, it does not strengthen the power of detection among treatments in the test. An increase in the number of true replicates (exposure chambers) to eight will have the effect of reducing the percent detectable difference by a factor of two.

  7. Comparison of vibrational comfort assessment criteria for design of timber floors among the European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Binsheng; Rasmussen, Birgit; Jorissen, André;

    2013-01-01

    , followed by Italy, the Netherlands, Austria and Norway, while Denmark, the UK and Ireland are the most generous. Even though EN 1995-1-1 has given general criteria for vibrational serviceability design of timber floors, the variations in the design equations and design limits are still large...... floors with respect to vibrational serviceability criteria, including those for fundamental frequency, unit point load deflection and unit impulse velocity, in up to thirteen European countries have been gathered and their differences been further assessed by analysing flooring systems constructed...

  8. Comparison of sampling designs for estimating deforestation from landsat TM and MODIS imagery: a case study in Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shanyou; Zhang, Hailong; Liu, Ronggao; Cao, Yun; Zhang, Guixin

    2014-01-01

    Sampling designs are commonly used to estimate deforestation over large areas, but comparisons between different sampling strategies are required. Using PRODES deforestation data as a reference, deforestation in the state of Mato Grosso in Brazil from 2005 to 2006 is evaluated using Landsat imagery and a nearly synchronous MODIS dataset. The MODIS-derived deforestation is used to assist in sampling and extrapolation. Three sampling designs are compared according to the estimated deforestation of the entire study area based on simple extrapolation and linear regression models. The results show that stratified sampling for strata construction and sample allocation using the MODIS-derived deforestation hotspots provided more precise estimations than simple random and systematic sampling. Moreover, the relationship between the MODIS-derived and TM-derived deforestation provides a precise estimate of the total deforestation area as well as the distribution of deforestation in each block.

  9. Comparison of Sampling Designs for Estimating Deforestation from Landsat TM and MODIS Imagery: A Case Study in Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanyou Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sampling designs are commonly used to estimate deforestation over large areas, but comparisons between different sampling strategies are required. Using PRODES deforestation data as a reference, deforestation in the state of Mato Grosso in Brazil from 2005 to 2006 is evaluated using Landsat imagery and a nearly synchronous MODIS dataset. The MODIS-derived deforestation is used to assist in sampling and extrapolation. Three sampling designs are compared according to the estimated deforestation of the entire study area based on simple extrapolation and linear regression models. The results show that stratified sampling for strata construction and sample allocation using the MODIS-derived deforestation hotspots provided more precise estimations than simple random and systematic sampling. Moreover, the relationship between the MODIS-derived and TM-derived deforestation provides a precise estimate of the total deforestation area as well as the distribution of deforestation in each block.

  10. Competitive Comparison of Optimal Designs of Experiments for Sampling-based Sensitivity Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Janouchova, Eliska

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, the numerical models of real-world structures are more precise, more complex and, of course, more time-consuming. Despite the growth of a computational effort, the exploration of model behaviour remains a complex task. The sensitivity analysis is a basic tool for investigating the sensitivity of the model to its inputs. One widely used strategy to assess the sensitivity is based on a finite set of simulations for a given sets of input parameters, i.e. points in the design space. An estimate of the sensitivity can be then obtained by computing correlations between the input parameters and the chosen response of the model. The accuracy of the sensitivity prediction depends on the choice of design points called the design of experiments. The aim of the presented paper is to review and compare available criteria determining the quality of the design of experiments suitable for sampling-based sensitivity analysis.

  11. Comparison between Genetic Algorithms and Particle Swarm Optimization Methods on Standard Test Functions and Machine Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nica, Florin Valentin Traian; Ritchie, Ewen; Leban, Krisztina Monika

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays the requirements imposed by the industry and economy ask for better quality and performance while the price must be maintained in the same range. To achieve this goal optimization must be introduced in the design process. Two of the best known optimization algorithms for machine design......, genetic algorithm and particle swarm are shortly presented in this paper. These two algorithms are tested to determine their performance on five different benchmark test functions. The algorithms are tested based on three requirements: precision of the result, number of iterations and calculation time....... Both algorithms are also tested on an analytical design process of a Transverse Flux Permanent Magnet Generator to observe their performances in an electrical machine design application....

  12. Theoretical comparison of solar water/space-heating combi systems and stratification design options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon

    2007-01-01

    performance under different operation conditions with different domestic hot water and space heating demands. The solar combi systems are initially equipped with heat exchanger spirals and direct inlets to the tank. A step-by-step investigation is performed demonstrating the influence on the thermal...... performance of using inlet stratification pipes at the different inlets. Also, it is investigated how the design of the space heating system, the control system of the solar collectors, and the system size influence the thermal performance of solar combi systems. The work is carried out within the Solar......A theoretical analysis of differently designed solar combi systems is performed with weather data from the Danish Design Reference Year (55ºN). Three solar combi system designs found on the market are investigated. The investigation focuses on the influence of stratification on the thermal...

  13. A Comparison of Financing Illinois Unit School Districts for the School Year 1974-75 with the Alternative Financing Models Developed by the National Educational Finance Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Dennis R.

    This study compares the present method of financing Illinois public schools for the school year 1973-74 with six alternative financing models developed by the National Educational Finance Project (NEFP). The NEFP models were as follows: complete local support, flat grant with local leeway limit of 12 mills of equalized assessed valuation,…

  14. Comparison of sulfurous acid generator and alternate amendments to improve the quality of saline-sodic water for sustainable rice yields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zia, M.H.; Ghafoor, A.; Saifullah,; Boers, T.M.

    2006-01-01

    The prolonged irrigation with marginal quality water can cause secondary salinization of soils, which necessitates for better understanding of water management alternatives. Relative performance of sulfuric acid and gypsum is still controversial to counter sodium hazards in soil/water system. As an

  15. A comparison of the in vitro cyto- and neurotoxicity of brominated and halogen-free flame retardants : prioritization in search for safe(r) alternatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Hester S; Meijer, Marieke; Muilwijk, Mirthe; van den Berg, Martin; Westerink, Remco H S

    2014-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are abundant persistent organic pollutants with well-studied toxicity. The toxicological and ecological concerns associated with BFRs argue for replacement by safe(r) alternatives. Though previous research identified the nervous system as a sensitive target organ f

  16. Designing Online Interaction to Address Disciplinary Competencies: A Cross-Country Comparison of Faculty Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Barberà; Ludmila Layne; Charlotte N. Gunawardena

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted at colleges in three countries (United States, Venezuela, and Spain) and across three academic disciplines (engineering, education, and business), to examine how experienced faculty define competencies for their discipline, and design instructional interaction for online courses. A qualitative research design employing in-depth interviews was selected. Results show that disciplinary knowledge takes precedence when faculty members select competencies to be developed in...

  17. Systemic Design approach applied to building. Analysis and comparison of international case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Montrucchio, Valeria

    2013-01-01

    This thesis starts from the assumption that design is becoming more and more like a platform connecting various fields of knowledge. In particular in this thesis the design discipline is adopted to investigate issues concerning buildings (from architecture to technical plants) in order to reach a minimization of resource depletion and a reduction of costs. The decision to focus this study on the built environment field is due to two main factors: the huge environmental impact which has derive...

  18. Comparison of Research Designs for Two Controlled Trials of Mass Media Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Flynn, Brian S.; Worden, John K.; Bunn, Janice Yanushka

    2009-01-01

    This paper compares two controlled trials of mass media interventions, factors influencing their designs, and design lessons learned from these experiences. Mass media evaluations based on a scientific research model are motivated by gaps in knowledge. The results of such research are intended to serve the needs of consensus development processes through which confident recommendations can be made for intervention strategies that should be more widely applied. For these purposes, the scientif...

  19. The comparison of laser surface designing and pigment printing methods for the product quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozguney, Arif Taner

    2007-07-01

    Developing new designs by using the computer and transferring the designs that are obtained to textile surfaces will not only increase and facilitate the production in a more practical manner, but also help you create identical designs. This means serial manufacturing of the products at standard quality and increasing their added values. Moreover, creating textile designs using the laser will also contribute to the value of the product as far as the consumer is concerned because it will not cause any wearing off and deformation in the texture of the fabric unlike the other methods. In the system that has been designed, the laser beam at selected wavelength and intensity was directed onto a selected textile surface and a computer-controlled laser beam source was used to change the colour substances on the textile surface. Pigment printing is also used for designing in textile and apparel sector. In this method, designs are transferred to the fabric manually by using dyestuff. In this study, the denim fabric used for the surfacing trial was 100% cotton, with a weft count per centimeter of 20 and a warp count per centimeter of 27, with fabric weight of 458 g/m 2. The first step was to prepare 40 pieces of denim samples, half of which were prepared manually pigment printing and the other half by using the laser beam. After this, some test applications were done. The tensile strength, tensile extension and some fastness values of designed pieces with two methods were compared according to the international standards.

  20. Bioclimatic Technology in High Rise Office Building Design: A Comparison Study for Indoor Environmental Condition

    OpenAIRE

    Lokman Hakim Ismail; Magda Sibley; Izudinshah Abdul Wahab

    2011-01-01

    The shift towards a more sustainable architecture for high-rise building is discussed and illustrated through the work of Ken Yeang and other architects. The claimed benefits of such a bioclimatic design approach are examined in the light of the results of previously conducted research projects, dealing with indoor thermal condition of high-rise office buildings. This paper reports on a study to determine if high-rise buildings designed on bioclimatic principles perform better than convention...

  1. Statistical design of unicompartmental tibial implants and comparison with current devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Clare; FitzPatrick, David; Lee, Jordan; Auger, Daniel

    2007-03-01

    This study defines, in the context of unicompartmental tibial replacement, the medial and lateral resection surfaces of 34 tibiae at a depth of 5 mm below the articular surface. Using statistical techniques, three optimal theoretical size and shape unicompartmental tibial designs, (i) implants of consistent shape in varying size (ii) implants symmetric about their ML axis; (iii) implants of varying size and shape, were constructed to best fit the population. Two currently available commercial implants, the Preservation Uni System (DePuy Orthopaedics Inc., Warsaw, IN) and the LCS Uni System (DePuy Orthopaedics Inc., Warsaw, IN), which were similar to types (i) and (ii) respectively, of the theoretical designs, were also included in the analysis. All implants, commercial and theoretical, were compared with one another to determine which implant designs gave the best cortical bone coverage on both the medial and lateral compartments. Of the commercial implants, the type (i) design fitted best, with an average of 67% of the implant edge lying on cortical bone, compared with 57% for the type (ii) implants. Of the theoretical implants, 72%, 67% and 76% of the implant edge lay on cortical bone for types (i), (ii) and (iii) designs, respectively, indicating that there is room for improvement in current implant designs to achieve better coverage in both the medial and lateral compartments combined.

  2. Trend analysis and comparison of basic parameters for tunnel blast design models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khalili Soroush; Yavary Mehdi; Ebrahimabadi Arash

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important factors influencing on a tunnel blast efficiency is the proper design of blasting pattern. Among blasting parameters, blasthole diameter and tunnel face area are more significant so that any change in these parameters could finally affect on specific charge and specific drilling. There are mainly two groups of methods for tunnel blast design categorized based on the parallel cuts and angular cuts. In this research, a software for tunnel blast design was developed to analyze the effect and sensi-tiveness of blasthole diameter and the tunnel face area on blasting results in different blast design mod-els. Using the software, it is quickly possible to determine specific charge, specific drilling and number of blastholes for each blast design model. The relations between both of blasthole diameters and the tunnel face area with the above parameters in different blast design models were then investigated to yield a set of equations with the highest correlations to compare the methods. The results showed that angular method requires more blasthole numbers than parallel method in similar condition (blasthole diameter and tunnel face area). Moreover, the specific charge values yielded by the two methods are approximately the same and very close together.

  3. 死刑替代措施的设计方案研究%Research on the Design of Alternative Measures to the Death Penalty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卓一丹; 邵超

    2015-01-01

    At present, while the scholars have not yet reached a consensus on the definition of the concept of alternative measures to the death penalty,they do unanimously agree on its purpose, the requirements and the de-sign plan.In fact, scholars have proposed a series of design schemes for the alternative measures to death penalty, which not only reflect their further understanding about the measures, but also cause some of their problems ex-posed.Therefore, under the current penal system,the punishment execution system should be gradually improved and strictly implemented.Besides, we should turn the life imprisonment in China into the most severe punishment after the abolition of the death penalty so that it could be able to meet the requirements of the design schemes with-out seeking a new kind of punishment deliberately or transforming life imprisonment excessively.%学者们对死刑替代措施概念的界定尚未达成共识,但对其设立目的、设立要求以及方案设计思路等方面已基本达成一致,死刑替代措施的设计方案反映出学者们对死刑替代措施的认识进一步深化的同时,也暴露出一系列问题。在现有刑罚体系下,应逐步完善并严格贯彻我国的刑罚执行制度,使无期徒刑担当起死刑废止后最严厉的刑罚,实现死刑替代措施的设计方案所追求的效果,无须刻意去寻求一种新的刑罚方法或对无期徒刑进行“过度”改造。

  4. Comparison of metaheuristic optimization techniques for BWR fuel reloads pattern design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► This paper shows a performance comparison of several optimization techniques for fuel reload in BWR. ► Genetic Algorithms, Neural Networks, Tabu Search and several Ant Algorithms were used. ► All optimization techniques were executed under same conditions: objective function and an equilibrium cycle. ► Fuel bundles with minor actinides were loaded into the core. ► Tabu search and Ant System were the best optimization technique for the studied problem. -- Abstract: Fuel reload pattern optimization is a crucial fuel management activity in nuclear power reactors. Along the years, a lot of work has been done in this area. In particular, several metaheuristic optimization techniques have been applied with good results for boiling water reactors (BWRs). In this paper, a comparison of different metaheuristics: genetic algorithms, tabu search, recurrent neural networks and several ant colony optimization techniques, were applied, in order to evaluate their performance. The optimization of an equilibrium core of a BWR, loaded with mixed oxide fuel composed of plutonium and minor actinides, was selected to be optimized. Results show that the best average values are obtained with the recurrent neural networks technique, meanwhile the best fuel reload was obtained with tabu search. However, according to the number of objective functions evaluated, the two fastest optimization techniques are tabu search and Ant System.

  5. Design of an Interior Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Machine for an Integrated Starter-Alternator System Used on an Hybrid-Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    FILIP Andrei-Toader; HANGIU Radu-Petru; MARŢIŞ Claudia; BIRO Karoly-Agoston

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, to reduce fuel consumption, weuse more often vehicles with hybrid propulsion usingfor traction an electric motor and the regularcombustion engine. There are three types of hybridvehicles: serial, parallel and mixed propulsion.Hybrid vehicles use Integrated Starter Alternator(ISA) system instead of usual starter and alternator.This article points out the advantages of using anIntegrated Starter Alternator System in comparisonwith the classical starter and alternator. This systemsaves...

  6. Does Digital Game-Based Learning Improve Student Time-on-Task Behavior and Engagement in Comparison to Alternative Instructional Strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaaf, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    Digital Game-Based Learning (DGBL) activities were examined in comparison with effective, research-based learning strategies to observe any difference in student engagement and time-on task behavior. Experimental and control groups were randomly selected amongst the intermediate elementary school students ages 8 to 10 years old. Student…

  7. Designing Online Interaction to Address Disciplinary Competencies: A Cross-Country Comparison of Faculty Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Barberà

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted at colleges in three countries (United States, Venezuela, and Spain and across three academic disciplines (engineering, education, and business, to examine how experienced faculty define competencies for their discipline, and design instructional interaction for online courses. A qualitative research design employing in-depth interviews was selected. Results show that disciplinary knowledge takes precedence when faculty members select competencies to be developed in online courses for their respective professions. In all three disciplines, the design of interaction to correspond with disciplinary competencies was often influenced by contextual factors that modify faculty intention. Therefore, instructional design will vary across countries in the same discipline to address the local context, such as the needs and expectations of the learners, faculty perspectives, beliefs and values, and the needs of the institution, the community, and country. The three disciplines from the three countries agreed on the importance of the following competencies: knowledge of the field, higher order cognitive processes such as critical thinking, analysis, problem solving, transfer of knowledge, oral and written communication skills, team work, decision making, leadership and management skills, indicating far more similarities in competencies than differences between the three different applied disciplines. We found a lack of correspondence between faculty’s intent to develop collaborative learning skills and the actual development of them. Contextual factors such as faculty prior experience in design, student reluctance to engage in collaborative learning, and institutional assessment systems that focus on individual performance were some of these reasons.

  8. An assessment of the validity of inelastic design analysis methods by comparisons of predictions with test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of computer programs that employ relatively complex constitutive theories and analysis procedures to perform inelastic design calculations on fast reactor system components introduces questions of validation and acceptance of the analysis results. We may ask ourselves, ''How valid are the answers.'' These questions, in turn, involve the concepts of verification of computer programs as well as qualification of the computer programs and of the underlying constitutive theories and analysis procedures. This paper addresses the latter - the qualification of the analysis methods for inelastic design calculations. Some of the work underway in the United States to provide the necessary information to evaluate inelastic analysis methods and computer programs is described, and typical comparisons of analysis predictions with inelastic structural test results are presented. It is emphasized throughout that rather than asking ourselves how valid, or correct, are the analytical predictions, we might more properly question whether or not the combination of the predictions and the associated high-temperature design criteria leads to an acceptable level of structural integrity. It is believed that in this context the analysis predictions are generally valid, even though exact correlations between predictions and actual behavior are not obtained and cannot be expected. Final judgment, however, must be reserved for the design analyst in each specific case. (author)

  9. Former Soviet Regulations for seismic design of NPPs and comparison with current international practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostarev, V.; Schukin, A.; Berkovski, A. [CKTI-Vibroseism Co. Ltd. (Cape Verde)

    1997-03-01

    This paper presents a summary of current earthquake design criteria used in former Soviet Regulations for equipment and piping systems of nuclear power plants in light of those used in United States and Japan. The detailed comparative seismic analysis of PWR (WWER) Primary Coolant Loop System (PCLS) according to Former Soviet (Russian) PNAE Code and ASME BPV Code with some comments regarding to Japan Code JEAG - 4601 was undertaken for better understanding of the differences and coincidences of seismic design criteria and requirements. The selection of these three guides for the study has very simple explanation: according to ASME BVPC, JEAG and PNAE the huge majority of existing NPPs has been designed. (J.P.N.)

  10. Former Soviet Regulations for seismic design of NPPs and comparison with current international practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a summary of current earthquake design criteria used in former Soviet Regulations for equipment and piping systems of nuclear power plants in light of those used in United States and Japan. The detailed comparative seismic analysis of PWR (WWER) Primary Coolant Loop System (PCLS) according to Former Soviet (Russian) PNAE Code and ASME BPV Code with some comments regarding to Japan Code JEAG - 4601 was undertaken for better understanding of the differences and coincidences of seismic design criteria and requirements. The selection of these three guides for the study has very simple explanation: according to ASME BVPC, JEAG and PNAE the huge majority of existing NPPs has been designed. (J.P.N.)

  11. Comparison of Methods for Evaluating Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Tie-Tube Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapernick, Richard J.; Dixon, David D.

    2008-01-01

    One of the fundamental structural components in a nuclear thermal rocket design is the tie tube. Proper cooling and flow modeling is important both for the structural integrity of the reactor core and for proper design of downstream components that operate on the hydrogen exiting the tie tube. Two models have been developed. The first is a spreadsheet-based tool designed for sizing tie-tube components, considering mechanical stress and strain limits, deposited moderator power, thermal expansion along the flow path, and conduction from adjacent fuel blocks. The second is a three-dimensional SINDA/FLUINT model used as a benchmark, containing a complete finite-element fuel block and a 1/6th tie-tube model. This paper discusses the performance of both models, as well as the advantages and limitations of each.

  12. Electro-mechanical coupled design of self-powered sensing systems and performances comparison through experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Somà

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in low-power sensors and electronic components open to innovative strategies in structural monitoring and real-time data processing, in particular for industrial and vehicular fields. Dedicated devices for harvesting the energy dissipated by mechanical vibrations of machines are showing their applicability in supplying autonomous distributed sensing systems. The harvester will replace cables and storage batteries, with relevant benefits on the sensing system capillarity, accessibility and applicability. The design of the interfaces of the electric, magnetic and structural coupled systems forming the harvester include static and dynamic modeling and simulation of the interactions involved; smart and effective architectures are need to satisfy the general requirements of bandwidth, tunability and efficiency required by each application. This paper reports the research advances in this field as a result of laboratory tests and design studies, with particular focus on the design methodologies involved in the definition of energy harvesters.

  13. Comparison of a Conventional Heat Exchangers with a New Designed Heat Exchanger Experimentally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tansel Koyun

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the air-water heat exchanger designed have been experimentally compared to conventional heat exchangers with and without fin. The same parameters for the three heat exchangers (pump flow, heating power, etc... have been used. In the experiments, speed-flow adjustment has been made to supply heat transfer at an optimum. As a result, during the circulation of water in pipe of the air-water heat exchanger, the corrosion fouling factor has not been formed. In addition, the efficiency of the new designed heat exchanger has been found between fin and finless heat exchanger efficiencies. The results have been shown in the diagrams.

  14. Comparison of Design Methods for Axially Loaded Driven Piles in Cohesionless Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2012-01-01

    For offshore wind turbines on deeper waters, a jacket sub-structure supported by axially loaded piles is thought to be the most suitable solution. The design method recommended by API and two CPT-based design methods are compared for two uniform sand profiles. The analysis show great difference...... in the predictions of bearing capacities calculated by means of the three methods for piles loaded in both tension and compression. This implies that further analysis of the bearing capacity of axially loaded piles in sand should be conducted....

  15. Economic analysis of alternative bison and elk management practices on the National Elk Refuge and Grand Teton National Park: A comparison of visitor and household responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, John B.; Caughlan, Lynne

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the National Park Service (NPS) are preparing a management plan for bison and elk inhabiting the National Elk Refuge (NER) and Grand Teton National Park (GTNP). These animals are part of the bison and elk herds in Jackson Hole, one of the largest concentrations of freeranging bison and elk in the world. A range of alternatives for managing the bison and elk herds in the project area will be developed in an Environmental Impact Statement. The EIS will likely include such issues as habitat management, disease management, winter-feeding and hunting programs related to the NER and GTNP. The purposes of this study are to determine how the current management and EIS alternatives for bison and elk inhabiting the NER and GTNP would change: Visitor use

  16. Systematic comparison of tissue fixation with alternative fixatives to conventional tissue fixation with buffered formalin in a xenograft-based model

    OpenAIRE

    Nietner, Thorben; Jarutat, Tiantom; Mertens, Alfred

    2012-01-01

    In our study we systematically compared the alternative fixatives acidified formal alcohol (AFA), PAXgene®, HOPE®, and combinations of AFA or formalin with ultrasound treatment to standard (buffered) formalin fixation. We examined general morphology and detectability of protein structures by immunohistochemistry of the membrane receptors epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R), and phosphorylated human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (phospho...

  17. Comparison of Single and Blend Acidifiers as Alternative to Antibiotics on Growth Performance, Fecal Microflora, and Humoral Immunity in Weaned Piglets

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, S. T.; Hwang, J. A.; de Hoon, J; Mun, H. S.; Yang, C. J.

    2014-01-01

    The banning of the use of antibiotics as feed additive has accelerated investigations of alternative feed additives in animal production. This experiment investigated the effect of pure citric acid or acidifier blend supplementation as substitute for antibiotic growth promoters on growth performance, fecal microbial count, and humoral immunity in weaned piglets challenged with Salmonella enterica serover Typhimurium and Escherichia coli KCTC 2571. A total of 60 newly weaned piglets (crossbred...

  18. A thrombus susceptibility comparison of two pulsatile Penn State 50 cc left ventricular assist device designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navitsky, Michael A; Deutsch, Steven; Manning, Keefe B

    2013-01-01

    Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) have proven successful as bridge to transplant devices for patients awaiting donor organs. While survival rates continue to increase, destination therapy remains hindered by thrombus formation within the device. Research has shown that thrombosis is correlated to the fluid dynamics within the device and may be a result of sustained shear rates below 500 s(-1) on the polyurethane blood sac used in the Penn State pulsatile LVAD. Particle image velocimetry is used to compare flow within two 50 cc LVAD designs to assess fluid patterns and quantify wall shear rates in regions known from in vivo studies to be susceptible to thrombus formation. The two designs differ in their front face geometry. The V-1 model has an outward-facing "dome" whereas the face of the V-2 model is flat. A thrombus susceptibility metric, which uses measured wall shear rates and exposure times, was applied to objectively compare pump designs over the entire cardiac cycle. For each design, there are regions where wall shear rates remained below 500 s(-1) for the entire cardiac cycle resulting in high thrombus susceptibility potential. Results of this study indicate that the V-2 device had an overall lower propensity for thrombus formation in the current region of interest. PMID:22825798

  19. Comparison of Three Common Experimental Designs to Improve Statistical Power When Data Violate Parametric Assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Andrew C.; McSweeney, Maryellen

    A Monte Carlo technique was used to investigate the small sample goodness of fit and statistical power of several nonparametric tests and their parametric analogues when applied to data which violate parametric assumptions. The motivation was to facilitate choice among three designs, simple random assignment with and without a concomitant variable…

  20. A Comparison of Different Teaching Designs of "Acids and Bases" Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ültay, Neslihan; Çalik, Muammer

    2016-01-01

    Inability to link the acid-base concepts with daily life phenomena (as contexts) highlights the need for further research on the context-based acid-base chemistry. In this vein, the aim of this study is to investigate the effects of different teaching designs (REACT strategy, 5Es learning model and traditional (existing) instruction) relevant with…

  1. Comparison of evolutionary multi objective algorithms for the dynamic network design problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, Luc J.J.; Berkum, van Eric C.; Bliemer, Michiel C.J.

    2011-01-01

    In traffic and transport a significant portion of research and application is focused on single objective optimization, although there is rarely only one objective that is of interest. The externalities of traffic are of increasing importance for policy decisions related to the design of a road netw

  2. Design and comparison of three-level three-phase T-source inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shults, T.; Husev, Oleksandr; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents guidelines for component design of recently proposed topologies of the three-level three-phase T-source inverters. Two different topologies are considered: T-source inverters with discontinuous input current and T-source inverters with continuous input current. Steady state...

  3. Alternative Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find your chapter: search by state Home > Alzheimer's Disease > Treatments > Alternative Treatments Overview What Is Dementia? What Is Alzheimer's? Younger/Early Onset Facts and Figures Know the 10 Signs Stages Inside the Brain: ...

  4. Comparison of CRBR design-basis events with those of foreign LMFBR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the Construction Permit (CP) review of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBR), the Brookhaven National Laboratory was asked to compare the Design Basis Accidents that are considered in CRBR Preliminary Safety Analysis Report with those of the foreign contemporary plants (PHENIX, SUPER-PHENIX, SNR-300, PFR, and MONJU). A brief introductory review of any special or unusual characteristics of these plants is given. This is followed by discussions of the design basis accidents and their acceptance criteria. In spite of some discrepancies due either to semantics or to licensing decisions, there appears to be a considerable degree of unanimity in the selection (definition) of DBAs in all of these plants

  5. A comparison of pharmacoepidemiological study designs in medication use and traffic safety research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to explore how the choice of different study designs could influence the risk estimates, a case–crossover and case–time–control study were carried out and their outcomes were compared with those of a traditional case–control study design that evaluated the association between the exposure to psychotropic medications and the risk of having a motor vehicle accident (MVA). A record-linkage database availing data for 3,786 cases and 18,089 controls during the period 2000–2007 was used. The study designs (i.e., case–crossover and case–time–control) were derived from published literature, and the following psychotropic medicines were examined: antipsychotics, anxiolytics, hypnotics and sedatives, and antidepressants, stratified in the two groups selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and other antidepressants. Moreover, in order to further investigate the effects of frequency of psychoactive medication exposure on the outcomes of the case–crossover analysis, the data were also stratified by the number of defined daily doses (DDDs) and days of medication use in the 12 months before the motor vehicle accident. Three-thousand seven-hundred fifty-two cases were included in this second part of the case–crossover analysis. The case–crossover design did not show any statistically significant association between psychotropic medication exposure and MVA risk [e.g., SSRIs—Adj. OR = 1.00 (95 % CI: 0.69–1.46); Anxiolytics—Adj. OR = 0.95 (95 % CI: 0.68–1.31)]. The case–time–control design only showed a borderline statistically significant increased traffic accident risk in SSRI users [Adj. OR = 1.16 (95 % CI: 1.01–1.34)]. With respect to the stratifications by the number of DDDs and days of medication use, the analyses showed no increased traffic accident risk associated with the exposure to the selected medication groups [e.g., SSRIs, <20 DDDs—Adj. OR = 0.65 (95 % CI: 0.11–3.87); SSRIs, 16–150 days—Adj. OR = 0.55 (95 % CI

  6. Comparison of depth-dose distributions between reactor and accelerator neutron beams proposed by design studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accelerator epithermal neutron beams produced by 7Li(p,n)7Be reactions were compared with reactor neutron beams using a fission converter (20% enriched 235U 5mm-thick plate) from view points of neutron spectrum and depth-dose distributions in a phantom. It is possible to design accelerator epithermal neutron beams having better depth-dose distributions than reactor neutron beams. (author)

  7. Design and CFD Simulation of the Drift Eliminators in Comparison with PIV Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stodůlka Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Drift eliminators are the essential part of all modern cooling towers preventing significant losses of liquid water escaping to the enviroment. These eliminators need to be effective in terms of water capture but on the other hand causing only minimal pressure loss as well. A new type of such eliminator was designed and numerically simulated using CFD tools. Results of the simulation are compared with PIV visulisation on the prototype model.

  8. Comparison of Models Needed for Conceptual Design of Man-Machine Systems in Different Application Domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1986-01-01

    For systematic and computer-aided design of man-machine systems, a consistent framework is needed, i. e. , a set of models which allows the selection of system characteristics which serve the individual user not only to satisfy his goal, but also to select mental processes that match his resource...... of other domains, such as emergency management, CAD/CAM/CIM, and office systems, and describes the characteristic differences in model requirements and requirements for model development....

  9. Design and CFD Simulation of the Drift Eliminators in Comparison with PIV Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodůlka, Jiří; Vitkovičová, Rut

    2015-05-01

    Drift eliminators are the essential part of all modern cooling towers preventing significant losses of liquid water escaping to the enviroment. These eliminators need to be effective in terms of water capture but on the other hand causing only minimal pressure loss as well. A new type of such eliminator was designed and numerically simulated using CFD tools. Results of the simulation are compared with PIV visulisation on the prototype model.

  10. Life cycle assessment of a railway bridge: comparison of two superstructure designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Guangli; Karoumi, Raid

    2011-01-01

    database. Results show that the fixed-slab bridge option has a better environmental performance than the ballasted design due to the ease of maintenances. The initial material manufacture stage is responsible for the largest environmental burden, while the impacts from the construction machinery...... and material transportations are ignorable. Sensitivity analysis illustrates the maintenance scenario planning and steel recycling have the significant influence on the final results other than the traffic disturbances....

  11. Design of Orthogonal Filtered Multitone Modulation Systems and Comparison among Efficient Realizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea M. Tonello

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the efficient realization of a filtered multitone (FMT modulation system and its orthogonal design. FMT modulation can be viewed as a Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT modulated filter bank (FB. It generalizes the popular orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM scheme by deploying frequency confined subchannel pulses. We compare three realizations that have been described by Cvetković and Vetterli (1998, and Weiss and Stewart (2000, and Tonello (2006. A detailed derivation of them is performed in the time-domain via the exploitation of different FB polyphase decompositions. We then consider the design of an orthogonal FMT system and we exploit the third realization which allows simplifying the orthogonal FB design and obtaining a block diagonal system matrix with independent subblocks. A numerical method is then presented to obtain an orthogonal FB with well frequency confined subchannel pulses for arbitrarily large number of subchannels. Several examples of pulses with minimal length are reported and their performance is evaluated in typical multipath fading channels. Finally, we compare the orthogonal FMT system with a cyclically prefixed OFDM system in the IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN channel. In this scenario, FMT with minimal length pulses and single tap subchannel equalization outperforms the OFDM system in achievable rate.

  12. Design of Orthogonal Filtered Multitone Modulation Systems and Comparison among Efficient Realizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moret Nicola

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We address the efficient realization of a filtered multitone (FMT modulation system and its orthogonal design. FMT modulation can be viewed as a Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT modulated filter bank (FB. It generalizes the popular orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM scheme by deploying frequency confined subchannel pulses. We compare three realizations that have been described by Cvetković and Vetterli (1998, and Weiss and Stewart (2000, and Tonello (2006. A detailed derivation of them is performed in the time-domain via the exploitation of different FB polyphase decompositions. We then consider the design of an orthogonal FMT system and we exploit the third realization which allows simplifying the orthogonal FB design and obtaining a block diagonal system matrix with independent subblocks. A numerical method is then presented to obtain an orthogonal FB with well frequency confined subchannel pulses for arbitrarily large number of subchannels. Several examples of pulses with minimal length are reported and their performance is evaluated in typical multipath fading channels. Finally, we compare the orthogonal FMT system with a cyclically prefixed OFDM system in the IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN channel. In this scenario, FMT with minimal length pulses and single tap subchannel equalization outperforms the OFDM system in achievable rate.

  13. Bioclimatic Technology in High Rise Office Building Design: A Comparison Study for Indoor Environmental Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokman Hakim Ismail

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The shift towards a more sustainable architecture for high-rise building is discussed and illustrated through the work of Ken Yeang and other architects. The claimed benefits of such a bioclimatic design approach are examined in the light of the results of previously conducted research projects, dealing with indoor thermal condition of high-rise office buildings. This paper reports on a study to determine if high-rise buildings designed on bioclimatic principles perform better than conventional designed ones, when situated in a tropical climate such as that in Malaysia. The paper describes a number of case studies which compare Malaysian bioclimatic and conventional building using indoor environmental parameter criteria such as air temperature, relative humidity and air velocity. Building energy index for both types of buildings is presented to illustrate the real energy savings in both types of buildings. The major finding of this work is that, the bioclimatic buildings offering a more comfortable indoor environment, increase satisfaction and show an improvement in energy saving.

  14. Monte Carlo comparison of mid-size telescope designs for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Jogler, T; Dumm, J

    2012-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a future very high energy gamma-ray observatory. CTA will be comprised of small-, medium- and large-size telescopes covering an energy range from tens of GeV to hundreds of TeV and will surpass existing telescopes in sensitivity by an order of magnitude. The aim of our study is to find the optimal design for the medium-size telescopes (MSTs), which will determine the sensitivity in the key energy range between a few hundred GeV to about ten TeV. To study the effect of the telescope design parameters on the array performance, we simulated arrays of 61 MSTs with 120 m spacing and a variety of telescope configurations. We investigated the influence of the primary telescope characteristics including optical resolution, pixel size, and light collection area on the total array performance with a particular emphasis on telescope configurations with imaging performance similar to the proposed Davis-Cotton (DC) and Schwarzschild-Couder (SC) MST designs. We compare the performance...

  15. Monte Carlo comparison of medium-size telescope designs for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Jogler, T; Dumm, J

    2013-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a future very high energy gamma-ray observatory. CTA will be comprised of small-,medium- and large-size telescopes covering an energy range from tens of GeV to hundreds of TeV and will surpass existing telescopes in sensitivity by an order of magnitude. The aim of our study is to find the optimal design for the medium-size telescopes (MSTs), which will determine the sensitivity in the key energy range between a few hundred GeV to about ten TeV. To study the effect of the telescope design parameters on the array performance, we simulated arrays of 61 MSTs with 120 m spacing and a variety of telescope configurations. We investigated the influence of the primary telescope characteristics including optical resolution, pixel size, and light collection area on the total array performance with a particular emphasis on telescope configurations with imaging performance similar to the proposed Davies-Cotton (DC) and Schwarzschild-Couder (SC) MST designs. We compare the performance...

  16. System design of programmable 4f phase modulation techniques for rapid intensity shaping: a conceptual comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Matthias; Heber, Jörg; Janschek, Klaus

    2016-03-01

    The present study analyses three beam shaping approaches with respect to a light-efficient generation of i) patterns and ii) multiple spots by means of a generic optical 4f-setup. 4f approaches share the property that due to the one-to-one relationship between output intensity and input phase, the need for time-consuming, iterative calculation can be avoided. The resulting low computational complexity offers a particular advantage compared to the widely used holographic principles and makes them potential candidates for real-time applications. The increasing availability of high-speed phase modulators, e.g. on the basis of MEMS, calls for an evaluation of the performances of these concepts. Our second interest is the applicability of 4f methods to high-power applications. We discuss the variants of 4f intensity shaping by phase modulation from a system-level point of view which requires the consideration of application relevant boundary conditions. The discussion includes i) the micro mirror based phase manipulation combined with amplitude masking in the Fourier plane, ii) the Generalized Phase Contrast, and iii) matched phase-only correlation filtering combined with GPC. The conceptual comparison relies on comparative figures of merit for energy efficiency, pattern homogeneity, pattern image quality, maximum output intensity and flexibility with respect to the displayable pattern. Numerical simulations illustrate our findings.

  17. Weld-induced residual stresses in a prototype dragline cluster and comparison with design codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, S.; Semetay, C.; Price, J.W.H.; Nied, H.F. [Concordia University, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical & Industrial Engineering

    2010-02-15

    The Australian coal mining industry employs a large fleet of thin-walled Circular Hollow Section (CHS) welded draglines built of several clusters along the length of the main boom, which are often very heavily overlapped with co-eccentric multiple tubular structures. Heat treatment processes for relieving thermally generated weld-induced residual stresses are usually not employed owing to the high costs and potential dragline downtime. However, it is estimated that these weld-induced residual stresses are usually within a tolerable range and are not the major motivating factor in the initiation and propagation of fatigue-induced cracking. This paper presents the simulation of welding-induced residual stresses in a CHS T-Joint, which would form the first of the four lacings welded on to the main chord of a typical mining dragline cluster. The paper compares numerically generated residual stresses during the welding process in a single weld pass with the approach used in two Standards: (I) R6-Revision 4, Assessment of the Integrity of Structures Containing Defects and (ii) American Petroleum Institute API 579-1/ ASME FFS-1 2007. The comparison attests to the observation that while residual stresses in the fused area at some points could be higher than the yield stress, they are generally not capable of inducing cracks in their own right.

  18. 国际未来直线对撞机(ILC)阻尼环Lattice设计%An Alternative Lattice Design for ILC Damping Ring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙一鹏; 高杰; 郭之虞

    2006-01-01

    The ILC damping rings should provide beams with very low natural emittances for the linear collider to reach the required luminosity, and at the same time, the damping rings also need to have a large acceptance to ensure good injection efficiency for high emittance, high energy spread beam from the positron source. Meeting the above requirements is a real challenge for the ILC damping ring lattice design. In order to reduce the cost for ILC damping rings, an alternative lattice different from the baseline configuration design has been done with modified FODO cells, and the total quadrupole number has been reduced by half. The new lattice has been optimised to have good dynamic apertures.%为了使国际未来直线对撞机达到高的亮度,对撞机的阻尼环必须要有很小的自然发射度.同时,阻尼环要有很大的接收度来接受来自正电子注入系统的大能散、大发射度的正电子束团.对于磁聚焦结构的设计来说,同时达到以上要求是一件很有挑战性的工作.为了降低ILC阻尼环的造价采用修正的FODO结构设计了可以满足ILC要求的阻尼环备用Lattice,并使四极磁铁的数量比起ILC阻尼环BCD设计减少了一半.

  19. Current levels and composition profiles of PBDEs and alternative flame retardants in surface sediments from the Pearl River Delta, southern China: Comparison with historical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and alternative flame retardants were measured in surface sediments collected during 2009–2010 from the Pearl River Delta, southern China (a large manufacturing base for electronics/electrical products), to evaluate the influence of China's RoHS directive (adopted in 2006) on their environmental occurrence. The concentrations in sediments from different water systems ranged from 3.67 to 2520 ng/g (average of 17.1–588 ng/g) for PBDEs and from 0.22 to 5270 ng/g (average of 11.3–454 ng/g) for the alternative retardants. Although the PBDE levels have decreased significantly compared with those in sediments collected in 2002 in this region, the levels of alternative decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) have exceeded those of BDE209 (two predominant halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) in China) in the majority of sediments. This finding suggests a different contaminant pattern of HFRs in current sediments due to the replacement of the deca-BDE mixture with DBDPE in this region. In addition, sediment concentrations of discontinued PBDEs in the rural area are clearly elevated due to e-waste dismantling. The congener profiles of PBDEs in the current sediments (with more abundant lower-brominated congeners) differed substantially from those in 2002 and from the technical products, suggesting that biological or photolytic debromination of PBDEs may have occurred in the environment. - Highlights: ► PBDE levels in sediments have decreased substantially since China's RoHS directive. ► Contamination of novel DBDPE has exceeded that of deca-BDE in the PRD sediments. ► The congener profiles of PBDEs in the sediments have changed significantly. ► Significant biological or photolytic degradation of PBDEs may occur in the environment

  20. The disposal alternative deep boreholes. Content and scope of R and D programme necessary for comparison with the KBS-3 method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deposition of spent fuel elements in ≥ 2000 m deep boreholes is an alternative to the KBS-3 method that has been developed in Sweden for more than 20 years. This report gives an account of the research and development needed in order to bring the deep borehole method to the same level of development as the KBS-3 method. Five majors areas are discussed: Geoscience, Technical issues, Technical barriers, Safety assessment and Time-plans and costs. It is estimated that a full R,D and D programme would need about 30 years to be completed, and the costs would amount to around 4 billion SEK (over 400 million USD)

  1. A comparison of measurement concepts across physical science and social science domains: instrument design, calibration, and measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Is there a framework common to measurement in both physical and social sciences? The answer to this question would determine to an important extent the possibility of building a shared measurement-related body of knowledge across these traditionally separate domains. In this paper, we outline a framework of the processes involved in the construction and use of measures that includes instrument design, instrument calibration, and ultimately measurement using the instrument. A comparison of these steps across the two domains reveals both (a) formal parallelism, and (b) important differences in the way calibration is intended and implemented. We examine the similarities and differences to determine whether this is a case of irreducible difference, or whether the similarities are such that measurement in the two domains can be viewed within a single conceptualization

  2. Comparison of Jacket Production Processes Designed by Fabric Materials and Leather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Utkun

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Leather and leather products industry has shown a significant improvement in export area, as a result of intensive shuttle trades and demand that comes from crumbling Eastern Bloc countries in 1990's. This development has caused capacity increasing and thus makes large investments in this sector. Leather garment industry differs from woven or fabrics industry at various points. Differantation seems in raw materials features such as size, thickness, biological, chemical or physical homogenity. Due to the natural structure, leather shows different attributes in different regions. This study examines the diversity of production processes of leather and fabric designed jacket.

  3. Comparison of a Conventional Heat Exchangers with a New Designed Heat Exchanger Experimentally

    OpenAIRE

    Tansel Koyun; Semih Avcı

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the air-water heat exchanger designed have been experimentally compared to conventional heat exchangers with and without fin. The same parameters for the three heat exchangers (pump flow, heating power, etc...) have been used. In the experiments, speed-flow adjustment has been made to supply heat transfer at an optimum. As a result, during the circulation of water in pipe of the air-water heat exchanger, the corrosion fouling factor has not been formed. In addition, the efficie...

  4. Secondary Heat Exchanger Design and Comparison for Advanced High Temperature Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Ali Siahpush; Michael McKellar; Michael Patterson; Eung Soo Kim

    2012-06-01

    The goals of next generation nuclear reactors, such as the high temperature gas-cooled reactor and advance high temperature reactor (AHTR), are to increase energy efficiency in the production of electricity and provide high temperature heat for industrial processes. The efficient transfer of energy for industrial applications depends on the ability to incorporate effective heat exchangers between the nuclear heat transport system and the industrial process heat transport system. The need for efficiency, compactness, and safety challenge the boundaries of existing heat exchanger technology, giving rise to the following study. Various studies have been performed in attempts to update the secondary heat exchanger that is downstream of the primary heat exchanger, mostly because its performance is strongly tied to the ability to employ more efficient conversion cycles, such as the Rankine super critical and subcritical cycles. This study considers two different types of heat exchangers—helical coiled heat exchanger and printed circuit heat exchanger—as possible options for the AHTR secondary heat exchangers with the following three different options: (1) A single heat exchanger transfers all the heat (3,400 MW(t)) from the intermediate heat transfer loop to the power conversion system or process plants; (2) Two heat exchangers share heat to transfer total heat of 3,400 MW(t) from the intermediate heat transfer loop to the power conversion system or process plants, each exchanger transfers 1,700 MW(t) with a parallel configuration; and (3) Three heat exchangers share heat to transfer total heat of 3,400 MW(t) from the intermediate heat transfer loop to the power conversion system or process plants. Each heat exchanger transfers 1,130 MW(t) with a parallel configuration. A preliminary cost comparison will be provided for all different cases along with challenges and recommendations.

  5. Comparison of 2-D Magnetic Designs of Selected Coil Configurations for the Next European Dipole (NED)

    CERN Document Server

    Toral, F; Felice, H; Fessia, Paolo; Loveridge, P W; Regis, Federico; Rochford, J; Sanz, S; Schwerg, Nikolai; Védrine, P; Völlinger, Christine

    2007-01-01

    The Next European Dipole (NED) activity is developing a high-performance Nb3Sn wire (aiming at a non-copper critical current density of 1500 A/mm2 at 4.2 K and 15 T), within the framework of the Coordinated Accelerator Research in Europe (CARE) project. This activity is expected to lead to the fabrication of a large aperture, high field dipole magnet. In preparation for this phase, a Working Group on Magnet Design and Optimization (MDO) has been established to propose an optimal design. Other parallel Work Packages are concentrating on relevant topics, such as quench propagation simulation, innovative insulation techniques, and heat transfer measurements. In a first stage, the MDO Working Group has selected a number of coil configurations to be studied, together with salient parameters and features to be considered during the evaluation: the field quality, the superconductor efficiency, the conductor peak field, the stored magnetic energy, the Lorentz Forces and the fabrication difficulties. 2-D magnetic calc...

  6. Multi-objective Optimisation Design of Water Distribution Systems:Comparison of Two Evolutionary Algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haixing Liu,Jing Lu,Ming Zhao∗; Yixing Yuan

    2016-01-01

    In order to compare two advanced multi⁃objective evolutionary algorithms, a multi⁃objective water distribution problem is formulated in this paper. The multi⁃objective optimization has received more attention in the water distribution system design. On the one hand the cost of water distribution system including capital, operational, and maintenance cost is mostly concerned issue by the utilities all the time; on the other hand improving the performance of water distribution systems is of equivalent importance, which is often conflicting with the previous goal. Many performance metrics of water networks are developed in recent years, including total or maximum pressure deficit, resilience, inequity, probabilistic robustness, and risk measure. In this paper, a new resilience metric based on the energy analysis of water distribution systems is proposed. Two optimization objectives are comprised of capital cost and the new resilience index. A heuristic algorithm, speed⁃constrained multi⁃objective particle swarm optimization ( SMPSO) extended on the basis of the multi⁃objective particle swarm algorithm, is introduced to compare with another state⁃of⁃the⁃art heuristic algorithm, NSGA⁃II. The solutions are evaluated by two metrics, namely spread and hypervolume. To illustrate the capability of SMPSO to efficiently identify good designs, two benchmark problems ( two⁃loop network and Hanoi network) are employed. From several aspects the results demonstrate that SMPSO is a competitive and potential tool to tackle with the optimization problem of complex systems.

  7. Bivariate return period based on copulas for hydrologic dam design: comparison of theoretical and empirical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Requena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrologic frequency analyses are usually focused on flood peaks. Multivariate analyses on flood variables have not been so exhaustively studied despite the fact that they are required to represent the full hydrograph, which is essential for designing some structures like dams. In this work, a bivariate copula model was used to obtain the bivariate joint distribution of flood peak and volume. An empirical bivariate return period was defined in terms of acceptable risk to the dam through the maximum water elevation reached during the routing process, in order to perform a risk assessment of dam overtopping. A Monte Carlo procedure was developed to compare the probability of occurrence of a flood with the return period linked to the risk of dam overtopping. The procedure is applied to the case study of the Santillana reservoir in Spain. A set of synthetic peak-volume pairs was generated by the fitted copula and synthetic hydrographs were routed through the reservoir. Different reservoir volumes and spillway lengths were considered. Hydrographs with the same risk were represented by a curve in the peak-volume space. These curves were compared to those linked to the probability of occurrence of a flood event, in order to improve the estimation of the Design Flood Hydrograph.

  8. Cosmic alternatives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Ruth

    2009-04-01

    "Cosmologists are often in error but never in doubt." This pithy characterization by the Soviet physicist Lev Landau sums up the raison d'être of Facts and Speculations in Cosmology. Authors Jayant Narlikar and Geoffrey Burbidge are proponents of a "steady state" theory of cosmology, and they argue that the cosmological community has become fixated on a "Big Bang" dogma, suppressing alternative viewpoints. This book very much does what it says on the tin: it sets out what is known in cosmology, and puts forward the authors' point of view on an alternative to the Big Bang.

  9. The conceptual design of a hybrid life support system based on the evaluation and comparison of terrestrial testbeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czupalla, M.; Horneck, G.; Blome, H. J.

    This report summarizes a trade study of different options of a bioregenerative Life Support System (LSS) and a subsequent conceptual design of a hybrid LSS. The evaluation was based mainly on the terrestrial testbed projects MELISSA (ESA) and BIOS (Russia). In addition, some methods suggested by the Advanced Life Support Project (NASA) were considered. Computer models, including mass flows were established for each of the systems with the goal of closing system loops to the extent possible. In order to cope with the differences in the supported crew size and provided nutrition, all systems were scaled for supporting a crew of six for a 780 day Mars mission (180 days transport to Mars; 600 days surface period) as given in the NASA Design Reference Mission Scenario [Hoffman, S.J., Kaplan, D.L. Human exploration of Mars: the Reference Mission of the NASA Mars Exploratory Study, 1997]. All models were scaled to provide the same daily allowances, as of calories, to the crew. Equivalent System Mass (ESM) analysis was used to compare the investigated system models against each other. Following the comparison of the terrestrial systems, the system specific subsystem options for Food Supply, Solid Waste Processing, Water Management and Atmosphere Revitalization were evaluated in a separate trade study. The best subsystem technologies from the trade study were integrated into an overall design solution based on mass flow relationships. The optimized LSS is mainly a bioregenerative system, complemented by a few physico-chemical elements, with a total ESM of 18,088 kg, which is about 4 times higher than that of a pure physico-chemical LSS, as designed in an earlier study.

  10. Design criteria and comparison between conventional and subaperture SAR processing in airborne systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prats, Pau; Bara, Marc; Broquetas, Antoni

    2002-02-01

    This paper compares two different approaches for designing airborne SAR systems. The first one is the most common where conventional processing is employed, and therefore wide antenna beams are to be used in order to avoid ambiguities in the final image due to attitude variations. A second approach is proposed to lower the requirements such system imposes based on subaperture processing. The idea is to follow the azimuth variations of the Doppler centroid, without increasing the hardware requirements of the system. As it is shown in this paper, this processing procedure must be complemented with precise radiometric corrections, because the platform may experience small attitude variations, which could increase/decrease the target observation time, inducing a significant azimuth modulation in the final image. This leads to the definition of a new criterion concerning maximum attitude deviations for an airborne platform.

  11. Smart communities in virtual reality. A comparison of design approaches for academic education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Köhler

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Smart communities adopt „virtual reality” (VR for many purposes, amongst others for educational purposes. However the development of educational technologies under the concept of „„VR is neither a core issue in academic education nor in applied research publications, although potential exists. With the goal of closing this gap, the authors investigate possibilities of VR in teaching and training. Whether we can speak of a new didactic technique and if certain smart communities adopt such is investigated through three cases. Our focus is on who the target audience is, what requirements need to be considered, and how this manifests in the teachers’ activity. Subsequently, a starting point for a target group-oriented design of virtual reality in higher education is provided.

  12. Comparison of Design and Practices for Radiation Safety among Five Synchrotron Radiation Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, James C.; Rokni, Sayed H.; /SLAC; Asano, Yoshihiro; /JAERI-RIKEN, Hyogo; Casey, William R.; /Brookhaven; Donahue, Richard J.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2005-06-29

    There are more and more third-generation synchrotron radiation (SR) facilities in the world that utilize low emittance electron (or positron) beam circulating in a storage ring to generate synchrotron light for various types of experiments. A storage ring based SR facility consists of an injector, a storage ring, and many SR beamlines. When compared to other types of accelerator facilities, the design and practices for radiation safety of storage ring and SR beamlines are unique to SR facilities. Unlike many other accelerator facilities, the storage ring and beamlines of a SR facility are generally above ground with users and workers occupying the experimental floor frequently. The users are generally non-radiation workers and do not wear dosimeters, though basic facility safety training is required. Thus, the shielding design typically aims for an annual dose limit of 100 mrem over 2000 h without the need for administrative control for radiation hazards. On the other hand, for operational and cost considerations, the concrete ring wall (both lateral and ratchet walls) is often desired to be no more than a few feet thick (with an even thinner roof). Most SR facilities have similar operation modes and beam parameters (both injection and stored) for storage ring and SR beamlines. The facility typically operates almost full year with one-month start-up period, 10-month science program for experiments (with short accelerator physics studies and routine maintenance during the period of science program), and a month-long shutdown period. A typical operational mode for science program consists of long periods of circulating stored beam (which decays with a lifetime in tens of hours), interposed with short injection events (in minutes) to fill the stored current. The stored beam energy ranges from a few hundreds MeV to 10 GeV with a low injection beam power (generally less than 10 watts). The injection beam energy can be the same as, or lower than, the stored beam energy

  13. Comparison of Different Instructional Multimedia Designs for Improving Student Science-Process Skill Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Yu-Ta; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2012-02-01

    This study developed three forms of computer-based multimedia, including Static Graphics (SG), Simple Learner-Pacing Animation (SLPA), and Full Learner-Pacing Animation (FLPA), to assist students in learning topographic measuring. The interactive design of FLPA allowed students to physically manipulate the virtual measuring mechanism, rather than passively observe dynamic or static images. The students were randomly assigned to different multimedia groups. The results of a one-way ANOVA analysis indicated that (1) there was a significant difference with a large effect size ( f = .69) in mental effort ratings among three groups, and the post-hoc test indicated that FLPA imposed less cognitive load on students than did SG ( p = .007); (2) the differences of practical performance scores among groups reached the statistic significant level with a large effect size ( f = .76), and the post-hoc test indicated that FLPA fostered better learning outcomes than both SLPA and SG ( p = .004 and p = .05, respectively); (3) the difference in instructional efficiency that was computed by the z-score combination of students' mental effort ratings and practical performance scores among the three groups obtained the statistic significant level with a large effect size ( f = .79), and the post-hoc test indicated that FLPA brought students higher instructional efficiency than those of both SLPA and SG ( p = .01 and .005, respectively); (4) no significant effect was found in instructional time-spans between groups ( p = .637). Overall, FLPA was recommended as the best multimedia form to facilitate topographic measurement learning. The implications of instructional multimedia design were discussed from the perspective of cognitive load theory.

  14. Cementless Hip Arthroplasty in Southern Iran, Midterm Outcome and Comparison of Two Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Hossein Shahcheraghi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cementless hip prosthesis was designed to provide biologic fixation, without the use of cement. The second generation components have shown more reliable bone ingrowths and survival rates. We are reporting a midterm result of two designs of cementless prosthesis in a unique culture with different social habits and expectations. Methods: 52 primary cementless total hip arthroplasty in 42 patients with the mean age of 48.8 years were retrospectively studied. Two groups of prosthesis had been implanted: Harris-Galante II (HGII in 15 and Versys-Trilogy (V-T in 37 hips, both from Zimmer company. The patients were assessed clinically, radiographically and with Harris hip score, SF36, WOMAC, and MACTAR questionnaires, with 65 months (26-136 mean follow-up. Results: All the V-T prostheses had survived well. Eight of HG II were revised by the last follow-up in 19-102 months. All had undergone acetabular revision and 2 combined with femoral revision. Broken tines of HGII cups were seen in 4 radiographs. The 65 months overall survival was 96.2% for femoral and 84.6% for acetabular components. 90% had good or excellent Harris hip scores. The functional scores were poorer in the HG II group. Pain relief and improved walking were the two main patients’ expectations fulfilled in 97.6% and 92.8%, respectively. Conclusions: The outcome of cementless total hip arthroplasty (THA is satisfactory and comparable with the literature based on the results of function and survival of this small comparative group. The use of HGII acetabular component should be abandoned.

  15. Comparison of alternative manure management systems: effect on the environment, total energy requirement, nutrient conservation, contribution to corn silage production and economics. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, R.O.; Matthews, D.L.

    1983-09-01

    This study compares alternative dairy manure management systems operated under full scale commercial conditions. The study investigates weight of manure handled per cow per year, labor and energy requirements, effect on the environment, nutrient conservation, corn silage production and total annual operating costs. The dairy production facility used was a confinement stall barn at the Agway Farm Research Center, Tully, New York. Provisions were made to handle the manure from the barn in three ways: (1) directly into a spreader for daily spreading, (2) by gravity into a liquid manure storage tank for spring application and immediate plow down, (3) hydraulic ram to a roof-covered above-ground manure storage for spring and fall spreading. Results of the study show that a manure storage system can reduce annual labor requirements by 65 percent and fuel requirement by 60 percent or more, compared to daily spreading.

  16. Comparison of increased venous contrast in ischemic stroke using phase-sensitive MR imaging with perfusion changes on flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery at 3 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Eijiro; Kanasaki, Yoshiko; Fujii, Shinya; Ogawa, Toshihide (Div. of Radiology, Dept. of Pathophysiological and Therapeutic Science, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori Univ. Hospital, Yonago, Tottori (Japan)), email: eyamashi-ttr@umin.ac.jp; Tanaka, Takuro; Hirata, Yoshiharu (Div. of Clinical Radiology, Tottori Univ. Hospital, Yonago, Tottori (Japan))

    2011-10-15

    Background Increased venous contrast in ischemic stroke using susceptibility-weighted imaging has been widely reported, although few reports have compared increased venous contrast areas with perfusion change areas. Purpose To compare venous contrast on phase-sensitive MR images (PSI) with perfusion change on flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) images, and to discuss the clinical use of PSI in ischemic stroke. Material and Methods Thirty patients with clinically suspected acute infarction of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory within 7 days of onset were evaluated. Phase-sensitive imaging (PSI), flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) were obtained using 3 Tesla scanner. Two neuroradiologists independently reviewed the MR images, as well as the PSI, DWI, and FAIR images. They were blinded to the clinical data and to each other's findings. The abnormal area of each image was ultimately identified after both neuroradiologists reached consensus. We analyzed areas of increased venous contrast on PSI, perfusion changes on FAIR images and signal changes on DWI for each case. Results Venous contrast increased on PSI and hypoperfusion was evident on FAIR images from 22 of the 30 patients (73%). The distribution of the increased venous contrast was the same as that of the hypoperfused areas on FAIR images in 16 of these 22. The extent of these lesions was larger than that of lesions visualized by on DWI in 18 of the 22 patients. Hypointense signals reflecting hemorrhage and no increased venous contrast on PSI and hyperperfusion on FAIR images were found in six of the remaining eight patients (20%). Findings on PSI were normal and hypoperfusion areas were absent on FAIR images of two patients (7%). Conclusion Increased venous contrast on PSI might serve as an index of misery perfusion and provide useful information

  17. Growing Alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Petersen, Mai Corlin

    2014-01-01

    From 2014, Anhui Province will pilot a reform of the residential land market in China, thus integrating rural Anhui in the national housing market. In contrast, artist and activist Ou Ning has proposed the Bishan time money currency, intending to establish an alternative economic circuit in Bishan...

  18. Evaluation and comparison of three IR detectors and three amplifier designs for a new, high-speed IR pyrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), a high-speed, four-wavelength, infrared (IR) pyrometer has been used for surface temperature measurements in shock-physics experiments for several years. The pyrometer uses solid state detectors and a single fiber-optic cable for transmission of light from the target surface to the detectors. This instrument has recently been redesigned for an upcoming experiment at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Three different IR detectors (two HgCdTe variants as well as the existing InSb chip) were compared for sensitivity, signal-to-noise ratio, and bandwidth. Of major concern was detector amplifier recovery time from overload saturation. In shock physics experiments, a short but very bright precursor frequently accompanies shock breakout (often from trapped air). This precursor can saturate the amplifier and may ''swamp-out'' the signal of interest before the amplifier recovers. With this in mind, we evaluated two new amplifier designs by the Perry Amplifier Company for linearity, signal-to-noise characteristics, gain, and saturation recovery time. This paper describes experimental setup for detector comparison and results obtained. Furthermore, we discuss new amplifier design and suitability for highspeed infrared pyrometry in shock physics experiments

  19. Comparison of computational performance of GA and PSO optimization techniques when designing similar systems - Typical PWR core case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Performance of PSO and GA techniques applied to similar system design. → This work uses ANGRA1 (two loop PWR) core as a prototype. → Results indicate that PSO technique is more adequate than GA to solve this kind of problem. - Abstract: This paper compares the performance of two optimization techniques, particle swarm optimization (PSO) and genetic algorithm (GA) applied to the design a typical reduced scale two loop Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) core, at full power in single phase forced circulation flow. This comparison aims at analyzing the performance in reaching the global optimum, considering that both heuristics are based on population search methods, that is, methods whose population (candidate solution set) evolve from one generation to the next using a combination of deterministic and probabilistic rules. The simulated PWR, similar to ANGRA 1 power plant, was used as a case example to compare the performance of PSO and GA. Results from simulations indicated that PSO is more adequate to solve this kind of problem.

  20. Color Shift Investigations for LED Secondary Optical Designs: Comparison between BPA-PC and PMMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guangjun; Yazdan Mehr, M.; van Driel, W. D.; Fan, Xuejun; Fan, Jiajie; Jansen, K. M. B.; Zhang, G. Q.

    2015-07-01

    Recently, color shift of LED-based lighting products has attracted much attention due to its increasing impact on the field application. However, significant research investigations on the color shift mechanisms are not publically available especially for important transmission materials used for secondary optical design. In this paper, broadly used such commercial materials (BPA-PC and PMMA) are experimentally investigated on the color shift effects during aging. Besides this, color shift mechanisms of degradation of transmittance are also studied. Results revealed: (1) Inconsistent degradation of wavelength-dependent transmittance induces the decrease of the blue/yellow light intensity ratio and thus gives rise to the color shift toward the yellow field, which is the color shift mechanism of BPA-PC; (2) Even for the non-aged BPA-PC, the transmittance varies with wavelength in the visible light field due to the chemistry of the material, which caused the change of intensify ratio of blue light to yellow light in the SPD, leading to color change in perception; (3) Oxidation plays a key role in the degradation of transmittance at around the peak wavelength of the blue light field, which is in correlation with the discoloration of thermally-aged BPA-PC materials. By contrast, for the PMMA specimen aged up to 3000 h, oxidation was neither occurred at 85 °C, nor with additional exposure to blue light, nor even with additional humidity of 85%RH.

  1. Comparison of the backbone dynamics of a natural and a consensus designed 3-TPR domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarymowycz, Virginia A; Cortajarena, Aitziber L; Regan, Lynne; Stone, Martin J

    2008-07-01

    The tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) is a 34-amino acid helix-turn-helix motif that occurs in tandem arrays in numerous proteins. Here we compare the backbone dynamics of a natural 3-repeat TPR domain, from the protein UBP, with the behavior of a designed protein CTPR3, which consists of three identical consensus TPR units. Although the three tandem TPR repeats in both CTPR3 and UBP behave as a single unit, with no evidence of independent repeat motions, the data indicate that certain positions in UBP are significantly more flexible than are the corresponding positions in CTPR3. Most of the dynamical changes occur at or adjacent to positions that are involved in intra-repeat packing interactions. These observations lead us to suggest that the three-TPR domain of UBP does not incorporate optimized packing, compared to that seen in the idealized CTPR. The natural TPR domain is not only less stable overall than CTPR3, but also presents increased local flexibility at the positions where the sequences differs from the conserved consensus.

  2. A comparison of soft magnetic composites designed from different ferromagnetic powders and phenolic resins☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Magdalena Streckova; Radovan Bures; Maria Faberova; Lubomir MedveckY; Jan Fuzer; Peter Kollar

    2015-01-01

    Soft magnetic composites (SMCs) were prepared from three different ferromagnetic powder particles:iron powder ASC 100.29, spherical FeSi particles and vitroperm (Fe73Cu1Nb3Si16B7) flakes. Two types of hybrid organic–inorganic phenolic resins modified with either silica nanoparticles or boron were used to design a thin insulating layer perfect-ly covering the ferromagnetic particles. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry confirmed an incorporation of silica or boron into the polymer matrix, which manifested itself through an improved thermal stability of the hybrid resins verified by thermogravimetric-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) analysis. The core-shell particles prepared from the ferromagnetic powder particles and the modified hybrid resins were further compacted to the cylindrical and toroidal shapes for the mechanical, electrical and magnetic testing. A uniform distribution of the resin between the ferromagnetic particles was evidenced by scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis, which was also reflected in a rather high value of the electrical resistivity. A low porosity and extraordinary high values of mechanical hardness and flexural strength were found in SMC consisting of the iron powder and phenolic resin modified with boron. The coercive fields of the prepared samples were comparable with the commercial SMCs.

  3. Support vector machine regression (SVR/LS-SVM)--an alternative to neural networks (ANN) for analytical chemistry? Comparison of nonlinear methods on near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabin, Roman M; Lomakina, Ekaterina I

    2011-04-21

    In this study, we make a general comparison of the accuracy and robustness of five multivariate calibration models: partial least squares (PLS) regression or projection to latent structures, polynomial partial least squares (Poly-PLS) regression, artificial neural networks (ANNs), and two novel techniques based on support vector machines (SVMs) for multivariate data analysis: support vector regression (SVR) and least-squares support vector machines (LS-SVMs). The comparison is based on fourteen (14) different datasets: seven sets of gasoline data (density, benzene content, and fractional composition/boiling points), two sets of ethanol gasoline fuel data (density and ethanol content), one set of diesel fuel data (total sulfur content), three sets of petroleum (crude oil) macromolecules data (weight percentages of asphaltenes, resins, and paraffins), and one set of petroleum resins data (resins content). Vibrational (near-infrared, NIR) spectroscopic data are used to predict the properties and quality coefficients of gasoline, biofuel/biodiesel, diesel fuel, and other samples of interest. The four systems presented here range greatly in composition, properties, strength of intermolecular interactions (e.g., van der Waals forces, H-bonds), colloid structure, and phase behavior. Due to the high diversity of chemical systems studied, general conclusions about SVM regression methods can be made. We try to answer the following question: to what extent can SVM-based techniques replace ANN-based approaches in real-world (industrial/scientific) applications? The results show that both SVR and LS-SVM methods are comparable to ANNs in accuracy. Due to the much higher robustness of the former, the SVM-based approaches are recommended for practical (industrial) application. This has been shown to be especially true for complicated, highly nonlinear objects. PMID:21350755

  4. Comparison of Various Supersonic Turbine Tip Designs to Minimize Aerodynamic Loss and Tip Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyam, Vikram; Ameri, Ali

    2012-01-01

    The rotor tips of axial turbines experience high heat flux and are the cause of aerodynamic losses due to tip clearance flows, and in the case of supersonic tips, shocks. As stage loadings increase, the flow in the tip gap approaches and exceeds sonic conditions. This introduces effects such as shock-boundary layer interactions and choked flow that are not observed for subsonic tip flows that have been studied extensively in literature. This work simulates the tip clearance flow for a flat tip, a diverging tip gap and several contoured tips to assess the possibility of minimizing tip heat flux while maintaining a constant massflow from the pressure side to the suction side of the rotor, through the tip clearance. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code GlennHT was used for the simulations. Due to the strong favorable pressure gradients the simulations assumed laminar conditions in the tip gap. The nominal tip gap width to height ratio for this study is 6.0. The Reynolds number of the flow is 2.4 x 10(exp 5) based on nominal tip width and exit velocity. A wavy wall design was found to reduce heat flux by 5 percent but suffered from an additional 6 percent in aerodynamic loss coefficient. Conventional tip recesses are found to perform far worse than a flat tip due to severe shock heating. Overall, the baseline flat tip was the second best performer. A diverging converging tip gap with a hole was found to be the best choice. Average tip heat flux was reduced by 37 percent and aerodynamic losses were cut by over 6 percent.

  5. A Design of Alternating Temperature Heat Pipe Adsorber%一种交变式三温区热管吸附床的设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯梦娇; 孙文哲; 胡选哲; 顾晓勇; 侯龙

    2015-01-01

    Energy crisis and environmental degradation become the problem that confronted by all over the world. Traditional refrigeration led to the deterioration of environmental problems. Adsorption refrigeration become the subject of the study as it is a green refrigeration technology. Objective discussion of adsorption refrigeration itself, there are still many deficiencies,in order to solve these problems,the combination of heat pipe and its scholars both at home and abroad to develop a series of new type refrigeration units,to a certain extent,and improves the deficiency of the adsorption refrigeration unit performance. At the same time broaden the application field of heat pipe adsorption bed system. This paper mainly introduces a design of alternating temperature heat pipe adsorber,this de-vice combined heat pipe with adsorption refrigeration,complementary advantages. This paper introduces the princi-ple and the system of experiment process, details in this paper, the design of the experimental device compo-nents. Finally we analysis the feasibility of the system and prospect for the future.%能源危机,环境恶化成为全世界共同面对的问题。吸附制冷作为一种绿色环保的制冷技术倍受青睐,成为众学者研究的课题。客观讨论,吸附制冷本身仍存在很多不足之处,为解决这些问题,国内外学者将热管与其结合研制出一系列新型制冷机组,在一定程度上缓解了吸附制冷的不足并提高了机组性能。同时还拓宽了热管吸附床系统的应用领域。本文主要介绍了一种交变式三温区热管吸附床的设计,该装置将热管与吸附制冷结合,优势互补。文中介绍了实验进行的原理及系统流程,详细阐述了实验装置各部件的设计细节。最后分析了其可行性并对其做了展望。

  6. Designing and Evaluating Patient Education Pamphlets based on Readability Indexes and Comparison with Literacy Levels of Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Arian

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hundreds of patient education materials i.e. pamphlets are annually published in healthcare systems following their design, correction, and revision. Aim: to design and evaluate patient education pamphlets based on readability indexes and their comparison with literacy level in society. Method: The average literacy level among 500 patients admitted to two training hospitals in Bojnurd (northeastern Iran was determined in 2014-2015. Afterwards, all patient education pamphlets in both hospitals (n=69 were collected and their readability level was determined. After that, all the pamphlets were re-designed according to the given standards and in line with literacy level in society. The SPSS software (Version 20 was also used to analyze the data. Results: The average level of literacy among 500 patients in both hospitals in the present study was 6.72±4.34 which was placed in grades six and seven in terms of the guide to readability indexes. In line with McLaughlin’s SMOG Readability Formula, the bulk of pamphlets (91.3% were at college level before corrections and revisions based on the given standards, but 23.2% were at a level lower than grade seven following corrections and revisions. Implications for Practice: Evaluation of patient education pamphlets plays an important role in promoting self-care among patients. Due to the novelty of the present study in Iran, the results of this study can contribute to patient education researchers in order to identify the strengths and weaknesses of patient education materials i.e. pamphlets based on scientific indices as well as their revisions and re-developments.

  7. The comparison of performance by using alternative refrigerant R152a in automobile climate system with different artificial neural network models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkisim, A. T.; Hasiloglu, A. S.; Bilen, K.

    2016-04-01

    Due to the refrigerant gas R134a which is used in automobile air conditioning systems and has greater global warming impact will be phased out gradually, an alternative gas is being desired to be used without much change on existing air conditioning systems. It is aimed to obtain the easier solution for intermediate values on the performance by creating a Neural Network Model in case of using a fluid (R152a) in automobile air conditioning systems that has the thermodynamic properties close to each other and near-zero global warming impact. In this instance, a network structure giving the most accurate result has been established by identifying which model provides the best education with which network structure and makes the most accurate predictions in the light of the data obtained after five different ANN models was trained with three different network structures. During training of Artificial Neural Network, Quick Propagation, Quasi-Newton, Levenberg-Marquardt and Conjugate Gradient Descent Batch Back Propagation methodsincluding five inputs and one output were trained with various network structures. Over 1500 iterations have been evaluated and the most appropriate model was identified by determining minimum error rates. The accuracy of the determined ANN model was revealed by comparing with estimates made by the Multi-Regression method.

  8. The Varieties of Knowledge and Skill-Based Pay Design: A Comparison of Seven New Pay Systems for K-12 Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanowski, Anthony

    2003-01-01

    Studied the design of knowledge and skill-based pay systems for K-12 teachers in six U.S. school districts and one charter school. Identified seven dimensions for comparison. Findings show that few programs had developed a coordinated professional development program specifically linked to the knowledge and skills rewarded in the new system. (SLD)

  9. Designing Products Using Quality Function Deployment and Conjoint Analysis: A Comparison in a Market for Elderly People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Assab, Samah; Baier, Daniel

    In this paper, we compare two product design approaches, quality function deployment (QFD) and conjoint analysis (CA), on the example of mobile phones for elderly people as a target group. Then, we compare between our results and the results from former similar comparisons, e.g., Pullman et al. (J Prod Innov Manage 19(5):354-364, 2002) and Katz (J Innov Manage 21:61-63, 2004). In this work, the same procedures and conditions are taken into consideration as that taken by Pullman et al. in their paper. They viewed the relation between the two methods: QFD and CA as a complementary one in which both should be simultaneously implemented since each provide feedback to the other. They concluded that CA is more efficient in reflecting the end-users’ present preferences for the product attributes, whereas QFD is definitely better in satisfying end-users’ needs from the developers’ point of view. Katz in his response from a practitioner’s point of view agreed with Pullman et al. However, he concluded that the two methods are better used sequentially and that QFD should precede conjoint analysis. We test these results in a market for elderly people.

  10. Systemic Design: Two Canadian Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Ryan; Mark Leung

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces two novel applications of systemic design to facilitate a comparison of alternative methodologies that integrate systems thinking and design. In the first case study, systemic design helped the Procurement Department at the University of Toronto re-envision how public policy is implemented and how value is created in the broader university purchasing ecosystem. This resulted in an estimated $1.5 million in savings in the first year, and a rise in user retention rates fro...

  11. Alternative crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surplus cereal production in the EEC and decreasing product prices, mainly for cereals, has prompted considerable interest for new earnings in arable farming. The objective was to examine whether suggested new crops (fibre, oil, medicinal and alternative grains crops) could be considered as real alternatives. Whether a specific crop can compete economically with cereals and whether there is a market demand for the crop is analyzed. The described possibilities will result in ca. 50,000 hectares of new crops. It is expected that they would not immediately provide increased earnings, but in the long run expected price developments are more positive than for cereals. The area for new crops will not solve the current surplus cereal problem as the area used for new crops is only 3% of that used for cereals. Preconditions for many new crops is further research activities and development work as well as the establishment of processing units and organizational initiatives. Presumably, it is stated, there will then be a basis for a profitable production of new crops for some farmers. (AB) (47 refs.)

  12. Designing alternative strategies for the European industry according to its strength and weaknesses and taking into consideration the opportunities and threats of the PV market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives were to generate a variety of strategies to identify alternative ways that the PV Sector can use its specific strengths to capitalize on opportunities or to avoid threats and to overcome its weaknesses. The so-called SWOT analysis provides a matrix illustrating how businesses can match the external opportunities and threats facing the sector with its internal strengths and weaknesses to yield in possible strategic alternatives. This method lends itself to brainstorming to create alternative strategies and actions, which might not otherwise be considered. In two working group meetings with participants from the PV industry, research and other stakeholders the SWOT were performed to result into implications for the PV sector. Through workshops the results will be discussed within an expert group and priorities for the future activities will be defined. The project is co-financed through the 6. Framework Programme of the EC. (authors)

  13. Alternative Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planting, A.; De saint Jacob, Y.; Verwijs, H.; Belin, H.; Preesman, L.

    2009-03-15

    In two articles, one interview and one column attention is paid to alternative energies. The article 'A new light on saving energy' discusses the option to save energy by modernising lighting systems in urban areas. The column 'View from Paris' focuses on investment decisions in France with regard to renewable energy and energy savings. The article 'Europe turns a blind eye to big battery' discusses developments in batteries to store energy. The interview concerns fuel cell expert and formerly President of UTC Power Jan van Dokkum. The last article gives a brief overview of the European Energy Research Alliance (EERA) and the challenges this alliance will have to face with regard to climate change and energy security.

  14. Energy alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English. A special committe of the Canadian House of Commons was established on 23 May 1980 to investigate the use of alternative energy sources such as 'gasohol', liquified coal, solar energy, methanol, wind and tidal power, biomass, and propane. In its final report, the committee envisions an energy system for Canada based on hydrogen and electricity, using solar and geothermal energy for low-grade heat. The committe was not able to say which method of generating electricty would dominate in the next century, although it recommends that fossil fuels should not be used. The fission process is not specifically discussed, but the outlook for fusion was investigated, and continued governmental support of fusion research is recommended. The report proposes some improvements in governmental energy organizations and programs

  15. Reducing Bias and Increasing Precision by Adding Either a Pretest Measure of the Study Outcome or a Nonequivalent Comparison Group to the Basic Regression Discontinuity Design: An Example from Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yang; Cook, Thomas D.; Kisbu-Sakarya, Yasemin

    2015-01-01

    Regression discontinuity design (RD) has been widely used to produce reliable causal estimates. Researchers have validated the accuracy of RD design using within study comparisons (Cook, Shadish & Wong, 2008; Cook & Steiner, 2010; Shadish et al, 2011). Within study comparisons examines the validity of a quasi-experiment by comparing its…

  16. Modeling of Large-Scale Functional Brain Networks Based on Structural Connectivity from DTI: Comparison with EEG Derived Phase Coupling Networks and Evaluation of Alternative Methods along the Modeling Path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bastian; Messé, Arnaud; Thomalla, Götz; Gerloff, Christian; König, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigate if phase-locking of fast oscillatory activity relies on the anatomical skeleton and if simple computational models informed by structural connectivity can help further to explain missing links in the structure-function relationship. We use diffusion tensor imaging data and alpha band-limited EEG signal recorded in a group of healthy individuals. Our results show that about 23.4% of the variance in empirical networks of resting-state functional connectivity is explained by the underlying white matter architecture. Simulating functional connectivity using a simple computational model based on the structural connectivity can increase the match to 45.4%. In a second step, we use our modeling framework to explore several technical alternatives along the modeling path. First, we find that an augmentation of homotopic connections in the structural connectivity matrix improves the link to functional connectivity while a correction for fiber distance slightly decreases the performance of the model. Second, a more complex computational model based on Kuramoto oscillators leads to a slight improvement of the model fit. Third, we show that the comparison of modeled and empirical functional connectivity at source level is much more specific for the underlying structural connectivity. However, different source reconstruction algorithms gave comparable results. Of note, as the fourth finding, the model fit was much better if zero-phase lag components were preserved in the empirical functional connectome, indicating a considerable amount of functionally relevant synchrony taking place with near zero or zero-phase lag. The combination of the best performing alternatives at each stage in the pipeline results in a model that explains 54.4% of the variance in the empirical EEG functional connectivity. Our study shows that large-scale brain circuits of fast neural network synchrony strongly rely upon the structural connectome and simple computational

  17. Modeling of Large-Scale Functional Brain Networks Based on Structural Connectivity from DTI: Comparison with EEG Derived Phase Coupling Networks and Evaluation of Alternative Methods along the Modeling Path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Holger; Bönstrup, Marlene; Cheng, Bastian; Messé, Arnaud; Hilgetag, Claus; Thomalla, Götz; Gerloff, Christian; König, Peter

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we investigate if phase-locking of fast oscillatory activity relies on the anatomical skeleton and if simple computational models informed by structural connectivity can help further to explain missing links in the structure-function relationship. We use diffusion tensor imaging data and alpha band-limited EEG signal recorded in a group of healthy individuals. Our results show that about 23.4% of the variance in empirical networks of resting-state functional connectivity is explained by the underlying white matter architecture. Simulating functional connectivity using a simple computational model based on the structural connectivity can increase the match to 45.4%. In a second step, we use our modeling framework to explore several technical alternatives along the modeling path. First, we find that an augmentation of homotopic connections in the structural connectivity matrix improves the link to functional connectivity while a correction for fiber distance slightly decreases the performance of the model. Second, a more complex computational model based on Kuramoto oscillators leads to a slight improvement of the model fit. Third, we show that the comparison of modeled and empirical functional connectivity at source level is much more specific for the underlying structural connectivity. However, different source reconstruction algorithms gave comparable results. Of note, as the fourth finding, the model fit was much better if zero-phase lag components were preserved in the empirical functional connectome, indicating a considerable amount of functionally relevant synchrony taking place with near zero or zero-phase lag. The combination of the best performing alternatives at each stage in the pipeline results in a model that explains 54.4% of the variance in the empirical EEG functional connectivity. Our study shows that large-scale brain circuits of fast neural network synchrony strongly rely upon the structural connectome and simple computational

  18. Metamaterials critique and alternatives

    CERN Document Server

    Munk, Ben A

    2009-01-01

    A Convincing and Controversial Alternative Explanation of Metamaterials with a Negative Index of Refraction In a book that will generate both support and controversy, one of the world's foremost authorities on periodic structures addresses several of the current fashions in antenna design-most specifically, the popular subject of double negative metamaterials. Professor Munk provides a comprehensive theoretical electromagnetic investigation of the issues and concludes that many of the phenomena claimed by researchers may be impossible. While denying the existence of negative refractio

  19. Vehicle Design Evaluation Program (VDEP). A computer program for weight sizing, economic, performance and mission analysis of fuel-conservative aircraft, multibodied aircraft and large cargo aircraft using both JP and alternative fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, B. H.

    1977-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center vehicle design evaluation program (VDEP-2) was expanded by (1) incorporating into the program a capability to conduct preliminary design studies on subsonic commercial transport type aircraft using both JP and such alternate fuels as hydrogen and methane;(2) incorporating an aircraft detailed mission and performance analysis capability; and (3) developing and incorporating an external loads analysis capability. The resulting computer program (VDEP-3) provides a preliminary design tool that enables the user to perform integrated sizing, structural analysis, and cost studies on subsonic commercial transport aircraft. Both versions of the VDEP-3 Program which are designated preliminary Analysis VDEP-3 and detailed Analysis VDEP utilize the same vehicle sizing subprogram which includes a detailed mission analysis capability, as well as a geometry and weight analysis for multibodied configurations.

  20. The fish embryo toxicity test as a replacement for the larval growth and survival test: A comparison of test sensitivity and identification of alternative endpoints in zebrafish and fathead minnows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Marlo K Sellin; Stultz, Amy E; Smith, Austin W; Stephens, Dane A; Rawlings, Jane M; Belanger, Scott E; Oris, James T

    2015-06-01

    The fish embryo toxicity (FET) test has been proposed as an alternative to the larval growth and survival (LGS) test. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the sensitivity of the FET and LGS tests in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and zebrafish (Danio rerio) and to determine if the inclusion of sublethal metrics as test endpoints could enhance test utility. In both species, LGS and FET tests were conducted using 2 simulated effluents. A comparison of median lethal concentrations determined via each test revealed significant differences between test types; however, it could not be determined which test was the least and/or most sensitive. At the conclusion of each test, developmental abnormalities and the expression of genes related to growth and toxicity were evaluated. Fathead minnows and zebrafish exposed to mock municipal wastewater-treatment plant effluent in a FET test experienced an increased incidence of pericardial edema and significant alterations in the expression of genes including insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2, heat shock protein 70, and cytochrome P4501A, suggesting that the inclusion of these endpoints could enhance test utility. The results not only show the utility of the fathead minnow FET test as a replacement for the LGS test but also provide evidence that inclusion of additional endpoints could improve the predictive power of the FET test.

  1. The fish embryo toxicity test as a replacement for the larval growth and survival test: A comparison of test sensitivity and identification of alternative endpoints in zebrafish and fathead minnows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Marlo K Sellin; Stultz, Amy E; Smith, Austin W; Stephens, Dane A; Rawlings, Jane M; Belanger, Scott E; Oris, James T

    2015-06-01

    The fish embryo toxicity (FET) test has been proposed as an alternative to the larval growth and survival (LGS) test. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the sensitivity of the FET and LGS tests in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and zebrafish (Danio rerio) and to determine if the inclusion of sublethal metrics as test endpoints could enhance test utility. In both species, LGS and FET tests were conducted using 2 simulated effluents. A comparison of median lethal concentrations determined via each test revealed significant differences between test types; however, it could not be determined which test was the least and/or most sensitive. At the conclusion of each test, developmental abnormalities and the expression of genes related to growth and toxicity were evaluated. Fathead minnows and zebrafish exposed to mock municipal wastewater-treatment plant effluent in a FET test experienced an increased incidence of pericardial edema and significant alterations in the expression of genes including insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2, heat shock protein 70, and cytochrome P4501A, suggesting that the inclusion of these endpoints could enhance test utility. The results not only show the utility of the fathead minnow FET test as a replacement for the LGS test but also provide evidence that inclusion of additional endpoints could improve the predictive power of the FET test. PMID:25929752

  2. A rationally designed composite of alternating strata of Si nanoparticles and graphene: a high-performance lithium-ion battery anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fu; Huang, Kai; Qi, Xiang; Gao, Tian; Liu, Yuping; Zou, Xianghua; Wei, Xiaolin; Zhong, Jianxin

    2013-09-21

    We have successfully fabricated a free-standing Si-re-G (reduced graphene) alternating stratum structure composite through a repeated process of filtering liquid exfoliated graphene oxide and uniformly dispersed Si solution, followed by the reduction of graphene oxide. The as-prepared free-standing flexible alternating stratum structure composite was directly evaluated as the anode for rechargeable lithium half-cells without adding any polymer binder, conductive additives or using current collectors. The half cells based on this new alternating structure composite exhibit an unexpected capacity of 1500 mA h g(-1) after 100 cycles at 1.35 A g(-1). Our rationally proposed strategy has incorporated the long cycle life of carbon and the high lithium-storage capacity of Si into one entity using the feasible and scalable vacuum filtration technique, rendering this new protocol as a readily applicable means of addressing the practical application challenges associated with the next generation of rechargeable lithium-ion batteries.

  3. Alternative Splice in Alternative Lice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar-Corona, Jaime M; Castillo-Morales, Atahualpa; Chen, Lu; Olds, Brett P; Clark, John M; Reynolds, Stuart E; Pittendrigh, Barry R; Feil, Edward J; Urrutia, Araxi O

    2015-10-01

    Genomic and transcriptomics analyses have revealed human head and body lice to be almost genetically identical; although con-specific, they nevertheless occupy distinct ecological niches and have differing feeding patterns. Most importantly, while head lice are not known to be vector competent, body lice can transmit three serious bacterial diseases; epidemictyphus, trench fever, and relapsing fever. In order to gain insights into the molecular bases for these differences, we analyzed alternative splicing (AS) using next-generation sequencing data for one strain of head lice and one strain of body lice. We identified a total of 3,598 AS events which were head or body lice specific. Exon skipping AS events were overrepresented among both head and body lice, whereas intron retention events were underrepresented in both. However, both the enrichment of exon skipping and the underrepresentation of intron retention are significantly stronger in body lice compared with head lice. Genes containing body louse-specific AS events were found to be significantly enriched for functions associated with development of the nervous system, salivary gland, trachea, and ovarian follicle cells, as well as regulation of transcription. In contrast, no functional categories were overrepresented among genes with head louse-specific AS events. Together, our results constitute the first evidence for transcript pool differences in head and body lice, providing insights into molecular adaptations that enabled human lice to adapt to clothing, and representing a powerful illustration of the pivotal role AS can play in functional adaptation. PMID:26169943

  4. A top-down system engineering approach as an alternative to the tradiotinal over-the-bench methodology for the design of a building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bluyssen, P.M.; Oostra, M.A.R.; Böhms, H.M.

    2010-01-01

    The traditional over-the-bench methodology for the design of a building is resulting in failure costs, failures at delivery and severe problems. An interactive top-down approach is required, both for the communication process necessary to facilitate the design, construction, maintenance and operatio

  5. Computer Science and Technology: Modeling and Measurement Techniques for Evaluation of Design Alternatives in the Implementation of Database Management Software. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Donald R.

    This report describes a research effort that was carried out over a period of several years to develop and demonstrate a methodology for evaluating proposed Database Management System designs. The major proposition addressed by this study is embodied in the thesis statement: Proposed database management system designs can be evaluated best through…

  6. Comparison and analysis on two kinds of passive residual heat removal system designs under blackout accident for integral small modular reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small Modular Reactor (SMR) with an electric power less than 300MWe has gained much attention in recent years. By incorporating the safety-by-design and passive concept into the design process, SMRs have made a progress in meeting the safety demand of nuclear energy. There are many similar design features among integral pressurized water SMRs, and the differences are mainly on the design of PRHRS (Passive Residual Heat Removal System). To get a comprehensive understanding of the PRHRS design in SMRs, two simplified simulation models of integral SMR with different PRHRS design are built by the use of thermal hydraulic system code Relap5/Mod3.2 in this paper. A blackout accident is introduced to study the different performance between two PRHRS design models. The calculation results show that both two cases can successfully remove decay heat from the core, and could keep reactor safe for an elegant of time. But there are still some differences between two cases in aspects of primary and PRHRS coolant parameters. Comparisons of the results from two cases are conducted in this paper, and the differences are carefully analyzed too. The major finding is that in the primary side PRHRS design model, primary system parameters have an obvious turbulence at the early stage of accident. (author)

  7. Looking for an Alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Jack

    1999-01-01

    Argues that high school newspapers might do well to create stronger ties with alternative weeklies. Discusses issues of niche marketing, alternative content, and alternative presentation. Notes that high school papers could learn a lot from alternative newspapers. (SR)

  8. Experimental performance of ozone-safe alternative refrigerants: Experimental performance comparisons of R32, R125, R143a, R218, R134a, R152a, R124, R142b, RC318 and R143 in a refrigeration circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, James R.; Vineyard, Edward A.; Nowak, Richard J.

    1990-02-01

    Several compounds proposed as near term or longer range substitutes for the regulated chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) refrigerants were tested in a breadboard vapor-compression circuit, and their performance was evaluated relative to more commonly used refrigerants. The limited physical property information available in the literature for these alternative compounds was used to fit an equation of state so coefficients of performance (COPs) and capacities calculated from refrigerant property subroutines could be compared to those obtained experimentally. Comparisons of measured and modeled performance are given for 11 alternatives and for R22, R12, and R114. Estimates of compressor efficiency with each refrigerant are provided. Several of the alternatives exhibited better performance than the more widely used refrigerants at some or all of the conditions tested. Ozone-safe, alternative refrigerants that performed better than CFC counterparts at selected conditions are R152a, R143a, R134a, R134, and R142b.

  9. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 8: Open-cycle MHD. [energy conversion efficiency and design analysis of electric power plants employing magnetohydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, D. Q.

    1976-01-01

    Electric power plant costs and efficiencies are presented for three basic open-cycle MHD systems: (1) direct coal fired system, (2) a system with a separately fired air heater, and (3) a system burning low-Btu gas from an integrated gasifier. Power plant designs were developed corresponding to the basic cases with variation of major parameters for which major system components were sized and costed. Flow diagrams describing each design are presented. A discussion of the limitations of each design is made within the framework of the assumptions made.

  10. Simulated performance of CIEE's 'Alternatives to Compressive Cooling' prototype house under design conditions in various California climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yu Joe

    1999-12-01

    To support the design development of a compressorless house that does not rely on mechanical air-conditioning, the author carried out detailed computer analysis of a prototypical house design to determine the indoor thermal conditions during peak cooling periods for over 170 California locations. The peak cooling periods are five-day sequences at 2{percent} frequency determined through statistical analysis of long-term historical weather data. The DOE-2 program was used to simulate the indoor temperatures of the house under four operating options: windows closed, with mechanical ventilation, evaporatively-cooled mechanical ventilation, or a conventional 1 1/2-ton air conditioner. The study found that with a 1500 CFM mechanical ventilation system, the house design would maintain comfort under peak conditions in the San Francisco Bay Area out to Walnut Creek, but not beyond. In southern California, the same system and house design would maintain adequate comfort only along the coast. With the evaporatively-cooled ventilation system, the applicability of the house design can be extended to Fairfield and Livermore in northern California, but in southern California a larger 3000 CFM system would be needed to maintain comfort conditions over half of the greater Los Angeles area, the southern half of the Inland Empire, and most of San Diego county. With the 1 1/2-ton air conditioner, the proposed house design would perform satisfactorily through most of the state, except in the upper areas of the Central Valley and the hot desert areas in southern California. In terms of energy savings, the simulations showed that the prototypical house design would save from 0.20 to 0.43 in northern California, 0.20 to 0.53 in southern California, and 0.16 to 0.35 in the Central Valley, the energy used by the same house design built to Title-24 requirements.

  11. Standard errors and confidence intervals in within-subjects designs: Generalizing Loftus and Masson (1994) and avoiding the biases of alternative accounts

    OpenAIRE

    Franz, Volker H.; Loftus, Geoffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    Repeated measures designs are common in experimental psychology. Because of the correlational structure in these designs, the calculation and interpretation of confidence intervals is nontrivial. One solution was provided by Loftus and Masson (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 1:476–490, 1994). This solution, although widely adopted, has the limitation of implying same-size confidence intervals for all factor levels, and therefore does not allow for the assessment of variance homogeneity assumpti...

  12. Design and Implementation of MAC Address Comparison Burning Comparison Protocol Document%MAC地址烧录比对协议文件的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗许练

    2012-01-01

    PC-board network card on the MAC address of burn,the burn must be guaranteed with a global unique MAC address.Before burning the MAC address to a computer motherboard,need to compare the MAC address will burn and the MAC address database of the server.Whether the comparison protocol document is excellent or inferior,will directly determine the global uniqueness of the MAC address burn to the computer motherboard.%对电脑主板集成网卡进行MAC地址烧录时,必须保证烧录的MAC地址具有全球唯一性。MAC地址烧录到电脑主板前,需对烧录的MAC地址与服务器上的MAC地址库进行比对。比对协议文件的优劣,将直接决定烧录到电脑主板中的MAC地址的全球唯一性。

  13. Design Concept for a Minimal Volume Spacecraft Cabin to Serve as a Mars Ascent Vehicle Cabin and Other Alternative Pressurized Vehicle Cabins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Robert L., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    The Evolvable Mars Campaign is developing concepts for human missions to the surface of Mars. These missions are round-trip expeditions, thereby requiring crew launch via a Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV). A study to identify the smallest possible pressurized cabin for this mission has developed a conceptual vehicle referred to as the minimal MAV cabin. The origin of this concept will be discussed as well as its initial concept definition. This will lead to a description of possible configurations to integrate the minimal MAV cabin with ascent vehicle engines and propellant tanks. Limitations of this concept will be discussed, in particular those that argue against the use of the minimal MAV cabin to perform the MAV mission. However, several potential alternative uses for the cabin are identified. Finally, recommended forward work will be discussed, including current work in progress to develop a full scale mockup and conduct usability evaluations.

  14. AUTOMATIC GLUCOSE INSULIN REGULATION SYSTEM-COMPARISON OF EMBEDDED CONTROL DESIGN AND HARR WAVELET METHOD FOR TYPE-1 DIABETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Arangasamy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is aimed to inject insulin for type 1 diabetes using pumping the insulin with respect to meal disturbance. We have used the embedded linear parameter varying methodology controller and the final results were compared with the Harr wavelet mathematical values. In this article, there are three things we need to focus. First is the sensor values which is to be monitored from the sensors and next is the lab information. Depending on the patients test details the insulin has to be injected. The comparison of lab details with the Patients current sensor values play a vital role in determining the insulin level for a patient. Finally the feedback has to be obtained with the help of those comparisons and it has to be sent once again as a loop to the controller for later comparison and also for database information. The embedded controller is the key element for updating all the information about the patient and it will control all the parameters of the board. The experimental results shows that the proposed method has much better potential in terms of solution accuracy as 97% and better convergence speed in comparison with Haar Wavelet Model which proved 89.09% of accuracy of the assured values of our experiments.

  15. Comparison of Ambient Noise From Two Station Designs, Evaluating USArray's Transportable and Flexible Arrays in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, M.; Alvarez, M.; Woodward, R.; Yang, Z.

    2009-12-01

    The USArray program within the National Science Foundation-funded Earthscope program is comprised of two portable broadband seismic projects; the Transportable Array (TA), and the Flexible Array (FA). The TA consists of 400 stations occupy locations within the United States on a nominal 70 km spacing for a period of approximately 24 months. As a network, these TA stations roll from west to east so that within 10 years the entire lower 48 states will have been occupied by the TA network. As a complementary component of USArray, the FA pool of instruments is comprised of 1200 active-source, 120 short-period and 326 broadband portable stations. These instruments are used by Principal Investigator-driven studies which focus on geologic targets within the TA footprint. Currently the TA network is transitioning from the Rocky Mountains into the Great Plains. The FA currently has four experiments installed. In this study we quantify the overall performance of these two tandem networks using a controlled set of continuous recordings in Western Washington. We compare the background noise levels between the standard deep TA and shallow FA broadband sensor vault system. We use McNamara’s probability density function (PDF) analysis as the basis of the comparison. We combine the network wide PDF’s of each network for a period of over 600 days of contemporaneous recordings. Preliminary analysis using data from 28 TA stations in western Washington and 47 nearby FA stations from the CAFE experiment (Abers, et al. Eos Trans. AGU 88(52), Fall Meet. Suppl. S43D-07), show that the TA stations are quieter at periods below 20 seconds by about 12 dB on the horizontal components. The vertical components for both the TA and FA are equivalent for periods below 5 seconds. At higher frequencies (> 2 Hz), however, the FA shallower vault is quieter by approximately 10 dB on both the vertical and horizontal components. The question addressed is, what is contributing to the difference in

  16. Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Richard; Cross, Nigel; Durling, David; Nelson, Harold; Owen, Charles; Valtonen, Anna; Boling, Elizabeth; Gibbons, Andrew; Visscher-Voerman, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of design were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Richard Buchanan, Nigel Cross, David Durling, Harold Nelson, Charles Owen, and Anna Valtonen. Scholars…

  17. Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volf, Mette

    2009-01-01

    Design - proces og metode går bag om designerens arbejde og giver et indblik i den skabelsesproces, som designeren er involveret i. Bogen er enestående, fordi den fokuserer på processens flygtige og komplekse karakter, afmystificerer den og gør den operationel - uden at fjerne dens magi. Ud over...

  18. Alternate fusion concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review summarizes the status of alternate fusion concepts and plans for their future. The concepts selected for review are those employing electromagnetic confinement for which there have been reasonable predictions of net energy gain from pure fusion and which have shown significant recent development or are the subjects of ongoing international activity. They include advanced tokamaks, stellarators, the spherical torus, reversed-field pinch and dense z-field pinch devices, field reversed configuration, and spheromaks. In addition, an overall view of the status of each concept with respect to achieving ignition and to reactor designs is presented

  19. Lessons from a randomised experiment with mixed-mode designs for a household panel survey

    OpenAIRE

    Lynn, Peter; Uhrig, S.C. Noah; Burton, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a randomised experiment with mixed-mode survey designs in the context of a household panel survey. The experiment was designed to allow comparisons between two alternative mixed-mode designs (telephone interviewing plus face-to-face interviewing) and a unimode design (face-to-face interviewing only) in terms of response rates, sample composition, costs and other key outcomes, as well as to permit assessment of the feasibility of implementing the mixed-mode designs.

  20. An alternative policy evaluation of the British Columbia carbon tax: broadening the application of Elinor Ostrom's design principles for managing common-pool resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Lacroix

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is putting infrastructure, food supply, water resources, ecosystems, and human health at risk. These risks will be exacerbated depending on the degree of additional greenhouse gas emissions. Urgent action is needed to limit the severity of impacts associated with further warming. British Columbia (BC has taken action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from carbon-based fuels by introducing a carbon tax in 2008. As an innovative approach to climate change mitigation, especially in North America, studies evaluating its effectiveness are valuable. We assessed the long-term viability potential of the BC carbon tax using common pool resource design principles, a novel application of the design principles to environmental policy. We found that the design principles can be applied productively to environmental policy and larger scale air pollution problems. With regard to the BC carbon tax, our findings suggest that closer monitoring of user behavior, further increases of the tax over time, and pursuing efforts for a more elaborate system of nested enterprises and interjurisdictional cooperation could increase the long-term success of the BC carbon tax. We also found that the design principles allowed us to more comprehensively reach conclusions regarding the broader effectiveness of the tax when compared to existing policy analysis. Traditionally, climate policy evaluation has focused on the end goal without considering broader constraints and issues of resource allocation. We suggest that common pool resource theory, which is based on strong theoretical principles and encourages reflexivity, will be able to address those limitations.

  1. Strengthening Local Administration of Vocational Education through Design, Implementation and Evaluation of Alternative Delivery Systems for Use by Coordinating Councils. Final Report. Volume One.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Joe D.; And Others

    The purpose of this project was to design six models for the operation of vocational and adult education and community instructional services coordinating councils that would be adaptable to all 28 Florida community colleges. Surveys were made of all 28 councils and from the analyses six representative sites were selected in which to develop and…

  2. Alternation of Generations and Experimental Design: A Guided-Inquiry Lab Exploring the Nature of the "her1" Developmental Mutant of "Ceratopteris richardii" (C-Fern)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiro, Mark D.; Knisely, Karin I.

    2008-01-01

    Inquiry-based labs have been shown to greatly increase student participation and learning within the biological sciences. One challenge is to develop effective lab exercises within the constraints of large introductory labs. We have designed a lab for first-year biology majors to address two primary goals: to provide effective learning of the…

  3. Alternative Energy Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Michaelides, Efstathios E (Stathis)

    2012-01-01

    Alternative Energy Sources is designed to give the reader, a clear view of the role each form of alternative energy may play in supplying the energy needs of the human society in the near and intermediate future (20-50 years).   The two first chapters on energy demand and supply and environmental effects, set the tone as to why the widespread use of alternative energy is essential for the future of human society. The third chapter exposes the reader to the laws of energy conversion processes, as well as the limitations of converting one energy form to another. The sections on exergy give a succinct, quantitative background on the capability/potential of each energy source to produce power on a global scale. The fourth, fifth and sixth chapters are expositions of fission and fusion nuclear energy. The following five chapters (seventh to eleventh) include detailed descriptions of the most common renewable energy sources – wind, solar, geothermal, biomass, hydroelectric – and some of the less common sources...

  4. Comparison and Assessment of a Multiple Optimal Coordinated Design Based on PSS and the STATCOM Device for Damping Power System Oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Hussain

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to present a comprehensive comparison and assessment of the damping function improvement for the multiple damping stabilizers using the simultaneously coordinated design based on Power System Stabilizer (PSS and Static synchronous Compensator (STATCOM. In electrical power system, the STATCOM device is used to support bus voltage by compensating reactive power; it is also capable of enhancing the stability of the power system by the adding a supplementary damping stabilizer to the internal AC or DC voltage control channel of the STATCOM inputs to serve as a Power Oscillation Damping (POD controller. Simultaneous coordination can be performed in different ways. First, the dual-coordinated design between PSS and STATCOM AC-POD stabilizer or DC-POD stabilizer is used. Then, coordination between the AC and DC STATCOM-based POD stabilizers are arranged in a single STATCOM device without PSS. Second, the coordinated design has been extended to triple multiple stabilizers among PSS, the AC-based POD and the DC-based POD in a Single Machine Infinite Bus (SMIB. The parameters of the multiple stabilizers have been tuned in the coordinated design by using a Chaotic Particle Swarm Optimization (CPSO algorithm that optimized the given eigenvalue-based objective function. The simulation results show that the dual-coordinated design provide satisfactory damping performance over the individual control responses. Furthermore, the-triple coordinated design has been shown to be more effective in damping oscillations than the dual damping stabilizers.

  5. 智能斜极面交流接触器动态优化设计与分析%Dynamic Optimization Design and Analysis for Intelligent Inclined Surface Alternating Current Contactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍光海; 张培铭

    2011-01-01

    采用ANSYS电磁场分析软件与基于遗传算法的人工鱼群优化算法对智能平极面交流接触器进行以快速分断、提高零电流分断准确性与稳定性为目标的动态优化计算,并验证了优化算法的正确性.考虑到斜极面交流电磁系统的优越性,对平极面交流接触器与斜极面交流接触器静态特性进行比较分析,提出了智能斜极面交流接触器的结构方案.根据上述优化算法,对智能斜极面交流接触器进行了智能动态优化设计.优化结果表明:智能斜极面交流接触器与智能平极面交流接触器相比,其用铜量减小45%,用铁量减小23%,而且具有更好的动态特性、更高的零电流分断准确性与稳定性.%We conducted dynamic optimized calculation of electromagnetic mechanism for the goal of breaking quickly and zero current break stability by using artificial fish swarm optimization algorithm based on genetic algorithm, and verifies the validity of optimization algorithm. According to the advantage of inclined surface alternating current contactor, the proposal of intelligent inclined surface alternating current contactor was proposed. The method of intelligent dynamic optimization design was used to optimization design the intelligent inclined surface alternating current contactor base on the previous optimized algorithm. The optimization results showed that the coil volume of intelligent incline surface alternating current contactor decrease 45% than that of flat surface,and the iron core volume decrease 23 %. Moreover, its dynamic characteristics were better than those of intelligent flat surface alternating current contactor.

  6. Effect of the Experimental Design in Automatic Attention Shift Studies : A Comparison of Constant vs. Randmized Stimulus Onset Asynchrony (SOA)

    OpenAIRE

    Yuri, HASHIMOTO; Narisuke, Utsuki

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared two experimental designs used in response time (RT) studies: constant and randomized stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA). Both designs are commonly used in studies of automatic attention shifts. The results revealed that RTs at SOAs of 105 ms and 300 ms with a randomized SOA design were significantly longer than with a constant SOA design. The RT gain (i.e. RTs to uncued stimuli minus RTs to cued stimuli) measured in the constant SOA method was maximal when the SOA was ...

  7. Comparison of blocked and event-related fMRI designs for pre-surgical language mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Tie, Yanmei; Suarez, Ralph O.; Whalen, Stephen; Radmanesh, Alireza; Norton, Isaiah H.; Golby, Alexandra J.

    2008-01-01

    Language functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a promising non-invasive technique for pre-surgical planning in patients whose lesions are adjacent to or within critical language areas. Most language fMRI studies in patients use blocked experimental design. In this study, we compared a blocked design and a rapid event-related design with a jittered inter-stimulus-interval (ISI) (or stochastic design) for language fMRI in six healthy controls, and eight brain tumor patients, using a v...

  8. Estimating the upper limit of gas production from Class 2 hydrate accumulations in the permafrost: 2. Alternative well designs and sensitivity analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moridis, G.; Reagan, M.T.

    2011-01-15

    In the second paper of this series, we evaluate two additional well designs for production from permafrost-associated (PA) hydrate deposits. Both designs are within the capabilities of conventional technology. We determine that large volumes of gas can be produced at high rates (several MMSCFD) for long times using either well design. The production approach involves initial fluid withdrawal from the water zone underneath the hydrate-bearing layer (HBL). The production process follows a cyclical pattern, with each cycle composed of two stages: a long stage (months to years) of increasing gas production and decreasing water production, and a short stage (days to weeks) that involves destruction of the secondary hydrate (mainly through warm water injection) that evolves during the first stage, and is followed by a reduction in the fluid withdrawal rate. A well configuration with completion throughout the HBL leads to high production rates, but also the creation of a secondary hydrate barrier around the well that needs to be destroyed regularly by water injection. However, a configuration that initially involves heating of the outer surface of the wellbore and later continuous injection of warm water at low rates (Case C) appears to deliver optimum performance over the period it takes for the exhaustion of the hydrate deposit. Using Case C as the standard, we determine that gas production from PA hydrate deposits increases with the fluid withdrawal rate, the initial hydrate saturation and temperature, and with the formation permeability.

  9. The alternative strategy for designing covalent drugs through kinetic effects of pi-stacking on the self-assembled nanoparticles: a model study with antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Libo; Suo, Siqingaowa; Zhang, Han; Jia, Hongying; Liu, Ke Jian; Zhang, Xue Ji; Liu, Yang

    2016-11-01

    It is still a huge challenge to find a new strategy for rationally designing covalent drugs because most of them are discovered by serendipity. Considering that the effect of covalent drugs is closely associated with the kinetics of the reaction between drug molecule and its target protein, here we first demonstrate an example of the kinetic effect of pi-stacking of drug molecules on covalent antimicrobial drug design. When PEGylated 7-aminocephalosporanic acid (PEG-ACA) is used as a substrate drug, pi-stacking of the ACA group via the self-assembly of PEG-ACA on the surface of gold nanoparticles (i.e. Au@ACA) exhibits antibacterial activity against E. coli fourfold higher than a PEG-ACA monomer does. The reason can be reasonably attributed to the kinetic rate enhancement for the covalent reaction between Au@ACA and penicillin binding proteins. We believe that the self-assembly of functional groups onto the surface of gold nanoparticles represents a new strategy for covalent drug design.

  10. A direct comparison of infants' use of featural and spatiotemporal information when individuating objects in a non-occlusion event monitoring design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøjgaard, Peter

    2006-01-01

    -of-expectation strategy, the present study reports a comparison of 8.0-, 6.5-, and 5.0-month-old infants' use of featural and spatiotemporal information in an event monitoring design. Using a mirror setup the memory demands was minimized, because all apparent changes in the unexpected test events took place in full view...... of the infants. The results indicate that while 8.0-, and 6.5-month-old infants individuated objects successfully regardless of whether they were provided with featural or spatiotemporal information, only the 5-month-old infants provided with spatiotemporal information succeeded. The results are discussed...

  11. 采用有限元法设计电磁成形的非均匀线圈%Alternative flat coil design for electromagnetic forming using FEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.AHMED; S.K.PANTHI; N.RAMAKRISHNAN; A.K.JHA; A.H.YEGNESWARAN; R.DASGUPTA; S.AHMED

    2011-01-01

    电磁成形是一种使用脉冲电磁力快速成形的工艺.线圈是电磁成形系统中的一个重要组成部分,需要根据实际应用情况来设计.均匀螺旋线圈通常用在金属板材零件成形中.然而,对于这类非均匀线圈,工件中心部位的电磁力弱,从而导致变形不充分并且还有其它问题出现,如滞留气泡.因此,提出一个设计非均匀线圈的概念,以便电磁力的分布更均匀.采用有限元法对提出的非均匀线圈与传统的均匀螺旋线圈就电磁力的分布、磁场和电流密度进行比较.结果表明,非均匀线圈的电磁力分布更均匀.还计算了线圈的感应强度并进行了比较.%Electromagnetic forming (EMF) is a high velocity forming process that uses impulse magnetic force. Coil is an important component of EMF system which needs to be designed depending on application. Flat spiral coils are generally used for electromagnetic forming of sheet metals. However,with this type of coil the central portion of the workpiece experiences marginal magnetic force. This leads to in-sufficient deformation at this portion and other problems like air entrapment. In this study,a conceptual design of flat coil was proposed for better distribution of magnetic forces over the workpiece. Comparative analysis of distribution of magnetic force,magnetic field and current density using the proposed and the existing coil designs were carried out using FEM. The result indicates that the proposed coil design produces comparatively better magnetic force distribution over the

  12. Experimental Study and Comparison of Various Designs of Gas Flow Fields to PEM Fuel Cells and Cell Stack Performance

    OpenAIRE

    PeiwenLi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a significant number of experimental tests to proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells were conducted to investigate the effect of gas flow fields on fuel cell performance. Graphite plates with various flow field or flow channel designs, from literature survey and also novel designs by the authors, were used for the PEM fuel cell assembly. The fabricated fuel cells have an effective membrane area of 23.5 cm2. The results showed that the serpentine flow channel design is still ...

  13. Design study of the large hadron electron collider and a rapid cycling synchrotron as alternative to the PS booster upgrade at CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitterer, Miriam

    2013-02-22

    With the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) the exploration of particle physics at center of mass energies at the TeV scale has begun. To extend the discovery potential of the LHC, a major upgrade is foreseen around 2020 of the LHC itself and the LHC injectors - the chain of accelerators preparing the beam for the LHC. One of the injectors - the second one in the chain - is the Proton Synchrotron (PS) Booster. Its performance is currently limited by the space-charge effect, which is the effect of the electromagnetic field of the particle beam on itself. This effect becomes weaker with higher energy, and therefore an energy upgrade of the PS Booster to 2 GeV maximum beam energy is foreseen. As the PS Booster is with its 40 years already an old machine, the construction of a new accelerator, a Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS), to replace the PS Booster has been proposed. In this thesis different options for the beam guidance in the RCS - referred to as lattice and optics - are studied, followed by a more general comparison of different lattices and optics and their performance under consideration of the space-charge effect. To further complement the LHC physics program, also the possibility of deep inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering at the LHC has been suggested, referred to as Large Hadron Electron Collider (LHeC). In this case the proton beam of the LHC collides with the electron beam, which is accelerated in a separate newly built machine. Two options are considered as electron accelerator: a new energy recovery linac - the Linac-Ring option - and the installation of an electron ring in the existing LHC tunnel - the Ring-Ring option. One of the main challenges of the Ring-Ring option is the integration of the electron ring in the current LHC tunnel. A layout, lattice and optics of the electron accelerator is developed in this thesis, which meets the requirements with regard to integration and reaches the beam parameters demanded by the particle physics experiments.

  14. Comparison of radiometric scaling laws and detailed wave-optics simulations for designing ground-based laser satellite-illumination and receiver systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Keith A.

    2002-12-01

    Ground-based optical transmitter and receiver systems designed for active imaging, active tracking and laser ranging of satellites in Earth orbit are very sensitive to physical conditions limiting the radiometric returns for achieving these measurements. The initial design of these systems is often based on simple radiometric scaling laws that provide estimates of average radiometric returns and are derived from experimental data or from more complex theoretical calculations. While these laws are quite useful, it is often easy to lose sight of the initial assumptions made in their formulation, and hence, the limits of their accuracy for designing certain systems. The objective of this paper is to review some of the commonly used radiometric scaling laws for active systems and to establish guidelines for their use based on comparisons of their predictions with results from detailed wave-optics simulations for different system design requirements and physical conditions. The combined effects of laser and transmitter beam parameters, wave-front aberrations, atmospheric turbulence, and satellite optical cross-section are considered.

  15. NASA Alternative Aviation Fuel Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Thornhill, K. L., II; Moore, R.; Shook, M.; Winstead, E.; Ziemba, L. D.; Crumeyrolle, S.

    2015-12-01

    We present an overview of research conducted by NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate to evaluate the performance and emissions of "drop-in" alternative jet fuels, highlighting experiment design and results from the Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiments (AAFEX-I & -II) and Alternative Fuel-Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions flight series (ACCESS-I & II). These projects included almost 100 hours of sampling exhaust emissions from the NASA DC-8 aircraft in both ground and airborne operation and at idle to takeoff thrust settings. Tested fuels included Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthetic kerosenes manufactured from coal and natural-gas feedstocks; Hydro-treated Esters and Fatty-Acids (HEFA) fuels made from beef-tallow and camelina-plant oil; and 50:50 blends of these alternative fuels with Jet A. Experiments were also conducted with FT and Jet A fuels doped with tetrahydrothiophene to examine the effects of fuel sulfur on volatile aerosol and contrail formation and microphysical properties. Results indicate that although the absence of aromatic compounds in the alternative fuels caused DC-8 fuel-system leaks, the fuels did not compromise engine performance or combustion efficiency. And whereas the alternative fuels produced only slightly different gas-phase emissions, dramatic reductions in non-volatile particulate matter (nvPM) emissions were observed when burning the pure alternative fuels, particularly at low thrust settings where particle number and mass emissions were an order of magnitude lower than measured from standard jet fuel combustion; 50:50 blends of Jet A and alternative fuels typically reduced nvPM emissions by ~50% across all thrust settings. Alternative fuels with the highest hydrogen content produced the greatest nvPM reductions. For Jet A and fuel blends, nvPM emissions were positively correlated with fuel aromatic and naphthalene content. Fuel sulfur content regulated nucleation mode aerosol number and mass concentrations within aging

  16. Comparison of designs of off-axis Gregorian telescopes for millimeter-wave large focal-plane arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanany, Shaul; Marrone, Daniel P

    2002-08-01

    We compare the diffraction-limited field of view (FOV) provided by four types of off-axis Gregorian telescopes: the classical Gregorian, the aplanatic Gregorian, and the designs that cancel astigmatism and both astigmatism and coma. The analysis is carried out with telescope parameters that are appropriate for satellite and balloonborne millimeter- and submillimeter-wave astrophysics. We find that the design that cancels both coma and astigmatism provides the largest flat FOV, approximately 21 square deg. We also find that the FOV can be increased by approximately 15% by means of optimizing the shape and location of the focal surface.

  17. A comparison of designs of off-axis Gregorian telescopes for mm-wave large focal plane arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Hanany, S; Hanany, Shaul; Marrone, Daniel P.

    2002-01-01

    We compare the diffraction-limited field of view (FOV) provided by four types of off-axis Gregorian telescopes: the classical Gregorian, the aplanatic Gregorian, and designs that cancel astigmatism and both astigmatism and coma. The analysis is carried out using telescope parameters that are appropriate for satellite and balloon-borne millimeter and sub-millimeter wave astrophysics. We find that the design that cancels both coma and astigmatism provides the largest flat FOV, about 21 square degrees. We also find that the FOV can be increased by about 15% by optimizing the shape and location of the focal surface.

  18. Work Design and Older Workers: A Qualitative Comparison Between two Established Models in a Norwegian Knowledge-Intensive Company

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is twofold. First to compare an inductive (bottom-up) approach against two established models of work design; Herzberg et al.’s motivation-hygiene theory (HRZ) and Wilson et al.’s healthy work organization model (WIL). Second, to suggest work characteristics to be included in a life-span model of work design accounting for older workers and their needs. The subjects (N=11) were employees (age 60+) in a large Norwegian knowledge-intensive company. Interviews were semi-str...

  19. A comparison of recent full-scale component fatigue data with the ASME Section III fatigue design curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper compares recent data developed in three separate programs, two conducted at Battelle-Columbus and the other at Oak Ridge National Laboratories, to the ASME Section III fatigue design rules. Each set of data involve cyclically loaded ''unflawed'' girth welds in which the number of cycles required to produce a leak was less, and in some cases significantly less, than what one would expect based on the design curves. All sets of data were generated at ambient temperature, in an inert environment such that any environmental effects should be minimal. This study is relevant for light water reactors

  20. Comparison of designs of off-axis Gregorian telescopes for millimeter-wave large focal-plane arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanany, Shaul; Marrone, Daniel P

    2002-08-01

    We compare the diffraction-limited field of view (FOV) provided by four types of off-axis Gregorian telescopes: the classical Gregorian, the aplanatic Gregorian, and the designs that cancel astigmatism and both astigmatism and coma. The analysis is carried out with telescope parameters that are appropriate for satellite and balloonborne millimeter- and submillimeter-wave astrophysics. We find that the design that cancels both coma and astigmatism provides the largest flat FOV, approximately 21 square deg. We also find that the FOV can be increased by approximately 15% by means of optimizing the shape and location of the focal surface. PMID:12153101

  1. Wind characterization for design and comparison with standards, an example from Lyse at the Swedish west coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganander, H. [Teknikgruppen AB, Sollentuna (Sweden); Carlen, I. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Div. of Building Technology; Bergstroem, H. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology

    1996-12-01

    The Lyse site at the Swedish west coast is an area with an archipelago of rocky islands to the west and an equally rocky mainland to the east. In between there are some open sea areas. As being the responsible project manager for the erection and the operation of a turbine at a site like Lyse, the question arises about characterization of the wind for design or purchase of a wind turbine. Or in other words what wind turbine class has to be used for the design, according to existing standards like for example IEC-1400 ? 3 refs, 10 figs

  2. Comparison of the marginal fit of different coping materials and designs produced by computer aided manufacturing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karataşli, Ozge; Kursoğlu, Pinar; Capa, Nuray; Kazazoğlu, Ender

    2011-01-01

    In this study, marginal adaptations of different copings fabricated with CAD/CAM or MAD/CAM were analysed. Celay and Zirkonzahn groups were fabricated by MAD/CAM, LAVA and DC-Zircon groups were fabricated by CAD/CAM. Casting metal copings were used as the control group. An implant abutment that was embedded in octagonal acrylic block was used to prepare the copings. Sixteen previously established points were marked and the measurements were performed with the stereomicroscope (at × 150). The marginal fit of the samples were evaluated by calculating the mean measurements of each 16 points. The statistical analysis was performed by Tukey multiple comparisons test at 95% confidence interval. The groups can be summarized as follows in terms of marginal gap, from the lowest to highest: LAVA (24.6 ± 14.0 µm)CAD/CAM or MAD/CAM systems may not be the most important factor for marginal adaptation. PMID:21282881

  3. Calculation of neutron and gamma-ray energy spectra for fusion reactor shield design: comparison with Experiment II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measured and calculated neutron and gamma-ray energy spectra resulting from the transport of approx. 14 MeV neutrons through a 0.30-m-thick lithium hydride slab and through a 0.05-m-thick lead slab followed by 0.30 m of lithium hydride are compared. Also reported are comparisons of the measured and calculated neutron energy spectra behind an 0.80-m-thick assembly comprised of stainless steel type 304 and borated polyethylene. The spatial dependence of the gamma-ray energy deposition rate measured using thermoluminescent detectors is compared with calculated data. The calculated data obtained using two-dimensional radiation transport methods and ENDF/B-IV cross section data are in good agreement for all of the experimental configurations

  4. A Comparison of Model-Based and Design-Based Impact Evaluations of Interventions in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Klejnstrup, Ninja Ritter; Andersen, Ole Winckler

    2013-01-01

    There is a long-standing debate as to whether nonexperimental estimators of causal effects of social programs can overcome selection bias. Most existing reviews either are inconclusive or point to significant selection biases in nonexperimental studies. However, many of the reviews, the so......-called between-studies, do not make direct comparisons of the estimates. We survey four impact studies, all using data from development interventions that directly compare experimental and nonexperimental impact estimates. Our review illustrates that when the program participation process is well understood, and...... correctly modeled, then the nonexperimental estimators can overcome the selection bias to the same degree as randomized controlled trials. Hence, we suggest that evaluators of development programs aim to be careful and precise in the formulation of the statistical model for the assignment into the program...

  5. Designing nanobowl arrays of mesoporous TiO2 as an alternative electron transporting layer for carbon cathode-based perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaoli; Wei, Zhanhua; Chen, Haining; Zhang, Qianpeng; He, Hexiang; Xiao, Shuang; Fan, Zhiyong; Wong, Kam Sing; Yang, Shihe

    2016-03-01

    In this work, we have designed a mesoporous TiO2 nanobowl (NB) array with pore size, bowl size and film thickness being easily controllable by the sol-gel process and the polystyrene (PS) template diameter. Based on the TiO2 NB array, we fabricated carbon cathode based perovskite solar cells (C-PSCs) to investigate the impact of TiO2 NB nanostructures on the performance of the as-obtained C-PSCs devices. As expected, the TiO2 NB based devices show a higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) than that of the planar counterpart, mainly due to the enhanced light absorption arising from the NB-assisted light management, the improved pore-filling of high quality perovskite crystals and the increased interface contact for rapid electron extraction and fast charge transport. Leveraging these advantages of the novel TiO2 NB film, the 220 nm-PS templated TiO2 NB based devices performed the best on both light absorption capability and charge extraction, and achieved a PCE up to 12.02% with good stability, which is 37% higher than that of the planar counterpart. These results point to a viable and convenient route toward the fabrication of TiO2 ETL nanostructures for high performance PSCs.In this work, we have designed a mesoporous TiO2 nanobowl (NB) array with pore size, bowl size and film thickness being easily controllable by the sol-gel process and the polystyrene (PS) template diameter. Based on the TiO2 NB array, we fabricated carbon cathode based perovskite solar cells (C-PSCs) to investigate the impact of TiO2 NB nanostructures on the performance of the as-obtained C-PSCs devices. As expected, the TiO2 NB based devices show a higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) than that of the planar counterpart, mainly due to the enhanced light absorption arising from the NB-assisted light management, the improved pore-filling of high quality perovskite crystals and the increased interface contact for rapid electron extraction and fast charge transport. Leveraging these

  6. Nuclear materials: Alternatives for relocating Rocky Flats Plant's plutonium operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major operational problems in a plutonium-processing building at the Department of Energy's Rocky Flats Plant near Denver, Colorado, have existed since the building became operational in 1981. High estimated costs have been associated with repairing the building and potential risks have been associated with the plant's proximity to a major metropolitan center. Four alternatives have been identified for relocating plutonium processing that would cost between about $200 million and $600 million. These alternatives would require between 4 and 10 years to implement, including design, construction and/or alterations and startup. This is in comparison to an estimated cost of about $300 million to repair building 371 at the Rocky Flats Plant and an implementation period of 8 years. The alternative that addresses fabrication operations, the major contributor to safety and health risks at Rocky Flats is to relocate all Rocky Flats plutonium operations. This would cost over $4 billion and take as long as 24 years. On a cost basis alone, this alternative does not appear justified

  7. Study on Alternative Cargo Launch Options from the Lunar Surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheryl A. Blomberg; Zamir A. Zulkefli; Spencer W. Rich; Steven D. Howe

    2013-07-01

    In the future, there will be a need for constant cargo launches from Earth to Mars in order to build, and then sustain, a Martian base. Currently, chemical rockets are used for space launches. These are expensive and heavy due to the amount of necessary propellant. Nuclear thermal rockets (NTRs) are the next step in rocket design. Another alternative is to create a launcher on the lunar surface that uses magnetic levitation to launch cargo to Mars in order to minimize the amount of necessary propellant per mission. This paper investigates using nuclear power for six different cargo launching alternatives, as well as the orbital mechanics involved in launching cargo to a Martian base from the moon. Each alternative is compared to the other alternative launchers, as well as compared to using an NTR instead. This comparison is done on the basis of mass that must be shipped from Earth, the amount of necessary propellant, and the number of equivalent NTR launches. Of the options, a lunar coil launcher had a ship mass that is 12.7% less than the next best option and 17 NTR equivalent launches, making it the best of the presented six options.

  8. DFM in practice: results of a three way partnership between a leading fabless design house, foundry, and EDA company to implement alternating-phase shift mask (Alt-PSM) on a 90-nm FPGA chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chun-Chi; Shieh, Ming-Feng; Liu, Erick; Lin, Benjamin; Lin, Henry; Chacko, Manoj; Li, Xiaoyang; Lei, Wen-Kang; Ho, Jonathan; Wu, Xin

    2005-05-01

    At the sub 90nm nodes, resolution enhancement techniques (RETs) such as optical proximity correction (OPC), phase-shifting masks (PSM), sub-resolution assist features (SRAF) have become essential steps in the post-physical verification 'Mask Synthesis' process and a key component of design for manufacturing (DFM). Several studies have been conducted and the results have been published on the implication and application of the different types of RETs on mask printability and costs. More specifically, double-exposure-based, dark-field, alternating PSM (Alt-PSM) technology has received lot of attention with respect to the mask manufacturing challenges and its implementation into a production flow, despite its yield and critical dimension (CD) control superiority. Implementation of Alt-PSM generally requires phase compliance rules and proper phase topology in the layout and this has been successful for the technology node with these rules implemented. However, this may not be true for a matured, production process technology, in this case 90 nm. Especially, in the foundry-fabless business model where the foundry provides a standard set of design rules to its customers for a given process technology, and where not all the foundry customers require Alt-PSM in their tapeout flow. What follows is an in-depth review of the DFM challenges to each partner faced, its effect on the tapeout flow, and how design, manufacturing, and EDA teams worked together to resolve phase conflicts, tapeout the chip, and finally verify the silicon results in production.

  9. Best estimate method versus evaluation method: a comparison of two techniques in evaluating seismic analysis and design. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of how two techniques, Best Estimate Method and Evaluation Method, may be applied to the tradditional seismic analysis and design of a nuclear power plant is introduced. Only the four links of the seismic analysis and design methodology chain (SMC)--seismic input, soil-structure interaction, major structural response, and subsystem response--are considered. The objective is to evaluate the compounding of conservatisms in the seismic analysis and design of nuclear power plants, to provide guidance for judgments in the SMC, and to concentrate the evaluation on that part of the seismic analysis and design which is familiar to the engineering community. An example applies the effects of three-dimensional excitations on the model of a nuclear power plant structure. The example demonstrates how conservatisms accrue by coupling two links in the SMC and comparing those results to the effects of one link alone. The utility of employing the Best Estimate Method vs the Evauation Method is also demonstrated

  10. Optimal Design for Reactivity Ratio Estimation: A Comparison of Techniques for AMPS/Acrylamide and AMPS/Acrylic Acid Copolymerizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison J. Scott

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Water-soluble polymers of acrylamide (AAm and acrylic acid (AAc have significant potential in enhanced oil recovery, as well as in other specialty applications. To improve the shear strength of the polymer, a third comonomer, 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid (AMPS, can be added to the pre-polymerization mixture. Copolymerization kinetics of AAm/AAc are well studied, but little is known about the other comonomer pairs (AMPS/AAm and AMPS/AAc. Hence, reactivity ratios for AMPS/AAm and AMPS/AAc copolymerization must be established first. A key aspect in the estimation of reliable reactivity ratios is design of experiments, which minimizes the number of experiments and provides increased information content (resulting in more precise parameter estimates. However, design of experiments is hardly ever used during copolymerization parameter estimation schemes. In the current work, copolymerization experiments for both AMPS/AAm and AMPS/AAc are designed using two optimal techniques (Tidwell-Mortimer and the error-in-variables-model (EVM. From these optimally designed experiments, accurate reactivity ratio estimates are determined for AMPS/AAm (rAMPS = 0.18, rAAm = 0.85 and AMPS/AAc (rAMPS = 0.19, rAAc = 0.86.

  11. A Biomechanical Comparison of Expansive Pedicle Screws for Severe Osteoporosis: The Effects of Screw Design and Cement Augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Ching-Lung; Tsai, Tsung-Ting; Lai, Po-Liang; Chen, Yi-Lu; Liu, Mu-Yi; Chen, Lih-Huei

    2015-01-01

    Expansive pedicle screws significantly improve fixation strength in osteoporotic spines. However, the previous literature does not adequately address the effects of the number of lengthwise slits and the extent of screw expansion on the strength of the bone/screw interface when expansive screws are used with or without cement augmentation. Herein, four designs for expansive pedicle screws with different numbers of lengthwise slits and different screw expansion levels were evaluated. Synthetic bones simulating severe osteoporosis were used to provide a comparative platform for each screw design. The prepared specimens were then tested for axial pullout failure. Regardless of screw design, screws with cement augmentation demonstrated significantly higher pullout strength than pedicle screws without cement augmentation (p screws without cement augmentation, solid screws exhibited the lowest pullout strength compared to the four expansive groups (p screws with different designs (p > 0.05). Taken together, our results show that pedicle screws combined with cement augmentation may greatly increase screw fixation regardless of screws with or without expansion. An increase in both the number of slits and the extent of screw expansion had little impact on the screw-anchoring strength. Cement augmentation is the most influential factor for improving screw pullout strength. PMID:26720724

  12. Sustainable design options for the German electricity market. A comparison of the energy-only market with capacity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study intensively discusses the further developments of the electricity market design in Germany based on substantial scientific insights. For this purpose, an agent-based simulation model is applied to evaluate the operability of the energy only market extended with a strategic reserve. Furthermore, the effects of the implementation of a centralized or decentralized capacity market are analyzed.

  13. Removal of Gross Air Embolization from Cardiopulmonary Bypass Circuits with Integrated Arterial Line Filters: A Comparison of Circuit Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagor, James A; Holt, David W

    2016-03-01

    Advances in technology, the desire to minimize blood product transfusions, and concerns relating to inflammatory mediators have lead many practitioners and manufacturers to minimize cardiopulmonary bypass (CBP) circuit designs. The oxygenator and arterial line filter (ALF) have been integrated into one device as a method of attaining a reduction in prime volume and surface area. The instructions for use of a currently available oxygenator with integrated ALF recommends incorporating a recirculation line distal to the oxygenator. However, according to an unscientific survey, 70% of respondents utilize CPB circuits incorporating integrated ALFs without a path of recirculation distal to the oxygenator outlet. Considering this circuit design, the ability to quickly remove a gross air bolus in the blood path distal to the oxygenator may be compromised. This in vitro study was designed to determine if the time required to remove a gross air bolus from a CPB circuit without a path of recirculation distal to the oxygenator will be significantly longer than that of a circuit with a path of recirculation distal to the oxygenator. A significant difference was found in the mean time required to remove a gross air bolus between the circuit designs (p = .0003). Additionally, There was found to be a statistically significant difference in the mean time required to remove a gross air bolus between Trial 1 and Trials 4 (p = .015) and 5 (p =.014) irrespective of the circuit design. Under the parameters of this study, a recirculation line distal to an oxygenator with an integrated ALF significantly decreases the time it takes to remove an air bolus from the CPB circuit and may be safer for clinical use than the same circuit without a recirculation line.

  14. Design of a Laboratory Hall Thruster with Magnetically Shielded Channel Walls, Phase III: Comparison of Theory with Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Hofer, Richard R.; Goebel, Dan M.

    2012-01-01

    A proof-of-principle effort to demonstrate a technique by which erosion of the acceleration channel in Hall thrusters of the magnetic-layer type can be eliminated has been completed. The first principles of the technique, now known as "magnetic shielding," were derived based on the findings of numerical simulations in 2-D axisymmetric geometry. The simulations, in turn, guided the modification of an existing 6-kW laboratory Hall thruster. This magnetically shielded (MS) thruster was then built and tested. Because neither theory nor experiment alone can validate fully the first principles of the technique, the objective of the 2-yr effort was twofold: (1) to demonstrate in the laboratory that the erosion rates can be reduced by >order of magnitude, and (2) to demonstrate that the near-wall plasma properties can be altered according to the theoretical predictions. This paper concludes the demonstration of magnetic shielding by reporting on a wide range of comparisons between results from numerical simulations and laboratory diagnostics. Collectively, we find that the comparisons validate the theory. Near the walls of the MS thruster, theory and experiment agree: (1) the plasma potential has been sustained at values near the discharge voltage, and (2) the electron temperature has been lowered by at least 2.5-3 times compared to the unshielded (US) thruster. Also, based on carbon deposition measurements, the erosion rates at the inner and outer walls of the MS thruster are found to be lower by at least 2300 and 1875 times, respectively. Erosion was so low along these walls that the rates were below the resolution of the profilometer. Using a sputtering yield model with an energy threshold of 25 V, the simulations predict a reduction of 600 at the MS inner wall. At the outer wall ion energies are computed to be below 25 V, for which case we set the erosion to zero in the simulations. When a 50-V threshold is used the computed ion energies are below the threshold at both

  15. Comparison of Cost Estimation Methods using Hybrid Artificial Intelligence on Schematic Design Stage: RANFIS and CBR-GA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WisnuIsvara

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cost estimating at schematic design stage as the basis of project evaluation, engineering design, and cost management, plays an important role in project decision under a limited definition of scope and constraints in available information and time, and the presence of uncertainties. The purpose of this study is to compare the performance of cost estimation models of two different hybrid artificial intelligence approaches: regression analysis-adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (RANFIS and case based reasoning-genetic algorithm (CBRGA techniques. The models were developed based on the same 50 low-cost apartment project datasets in Indonesia. Tested on another five testing data, the models were proven to perform very well in term of accuracy. A CBR-GA model was found to be the best performer but suffered from disadvantage of needing 15 cost drivers if compared to only 4 cost drivers required by RANFIS for on-par performance.

  16. Comparison of the effects of 23-gauge and 25-gauge microincision vitrectomy blade designs on incision architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inoue M

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Makoto Inoue,1 Dina Joy K Abulon,2 Akito Hirakata1 1Kyorin Eye Center, School of Medicine, Kyorin University, Tokyo, Japan; 2Alcon Research, Ltd., Irvine, CA, USA Purpose: To compare the effects of different 23- and 25-gauge microincision vitrectomy trocar cannula entry systems on incision architecture.Methods: We tested one ridged microvitreoretinal (MVR, one non-ridged MVR, one pointed beveled, and one round-tipped beveled blade (n=10 per blade design per incision type. Each blade’s straight and oblique incision architecture was assessed in a silicone disc simulating the sclera. Wound leakage under pressure and endoscopic observations were conducted on sclerotomy sites of isolated porcine eyes (n=4 per blade design after simulated vitrectomy.Results: Differences in blade design created distinct incision architecture. Incisions were linear with the ridged MVR blade, flattened “M-shaped” with the non-ridged MVR blade, asymmetrical chevron-shaped with the pointed beveled blade, and curved with the round-tipped beveled blade. With the exception of oblique entry incision thickness, both MVR blade designs created thinner incisions than the beveled blades at entry and exit sites. Only the ridged MVR blade created incisions with no leakage. Vitreous incarceration was observed with all trocar cannula systems.Conclusion: Wound closure in porcine eyes was similar with all blades despite differences in incision architecture. Wound leakage occurred at low to moderate infusion pressures with most blades; no wound leakage was observed with ridged MVR blades. Keywords: entry system, incision closure, leakage, pars plana incision, sclerotomy, trocar blade 

  17. Design and Comparison of 24 GHz Patch Antennas on Glass Substrates for Compact Wireless Sensor Nodes

    OpenAIRE

    Florian Ohnimus; Uwe Maaß; Gerhard Fotheringham; Brian Curran; Ivan Ndip; Thomas Fritzsch; Jürgen Wolf; Stephan Guttowski; Klaus-Dieter Lang

    2010-01-01

    Three patch antennas suitable for integration and operation in a compact 24 GHz wireless sensor node with radar and communication functions are designed, characterized, and compared. The antennas are manufactured on a low loss glass wafer using thin film (BCB/Cu) wafer level processing (WLP) technologies. This process is well suited for 3D stacking. The antennas are fed through a microstrip line underneath a ground plane coupling into the patch resonator through a slot aperture. Linear polari...

  18. The Square Curve Paradigm for Research in Alternative, Complementary, and Holistic Medicine: A Cost-Effective, Easy, and Scientifically Valid Design for Evidence-Based Medicine and Quality Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soren Ventegodt

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a new research paradigm for alternative, complementary, and holistic medicine — a low-cost, effective, and scientifically valid design for evidence-based medicine. Our aim is to find the simplest, cheapest, and most practical way to collect data of sufficient quality and validity to determine: (1 which kinds of treatment give a clinically relevant improvement to quality of life, health, and/or functionality; (2 which groups of patients can be aided by alternative, complementary, or holistic medicine; and (3 which therapists have the competence to achieve the clinically relevant improvements. Our solution to the problem is that a positive change in quality of life must be immediate to be taken as caused by an intervention. We define “immediate” as within 1 month of the intervention. If we can demonstrate a positive result with a group of chronic patients (20 or more patients who have had their disease or state of suffering for 1 year or more, who can be significantly helped within 1 month, and the situation is still improved 1 year after, we find it scientifically evidenced that this cure or intervention has helped the patients. We call this characteristic curve a “square curve”. If a global, generic, quality-of-life questionnaire like QOL5 or, even better, a QOL-Health-Ability questionnaire (a quality-of-life questionnaire combined with a self-evaluated health and ability to function questionnaire is administered to the patients before and after the intervention, it is possible to document the effect of an intervention to a cost of only a few thousand Euros/USD. A general acceptance of this new research design will solve the problem that there is not enough money in alternative, complementary, and holistic medicine to pay the normal cost of a biomedical Cochrane study. As financial problems must not hinder the vital research in nonbiomedical medicine, we ask the scientific community to accept this new research

  19. A Biomechanical Comparison of Expansive Pedicle Screws for Severe Osteoporosis: The Effects of Screw Design and Cement Augmentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Lung Tai

    Full Text Available Expansive pedicle screws significantly improve fixation strength in osteoporotic spines. However, the previous literature does not adequately address the effects of the number of lengthwise slits and the extent of screw expansion on the strength of the bone/screw interface when expansive screws are used with or without cement augmentation. Herein, four designs for expansive pedicle screws with different numbers of lengthwise slits and different screw expansion levels were evaluated. Synthetic bones simulating severe osteoporosis were used to provide a comparative platform for each screw design. The prepared specimens were then tested for axial pullout failure. Regardless of screw design, screws with cement augmentation demonstrated significantly higher pullout strength than pedicle screws without cement augmentation (p 0.05. Taken together, our results show that pedicle screws combined with cement augmentation may greatly increase screw fixation regardless of screws with or without expansion. An increase in both the number of slits and the extent of screw expansion had little impact on the screw-anchoring strength. Cement augmentation is the most influential factor for improving screw pullout strength.

  20. Comparison of Marginal Bone Changes with Internal Conus and External Hexagon Design Implant Systems: A Prospective, Randomized Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Lyndon F; Tarnow, Dennis; Froum, Stuart; Moriarty, John; De Kok, Ingeborg J

    2016-01-01

    A central dental implant success criterion is the marginal bone response as measured longitudinally. Factors that influence marginal bone changes include osseous and soft tissue architecture, occlusal loading factors, implant position, implant design, and inflammatory processes. The evolution of implant design is multifactorial and includes the implant-abutment interface geometries. The primary objective of this study was to compare the proximal marginal bone changes following placement and loading of internal conus design implants (ICI) and external hex design implants (EXI) used in the treatment of posterior partial edentulism. Among 45 enrolled participants, 39 were treated with 47 ICI or 46 EXI implants using a one-stage implant protocol. Prosthetic restoration was completed after 12 weeks using stock titanium abutments and all-ceramic crowns. Follow-up visits including clinical and radiographic examinations were performed 6 months after permanent restoration and then annually for 3 years. Marginal bone level changes, papilla index scores, condition of the peri-implant mucosa, presence of complications, and participant satisfaction were evaluated. The mean marginal bone level change from implant placement to 3 years was -0.25 ± 0.60 mm and -0.5 ± 0.93 mm for ICI and EXI implants, respectively. The change recorded from permanent restoration to 3 years was a gain of 0.31 ± 0.41 mm versus 0.04 ± 0.51 mm for ICI and EXI implants, respectively (P 90%) of participants stated they were satisfied or very satisfied with their implant prosthesis and rated function and esthetics highly for both implant types after 3 years in function. Modestly greater marginal bone loss occurred at EXI implants. Further, more positive papilla scores were found between adjacent ICI implants than between adjacent EXI implants. EXI implants displayed more abutment complications than the ICI implants. The implant-abutment interface design may contribute to therapeutic outcome differences