WorldWideScience

Sample records for alternative design comparison

  1. Comparison of different SFL design alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivars Neretnieks, Ivars [Chemima AB, Taeby (Sweden); Moreno, Luis [LMQuimica, Vaarby (Sweden)

    2013-04-15

    Four different design options for a repository for long-lived nuclear waste from the future dismantling of the nuclear power plants have been compared. The time scales considered range up to 100,000 years. The repository is to be located at about 500 m depth in granitic rock. The vault can be a tunnel about 200 m long and on the order of 15 X 15 meters, in which the waste is surrounded by either a hydraulic cage, a concrete buffer or a bentonite buffer about 2 m thick. A fourth option is to make a silo, called Supersilo, about as high as wide, surrounded by both concrete and bentonite. In order to compare potential release rates of radionuclides from the waste to the seeping water in the rock a number of simple models have been devised. Some of these models allow the water flow rates through vaults to be assessed under various conditions and configurations. Other models are used to calculate the uptake by molecular diffusion to the water in the rock that seeps past the vaults. Moreover other models are used to calculate the rate of transport of nuclides by diffusion and flow through the buffer and waste. The decay of the nuclides during their passage from the waste to the flowing water through and past the vaults is accounted for. Many nuclides of interest decay considerably in the buffer. The mathematical form of the models is made so simple that essentially hand calculations can be used to explore the strength of different barriers and design options. The simple models are validated against more complex coupled models accounting for simultaneously competing processes. The more complex models are solved by numerical methods. The toolbox of simple models is used to calculate the strength of the barriers in the different design options under various conditions. Examples of activity releases of three nuclides with different sorption characteristics and half-lives are presented. It is found that a hydraulic cage is not a good option as it promotes the release of

  2. Comparison of different SFL design alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four different design options for a repository for long-lived nuclear waste from the future dismantling of the nuclear power plants have been compared. The time scales considered range up to 100,000 years. The repository is to be located at about 500 m depth in granitic rock. The vault can be a tunnel about 200 m long and on the order of 15 X 15 meters, in which the waste is surrounded by either a hydraulic cage, a concrete buffer or a bentonite buffer about 2 m thick. A fourth option is to make a silo, called Supersilo, about as high as wide, surrounded by both concrete and bentonite. In order to compare potential release rates of radionuclides from the waste to the seeping water in the rock a number of simple models have been devised. Some of these models allow the water flow rates through vaults to be assessed under various conditions and configurations. Other models are used to calculate the uptake by molecular diffusion to the water in the rock that seeps past the vaults. Moreover other models are used to calculate the rate of transport of nuclides by diffusion and flow through the buffer and waste. The decay of the nuclides during their passage from the waste to the flowing water through and past the vaults is accounted for. Many nuclides of interest decay considerably in the buffer. The mathematical form of the models is made so simple that essentially hand calculations can be used to explore the strength of different barriers and design options. The simple models are validated against more complex coupled models accounting for simultaneously competing processes. The more complex models are solved by numerical methods. The toolbox of simple models is used to calculate the strength of the barriers in the different design options under various conditions. Examples of activity releases of three nuclides with different sorption characteristics and half-lives are presented. It is found that a hydraulic cage is not a good option as it promotes the release of

  3. Comparison of the FRM-II HEU design with an alternative LEU design. Attachment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After presentation of the foregoing paper by Dr. Nelson Hanan of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) proposing an alternative LEU core with one fuel ring and a power level of 33 MW, a presentation was made by Dr. Klaus Boning of the Technical University of Munich comparing the FRM-II HEU design with an LEU design by Tlm that had two fuel rings and a power level of 40 MW. Dr. Boning raised the following issues concerning the use of LEU fuel in FRM-H reactor designs: (1) qualification of HEU and LEU silicide fuels, (2) gamma heating in the heavy water reflector, (3) the radiological consequences of hypothetical accidents, and (4) cost and schedule. These issues are addressed in this Attachment. In his presentation, Dr. Hanan mentioned that ANL was also investigating other LEU designs. This work led to a second alternative LEU design that has the same neutron flux performance (8 x 1014 n/cm2/s peak neutron flux in the reflector) and the same fuel lifetime (50 full power days) as the HEU design, but uses LEU silicide fuel with a uranium density of only 4.5 g/cm3. This design was achieved by using a fuel plate that has a fuel meat thickness of 0.76 mm, a cladding thickness of 0.38 mm, and a water channel gap of 2.2 mm. A comparison is shown of the main characteristics of this second alternative LEU design with those of the FRM-II HEU design. The ANL core again has one fuel ring with the same dimensions. With this LEU design, a two stage process is no longer necessary because LEU silicide fuel with a uranium density of 4.5 g/cm3 is fully qualified, licensable, and available now for use in a high flux reactor such as the FRM-II

  4. Feed-water heaters alternative design comparison; Comparacion de disenos alternativos de calentadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Toledano, Gerardo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1988-12-31

    A procedure is presented for the alternative design comparison of feed water heaters, based in the failure records of damaged tubes during operation. The procedure is used for cases in which non-continuous or random inspections are made to the feed-water heaters. [Espanol] Se presenta un procedimiento para comparar disenos alternativos de calentadores, basandose en los registros de fallas de los tubos rotos acumuladas durante su operacion. El procedimiento se emplea para casos en los que se realizan inspecciones a los calentadores no continuas, ya sea periodicas o al azar.

  5. A comparison of alternative 60-mer probe designs in an in-situ synthesized oligonucleotide microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fairbanks Benjamin D

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA microarrays have proven powerful for functional genomics studies. Several technologies exist for the generation of whole-genome arrays. It is well documented that 25mer probes directed against different regions of the same gene produce variable signal intensity values. However, the extent to which this is true for probes of greater length (60mers is not well characterized. Moreover, this information has not previously been reported for whole-genome arrays designed against bacteria, whose genomes may differ substantially in characteristics directly affecting microarray performance. Results We report here an analysis of alternative 60mer probe designs for an in-situ synthesized oligonucleotide array for the GC rich, β-proteobacterium Burkholderia cenocepacia. Probes were designed using the ArrayOligoSel3.5 software package and whole-genome microarrays synthesized by Agilent, Inc. using their in-situ, ink-jet technology platform. We first validated the quality of the microarrays as demonstrated by an average signal to noise ratio of >1000. Next, we determined that the variance of replicate probes (1178 total probes examined of identical sequence was 3.8% whereas the variance of alternative probes (558 total alternative probes examined designs was 9.5%. We determined that depending upon the definition, about 2.4% of replicate and 7.8% of alternative probes produced outlier conclusions. Finally, we determined none of the probe design subscores (GC content, internal repeat, binding energy and self annealment produced by ArrayOligoSel3.5 were predictive or probes that produced outlier signals. Conclusion Our analysis demonstrated that the use of multiple probes per target sequence is not essential for in-situ synthesized 60mer oligonucleotide arrays designed against bacteria. Although probes producing outlier signals were identified, the use of ratios results in less than 10% of such outlier conclusions. We also determined that

  6. Seal design alternatives study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results from a study of various sealing alternatives for the WIPP sealing system. Overall, the sealing system has the purpose of reducing to the extent possible the potential for fluids (either gas or liquid) from entering or leaving the repository. The sealing system is divided into three subsystems: drift and panel seals within the repository horizon, shaft seals in each of the four shafts, and borehole seals. Alternatives to the baseline configuration for the WIPP seal system design included evaluating different geometries and schedules for seal component installations and the use of different materials for seal components. Order-of-magnitude costs for the various alternatives were prepared as part of the study. Firm recommendations are not presented, but the advantages and disadvantages of the alternatives are discussed. Technical information deficiencies are identified and studies are outlined which can provide required information

  7. Seal design alternatives study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Sambeek, L.L. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (US); Luo, D.D.; Lin, M.S.; Ostrowski, W.; Oyenuga, D. [Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, Inc., San Francisco, CA (US)

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results from a study of various sealing alternatives for the WIPP sealing system. Overall, the sealing system has the purpose of reducing to the extent possible the potential for fluids (either gas or liquid) from entering or leaving the repository. The sealing system is divided into three subsystems: drift and panel seals within the repository horizon, shaft seals in each of the four shafts, and borehole seals. Alternatives to the baseline configuration for the WIPP seal system design included evaluating different geometries and schedules for seal component installations and the use of different materials for seal components. Order-of-magnitude costs for the various alternatives were prepared as part of the study. Firm recommendations are not presented, but the advantages and disadvantages of the alternatives are discussed. Technical information deficiencies are identified and studies are outlined which can provide required information.

  8. State alternative route designations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a ``state routing agency,`` defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective.

  9. State alternative route designations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a state routing agency,'' defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective.

  10. TWTF design alternates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Transuranic Waste Treatment Facility (TWTF) will process transuranic (TRU) waste in retrievable storage at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The costs for a TWTF concept using a slagging pyrolysis incinerator were excessive. Alternate concepts using a slow speed shredder, a rotary kiln incinerator, and concrete immobilization should result in significant cost reductions. These will be included in future TWTF considerations

  11. Alternative Design of Boat Fenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banke, Lars

    1996-01-01

    On offshore platforms the purpose of fenders is to protect the oil-risers against minor accidental collisions with supply vessels. Normally, the fender is designed by use of thin-walled tubes. However, the tube itself is not capable of resisting the impact load of the boat. Therefore, alternative...

  12. Comparison of Alternative Processes for Support Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Martínez-Álvarez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There are many tasks that revolve around combinatorial analysis problems, same tasks found in Decision Support Systems (DSS as most of these are responsible for assessing a number of possibilities to deliver the best options. Within the analysis of possible solutions is performed by the DSS there are alternative procedures inside the engine for making decisions that involve them. As part of these alternative procedures today has highlighted the use of metaheuristics, thus in this paper we propose a comparison of some of them trying to broaden the spectrum we have for the applications nowadays.

  13. Alternative Natural Energy Sources in Building Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Albert J.; Schubert, Robert P.

    This publication provides a discussion of various energy conserving building systems and design alternatives. The information presented here covers alternative space and water heating systems, and energy conserving building designs incorporating these systems and other energy conserving techniques. Besides water, wind, solar, and bio conversion…

  14. Mixed oxide conversion facility alternative conceptual designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allied-General Nuclear Services recently performed studies to evaluate alternative proliferation-resistant flowsheets of the uranium-based LWR fuel cycle. The alternatives evaluated consist of coprocessing schemes with either a gamma or a heat spike added. A literature search and evaluation were performed to select a process technology for mixed oxide coconversion. The COPRECAL process was chosen as the most suitable conversion process technology. Three alternative mixed oxide conversion facility design concepts were prepared based on the COPRECAL technology. These alternative concepts are compared to a pure plutonium conversion facility. Facility designs, relative proliferation resistance, and cost estimates are discussed

  15. Modified Waste Emplacement Mode Design Alternative Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alternative emplacement modes presented in this report provide potential conceptual design options to the VA design that enhance human access to the emplacement drift area during abnormal events. The alternative conceptual designs emplace waste packages in configurations that reduce the level of radiation exposure utilizing shield doors, shield plugs, and concrete slabs to allow for human access during off-normal events. The alternative emplacements modes rank slightly lower than the VA design when evaluated against the eight criteria (i.e., postclosure performance; preclosure performance; assurance of safety; engineering acceptance, construction, operations and maintenance; schedule; cost and environmental considerations) presented in Section 5. However, the alternative emplacement modes allow the waste packages to be more accessible for human access to perform infrequent and unplanned events. The alternative emplacement modes were evaluated by a team of experts in assessing the confidence level that would be presented by each one of the design emplacement mode concepts (See Appendix A). The experts ranked the alternative emplacement mode concepts on a scale from A to E (i.e., A represents a high level of confidence and E represents the lowest level of confidence). The criteria in which the alternative modes were evaluated include the following: postclosure performance; preclosure performance; assurance of safety; engineering acceptance; construction, operations and maintenance; schedule; and cost. The results of the evaluation concluded that the alternative emplacement modes have a moderate level of confidence when evaluated against the selected criteria. Overall, the average rankings for the alternative emplacement modes presented in this report score below the VA reference design when analyzed against the evaluation criteria. Some limited calculations for the postclosure performance criteria were generated to determine the TSPA for each alternative

  16. Modified waste emplacement mode design alternative report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alternative emplacement modes presented in this report provide potential conceptual design options to the VA design that enhance human access to the emplacement drift area during abnormal events. The alternative conceptual designs emplace waste packages in configurations that reduce the level of radiation exposure utilizing shield doors, shield plugs, and concrete slabs to allow for human access during off-normal events. The alternative emplacements modes rank slightly lower than the VA design when evaluated against the eight criteria (i.e., postclosure performance; preclosure performance; assurance of safety; engineering acceptance, construction, operations and maintenance; schedule; cost and environmental considerations) presented in Section 5. However, the alternative emplacement modes allow the waste packages to be more accessible for human access to perform infrequent and unplanned events. The alternative emplacement modes were evaluated by a team of experts in assessing the confidence level that would be presented by each one of the design emplacement mode concepts (See Appendix A). The experts ranked the alternative emplacement mode concepts on a scale from A to E (i.e., A represents a high level of confidence and E represents the lowest level of confidence). The criteria in which the alternative modes were evaluated include the following: postclosure performance; preclosure performance; assurance of safety; engineering acceptance; construction, operations and maintenance; schedule; and cost. The results of the evaluation concluded that the alternative emplacement modes have a moderate level of confidence when evaluated against the selected criteria. Overall, the average rankings for the alternative emplacement modes presented in this report score below the VA reference design when analyzed against the evaluation criteria. Some limited calculations for the postclosure performance criteria were generated to determine the TSPA for each alternative

  17. Alternative Design of Postgraduate English Writing Course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芬

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an alternative design of postgraduate English writing course to meet the requirement of the current postgraduate English teaching reform.The author believes that efficiently-organized writing activities based on practical needs could refresh teaching frame- work and consequently assist postgraduates in English writing.

  18. Piled Embankment Design Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drusa Marián

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There are currently several national standards or regulations for the design of the piled embankment, providing suitable solutions for foundation of transport structure on soft, high compressible subsoil, [1]. The most widely used and the best-known standard is British Standard BS8006 [2], which was confronted with another analytical design methodologies (Ebgeo, CUR. Today’s popularity and versatility of FEM numerical models brings many advantages, which analytical methods cannot achieved, but must be verified by proposed scaled physical model, which was currently being developed by Department of Geotechnics, University of Žilina.

  19. Piled Embankment Design Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drusa, Marián; Kais, Ladislav; Vlček, Jozef; Mečár, Martin

    2015-05-01

    There are currently several national standards or regulations for the design of the piled embankment, providing suitable solutions for foundation of transport structure on soft, high compressible subsoil, [1]. The most widely used and the best-known standard is British Standard BS8006 [2], which was confronted with another analytical design methodologies (Ebgeo, CUR). Today's popularity and versatility of FEM numerical models brings many advantages, which analytical methods cannot achieved, but must be verified by proposed scaled physical model, which was currently being developed by Department of Geotechnics, University of Žilina.

  20. Alternative design concept for the second Glass Waste Storage Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rainisch, R.

    1992-10-01

    This document presents an alternative design concept for storing canisters filled with vitrified waste produced at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The existing Glass Waste Storage Building (GWSB1) has the capacity to store 2,262 canisters and is projected to be completely filled by the year 2000. Current plans for glass waste storage are based on constructing a second Glass Waste Storage Building (GWSB2) once the existing Glass Waste Storage Building (GWSB1) is filled to capacity. The GWSB2 project (Project S-2045) is to provide additional storage capacity for 2,262 canisters. This project was initiated with the issue of a basic data report on March 6, 1989. In response to the basic data report Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) prepared a draft conceptual design report (CDR) for the GWSB2 project in April 1991. In May 1991 WSRC Systems Engineering issued a revised Functional Design Criteria (FDC), the Rev. I document has not yet been approved by DOE. This document proposes an alternative design for the conceptual design (CDR) completed in April 1991. In June 1992 Project Management Department authorized Systems Engineering to further develop the proposed alternative design. The proposed facility will have a storage capacity for 2,268 canisters and will meet DWPF interim storage requirements for a five-year period. This document contains: a description of the proposed facility; a cost estimate of the proposed design; a cost comparison between the proposed facility and the design outlined in the FDC/CDR; and an overall assessment of the alternative design as compared with the reference FDC/CDR design.

  1. Designing an Alternate Mission Operations Control Room

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Patty; Reeves, A. Scott

    2014-01-01

    The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) is a multi-project facility that is responsible for 24x7 real-time International Space Station (ISS) payload operations management, integration, and control and has the capability to support small satellite projects and will provide real-time support for SLS launches. The HOSC is a service-oriented/ highly available operations center for ISS payloads-directly supporting science teams across the world responsible for the payloads. The HOSC is required to endure an annual 2-day power outage event for facility preventive maintenance and safety inspection of the core electro-mechanical systems. While complete system shut-downs are against the grain of a highly available sub-system, the entire facility must be powered down for a weekend for environmental and safety purposes. The consequence of this ground system outage is far reaching: any science performed on ISS during this outage weekend is lost. Engineering efforts were focused to maximize the ISS investment by engineering a suitable solution capable of continuing HOSC services while supporting safety requirements. The HOSC Power Outage Contingency (HPOC) System is a physically diversified compliment of systems capable of providing identified real-time services for the duration of a planned power outage condition from an alternate control room. HPOC was designed to maintain ISS payload operations for approximately three continuous days during planned HOSC power outages and support a local Payload Operations Team, International Partners, as well as remote users from the alternate control room located in another building.

  2. Incorporating risk attitude into comparison of reforestation alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By using the approach presented in this paper, the decision-maker's risk can be ascertained and taken into account in the comparison of reforestation alternatives of a forest stand. Risks which reforestation alternatives include are described using distributions of outcomes. Cardinal utility values of five accumulation points of cumulative distributions of outcomes, calculated without considering risk preferences, are the variables included in a preference function. The parameters of that additive preference function represent the importance of the accumulation points in the choice of the reforestation alternatives. They indicate the decision-maker's attitude towards risk. The parameters are estimated on the basis of pairwise comparisons between the importance of variables, using Saaty's eigenvalue method. Estimation, application, and interpretation of preference function are simple to carry out, which is important for an approach applied to practical decision-making. The approach could be applied also, for example, to other forestry decision-making problems. 42 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  3. 40 CFR 60.4111 - Alternate Hg designated representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternate Hg designated representative... Times for Coal-Fired Electric Steam Generating Units Hg Designated Representative for Hg Budget Sources § 60.4111 Alternate Hg designated representative. (a) A certificate of representation under §...

  4. Incorporating alternative design clinical trials in network meta-analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorlund K

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kristian Thorlund,1–3 Eric Druyts,1,4 Kabirraaj Toor,1,5 Jeroen P Jansen,1,6 Edward J Mills1,3 1Redwood Outcomes, Vancouver, BC, 2Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; 3Stanford Prevention Research Center, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA; 4Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, 5School of Population and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 6Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA Introduction: Network meta-analysis (NMA is an extension of conventional pairwise meta-analysis that allows for simultaneous comparison of multiple interventions. Well-established drug class efficacies have become commonplace in many disease areas. Thus, for reasons of ethics and equipoise, it is not practical to randomize patients to placebo or older drug classes. Unique randomized clinical trial designs are an attempt to navigate these obstacles. These alternative designs, however, pose challenges when attempting to incorporate data into NMAs. Using ulcerative colitis as an example, we illustrate an example of a method where data provided by these trials are used to populate treatment networks. Methods: We present the methods used to convert data from the PURSUIT trial into a typical parallel design for inclusion in our NMA. Data were required for three arms: golimumab 100 mg; golimumab 50 mg; and placebo. Golimumab 100 mg induction data were available; however, data regarding those individuals who were nonresponders at induction and those who were responders at maintenance were not reported, and as such, had to be imputed using data from the rerandomization phase. Golimumab 50 mg data regarding responses at week 6 were not available. Existing relationships between the available components were used to impute the expected proportions in this missing subpopulation. Data for placebo maintenance

  5. 46 CFR 177.340 - Alternate design considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternate design considerations. 177.340 Section 177.340... TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Hull Structure § 177.340 Alternate design considerations. When the... approved in accordance with §§ 177.300, 177.310 or 177.315, the structure may be approved by the...

  6. Alternative methods for the design of jet engine control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sain, M. K.; Leake, R. J.; Basso, R.; Gejji, R.; Maloney, A.; Seshadri, V.

    1976-01-01

    Various alternatives to linear quadratic design methods for jet engine control systems are discussed. The main alternatives are classified into two broad categories: nonlinear global mathematical programming methods and linear local multivariable frequency domain methods. Specific studies within these categories include model reduction, the eigenvalue locus method, the inverse Nyquist method, polynomial design, dynamic programming, and conjugate gradient approaches.

  7. Digital Hardware Design Teaching: An Alternative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkrid, Khaled; Clayton, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the design and implementation of a complete review of undergraduate digital hardware design teaching in the School of Engineering at the University of Edinburgh. Four guiding principles have been used in this exercise: learning-outcome driven teaching, deep learning, affordability, and flexibility. This has identified…

  8. Designing oligo libraries taking alternative splicing into account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoshan, Avi; Grebinskiy, Vladimir; Magen, Avner; Scolnicov, Ariel; Fink, Eyal; Lehavi, David; Wasserman, Alon

    2001-06-01

    We have designed sequences for DNA microarrays and oligo libraries, taking alternative splicing into account. Alternative splicing is a common phenomenon, occurring in more than 25% of the human genes. In many cases, different splice variants have different functions, are expressed in different tissues or may indicate different stages of disease. When designing sequences for DNA microarrays or oligo libraries, it is very important to take into account the sequence information of all the mRNA transcripts. Therefore, when a gene has more than one transcript (as a result of alternative splicing, alternative promoter sites or alternative poly-adenylation sites), it is very important to take all of them into account in the design. We have used the LEADS transcriptome prediction system to cluster and assemble the human sequences in GenBank and design optimal oligonucleotides for all the human genes with a known mRNA sequence based on the LEADS predictions.

  9. Design Alternative Evaluation No. 3: Post-Closure Ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to provide input to the Enhanced Design Alternatives (EDA) for License Application Design Selection (LADS). Its purpose is to develop and evaluate conceptual designs for post-closure ventilation alternatives that enhance repository performance. Post-closure ventilation is expected to enhance repository performance by limiting the amount of water contacting the waste packages. Limiting the amount of water contacting the waste packages will reduce corrosion

  10. Design Alternative Evaluation No. 3: Post-Closure Ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, R.C.

    1999-06-22

    The objective of this study is to provide input to the Enhanced Design Alternatives (EDA) for License Application Design Selection (LADS). Its purpose is to develop and evaluate conceptual designs for post-closure ventilation alternatives that enhance repository performance. Post-closure ventilation is expected to enhance repository performance by limiting the amount of water contacting the waste packages. Limiting the amount of water contacting the waste packages will reduce corrosion.

  11. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Station design alternatives report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides the results of investigating the basis for including Station Design Alternatives (SDAs) in the regulatory guidance given for nuclear plant environmental reports (ERs), explains approaches or processes for evaluating SDAs at the early site permit (ESP) stage, and applies one of the processes to each of the ten systems or subsystems considered as SDAS. The key objective o this report s to demonstrate an adequate examination of alternatives can be performed without the extensive development f design data. The report discusses the Composite Suitability Approach and the Established Cutoff Approach in evaluating station design alternatives and selects one of these approaches to evaluate alternatives for each of the plant or station that were considered. Four types of ALWRs have been considered due to the availability of extensive plant data: System 80+, AP600, Advanced Boiling Reactor (ABWR), and Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR). This report demonstrates the feasibility of evaluating station design alternatives when reactor design detail has not been determined, quantitatively compares the potential ental impacts of alternatives, and focuses the ultimate selection of a alternative on cost and applicant-specific factors. The range of alternatives system is deliberately limited to a reasonable number to demonstrate the or to the three most commonly used at operating plants

  12. Economic comparison of reforestation alternatives in La Hesperia Biological Station & Reserve, Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Nováková, Zuzana

    2014-01-01

    The master thesis presented an economic comparison of three reforestation alternatives of private natural reserve La Hesperia Biological Station & Reserve, Pichincha province, Ecuador; as well as the identification of the suitable plants and design of plantations or agroforestry plot considering the economic, environmental and social context. Data were collected during the period from September to December 2012 in the natural reserve La Hesperia Biological Station & Reserve through semi-struc...

  13. Perspectives on the comparison of risks from alternative energy production sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many studies have attempted to compare the risks of alternate sources of energy production with mixed degrees of success. A review has been made of these many studies to determine what is valid and useful in such studies, and what should be discarded. Results show that at least three major factors confound such studies. First, the differences among classes of alternative energy sources may be larger or smaller than differences within a single energy alternative due to choice of site, specific technological design, sources of fuel, and other factors of a specific nature. Thus, any such study must balance the internal consistency of specific designs within an energy alternative with external consistency across all energy alternatives studied. Secondly, risks to individuals, collectives, workers, public, mortality, morbidity, property damage, accidents, disease, etc., are often not separate. Value judgments used to aggregate these factors are arbitrary and easily challenged. In addition, few studies have found means to present their information in both a valid and meaningful manner. Thirdly, the comparisons, including the whole fuel cycle, are based partly on statistical, partly on predictive data, which are sometimes intermingled and provided without specifying the spread or error bands. Finally, risk-risk comparisons of this kind can, under certain conditions, be a useful tool for the technical community, decision makers, and the public. There is no generic method that works for all uses and these three classes of users. However, limited success may occur when the use of the analysis is matched to the user

  14. Practical design of alternating-phase-focused linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Jameson, R A

    2014-01-01

    Conventional magnetic transverse focusing in conventional linear accelerators represents a high fraction of their cost and complexity. Both transverse and longitudinal focusing can be obtained from the radio frequency field by using the technique known as Alternating Phase Focusing. The design of suitable sequences has been difficult, without direct theoretical support, inhibiting Alternating Phase Focusing adoption. Synthesis of reported details and new physics and technique result in a new, general method for designing practical Alternating Phase Focusing linear accelerators. Very long sequences with high energy gain factors are demonstrated, motivated by the desire to accelerate particles over a factor of 500-600 energy gain. The method is demonstrated with simple dynamics and no space charge, later incorporation of space charge and more accurate elements is straight forward. Alternating Phase Focusing can now be another practical approach in the linear accelerator designer repertoire. Alternating Phase Fo...

  15. ALTERNATIVE SOFTWARE USED FOR CARPETS’ DRAWINGS DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    Marin Florea; Cristian Matran

    2013-01-01

    The Romanian carpet industry has followed the natural course of computerization processes in the carpets' manufacturing. The final textiles’ consumer diversified their aesthetic taste for Western culture dominated by a functional and minimalist design that could be found in the everyday environment. There is a trend towards short series of industrial products, a trend which causes an acute diversification especially in the textile product styling. Usually, the CAD department is limited to 1-3...

  16. Alternative energy systems design and analysis with induction generators

    CERN Document Server

    Sime̳s, M Godoy

    2011-01-01

    New perspectives on using induction generators in alternative energy technologies Durable and cost-effective, induction power generators have undergone numerous improvements that make them an increasingly attractive option for renewable energy applications, particularly for wind and hydropower generation systems. From fundamental concepts to the latest technologies, Alternative Energy Systems: Design and Analysis with Induction Generators, Second Edition provides detailed and accurate coverage of all aspects related to the design, operation, and overall analysis of such systems. Plac

  17. Insights Gained from Testing Alternate Cell Designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. E. O' Brien; C. M. Stoots; J. S. Herring; G. K. Housley; M. S. Sohal; D. G. Milobar; Thomas Cable

    2009-09-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been researching the application of solid-oxide electrolysis cell for large-scale hydrogen production from steam over a temperature range of 800 to 900ºC. The INL has been testing various solid oxide cell designs to characterize their electrolytic performance operating in the electrolysis mode for hydrogen production. Some results presented in this report were obtained from cells, initially developed by the Forschungszentrum Jülich and now manufactured by the French ceramics firm St. Gobain. These cells have an active area of 16 cm2 per cell. They were initially developed as fuel cells, but are being tested as electrolytic cells in the INL test stands. The electrolysis cells are electrode-supported, with ~10 µm thick yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes, ~1400 µm thick nickel-YSZ steam-hydrogen electrodes, and manganite (LSM) air-oxygen electrodes. The experiments were performed over a range of steam inlet mole fractions (0.1 to 0.6), gas flow rates, and current densities (0 to 0.6 A/cm2). Steam consumption rates associated with electrolysis were measured directly using inlet and outlet dewpoint instrumentation. On a molar basis, the steam consumption rate is equal to the hydrogen production rate. Cell performance was evaluated by performing DC potential sweeps at 800, 850, and 900°C. The voltage-current characteristics are presented, along with values of area-specific resistance as a function of current density. Long-term cell performance is also assessed to evaluate cell degradation. Details of the custom single-cell test apparatus developed for these experiments are also presented. NASA, in conjunction with the University of Toledo, has developed another fuel cell concept with the goals of reduced weight and high power density. The NASA cell is structurally symmetrical, with both electrodes supporting the thin electrolyte and containing micro-channels for gas diffusion. This configuration is called a bi

  18. Part 2. Design and performance characteristics of alternative fuels and fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents performance characteristics of a wide range of fast breeder reactor designs and fuel cycle options to provide the bases for the study of alternatives that is the primary focus of the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. Since breeding performance is at the center of many of the feasibility questions connected with alternative forms of breeder development, particular attention was given to a consistent comparison between various alternatives and quantitative analyses that provide physical understanding of intrinsic differences in their breeding performance

  19. 46 CFR 116.340 - Alternate design considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ARRANGEMENT Hull Structure § 116.340 Alternate design considerations. The Commanding Officer, Marine Safety Center, may approve the structure of a vessel of novel design, unusual form, or special materials, which... principles that the vessel structure provides adequate safety and strength. An owner seeking approval of...

  20. 40 CFR 72.22 - Alternate designated representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternate designated representative. 72.22 Section 72.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... company; and (ii) The designated representative for the units under paragraph (e)(1)(i) of this...

  1. Subsurface barrier design alternatives for confinement and controlled advection flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various technologies and designs are being considered to serve as subsurface barriers to confine or control contaminant migration from underground waste storage or disposal structures containing radioactive and hazardous wastes. Alternatives including direct-coupled flood and controlled advection designs are described as preconceptual examples. Prototype geotechnical equipment for testing and demonstration of these alternative designs tested at the Hanford Geotechnical Development and Test Facility and the Hanford Small-Tube Lysimeter Facility include mobile high-pressure injectors and pumps, mobile transport and pumping units, vibratory and impact pile drivers, and mobile batching systems. Preliminary laboratory testing of barrier materials and additive sequestering agents have been completed and are described

  2. 29 CFR 2703.2 - Designated agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Designated agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official. 2703.2 Section 2703.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL... agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official. The Chairman shall appoint...

  3. The cost of ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass -- A comparison of selected alternative processes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grethlein, H.E.; Dill, T.

    1993-04-30

    The purpose of this report is to compare the cost of selected alternative processes for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol. In turn, this information will be used by the ARS/USDA to guide the management of research and development programs in biomass conversion. The report will identify where the cost leverages are for the selected alternatives and what performance parameters need to be achieved to improve the economics. The process alternatives considered here are not exhaustive, but are selected on the basis of having a reasonable potential in improving the economics of producing ethanol from biomass. When other alternatives come under consideration, they should be evaluated by the same methodology used in this report to give fair comparisons of opportunities. A generic plant design is developed for an annual production of 25 million gallons of anhydrous ethanol using corn stover as the model substrate at $30/dry ton. Standard chemical engineering techniques are used to give first order estimates of the capital and operating costs. Following the format of the corn to ethanol plant, there are nine sections to the plant; feed preparation, pretreatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation and dehydration, stillage evaporation, storage and denaturation, utilities, and enzyme production. There are three pretreatment alternatives considered: the AFEX process, the modified AFEX process (which is abbreviated as MAFEX), and the STAKETECH process. These all use enzymatic hydrolysis and so an enzyme production section is included in the plant. The STAKETECH is the only commercially available process among the alternative processes.

  4. A Comparison of Five Alternative Approaches to Information Systems Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Hirschheim

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available The field of information systems (IS has grown dramatically over the past three decades. Recent trends have transformed the IS landscape. These trends include: the evolution of implementation technology from centralized mainframe environments towards distributed client-server architectures, embracing the internet and intranets; changes in user interface technology from character-based to graphical user interfaces, multimedia, and the World Wide Web; changes in applications from transaction processing systems towards systems supporting collaborative work; and the use of information technology as an enabler of business process reengineering and redesign. These technology changes coupled with changes in organizations and their operating environment, such as the growth of the network and virtual organization, internationalization and globalization of many organizations, intensified global competition, changes in values such as customer orientation (service quality and Quality of Working Life, have imposed new demands on the development of information systems. These changes have led to an increasing discussion about information systems development (ISO, and in particular, the various methods, tools, methodologies, and approaches for ISD. We believe such discussion has opened the door for new, alternative IS development approaches and methodologies. Our paper takes up this theme by describing five alternative ISD approaches, namely the Interactionist approach, the Speech Act-based approach, Soft Systems Methodology, the Trade Unionist approach, and the Professional Work Practices approach. Despite the fact that most of these approaches have a history of over 15 years, their relevance to IS development is not well recognized in the mainstream of IS practice and research, nor is their institutional status comparable to traditional approaches such as structured analysis and design methods. Therefore we characterize the five approaches as 'alternative' in

  5. An alternative tensiometer design for deep vadose zone monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, A. B.; Kandelous, M. M.; Hopmans, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    The conventional tensiometer is among the most accurate devices for soil water matric potential measurements, as well as for estimations of soil water flux from soil water potential gradients. Uncertainties associated with conventional tensiometers such as caused by ambient temperature effects and the draining of the tensiometer tube, as well as their limitation for deep soil monitoring has prevented their widespread use for vadose zone monitoring, despite their superior accuracy, in general. We introduce an alternative tensiometer design that offers the accuracy of the conventional tensiometer, while minimizing afore-mentioned uncertainties and limitations. The proposed alternative tensiometer largely eliminates temperature-induced diurnal fluctuations and uncertainties associated with the draining of the tensiometer tube, and removes the limitation in installation depth. In addition, the manufacturing costs of this alternative tensiometer design is close to that of the conventional tensiometer, while it is especially suited for monitoring of soil water potential gradients as required for soil water flux measurements.

  6. Optimized operation and design of alternating activated sludge processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukasse, L.J.S.; Keesman, K.J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation study with the scope to optimise the plant design and operation strategy of 2-reactors alternating activated sludge processes with only flow schedule and aeration on/off as control inputs. The methodology is to simulate the application of receding horizon optimal con

  7. Alternate design of ITER cryostat skirt support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The skirt support of ITER cryostat is a support system which takes all the load of cryostat cylinder and dome during normal and operational condition. The present design of skirt support has full penetration weld joints at the bottom (shell to horizontal plate joint). To fulfill the requirements of tolerances and control the welding distortions, we have proposed to change the full penetration weld into fillet weld. A detail calculation is done to check the feasibility and structural impact due to proposed design. The calculations provide the size requirements of fillet weld. To verify the structural integrity during most severe load case, finite element analysis (FEA) has been done in line with ASME section VIII division 2. By FEA 'Plastic Collapse' and 'Local Failure' modes has been assessed. 5° sector of skirt clamp has been modeled in CATIA V5 R21 and used in FEA. Fillet weld at shell to horizontal plate joint has been modeled and symmetry boundary condition at ± 2.5° applied. 'Elastic Plastic Analysis' has been performed for the most severe loading case i.e. Category IV loading. The alternate design of Cryostat Skirt support system has been found safe by analysis against Plastic collapse and Local Failure Modes with load proportionality factor 2.3. Alternate design of Cryostat skirt support system has been done and validated by FEA. As per alternate design, the proposal of fillet weld has been implemented in manufacturing. (author)

  8. Lessons learned by southern states in designating alternative routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to discuss the ''lessons learned'' by the five states within the southem region that have designated alternative or preferred routes under the regulations of the Department of Transportation (DOT) established for the transportation of radioactive materials. The document was prepared by reviewing applicable federal laws and regulations, examining state reports and documents and contacting state officials and routing agencies involved in making routing decisions. In undertaking this project, the Southern States Energy Board hopes to reveal the process used by states that have designated alternative routes and thereby share their experiences (i.e., lessons learned) with other southern states that have yet to make designations. Under DOT regulations (49 CFR 177.826), carriers of highway route controlled quantities of radioactive materials (which include spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste) must use preferred routes selected to reduce time in transit. Such preferred routes consist of (1) an interstate system highway with use of an interstate system bypass or beltway around cities when available, and (2) alternate routes selected by a ''state routing agency.''

  9. 40 CFR 60.4112 - Changing Hg designated representative and alternate Hg designated representative; changes in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Changing Hg designated representative and alternate Hg designated representative; changes in owners and operators. 60.4112 Section 60.4112... Generating Units Hg Designated Representative for Hg Budget Sources § 60.4112 Changing Hg...

  10. Schema Design Alternatives for Multi-Granular Data Warehousing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2010-01-01

    Data warehousing is widely used in industry for reporting and analysis of huge volumes of data at different levels of detail. In general, data warehouses use standard dimensional schema designs to organize their data. However, current data warehousing schema designs fall short in their ability...... to model the multi-granular data found in various real-world application domains. For example, modern farm equipment in a field produces massive amounts of data at different levels of granularity that has to be stored and queried. A study of the commonly used data warehousing schemas exposes the limitation...... that the schema designs are intended to simply store data at the same single level of granularity. This paper on the other hand, presents several extended dimensional data warehousing schema design alternatives to store both detail and aggregated data at different levels of granularity. The paper presents three...

  11. An Alternate Ring-Ring Design for eRHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yuhong

    2015-01-01

    I present here a new ring-ring design of eRHIC, a polarized electron-ion collider based on RHIC at BNL. This alternate eRHIC design utilizes high repetition rate colliding beams and is likely able to deliver the performance to meet the requirements of the science program with low technical risk and modest accelerator R&D. The expected performance includes high luminosities over multiple collision points and a broad CM energy range with a maximum value up to 2x10^34 cm-2s-1 per detector, and polarization higher than 70% for the colliding electron and light ion beams. This new design calls for reuse of decommissioned facilities in the US, namely, the PEP-II high energy ring and one section of the SLAC warm linac as a full energy electron injector.

  12. 31 CFR 0.104 - Designated Agency Ethics Official and Alternate Designated Agency Ethics Official.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Standards and Treasury Supplemental Standards and Rules. See 5 CFR 2638.203. The Senior Counsel for Ethics... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Designated Agency Ethics Official and Alternate Designated Agency Ethics Official. 0.104 Section 0.104 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of...

  13. Alternative bipolar plates design and manufacturing for PEM fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bipolar plates is one of the important components in fuel cell stack, it comprise up to 80% of the stack volume. Traditionally, these plates have been fabricated from graphite, owing to its chemical nobility, and high electrical and thermal conductivity; but these plates are brittle and relatively thick. Therefore increasing the stack volume and size. Alternatives to graphite are carbon-carbon composite, carbon-polymer composite and metal (aluminum, stainless steel, titanium and nickel based alloy). The use of coated and uncoated metal bipolar plates has received attention recently due to the simplicity of plate manufacturing. The thin nature of the metal substrate allows for smaller stack design with reduced weight. Lightweight coated metals as alternative to graphite plate is being developed. Beside the traditional method of machining and slurry molding, metal foam for bipolar plates fabrication seems to be a good alternative. The plates will be produced with titanium powder by Powder Metallurgy method using space holders technique to produce the meal foam flow-field. This work intends to facilitate the materials and manufacturing process requirements to produce cost effective foamed bipolar plates for fuel cell

  14. Total System Performance Assessment: Enhanced Design Alternative IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.D. Mattie

    1999-06-23

    The purpose of this calculation is to document total system performance assessment modeling of Enhanced Design Alternative (EDA) Feature IV. Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) calculations for EDA IV are based on the TSPA-VA Base Case which has been modified with a quartz sand invert, quartz sand backfill, line loading and 21 PWR waste packages that have 2-cm thick titanium grade 7 corrosion resistant material (CRM) drip shields that are placed over a 30 cm thick carbon steel (A5 16) waste package with an integral filler material (CRWMS M&O 1999a & 1999b). This document details the changes and assumptions made to the VA reference Performance Assessment Model (CRWMS M&O 1998a) to incorporate the design changes detailed for EDA IV. The performance measure for this evaluation is the expected value dose-rate history at 20 km from the repository boundary.

  15. An alternative LEU design for the FRM-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Alternative LEU Design for the FRM-II proposed by the RERTR Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has a compact core consisting of a single fuel element that uses LEU silicide fuel with a uranium density of 4.5 g/cm3 and has a power level of 32 MW. Both the HEU design by the Technical University of Munich (TUM) and the alternative LEU design by ANL have the same fuel lifetime (50 days) and the same neutron flux performance (8 x 1014 n/cm2/s in the reflector). LEU silicide fuel with 4.5 g/cm3 has been thoroughly tested and is fully-qualified, licensable, and available now for use in a high flux reactor such as the FRM-II. The following issues raised by TUM were addressed: qualification of HEU and LEU silicide fuels, gamma heating in the heavy water reflector, radiological consequences of larger fission product and plutonium inventories in the LEU core, and cost and schedule. The conclusions of these analyses are summarized below. This paper addresses three additional safety issues that were raised by TUM: stability of the involute fuel plates, a hypothetical accident involving the configuration of the reflector, and a loss of primary coolant flow transient due to an interrupted power supply. Calculations were also done to address the possibility that new high density fuels could be developed that would allow conversion of the TUM HEU design to LEU fuel. Based on the excellent results for the Alternative LEU Design that were obtained in these analyses, the RERTR Program concludes that all of the major technical issues regarding use of LEU fuel instead of HEU fuel in the FRM-II have been successfully resolved and that it is definitely feasible to use LEU fuel in the FRM-II without compromising the safety or performance of the facility. In this regard, the RERTR Program would like to reiterate its strong support for construction of the FRM-II reactor using LEU silicide fuel and its readiness to exchange information with the TUM to resolve any technical

  16. Commercial and economic comparison of traditional and alternative fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořáková, Monika

    2010-01-01

    Negative predictions about oil stocks combined with the instability in the Middle East encourage development of alternative fuels, which would reduce dependence of the world's economies on oil. The oil and petroleum derivatives are the main dependencies for vehicular traffic, which contributes to the greenhouse gas emissions by a large part. It is therefore necessary to focus on trying to reduce the fuel consumption of cars used for personal transportation. One way to achieve this goal is, fo...

  17. Total System Performance Assessment: Enhanced Design Alternative V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This calculation documents the total system performance assessment modeling of Enhanced Design Analysis (EDA) V. EDA V is based on the TSPA-VA base design which has been modified with higher thermal loading, a quartz sand invert, and line loading with 21 PWR waste packages that have 2-cm thick titanium grade 7 corrosion resistance material (CRM) drip shields placed over dual-layer waste packages composed of 'inside out' VA reference material (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This document details the changes and assumptions made to the VA reference Performance Assessment Model (CRWMS M and O 1998a) to incorporate the design changes detailed for EDA V. The performance measure for this evaluation is expected value dose-rate history. Time histories of dose rate are presented for EDA V and a Defense in Depth (DID) analysis base on EDA V. Additional details concerning the Enhanced Design Alternative II are provided in the 'LADS 3-12 Requests' interoffice correspondence (CRWMS M and O 1999a)

  18. Alternative comparison, analysis, and evaluation of solid waste and materials system alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the impact of solid waste technical options on values and objectives that are important to the public. It is written in support of the Solid Waste and Materials Systems Alternatives Study (WHC, 1995). Described are the values that were identified, the major programmatic risks, how the impacts were measured, the performance of alternatives, the methodology used for the analysis, and the implications of the results. Decision analysis was used to guide the collection and analysis of data and the logic of the evaluation. Decision analysis is a structured process for the analysis and evaluation of alternatives. It is theoretically grounded in a set of axioms that capture the basic principles of decision making (von Neuman and Morgenstern 1947). Decision analysis objectively specifies what factors are to be considered, how they are to be measured and evaluated, and heir relative importance. The result is an analysis in which the underlying rationale or logic upon which the decision is based is made explicit. This makes possible open discussion of the decision basis in which facts and values are clearly distinguished, resulting in a well- documented decision that can be clearly explained and justified. The strategy of decision analysis is to analyze the various components relevant to the decision separately and then integrate the individual judgments to arrive at an overall decision. This assures that all the relevant factors are identified and their relative importance is considered. The procedure for obtaining the individual judgments, and the decision rules, for combining them and evaluating alternatives, have both theoretical and empirical foundation in mathematics, economics, and psychology

  19. Code comparison for accelerator design and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a comparison between results obtained from standard accelerator physics codes used for the design and analysis of sychrotrons and storage rings, with programs SYNCH, MAD, HARMON, PATRICIA, PATPET, BETA, DIMAD, MARYLIE and RACETRACK. In the analysis the authors have considered 5 (various size) lattices with large and small bend angles including AGS Booster (10 degrees bend) RHIC (2.24 degrees), SXLS, XLS (XUV ring with 45 degrees bend) and X-RAY rings. The differences in the integration methods used and the treatment of the fringe fields in these codes could lead to different results. The inclusion of nonlinear (e.g. dipole) terms may be necessary in these calculations specially for a small ring

  20. Code comparison for accelerator design and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a comparison between results obtained from standard accelerator physics codes used for the design and analysis of synchrotrons and storage rings, with programs SYNCH, MAD, HARMON, PATRICIA, PATPET, BETA, DIMAD, MARYLIE and RACE-TRACK. In our analysis we have considered 5 (various size) lattices with large and small angles including AGS Booster (10/degree/ bend), RHIC (2.24/degree/), SXLS, XLS (XUV ring with 45/degree/ bend) and X-RAY rings. The differences in the integration methods used and the treatment of the fringe fields in these codes could lead to different results. The inclusion of nonlinear (e.g., dipole) terms may be necessary in these calculations specially for a small ring. 12 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs

  1. The study, design and simulation of a free piston Stirling engine linear alternatorThe study, design and simulation of a free piston Stirling engine linear alternator

    OpenAIRE

    Teodora Susana Oros; Ioan Berinde

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a study, design and simulation of a Free Piston Stirling Engine Linear Alternator. There are presented the main steps of the magnetic and electric calculations for a permanent magnet linear alternator of fixed coil and moving magnets type. Finally, a detailed thermal, mechanical and electrical model for a Stirling engine linear alternator have been made in SIMULINK simulation program. The linear alternator simulation model uses a controllable DC voltage which simulates ...

  2. A Cost Comparison of Alternative Approaches to Distance Education in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventre, Gerard G.; Kalu, Alex

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a cost comparison of three approaches to two-way interactive distance learning systems for developing countries. Included are costs for distance learning hardware, terrestrial and satellite communication links, and designing instruction for two-way interactive courses. As part of this project, FSEC is developing a 30-hour course in photovoltaic system design that will be used in a variety of experiments using the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS). A primary goal of the project is to develop an instructional design and delivery model that can be used for other education and training programs. Over two-thirds of the world photovoltaics market is in developing countries. One of the objectives of this NASA-sponsored project was to develop new and better energy education programs that take advantage of advances in telecommunications and computer technology. The combination of desktop video systems and the sharing of computer applications software is of special interest. Research is being performed to evaluate the effectiveness of some of these technologies as part of this project. The design of the distance learning origination and receive sites discussed in this paper were influenced by the educational community's growing interest in distance education. The following approach was used to develop comparative costs for delivering interactive distance education to developing countries: (1) Representative target locations for receive sites were chosen. The originating site was assumed to be Cocoa, Florida, where FSEC is located; (2) A range of course development costs were determined; (3) The cost of equipment for three alternative two-way interactive distance learning system configurations was determined or estimated. The types of system configurations ranged from a PC-based system that allows instructors to originate instruction from their office using desktop video and shared application software, to a high cost system that uses a

  3. Cost comparison of the satellite power system and six alternative technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolsko, T.; Samsa, M.

    1981-04-01

    A framework is described for comparing the Satellite Power System (SPS) with various projected alternative energy sources on the basis of technical possibility, economic viability, and social and environmental acceptability. Each of the following energy sources is briefly described: conventional coal, light water reactor, coal gasification/combined cycle, liquid-metal fast-breeder reactor, central station terrestrial photovoltaic, fusion, and the SPS. The analysis consists of comparison of characterizations, side-by-side analysis, and alternative futures analysis. (LEW)

  4. Values-led Participatory Design as a pursuit of meaningful alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leong, Tuck Wah; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    2015-01-01

    Participatory Design (PD) is inherently concerned with inquiring into and supporting human values when designing IT. We argue that a PD approach that is led by a focus upon participants' values can allow participants to discover meaningful alternatives -- alternative uses and alternative conceptu...

  5. The study, design and simulation of a free piston Stirling engine linear alternatorThe study, design and simulation of a free piston Stirling engine linear alternator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Susana Oros

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study, design and simulation of a Free Piston Stirling Engine Linear Alternator. There are presented the main steps of the magnetic and electric calculations for a permanent magnet linear alternator of fixed coil and moving magnets type. Finally, a detailed thermal, mechanical and electrical model for a Stirling engine linear alternator have been made in SIMULINK simulation program. The linear alternator simulation model uses a controllable DC voltage which simulates the linear alternator combined with a rectifier, a variable load and a DC-DC converter, which compensates for the variable nature of Stirling engine operation, and ensures a constant voltage output regardless of the load.

  6. Stiffness analysis and comparison of a Biglide parallel grinder with alternative spatial modular parallelograms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Guanglei; Zou, Ping

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the stiffness modeling, analysis and comparison of a Biglide parallel grinder with two alternative modular parallelograms. It turns out that the Cartesian stiffness matrix of the manipulator has the property that it can be decoupled into two homogeneous matrices, correspondi...

  7. Evaluating forecast uncertainty due to errors in estimated coefficients: empirical comparison of alternative methods

    OpenAIRE

    Bianchi, Carlo; Calzolari, Giorgio

    1982-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the contribution to forecast errors of errors in the estimated structural coefficients of a macro-econometric model (simultaneous equations). Its main purpose is to perform, on several "real-world" models, an empirical comparison of alternative techniques available in the literature for this purpose.

  8. Alternatives for the battery cage system: a comparison of economic, environmental and societal performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijpp, van der A.J.; Mollenhorst, H.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    The ban on the battery cage system in the European Union after 2012, mainly due to impaired hen welfare, forces farmers to change to alternative housing systems for laying hens. Large-scale introduction of more hen-friendly systems, however, requires a comparison of these systems on their economic,

  9. RIP INPUT TABLES FROM WAPDEG FOR LA DESIGN SELECTION: ENHANCED DESIGN ALTERNATIVE V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this calculation is to document (1) the Waste Package Degradation (WAPDEG) version 3.09 (CRWMS M and O 1998b, Software Routine Report for WAPDEG (Version 3.09)) simulations used to analyze degradation and failure of 2-cm thick titanium grade 7 corrosion resistant material (CRM) drip shields (that are placed over waste packages composed of a 2-cm thick Alloy 22 corrosion resistant material (CRM) as the outer barrier and an unspecified material to provide structural support as the inner barrier) as well as degradation and failure of the waste packages themselves, and (2) post-processing of these results into tables of drip shield/waste package degradation time histories suitable for use as input into the Integrated Probabilistic Simulator for Environmental Systems (RIP) version 5.19.01 (Golder Associates 1998) computer code. Performance credit of the inner barrier material is not taken in this calculation. This calculation supports Performance Assessment analysis of the License Application Design Selection (LADS) Enhanced Design Alternative V. Additional details concerning the Enhanced Design Alternative V are provided in a Design Input Request (CRWMS M and O 1999e, Design Input Request for LADS Phase II EDA Evaluations, Item 3)

  10. One shots and alternatives in synchronous digital system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Undesirable features of nonostable multivibrators (one shots) in digital integrated circuits are described and some alternatives to their use are discussed. These include flip-flops and gates, delay lines, and other methods

  11. Modular Design/Phased Construction Alternative Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartztrauber, K.

    1999-05-28

    Modular design concepts are being considered for the license application during the surface facility design phase of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). The Viability Assessment (VA) design is used as the reference design for the report. The primary objectives are to spread construction of the WHB and the subsurface repository over time to reduce annual project costs, and to provide a cost-effective design for the surface facilities that supports waste emplacement starting in the year 2010.

  12. Comparison of Problem Solving from Engineering Design to Software Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema; Babar, Muhammad Ali

    2012-01-01

    Observational studies of engineering design activities can inform the research community on the problem solving models that are employed by professional engineers. Design is defined as an ill-defined problem which includes both engineering design and software design, hence understanding problem...... solving models from other design domains is of interest to the engineering design community. For this paper an observational study of two software design sessions performed for the workshop on “Studying professional Software Design” is compared to analysis from engineering design. These findings provide...... useful insights of how software designers move from a problem domain to a solution domain and the commonalities between software designers’ and engineering designers’ design activities. The software designers were found to move quickly to a detailed design phase, employ co-.evolution and adopt a...

  13. Comparison of three ICF reactor designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three concepts for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactors are described and compared with each other, and with magnetic fusion and fission reactors on the basis of environmental impact, safety and efficiency. The critical technical developments of each concept are described. The three concepts represent alternative development paths for inertial fusion

  14. Comparison of Problem Solving from Engineering Design to Software Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema; Babar, Muhammad Ali

    2012-01-01

    Observational studies of engineering design activities can inform the research community on the problem solving models that are employed by professional engineers. Design is defined as an ill-defined problem which includes both engineering design and software design, hence understanding problem s...

  15. The Validity and Precision of the Comparative Interrupted Time-Series Design: Three Within-Study Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Clair, Travis; Hallberg, Kelly; Cook, Thomas D.

    2016-01-01

    We explore the conditions under which short, comparative interrupted time-series (CITS) designs represent valid alternatives to randomized experiments in educational evaluations. To do so, we conduct three within-study comparisons, each of which uses a unique data set to test the validity of the CITS design by comparing its causal estimates to…

  16. EDIN design study alternate space shuttle booster replacement concepts. Volume 2: Design simulation results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demakes, P. T.; Hirsch, G. N.; Stewart, W. A.; Glatt, C. R.

    1976-01-01

    Historical weight estimating relationships were developed for the liquid rocket booster (LRB) using Saturn technology, and modified as required to support the EDIN05 study. Mission performance was computed using February 1975 shuttle configuration groundrules to allow reasonable comparison of the existing shuttle with the EDIN05 designs. The launch trajectory was constrained to pass through both the RTLS/AOA and main engine cut-off points. Performance analysis was based on a point design trajectory model which optimized initial tilt rate and exo-atmospheric pitch profile. A gravity turn was employed during the boost phase in place of the shuttle angle-of-attack profile. Engine throttling add/or shutdown was used to constrain dynamic pressure and/or longitudinal acceleration where necessary.

  17. RIP Input Tables from WAPDEG for LA Design Selection: Enhanced Design Alternative II-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this calculation is to document (1) the Waste Package Degradation (WAPDEG) version 3.09 (CRWMS M and O 1998b. ''Software Routine Report for WAPDEG'' (Version 3.09)) simulations used to analyze degradation and failure of 2-cm thick titanium grade 7 corrosion resistant material (CRM) drip shields (that are placed over waste packages composed of a 2-cm thick Alloy 22 corrosion resistant material (CRM) as the outer barrier and an unspecified material to provide structural support as the inner barrier) as well as degradation and failure of the waste packages themselves, and (2) post-processing of these results into tables of drip shield/waste package degradation time histories suitable for use as input into the Integrated Probabilistic Simulator for Environmental Systems (RIP) version 5.19.01 (Golder Associates 1998) computer code. This calculation supports Performance Assessment analysis of the License Application Design Selection (LADS) Enhanced Design Alternative (EDA) II-3. The aging period in the EDA II design (CRWMS M and O 1999f. ''Design Input Request for LADS Phase II EDA Evaluations'', Item 1 Row 9 Column 3) was replaced in the case of EDA II-3 with 25 years preclosure ventilation, leading to a total of 50 years preclosure ventilation. The waste packages are line loaded in the repository and no backfill is used

  18. Design Alternatives for a Free Electron Laser Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, K; Bosch, R A; Eisert, D; Fisher, M V; Green, M A; Keil, R G; Kleman, K J; Kulpin, J G; Rogers, G C; Wehlitz, R; Chiang, T; Miller, T J; Lawler, J E; Yavuz, D; Legg, R A

    2012-07-01

    The University of Wisconsin-Madison is continuing design efforts for a vacuum ultraviolet/X-ray Free Electron Laser facility. The design incorporates seeding the FEL to provide fully coherent photon output at energies up to {approx}1 keV. The focus of the present work is to minimize the cost of the facility while preserving its performance. To achieve this we are exploring variations in the electron beam driver for the FEL, in undulator design, and in the seeding mechanism. Design optimizations and trade-offs between the various technologies and how they affect the FEL scientific program will be presented.

  19. Environmental assessment of gasification technology for biomass conversion to energy in comparison with other alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Nielsen, Rasmus Glar

    2013-01-01

    that the combustion of biomass and fossil fuel references for electricity production takes place in a combined heat and power plant, but as a sensitivity analysis, we also consider combustion in a condensing mode power plant where only electricity is produced. Our results show that the production of 1 k......This paper assesses the environmental performance of biomass gasification for electricity production based on wheat straw and compares it with that of alternatives such as straw-fired electricity production and fossil fuel-fired electricity production. In the baseline simulation, we assume...... on gasification technology appears to be more environmentally friendly than straw direct combustion in all impact categories considered. The comparison with coal results in the same conclusion as that reached in the comparison with straw direct combustion. The comparison with natural gas shows that using straw...

  20. NPS alternate techsat satellite, design project for AE-4871

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This project was completed as part of AE-4871, Advanced Spacecraft Design. The intent of the course is to provide experience in the design of all the major components in a spacecraft system. Team members were given responsibility for the design of one of the six primary subsystems: power, structures, propulsion, attitude control, telemetry, tracking and control (TT&C), and thermal control. In addition, a single member worked on configuration control, launch vehicle integration, and a spacecraft test plan. Given an eleven week time constraint, a preliminary design of each subsystem was completed. Where possible, possible component selections were also made. Assistance for this project came principally from the Naval Research Laboratory's Spacecraft Technology Branch. Specific information on components was solicited from representatives in industry. The design project centers on a general purpose satellite bus that is currently being sought by the Strategic Defense Initiative.

  1. Implications of solar energy alternatives for community design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, A.; Steinitz, C.

    1980-06-01

    A graduate-level studio at the Harvard School of Design explored how a policy of solar-based energy independence will influence the design of a new community of approximately 4500 housing units and other uses. Three large sites outside Tucson (a cooling problem), Atlanta (a humidity problem), and Boston (a heating problem) were selected. Each is typical of its region. A single program was assumed and designed for. Each site had two teams, one following a compact approach and one following a more dispersed approach. Each was free to choose the most appropriate mix of (solar) technology and scale, and was free to integrate energy and community in the design as it saw fit. These choice and integration issues are key areas where our experience may be of interest to those involved in community design and solar energy.

  2. Design alternatives for cryogenic beryllium windows in an ICF cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose three backup design options for the cryogenic beryllium windows in a cryostat. The first, a beryllium flange option, reduces peak tensile stresses to 1/3 of that in the original design. The second, a fiberglass flange option, reduces peak tensile stresses to 1/2 of that in the original design and is also low cost. A third option, replacing the beryllium windows with spherical Mylar caps, would require a development program. Even though Mylar has been used previously at cryogenic temperature, this option is still considered unreliable. The near-zero ductility of beryllium at cryogenic temperature makes the reduction of peak tensile stresses particularly desirable. The orginal window design did function satisfactorily and the backup options were not needed. However, these options remain open for possible incorporation in future cryostat designs

  3. RIP Input From WAPDEG for LA Design Selection: Enhanced Design Alternative II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this analysis is to identify and analyze concepts for the acquisition of data in support of the Performance Confirmation (PC) program at the potential subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. This analysis is being prepared to document an investigation of design concepts, current available technology, technology trends, and technical issues associated with data acquisition during the PC period. This analysis utilizes the ''Performance Confirmation Plan'' (CRWMS M and O 2000b) to help define the scope for the PC data acquisition system. The focus of this analysis is primarily on the PC period for a minimum of 30 years after emplacement of the last waste package. The design of the data acquisition system shall allow for a closure deferral up to 300 years from initiation of waste emplacement. (CRWMS M and O 2000h, page 5-1). This analysis is a revision to and supercedes analysis, ''Performance Confirmation Data Acquisition System'', DI No. BCAI00000-017 17-0200-00002 Rev 00 (CRWMS M and O 1997), and incorporates the latest repository design changes following the M and O and DOE evaluation of a series of Enhanced Design Alternatives (EDAs), as described in the ''Enhanced Design Alternatives II Report'' (CRWMS M and O 1999d). Significant design changes include: thermal line loading of the emplacement drifts, closer spacing of the waste packages (WPs), wider spacing and fewer emplacement drifts, continuous ventilation of all active emplacement drifts, thinner walled WP designs which will increase external radiation levels, a 50-year repository closure option, inclusion of a drip-shield, exclusion of backfill, and new conceptual designs for the waste emplacement vehicles and equipment (Stroupe 2000). The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Review the criteria for design as presented in the Performance Confirmation Data Acquisition/Monitoring System Description Document, by way of the Input Transmittal, ''Performance

  4. Standard and alternative landfill capping design in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engineered capping systems are in most cases an indispensable and often the only efficient component required by the long-term safety concept for landfills, mine tailings tips and contaminated land. In Germany the composite liner is the main component of standard landfill cappings for municipal and hazardous waste landfills and the compacted clay liner (CCL) for landfills for inert or low-contamination waste. The composite liner is a technically highly effective but very expensive system. Research and experience has given rise to concern about the proper long-term performance of a conventional single CCL as a landfill capping. Therefore, alternative capping systems are discussed and applied for landfills and for the containment of contaminated sites. This paper gives an overview on various alternative engineered cappings and suitable systems for capping reflecting the state of the art and the expert view in Germany. According to the European Council Directive on the landfill of waste an impermeable mineral layer is recommended for the surface sealing of non-hazardous landfills and a composition of artificial sealing liner and impermeable mineral layer for hazardous landfills. In both cases a drainage layer thickness of at least 0.5 m is suggested. These recommendations should be interpreted flexibly and to some extent modified in the light of the experience and results presented in this paper

  5. Tree Component Alternatives to the Composite Design Pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Sudhir, Arun

    2008-01-01

    The Composite design pattern is commonly employed in object-oriented languages to design a system of objects that form a part-whole hierarchical structure with composite objects formed out of primitive objects. The client does not differentiate between a composite object and a primitive object. The composite hierarchy effectively forms a tree-like hierarchical grouping of objects. From a software engineering perspective, there are at least two problems with the Composite pattern. First, it do...

  6. Designing medical and educational intervention studies. A review of some alternatives to conventional randomized controlled trials

    OpenAIRE

    Bradley, Clare

    1993-01-01

    The advantages and limitations of RCT designs are discussed, and a range of alternative designs for medical and educational intervention studies considered. Designs selected are those that address the much neglected psychological issues involved in the recruitment of patients and allocation of patients to treatments within trials. Designs include Zelen's (18) randomized consent design, Brewin and Bradley's (20) partially randomized patient-centered design, and Korn and Baumrind's (21) partial...

  7. Design of sustainable chemical processes: Systematic retrofit analysis, generation and evaluation alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, Ana; Gani, Rafiqul; Matos, Henrique

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a generic and systematic methodology for identifying the feasible retrofit design alternatives of any chemical process. The methodology determines a set of mass and energy indicators from steady-state process data, establishes the operational and design...... targets, and through a sensitivity-based analysis, identifies the design alternatives that can match a set of design targets. The significance of this indicator-based method is that it is able to identify alternatives, where one or more performance criteria (factors) move in the same direction thereby...... eliminating the need to identify trade-off-based solutions. These indicators are also able to reduce (where feasible) a set of safety indicators. An indicator sensitivity analysis algorithm has been added to the methodology to define design targets and to generate sustainable process alternatives. A computer...

  8. Designing experiments and analyzing data a model comparison perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Maxwell, Scott E

    2013-01-01

    Through this book's unique model comparison approach, students and researchers are introduced to a set of fundamental principles for analyzing data. After seeing how these principles can be applied in simple designs, students are shown how these same principles also apply in more complicated designs. Drs. Maxwell and Delaney believe that the model comparison approach better prepares students to understand the logic behind a general strategy of data analysis appropriate for various designs; and builds a stronger foundation, which allows for the introduction of more complex topics omitt

  9. ALTERNATE MATERIALS IN DESIGN OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2010-07-09

    This paper presents a summary of design and testing of material and composites for use in radioactive material packages. These materials provide thermal protection and provide structural integrity and energy absorption to the package during normal and hypothetical accident condition events as required by Title 10 Part 71 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Testing of packages comprising these materials is summarized.

  10. Design and Implementation Considerations for Alternative Teacher Compensation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Andrew; DeCesare, Dale; Kramer-Wine, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, educators and policymakers have used a variety of approaches to designing and implementing teacher compensation programs. These approaches include federal incentive funds, state-level programs, and district initiatives. This article reviews 6 such programs in order to identify themes and draw conclusions relevant to…

  11. Designing with transparency: Case studies for alternatives to glazing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antoniadi, K.; Tanuharja, M.K.

    2014-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0533 Innovation & Sustainability. Transparency is an important parameter for many architectural buildings. The need for a large percentage of a transparent envelope often contradicts with other conditions (like thermal or acoustic insulation

  12. Design element alternatives for stress-management intervention websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Reg A; Gatien, Gary; Hagerty, Bonnie

    2011-01-01

    Typical public and military-sponsored websites on stress and depression tend to be prescriptive. Some require users to complete lengthy questionnaires. Others reproduce printed flyers, papers, or educational materials not adapted for online use. Some websites require users to follow a prescribed path through the material. Stress Gym was developed as a first-level, evidence-based, website intervention to help U.S. military members learn how to manage mild to moderate stress and depressive symptoms using a self-help intervention with progress tracking and 24/7 availablility. It was designed using web-based, health-management intervention design elements that have been proven effective and users reported they prefer. These included interactivity, self-pacing, and pleasing aesthetics. Users learned how to manage stress by accessing modules they choose, and by practicing proven stress management strategies interactively immediately after login. Test results of Stress Gym with Navy members demonstrated that it was effective, with significant decreases in reported perceived stress levels from baseline to follow-up assessment. Stress Gym used design elements that may serve as a model for future websites to emulate and improve upon, and as a template against which to compare and contrast the design and functionality of future online, health-intervention websites. PMID:21684565

  13. RIP Input Tables From Wapdeg For LA Design Selection: Enhanced Design Alternative IIIb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this calculation is to document the Waste Package Degradation (WAPDEG) version 3.09 (CRWMS M and O 1998b. 'Software Routine Report for WAPDEG' (Version 3.09)) simulations used to analyze degradation and failure of 2-cm thick titanium grade 7 corrosion resistant material (CRM) drip shields as well as degradation and failure of the waste packages over which they are placed. The waste packages are composed of two corrosion resistant materials (CRM) barriers. The outer barrier is composed of 2 cm of Alloy 22 and the inner barrier is composed of 1.5 cm of titanium grade 7. The WAPDEG simulation results are post-processed into tables of drip shield/waste package degradation time histories suitable for use as input into the Integrated Probabilistic Simulator for Environmental Systems (RIP) version 5.19.01 (Golder Associates 1998) computer code. This calculation supports Performance Assessment analysis of the License Application Design Selection (LADS) Enhanced Design Alternative IIIb

  14. Alternatives generation and analysis for phase I intermediate waste feed staging system design requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton, M.D.

    1996-10-02

    This document provides; a decision analysis summary; problem statement; constraints, requirements, and assumptions; decision criteria; intermediate waste feed staging system options and alternatives generation and screening; intermediate waste feed staging system design concepts; intermediate waste feed staging system alternative evaluation and analysis; and open issues and actions.

  15. Electric market models, competitive model and alternative design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almost ten years after the liberalization of the Spanish electric system, its market design has remained basically unchanged. Therefore, it is reasonable to consider whether the current model continues to be adequate or whether it should be changed. However, although the current model is far from the absolute optimum, it is suited to the current state of the Spanish system. Only some improvements, such as the reform of the capacity guarantee payment can be undertaken immediately. It will only be possible to undertake other improvements as distribution companies cover all of their electricity needs in forward contracts acquired through a competitive process. (Author)

  16. Alternate architectures and technologies for Intelsat type DSI design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keelty, J. M.; Hatzigeorgiou, S.

    1983-01-01

    The architectural choices in the unit design have to do with the amount of storage and the type of storage in the unit, the type of high-speed interface, the type of echo-protection features, the FEC encoding, and the degree of human interface for testing and maintenance. Since the interpolation process takes time, the unit is by necessity memory-oriented, and an efficient choice of memory architecture is cardinal. The two principal design choices are referred to as 'oorder and storage' and 'storage and order.' Store-and-order implies storage of data on all received channels (regardless of whether they are to be processed), followed by data routing for selected channels. Order-and-store implies immediate selection of the traffic to be processed. The architecture is also affected by the choice of interface between the DSI (digital speech interpolation) and the 'satellite' side equipment. Although the principal choice is between word- and bit-oriented data transmission, tradeoffs exist involving handshaking for control signals as well.

  17. Alternative Design for Visual Identity of Yayasan Batik Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puspita Putri Nugroho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The research objective is to create a logo as the main visual identity. It is together with the graphic elements to support the overall visual identity of the organization and also apply the corporate identity to various applications to effectively foster the professional and trustworthy image of the organization as the foundation in Indonesia aiming for preserving and advancing Batik as the national asset. The writer used qualitative and quantitative method. Qualitative method included Face-to-face interview with the vice secretary of YBI, e-mail interview with the previous logo designer and direct survey to Textile Museum Jakarta and Batik Gallery; and Quantitative method through online survey. The result of the project is a new visual identity for Yayasan Batik Indonesia, which portrays its vision and mission. Design is the core in attaining an advantageous visual identity that could portray the image of the respected organization. When a consistency is applied through the whole visual identity, professional character of the organization is achieved.

  18. Design analysis of fixed-pitch straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbines with an alternative material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, M.; Ting, D.S.K.; Fartaj, A. [Windsor Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical, Automotive and Materials Engineering; Ahmed, F.U. [Lambton College of Applied Arts and Technology, Sarnia, ON (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Most blades in fixed-pitch straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine (SB-VAWT) are made of aluminium. However, in order for wind energy to be cost competitive, the blades must be produced at moderate cost. The blades should also last between 20 and 30 years, which is the predicted service life of these mechanically uncomplicated turbomachines. The primary disadvantage of using aluminium alloy for wind turbine application is its poor fatigue properties. Its allowable stress levels in dynamic application also decrease significantly at increasing numbers of cyclic stress applications. For that reason, this study investigated alternative materials for SB-VAWT blades. The properties of the SB-VAWT blade materials were identified in this paper along with prospective materials. Comparisons were then made between the available materials based on their mechanical properties and costs. The most attractive alternative material was then chosen for a detailed design analysis using an analytical tool. The design features of an SB-VAWT with aluminium and pultruded fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP) blades were then compared using one of the prospective airfoils. The alternative blade material was found to be superior to the conventionally used aluminum. It was concluded that pultruded FRP is a prospective alternative blade material for SB-VAWTs. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  19. A Comparison of Alternative Distributed Dynamic Cluster Formation Techniques for Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Mohammad; Brennan, Robert W

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate alternative distributed clustering techniques for wireless sensor node tracking in an industrial environment. The research builds on extant work on wireless sensor node clustering by reporting on: (1) the development of a novel distributed management approach for tracking mobile nodes in an industrial wireless sensor network; and (2) an objective comparison of alternative cluster management approaches for wireless sensor networks. To perform this comparison, we focus on two main clustering approaches proposed in the literature: pre-defined clusters and ad hoc clusters. These approaches are compared in the context of their reconfigurability: more specifically, we investigate the trade-off between the cost and the effectiveness of competing strategies aimed at adapting to changes in the sensing environment. To support this work, we introduce three new metrics: a cost/efficiency measure, a performance measure, and a resource consumption measure. The results of our experiments show that ad hoc clusters adapt more readily to changes in the sensing environment, but this higher level of adaptability is at the cost of overall efficiency. PMID:26751447

  20. Lentiviral vector design using alternative RNA export elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Frank

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lentiviral vectors have been designed with complex RNA export sequences in both the integrating and packaging plasmids in order to co-ordinate efficient vector production. Recent studies have attempted to replace the existing complex rev/RRE system with a more simplistic RNA export system from simple retroviruses to make these vectors in a rev-independent manner. Results Towards this end, lentiviral transfer plasmids were modified with various cis-acting DNA elements that co-ordinate RNA export during viral production to determine their ability to affect the efficiency of vector titer and transduction in different immortalized cell lines in vitro. It was found that multiple copies of the constitutive transport element (CTE originating from different simian retroviruses, including simian retrovirus type 1 (SRV-1 and type-2 (SRV-2 and Mason-Pfizer (MPV could be used to eliminate the requirement for the rev responsive element (RRE in the transfer and packaging plasmids with titers >106 T.U./mL (n = 4–8 preparations. The addition of multiple copies of the murine intracisternal type A particle, the woodchuck post-regulatory element (WPRE, or single and dual copies of the simian CTE had minimal effect on viral titer. Immortalized cell lines from different species were found to be readily transduced by VSV-G pseudotyped lentiviral vectors containing the multiple copies of the CTE similar to the findings in HeLa cells, although the simian-derived CTE were found to have a lower infectivity into murine cell lines compared to the other species. Conclusion These studies demonstrated that the rev-responsive element (RRE could be replaced with other constitutive transport elements to produce equivalent titers using lentivectors containing the RRE sequence in vitro, but that concatemerization of the CTE or the close proximity of RNA export sequences was needed to enhance vector production.

  1. Design and operation of an interlaboratory comparison scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The competence of laboratories is assessed by two complementary techniques. One of the techniques is the on-site evaluation following the requirements of ISO/IEC 17025:2005. The other one implies the proficiency testing which involves the determination of laboratory performance by means of interlaboratory comparisons, whereby the laboratory performs practical tests and their results are further compared with those of other laboratories. The paper treats one of the most important topics of the proficiency testing – the interlaboratory comparison (ILC). There will be presented the need, the purpose and the main objectives of an ILC and also a typically situation where an interlaboratory comparison exercise (for radio-analytical methods) was planned. A fully description of the design and operation of an ILC scheme is the main purpose of this paper. A special attention will be given to the data analysis and evaluation of interlaboratory comparison scheme results. (authors)

  2. Comparison of optimization techniques applied to nuclear fuel reload design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work a comparison of three techniques of optimization is presented applied to the design of the recharge of fuel in reactors of water in boil. In short, the techniques were applied to the design of a recharge of a cycle of balance of 18 months of the Laguna Verde Nucleo electric Central. The used techniques were Genetic Algorithms, Taboo Search and Neural Nets. The conditions to apply the different techniques were the same ones. The comparison of the results quality and the computational resources required to obtain them, it indicates that with the Taboo Search better results are achieved but the computational cost is very big. On the other hand the neural net with low computational cost obtains acceptable results. Additionally to this comparison, in this work a summary of the works that have been carried out for the fuel recharges optimization from the years 60 until the present time is presented. (Author)

  3. Detailed design, fabrication and testing of an engineering prototype compensated pulsed alternator. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design, fabrication, and test results of a prototype compensated pulsed alternator are discussed. The prototype compulsator is a vertical shaft single phase alternator with a rotating armature and salient pole stator. The machine is designed for low rep rate pulsed duty and is sized to drive a modified 10 cm Beta amplifier. The load consists of sixteen 15 mm x 20 mm x 112 cm long xenon flashlamps connected in parallel. The prototype compulsator generates an open circuit voltage of 6 kV, 180 Hz, at a maximum design speed of 5400 rpm. At maximum speed, the inertial energy stored in the compulsator rotor is 3.4 megajoules

  4. Evaluation and comparison of alternative fleet-level selective maintenance models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleet-level selective maintenance refers to the process of identifying the subset of maintenance actions to perform on a fleet of repairable systems when the maintenance resources allocated to the fleet are insufficient for performing all desirable maintenance actions. The original fleet-level selective maintenance model is designed to maximize the probability that all missions in a future set are completed successfully. We extend this model in several ways. First, we consider a cost-based optimization model and show that a special case of this model maximizes the expected value of the number of successful missions in the future set. We also consider the situation in which one or more of the future missions may be canceled. These models and the original fleet-level selective maintenance optimization models are nonlinear. Therefore, we also consider an alternative model in which the objective function can be linearized. We show that the alternative model is a good approximation to the other models. - Highlights: • Investigate nonlinear fleet-level selective maintenance optimization models. • A cost based model is used to maximize the expected number of successful missions. • Another model is allowed to cancel missions if reliability is sufficiently low. • An alternative model has an objective function that can be linearized. • We show that the alternative model is a good approximation to the other models

  5. Reduction of lead pollution from vehicular emissions in cairo Part 1: Comparison of alternative solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been recognized for decades that the major source of lead pollution is lead additives to automotive fuels. This problem has been countered in most countries in europe and Usa by introducing alternative anti-knock chemicals and unleaded gasoline. In egypt lead is still being added to gasoline in large quantities. However, progress has been made, and unleaded gasoline is currently being produced in Alexandria. Nevertheless, the major pollution problem remains in the Greater Cairo region as indicated by the atmospheric lead levels and the lead blood levels of the children in Cairo. The aim of the present study is to find an optimum solution to this problem. A comparison of the different solutions is conducted in order to come up with the most feasible solution to this urgent problem. In conclusion it has been demonstrated that the elimination of lead additives, with its huge positives effects on the country environment, proved to be profitable. 4 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Digital-computer program for design analysis of salient, wound pole alternators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repas, D. S.

    1973-01-01

    A digital computer program for analyzing the electromagnetic design of salient, wound pole alternators is presented. The program, which is written in FORTRAN 4, calculates the open-circuit saturation curve, the field-current requirements at rated voltage for various loads and losses, efficiency, reactances, time constants, and weights. The methods used to calculate some of these items are presented or appropriate references are cited. Instructions for using the program and typical program input and output for an alternator design are given, and an alphabetical list of most FORTRAN symbols and the complete program listing with flow charts are included.

  7. The Design of Treatment Wetlands in the United Kingdom: Successes, Failures, and Alternative Approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Guangzhi; ZHANG Guangxin

    2008-01-01

    Constructed wetland was first introduced into the United Kingdom in the middle of 1980s, following a visit by a group of scientist to Western Germany. In the past 2 decades, the applications of constructed wetlands in this country have expanded substantially, due to the demand for green technologies and rising cost of fossil fuel energies. This paper reported a statistical investigation of the performances of 78 horizontal flow wetlands, representatives of such system in the United Kingdom. Alternative design equations, based on organic matter removal efficiency, have been developed from Monod kinetics, and the accuracy and reliability of current and alternative design approaches have been examined.

  8. DESIGN ALTERNATIVE NO.2: LOW THERMAL LOAD, 25 MTU/ACRE AT 38 METER DRIFT SPACING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this analysis is to develop a proposed repository subsurface layout for ''Design Alternative No.2: Low Thermal Load, 25 MTU/Acre at 38 Meter Drift Spacing''. The scope of this analysis covers: (1) Integration of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) openings into the proposed repository layout for Design Alternative No.2. (2) Identification and incorporation of factors influencing the proposed repository layout. These factors include the required drift spacing, total required emplacement length, the number of emplacement drifts, required development, and subsurface ventilation. (3) Geometry and configuration of the proposed repository openings. Development of a proposed layout showing the required emplacement area

  9. Alternatives for implementing burnup credit in the design and operation of spent fuel transport casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The traditional assumption used in evaluating criticality safety of spent fuel cask is that the spent fuel is as reactive as when it was fresh (new). This is known as the fresh fuel assumption. It avoids a number of calculational and verification difficulties, but could take a heavy toll in decreased efficiency. The alternative to the fresh fuel assumption is called burnup credit. That is, the reduced reactivity of spent fuel that comes about from depletion of fissile radionuclides and net increase in neutron absorbers (poisons) is taken into account. It is recognizable that the use of burnup credit will in fact increase the percentage of unacceptable or non-specification fuel available for misloading. This could reduce individual cask safety margins if current practices with respect to loading procedures are maintained. As such, additional operational, design, analysis, and validation requirements should be established that, as a minimum, compensate for any potential reduction in fuel loading safety margin. This method is based on a probabilistic (PRA) approach and is called a relative risk comparison. The method assumes a linear risk model, and uses a selected probability function to compare the system of interest and an acceptable reference system by varying the features of each to assess effects on system safety. While risk is the product of an event probability and its consequence, the consequences of criticality in a cask are considered to be both unacceptable and the same, regardless of the initiating sequence. Therefore, only the probability of the event is considered in a relative risk evaluation

  10. Designing an aerobic exercise training in water as an alternative treatment for depression: A new method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Mohammadiyoun

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A highly disruptive emotional disorder is major depression, characterized by abnormal regulation of feelings of sadness and happiness. Traditional treatment for depression was pharmacological treatment. One alternative that has been shown to be effective in alleviating depression is physical activity. Previous observation and interventional studies have suggested that regular aerobic exercise reduced symptoms of depression. Moreover physical activity and exercise in water may have some beneficial effects on mood. However the purpose of this investigation was to design an aerobic exercise pattern in water and evaluate the effects of this pattern on depression.Methods and Materials: Two hundred and forty-nine male undergraduates allocated for this study. The Beck Depression Inventory was used to measure the presence and degree of depression. Fifty –two males (body mass, 67.8  9.3 kg; height, 1.73  0.04 m; age, 22.26  2.4 who obtained a depressive score more than 18 participated in an aerobic exercise program. The aerobic exercise program included unstructured water- polo sessions, 60 minute duration, three times per week for seven weeks. The participants trained at 60-70 % of maximum heart rate. The Beck Depression Inventory was administered before aerobic exercise training, at the first, twelfth, and twenty- first sessions. Results: Analysis of variance with repeated measures (ANOVA showed that levels of depression score were significantly higher pre-treatment than in middle-treatment (P<0.05. A significant change was observed between the pre-treatment and post-treatment (P<0.05, the level of depression score was lower in post-treatment. Comparison of Beck score in the depressed samples at the first day (25.19, twelfth (15.08, and the twenty-first (11.64 of session, after performance of the practice, was significant (P<0.05. The results in control group at pre and post training exercise unchanged significantly. Conclusion

  11. Comparison of Alternatives to the 2004 Vacuum Vessel Heat Transfer System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoder Jr, Graydon L [ORNL; Carbajo, Juan J [ORNL; Kim, Seokho H [ORNL

    2010-12-01

    A study comparing different alternatives for the Vacuum Vessel Primary Heat Transfer System has been completed. Three alternatives were proposed in a Project Change Request (PCR-190) by relocating the heat exchangers (HXs) from the roof of the Tokamak building to inside the Vacuum Vessel Pressure Suppression System (VVPSS) tank. The study evaluated the three alternatives and recommended modifications to one of them to arrive at a preferred configuration that included relocating the HXs inside the Tokamak building but outside the VVPSS tank as well as including a small safety-rated pump and HX in parallel to the main circulation pump and HX. The Vacuum Vessel (VV) Primary Heat Transfer System (PHTS) removes heat generated in the VV during normal operation (10 MW, pulsed power) as well as the decay heat from the VV itself and from the structures/components attached to the VV (first wall, blanket, and divertor {approx}0.48 MW peak). Therefore, the VV PHTS has two safety functions: (1) contain contaminated cooling water (similar to the other PHTSs) and (2) provide passive cooling during an accident event. The 2004 design of the VV PHTS consists of two independent loops, each loop cooling half of the 18 VV segments with a nominal flow of 475 kg/s of water at about 1.1 MPa and 100 C. The total flow for both loops is 950 kg/s. Both loops are required to remove the heat load during normal plasma operation. During accident conditions, only one loop is needed to remove by natural convection (no pump needed) the decay heat of the complete VV and attached components. The heat is transferred to heat exchanger (HXs) located on top of the roof, outside the Tokamak building. These HXs are air-to-water (A/W) HXs. Three alternatives have been proposed for this cooling system. For a detailed discussion of these alternatives, please refer to Project Change Request, PCR-190 (Ref. 1). A brief introduction is given here. Alternative 1 includes only one main forced circulation loop with a

  12. Comparison of JSFR design with EDF requirements for future SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison of the Japan sodium-cooled fast reactor (JSFR) design with the future French sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) concept has been done based on the requirements of Electricité de France (EDF), the investor-operator of the future French SFR, and the French safety baseline, under the framework of an EDF and Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) bilateral agreement of research and development cooperation in future SFRs. (author)

  13. Comparison of PV system design software packages for urban applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharakhani Siraki, Arbi; Pillay, Pragasen

    2010-09-15

    A large number of software packages are available for solar resource evaluation and PV system design. However, few of them are suitable for urban applications. In this paper a comparison has been made between two specifically designed solar tools known as the Ecotect 2010 and the PVsyst 5.05. Conclusions have been made for proper use of these packages based on their specifications and privileges. Moreover, the calculations have been repeated with HOMER software package (which is a generic tool) for the same location. The results suggest that a generic solar software tool should not be used for an urban application.

  14. Alternatives generation and analysis for the Phase I intermediate waste feed staging system design requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claghorn, R.D., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-06

    This alternatives generation and analysis (AGA) addresses the question: What is the design basis for the facilities required to stage low-level waste (LLW) feed to the Phase I private contractors? Alternative designs for the intermediate waste feed staging system were developed, analyzed, and compared. Based on these analyses, this document recommends installing mixer pumps in the central pump pit of double-shell tanks 241-AP-102 and 241-AP-104. Also recommended is installing decant/transfer pumps at these tanks. These recommendations have clear advantages in that they provide a low shedule impact/risk and the highest operability of all the alternatives investigated. This revision incorporates comments from the decision board.

  15. Sample size for the estimate of consumer price subindices with alternative statistical designs

    OpenAIRE

    Carlo De Gregorio

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the sample sizes needed to estimate Laspeyres consumer price subindices under a combination of alternative sample designs, aggregation methods and temporal targets. In a simplified consumer market, the definition of the statistical target has been founded on the methodological framework adopted for the Harmonized Index of Consumer Prices. For a given precision level, sample size needs have been simulated under simple and stratified random designs with three distinct approa...

  16. Demonstration of risk-based decision analysis in remedial alternative selection and design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, E.K.; Duffield, G.M. (Geraghty and Miller Modeling Group, Reston, VA (United States)); Massmann, J.W. (Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States)); Freeze, R.A. (Freeze (R.A.) Engineering, Inc., White Rock, BC (Canada)); Stephenson, D.E. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States))

    1993-01-01

    This study demonstrates the use of risk-based decision analysis (Massmann and Freeze 1987a, 1987b) in the selection and design of an engineering alternative for groundwater remediation at a waste site at the Savannah River Site, a US Department of Energy facility in South Carolina. The investigation focuses on the remediation and closure of the H-Area Seepage Basins, an inactive disposal site that formerly received effluent water from a nearby production facility. A previous study by Duffield et al. (1992), which used risk-based decision analysis to screen a number of ground-water remediation alternatives under consideration for this site, indicated that the most attractive remedial option is ground-water extraction by wells coupled with surface water discharge of treated effluent. The aim of the present study is to demonstrate the iterative use of risk-based decision analysis throughout the design of a particular remedial alternative. In this study, we consider the interaction between two episodes of aquifer testing over a 6-year period and the refinement of a remedial extraction well system design. Using a three-dimensional ground-water flow model, this study employs (1) geostatistics and Monte Carlo techniques to simulate hydraulic conductivity as a stochastic process and (2) Bayesian updating and conditional simulation to investigate multiple phases of aquifer testing. In our evaluation of a remedial alternative, we compute probabilistic costs associated with the failure of an alternative to completely capture a simulated contaminant plume. The results of this study demonstrate the utility of risk-based decision analysis as a tool for improving the design of a remedial alternative through the course of phased data collection at a remedial site.

  17. Demonstration of risk-based decision analysis in remedial alternative selection and design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, E.K.; Duffield, G.M. [Geraghty and Miller Modeling Group, Reston, VA (United States); Massmann, J.W. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States); Freeze, R.A. [Freeze (R.A.) Engineering, Inc., White Rock, BC (Canada); Stephenson, D.E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1993-05-01

    This study demonstrates the use of risk-based decision analysis (Massmann and Freeze 1987a, 1987b) in the selection and design of an engineering alternative for groundwater remediation at a waste site at the Savannah River Site, a US Department of Energy facility in South Carolina. The investigation focuses on the remediation and closure of the H-Area Seepage Basins, an inactive disposal site that formerly received effluent water from a nearby production facility. A previous study by Duffield et al. (1992), which used risk-based decision analysis to screen a number of ground-water remediation alternatives under consideration for this site, indicated that the most attractive remedial option is ground-water extraction by wells coupled with surface water discharge of treated effluent. The aim of the present study is to demonstrate the iterative use of risk-based decision analysis throughout the design of a particular remedial alternative. In this study, we consider the interaction between two episodes of aquifer testing over a 6-year period and the refinement of a remedial extraction well system design. Using a three-dimensional ground-water flow model, this study employs (1) geostatistics and Monte Carlo techniques to simulate hydraulic conductivity as a stochastic process and (2) Bayesian updating and conditional simulation to investigate multiple phases of aquifer testing. In our evaluation of a remedial alternative, we compute probabilistic costs associated with the failure of an alternative to completely capture a simulated contaminant plume. The results of this study demonstrate the utility of risk-based decision analysis as a tool for improving the design of a remedial alternative through the course of phased data collection at a remedial site.

  18. What Can We Learn from Chaos Theory? An Alternative Approach to Instructional Systems Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yeongmahn

    1993-01-01

    Explains chaos theory; compares a conventional instructional systems design (ISD) approach with chaos theory and dynamic nonlinear systems, including deterministic predictability and indeterministic unpredictability and negative and positive feedback; explores theoretical implications for developing an alternative ISD model; and recommends future…

  19. Long-term strategies for flood risk management: scenario definition and strategic alternative design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, de K.; Klijn, F.; McGahey, C.; Mens, M.; Wolfert, H.P.

    2008-01-01

    This report reviews some mainstream existing methods of scenario development and use, as well as experiences with the design and assessment of strategic alternatives for flood risk management. Next, a procedure and methods are proposed and discussed. Thirdly, the procedure and methods are tried on t

  20. Alternative core design for the Innovative Research Reactor (RRI) from neutronics aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on its User Requirement Document and main function, RRI shall be able to provide a maximum thermal neutron flux of 1×1015 neutron cm-2s-1. The reason is that the RRI reactor can serve targets requiring a high neutron flux. From the previous results it was obtained that RRI design using fuel of RSG-GAS type was not possible to produce that high neutron flux. One among other reasons is that the geometry dimension is the large, as the neutron flux is inversely proportional to core volume. The objective of the study is to find an alternative core for RRI which meets the high neutron flux requirement. It was chosen an alternative fuel element one like used in JMTR (Japan Material Testing Reactor) that has smaller dimension compared to that of the RSG-GAS reactor. Besides that, active core's height was also varied for 70 cm and 75 cm. Design was carried out by means of analytic codes WIMS-D5B, Batan-FUEL and Batan-3DIFF. Alternative core applied compact core configuration concept of 5×5 with 4 follower control elements. The calculations resulted 3 (three) alternative cores fulfill the requirement, including core using RSG-GAS fuel type but of 70 cm height instead of 60 cm. Through analyzing from over all aspects of core safety and efficiency as well as effectively, core using JMTR fuel type with height of 70 cm represent the best alternative core. (author)

  1. Comparison of ground motion for NPP design of various countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The probability levels for the peak ground motion parameters for the high level design earthquakes specified by the of Canada, U.S. and Japan were estimated to be in the range of 10-3 to 10-4. Comparison between the design response spectra recommended by various codes indicate that various frequency ranges are covered differently. It was found that the hazard philosophy and approaches of various codes are quite different which lead to different ground motions for design. Associated with these different ground motions are load combinations and different design philosophies for the material. Although all countries use two levels of ground motion inputs, the risk probabilities at each of these levels are not the same. Some codes define a low level earthquake that implies that normal plant operations are not interrupted. A higher level earthquake is defined to imply safe shut down. The highest level earthquake defined by some codes represent the safety margin earthquake. It was found that the ground motion recommended by different codes may result in different structural design due to different associated load combinations and allowable material limits. The effect of different ground motions cannot be compared without considering the implication on the design. Although some of these differences may compensate for one another in the final design, the degree of conservatism varies between various codes. (author)

  2. Alternate MIMO AF relaying networks with interference alignment: Spectral efficient protocol and linear filter design

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Kihong

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, we study a two-hop relaying network consisting of one source, one destination, and three amplify-and-forward (AF) relays with multiple antennas. To compensate for the capacity prelog factor loss of 1/2$ due to the half-duplex relaying, alternate transmission is performed among three relays, and the inter-relay interference due to the alternate relaying is aligned to make additional degrees of freedom. In addition, suboptimal linear filter designs at the nodes are proposed to maximize the achievable sum rate for different fading scenarios when the destination utilizes a minimum mean-square error filter. © 1967-2012 IEEE.

  3. Comparison of alternative flue gas dry treatment technologies in waste-to-energy processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Pozzo, Alessandro; Antonioni, Giacomo; Guglielmi, Daniele; Stramigioli, Carlo; Cozzani, Valerio

    2016-05-01

    Acid gases such as HCl and SO2 are harmful both for human health and ecosystem integrity, hence their removal is a key step of the flue gas treatment of Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants. Methods based on the injection of dry sorbents are among the Best Available Techniques for acid gas removal. In particular, systems based on double reaction and filtration stages represent nowadays an effective technology for emission control. The aim of the present study is the simulation of a reference two-stage (2S) dry treatment system performance and its comparison to three benchmarking alternatives based on single stage sodium bicarbonate injection. A modelling procedure was applied in order to identify the optimal operating configuration of the 2S system for different reference waste compositions, and to determine the total annual cost of operation. Taking into account both operating and capital costs, the 2S system appears the most cost-effective solution for medium to high chlorine content wastes. A Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis was carried out to assess the robustness of the results. PMID:26951719

  4. Army Gas-Cooled Reactor Systems program: alternator final design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1964-06-01

    The development and testing of a demonstration brushless alternator for the ML-1 mobile nuclear power plant is described. The brushless concept was selected after it became apparent that a conventional power generator could not satisfy the ML-1 weight and size requirements. The demonstration alternator fabricated and tested under this program did not meet all performance specifications; the efficiency was low and the unit could not be operated for significant periods of time without overheating. However, a large body of useful data was accumulated during the extensive development program. Of special interest are data on the rotor and stator design, the cooling requirements and on the distribution of eddy current losses. Analysis of the data indicates that a brushless alternator, only slightly larger and heavier than was specified for the ML-1, could be developed with a modest additional effort.

  5. Comparison of alternative treatment systems for DOE mixed low-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E.

    1997-03-01

    From 1993 to 1996, the Department of Energy, Environmental Management, Office of Science and Technology (OST), has sponsored a series of systems analyses to guide its future research and development (R&D) programs for the treatment of mixed low-level waste (MLLW) stored in the DOE complex. The two original studies were of 20 mature and innovative thermal systems. As a result of a technical review of these thermal system studies, a similar study of five innovative nonthermal systems was conducted in which unit operations are limited to temperatures less than 350{degrees}C to minimize volatilization of heavy metals and radionuclides, and de novo production of dioxins and furans in the offgas. Public involvement in the INTS study was established through a working group of 20 tribal and stakeholder representatives to provide input to the INTS studies and identify principles against which the systems should be designed and evaluated. Pre-conceptual designs were developed for all systems to treat the same waste input (2927 lbs/hr) in a single centralized facility operating 4032 hours per year for 20 years. This inventory consisted of a wide range of combustible and non-combustible materials such as paper, plastics, metals, concrete, soils, sludges, liquids, etc., contaminated with trace quantities of radioactive materials and RCRA regulated wastes. From this inventory, an average waste profile was developed for simulated treatment using ASPEN PLUS{copyright} for mass balance calculations. Seven representative thermal systems were selected for comparison with the five nonthermal systems. This report presents the comparisons against the TSWG principles, of total life cycle cost (TLCC), and of other system performance indicators such as energy requirements, reagent requirements, land use, final waste volume, aqueous and gaseous effluents, etc.

  6. Comparison of alternative treatment systems for DOE mixed low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1993 to 1996, the Department of Energy, Environmental Management, Office of Science and Technology (OST), has sponsored a series of systems analyses to guide its future research and development (R ampersand D) programs for the treatment of mixed low-level waste (MLLW) stored in the DOE complex. The two original studies were of 20 mature and innovative thermal systems. As a result of a technical review of these thermal system studies, a similar study of five innovative nonthermal systems was conducted in which unit operations are limited to temperatures less than 350 degrees C to minimize volatilization of heavy metals and radionuclides, and de novo production of dioxins and furans in the offgas. Public involvement in the INTS study was established through a working group of 20 tribal and stakeholder representatives to provide input to the INTS studies and identify principles against which the systems should be designed and evaluated. Pre-conceptual designs were developed for all systems to treat the same waste input (2927 lbs/hr) in a single centralized facility operating 4032 hours per year for 20 years. This inventory consisted of a wide range of combustible and non-combustible materials such as paper, plastics, metals, concrete, soils, sludges, liquids, etc., contaminated with trace quantities of radioactive materials and RCRA regulated wastes. From this inventory, an average waste profile was developed for simulated treatment using ASPEN PLUS copyright for mass balance calculations. Seven representative thermal systems were selected for comparison with the five nonthermal systems. This report presents the comparisons against the TSWG principles, of total life cycle cost (TLCC), and of other system performance indicators such as energy requirements, reagent requirements, land use, final waste volume, aqueous and gaseous effluents, etc

  7. Comparison of Response Surface and Kriging Models for Multidisciplinary Design Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Timothy W.; Korte, John J.; Mauery, Timothy M.; Mistree, Farrokh

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we compare and contrast the use of second-order response surface models and kriging models for approximating non-random, deterministic computer analyses. After reviewing the response surface method for constructing polynomial approximations, kriging is presented as an alternative approximation method for the design and analysis of computer experiments. Both methods are applied to the multidisciplinary design of an aerospike nozzle which consists of a computational fluid dynamics model and a finite-element model. Error analysis of the response surface and kriging models is performed along with a graphical comparison of the approximations, and four optimization problems m formulated and solved using both sets of approximation models. The second-order response surface models and kriging models-using a constant underlying global model and a Gaussian correlation function-yield comparable results.

  8. Comparison of Response Surface and Kriging Models in the Multidisciplinary Design of an Aerospike Nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Timothy W.

    1998-01-01

    The use of response surface models and kriging models are compared for approximating non-random, deterministic computer analyses. After discussing the traditional response surface approach for constructing polynomial models for approximation, kriging is presented as an alternative statistical-based approximation method for the design and analysis of computer experiments. Both approximation methods are applied to the multidisciplinary design and analysis of an aerospike nozzle which consists of a computational fluid dynamics model and a finite element analysis model. Error analysis of the response surface and kriging models is performed along with a graphical comparison of the approximations. Four optimization problems are formulated and solved using both approximation models. While neither approximation technique consistently outperforms the other in this example, the kriging models using only a constant for the underlying global model and a Gaussian correlation function perform as well as the second order polynomial response surface models.

  9. Performance of R-410A Alternative Refrigerants in a Reciprocating Compressor Designed for Air Conditioning Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrestha, Som S [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL; Mumpower, Kevin [Bristol Compressors International, Inc.

    2016-01-01

    In response to environmental concerns raised by the use of refrigerants with high Global Warming Potential (GWP), the Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) has launched an industry-wide cooperative research program, referred to as the Low-GWP Alternative Refrigerants Evaluation Program (AREP), to identify and evaluate promising alternative refrigerants for major product categories. After successfully completing the first phase of the program in December 2013, AHRI launched a second phase of the Low-GWP AREP in 2014 to continue research in areas that were not previously addressed, including refrigerants in high ambient conditions, refrigerants in applications not tested in the first phase, and new refrigerants identified since testing for the program began. Although the Ozone Depletion Potential of R-410A is zero, this refrigerant is under scrutiny due to its high GWP. Several candidate alternative refrigerants have already demonstrated low global warming potential. Performance of these low-GWP alternative refrigerants is being evaluated for Air conditioning and heat pump applications to ensure acceptable system capacity and efficiency. This paper reports the results of a series of compressor calorimeter tests conducted for the second phase of the AREP to evaluate the performance of R-410A alternative refrigerants in a reciprocating compressor designed for air conditioning systems. It compares performance of alternative refrigerants ARM-71A, L41-1, DR-5A, D2Y-60, and R-32 to that of R-410A over a wide range of operating conditions. The tests showed that, in general, cooling capacities were slightly lower (except for the R-32), but energy efficiency ratios (EER) of the alternative refrigerants were comparable to that of R-410A.

  10. Alternative routes for highway shipments of radioactive materials and lessons learned from state designations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under docket numbers HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select altemative routes. First, the state must establish a ''state routing agency'', defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with DOTs Guidelines for Selecting Preferred Highway Routes for Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice to DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective. The purpose of this report is to discuss the ''lessons learned'' by the five states within the southern region that have designated alternative or preferred routes under the regulations of the Department of Transportation (DOT) established for the transportation of radioactive materials. The document was prepared by reviewing applicable federal laws and regulations, examining state reports and documents and contacting state officials and routing agencies involved in making routing decisions. In undertaking this project, the Southern States Energy Board hopes to reveal the process used by states that have designated alternative routes and thereby share their experiences (i.e., lessons learned) with other southern states that have yet to make designations

  11. Design of Fogging Nozzles as Alternative Stock Pile Dust Suppression Medium at Gold Mining Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Kwasi Adzimah; Lawrence Gyansah

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to design fogging nozzles as alternative stock pile dust suppression medium at gold mining sites. Furthermore, this fogging medium helps to arrest the dust without getting the area wet and without any substantial expenditure. Emission of dust, which is one of the main contributors to the pollution of the environment, has been associated with mining industries for years, especially in the mining towns of Ghana and Liberia. The emission of dust takes place mainly around...

  12. Alternatives for implementing burnup credit in the design and operation of spent fuel transport casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is possible to develop an optimal strategy for implementing burnup credit in spent fuel transport casks. For transport, the relative risk is rapidly reduced if additional pre-transport controls such as a cavity dryness verifications are conducted prior to transport. Some other operational and design features that could be incorporated into a burnup credit cask strategy are listed. These examples represent many of the system features and alternatives already available for use in developing a broadly based criticality safety strategy for implementing burnup credit in the design and operation of spent fuel transport casks. 4 refs., 1 tab

  13. Modification Design of Petrol Engine for Alternative Fueling using Compressed Natural Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Eliezer Uchechukwu Okeke; Barinaadaa Thaddeus Lebele-Alawa

    2013-01-01

    This paper is on the modification design of petrol engine for alternative fuelling using Compressed Natural Gas (CNG). It provides an analytical background in the modification design process. A petrol engine Honda CR-V 2.0 auto which has a compression ratio of 9.8 was selected as case study. In order for this petrol engine to run on CNG, its compression had to be increased. An optimal compression ratio of 11.97 was computed using the standard temperature-specific volume relationsh...

  14. Alternative system design concepts for the ITER core CXRS upper port plug front end

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → System design for the core CXRS diagnostic port plug for ITER is investigated. → Dependencies of the sub-systems are given. → Overall system lifetime and recent mechanical changes are taken into account. → System configurations are derived for the current ITER design. - Abstract: The upper port no. 3 in ITER will be used by the core Charge Exchange Recombination Spectroscopy (core CXRS) to channel out light from the inside of the vacuum vessel. Recent research about the lifetime of the first two mirrors and changes in the upper port plug geometry initiated further investigations into possible alternative system design concepts. Two new variants of the optical system were chosen for further investigation. The different sub-systems of core CXRS such as optical system, retractable tube and shutter are introduced together with their impact on the system design and their interactions. Space constraints originating from the envelope of the UPP and requirements emerging from the ITER environment such as remote handling and other maintenance considerations are also included in the investigation. Alternative system concepts taking the constraints into account are presented and discussed. Implications for further design work on the subsystems are derived from the results.

  15. Comparison of Soil Respiration in Typical Conventional and New Alternative Cereal Cropping Systems on the North China Plain

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, B; Ju, X.T.; Su, F; Gao, F. B.; Q. S. Cao; Oenema, O.; P. Christie; Chen, X. P.; F. S. Zhang

    2013-01-01

    We monitored soil respiration (Rs), soil temperature (T) and volumetric water content (VWC%) over four years in one typical conventional and four alternative cropping systems to understand Rs in different cropping systems with their respective management practices and environmental conditions. The control was conventional double-cropping system (winter wheat and summer maize in one year - Con. W/M). Four alternative cropping systems were designed with optimum water and N management, i.e. opti...

  16. Contribution of activation products to fusion accident risk: Part II. Effects of alternative materials and designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparison of accident-hazard potentials associated with neutron-activation products in fusion reactors of various designs and structural materials suffers from a number of shortcomings in the readily available hazard-index data. Neither inventories of curies nor biological hazard potentials (BHPs) are satisfactory indices of hazard even if consistently computed, and between-study inconsistencies in neutronics packages and BHP calculations further obscure the meaning of comparisons based on these measures. The authors present here the results of internally consistent calculations of radioactive inventories, BHPs, and off-site dose potentials associated with the first walls of nine reactor-design/first-wall-material combinations. A recent mirror-reactor design reduces off-site dose potentials by a factor of 2 compared to a muchstudied early tokamak, for a given first-wall material. Holding design fixed, HT-9 ferritic steel offers a factor of 2 reduction in dose potential compared to Type 316 stainless steel. By the dose-potential measure, molybdenum is the worst of the materials investigated and silicon carbide is by far the best. Hazards in realizable accidents depend not only on the hypothetical dose potentials, as calculated here, but also on the actual release fractions of first-wall (or other activated) material. Review of the theoretical and experimental evidence bearing on release fractions suggests that, for most candidate materials, high release fractions from designs containing liquid lithium cannot yet be convincingly ruled out

  17. Contribution of activation products to fusion accident risk: part II. Effects of alternative materials and designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparison of accident-hazard potentials associated with neutron-activation products in fusion reactors of various designs and structural materials suffers from a number of shortcomings in the readily available hazard-index data. Neither inventories of curies nor biological hazard potentials (BHPs) are satisfactory indices of hazard even if consistently computed, and between-study inconsistencies in neutronics packages and BHP calculations further obscure the meaning of comparisons based on these measures. We present here the results of internally consistent calculations of radioactive inventories, BHPs, and off-site dose potentials associated with the first walls of nine reactor-design/first-wall-material combinations. A recent mirror-reactor design reduces off-site dose potentials by a factor of 2 compared to a muchstudied early tokamak, for a given first-wall material. Holding design fixed, HT-9 ferritic steel offers a factor of 2 reduction in dose potential compared to Type 316 stainless steel. By the dose-potential measure, molybdenum is the worst of the materials investigated and silicon carbide is by far the best. Hazards in realizable accidents depend not only on the hypothetical dose potentials, as calculated here, but also on the actual release fractions of first-wall (or other activated) material. Review of the theoretical and experimental evidence bearing on release fractions suggests that, for most candidate materials, high release fractions from designs containing liquid lithium cannot yet be convincingly ruled out

  18. Clinical outcome research in complementary and alternative medicine: an overview of experimental design and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatchel, R J; Maddrey, A M

    1998-09-01

    This article serves as a primer for those beginning clinical research in complementary and alternative medicine. The authors provide a basic overview of important experimental design and statistical issues, of which clinical researchers in the area of complementary and alternative medicine must be aware when attempting to demonstrate the effectiveness of particular treatment modalities. As the article suggests, science is an inferential process, and experimental investigations can vary greatly in methodological integrity. Key concepts in clinical outcome research such as internal validity, statistical conclusion validity, and the appropriate measurement and operational definitions of outcomes are discussed. New scientific approaches that are evolving because of paradigm shifts in science (e.g., chaos theory) are also reviewed. Suggestions are provided to further develop an understanding of clinical outcome research methodology. PMID:9737030

  19. An alternative design of reference blocks during the ultrasonic of ferritic welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes an alternative design which can be used to construct the reference blocks required to make the sensibility adjustment during the ultrasonic control ferritic welded joints. The major possibilities of this design are seen when it's used together with the well known AVG method, however it can be properly used with the reference block technique. In addition, the most general facts to keep in mind during the construction of this means are outlined, and besides advantages and problems involved with the use of some basics reference reflectors of wide spread use. Also formulates are given that can be used to obtain the size of the disk shaped reflector corresponding to the basics reference reflectors that this design includes

  20. Towards for Analyzing Alternatives of Interaction Design Based on Verbal Decision Analysis of User Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Soares Mendes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In domains (as digital TV, smart home, and tangible interfaces that represent a new paradigm of interactivity, the decision of the most appropriate interaction design solution is a challenge. HCI researchers have promoted in their works the validation of design alternative solutions with users before producing the final solution. User experience with technology is a subject that has also gained ground in these works in order to analyze the appropriate solution(s. Following this concept, a study was accomplished under the objective of finding a better interaction solution for an application of mobile TV. Three executable applications of mobile TV prototypes were built. A Verbal Decision Analysis model was applied on the investigations for the favorite characteristics in each prototype based on the user’s experience and their intentions of use. This model led a performance of a qualitative analysis which objectified the design of a new prototype.

  1. Design and First Measurements of an Alternative Calorimetry Chamber for the HZB Quadrupole Resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Keckert, Sebastian; Knobloch, Jens; Kugeler, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The systematic research on superconducting thin films requires dedicated testing equipment. The Quadrupole Resonator (QPR) is a specialized tool to characterize the superconducting RF properties of circular planar samples. A calorimetric measurement of the RF surface losses allows the surface resistance to be measured with sub nano-ohm resolution. This measurement can be performed over a wide temperature and magnetic field range, at frequencies of 433, 866 and 1300 MHz. The system at Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) is based on a resonator built at CERN and has been optimized to lower peak electric fields and an improved resolution. In this paper the design of an alternative calorimetry chamber is presented, providing flat samples for coating which are easy changeable. All parts are connected by screwing connections and no electron beam welding is required. Furthermore this design enables exchangeability of samples between the resonators at HZB and CERN. First measurements with the new design show ambiguous r...

  2. Economic analysis of alternate uses and design. Crosbyton Solar Power project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonish, J.E.; O' Hair, E.A.

    1986-09-01

    This portion of the Crosbyton Solar Power Project (CSPP) has four objectives: (1) to provide a brief overview for the design, components and estimated energy performance of the baseline 60/sup 0/ rim solar bowl technology or FMDF; (2) to explain the basis for the cost estimates of the baseline 60/sup 0/ bowl and the alternate shallow bowl design, and to examine potential sensitivities in cost due to economies of scale and learning curve effects; (3) to provide life cycle cost simulations using the baseline and shallow bowl design and costs and annual performance estimates under a standardized set of model assumptions; and (4) to suggest potential applications of the CSPP concept in repowering, chemicals, fuel alcohol or malt beverages and integrated agriculture.

  3. Application of alternative methods for determination of rock quality designation (RQD) index: a case study from the Rožná I uranium mine, Strážek Moldanubicum, Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    M. Vavro; Souček, K; Staš, L. (Lubomír); Waclawik, P. (Petr); Vavro, L. (Leona); P. Koníček; Ptáček, J.

    2015-01-01

    A comparison of rock quality designation (RQD) parameters obtained by drill core analysis and the RQD determined using alternative methods is presented using metamorphic rocks such as migmatized gneisses, migmatites, and amphibolites. Methods of borehole–wall imaging using high-resolution acoustic logging, optical televiewer, and simple video inspection as well as the structural analysis of exploration drift walls oriented subparallel to the analysed boreholes are used for alternatively e...

  4. Alternative Ultrasound Gel for a Sustainable Ultrasound Program: Application of Human Centered Design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Salmon

    Full Text Available This paper describes design of a low cost, ultrasound gel from local products applying aspects of Human Centered Design methodology. A multidisciplinary team worked with clinicians who use ultrasound where commercial gel is cost prohibitive and scarce. The team followed the format outlined in the Ideo Took Kit. Research began by defining the challenge "how to create locally available alternative ultrasound gel for a low-resourced environment? The "End-Users," were identified as clinicians who use ultrasound in Democratic Republic of the Congo and Ethiopia. An expert group was identified and queried for possible alternatives to commercial gel. Responses included shampoo, oils, water and cornstarch. Cornstarch, while a reasonable solution, was either not available or too expensive. We then sought deeper knowledge of locally sources materials from local experts, market vendors, to develop a similar product. Suggested solutions gleaned from these interviews were collected and used to create ultrasound gel accounting for cost, image quality, manufacturing capability. Initial prototypes used cassava root flour from Great Lakes Region (DRC, Rwanda, Uganda, Tanzania and West Africa, and bula from Ethiopia. Prototypes were tested in the field and resulting images evaluated by our user group. A final prototype was then selected. Cassava and bula at a 32 part water, 8 part flour and 4 part salt, heated, mixed then cooled was the product design of choice.

  5. Alternative LEU designs for the FRM-II with power levels of 20-22 MW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alternative LEU Designs for the FRM-II have been developed by the RERTR Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) at the request of an FRM-II Expert Commission established by the German Federal Government in January 1999 to evaluate the options for using LEU fuel instead of HEU fuel in cores with power levels of 20 MW. The ANL designs would use the same building structure and maintain as many of the HEU design features as practical. The range of potential LEU fuels was expanded from previous studies to include already-tested silicide fuels with uranium densities up to 6.7 g/cm3 and the new U-Mo fuels that show excellent prospects for achieving uranium densities in the 8-9 g/cm3 range. For each of the LEU cores, the design parameters were chosen to match the 50 day cycle length of the HEU core and to maximize the thermal neutron flux in the Cold Neutron Source and beam tubes. The studies concluded that an LEU core with a diameter of about 29 cm instead of 24 cm in HEU design and operating at a power level of 20 MW would have thermal neutron fluxes that are 0.85-0.86 times that of the HEU design in the Cold Neutron Source. With a potential future upgrade to a power of 22 MW, this ratio would increase to 0.92-0.93. (author)

  6. Interdigital H -mode drift-tube linac design with alternative phase focusing for muon linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, M.; Mibe, T.; Yoshida, M.; Hasegawa, K.; Kondo, Y.; Hayashizaki, N.; Iwashita, Y.; Iwata, Y.; Kitamura, R.; Saito, N.

    2016-04-01

    We have developed an interdigital H-mode (IH) drift-tube linac (DTL) design with an alternative phase focusing (APF) scheme for a muon linac, in order to measure the anomalous magnetic moment and electric dipole moment (EDM) of muons at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC). The IH-DTL accelerates muons from β =v /c =0.08 to 0.28 at an operational frequency of 324 MHz. The output beam emittances are calculated as 0.315 π and 0.195 π mm mrad in the horizontal and vertical directions, respectively, which satisfies the experimental requirement.

  7. Comparison of coil designs for peripheral magnetic muscle stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, S M; Herzog, H-G; Gattinger, N; Gleich, B

    2011-10-01

    The recent application of magnetic stimulation in rehabilitation is often said to solve key drawbacks of the established electrical method. Magnetic fields cause less pain, allow principally a better penetration of inhomogeneous biologic tissue and do not require skin contact. However, in most studies the evoked muscle force has been disappointing. In this paper, a comparison of a classical round circular geometry, a commercial muscle-stimulation coil and a novel design is presented, with special emphasis on the physical field properties. These systems show markedly different force responses for the same magnetic energy and highlight the enormous potential of different coil geometries. The new design resulted in a slope of the force recruiting curve being more than two and a half times higher than the other coils. The data were analyzed with respect to the underlying physical causes and field conditions. After a parameter-extraction approach, the results for the three coils span a two-dimensional space with clearly distinguishable degrees of freedom, which can be manipulated nearly separately and reflect the two main features of a field; the peak amplitude and its decay with the distance. PMID:21832812

  8. Environmental and economic comparisons of the satellite power system and six alternative energy technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, R. G.; Habegger, L. J.; Levine, E. P.; Tanzman, E.

    1981-04-01

    The satellite power system (SPS) was compared with alternative systems on life cycle cost and environmental impacts. Environmental and economic effects are evaluated and subdivided into the following issue areas: human health and safety, environmental welfare, resources (land, materials, energy, water, labor), macroeconomics, socioeconomics, and institutional. These evaluations are based on technology characterization data and alternative futures scenarios, developed as part of CDEP. The technologies and the scenarios are described. The cost and performance of the SPS and the alternative technologies provide the basis of the macroeconomic analyses.

  9. Statistical test of Duane-Hunt's law and its comparison with an alternative law

    CERN Document Server

    Perkovac, Milan

    2010-01-01

    Using Pearson correlation coefficient a statistical analysis of Duane-Hunt and Kulenkampff's measurement results was performed. This analysis reveals that empirically based Duane-Hunt's law is not entirely consistent with the measurement data. The author has theoretically found the action of electromagnetic oscillators, which corresponds to Planck's constant, and also has found an alternative law based on the classical theory. Using the same statistical method, this alternative law is likewise tested, and it is proved that the alternative law is completely in accordance with the measurements. The alternative law gives a relativistic expression for the energy of electromagnetic wave emitted or absorbed by atoms and proves that the empirically derived Planck-Einstein's expression is only valid for relatively low frequencies. Wave equation, which is similar to the Schr\\"odinger equation, and wavelength of the standing electromagnetic wave are also established by the author's analysis. For a relatively low energy...

  10. Comparison of land and ocean disposal alternatives for bulk wastes containing naturally occurring radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land and ocean disposal alternatives for a large volume of wastes and residues containing naturally occurring radionuclides are assessed. These wastes and residues are currently stored at the US Department of Energy's Niagara Falls Storage Site near Lewiston, New York. Both land and ocean disposal are considered for the 180,000 m3 of slightly contaminated wastes (average 36 pCi/g radium-226), whereas only land disposal is considered for the 11,000 m3 of residues (average 67,000 pCi/g radium-226). The land and ocean disposal alternatives share similar engineering considerations, occupational and transportation risks, and radiological risks. Impacts from placement of the wastes in the ocean would be negligible. However, the land-based activities required to transport the wastes to the ocean would account for most of the potential impacts associated with the ocean disposal alternatives. Thus, the land and ocean disposal alternatives are comparable in terms of potential environmental impacts

  11. Finite sample comparison of alternative tests on the rank of a cointegration submatrix

    OpenAIRE

    Paruolo Paolo

    2006-01-01

    This paper compares the finite sample performance of alternative tests for rank-dficiency of a submatrix of the cointegrating matrix. The paper focuses on the (implementation of the) likelihood ratio test proposed in Paruolo (2007, Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics), and compares its finite sample performance with the ones of alternative tests proposed in Saikkonen (1999, Econometric Reviews) and Kurozumi (2005, Econometric Theory). All the tests have well-documented limit distribut...

  12. Up-Rating - An Alternative Approach to Meeting Future Power Demands - Exploitation of Design Margins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Up-rating is a world-wide implemented approach that takes advantage of increased calculation and analytic abilities developed since commissioning and applies them to old plants. In doing so, what would possibly be considered today as over-engineered design margins are exploited and plant performance is improved, without necessarily involving extensive modifications or replacement of hardware. It is therefore a short-term alternative, compared to new plants, with little change in environmental ramifications for power production capacity gained. Up-rating is also more accepted by the wider community and licensing authorities, thus complimenting the building of new plants. The 10% thermal up-rating of the nuclear power plant at Almaraz, Spain, requires a comprehensive reanalysis of all power components. This paper focuses on those measures required to ensure the performance of the steam generators at increased load as an example of design margin exploitation in such crucial components. (authors)

  13. A Visual Analytics Based Decision Support Methodology For Evaluating Low Energy Building Design Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Ranojoy

    The ability to design high performance buildings has acquired great importance in recent years due to numerous federal, societal and environmental initiatives. However, this endeavor is much more demanding in terms of designer expertise and time. It requires a whole new level of synergy between automated performance prediction with the human capabilities to perceive, evaluate and ultimately select a suitable solution. While performance prediction can be highly automated through the use of computers, performance evaluation cannot, unless it is with respect to a single criterion. The need to address multi-criteria requirements makes it more valuable for a designer to know the "latitude" or "degrees of freedom" he has in changing certain design variables while achieving preset criteria such as energy performance, life cycle cost, environmental impacts etc. This requirement can be met by a decision support framework based on near-optimal "satisficing" as opposed to purely optimal decision making techniques. Currently, such a comprehensive design framework is lacking, which is the basis for undertaking this research. The primary objective of this research is to facilitate a complementary relationship between designers and computers for Multi-Criterion Decision Making (MCDM) during high performance building design. It is based on the application of Monte Carlo approaches to create a database of solutions using deterministic whole building energy simulations, along with data mining methods to rank variable importance and reduce the multi-dimensionality of the problem. A novel interactive visualization approach is then proposed which uses regression based models to create dynamic interplays of how varying these important variables affect the multiple criteria, while providing a visual range or band of variation of the different design parameters. The MCDM process has been incorporated into an alternative methodology for high performance building design referred to as

  14. The potential use of an alternative fluid for SFR intermediate loops: selection and first design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the Generation IV systems, Sodium Fast Reactors (SFR) are promising and benefit of considerable technological experience, but improvements are researched on safety approach and capital cost reduction. One of the main problems to be solved by the standard SFR design is the proper management of the risk of leakage between the intermediate circuit filled with sodium and the energy conversion system using a water Rankine cycle. This risk requires notably an early detection of water leakage to prevent a water-sodium reaction. One innovative solution to this problem is the replacement of the sodium in the secondary loops by an alternative liquid fluid, less reactive with water. This alternative fluid might also allow innovative designs, e.g. intermediate heat exchanger and steam generator grouped in the same component. CEA, Areva NP and EdF have formed a working group in order to evaluate different 'alternative fluids' that might replace sodium. A first selection retained seven fluids on the bases of 'required properties' as: large operating range (low melting point, high boiling point ...), fluid cost and availability, acceptable corrosion at SFR working temperature. These are three bismuth alloys, two nitrate salts, one hydroxide melt and sodium with nanoparticles. Then, it was decided to evaluate these fluids through a multi- criteria analysis in order to point advantages and drawbacks of each fluid and to compare them with sodium. Lack of knowledge, impact on materials, design, working conditions and reactor availability should be emphasized by this analysis, in order to provide sound arguments for a research program on one or two most promising fluids. A global note is given to each fluid by evaluating them with respect to 'grand criteria', weighted differently according to their importance. The grand criteria were: thermal properties, reactivity with structures, reactivity with other fluids (air, water, sodium), chemistry control (including tritium management

  15. Model‐Based Assessment of Alternative Study Designs in Pediatric Trials. Part II: Bayesian Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smania, G; Baiardi, P; Ceci, A; Magni, P

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a pharmacokinetic‐pharmacodynamic based clinical trial simulation framework for evaluating the performance of a fixed‐sample Bayesian design (BD) and two alternative Bayesian sequential designs (BSDs) (i.e., a non‐hierarchical (NON‐H) and a semi‐hierarchical (SEMI‐H) one). Prior information was elicited from adult trials and weighted based on the expected similarity of response to treatment between the pediatric and adult populations. Study designs were evaluated in terms of: type I and II errors, sample size per arm (SS), trial duration (TD), and estimate precision. No substantial differences were observed between NON‐H and SEMI‐H. BSDs require, on average, smaller SS and TD compared to the BD, which, on the other hand, guarantees higher estimate precision. When large differences between children and adults are expected, BSDs can return very large SS. Bayesian approaches appear to outperform their frequentist counterparts in the design of pediatric trials even when little weight is given to prior information from adults. PMID:27530374

  16. Lithography alternatives meet design style reality: How do they "line" up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smayling, Michael C.

    2016-03-01

    Optical lithography resolution scaling has stalled, giving innovative alternatives a window of opportunity. One important factor that impacts these lithographic approaches is the transition in design style from 2D to 1D for advanced CMOS logic. Just as the transition from 3D circuits to 2D fabrication 50 years ago created an opportunity for a new breed of electronics companies, the transition today presents exciting and challenging time for lithographers. Today, we are looking at a range of non-optical lithography processes. Those considered here can be broadly categorized: self-aligned lithography, self-assembled lithography, deposition lithography, nano-imprint lithography, pixelated e-beam lithography, shot-based e-beam lithography .Do any of these alternatives benefit from or take advantage of 1D layout? Yes, for example SAPD + CL (Self Aligned Pitch Division combined with Complementary Lithography). This is a widely adopted process for CMOS nodes at 22nm and below. Can there be additional design / process co-optimization? In spite of the simple-looking nature of 1D layout, the placement of "cut" in the lines and "holes" for interlayer connections can be tuned for a given process capability. Examples of such optimization have been presented at this conference, typically showing a reduction of at least one in the number of cut or hole patterns needed.[1,2] Can any of the alternatives complement each other or optical lithography? Yes.[3] For example, DSA (Directed Self Assembly) combines optical lithography with self-assembly. CEBL (Complementary e-Beam Lithography) combines optical lithography with SAPD for lines with shot-based e-beam lithography for cuts and holes. Does one (shrinking) size fit all? No, that's why we have many alternatives. For example NIL (Nano-imprint Lithography) has been introduced for NAND Flash patterning where the (trending lower) defectivity is acceptable for the product. Deposition lithography has been introduced in 3D NAND Flash to

  17. Project on Alternative Systems Study - PASS. Cost comparison of repository systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of alternative repository systems and different canister alternatives is being studied by SKB within the frame of the 'Project on Alternative Systems Study, PASS', with the objective of presenting a ranking of systems being currently studied. The rankings is primarily made for three different headings: technology, long-term performance and safety, and costs. The ranking for each of these headings are eventually to be merged into one ranking. The present report presents the basis for the ranking regarding costs. The following four systems have been studied and are presented in order of cost (the less expensive first): Medium Long Holes (MLH), KBS-3 (Modified Plan 92 system), Very Long Holes (VLH), and Very Deep Holes (VDH). A significant outcome of the study was the clear difference in cost between the very expensive system VDH and the other three

  18. Evaluating Kinship Care Alternatives: A Comparison of a Private Initiative to Traditional State Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney A. Ellis

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Multiple stressors on the child welfare system have forced innovative solutions to the overburdened foster care program. A promising alternative is kinship care, in which children are placed with biological relatives. Proponents cite the opportunity to place the child in familiar surroundings, the natural access to additional family resources, and the degree to which it is sensitive to the norms and values of non-dominant cultural groups. Various models of kinship care have been implemented in several jurisdictions, yet little or no research has been done to determine which alternatives are the most effective. This paper addresses that deficit. It reports the results of a study that compares stability of placement outcomes between a program operated by a private,not-for-profit organization (n=60 and a more traditional program (n=79 operated by a state child welfare agency. Results support the use of the private alternative over the more traditional state-operated program.

  19. Management of radioactive waste gases from the nuclear fuel cycle. Volume I. Comparison of alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, A.G.; Prout, W.E.; Buckner, J.T.; Buckner, M.R.

    1980-12-01

    Alternatives were compared for collection and fixation of radioactive waste gases released during normal operation of the nuclear fuel cycle, and for transportation and storage/disposal of the resulting waste forms. The study used a numerical rating scheme to evaluate and compare the alternatives for krypton-85, iodine-129, and carbon-14; whereas a subjective evaluation, based on published reports and engineering judgement, was made for transportation and storage/disposal options. Based on these evaluations, certain alternatives are recommended for an integrated scheme for waste management of each of the subject waste gases. Phase II of this project, which is concerned with the development of performance criteria for the waste forms associated with the subject gases, will be completed by the end of 1980. This work will be documented as Volume II of this report.

  20. Randomized controlled trials and neuro-oncology: should alternative designs be considered?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Alireza; Shin, Samuel; Cooper, Benjamin; Srivastava, Archita; Bhandari, Mohit; Kondziolka, Douglas

    2015-09-01

    quality of design/reporting of RCTs in neuro-oncology persist. Quality improvement is necessary. Consideration of alternative strategies should be considered. PMID:26297044

  1. RIP Input From WAPDEG for LA Desgin Selection: Enhanced Design Alternative II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.E. Bullard

    1999-07-16

    The purpose of this analysis is to identify and analyze concepts for the acquisition of data in support of the Performance Confirmation (PC) program at the potential subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. This analysis is being prepared to document an investigation of design concepts, current available technology, technology trends, and technical issues associated with data acquisition during the PC period. This analysis utilizes the ''Performance Confirmation Plan'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) to help define the scope for the PC data acquisition system. The focus of this analysis is primarily on the PC period for a minimum of 30 years after emplacement of the last waste package. The design of the data acquisition system shall allow for a closure deferral up to 300 years from initiation of waste emplacement. (CRWMS M&O 2000h, page 5-1). This analysis is a revision to and supercedes analysis, ''Performance Confirmation Data Acquisition System'', DI No. BCAI00000-017 17-0200-00002 Rev 00 (CRWMS M&O 1997), and incorporates the latest repository design changes following the M&O & DOE evaluation of a series of Enhanced Design Alternatives (EDAs), as described in the ''Enhanced Design Alternatives II Report'' (CRWMS M&O 1999d). Significant design changes include: thermal line loading of the emplacement drifts, closer spacing of the waste packages (WPs), wider spacing and fewer emplacement drifts, continuous ventilation of all active emplacement drifts, thinner walled WP designs which will increase external radiation levels, a 50-year repository closure option, inclusion of a drip-shield, exclusion of backfill, and new conceptual designs for the waste emplacement vehicles and equipment (Stroupe 2000). The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Review the criteria for design as presented in the Performance Confirmation Data Acquisition/Monitoring System Description Document, by way of the

  2. Table or Circles: A Comparison of Two Methods for Choosing among Career Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit, Adi; Gati, Itamar

    2013-01-01

    A sample of 182 young adults about to choose their college major were randomly assigned to 2 guidance methods aimed at facilitating choosing among promising career alternatives: Table-for-Choice and Circles-for-Choice. Table-for-Choice was perceived as more effective, but individuals' confidence in their choice was higher in the Circles-for-Choice…

  3. A Comparison of Dense-to-Lean and Fixed Lean Schedules of Alternative Reinforcement and Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagopian, Louis P.; Toole, Lisa M.; Long, Ethan S.; Bowman, Lynn G.; Lieving, Gregory A.

    2004-01-01

    Behavior-reduction interventions typically employ dense schedules of alternative reinforcement in conjunction with operant extinction for problem behavior. After problem behavior is reduced in the initial treatment stages, schedule thinning is routinely conducted to make the intervention more practical in natural environments. In the current…

  4. Comparison of Alternate and Original Items on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedeva, Elena; Huang, Mei; Koski, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Background The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is a screening tool for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in elderly individuals. We hypothesized that measurement error when using the new alternate MoCA versions to monitor change over time could be related to the use of items that are not of comparable difficulty to their corresponding originals of similar content. The objective of this study was to compare the difficulty of the alternate MoCA items to the original ones. Methods Five selected items from alternate versions of the MoCA were included with items from the original MoCA administered adaptively to geriatric outpatients (N = 78). Rasch analysis was used to estimate the difficulty level of the items. Results None of the five items from the alternate versions matched the difficulty level of their corresponding original items. Conclusions This study demonstrates the potential benefits of a Rasch analysis-based approach for selecting items during the process of development of parallel forms. The results suggest that better match of the items from different MoCA forms by their difficulty would result in higher sensitivity to changes in cognitive function over time. PMID:27076861

  5. Statistical utility theory for comparison of nuclear versus fossil power plant alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A statistical formulation of utility theory is developed for decision problems concerned with the choice among alternative strategies in electric energy production. Four alternatives are considered: nuclear power, fossil power, solar energy, and conservation policy. Attention is focused on a public electric utility thought of as a rational decision-maker. A framework for decisions is then suggested where the admissible strategies and their possible consequences represent the information available to the decision-maker. Once the objectives of the decision process are assessed, consequences can be quantified in terms of measures of effectiveness. Maximum expected utility is the criterion of choice among alternatives. Steps toward expected values are the evaluation of the multidimensional utility function and the assessment of subjective probabilities for consequences. In this respect, the multiplicative form of the utility function seems less restrictive than the additive form and almost as manageable to implement. Probabilities are expressed through subjective marginal probability density functions given at a discrete number of points. The final stage of the decision model is to establish the value of each strategy. To this scope, expected utilities are computed and scaled. The result is that nuclear power offers the best alternative. 8 figures, 9 tables, 32 references

  6. Preliminary Evaluation of Alternate Designs for HFIR Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renfro, David [ORNL; Chandler, David [ORNL; Cook, David [ORNL; Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Jain, Prashant [ORNL; Valentine, Jennifer [ORNL

    2014-10-30

    Engineering design studies of the feasibility of conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel are ongoing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of an effort sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI)/Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program. The fuel type selected by the program for the conversion of the five high-power research reactors in the U.S. that still use HEU fuel is a new U-Mo monolithic fuel. Studies by ORNL have previously indicated that HFIR can be successfully converted using the new fuel provided (1) the reactor power can be increased from 85 MW to 100 MW and (2) the fuel can be fabricated to a specific reference design. Fabrication techniques for the new fuel are under development by the program but are still immature, especially for the “complex” aspects of the HFIR fuel design. In FY 2012, the program underwent a major shift in focus to emphasize developing and qualifying processes for the fabrication of reliable and affordable LEU fuel. In support of this new focus and in an effort to ensure that the HFIR fuel design is as suitable for reliable fabrication as possible, ORNL undertook the present study to propose and evaluate several alternative design features. These features include (1) eliminating the fuel zone axial contouring in the previous reference design by substituting a permanent neutron absorber in the lower unfueled region of all of the fuel plates, (2) relocating the burnable neutron absorber from the fuel plates of the inner fuel element to the side plates of the inner fuel element (the fuel plates of the outer fuel element do not contain a burnable absorber), (3) relocating the fuel zone inside the fuel plate to be centered on the centerline of the depth of the plate, and (4) reshaping the radial contour of the relocated fuel zone to be symmetric about this centerline. The

  7. Preliminary Evaluation of Alternate Designs for HFIR Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renfro, David G [ORNL; Chandler, David [ORNL; Cook, David Howard [ORNL; Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Jain, Prashant K [ORNL; Valentine, Jennifer R [ORNL

    2014-11-01

    Engineering design studies of the feasibility of conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel are ongoing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of an effort sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy s Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI)/Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program. The fuel type selected by the program for the conversion of the five high-power research reactors in the U.S. that still use HEU fuel is a new U-Mo monolithic fuel. Studies by ORNL have previously indicated that HFIR can be successfully converted using the new fuel provided (1) the reactor power can be increased from 85 MW to 100 MW and (2) the fuel can be fabricated to a specific reference design. Fabrication techniques for the new fuel are under development by the program but are still immature, especially for the complex aspects of the HFIR fuel design. In FY 2012, the program underwent a major shift in focus to emphasize developing and qualifying processes for the fabrication of reliable and affordable LEU fuel. In support of this new focus and in an effort to ensure that the HFIR fuel design is as suitable for reliable fabrication as possible, ORNL undertook the present study to propose and evaluate several alternative design features. These features include (1) eliminating the fuel zone axial contouring in the previous reference design by substituting a permanent neutron absorber in the lower unfueled region of all of the fuel plates, (2) relocating the burnable neutron absorber from the fuel plates of the inner fuel element to the side plates of the inner fuel element (the fuel plates of the outer fuel element do not contain a burnable absorber), (3) relocating the fuel zone inside the fuel plate to be centered on the centerline of the depth of the plate, and (4) reshaping the radial contour of the relocated fuel zone to be symmetric about this centerline. The present

  8. Complexity-based learning—An alternative learning design for the twenty-first century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foo Seong David Ng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In programme delivery, while the international trend in education has seen a shift from teacher-centred to student-centred learning and from transmission to reflective approaches, most leadership programmes have remained heavily teacher-centred. A key feature of teacher-centred learning relies on practices of course-driven programmes. This feature has been remarkably resilient over the years in the face of efforts to effect change in programme delivery and a new understanding of complexity in the world of education. The complexity theoretical framework provides us the advantage of an alternative design for leadership development programmes that is able to meet current and future challenges. Yearly, billions of dollars are spent on training and development. It is important to ensure that the outcome of training, learning and development must yield practical outcomes that are relevant, innovative and implementable solutions.

  9. Design and Comparison Direct Torque Control Techniques for Induction Motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Kazmierkowski, Marian P.; Zelechowski, Marcin;

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a comparison of two significant control methods of induction motor are presented. The first one is a classical Direct Torque and Flux Control (DTC) and is compared with a scheme, which uses Space Vector Modulator (DTC-SVM). A comparison in respect to dynamic and steady state...

  10. Nitrogen abatement cost comparison for cropping systems under alternative management choices

    OpenAIRE

    Amon-Armah, Frederick; Yiridoe, Emmanuel K.; Hebb, Dale; Jamieson, Rob

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for cost-effective methods to reduce nitrogen pollution from agriculture. Marginal abatement cost (MAC) curves for nitrate-nitrogen pollution in an agricultural watershed are evaluated using estimated crop yield and nitrate pollution production functions for alternative cropping systems. The cropping systems considered in this study included i) two grain corn-based cropping systems; ii) two potato-based cropping systems; and iii) a vegetable-horticulture system, managed under ...

  11. Comparison of Two Alternative Hydraulic PTO Concepts for Wave Energy Conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Costello, Ronan; Ringwood, John; Weber, Jochem

    2011-01-01

    Hydraulic Power Take Off (PTO) systems for wave energy usually fall into two broad categories. These are, firstly, variable pressure systems where control of the primary force/torque is achieved by pressure modulation, and secondly, constant pressure systems where control of the primary force/torque is achieved by valve transitions that select between discrete effort levels determined by the approximately constant accumulator pressure and alternative piston areas. Energy ...

  12. On the significance of an alternate pathway of melatonin synthesis via 5-methoxytryptamine: comparisons across species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Dun-Xian; Hardeland, Rüdiger; Back, Kyoungwhan; Manchester, Lucien C; Alatorre-Jimenez, Moises A; Reiter, Russel J

    2016-08-01

    Melatonin is a phylogenetically ancient molecule. It is ubiquitously present in almost all organisms from primitive photosynthetic bacteria to humans. Its original primary function is presumable to be that of an antioxidant with other functions of this molecule having been acquired during evolution. The synthetic pathway of melatonin in vertebrates has been extensively studied. It is common knowledge that serotonin is acetylated to form N-acetylserotonin by arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) or arylamine N-acetyltransferase (SNAT or NAT) and N-acetylserotonin is, subsequently, methylated to melatonin by N-acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase (ASMT; also known as hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase, HIOMT). This is referred to as a classic melatonin synthetic pathway. Based on new evidence, we feel that this classic melatonin pathway is not generally the prevailing route of melatonin production. An alternate pathway is known to exist, in which serotonin is first O-methylated to 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MT) and, thereafter, 5-MT is N-acetylated to melatonin. Here, we hypothesize that the alternate melatonin synthetic pathway may be more important in certain organisms and under certain conditions. Evidence strongly supports that this alternate pathway prevails in some plants, bacteria, and, perhaps, yeast and may also occur in animals. PMID:27112772

  13. A Dominant Social Comparison Heuristic Unites Alternative Mechanisms for the Evolution of Indirect Reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Roger M; Colombo, Gualtiero B; Allen, Stuart M; Dunbar, Robin I M

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation is a fundamental human trait but our understanding of how it functions remains incomplete. Indirect reciprocity is a particular case in point, where one-shot donations are made to unrelated beneficiaries without any guarantee of payback. Existing insights are largely from two independent perspectives: i) individual-level cognitive behaviour in decision making, and ii) identification of conditions that favour evolution of cooperation. We identify a fundamental connection between these two areas by examining social comparison as a means through which indirect reciprocity can evolve. Social comparison is well established as an inherent human disposition through which humans navigate the social world by self-referential evaluation of others. Donating to those that are at least as reputable as oneself emerges as a dominant heuristic, which represents aspirational homophily. This heuristic is found to be implicitly present in the current knowledge of conditions that favour indirect reciprocity. The effective social norms for updating reputation are also observed to support this heuristic. We hypothesise that the cognitive challenge associated with social comparison has contributed to cerebral expansion and the disproportionate human brain size, consistent with the social complexity hypothesis. The findings have relevance for the evolution of autonomous systems that are characterised by one-shot interactions. PMID:27515119

  14. Modification Design of Petrol Engine for Alternative Fueling using Compressed Natural Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliezer Uchechukwu Okeke

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is on the modification design of petrol engine for alternative fuelling using Compressed Natural Gas (CNG. It provides an analytical background in the modification design process. A petrol engine Honda CR-V 2.0 auto which has a compression ratio of 9.8 was selected as case study. In order for this petrol engine to run on CNG, its compression had to be increased. An optimal compression ratio of 11.97 was computed using the standard temperature-specific volume relationship for an isentropic compression process. This computation of compression ratio is based on an inlet air temperature of 30oC (representative of tropical ambient condition and pre-combustion temperature of 540oC (corresponding to the auto-ignition temperature of CNG. Using this value of compression ratio, a dimensional modification Quantity =1.803mm was obtained using simple geometric relationships. This value of 1.803mm is needed to increase the length of the connecting rod, the compression height of the piston or reducing the sealing plate’s thickness. After the modification process, a CNG engine of air standard efficiency 62.7% (this represents a 4.67% increase over the petrol engine, capable of a maximum power of 83.6kW at 6500rpm, was obtained.

  15. LCA to choose among alternative design solutions: The case study of a new Italian incineration line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At international level LCA is being increasingly used to objectively evaluate the performances of different Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management solutions. One of the more important waste management options concerns MSW incineration. LCA is usually applied to existing incineration plants. In this study LCA methodology was applied to a new Italian incineration line, to facilitate the prediction, during the design phase, of its potential environmental impacts in terms of damage to human health, ecosystem quality and consumption of resources. The aim of the study was to analyse three different design alternatives: an incineration system with dry flue gas cleaning (without- and with-energy recovery) and one with wet flue gas cleaning. The last two technological solutions both incorporating facilities for energy recovery were compared. From the results of the study, the system with energy recovery and dry flue gas cleaning revealed lower environmental impacts in relation to the ecosystem quality. As LCA results are greatly affected by uncertainties of different types, the second part of the work provides for an uncertainty analysis aimed at detecting the extent output data from life cycle analysis are influenced by uncertainty of input data, and employs both qualitative (pedigree matrix) and quantitative methods (Monte Carlo analysis).

  16. Greenhouse gas emissions of alternative pavement designs: framework development and illustrative application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Cui, Qingbin; Schwartz, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Pavement rehabilitation is carbon intensive and the choice of pavement type is a critical factor in controlling greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The existing body of knowledge is not able to support decision-making on pavement choice due to a lack of consensus on the system boundaries, the functional units and the estimation periods. Excessive data requirements further inhibit the generalization of the existing methodologies for design evaluation at the early planning stage. This study proposes a practical life-cycle GHG estimation approach, which is arguably effective to benchmark pavement emissions given project bid tabulation. A set of case studies conducted for this study suggest that recycled asphalt pavement (e.g., foam stabilized base (FSB), and warm mix asphalt (WMA)) would prevent up to 50% of GHGs from the initial construction phase. However, from a life-cycle perspective, pavement emissions are dictated largely by the traffic characteristics and the analysis period for the use phase. The benefits from using recycled materials (e.g., FSB) are likely to diminish if the recycled products do not perform as well as those properly proportioned with less recycled materials, or if the recycled materials are locally unavailable. When the AADT reaches 10,000, use phase releases more than 97% of the life cycle emissions and the emissions difference among alternative designs will be within 1%. PMID:24333742

  17. A Comparison of Central Composite Design and Taguchi Method for Optimizing Fenton Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anam Asghar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a comparison of central composite design (CCD and Taguchi method was established for Fenton oxidation. Dyeini, Dye : Fe+2, H2O2 : Fe+2, and pH were identified control variables while COD and decolorization efficiency were selected responses. L9 orthogonal array and face-centered CCD were used for the experimental design. Maximum 99% decolorization and 80% COD removal efficiency were obtained under optimum conditions. R squared values of 0.97 and 0.95 for CCD and Taguchi method, respectively, indicate that both models are statistically significant and are in well agreement with each other. Furthermore, Prob > F less than 0.0500 and ANOVA results indicate the good fitting of selected model with experimental results. Nevertheless, possibility of ranking of input variables in terms of percent contribution to the response value has made Taguchi method a suitable approach for scrutinizing the operating parameters. For present case, pH with percent contribution of 87.62% and 66.2% was ranked as the most contributing and significant factor. This finding of Taguchi method was also verified by 3D contour plots of CCD. Therefore, from this comparative study, it is concluded that Taguchi method with 9 experimental runs and simple interaction plots is a suitable alternative to CCD for several chemical engineering applications.

  18. The Potential Use of an Alternative Fluid for SFR Intermediate Loops: Selection and First Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the Generation IV systems, Sodium Fast Reactors (SFR) are promising and benefit of considerable technological experience, but improvements are researched on safety approach and capital cost reduction. One of the main problems to be solved by the standard SFR design is the proper management of the risk of leakage between the intermediate circuit filled with sodium and the energy conversion system using a water Rankine cycle. This risk requires notably an early detection of water leakage to prevent a water-sodium reaction, and adequate draining and pressure resistant components to mitigate the reaction consequences. One can think also to suppress this risk by replacing the sodium in the secondary loops by an alternative fluid, less reactive with water. This alternative fluid might also allow innovative designs, e.g. Intermediate Heat eXchanger (IHX) and Steam Generator Unit (SGU) grouped in the same component. CEA, AREVA and EDF have formed a working group in order to evaluate different 'alternative fluids' that might replace sodium. A first selection retained seven fluids on the bases of 'required properties' as: large operating range (low melting point, high boiling point ...), fluid cost and availability, acceptable corrosion at SFR working temperature. These are three bismuth alloys, two nitrate salts, one molten hydroxide and sodium with nanoparticles. Then, it was decided to evaluate these fluids through a multi-criteria analysis in order to point out advantages and drawbacks of each fluid and to compare them with sodium. Lack of knowledge, impact on materials, design, working conditions and reactor availability should be emphasized by this analysis, in order to provide sound arguments for a research program on one or two most promising fluids. A global note is given to each fluid by evaluating them with respect to 'major criteria', weighted differently according to their importance. The major criteria were: thermal properties, reactivity with structures

  19. Alternative sanitization methods for minimally processed lettuce in comparison to sodium hypochlorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Lígia Biazotto Bachelli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Lettuce is a leafy vegetable widely used in industry for minimally processed products, in which the step of sanitization is the crucial moment for ensuring a safe food for consumption. Chlorinated compounds, mainly sodium hypochlorite, are the most used in Brazil, but the formation of trihalomethanes from this sanitizer is a drawback. Then, the search for alternative methods to sodium hypochlorite has been emerging as a matter of great interest. The suitability of chlorine dioxide (60 mg L-1/10 min, peracetic acid (100 mg L-1/15 min and ozonated water (1.2 mg L-1 /1 min as alternative sanitizers to sodium hypochlorite (150 mg L-1 free chlorine/15 min were evaluated. Minimally processed lettuce washed with tap water for 1 min was used as a control. Microbiological analyses were performed in triplicate, before and after sanitization, and at 3, 6, 9 and 12 days of storage at 2 ± 1 ºC with the product packaged on LDPE bags of 60 µm. It was evaluated total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., psicrotrophic and mesophilic bacteria, yeasts and molds. All samples of minimally processed lettuce showed absence of E. coli and Salmonella spp. The treatments of chlorine dioxide, peracetic acid and ozonated water promoted reduction of 2.5, 1.1 and 0.7 log cycle, respectively, on count of microbial load of minimally processed product and can be used as substitutes for sodium hypochlorite. These alternative compounds promoted a shelf-life of six days to minimally processed lettuce, while the shelf-life with sodium hypochlorite was 12 days.

  20. The Comparison of Selected Alternative Schools' Pedagogical Systems with the Don Bosco Preventive System

    OpenAIRE

    LAŇKA, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    The Paper discusses the education and upbringing as a system, and is especially aimed at the Preventive system of Saint John Bosco. The Bosco{\\crq}s system is then compared to the selected alternative schools{\\crq} pedagogical systems, which take humanism as the core of approach to the child{\\crq}s soul. The aim of this baccalaureate paper is to compare the selected issues, which the author sees as being important. It is the specification of target group, to which the pedagogical system is ai...

  1. System comparison of hydrogen with other alternative fuels in terms of EPACT requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbir, F.; Oezay, K.; Veziroglu, T.N. [Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The feasibility of several alternative fuels, namely natural gas, methanol, ethanol, hydrogen and electricity, to replace 10% of gasoline by the year 2000 has been investigated. The analysis was divided in two parts: (i) analysis of vehicle technologies, and (ii) analysis of fuel production storage and distribution, from the primary energy sources to the refueling station. Only technologies that are developed to at least demonstration level were considered. The amount and type of the primary energy sources have been determined for each of the fuels being analyzed. A need for a common denominator for different types of energy has been identified.

  2. Femtosecond laser assisted design of sutureless intrastromal graft as an alternative to partial thickness keratoplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Francesca; Durkee, Heather; Pini, Roberto; Canovetti, Annalisa; Malandrini, Alex; Lenzetti, Ivo; Rubino, Pierangela; Leaci, Rosachiara; Neri, Alberto; Scaroni, Patrizia; Menabuoni, Luca; Macaluso, Claudio

    2014-02-01

    Minimally invasive laser assisted surgery in ophthalmology is continuously developing in order to find new surgical approaches, preserve patient tissue and improve surgical results in terms of cut precision, restoration of visual acuity, and invasiveness. In order to achieve these goals, the current approach in corneal transplant is lamellar keratoplasty, where only the anterior or posterior part of the patient's cornea is substituted depending on the lesion or pathology. In this work, we present a novel alternative approach: a case study of intrastromal sutureless transplant, where a portion of the anterior stroma of a donor cornea was inserted into the stroma of the recipient cornea, aiming to restore the correct thickness of the patient's cornea. The patient cornea was paracentrally thin, as the result of a trophic ulcer due to ocular pemphigoid. A discoid corneal graft from the anterior stroma of a donor eye was prepared: a femtosecond laser cut with a trapezoidal profile (thickness was 300 μm, minor and major basis were 3.00 and 3.50 mm, respectively). In the recipient eye, an intrastromal cut was also performed with the femtosecond laser using a specifically designed mask; the cut position was 275 μm in depth. The graft was loaded into an injector and inserted as an intrastromal presbyopic implant. The postoperative analysis evidenced a clear and stable graft that selectively restored corneal thickness in the thinned area. Intrastromal corneal transplant surgery is a minimally invasive alternative to anterior or posterior lamellar keratoplasty in select cases. We believe that Sutureless Intrastromal Laser Keratoplasty (SILK) could open up new avenues in the field of corneal transplantation by fully utilizing the potential and precision of existing lasers.

  3. EDIN design study alternate space shuttle booster replacement concepts. Volume 1: Engineering analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demakes, P. T.; Hirsch, G. N.; Stewart, W. A.; Glatt, C. R.

    1976-01-01

    The use of a recoverable liquid rocket booster (LRB) system to replace the existing solid rocket booster (SRB) system for the shuttle was studied. Historical weight estimating relationships were developed for the LRB using Saturn technology and modified as required. Mission performance was computed using February 1975 shuttle configuration groundrules to allow reasonable comparison of the existing shuttle with the study designs. The launch trajectory was constrained to pass through both the RTLS/AOA and main engine cut off points of the shuttle reference mission 1. Performance analysis is based on a point design trajectory model which optimizes initial tilt rate and exoatmospheric pitch profile. A gravity turn was employed during the boost phase in place of the shuttle angle of attack profile. Engine throttling add/or shutdown was used to constrain dynamic pressure and/or longitudinal acceleration where necessary. Four basic configurations were investigated: a parallel burn vehicle with an F-1 engine powered LRB; a parallel burn vehicle with a high pressure engine powered LRB; a series burn vehicle with a high pressure engine powered LRB. The relative sizes of the LRB and the ET are optimized to minimize GLOW in most cases.

  4. Cell and stack design alternatives. Second quarterly report, November 1, 1978-January 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, D.Q.

    1979-02-14

    Work on the design of an on-site fuel cell total energy system for an apartment building is described. A mass and energy balance was completed for one operating point of a selected power generation sub-system with a power output of 119 kW. Potentially, 87 percent of the LHV of the input fuel is available as bus bar electricity or useful heat. A 2 kW stack of conventional design and a 0.5 kW DIGAS cooled stack have been constructed and are on test at ERC. Renovation of a space for the Westinghouse stack test facility is underway and procurement of equipment has been initiated. The coupled cell temperature - current density analysis has been modified to include the effects of turbulent coolant flow and extended to permit analysis of up to 10 process plates between cooling plates. The REFORM computer program was verified by comparison with data received from the government project manager. A method for predicting carbon deposition was developed and compared with data from the literature.

  5. Review and comparison of magnet designs for magnetic refrigeration

    CERN Document Server

    Bjørk, R; Smith, A; Pryds, N

    2014-01-01

    One of the key issues in magnetic refrigeration is generating the magnetic field that the magnetocaloric material must be subjected to. The magnet constitutes a major part of the expense of a complete magnetic refrigeration system and a large effort should therefore be invested in improving the magnet design. A detailed analysis of the efficiency of different published permanent magnet designs used in magnetic refrigeration applications is presented in this paper. Each design is analyzed based on the generated magnetic flux density, the volume of the region where this flux is generated and the amount of magnet material used. This is done by characterizing each design by a figure of merit magnet design efficiency parameter, $\\Lambda_\\mathrm{cool}$. The designs are then compared and the best design found. Finally recommendations for designing the ideal magnet design are presented based on the analysis of the reviewed designs.

  6. Life cycle comparison of waste-to-energy alternatives for municipal waste treatment in Chilean Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezama, Alberto; Douglas, Carla; Méndez, Jacqueline; Szarka, Nóra; Muñoz, Edmundo; Navia, Rodrigo; Schock, Steffen; Konrad, Odorico; Ulloa, Claudia

    2013-10-01

    The energy system in the Region of Aysén, Chile, is characterized by a strong dependence on fossil fuels, which account for up to 51% of the installed capacity. Although the implementation of waste-to-energy concepts in municipal waste management systems could support the establishment of a more fossil-independent energy system for the region, previous studies have concluded that energy recovery systems are not suitable from an economic perspective in Chile. Therefore, this work intends to evaluate these technical options from an environmental perspective, using life cycle assessment as a tool for a comparative analysis, considering Coyhaique city as a case study. Three technical alternatives were evaluated: (i) landfill gas recovery and flaring without energy recovery; (ii) landfill gas recovery and energy use; and (iii) the implementation of an anaerobic digestion system for the organic waste fraction coupled with energy recovery from the biogas produced. Mass and energy balances of the three analyzed alternatives have been modeled. The comparative LCA considered global warming potential, abiotic depletion and ozone layer depletion as impact categories, as well as required raw energy and produced energy as comparative regional-specific indicators. According to the results, the use of the recovered landfill gas as an energy source can be identified as the most environmentally appropriate solution for Coyhaique, especially when taking into consideration the global impact categories. PMID:23988463

  7. Embodied Energy Assessment and Comparisons for a Residential Building Using Conventional and Alternative Materials in Indian Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveen Kishore, K.; Chouhan, J. S.

    2014-06-01

    Building sector is responsible for 40 % of the primary energy use and 24 % of carbon dioxide emissions in India. The main source of green house gas emissions from buildings is due to energy consumption. This paper aims to assess the embodied energy index and environmental impact of a two storied residential building. The study proposes various alternative materials which can be used in day to day construction in order to mitigate the environmental impact and climate change due to construction activity in India. Two types of construction techniques have been considered for the study, namely load bearing and reinforced concrete framed construction. Embodied energy and carbon dioxide emissions of walling and roofing components using conventional and alternative materials has also been analyzed and compared. The comparison is done based on two parameters namely, embodied energy/m2 and CO2 emissions per unit of floor area. The study shows that bricks, cement and steel are the three major contributors to the energy cost of constructing a building by conventional methods. A conventional two storied load bearing structure is 22 % more energy efficient when compared to a reinforced concrete structure. It has also been observed from the study that use of alternative material in the building envelope gives embodied energy savings between 50 and 60 % for a two storey load bearing structure and 30-42 % for a two storey reinforced concrete structure. Hence a load bearing construction is certainly a better alternative to RC framed construction for up to two storied structures in terms of embodied energy and environmental impacts.

  8. Passive Samplers for Investigations of Air Quality: Method Description, Implementation, and Comparison to Alternative Sampling Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Paper covers the basics of passive sampler design, compares passive samplers to conventional methods of air sampling, and discusses considerations when implementing a passive sampling program. The Paper also discusses field sampling and sample analysis considerations to ensu...

  9. Review and comparison of magnet designs for magnetic refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Smith, Anders;

    2010-01-01

    One of the key issues in magnetic refrigeration is generating the magnetic field that the magnetocaloric material must be subjected to. The magnet constitutes a major part of the expense of a complete magnetic refrigeration system and a large effort should therefore be invested in improving the...... magnet design. A detailed analysis of the efficiency of different published permanent magnet designs used in magnetic refrigeration applications is presented in this paper. Each design is analyzed based on the generated magnetic flux density, the volume of the region where this flux is generated and the...... amount of magnet material used. This is done by characterizing each design by a figure of merit magnet design efficiency parameter, Λcool. The designs are then compared and the best design found. Finally recommendations for designing the ideal magnet design are presented based on the analysis of the...

  10. Levelised unit electricity cost comparison of alternate technologies for baseload generation in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a comparison of the lifetime cost of constructing, operating and decommissioning new generation suitable for supplying baseload power by early in the next decade. New baseload generation options in Ontario are nuclear, coal-fired steam turbines or combined cycle gas turbines (CCGT). Nuclear and coal-fired units are characterised by high capital costs and low operating costs. As such, they are candidates for baseload operation only. Gas-fired generation is characterised by lower capital costs and higher operating costs and thus may meet the requirements for operation as peaking and/or baseload generation. The comparison of baseload generating technologies is made by reference to the estimated levelised unit electricity cost (LUEC). The LUEC can be thought of as a 'supply cost', where the unit cost is the price needed to recover all costs over the period. It is determined by finding the price that sets the sum of all future discounted cash flows (net present value, or NPV) to zero. It can also be thought of as representing the constant real wholesale price of electricity that meets the financing cost, debt repayment, income tax and cash flow constraints associated with the construction operation and decommissioning of a generating plant. Levelised unit cost comparisons are usually made with different sets of financing assumptions. This report considers two base cases, which we describe as 'merchant' and 'public' financing. The term 'merchant plant' is used to refer to ones that are built and operated by private investors. These investors pay for their capital through debt and by raising equity, and thus pay return on equity and interest on debt throughout their lifetime. These projects include income taxes, both provincial and federal. Publicly financed projects typically are not subject to income taxes or to the same constraints on raising finance through issuing debt and equity. However, they are constrained to provide a rate of return. The

  11. Defect related effects on the reliability and performance of an embedded DRAM cell designed with MOSFETs with alternative gate dielectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of an embedded DRAM based on MOSFETs with alternative gate dielectrics is presented and analysed. Design and evaluation of NMOS devices with high-k dielectric gate insulators and DRAM circuits took place. Reliability parameters of the NMOS devices constructed with (Ba,Sr)TiO3 gate dielectrics were examined. A 90 nm technology model and the BSIM4 Spice equations were used in order to derive the device behaviour and the DRAM circuit performance. The simulation revealed low output currents for the MOSFETs and higher decay times for the DRAM circuits constructed using the devices with the alternative gate dielectrics

  12. Second law analysis of reverse osmosis desalination plants: An alternative design using pressure retarded osmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A second law analysis of a reverse osmosis desalination plant is carried out using reliable seawater exergy formulation instead of a common model in literature that represents seawater as an ideal mixture of liquid water and solid sodium chloride. The analysis is performed using reverse osmosis desalination plant data and compared with results previously published using the ideal mixture model. It is demonstrated that the previous model has serious shortcomings, particularly with regard to calculation of the seawater flow exergy, the minimum work of separation, and the second law efficiency. The most up-to-date thermodynamic properties of seawater, as needed to conduct an exergy analysis, are given as correlations in this paper. From this new analysis, it is found that the studied reverse osmosis desalination plant has very low second law efficiency (<2%) even when using the available energy recovery systems. Therefore, an energy recovery system is proposed using the (PRO) pressure retarded osmotic method. The proposed alternative design has a second law efficiency of 20%, and the input power is reduced by 38% relative to original reverse osmosis system. -- Highlights: ► A previously proposed model for the calculation of seawater flow exergy gives incorrect values. ► Reverse osmosis desalination plants have very low second law efficiency (<2%) even when using the available energy recovery systems. ► A PRO energy recovery device increases the RO plant’s second law efficiency to 20% and reduces the input power.

  13. An alternative technique for the computation of the designator in the retinex theory of color vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, E H

    1986-05-01

    Accepting the first postulate of the retinex theory of color vision that there are three independent lightness-determining mechanisms (one for long waves, one for middle waves, and one for short waves), each operative with less than a millisecond exposure and each served by its own retinal pigment, a basic task of retinex theory becomes the determination of the nature of these mechanisms. Earlier references proposed several workable algorithms. [Land, E. H. (1959) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 45, 115-129; Land, E. H. (1959) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 45, 636-644; Land, E. H. (1983) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80, 5163-5169; Land, E. H. & McCann, J. J. (1971) J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1-11; Land, E. H. (1986) Vision Res. 26, 7-21.] The present paper describes a relatively simple alternative technique for the computation of the designator in retinex theory and reports the general operational effectiveness of the new technique, including the competence, not possessed by earlier algorithms, for generating Mach bands. PMID:3458165

  14. Design of Fogging Nozzles as Alternative Stock Pile Dust Suppression Medium at Gold Mining Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Kwasi Adzimah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to design fogging nozzles as alternative stock pile dust suppression medium at gold mining sites. Furthermore, this fogging medium helps to arrest the dust without getting the area wet and without any substantial expenditure. Emission of dust, which is one of the main contributors to the pollution of the environment, has been associated with mining industries for years, especially in the mining towns of Ghana and Liberia. The emission of dust takes place mainly around the haul roads, ore drilling, blasting and trafficking areas, crushers and, and especially, the stock pile unit. The intensity of the emissions of the dust is such that all the plants, objects, living things, gadgets, instruments and structures in the area are engulfed in the dust. Residents, who are hard hit by this phenomenon, backed by their traditional rulers often take the mining companies to task through legal or unlawful actions, which, many a time, become violent and confrontational. Sprinkling of water has been done to alleviate the situation but this process rather creates more problems in that, the area, especially roads, once wet becomes dry again, and the emission of dust gets intensified and aggravated.

  15. Using pilot test data to refine an alternative cover design in northern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smesrud, Jason K; Benson, Craig H; Albright, William H; Richards, James H; Wright, Shannon; Israel, Tim; Goodrich, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Two instrumented test sections were constructed in summer 1999 at the Kiefer Landfill near Sacramento, California to test the hydraulic performance of two proposed alternative final covers. Both test sections simulated monolithic evapotranspiration (ET) designs that differed primarily in thickness. Both were seeded with a mix of two perennial and one annual grass species. Oleander seedlings were also planted in the thicker test section. Detailed hydrologic performance monitoring of the covers was conducted from 1999 through 2005, The thicker test section met the performance criterion (average percolation of cover system for full-scale application. The decommissioning study showed that properties of the soils changed over the monitoring period (saturated hydraulic conductivity and water holding capacity increased, density decreased) and that the perennial grasses and shrubs intended for the cover were out-competed by annual species with shallower roots and lesser capacity for water uptake. Of these changes, reduced ET from the shallow-rooted annual vegetation is believed to be the primary cause for the high percolation rate from the thinner test section. Hydrologic modeling suggests that the target hydraulic performance can be achieved using an ET cover with similar thickness to the thin test section if perennial vegetation species observed in surrounding grasslands can be established. This finding underscores the importance of establishing and maintaining the appropriate vegetation on ET covers in this climate. PMID:22574382

  16. A comparison of alternating current and direct current electrospray ionization for mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarver, Scott A; Chetwani, Nishant; Dovichi, Norman J; Go, David B; Gartner, Carlos A

    2014-04-01

    A series of studies comparing the performance of alternating current electrospray ionization (AC ESI) mass spectrometry (MS) and direct current electrospray ionization (DC ESI) MS have been conducted, exploring the absolute signal intensity and signal-to-background ratios produced by both methods using caffeine and a model peptide as targets. Because the high-voltage AC signal was more susceptible to generating gas discharges, the operating voltage range of AC ESI was significantly smaller than that for DC ESI, such that the absolute signal intensities produced by DC ESI at peak voltages were one to two orders of magnitude greater than those for AC ESI. Using an electronegative nebulizing gas, sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), instead of nitrogen (N2) increased the operating range of AC ESI by ~50%, but did not appreciably improve signal intensities. While DC ESI generated far greater signal intensities, both ionization methods produced comparable signal-to-background noise, with AC ESI spectra appearing qualitatively cleaner. A quantitative calibration analysis was performed for two analytes, caffeine and the peptide MRFA. AC ESI utilizing SF6 outperforms all other techniques for the detection of MRFA, producing chromatographic limits of detection nearly one order of magnitude lower than that of DC ESI utilizing N2, and one-half that of DC ESI utilizing SF6. However, DC ESI outperforms AC ESI for the analysis of caffeine, indicating that improvements in spectral quality may benefit certain compounds or classes of compounds, on an individual basis. PMID:24464359

  17. N-butanol and isobutanol as alternatives to gasoline: Comparison of port fuel injector characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenkl, Michael; Pechout, Martin; Vojtisek, Michal

    2016-03-01

    The paper reports on an experimental investigation of the relationship between the pulse width of a gasoline engine port fuel injector and the quantity of the fuel injected when butanol is used as a fuel. Two isomers of butanol, n-butanol and isobutanol, are considered as potential candidates for renewable, locally produced fuels capable of serving as a drop-in replacement fuel for gasoline, as an alternative to ethanol which poses material compatibility and other drawbacks. While the injected quantity of fuel is typically a linear function of the time the injector coil is energized, the flow through the port fuel injector is complex, non ideal, and not necessarily laminar, and considering that butanol has much higher viscosity than gasoline, an experimental investigation was conducted. A production injector, coupled to a production fueling system, and driven by a pulse width generator was operated at various pulse lengths and frequencies, covering the range of engine rpm and loads on a car engine. The results suggest that at least at room temperature, the fueling rate remains to be a linear function of the pulse width for both n-butanol and isobutanol, and the volumes of fuel injected are comparable for gasoline and both butanol isomers.

  18. N-butanol and isobutanol as alternatives to gasoline: Comparison of port fuel injector characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenkl Michael

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports on an experimental investigation of the relationship between the pulse width of a gasoline engine port fuel injector and the quantity of the fuel injected when butanol is used as a fuel. Two isomers of butanol, n-butanol and isobutanol, are considered as potential candidates for renewable, locally produced fuels capable of serving as a drop-in replacement fuel for gasoline, as an alternative to ethanol which poses material compatibility and other drawbacks. While the injected quantity of fuel is typically a linear function of the time the injector coil is energized, the flow through the port fuel injector is complex, non ideal, and not necessarily laminar, and considering that butanol has much higher viscosity than gasoline, an experimental investigation was conducted. A production injector, coupled to a production fueling system, and driven by a pulse width generator was operated at various pulse lengths and frequencies, covering the range of engine rpm and loads on a car engine. The results suggest that at least at room temperature, the fueling rate remains to be a linear function of the pulse width for both n-butanol and isobutanol, and the volumes of fuel injected are comparable for gasoline and both butanol isomers.

  19. Comparison of direct current and 50 Hz alternating current microscopic corona characteristics on conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corona discharge is one of the major design factors for extra-high voltage and ultra-high voltage DC/AC transmission lines. Under different voltages, corona discharge reveals different characteristics. This paper aims at investigating DC and AC coronas on the microscopic scale. To obtain the specific characteristics of DC and AC coronas, a new measurement approach that utilizes a coaxial wire-cylinder corona cage is designed in this paper, and wires of different diameters are used in the experiment. Based on the measurements, the respective microscopic characteristics of DC and AC coronas are analyzed and compared. With differences in characteristics between DC and AC coronas proposed, this study provides useful insights into DC/AC corona discharges on transmission line applications

  20. Cell and stack design alternatives. Second quarterly report, November 1, 1978-January 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-14

    Progress on a program to develop commercially viable phosphoric acid fuel cell driven on-site integration energy systems is presented. A mass and energy balance was completed for one operating point of a selected power generation sub-system with a power output of 119 kW. Potentially, 87% of the LHV of the input fuel is available as bus bar electricity or useful heat. A 2 kW stack of conventional design and a 0.5 kW DIGAS cooled stack have been constructed and are on test at ERC. Renovation of a space for the Westinghouse stack test facility is underway and procurement of equipment has been initiated. The coupled cell temperature - current density analysis has been modified to include the effects of turbulent coolant flow and extended to permit analysis of up to 10 process plates between cooling plates. The REFORM computer program was verified by comparison with data received from the government project manager. A method for predicting carbon deposition was developed and compared with data from the literature.

  1. Comparison of Merging and Meta-Analysis as Alternative Approaches for Integrative Gene Expression Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jonatan Taminau; Cosmin Lazar; Stijn Meganck; Ann Nowé

    2014-01-01

    An increasing amount of microarray gene expression data sets is available through public repositories. Their huge potential in making new findings is yet to be unlocked by making them available for large-scale analysis. In order to do so it is essential that independent studies designed for similar biological problems can be integrated, so that new insights can be obtained. These insights would remain undiscovered when analyzing the individual data sets because it is well known that the small...

  2. Comparison of alternative models for simulating anomalous solute transport in a large heterogeneous soil column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Guangyao; Zhan, Hongbin; Feng, Shaoyuan; Huang, Guanhua; Mao, Xiaomin

    2009-10-01

    SummaryThis study compared five different models for evaluating solute transport in a 1250-cm long, saturated and highly heterogeneous soil column. The five models were: the convection-dispersion equation (CDE), the mobile-immobile model (MIM), the convective lognormal transfer function model (CLT), the spatial fractional advection-dispersion equation (FADE) and the continuous time random walk model (CTRW). Each of these models was used to fit the breakthrough curve (BTC) at each distance individually and was also used to fit the BTCs at different distances simultaneously. Dependence of estimated parameters on distance was investigated. The estimated parameters at 200 cm were used to make predictions at subsequent distances. Highly anomalous transport behavior was observed in the column as the BTCs demonstrated significantly irregular shape and long tailing. This study indicated that CDE, CLT and FADE were unable to describe the anomalous BTCs adequately and their parameters changed with transport distance significantly. Compared to CDE, CLT and FADE, MIM better captured the evolution of anomalous BTCs. However, MIM did not explain the distinct BTC tailing satisfactorily. In contrast to MIM, CTRW better simulated the long tails of BTCs. The spreading parameter ( β) of CTRW was close to one and remained approximately constant at different travel distances. To make the comparison of these five models more general beyond the specific transport condition in the soil column, a generic evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages of these five models was presented in terms of their theory framework and a priori knowledge of the model behaviors.

  3. Quantitative comparison of alternative methods for coarse-graining biological networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Gregory R.; Meng, Luming; Huang, Xuhui

    2013-09-01

    Markov models and master equations are a powerful means of modeling dynamic processes like protein conformational changes. However, these models are often difficult to understand because of the enormous number of components and connections between them. Therefore, a variety of methods have been developed to facilitate understanding by coarse-graining these complex models. Here, we employ Bayesian model comparison to determine which of these coarse-graining methods provides the models that are most faithful to the original set of states. We find that the Bayesian agglomerative clustering engine and the hierarchical Nyström expansion graph (HNEG) typically provide the best performance. Surprisingly, the original Perron cluster cluster analysis (PCCA) method often provides the next best results, outperforming the newer PCCA+ method and the most probable paths algorithm. We also show that the differences between the models are qualitatively significant, rather than being minor shifts in the boundaries between states. The performance of the methods correlates well with the entropy of the resulting coarse-grainings, suggesting that finding states with more similar populations (i.e., avoiding low population states that may just be noise) gives better results.

  4. Lab-Scale Fiber Spinning Experimental Design Cost Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Moreland, Jeffrey C.; Julia L. Sharp, Ph.D.; Philip J. Brown, Ph.D.

    2010-01-01

    Many statistical experimental designs are too costlyor require too much raw material to be feasible forlab-scale fiber spinning experiments. In this study afour-factor response surface design is presented tostudy the fiber spinning process in detail at the labscale. The time, cost, and amount of raw materialrequired to execute the proposed design are comparedto the typical completely randomized 24 factorialdesign used in fiber spinning experiments and also toa standard four-factor response su...

  5. A comparison of graphical design techniques for parallel, distributed software

    OpenAIRE

    Polman, M.; Steen, M.R.

    1994-01-01

    textabstractWe have compared three graphical design techniques, OMT, ADL, and PARSE, on their suitability for the development of parallel/distributed applications. Our method has been to use all three of them in modeling one, existing, application: a backup facility running within the Andrew File System. We compare and analyze the outcomes on a number of important design aspects. Based on this, we draw conclusions on each individual technique and on graphical design techniques for parallel/di...

  6. Review and comparison of magnet designs for magnetic refrigeration

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Smith, Anders; Pryds, Nini

    2014-01-01

    One of the key issues in magnetic refrigeration is generating the magnetic field that the magnetocaloric material must be subjected to. The magnet constitutes a major part of the expense of a complete magnetic refrigeration system and a large effort should therefore be invested in improving the magnet design. A detailed analysis of the efficiency of different published permanent magnet designs used in magnetic refrigeration applications is presented in this paper. Each design is analyzed base...

  7. Lab-Scale Fiber Spinning Experimental Design Cost Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey C. Moreland

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Many statistical experimental designs are too costlyor require too much raw material to be feasible forlab-scale fiber spinning experiments. In this study afour-factor response surface design is presented tostudy the fiber spinning process in detail at the labscale. The time, cost, and amount of raw materialrequired to execute the proposed design are comparedto the typical completely randomized 24 factorialdesign used in fiber spinning experiments and also toa standard four-factor response surface design.Sample fiber data as well as analysis from a typicalstatistical software package is provided to furtherdemonstrate the differences between each design. Bydesignating some treatment factors in the design ashard-to-change, split-plotting is used to reduce thetime, cost, and amount of raw material required tocomplete the experiment. The proposed split-plotdesign is faster and less expensive than a typicalfactorial design and has the advantage of fitting amore complex second-order model to the system.When compared to a standard response surfacedesign, the proposed split-plot design provides thesame second-order modeling capabilities but reducesthe cost of the experiment by 53%, the total time by36%, and the amount of polymer required by 24%.Thus, a split-plot response surface design based onhard-to-change factors is recommended in lab-scalespinning.

  8. Quadriceps tendon allografts as an alternative to Achilles tendon allografts: a biomechanical comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabe, Isaac; Hunter, Shawn

    2014-12-01

    Quadriceps tendon with a patellar bone block may be a viable alternative to Achilles tendon for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL-R) if it is, at a minimum, a biomechanically equivalent graft. The objective of this study was to directly compare the biomechanical properties of quadriceps tendon and Achilles tendon allografts. Quadriceps and Achilles tendon pairs from nine research-consented donors were tested. All specimens were processed to reduce bioburden and terminally sterilized by gamma irradiation. Specimens were subjected to a three phase uniaxial tension test performed in a custom environmental chamber to maintain the specimens at a physiologic temperature (37 ± 2 °C) and misted with a 0.9 % NaCl solution. There were no statistical differences in seven of eight structural and mechanical between the two tendon types. Quadriceps tendons exhibited a significantly higher displacement at maximum load and significantly lower stiffness than Achilles tendons. The results of this study indicated a biomechanical equivalence of aseptically processed, terminally sterilized quadriceps tendon grafts with bone block to Achilles tendon grafts with bone block. The significantly higher displacement at maximum load, and lower stiffness observed for quadriceps tendons may be related to the failure mode. Achilles tendons had a higher bone avulsion rate than quadriceps tendons (86 % compared to 12 %, respectively). This was likely due to observed differences in bone block density between the two tendon types. This research supports the use of quadriceps tendon allografts in lieu of Achilles tendon allografts for ACL-R. PMID:24414293

  9. Comparison of costs for three hypothetical alternative kitchen waste management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiettecatte, Wim; Tize, Ronald; De Wever, Heleen

    2014-11-01

    Urban water and waste management continues to be a major challenge, with the Earth's population projected to rise to 9 billion by 2050, with 70% of this population expected to live in cities. A combined treatment of wastewater and the organic fraction of municipal solid waste offers opportunities for improved environmental protection and energy recovery, but the collection and transport of organic wastes must be cost effective. This study compares three alternative kitchen waste collection and transportation systems for a virtual modern urban area with 300,000 residents and a population density of 10,000 persons per square kilometre. Door-to-door collection, being the standard practice in modern urban centres, remains the most economically advantageous at a cost of 263 euros per tonne of kitchen waste. Important drawbacks are the difficult logistics, increased city traffic, air and noise pollution. The quieter, cleaner and more hygienic vacuum transport of kitchen waste comes with a higher cost of 367 euros per tonne, mainly resulting from a higher initial investment cost for the system installation. The third option includes the well-known use of under-sink food waste disposers (often called garbage grinders) that are connected to the kitchen's wastewater piping system, with a total yearly cost of 392 euros per tonne. Important advantages with this system are the clean operation and the current availability of a city-wide sewage conveyance pipeline system. Further research is recommended, for instance the application of a life cycle assessment approach, to more fully compare the advantages and disadvantages of each option. PMID:25341873

  10. Comparison of marine spatial planning methods in Madagascar demonstrates value of alternative approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F Allnutt

    Full Text Available The Government of Madagascar plans to increase marine protected area coverage by over one million hectares. To assist this process, we compare four methods for marine spatial planning of Madagascar's west coast. Input data for each method was drawn from the same variables: fishing pressure, exposure to climate change, and biodiversity (habitats, species distributions, biological richness, and biodiversity value. The first method compares visual color classifications of primary variables, the second uses binary combinations of these variables to produce a categorical classification of management actions, the third is a target-based optimization using Marxan, and the fourth is conservation ranking with Zonation. We present results from each method, and compare the latter three approaches for spatial coverage, biodiversity representation, fishing cost and persistence probability. All results included large areas in the north, central, and southern parts of western Madagascar. Achieving 30% representation targets with Marxan required twice the fish catch loss than the categorical method. The categorical classification and Zonation do not consider targets for conservation features. However, when we reduced Marxan targets to 16.3%, matching the representation level of the "strict protection" class of the categorical result, the methods show similar catch losses. The management category portfolio has complete coverage, and presents several management recommendations including strict protection. Zonation produces rapid conservation rankings across large, diverse datasets. Marxan is useful for identifying strict protected areas that meet representation targets, and minimize exposure probabilities for conservation features at low economic cost. We show that methods based on Zonation and a simple combination of variables can produce results comparable to Marxan for species representation and catch losses, demonstrating the value of comparing alternative

  11. Comparison between asphalt rubber and conventional mixtures in overlay design

    OpenAIRE

    Fontes, Liseane P. T. L.; Trichês, Glicério; Pereira, Paulo A. A.; Pais, Jorge C.

    2008-01-01

    Asphalt modified with crumb rubber has been used to produce asphalt rubber mixtures for pavement overlays subjected to heavy loads and high temperatures. Under severe conditions, these mixtures are capable of resisting permanent deformations, having an extended fatigue life and resisting crack propagation in comparison to conventional ones. A laboratory research was conducted to determine the performance properties of overlays with asphalt rubber mixtures produced through wet processes using ...

  12. Comparison of flight design of Asian honeybee drones

    OpenAIRE

    Radloff, Sarah; Randall Hepburn, H.; Koeniger, Gudrun

    2003-01-01

    International audience The excess power index (integrating body dry mass, thorax-to-body dry mass and wing surface area) was compared in drones of seven Asian Apis species. There are two statistically distinct groups of drones: drones of the dwarf honeybees form one class, all other Asian species belong to the second. Drones of dwarf honeybees have a 36% ergonomic advantage in power availability and 20% advantage in available excess power over all other drones. Comparisons of flight dimens...

  13. Measurement, comparison, and transformation of dynamic magnetization in pulse field and high-frequency alternating field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, K.

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic magnetizations of selected natural samples (sediments and volcanic rocks) were measured in time domain as well as in frequency domain. The time domain measurements were performed in pulse fields with variable lengths (10 μs to 10 ms) and amplitudes (0.5 mT to 0.7 T). To measure hysteresis parameters for small loops, one cycle of positive and negative pulses with different rate of field variation were generated. In the frequency domain, low-field magnetic susceptibility was measured over the frequency rage (1 kHz to 500 kHz) corresponding to the pulse lengths in the time domain measurements. Results in the time domain were characterized by the transient magnetization-field curves that were broadly comparable to the corresponding portions of the hysteresis loops measured by a quasi-static method using a VSM. The dynamic coercivity that is defined as the intersect with the abscissa in the negative regime increased as the pulse length reduced and the pulse peak increased. In strong pulse fields (> 0.5 T), irrespective of the kinds of samples, the magnetization remained at the end of a pulse and decayed exponentially within a few ms, suggesting rapid magnetic relaxations. In weak pulse fields, no such relaxation was observed except for the sediments rich in superparamagnetic (SP) particles. These field dependencies suggest that the relaxations in the strong fields could be due to the dynamics of the domain walls in the MD particles, while those of the sediments in weak fields may be ascribed to the relaxation of the SP particles. Results in the frequency domain were obtained in terms of the frequency spectrum of the real and imaginary components of complex susceptibility. Comparisons and interpretations of the data in these different domains were made in terms of the distribution of relaxation times. Discussions on the numerical conversion and transformation of these data as well as their rock magnetic applications will be provided.

  14. Investigating design: A comparison of manifest and latent approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Snider, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This paper contributes to the on-going focus on improving design research methods, by exploring and synthesising two key interrelated research approaches e manifest and latent. These approaches are widely used individually in design research, however, this paper represents the first work bringing...

  15. An International Comparison of Final-Year Design Project Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentish, Sandra E.; Shallcross, David C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews design teaching at a total of 15 chemical engineering departments across Australia, Singapore, and the United Kingdom. The emphasis is on the capstone Design Project, which can be viewed as a major transition subject for students as they move into the workplace. The study shows that this subject has evolved to act as an…

  16. A comparison of methods for DPLL loop filter design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, S.; Hurd, W. J.; Kumar, R.; Statman, J.

    1986-01-01

    Four design methodologies for loop filters for a class of digital phase-locked loops (DPLLs) are presented. The first design maps an optimum analog filter into the digital domain; the second approach designs a filter that minimizes in discrete time weighted combination of the variance of the phase error due to noise and the sum square of the deterministic phase error component; the third method uses Kalman filter estimation theory to design a filter composed of a least squares fading memory estimator and a predictor. The last design relies on classical theory, including rules for the design of compensators. Linear analysis is used throughout the article to compare different designs, and includes stability, steady state performance and transient behavior of the loops. Design methodology is not critical when the loop update rate can be made high relative to loop bandwidth, as the performance approaches that of continuous time. For low update rates, however, the miminization method is significantly superior to the other methods.

  17. Cross comparison design analysis of analog input signals of TXS system in Tianwan Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes and analyzes the mathematical model and structural design of analog signal input redundant channel cross comparison of TXS system in Tianwan Nuclear Power Plant. The operation practice proves that the design of analog signal input redundant channel cross comparison of TXS system can complete well the task of analog signal channel test and channel breakdown tendency monitoring, and it meets the needs of nuclear safety rules and standards. (authors)

  18. 20 CFR 645.400 - Under what conditions may the Governor request a waiver to designate an alternate local...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Under what conditions may the Governor... GRANTS State Formula Grants Administration § 645.400 Under what conditions may the Governor request a waiver to designate an alternate local administering agency? (a)(1) The Governor may include in the...

  19. Treating Youths with Selective Mutism with an Alternating Design of Exposure-Based Practice and Contingency Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchio, Jennifer; Kearney, Christopher A.

    2009-01-01

    Selective mutism is a severe childhood disorder involving failure to speak in public situations in which speaking is expected. The present study examined 9 youths with selective mutism treated with child-focused, exposure-based practices and parent-focused contingency management via an alternating treatments design. Broadband measures of…

  20. Parametric Optimization of Some Critical Operating System Functions--An Alternative Approach to the Study of Operating Systems Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobh, Tarek M.; Tibrewal, Abhilasha

    2006-01-01

    Operating systems theory primarily concentrates on the optimal use of computing resources. This paper presents an alternative approach to teaching and studying operating systems design and concepts by way of parametrically optimizing critical operating system functions. Detailed examples of two critical operating systems functions using the…

  1. Conceptual design report: Nuclear materials storage facility renovation. Part 6, Alternatives study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Materials Storage Facility (NMSF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was a Fiscal Year (FY) 1984 line-item project completed in 1987 that has never been operated because of major design and construction deficiencies. This renovation project, which will correct those deficiencies and allow operation of the facility, is proposed as an FY 97 line item. The mission of the project is to provide centralized intermediate and long-term storage of special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with defined LANL programmatic missions and to establish a centralized SNM shipping and receiving location for Technical Area (TA)-55 at LANL. Based on current projections, existing storage space for SNM at other locations at LANL will be loaded to capacity by approximately 2002. This will adversely affect LANUs ability to meet its mission requirements in the future. The affected missions include LANL's weapons research, development, and testing (WRD ampersand T) program; special materials recovery; stockpile survelliance/evaluation; advanced fuels and heat sources development and production; and safe, secure storage of existing nuclear materials inventories. The problem is further exacerbated by LANL's inability to ship any materials offsite because of the lack of receiver sites for material and regulatory issues. Correction of the current deficiencies and enhancement of the facility will provide centralized storage close to a nuclear materials processing facility. The project will enable long-term, cost-effective storage in a secure environment with reduced radiation exposure to workers, and eliminate potential exposures to the public. This report is organized according to the sections and subsections outlined by Attachment 111-2 of DOE Document AL 4700.1, Project Management System. It is organized into seven parts. This document, Part VI - Alternatives Study, presents a study of the different storage/containment options considered for NMSF

  2. Consideration of alternative designs for a Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy feeding tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerrabolu, Santosh Rohit

    The inability of some people to chew or swallow foods (but can digest foods) due to problems associated with various diseases and complications leads them to insufficient nutritional intake and loss of quality of life. These individuals are generally provided with nutritional support by means of injecting or infusing food directly into their stomachs or small intestines via feeding tubes. Gastrostomy feeding tubes (G-tubes) are used when such nutritional support is required for over 3-6 weeks. Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy (PEG) tubes are one of the most widely used G- Tubes and devices which are inserted via an incision through the abdominal wall either through a pull or push method. This investigation proposes conceptual alternative Percutaneous Endoscopy Gastrostomy (PEG) feeding tube designs with optimized materials selection to be used for their construction. The candidate materials were chosen from 18 commercial catheters, 2 reference grade polymers and a commercial polymer; using tissue-catheter-friction testing and surface chemistry characterization (Infrared spectroscopy and Critical Surface Tension approximation). The main objectives considered were to minimize slipping/dislodgement of gastrostomy tube/seal, to reduce peristomal leakage, and to attain size variability of PEG tubes while maintaining a low profile. Scanning Electron Microscope- Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy was employed to further determine the filler materials used in the samples. Nylon coated with fatty ester and filled with Barium sulphate was determined as the optimum material for the construction of the tube part of the feeding tubes to reduce slipping/dislodgment of gastrostomy tube/seal and to minimize peristomal leakage. Nylon coated with fatty ester and filled with Silica is the suggested as a candidate material for construction of the bumper/mushroom sections of the feeding tubes to avoid the Buried Bumper Syndrome. Fused Deposition Modeling, Selective Laser Sintering

  3. Alternating current dielectrophoresis of core-shell nanoparticles: Experiments and comparison with theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chungja

    Nanoparticles are fascinating where physical and optical properties are related to size. Highly controllable synthesis methods and nanoparticle assembly are essential for highly innovative technological applications. Well-defined shaped and sized nanoparticles enable comparisons between experiments, theory and subsequent new models to explain experimentally observed phenomena. Among nanoparticles, nonhomogeneous core-shell nanoparticles (CSnp) have new properties that arise when varying the relative dimensions of the core and the shell. This CSnp structure enables various optical resonances, and engineered energy barriers, in addition to the high charge to surface ratio. Assembly of homogeneous nanoparticles into functional structures has become ubiquitous in biosensors (i.e. optical labeling), nanocoatings, and electrical circuits. Limited nonhomogenous nanoparticle assembly has only been explored. Many conventional nanoparticle assembly methods exist, but this work explores dielectrophoresis (DEP) as a new method. DEP is particle polarization via non-uniform electric fields while suspended in conductive fluids. Most prior DEP efforts involve microscale particles. Prior work on core-shell nanoparticle assemblies and separately, nanoparticle characterizations with dielectrophoresis and electrorotation, did not systematically explore particle size, dielectric properties (permittivity and electrical conductivity), shell thickness, particle concentration, medium conductivity, and frequency. This work is the first, to the best of our knowledge, to systematically examine these dielectrophoretic properties for core-shell nanoparticles. Further, we conduct a parametric fitting to traditional core-shell models. These biocompatible core-shell nanoparticles were studied to fill a knowledge gap in the DEP field. Experimental results (chapter 5) first examine medium conductivity, size and shell material dependencies of dielectrophoretic behaviors of spherical CSnp into 2D and

  4. Design Approaches and Comparison of TAPS Packages for Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, S. Manjit

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The paper's purpose is to promote the use of modern technologies such as multimedia packages to engineering students. The aim is to help them to learning in their learning, visualization, problem solving and understanding engineering concepts such as in mechanics dynamics. Design/methodology/approach: TAPS packages are developed to help…

  5. A comparison of graphical design techniques for parallel, distributed software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Polman; M.R. van Steen

    1994-01-01

    textabstractWe have compared three graphical design techniques, OMT, ADL, and PARSE, on their suitability for the development of parallel/distributed applications. Our method has been to use all three of them in modeling one, existing, application: a backup facility running within the Andrew File Sy

  6. Comparison of Design Research on Manufacturing Firms Moving Towards Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzen, Detlef; Sakao, Tomohiko; Sandström, Gunilla Ölundh

    2007-01-01

    Corresponding to a steadily advancing integration of roducts and service operations in the manufacturing industry, a number of research groups within the design community are working with issues of integrated product and service development. Although closely related, the evolving groups focus on ...

  7. Comparison between Kemp, Smith & Ragan, Dick & Carey's Instructional Design Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgili, Bengi

    2013-01-01

    Instructional design (ID) is systematic way of suggesting a structure and giving meaning to an instructional problem by helping to visualize the problem and breaking into discrete and manageable units. In addition, ID is a systematic reflective process of applying instructional principles into plans by material, activity, resources and evaluation…

  8. Comparison of two approaches to linear collider design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews linear collider parameters. It aims at analyzing two specific design approachs - the ones for CLIC at CERN and for a TeV linear collider at SLAC - which appear to lead into remarkably different directions although they start from the same premises and try to respect the same boundary conditions. 19 refs

  9. Ranking of design and operational alternatives for the mitigation and avoidance of sabotage in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a study to evaluate alternatives to the design and operation of nuclear power plants, emphasizing a reduction of their vulnerability to sabotage. It used estimates of core melt frequency (CMF) during normal operations and from sabotage and tampering events to rank the alternatives. The CMF for normal operations was estimated by using sensitivity analysis of results from probabilistic risk assessments; for sabotage and tampering, by developing a model based on probabilistic risk analyses, historic data, and engineering judgment, and safeguards analyses of plant locations where core melt events could be initiated. Results indicate that the most effective alternatives focus on wide areas of the plant, increase safety system redundancy, and reduce reliance on single locations for mitigation of transients. Less effective options focus on specific areas of the plant, reduce reliance on some plant areas for safe shutdown, or focus on less vulnerable targets

  10. Impact of Binding Site Comparisons on Medicinal Chemistry and Rational Molecular Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrt, Christiane; Brinkjost, Tobias; Koch, Oliver

    2016-05-12

    Modern rational drug design not only deals with the search for ligands binding to interesting and promising validated targets but also aims to identify the function and ligands of yet uncharacterized proteins having impact on different diseases. Additionally, it contributes to the design of inhibitors with distinct selectivity patterns and the prediction of possible off-target effects. The identification of similarities between binding sites of various proteins is a useful approach to cope with those challenges. The main scope of this perspective is to describe applications of different protein binding site comparison approaches to outline their applicability and impact on molecular design. The article deals with various substantial application domains and provides some outstanding examples to show how various binding site comparison methods can be applied to promote in silico drug design workflows. In addition, we will also briefly introduce the fundamental principles of different protein binding site comparison methods. PMID:27046190

  11. Acoustic design of open plan schools and comparison of requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Petersen, Claus; Rasmussen, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    In the Nordic countries several new schools have open plan areas for teaching and group work. However, to optimize learning efficiency for pupils and working conditions for teachers and to reduce noise levels, such spaces require special acoustic design to obtain sufficient sound attenuation...... between groups and satisfac¬tory speech intelligibility internally in groups. This paper describes the newest Danish requirements and recommendations for such open plan areas and presents the design, measurements and subjective evaluation of two newer Danish schools. According to the users, the general...... conditions at both schools are satisfactory due to both optimized acoustical conditions and teaching methods adapted to the special open environment. The results from room acoustical modelling, verification measurements and questionnaire survey are presented and evaluated in relation to the newest Danish...

  12. Comparison of Design Research on Manufacturing Firms Moving Towards Services

    OpenAIRE

    Matzen, Detlef; Sakao, Tomohiko; Sandström, Gunilla Ölundh

    2007-01-01

    Corresponding to a steadily advancing integration of roducts and service operations in the manufacturing industry, a number of research groups within the design community are working with issues of integrated product and service development. Although closely related, the evolving groups focus on different research dimensions, and thus the terminologies and concepts used in research contributions are not fully compatible. This research attempts to promote and support an evolving collaboration ...

  13. WEBSITE DESIGN AND LOCALISATION: A COMPARISON OF MALAYSIA AND BRITAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Tanveer Ahmed; Haralambos Mouratidis; David Preston

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to explore the local cultural values on Malaysian and British websites selected from different sectors. In recent years, a number of studies have addressed the issue of local culture in website design, but most of the studies have focused on USA representing western cultures, whereas Chinese and Japanese cultures have been the main focal point of Asian cultures. This study intends to fill this gap, focusing on less-debated cultures: Malaysia and Britain. It applies Hofstede’s ...

  14. COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT TECHNIQUES FOR DESIGN OF POWER SYSTEM STABILIZER

    OpenAIRE

    M. Ravindra Babu,; A. Ramulu; B. Durga Prasad,; Doradla. Prathap Hari Krishna,

    2011-01-01

    The major problem in power system operation is related to small signal instability caused by insufficient damping in the system. The most effective way of countering this instability is to use auxiliary controllers called power system stabilizers, to produce additional damping during low frequency oscillations in the system. Heffron-Phillip’s Model of a synchronous machine is commonly used in small signal stability analysis. Different techniques for designing of power system stabilizer is pro...

  15. Comparison of a designed virtual oscilloscope with a real oscilloscope

    OpenAIRE

    Tektas Gozde; Celiktas Cuneyt

    2015-01-01

    A virtual oscilloscope based on LabVIEW software was designed. Sinus, square and triangle shaped signals produced by a function generator were analyzed with a real and a virtual oscilloscope. Amplitude, rise time and fall time values of a signal were determined for different time/division values in both type oscilloscopes. Obtained values in the virtual oscilloscope were compared with those of the real oscilloscope. It was deduced from the results that amplitude, rise time and fall time value...

  16. Turbo-alternator-compressor design for supercritical high density working fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Steven A.; Fuller, Robert L.

    2013-03-19

    Techniques for generating power are provided. Such techniques involve a thermodynamic system including a housing, a turbine positioned in a turbine cavity of the housing, a compressor positioned in a compressor cavity of the housing, and an alternator positioned in a rotor cavity between the turbine and compressor cavities. The compressor has a high-pressure face facing an inlet of the compressor cavity and a low-pressure face on an opposite side thereof. The alternator has a rotor shaft operatively connected to the turbine and compressor, and is supported in the housing by bearings. Ridges extending from the low-pressure face of the compressor may be provided for balancing thrust across the compressor. Seals may be positioned about the alternator for selectively leaking fluid into the rotor cavity to reduce the temperature therein.

  17. Comparison of deterministic and Monte Carlo methods in shielding design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In shielding calculation, deterministic methods have some advantages and also some disadvantages relative to other kind of codes, such as Monte Carlo. The main advantage is the short computer time needed to find solutions while the disadvantages are related to the often-used build-up factor that is extrapolated from high to low energies or with unknown geometrical conditions, which can lead to significant errors in shielding results. The aim of this work is to investigate how good are some deterministic methods to calculating low-energy shielding, using attenuation coefficients and build-up factor corrections. Commercial software MicroShield 5.05 has been used as the deterministic code while MCNP has been used as the Monte Carlo code. Point and cylindrical sources with slab shield have been defined allowing comparison between the capability of both Monte Carlo and deterministic methods in a day-by-day shielding calculation using sensitivity analysis of significant parameters, such as energy and geometrical conditions. (authors)

  18. Numerical investigation & comparison of a tandem-bladed turbocharger centrifugal compressor stage with conventional design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danish, Syed Noman; Qureshi, Shafiq Rehman; EL-Leathy, Abdelrahman; Khan, Salah Ud-Din; Umer, Usama; Ma, Chaochen

    2014-12-01

    Extensive numerical investigations of the performance and flow structure in an unshrouded tandem-bladed centrifugal compressor are presented in comparison to a conventional compressor. Stage characteristics are explored for various tip clearance levels, axial spacings and circumferential clockings. Conventional impeller was modified to tandem-bladed design with no modifications in backsweep angle, meridional gas passage and camber distributions in order to have a true comparison with conventional design. Performance degradation is observed for both the conventional and tandem designs with increase in tip clearance. Linear-equation models for correlating stage characteristics with tip clearance are proposed. Comparing two designs, it is clearly evident that the conventional design shows better performance at moderate flow rates. However; near choke flow, tandem design gives better results primarily because of the increase in throat area. Surge point flow rate also seems to drop for tandem compressor resulting in increased range of operation.

  19. Numerical Investigation & Comparison of a Tandem-Bladed Turbocharger Centrifugal Compressor Stage with Conventional Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Syed Noman Danish; Shafiq Rehman Qureshi; Abdelrahman EL-Leathy; Salah Ud-Din Khan; Usama Umer; Ma Chaochen

    2014-01-01

    Extensive numerical investigations of the performance and flow structure in an unshrouded tandem-bladed centrifugal compressor are presented in comparison to a conventional compressor.Stage characteristics are explored for various tip clearance levels,axial spacings and circumferential clockings.Conventional impeller was modified to tandem-bladed design with no modifications in backsweep angle,meridional gas passage and camber distributions in order to have a true comparison with conventional design.Performance degradation is observed for both the conventional and tandem designs with increase in tip clearance.Linear-equation models for correlating stage characteristics with tip clearance are proposed.Comparing two designs,it is clearly evident that the conventional design shows better performance at moderate flow rates.However; near choke flow,tandem design gives better results primarily because of the increase in throat area.Surge point flow rate also seems to drop for tandem compressor resulting in increased range of operation.

  20. Comparison of a designed virtual oscilloscope with a real oscilloscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tektas Gozde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A virtual oscilloscope based on LabVIEW software was designed. Sinus, square and triangle shaped signals produced by a function generator were analyzed with a real and a virtual oscilloscope. Amplitude, rise time and fall time values of a signal were determined for different time/division values in both type oscilloscopes. Obtained values in the virtual oscilloscope were compared with those of the real oscilloscope. It was deduced from the results that amplitude, rise time and fall time values and signal shapes were compatible with each other.

  1. Comparison of a designed virtual oscilloscope with a real oscilloscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tektas, Gozde; Celiktas, Cuneyt

    2015-07-01

    A virtual oscilloscope based on LabVIEW software was designed. Sinus, square and triangle shaped signals produced by a function generator were analyzed with a real and a virtual oscilloscope. Amplitude, rise time and fall time values of a signal were determined for different time/division values in both type oscilloscopes. Obtained values in the virtual oscilloscope were compared with those of the real oscilloscope. It was deduced from the results that amplitude, rise time and fall time values and signal shapes were compatible with each other.

  2. Analysis and Comparison of Typical Models within Distribution Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Hans Jacob; Larsen, Allan; Madsen, Oli B.G.

    Efficient and cost effective transportation and logistics plays a vital role in the supply chains of the modern world’s manufacturers. Global distribution of goods is a very complicated matter as it involves many different distinct planning problems. The focus of this presentation is to demonstrate...... a number of important issues which have been identified when addressing the Distribution Network Design problem from a modelling angle. More specifically, we present an analysis of the research which has been performed in utilizing operational research in developing and optimising distribution...

  3. Comparison of advanced high power underground cable designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, advanced high power underground cable designs are compared in the light of available literature, of reports and information supplied by participating industries (AEG, BICC, CGE, Pirelli, Siemens), spontaneous contributions by EdF, France, BBC and Felten and Guilleaume Kabelwerke A.G., Germany, and Hitachi, Furukawa, Fujikura and Sumitomo, Japan, and earlier studies carried out at German public research centres. The study covers cables with forced cooling by oil or water, SF6-cables, polyethylene cables, cryoresistive and superconducting cables. (orig.)

  4. Comparison of design methods for axially loaded buckets in sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaitkunaite, Evelina; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    A study of the present knowledge about the bucket resistance for axial loading was performed considering analytical and numerical design methods as well as physical models. A case study was performed with two bucket foundations of equal diameter, but different skirt lengths installed in dense sand....... Itwas found that bearing capacity from the surcharge increases approximately twice if the foundation skirt is two times longer. However, the predicted compressive soil capacity can differ by 3.6 times depending on the chosen bearing capacity parameters. Few methods are available for the estimation of...

  5. Comparison of a Graphical and a Textual Design Language Using Software Quality Metrics

    OpenAIRE

    Henry, Sallie M.; Goff, Roger

    1988-01-01

    For many years the software engineering community has been attacking the software reliability problem on two fronts. First via design methodologies, languages and tools as a precheck on quality and second by measuring the quality of produced software as a postcheck. This research attempts to unify the approach to creating reliable software by providing the ability to measure the quality of a design prior to its implementation. A comparison of a graphical and a textual design language is pres...

  6. Comparison of Designer's Design Thinking Modes in Digital and Traditional Sketches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun-Chieh; Chen, Cheng-Chi; Chen, Hsin-Chia

    2012-01-01

    The internal design thinking behaviour of designers in the concept development has been an important issue of cognitive psychology. In this study, the design thinking process designers have in applying digital media and traditional paper in the early concept development stage was explored. Special focus was made on the structure and procedure of…

  7. Comparison of Coil Designs for Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Priyam; Hadimani, Ravi; Jiles, David

    2015-03-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive treatment for neurological disorders using time varying magnetic field. The electric field generated by the time varying magnetic field is used to depolarize the brain neurons which can lead to measurable effects. TMS provides a surgical free method for the treatment of neurological brain disorders like depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, traumatic brain injury and Parkinson's disease. Before using TMS on human subjects, it is appropriate that its effects are verified on animals such as mice. The magnetic field intensity and stimulated region of the brain can be controlled by the shape, position and current in the coils. There are few reports on the designs of the coils for mice. In this paper, different types of coils are developed and compared using an anatomically realistic mouse model derived from MRI images. Parameters such as focality, depth of the stimulation, electric field strength on the scalp and in the deep brain regions, are taken into account. These parameters will help researchers to determine the most suitable coil design according to their need. This should result in improvements in treatment of specific disorders. Carver Charitable Trust.

  8. Including alternative resources in state renewable portfolio standards: Current design and implementation experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As of October 2012, 29 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico have instituted a renewable portfolio standard (RPS). Each state policy is unique, varying in percentage targets, timetables, and eligible resources. Increasingly, new RPS polices have included alternative resources. Alternative resources have included energy efficiency, thermal resources, and, to a lesser extent, non-renewables. This paper examines state experience with implementing renewable portfolio standards that include energy efficiency, thermal resources, and non-renewable energy and explores compliance experience, costs, and how states evaluate, measure, and verify energy efficiency and convert thermal energy. It aims to gain insights from the experience of states for possible federal clean energy policy as well as to share experience and lessons for state RPS implementation. - Highlights: • Increasingly, new RPS policies have included alternative resources. • Nearly all states provide a separate tier or cap on the quantity of eligible alternative resources. • Where allowed, non-renewables and energy efficiency are being heavily utilized

  9. On Answering Questions Worth Asking: Alternative Designs for Sport and Exercise Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, John M., III; Parkhouse, Bonnie L.

    1982-01-01

    Alternate approaches to traditional research techniques available for the physical educator are: (1) field research, using structured and unstructured observation in actual settings; (2) survey analysis to ascertain current conditions or practice; (3) field experiments conducted in actual settings with experimenter controls; (4) time series…

  10. Design of batch operations: Systematic methodology for generation and analysis of sustainable alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, Ana; Matos, Henrique A.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2010-01-01

    operational, environmental, economical and safety related problems inherent in the process (batch or continuous). Alternatives that are more sustainable, compared to a reference, are generated and evaluated by addressing one or more of the identified problems. A decomposition technique as well as a set of...

  11. MODELING AND DESIGN STUDY USING HFC-236EA AS AN ALTERNATIVE REFRIGERANT IN A CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of an investigation of the operation of a centrifugal compressor--part of a chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-114 chiller installation--with the new refrigerant hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)-236ea, a proposed alternative to CFC-114. A large set of CFC-236ea operating da...

  12. Design and control of an alternative distillation sequence for bioethanol purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Errico, Massimiliano; Ramírez-Márquez, César; Torres Ortega, Carlo Edgar;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bioethanol is a green fuel considered to be a sustainable alternative to petro-derived gasoline. The transport sector contributes significantly to carbon dioxide emission and consequently has a negative impact on the air quality and is responsible for the increase of the greenhouse...

  13. The Civic-Minded Instructional Designers Framework: An Alternative Approach to Contemporary Instructional Designers' Education in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusop, Farrah Dina; Correia, Ana-Paula

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues that an emphasis on training-for-the-job approaches has distracted designers from thinking about the meaning of their profession and the grand purpose of practising instructional design. Drawing from literature in the fields of sociology and educational technology, this paper synthesises discourses on civic professionalism in…

  14. Generating Alternative Engineering Designs by Integrating Desktop VR with Genetic Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramouli, Magesh; Bertoline, Gary; Connolly, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    This study proposes an innovative solution to the problem of multiobjective engineering design optimization by integrating desktop VR with genetic computing. Although, this study considers the case of construction design as an example to illustrate the framework, this method can very much be extended to other engineering design problems as well.…

  15. WEBSITE DESIGN AND LOCALISATION: A COMPARISON OF MALAYSIA AND BRITAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanveer Ahmed

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the local cultural values on Malaysian and British websites selected from different sectors. In recent years, a number of studies have addressed the issue of local culture in website design, but most of the studies have focused on USA representing western cultures, whereas Chinese and Japanese cultures have been the main focal point of Asian cultures. This study intends to fill this gap, focusing on less-debated cultures: Malaysia and Britain. It applies Hofstede’s individualism/collectivism, and power distance, and Hall’s high/low-context cultural dimensions, and analyses how these cultural values are reflected in Malaysian and British websites. A content analysis of the websites highlights considerable differences in representing local cultural values on the local websites.

  16. Website Design and Localisation: A Comparison of Malaysia and Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanveer Ahmed

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the local cultural values on Malaysian and British websites selected from different sectors. In recent years, a number of studies have addressed the issue of local culture in website design, but most of the studies have focused on USA representing western cultures, whereas Chinese and Japanese cultures have been the main focal point of Asian cultures. This study intends to fill this gap, focusing on less-debated cultures: Malaysia and Britain. It applies Hofstede’s individualism/collectivism, and power distance, and Hall’s high/low-context cultural dimensions, and analyses how these cultural values are reflected in Malaysian and British websites. A content analysis of the websites highlights considerable differences in representing local cultural values on the local websites.

  17. Comparison of Traditional Design Nonlinear Programming Optimization and Stochastic Methods for Structural Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnaik, Surya N.; Pai, Shantaram S.; Coroneos, Rula M.

    2010-01-01

    Structural design generated by traditional method, optimization method and the stochastic design concept are compared. In the traditional method, the constraints are manipulated to obtain the design and weight is back calculated. In design optimization, the weight of a structure becomes the merit function with constraints imposed on failure modes and an optimization algorithm is used to generate the solution. Stochastic design concept accounts for uncertainties in loads, material properties, and other parameters and solution is obtained by solving a design optimization problem for a specified reliability. Acceptable solutions were produced by all the three methods. The variation in the weight calculated by the methods was modest. Some variation was noticed in designs calculated by the methods. The variation may be attributed to structural indeterminacy. It is prudent to develop design by all three methods prior to its fabrication. The traditional design method can be improved when the simplified sensitivities of the behavior constraint is used. Such sensitivity can reduce design calculations and may have a potential to unify the traditional and optimization methods. Weight versus reliabilitytraced out an inverted-S-shaped graph. The center of the graph corresponded to mean valued design. A heavy design with weight approaching infinity could be produced for a near-zero rate of failure. Weight can be reduced to a small value for a most failure-prone design. Probabilistic modeling of load and material properties remained a challenge.

  18. High Pressure Angle Gears: Comparison to Typical Gear Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F.; Zabrajsek, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    A preliminary study has been completed to determine the feasibility of using high-pressure angle gears in aeronautic and space applications. Tests were conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) Spur Gear Test Facility at speeds up to 10,000 rpm and 73 N*m (648 in.*lb) for 3.18, 2.12, and 1.59 module gears (8, 12, and 16 diametral pitch gears), all designed to operate in the same test facility. The 3.18 module (8-diametral pitch), 28 tooth, 20deg pressure angle gears are the GRC baseline test specimen. Also, 2.12 module (12-diametral pitch), 42 tooth, 25deg pressure angle gears were tested. Finally 1.59 module (16-diametral pitch), 56 tooth, 35deg pressure angle gears were tested. The high-pressure angle gears were the most efficient when operated in the high-speed aerospace mode (10,000 rpm, lubricated with a synthetic turbine engine oil), and produced the lowest wear rates when tested with a perfluoroether-based grease. The grease tests were conducted at 150 rpm and 71 N*m (630 in.*lb).

  19. Designing an aerobic exercise training in water as an alternative treatment for depression: A new method

    OpenAIRE

    Morteza Mohammadiyoun; Hamid Kalalian- Moghaddam; Ali Younesian

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: A highly disruptive emotional disorder is major depression, characterized by abnormal regulation of feelings of sadness and happiness. Traditional treatment for depression was pharmacological treatment. One alternative that has been shown to be effective in alleviating depression is physical activity. Previous observation and interventional studies have suggested that regular aerobic exercise reduced symptoms of depression. Moreover physical activity and exercise in water may ha...

  20. COMPARISON OF EXPERIMENTAL-DESIGNS COMBINING PROCESS AND MIXTURE VARIABLES .1. DESIGN CONSTRUCTION AND THEORETICAL EVALUATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DUINEVELD, CAA; SMILDE, AK; DOORNBOS, DA

    1993-01-01

    The combination of process variables and mixture variables in experimental design is a problem which has not yet been solved. It is examined here whether a set of designs can be found which can be used for a series of models of reasonable complexity. The proposed designs are compared with known desi

  1. Innovative IPV from attenuated Sabin poliovirus or newly designed alternative seed strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Ahd; Bakker, Wilfried A M

    2012-11-01

    This article gives an overview of the patent literature related to innovative inactivated polio vaccine (i-IPV) based on using Sabin poliovirus strains and newly developed alternative recombinant poliovirus strains. This innovative approach for IPV manufacturing is considered to attribute to the requirement for affordable IPV in the post-polio-eradication era, which is on the horizon. Although IPV is a well-established vaccine, the number of patent applications in this field was seen to have significantly increased in the past decade. Currently, regular IPV appears to be too expensive for universal use. Future affordability may be achieved by using alternative cell lines, alternative virus seed strains, improved and optimized processes, dose sparing, or the use of adjuvants. A relatively short-term option to achieve cost-price reduction is to work on regular IPV, using wild-type poliovirus strains, or on Sabin-IPV, based on using attenuated poliovirus strains. This price reduction can be achieved by introducing efficiency in processing. There are also multiple opportunities to work on dose sparing, for example, by using adjuvants or fractional doses. Renewed interest in this field was clearly reflected in the number and diversity of patent applications. In a later stage, several innovative approaches may become even more attractive, for example the use of recombinant virus strains or even a totally synthetic vaccine. Currently, such work is mainly carried out by research institutes and universities and therefore clinical data are not available. PMID:24236927

  2. Design and Comparison of a 1 MW / 5s HTS SMES with Toroidal and Solenoidal Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Morandi, Antonio; Gholizad, Babak; Grilli, Francesco; Sirois, Frédéric; Zermeño, Víctor M R

    2015-01-01

    The design of a HTS SMES coil with solenoidal and toroidal geometry is carried out based on a commercially available 2G HTS conductor. A SMES system of practical interest (1 MW / 5 s) is considered. The comparison between ideal toroidal and solenoidal geometry is first discussed and the criteria used for choosing the geometrical parameters of the coils' bore are explained. The design of the real coil is then carried out and the final amount of conductor needed is compared. A preliminary comparison of the two coils in terms of AC loss during one charge discharge cycle is also discussed.

  3. Comparison of soil respiration in typical conventional and new alternative cereal cropping systems on the North China plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bing; Ju, Xiaotang; Su, Fang; Gao, Fengbin; Cao, Qingsen; Oenema, Oene; Christie, Peter; Chen, Xinping; Zhang, Fusuo

    2013-01-01

    We monitored soil respiration (Rs), soil temperature (T) and volumetric water content (VWC%) over four years in one typical conventional and four alternative cropping systems to understand Rs in different cropping systems with their respective management practices and environmental conditions. The control was conventional double-cropping system (winter wheat and summer maize in one year--Con.W/M). Four alternative cropping systems were designed with optimum water and N management, i.e. optimized winter wheat and summer maize (Opt.W/M), three harvests every two years (first year, winter wheat and summer maize or soybean; second year, fallow then spring maize--W/M-M and W/S-M), and single spring maize per year (M). Our results show that Rs responded mainly to the seasonal variation in T but was also greatly affected by straw return, root growth and soil moisture changes under different cropping systems. The mean seasonal CO2 emissions in Con.W/M were 16.8 and 15.1 Mg CO2 ha(-1) for summer maize and winter wheat, respectively, without straw return. They increased significantly by 26 and 35% in Opt.W/M, respectively, with straw return. Under the new alternative cropping systems with straw return, W/M-M showed similar Rs to Opt.W/M, but total CO2 emissions of W/S-M decreased sharply relative to Opt.W/M when soybean was planted to replace summer maize. Total CO2 emissions expressed as the complete rotation cycles of W/S-M, Con.W/M and M treatments were not significantly different. Seasonal CO2 emissions were significantly correlated with the sum of carbon inputs of straw return from the previous season and the aboveground biomass in the current season, which explained 60% of seasonal CO2 emissions. T and VWC% explained up to 65% of Rs using the exponential-power and double exponential models, and the impacts of tillage and straw return must therefore be considered for accurate modeling of Rs in this geographical region. PMID:24278340

  4. Comparison of soil respiration in typical conventional and new alternative cereal cropping systems on the North China plain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Gao

    Full Text Available We monitored soil respiration (Rs, soil temperature (T and volumetric water content (VWC% over four years in one typical conventional and four alternative cropping systems to understand Rs in different cropping systems with their respective management practices and environmental conditions. The control was conventional double-cropping system (winter wheat and summer maize in one year--Con.W/M. Four alternative cropping systems were designed with optimum water and N management, i.e. optimized winter wheat and summer maize (Opt.W/M, three harvests every two years (first year, winter wheat and summer maize or soybean; second year, fallow then spring maize--W/M-M and W/S-M, and single spring maize per year (M. Our results show that Rs responded mainly to the seasonal variation in T but was also greatly affected by straw return, root growth and soil moisture changes under different cropping systems. The mean seasonal CO2 emissions in Con.W/M were 16.8 and 15.1 Mg CO2 ha(-1 for summer maize and winter wheat, respectively, without straw return. They increased significantly by 26 and 35% in Opt.W/M, respectively, with straw return. Under the new alternative cropping systems with straw return, W/M-M showed similar Rs to Opt.W/M, but total CO2 emissions of W/S-M decreased sharply relative to Opt.W/M when soybean was planted to replace summer maize. Total CO2 emissions expressed as the complete rotation cycles of W/S-M, Con.W/M and M treatments were not significantly different. Seasonal CO2 emissions were significantly correlated with the sum of carbon inputs of straw return from the previous season and the aboveground biomass in the current season, which explained 60% of seasonal CO2 emissions. T and VWC% explained up to 65% of Rs using the exponential-power and double exponential models, and the impacts of tillage and straw return must therefore be considered for accurate modeling of Rs in this geographical region.

  5. Comparison of oil removal in surfactant alternating gas with water alternating gas, water flooding and gas flooding in secondary oil recovery process

    OpenAIRE

    Salehi, Mehdi Mohammad; Safarzadeh, Mohammad Amin; Sahraei, Eghbal; Nejad, Seyyed Alireza Tabatabaei

    2014-01-01

    Growing oil prices coupled with large amounts of residual oil after operating common enhanced oil recovery methods has made using methods with higher operational cost economically feasible. Nitrogen is one of the gases used in both miscible and immiscible gas injection process in oil reservoir. In heterogeneous formations gas tends to breakthrough early in production wells due to overriding, fingering and channeling. Surfactant alternating gas (SAG) injection is one of the methods commonly us...

  6. Validating MCNP for LEU Fuel Design via Power Distribution Comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Primm, Trent [ORNL; Maldonado, G Ivan [ORNL; Chandler, David [ORNL

    2008-11-01

    The mission of the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) Program is to minimize and, to the extent possible, eliminate the use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in civilian nuclear applications by working to convert research and test reactors, as well as radioisotope production processes, to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel and targets. Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL) is reviewing the design bases and key operating criteria including fuel operating parameters, enrichment-related safety analyses, fuel performance, and fuel fabrication in regard to converting the fuel of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from HEU to LEU. The purpose of this study is to validate Monte Carlo methods currently in use for conversion analyses. The methods have been validated for the prediction of flux values in the reactor target, reflector, and beam tubes, but this study focuses on the prediction of the power density profile in the core. A current 3-D Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) model was modified to replicate the HFIR Critical Experiment 3 (HFIRCE-3) core of 1965. In this experiment, the power profile was determined by counting the gamma activity at selected locations in the core. Foils (chunks of fuel meat and clad) were punched out of the fuel elements in HFIRCE-3 following irradiation and experimental relative power densities were obtained by measuring the activity of these foils and comparing each foil s activity to the activity of a normalizing foil. The current work consisted of calculating corresponding activities by inserting volume tallies into the modified MCNP model to represent the punchings. The average fission density was calculated for each foil location and then normalized to the normalizing foil. Power distributions were obtained for the clean core (no poison in moderator and symmetrical rod position at 17.5 inches) and fully poisoned-moderator (1.35 g B/liter in moderator and rods fully withdrawn) conditions. The observed deviations between the

  7. Project on Alternative Systems Study - PASS. Comparison of technology of KBS-3, MLH, VLH and VDH concepts by using an expert group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report constitutes a technical comparison and ranking of four repository concepts for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel, that have been studied by SKB: KBS-3, Medium Long Holes (MLH), Very Long Holes (VLH) and Very Deep Holes (VDH). The technical comparison is part of the project 'Project on Alternative Systems Study, PASS', which was initiated by SKB. With the objective of presenting a ranking of the four concepts. Besides this comparison of Technology the ranking is separately made for Long-term Performance and Safety, and Costs before the merging into one verdict. The ranking regarding Technology was carried out in accordance with the method Analytical Hierarchy Process, AHP, and by the aid of expert judgement in the form of a group consisting of six experts. The AHP method implies that the criteria for comparison are ordered in a hierarchy and that the ranking is carried out by pairwise comparison of the criteria. In the evaluation process a measure of the relative importance of each criterion is obtained. The result of the expert judgement exercise was that each expert individually ranked the four concepts in the following order with the top ranked alternative first: KBS-3, MLH, VLH and VDH. The common opinion among the experts was that the top ranking of KBS-3 is significant and the the major criteria used in the study could change substantially without changing the top ranking of KBS-3

  8. Alternative practices in curriculum design. Participation as a key factor and speaking out as right

    OpenAIRE

    Susana Barco

    2012-01-01

    During the 1990s, in the context of neo-liberal policies, curricular changes ocurred in Latin América which gave a leading role to technicians and experts in education, in the process of writing the curricular documents. Beyond the critiques these policies can receive, it is necessary to find alternative ways of elaborating curricular documents, based on democratic idea of teacher's real participation.In an action-research within the scope of a university and two experiences referred to in th...

  9. DESIGNING CULTURALLY CONSCIOUS ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION TO FOSTER ASIAN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrs. Herliana

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Creating an Asian model of alternative dispute resolution which considers Asian cultures is important. A mere adoption of western standard will less likely accommodate Asian’s unique way of handling disputes. Culture-related problems can be avoided if international commercial mediation or arbitration is tuned in to cultural needs and expectations. Penyusunan model alternatif penyelesaian sengketa gaya Asia yang mengakomodasi budaya setempat penting untuk dilakukan. Penerapan standar barat tidak selamanya cocok dengan cara unik orang Asia dalam memandang suatu sengketa. Konflik kultural dapat dihindari apabila mediasi atau arbitrase bisnis internasional disesuaikan dengan kebutuhan budaya setempat.

  10. OSIRIS and SOMBRERO Inertial Fusion Power Plant Designs, Volume 2: Designs, Assessments, and Comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, W. R.; Bieri, R. L.; Monsler, M. J.; Hendricks, C. D.; Laybourne, P.; Shillito, K. R.

    1992-03-01

    This is a comprehensive design study of two Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) electric power plants. Conceptual designs are presented for a fusion reactor (called Osiris) using an induction-linac heavy-ion beam driver, and another (called SOMBRERO) using a KrF laser driver. The designs covered all aspects of IFE power plants, including the chambers, heat transport and power conversion systems, balance-of-plant facilities, target fabrication, target injection and tracking, as well as the heavy-ion and KrF drivers. The point designs were assessed and compared in terms of their environmental & safety aspects, reliability and availability, economics, and technology development needs.

  11. Water balance relationships in four alternative cover designs for radioactive and mixed waste landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary results are presented from a field study to evaluate the relative hydrologic performance of various landfill capping technologies installed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory at Hill Air Force Base, Utah. Four cover designs (two Los Alamos capillary barrier designs, one modified EPA RCRA design, and one conventional design) were installed in large lysimeters instrumented to monitor the fate of natural precipitation between 01 January 1990 and 20 September 1993. After 45 months of study, results showed that the cover designs containing barrier layers were effective in reducing deep percolation as compared to a simple soil cap design. The RCRA cover, incorporating a clay hydraulic barrier, was the most effective of all cover designs in controlling percolation but was not 100% effective. Over 90% of all percolation and barrier lateral flow occurred during the months of February through May of each year, primarily as a result of snow melt, early spring rains and low evapotranspiration. Gravel mulch surface treatments (70--80% coverage) were effective in reducing runoff and erosion. The two plots receiving gravel mulch treatments exhibited equal but enhanced amounts of evapotranspiration despite the fact that one plot was planted with additional shrubs

  12. Impact of Rate Design Alternatives on Residential Solar Customer Bills. Increased Fixed Charges, Minimum Bills and Demand-based Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Davidson, Carolyn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McLaren, Joyce [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    With rapid growth in energy efficiency and distributed generation, electric utilities are anticipating stagnant or decreasing electricity sales, particularly in the residential sector. Utilities are increasingly considering alternative rates structures that are designed to recover fixed costs from residential solar photovoltaic (PV) customers with low net electricity consumption. Proposed structures have included fixed charge increases, minimum bills, and increasingly, demand rates - for net metered customers and all customers. This study examines the electricity bill implications of various residential rate alternatives for multiple locations within the United States. For the locations analyzed, the results suggest that residential PV customers offset, on average, between 60% and 99% of their annual load. However, roughly 65% of a typical customer's electricity demand is non-coincidental with PV generation, so the typical PV customer is generally highly reliant on the grid for pooling services.

  13. A Comparison of the Cross-Sectional and Sequential Designs when Assessing Longitudinal Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Melissa A; Maxwell, Scott E

    2013-05-01

    Mediational studies are often of interest in psychology because they explore the underlying relationship between 2 constructs. Previous research has shown that cross-sectional designs are prone to biased estimates of longitudinal mediation parameters. The sequential design has become a popular alternative to the cross-sectional design for assessing mediation. This design is a compromise between the cross-sectional and longitudinal designs because it incorporates time in the model but has only 1 measurement each of X, M, and Y. As such, this design follows the recommendation of the MacArthur group approach, which stresses the importance of multiple waves of data for studying mediation. These 2 designs were compared to see whether the sequential design assesses longitudinal mediation more accurately than the cross-sectional design. Specifically, analytic expressions are derived for the bias of estimated direct and indirect effects as calculated from the sequential design when the actual mediational process follows a longitudinal autoregressive model. It was found that, in general, the sequential design does not assess longitudinal mediation more accurately than the cross-sectional design. As a result, neither design can be depended on to assess longitudinal mediation accurately. PMID:26741846

  14. Evaluation of occupational health interventions using a randomized controlled trial: challenges and alternative research designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schelvis, R.M; Oude Hengel, K.M.; Burdorf, A.; Blatter, B.M.; Strijk, J.E.; Beek, A.J. van

    2015-01-01

    Occupational health researchers regularly conduct evaluative intervention research for which a randomized controlled trial (RCT) may not be the most appropriate design (eg, effects of policy measures, organizational interventions on work schedules). This article demonstrates the appropriateness of a

  15. Assessing the environmental burdens of anaerobic digestion in comparison to alternative options for managing the biodegradable fraction of municipal solid wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haight, M

    2005-01-01

    Biological treatment processes including anaerobic digestion (biogasification) and composting are increasingly being considered by waste management officials and planners as alternatives for managing the mainly organic residues of municipal solid wastes (MSW). The integrated waste management model which is based upon the application of life-cycle analysis was employed to compare the environmental burdens of landfilling, composting and anaerobic digestion of MSW at a mid-sized Canadian community. Energy consumption (or recovery), residue recoveries and emissions to air and water were quantified. Scenario comparisons were analyzed to demonstrate that the environmental burdens associated with anaerobic digestion are reduced in comparison with the alternative options. The major benefit occurs as a result of the electricity produced from burning the biogas and then supplying the 'green power' to the local electrical grid. PMID:16180477

  16. Engaging Alternative High School Students Through the Design, Development, and Crafting of Computationally Enhanced Pets

    OpenAIRE

    DuMont, Maneksha Katrine

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid design technologies, a combination of physical crafting, construction or art, and computing, have the potential to broaden participation in computing by appealing to youth through existing interests and hobbies. Expanding participation in computing is important because computational thinking, for example debugging, is a set of skills fundamental for success in our society. Youth can participate in and gain exposure to multiple disciplines with various hybrid design technologies. Yet al...

  17. PrimerSeq:Design and Visualization of RT-PCR Primers for Alternative Splicing Using RNA-seq Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Collin Tokheim; Juw Won Park; Yi Xing

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of multi-exon genes in higher eukaryotes are alternatively spliced and changes in alternative splicing (AS) can impact gene function or cause disease. High-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has become a powerful technology for transcriptome-wide analysis of AS, but RT-PCR still remains the gold-standard approach for quantifying and validating exon splicing levels. We have developed PrimerSeq, a user-friendly software for systematic design and visualization of RT-PCR primers using RNA-seq data. PrimerSeq incorporates user-provided tran-scriptome profiles (i.e., RNA-seq data) in the design process, and is particularly useful for large-scale quantitative analysis of AS events discovered from RNA-seq experiments. PrimerSeq features a graphical user interface (GUI) that displays the RNA-seq data juxtaposed with the expected RT-PCR results. To enable primer design and visualization on user-provided RNA-seq data and transcript annotations, we have developed PrimerSeq as a stand-alone software that runs on local computers. PrimerSeq is freely available for Windows and Mac OS X along with source code at http://primerseq.sourceforge.net/. With the growing popularity of RNA-seq for transcriptome stud-ies, we expect PrimerSeq to help bridge the gap between high-throughput RNA-seq discovery of AS events and molecular analysis of candidate events by RT-PCR.

  18. Sıkışma: An Alternative Information Design Project for Ihlamur Pavilions Istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özmen, Melike

    2016-01-01

    Sıkışma is a transmedia information design project, which focuses on Ihlamur Pavilions and Ihlamur area. Ihlamur hosts Ihlamur Pavilions since 19th Century. It is located within Beşiktaş district in Istanbul. Nowadays the buildings belong to TBMM (The Grand National Assembly of Turkey) National Palaces and used as a Museum- Café. There is a conventional wayfinding & signage system for outdoor areas of the Pavilions. The system also includes two separate boards focusing on the history of Ihlamur and Ihlamur Pavilions. However, the information provided on these boards seems inadequate and the boards are physically damaged. According Universal Design approach it is possible to achieve good and functional design and solve the inadequacy problem by physically fixing information boards and re-setting the environment around the information boards according to Universal Design principles. Although, these principles provide solutions for important issues such as mobility, stability and accessibility, it doesn't provide sufficient proof of user engagement in terms of the creation of the content. The project Sıkışma offers an approach, which is concerned with content as with form and suggests that it is possible to infer a universal form from the content created through personal experience of the designer as a user. It is also intended to represent the past and the present through the project and to create an understanding of plausible scenarios of the unknown future in the viewers' mind. PMID:27534336

  19. Action design research: a comparison with canonical action research and design science

    OpenAIRE

    Maccani, Giovanni; Donnellan, Brian; Helfert, Markus

    2015-01-01

    This research in progress paper addresses the IS issue in relation to conducting relevant research while keeping academic rigor. In particular, it contributes to the ongoing academic conversation around the investigation on how to incor-porate action in design science research. In this document the philosophical underpinnings of the recently proposed methodology called Action Design Re-search [1] are derived, outlined and integrated into Burrel and Morgan’s Par-adigmatic Framework (1979)[6]. ...

  20. Alternative designs for megavoltage machines for cancer treatment in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In developing countries radiation therapy is often performed with antiquated cobalt-60 units, the radioactive sources of which are long decayed and, thus, treatments are ineffective. Furthermore the cost involved in the disposal of spent radionuclide sources discourages owners from proper removal and storage, and accidents occur. Although present design of microwave electron linear accelerators provide excellent beam characteristics, developing countries in many locations do not have the infrastructure to maintain such machines. After an analysis of the radiotherapy situation world-wide - especially from the viewpoint of maintenance - a consensus was reached on the radiotherapy equipment performance requirements. To meet these requirements, several accelerator designs were considered. Among the most promising new designs were the klystron/linac and the high frequency linear accelerator, the microtron in a radiation head, the high frequency betatron, also in a radiation accelerator, and DC accelerators. Possible treatment designs, including those of modular nature, were presented. Since it is estimated that by the year 2015, barring a dramatic and unforeseen cure for cancer, a total of 10,000 machines will be needed to provide treatment for an estimated 10 million new cases per year in developing countries, the impact of such high technology simple machine could be substantial in providing equity and quality for the management of cancer patients. 4 refs, 2 tabs

  1. Vehicle perceptibilty : reflectorized registration plates and alternative means : function, design and application.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griep, D.J. Thoenes, E. Schreuder, D.A. & Kranenburg, A.

    1970-01-01

    In November 1967 the Minister of Transport and Waterways in the Netherlands asked the Institute for Road Safety Research SWOV to examine the advisable design of reflectorized registration plates from the aspect of perceptibility. Allowance had to be made for the identification of motor vehicles. esp

  2. Reliability and availability analysis of two alternative evacuation systems designed for the Next European Torus (NET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the reliability and availability issues in case of two different evacuation system designs which have been proposed for the Next European Torus (NET). One of these designs uses turbo molecular pumps while the other employs cryogenic pumps to evacuate waste products from the torus after every fusion cycle. The aim of this paper is to assess and compare the feasibility of the above two designs form the reliability and availability point of view. A detailed failure mode analysis has been carried out for these two systems and appropriate mathematical mdoels have been developed to calculate their respective reliabilities. Using these mathematical models an extensive parameter study of the system reliability has been carried out over a given range of the component reliabilities. This parameter study shows that the maximum value of the turbo molecular pump system reliability is 96% while the corresponding value for the cryogenic pump system is only 81.6%. The target value for the system availability is 99.9%. This requires that the system mean repair time should be 48 h, appropriate modifications must be made to the turbo pump system design to increase its reliability accordingly. (author). 4 refs.; 10 figs

  3. An alternative approach to compensators design for photon beams used in radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurkovic, S. [University Hospital, Department of Radiotherapy, Physics Division, Kresimirova 42, 51000 Rijeka (Croatia); Zauhar, G. [School of Medicine, Department of Physics, Brace Branchetta 20, 51000 Rijeka (Croatia)], E-mail: gordz@medri.hr; Bistrovic, M. [Hospital for Tumors, Radiotherapy Department, Ilica 272, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Faj, D. [University Hospital, Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, J. Huttlera 4, 31000 Osijek (Croatia); Kaliman, Z. [Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Department of Physics, Omladinska 14, 51000 Rijeka (Croatia); Smilovic Radojcic, D. [University Hospital, Department of Radiotherapy, Physics Division, Kresimirova 42, 51000 Rijeka (Croatia)

    2007-09-21

    The use of compensators in order to achieve desired dose distribution has a long history and is a well-established technique in radiation therapy planning. There are several different calculation methods for determining a compensator's thickness. An alternative method that is based on the Cunningham's modification of Clarkson's method to calculate scattered radiation in beams with an inhomogeneous cross-section is proposed. It is well known that the total dose distribution of radiotherapy photon beam consists of the contributions of the primary beam, attenuated by the tissue layer, and the scattered radiation generated by the primary radiation in single and multiple photon scatter events. The scattered component can be represented as a function of the primary radiation. The central point of our method is the numerical estimation of the primary distribution required to achieve the desired total distribution. Now using the calculated primary distribution, the shape of the modulator could be determined. In this way the contribution of the scattered component is validated in a more accurate way than using effective attenuation coefficients, which is a common practice. The method is verified in various clinical situations and compared with the standard method. The accuracy, although dependent on geometry, was improved by at least 2%. With more complex geometries there is an even higher gain in accuracy with our method when compared to the standard method.

  4. SustainPro - A tool for systematic process analysis, generation and evaluation of sustainable design alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, Ana; Matos, Henrique A.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    Chemical processes are continuously facing challenges from the demands of the global market related to economics, environment and social issues. This paper presents the development of a software tool (SustainPro) and its application to chemical processes operating in batch or continuous modes. The...... software tool is based on the implementation of an extended systematic methodology for sustainable process design (Carvalho et al. 2008 and Carvalho et al. 2009). Using process information/data such as the process flowsheet, the associated mass / energy balance data and the cost data, SustainPro guides the...... user through the necessary steps according to work-flow of the implemented methodology. At the end the design alternatives, are evaluated using environmental impact assessment tools and safety indices. The extended features of the methodology incorporate Life Cycle Assessment analysis and economic...

  5. The Effects of Envelope Design Alternatives on the Energy Consumption of Residential Houses in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Feliks Setiawan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available As an emerging country and one of the most populous countries in the world, Indonesia requires a sufficient energy supply to ensure the nation’s continued development. In response to this increasing energy demand, various studies have proposed energy-saving measures; building envelope design is considered to be a typical energy-saving technique. A significant goal in achieving greener buildings is learning how to reduce a building’s energy consumption by applying an efficient energy-saving design. This study used the eQUEST software to investigate how different types of roof construction, glazing and sun-shading techniques affect the energy consumption of residential structures in Indonesia in common scenarios. The results indicate that window shading has the most significant impact on a building’s overall energy consumption, followed by the use of an appropriate glazing, whereas the roof type produced smaller energy efficiency benefits.

  6. AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF BROADBAND BEAMSPACE ADAPTIVE ARRAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. SRINIVASA RAO

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The beamwidth of a linear array depends on number of elements in the array and frequency of the input signal. At present designing of wideband antennas and beamformers became important, in the fields of microphone arrays intended for teleconferencing, in transmitting or receiving spread spectrum signals, crip signals etc. A beamspace adaptive planar array for broadband beamforming is proposed based on the filter – and - sum beamforming technique. A detailed design method was provided for both the linear arrays and the adaptivearrays and simulation results are provided for the proposed method. Our proposed method is used to demonstrate that the beam-space adaptive array can suppress interference signals having a wide fractional bandwidth and that the array has fast convergence.

  7. BIM Application to Select Appropriate Design Alternative with Consideration of LCA and LCCA

    OpenAIRE

    Young-su Shin; Kyuman Cho

    2015-01-01

    Advancements in building materials and technology have led to the rapid development of various design solutions. At the same time, life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) of such solutions have become a great burden to engineers and project managers. To help conduct LCA and LCCA conveniently, this study (i) analyzed the information needed to conduct LCA and LCCA, (ii) evaluated a way to obtain such information in an easy and accurate manner using a building information...

  8. Design and development of augmentative and alternative digital home control interface

    OpenAIRE

    Pastorino, Matteo; Montalvá Colomer, Juan Bautista; Arredondo, Maria Teresa; Cabrera Umpiérrez, Maria Fernanda

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a Digital Home Interface capable of adapting layouts, styles and contents to device capability, user preferences and appliances’ features; designed with a combination of web technologies, standard languages for abstract interface definition and AAC systems. The Home Automation architecture is characterized by devices’ independence, combining eXtensible Markup Language and Cascading Style Sheet, web technologies standard languages for abstract interface definition and two ...

  9. Alternative approaches to fusion. [reactor design and reactor physics for Tokamak fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    The limitations of the Tokamak fusion reactor concept are discussed and various other fusion reactor concepts are considered that employ the containment of thermonuclear plasmas by magnetic fields (i.e., stellarators). Progress made in the containment of plasmas in toroidal devices is reported. Reactor design concepts are illustrated. The possibility of using fusion reactors as a power source in interplanetary space travel and electric power plants is briefly examined.

  10. Testing alternative designs for a roadside animal detection system using a driving simulator

    OpenAIRE

    Molly K. Grace; Smith, Daniel J; Reed F Noss

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: A Roadside Animal Detection System (RADS) was installed in January 2012 along Highway 41 through Big Cypress National Preserve in Florida, USA in an attempt to reduce wildlife-vehicle collisions. The system uses flashing warning signs to alert drivers when a large animal is near the road. However, we suspected that the RADS warning signs could be ignored by drivers because they resemble other conventional signs. We hypothesized that word-based warning signs (current design) are le...

  11. Design Alternatives for a High-Performance Self-Securing Ethernet Network Interface

    OpenAIRE

    Schuff, Derek L.; Pai, Vijay S

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents and evaluates a strategy for integrating the Snort network intrusion detection system into a high-performance programmable Ethernet network interface card (NIC), considering the impact of several possible hardware and software design choices. While currently proposed ASIC, FPGA, and TCAM systems can match incoming string content in real-time, the system proposed also supports the stream reassembly and HTTP content transformation capabilities of Snort. This system, called L...

  12. Alternative configurations of Quantile Regression for estimating predictive uncertainty in water level forecasts for the Upper Severn River: a comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. López López

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study comprises an inter-comparison of different configurations of a statistical post-processor that is used to estimate predictive hydrological uncertainty. It builds on earlier work by Weerts et al. (2011, herinafter referred to as wwv2011, who used the Quantile Regression technique to estimate predictive hydrological uncertainty using a deterministic water level forecast as a predictor. The various configurations are designed to address two issues with the wwv2011 implementation: (i quantile crossing, which causes non-strictly rising cumulative predictive distributions, and (ii the use of linear quantile models to describe joint distributions that may not be strictly linear. Thus, four configurations were built: (i the "as is" implementation used by wwv2011, (ii a configuration that implements a non-crossing quantile technique, (iii a configuration where quantile models are built in Normal space after application of the Normal Quantile Transform, and (iv a configuration that builds quantile model separately on separate domains of the predictor. Using each, four re-forecasting series of water levels at fourteen stations in the Upper Severn River were established. The quality of these four series was inter-compared using a set of graphical and numerical verification metrics. Intercomparison showed that reliability and sharpness vary across configurations, but in none of the configurations do these two forecast quality aspects improve simultaneously. Further analysis shows that skills in terms of Brier Skill Score, mean Continuous Ranked Probability Skill Score and Relative Operating Characteristic Score is very similar across the four configurations.

  13. Cat dissection and human cadaver prosection versus sculpting human structures from clay: A comparison of alternate approaches to human anatomy laboratory education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, John R.

    Dissection and vivisection are traditional approaches to biology laboratory education. In the case of human anatomy teaching laboratories, there is a long tradition of using human and animal cadaver specimens in the classroom. In a review of the literature comparing traditional dissection and vivisection lessons to alternative lessons designed to reduce the time spent dissecting or the numbers of animals used, we conclude that it is difficult to come to any conclusion regarding the efficacy of different approaches. An analysis of the literature is confounded because many studies have very low statistical power or other methodological weaknesses, and investigators rely on a wide variety of testing instruments to measure an equally varied number of course objectives. Additional well designed studies are necessary before educators can reach any informed conclusions about the efficacy of traditional versus alternative approaches to laboratory education. In our experiments, we compared a traditional cat dissection based undergraduate human anatomy lesson to an alternative where students sculpted human muscles onto plastic human skeletons. Students in the alternative treatment performed significantly better than their peers in the traditional treatment when answering both lower and higher order human anatomy questions. In a subsequent experiment with a similar design, we concluded that the superior performance of the students in the alternative treatment on anatomy exams was likely due to the similarity between the human anatomy representation studied in lab, and the human anatomy questions asked on the exams. When the anatomy questions were presented in the context of a cat specimen, students in the traditional cat dissection treatment outperformed their peers in the alternative treatment. In a final experiment where student performance on a human anatomy exam was compared between a traditional prosected human cadaver treatment and the alternative clay sculpting

  14. Interplanetary Trajectory Design for the Asteroid Robotic Redirect Mission Alternate Approach Trade Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Raymond Gabriel; Qu, Min; Vavrina, Matthew A.; Englander, Jacob A.; Jones, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents mission performance analysis methods and results for the Asteroid Robotic Redirect Mission (ARRM) option to capture a free standing boulder on the surface of a 100 m or larger NEA. It details the optimization and design of heliocentric low-thrust trajectories to asteroid targets for the ARRM solar electric propulsion spacecraft. Extensive searches were conducted to determine asteroid targets with large pick-up mass potential and potential observation opportunities. Interplanetary trajectory approximations were developed in method based tools for Itokawa, Bennu, 1999 JU3, and 2008 EV5 and were validated by end-to-end integrated trajectories.

  15. Comparison in the design and thermodynamic calculation of BNPP steam plant with the previous design (PWR-1300) and the new design (VVER-1000) using CXEMAcomputer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a general view, the steam cycle of the Bushehr nuclear power plant is similar to that of thermal power plants using fossil fuel. However, dissimilarities appear in design and fabrication of the turbin unit components, due to the necessity of using the saturated steam through the cycle. At the same time and considering the modifications implemented in the new design of the Bushehr nuclear power plant (to say, adoption of the Russia VVER-1000 instead of the previous german PWR-1300 plants), the turbine unit has also undergone some modification. The major changes include the employment of 3 low pressure turbine cylinders instead of the ex-2 ones of the german design and RPM of 3000 as the turbine rotation rate instead of the 1500 one for the german design. In this paper in addition to the comparison of the two designs, the turbine parameters of both designs are also calculated with the CXEMAcode and the achieved results are brought into comparison and analysis. This paper has been prepared on the basis of the results represented in the author's (D.Golmoradi) Master of Sciences thesis

  16. Building Low Carbon Cities: Framework to Design and Evaluate Alternative Technologies and Policies for Land Use Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, S.; Hamano, H.; Fujita, T.; Hori, H.

    2008-12-01

    Annex I parties of the Kyoto Protocol are facing even greater pressures to fulfill their commitment for GHG reduction as they enter the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol 2008-2012. In Japanese context, one such challenge is to reduce CO2 emissions from the household and business sectors because CO2 emissions from the both sectors has increased by 12% and 20% respectively since 1990 while the industry has achieved 21% of CO2 emissions reduction. Land use planning, which, either directly or indirectly, controls appropriate uses for land within jurisdictions, might play very important roles to deal with CO2 reductions from the household and business sectors. In this research, aiming at effective reductions of air- conditioning energy consumption and resultant CO2 emissions from the household and business sectors, the framework to design and evaluate land use planning was developed. The design and evaluation processes embraced in this framework consist of GIS database, technology and policy inventory for planning, one- dimensional urban canopy model which evaluate urban climate at neighborhood level and air-conditioning load calculation procedure. The GIS database provides spatial information of target areas such as land use, building use and road networks, which, then, helps design alternative land use plans. The technology and policy inventory includes various planning options ranging from those for land over control to those for building energy control, which, combined with the GIS database, serves for planning process. The urban canopy model derives vertical profiles of local climate, such as temperature and humidity, using the information of land use, building height and so on, aided by the GIS database. Vertical profiles of the urban climate are then utilized to derive air-conditioning load and associated CO2 emissions for each building located in target areas. The framework developed was applied to the coastal district of Kawasaki, Japan, with an

  17. Cell and stack design alternatives. First quarterly report, August 1, 1978-October 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, D.Q.

    1979-01-01

    An apartment house in Albany, New York with HUD minimum insulation was selected as the application to be used in evaluating various system configurations of on-site fuel cell total energy systems. Methods for calculating the static and dynamic thermal loads for a simulated season were developed. Computer models of some major subsystems are now being developed. Finite element models of the electrochemistry, thermodynamics and heat transfer relationships for fuel cells were developed and have been used to calculate current density and temperature distributions for sets of large cells and cooling plates. The results obtained led to several innovative ideas for advanced stack designs. A single lump model of a fuel cell stack was developed for use in the systems study. The available information on methane conditioning was collected and reviewed and a plan for attaining the missing design data has been developed. Simple models of reformer and water-gas shift reactors were developed for use in the systems study. The lines of communication among technical tasks were established, required documentation of plans and progress was prepared and delivered and the monthly review meetings were held as planned.

  18. A MINE alternative to D-optimal designs for the linear model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda M Bouffier

    Full Text Available Doing large-scale genomics experiments can be expensive, and so experimenters want to get the most information out of each experiment. To this end the Maximally Informative Next Experiment (MINE criterion for experimental design was developed. Here we explore this idea in a simplified context, the linear model. Four variations of the MINE method for the linear model were created: MINE-like, MINE, MINE with random orthonormal basis, and MINE with random rotation. Each method varies in how it maximizes the MINE criterion. Theorem 1 establishes sufficient conditions for the maximization of the MINE criterion under the linear model. Theorem 2 establishes when the MINE criterion is equivalent to the classic design criterion of D-optimality. By simulation under the linear model, we establish that the MINE with random orthonormal basis and MINE with random rotation are faster to discover the true linear relation with p regression coefficients and n observations when p>>n. We also establish in simulations with n<100, p=1000, σ=0.01 and 1000 replicates that these two variations of MINE also display a lower false positive rate than the MINE-like method and additionally, for a majority of the experiments, for the MINE method.

  19. Comparison of monitored natural attenuation with other alternatives for remediation of contaminated groundwater at Naval Air Station (NAS) Fallon, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitored natural attenuation (MNA) and several other potential alternatives were evaluated for remediation of dissolved-phase groundwater contamination at Site 1, the former crash crew training area at NAS Fallon. The contaminants of concern at the site are petroleum hydrocarbon constituents and chlorinated ethenes. Remedial action objectives were developed using a conceptual model for the site, applicable regulatory action levels, site contaminants, and a point-of-compliance. A field evaluation of MNA was conducted at Site 1. Monitored natural attenuation was compared to other potential remedial alternatives for achieving the RAOs including: plume containment using pumping wells, interceptor drain, or slurry wall; and active restoration with enhanced in situ bioremediation, pump and treat using wells, or pump and treat using an interceptor drain. Alternatives were comparatively evaluated using three criteria, effectiveness, ability to implement and cost. The evaluation indicates that MNA is a viable and cost-effective remedial alternative for Site 1

  20. Advances in implosion physics, alternative targets design, and neutron effects on heavy ion fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coupling of a new radiation transport (RT) solver with an existing multimaterial fluid dynamics code (ARWEN) using Adaptive Mesh Refinement named DAFNE, has been completed. In addition, improvements were made to ARWEN in order to work properly with the RT code, and to make it user-friendlier, including new treatment of Equations of State, and graphical tools for visualization. The evaluation of the code has been performed, comparing it with other existing RT codes (including the one used in DAFNE, but in the single-grid version). These comparisons consist in problems with real input parameters (mainly opacities and geometry parameters). Important advances in Atomic Physics, Opacity calculations and NLTE atomic physics calculations, with participation in significant experiments in this area, have been obtained. Early published calculations showed that a DTx fuel with a small tritium initial content (xe and to enhance radiation losses, reducing the plasma temperature, Ti. The neutron activation of all natural elements in First Structural Wall (FSW) component of an Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) reactor for waste management, and the analysis of activation of target debris in NIF-type facilities has been completed. Using an original efficient modeling for pulse activation, the FSW behavior in inertial fusion has been studied. A radiological dose library coupled to the ACAB code is being generated for assessing impact of environmental releases, and atmospheric dispersion analysis from HIF reactors indicate the uncertainty in tritium release parameters. The first recognition of recombination barriers in SiC, modify the understanding of the calculation of displacement per atom, dpa, to quantify the collisional damage. An important analysis has been the confirmation, using Molecular Dynamics (MD) with an astonishing agreement, of the experimental evidence of low-temperature amorphization by damage accumulation in SiC, which could modify extensively its viability as a

  1. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility: Documentation of impact analysis for design alternatives presented in the Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is proposing to construct and operate a new Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF). The proposed DWTF would replace the existing Hazardous Waste Management (HWM) facilities at LLNL. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) to assess the environmental consequences of the proposed DWTF and its alternatives. This report presents the assumptions, methodologies, and analyses used to estimate the waste flows, air emissions, ambient air quality impacts, and public health risks that are presented in the DEIS. Two DWTF design alternatives (Level I and Level II) have been designated as reasonable design alternatives considering available technologies, environmental regulations, and current and future LLNL waste generation. Both design alternatives would include new, separate radioactive and nonradioactive liquid waste treatment systems, a solidification unit, a new decontamination facility, storage and treatment facilities for reactive materials, a radioactive waste storage area, receiving and classification areas, and a uranium burn pan. The Level I design alternative would include a controlled-air incinerator system, while the Level II design alternative would include a rotary kiln incinerator system. 43 refs., 4 figs., 24 tabs

  2. Comparison of Planar Parallel Manipulator Architectures based on a Multi-objective Design Optimization Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Chablat, Damien; Caro, Stéphane; Ur-Rehman, Raza; Wenger, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the comparison of planar parallel manipulator architectures based on a multi-objective design optimization approach. The manipulator architectures are compared with regard to their mass in motion and their regular workspace size, i.e., the objective functions. The optimization problem is subject to constraints on the manipulator dexterity and stiffness. For a given external wrench, the displacements of the moving platform have to be smaller than given values throughout t...

  3. Comparison of Facially Amphiphilic versus Segregated Monomers in the Design of Antibacterial Copolymers

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel, Gregory J.; Maegerlein, Janet A.; Nelson, Christopher F.; Dabkowski, Jeffrey M.; Eren, Tarik; Nüsslein, Klaus; Tew, Gregory N.

    2009-01-01

    A direct comparison of two strategies for designing antimicrobial polymers is presented. Previously, we published several reports on the use of facially amphiphilic (FA) monomers which led to polynorbornenes with excellent antimicrobial activities and selectivities. Our polymers obtained by copolymerization of structurally similar segregated monomers, in which cationic and non-polar moieties reside on separate repeat units, led to polymers with less pronounced activities. A wide range of poly...

  4. Store design : A comparison between luxurious and normal/regular fashion stores

    OpenAIRE

    Alazzawi, Jinan Riadh; Farcuta, Loredana Alexandrina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to do a comparison between luxurious fashion stores and normal/regular ones, describe the differences in terms of the store design and discuss the influences and their impact on the customer experience. The second purpose is to give suggestions to normal/regular fashion stores from Sweden regarding improvements that they might need to enhance the customer’s shopping experience. In order to complete this study, both primary and secondary data were collected. Primar...

  5. Alternative Evaluation Designs for Data-Centered Technology-Based Geoscience Education Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalles, D. R.

    2012-12-01

    This paper will present different strategies for how to evaluate contrasting K-12 geoscience classroom-based interventions with different goals, leveraging the first author's experiences as principal investigator of four NSF and NASA-funded geoscience education projects. Results will also be reported. Each project had its own distinctive features but all had in common the broad goal of bringing to high school classrooms uses of real place-based geospatial data to study the relationships of Earth system phenomena to climate change and sustainability. The first project's goal was to produce templates and exemplars for curriculum and assessment designs around studying contrasting geoscience topics with different data sets and forms of data representation. The project produced a near transfer performance assessment task in which students who studied climate trends in Phoenix turned their attention to climate in Chicago. The evaluation looked at the technical quality of the assessment instrument as measured by inter-rater reliability. It then analyzed the assessment results against student responses to the instructional tasks about Phoenix. The evaluation proved useful in pinpointing areas of student strength and weakness on different inquiry tasks, from simple map interpretation to analysis of contrasting claims about what the data indicate. The goal of the second project was to produce an exemplar curriculum unit that bridges Western science and traditional American Indian ecological knowledge for student learning and skill building about local environmental sustainability issues. The evaluation looked at the extent to which Western and traditional perspectives were incorporated into the design of the curriculum. The curriculum was not constructed with a separate assessment, yet evidence centered design was utilized to extrapolate from the exemplar unit templates for future instructional and assessment tasks around other places, other sustainability problems, and

  6. Designing instruction to support mechanical reasoning: Three alternatives in the simple machines learning environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Ann Frances

    2001-07-01

    Creating a classroom environment that fosters a productive learning experience and engages students in the learning process is a complex endeavor. A classroom environment is dynamic and requires a unique synergy among students, teacher, classroom artifacts and events to achieve robust understanding and knowledge integration. This dissertation addresses this complex issue by developing, implementing, and investigating the simple machines learning environment (SIMALE) to support students' mechanical reasoning and understanding. SIMALE was designed to support reflection, collaborative learning, and to engage students in generative learning through multiple representations of concepts and successive experimentation and design activities. Two key components of SIMALE are an original web-based software tool and hands-on Lego activities. A research study consisting of three treatment groups was created to investigate the benefits of hands-on and web-based computer activities on students' analytic problem solving ability, drawing/modeling ability, and conceptual understanding. The study was conducted with two populations of students that represent a diverse group with respect to gender, ethnicity, academic achievement and social/economic status. One population of students in this dissertation study participated from the Mathematics, Engineering, and Science Achievement (MESA) program that serves minorities and under-represented groups in science and mathematics. The second group was recruited from the Academic Talent Development Program (ATDP) that is an academically competitive outreach program offered through the University of California at Berkeley. Results from this dissertation show success of the SIMALE along several dimensions. First, students in both populations achieved significant gains in analytic problem solving ability, drawing/modeling ability, and conceptual understanding. Second, significant differences that were found on pre-test measures were eliminated

  7. Comparison of the primary energy consumption and the CO2-emission of an urban vehicle with conventional and alternative drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on a model car with its basic data corresponding to those of a series-produced small passenger car, conventional and alternative drives were compared. Cars shared the following features: same basic weight without tank, one energy storage system for the same driving range, same acceleration capacity from 0 to 50 km/h. Petrol and diesel were the conventional fuels; methanol, natural gas (pressurized, liquid), hydrogen (pressurized, liquid, hydride) and electric energy (NaS battery) were the alternative fuels. Both primary energy and CO2 balancings take the different raw materials into account for the production of useful energies. (orig.)

  8. Overall scores as an alternative to global ratings in patient experience surveys: a comparison of four methods.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krol, M.W.; Boer, D. de; Rademakers, J.J.D.J.M.; Delnoij, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Global ratings of healthcare by patients are a popular way of summarizing patients' experiences. Summary scores can be used for comparing healthcare provider performance and provider rankings. As an alternative, overall scores from actual patient experiences can be constructed as summary

  9. A COMPARISON OF CONSTRUCTIVE AND PRUNING ALGORITHMS TO DESIGN NEURAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAZI MD. ROKIBUL ALAM

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparison between constructive and pruning algorithms to design Neural Network (NN. Both algorithms have advantages as well as drawbacks while designing the architecture of NN. Constructive algorithm is computationally economic because it simply specifies straightforward initial NN architecture. Whereas the large initial NN size of pruning algorithm allows reasonably quick learning with reduced complexity. Two popular ideas from two categories: “cascade-correlation [1]” from constructive algorithms and “skeletonization [2]” from pruning algorithms are chosen here. They have been tested on several benchmark problems in machine learning and NNs. These are the cancer, the credit card, the heart disease, the thyroid and the soybean problems. The simulation results show the number of iterations during the training period and the generalization ability of NNs designed by using these algorithms for these problems.

  10. Observational Study Designs for Comparative Effectiveness Research: An Alternative Approach to Close Evidence Gaps in Head-and-Neck Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) has emerged as an approach to improve quality of care and patient outcomes while reducing healthcare costs by providing evidence to guide healthcare decisions. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have represented the ideal study design to support treatment decisions in head-and-neck (H and N) cancers. In RCTs, formal chance (randomization) determines treatment allocation, which prevents selection bias from distorting the measure of treatment effects. Despite this advantage, only a minority of patients qualify for inclusion in H and N RCTs, which limits the validity of their results to the broader H and N cancer patient population seen in clinical practice. Randomized controlled trials often do not address other knowledge gaps in the management of H and N cancer, including treatment comparisons for rare types of H and N cancers, monitoring of rare or late toxicity events (eg, osteoradionecrosis), or in some instances an RCT is simply not feasible. Observational studies, or studies in which treatment allocation occurs independently of investigators' choice or randomization, may address several of these gaps in knowledge, thereby complementing the role of RCTs. This critical review discusses how observational CER studies complement RCTs in generating the evidence to inform healthcare decisions and improve the quality of care and outcomes of H and N cancer patients. Review topics include a balanced discussion about the strengths and limitations of both RCT and observational CER study designs; a brief description of design and analytic techniques to handle selection bias in observational studies; examples of observational studies that inform current clinical practices and management of H and N cancers; and suggestions for relevant CER questions that could be addressed by an observational study design

  11. Comparison of Resource Requirements for a Wind Tunnel Test Designed with Conventional vs. Modern Design of Experiments Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLoach, Richard; Micol, John R.

    2011-01-01

    The factors that determine data volume requirements in a typical wind tunnel test are identified. It is suggested that productivity in wind tunnel testing can be enhanced by managing the inference error risk associated with evaluating residuals in a response surface modeling experiment. The relationship between minimum data volume requirements and the factors upon which they depend is described and certain simplifications to this relationship are realized when specific model adequacy criteria are adopted. The question of response model residual evaluation is treated and certain practical aspects of response surface modeling are considered, including inference subspace truncation. A wind tunnel test plan developed by using the Modern Design of Experiments illustrates the advantages of an early estimate of data volume requirements. Comparisons are made with a representative One Factor At a Time (OFAT) wind tunnel test matrix developed to evaluate a surface to air missile.

  12. A Comparison of Wind Energy Investment Alternatives Using Interval-Valued Intuitionistic Fuzzy Benefit/Cost Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cengiz Kahraman; Sezi Cevik Onar; Basar Oztaysi

    2016-01-01

    One of the tools for maintaining environmental sustainability is transformation from fossil-based energy sources to renewable energy sources in energy consumption. Among renewable energy alternatives, wind energy is the most prominent and reliable energy source for fulfilling energy demand. Traditional investment evaluation techniques based on discounted cash flows are not capable of capturing the uncertainty and vagueness in the data related to the wind energy investment parameters. Fuzzy ca...

  13. Land suitability evaluation for greenhouse cultivation of cucumber in comparison with alternative plantations in Mobarakeh- Zarrinshahr district using AHP

    OpenAIRE

    Ayoubi, S.; V. Shahrokh; A Jalalian

    2012-01-01

    Land suitability evaluation is the fitness of a given tract of land based on its production potential for a defined use. This study was conducted to evaluate the land suitability of Mobarakeh-Zarrinshahr district located in west of Isfahan province using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) technique. To do the evaluation, firstly the hierarchy structure was established, which consisted of objectives, criteria, sub-criteria and alternatives. The objective was determination of landuse priority i...

  14. A COMPARISON OF GOLF SHOE DESIGNS HIGHLIGHTS GREATER GROUND REACTION FORCES WITH SHORTER IRONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Worsfold

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to reduce golf turf damage the traditional metal spike golf shoe has been redesigned, but shoe-ground biomechanical evaluations have utilised artificial grass surfaces. Twenty-four golfers wore three different golf shoe traction designs (traditional metal spikes, alternative spikes, and a flat-soled shoe with no additional traction when performing shots with a driver, 3 iron and 7 iron. Ground action forces were measured beneath the feet by two natural grass covered force platforms. The maximum vertical force recorded at the back foot with the 3 iron and 7 iron was 0.82 BW (body weight and at the front foot 1.1 BW approximately in both the metal spike and alternative spike golf shoe designs. When using the driver these maximal vertical values were 0.49 BW at the back foot and 0.84 BW at the front foot. Furthermore, as performance of the backswing and then downswing necessitates a change in movement direction the range of force generated during the complete swing was calculated. In the metal spike shoe the vertical force generated at the back foot with both irons was 0.67 BW and at the front foot 0.96 BW with the 3 iron and 0.92 BW with the 7 iron. The back foot vertical force generated with the driver was 0.33 BW and at the front foot 0.83 BW wearing the metal spike shoe. Results indicated the greater force generation with the irons. When using the driver the more horizontal swing plane associated with the longer club reduced vertical forces at the back and front foot. However, the mediolateral force generated across each foot in the metal and alternative spike shoes when using the driver was greater than when the irons were used. The coefficient of friction was 0. 62 at the back and front foot whichever shoe was worn or club used

  15. Elementary teachers' mental models of engineering design processes: A comparison of two communities of practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Ann P.

    understandings of the engineering process drive the social and emotional roles and skills used in that process. This comparison of mental models with the process that professional designers use defines a problem space for future studies that investigate how to incorporate engineering practices into elementary classrooms. Recommendations for engineering curriculum development and teacher professional development based on this study are presented.

  16. Comparison of two design methods of aerodynamic biobjectives for airfoil and wing shapes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU; Ziqiang; FU; Hongyan; LIU; Hang; WANG; Xiaolu

    2004-01-01

    A simplified adaptive wing, which deflects its leading edge and trailing edge flaps to vary its shape, is calculated to investigate the potential aerodynamic gains and compared with a biobjective optimization (BO) wing in the present paper. In subsonic-transonic flights the deflection angle of a flap is determined through optimization using a deterministic method. In supersonic flight the flaps are not deflected due to the requirement of having a minimum drag. For comparison the aerodynamic characteristics of a BO airfoil and wing is calculated. A parallel genetic algorithm is used in BO. Euler equations served as governing equations in flow field calculation. Numerical results in both 2D (airfoil) and 3D (wing) cases show that aerodynamic performances of the two design airfoils and wings are much better than those of the original ones, with the adaptive design one the best.

  17. A comparison of ray-tracing software for the design of quadrupole microbeam systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Incerti, S. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan, IN2P3/CNRS, Universite Bordeaux 1, BP120, Le Haut Vigneau, 33175 Gradignan cedex (France)]. E-mail: incerti@cenbg.in2p3.fr; Smith, R.W. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan, IN2P3/CNRS, Universite Bordeaux 1, BP120, Le Haut Vigneau, 33175 Gradignan cedex (France); Merchant, M. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Grime, G.W. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Meot, F. [CEA Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA/SEA, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Serani, L. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan, IN2P3/CNRS, Universite Bordeaux 1, BP120, Le Haut Vigneau, 33175 Gradignan cedex (France); Moretto, Ph. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan, IN2P3/CNRS, Universite Bordeaux 1, BP120, Le Haut Vigneau, 33175 Gradignan cedex (France); Touzeau, C. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan, IN2P3/CNRS, Universite Bordeaux 1, BP120, Le Haut Vigneau, 33175 Gradignan cedex (France); Barberet, Ph. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan, IN2P3/CNRS, Universite Bordeaux 1, BP120, Le Haut Vigneau, 33175 Gradignan cedex (France); Habchi, C. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan, IN2P3/CNRS, Universite Bordeaux 1, BP120, Le Haut Vigneau, 33175 Gradignan cedex (France); Nguyen, D.T. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan, IN2P3/CNRS, Universite Bordeaux 1, BP120, Le Haut Vigneau, 33175 Gradignan cedex (France)

    2005-04-01

    For many years the only ray-tracing software available with sufficient precision for the design of quadrupole microbeam focusing systems has been OXRAY and its successor TRAX, developed at Oxford in the 1980s. With the current interest in pushing the beam diameter into the nanometre region, this software has become dated and more importantly the precision at small displacements may not be sufficient and new simulation tools are required. Two candidates for this are Zgoubi, developed at CEA as a general beam line design tool and the CERN simulation program Geant in its latest version Geant4. In order to use Geant4 new quadrupole field modules have been developed and implemented. In this paper the capabilities of the three codes TRAX, Zgoubi and Geant4 are reviewed. Comparisons of ray-tracing calculations in a high demagnification quadrupole probe-forming system for the sub-micron region are presented.

  18. Design study of a 15 kW free-piston Stirling engine-linear alternator for dispersed solar electric power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dochat, G. R.; Chen, H. S.; Bhate, S.; Marusak, T.

    1979-01-01

    A conceptual design of a free piston solar Stirling engine-linear alternator which can be designed and developed to meet the requirements of a near-term solar test bed engine with minimum risks was developed. The conceptual design was calculated to have an overall system efficiency of 38% and provide 15kW electric output. The free piston engine design incorporates features such as gas bearings, close clearance seals, and gas springs. This design is hermetically sealed to provide long life, reliability, and maintenance free operation. An implementation assessment study performed indicates that the free piston solar Stirling engine-linear alternator can be manufactured at a reasonable price cost (direct labor plus material) of $2,500 per engine in production quantities of 25,000 units per year. Opportunity for significant reduction of cost was also identified.

  19. Comparison of Model Error for Alternative Conceptual Models of Sediment Geometry at the Hanford Site, Southeast Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, C. J.; Savelieva-Trofimova, E. A.; Thorne, P. D.; Xie, Y.; Scheibe, T. D.; Cole, C. R.; Kanevski, M.

    2002-12-01

    A number of uncertainties exist in the hydrogeology of the Hanford Site, and the high costs and risks associated with cleanup of sites contaminated with radioactive wastes requires that the uncertainty associated with alternative remediation decisions must fully reflect the uncertainty associated with these decisions. Prior uncertainty analyses of Hanford groundwater model predictions have focused on uncertainties in model parameters (e.g., hydraulic conductivity) given an assumed conceptual model of hydrogeologic structure. In this study we evaluated predictive uncertainty related to the model structure conceptualization. Our study has focused on two major elements of the hydrogeologic structure of the Hanford Site: the geometry of mud units that occur within the aquifer, and the parameter zonation for hydrologic properties of the uppermost conductive portion of the aquifer. For each structural element, we have developed alternative conceptual models that have been evaluated by inverse modeling. The geometry and continuity of mud units exert a strong influence on groundwater flow and contaminant transport at the site. A detailed study of the spatial distribution of the three mud units was performed using a data set consisting of the presence/absence of each mud unit at several hundred boreholes, as well as the thickness if a mud unit was present. The spatial analysis proceeded in two stages. A series of stochastic simulations of the mud units were prepared using geostatistical methods. The stochastic simulations were numerically ranked and a subset of the best and worst simulations (as determined by the connectedness of the aquifer given the simulated mud distributions) was used as inputs to an inverse model. Inverse modeling was performed using UCODE and a finite element flow and transport code (CFEST) and used to test the fit of over 76,000 observed potentiometric head data for several alternative models of the mud distribution. Those conceptual models included

  20. Moving virtuality into reality: A comparison study of the effectiveness of traditional and alternative assessments of learning in a multisensory, fully immersive physics program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamor, Keysha Ingram

    This paper contains a research study that investigated the relative efficacy of using both a traditional paper-and-pencil assessment instrument and an alternative, virtual reality (VR) assessment instrument to assist educators and/or instructional designers in measuring learning in a virtual reality learning environment. To this end, this research study investigated assessment in VR, with the goal of analyzing aspects of student learning in VR that are feasible to access or capture by traditional assessments and alternative assessments. The researcher also examined what additional types of learning alternative assessments may offer. More specifically, this study compared the effectiveness of a traditional method with an alternative (performance-based) method of assessment that was used to examine the ability of the tools to accurately evidence the levels of students' understanding and learning. The domain area was electrostatics, a complex, abstract multidimensional concept, with which students often experience difficulty. Outcomes of the study suggest that, in the evaluation of learning in an immersive VR learning environment, assessments would most accurately manifest student learning if the assessment measure matched the learning environment itself. In this study, learning and assessing in the VR environment yielded higher final test scores than learning in VR and testing with traditional paper-and-pencil. Being able to transfer knowledge from a VR environment to other situations is critical in demonstrating the overall level of understanding of a concept. For this reason, the researcher recommends a combination of testing measures to enhance understanding of complex, abstract concepts.

  1. Wind-induced transmission tower foundation loads. A field study-design code comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savory, E. [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, Ont. (Canada); Parke, G.A.R.; Disney, P.; Toy, N. [School of Engineering, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2008-06-15

    This paper presents a comparison between the wind-induced foundation loads measured on a type L6 transmission line tower during a field study in the UK and those computed using the UK Code of Practice for lattice tower and transmission line design (BS8100). In this work, the Code provisions have been generalised to give the wind-induced strain in each of the tower legs immediately above the foundation as a function of wind direction and wind speed at the top of the tower. The complete data set from the field monitoring has been decomposed to provide a similar formulation for comparison purposes. The analysis shows excellent agreement between the Code calculations and the measured results, within the overall accuracy of the field data. This indicates that, at least for the tower type examined here, the existing design Code provides a reliable transformation of the local wind speed at the top of the tower into tension and compression loads on the foundations. (author)

  2. Comparison of an alternative and existing binning methods to reduce the acquisition duration of 4D PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Didierlaurent, David, E-mail: dadidierlaurent@gmail.com; Ribes, Sophie; Caselles, Olivier [SIMAD, LU 50, Université Toulouse III Paul Sabatier, Toulouse 31062 (France); Jaudet, Cyril; Dierickx, Lawrence O.; Zerdoud, Slimane; Brillouet, Severine; Weits, Kathleen [Institut Claudius Regaud, 20-24 Rue du Pont Saint-Pierre, Toulouse 31052 (France); Batatia, Hadj [IRIT-INPT, Université Toulouse III Paul Sabatier, Toulouse 31071 (France); Courbon, Frédéric [GCS CHU-CLCC, Université Toulouse III Paul Sabatier, Toulouse 31052 (France)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Respiratory motion is a source of artifacts that reduce image quality in PET. Four dimensional (4D) PET/CT is one approach to overcome this problem. Existing techniques to limiting the effects of respiratory motions are based on prospective phase binning which requires a long acquisition duration (15–25 min). This time is uncomfortable for the patients and limits the clinical exploitation of 4D PET/CT. In this work, the authors evaluated an existing method and an alternative retrospective binning method to reduce the acquisition duration of 4D PET/CT. Methods: The authors studied an existing mixed-amplitude binning (MAB) method and an alternative binning method by mixed-phases (MPhB). Before implementing MPhB, they analyzed the regularity of the breathing patterns in patients. They studied the breathing signal drift and missing CT slices that could be challenging for implementing MAB. They compared the performance of MAB and MPhB with current binning methods to measure the maximum uptake, internal volume, and maximal range of tumor motion. Results: MPhB can be implemented depending on an optimal phase (in average, the exhalation peak phase −4.1% of the entire breathing cycle duration). Signal drift of patients was in average 35% relative to the breathing amplitude. Even after correcting this drift, MAB was feasible in 4D CT for only 64% of patients. No significant differences appeared between the different binning methods to measure the maximum uptake, internal volume, and maximal range of tumor motion. The authors also determined the inaccuracies of MAB and MPhB to measure the maximum amplitude of tumor motion with three bins (less than 3 mm for movement inferior to 12 mm, up to 6.4 mm for a 21 mm movement). Conclusions: The authors proposed an alternative binning method by mixed-phase binning that halves the acquisition duration of 4D PET/CT. Mixed-amplitude binning was challenging because of signal drift and missing CT slices. They showed that more

  3. Spatial and stage-structured population model of the American crocodile for comparison of comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Timothy W.; Slone, Daniel H.; Swain, Eric D.; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Lohmann, Melinda; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Rice, Kenneth G.

    2010-01-01

    the American crocodile. This modeling effort examines how CERP restoration alternatives will affect growth and survival rates of hatchling and juvenile crocodiles, hatchling dispersal to suitable nursery habitat, and relative abundance and distribution in response to changing salinity and water depth for all stage classes of crocodiles. The response of the American crocodile to restoration efforts will provide a quantifiable measure of restoration success. By applying the crocodile model to proposed restoration alternatives and predicting population responses, we can choose alternatives that approximate historical conditions, enhance habitat for multiple species, and identify future research needs.

  4. Comparison of methods for controlling dental caries in the classical medicine and alternative medical practices and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabbani Khorasgani Mohammad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is a multi-factorial disease and the most common human infection that annually are spent millions dollars to control and treat it. Several methods have been proposed so far to control it. The most important control methods it is now include : dental hygiene, proper nutrition , fluoride therapy , the use of non- cariogenic sweeteners . Also, the use of probiotics , nanomaterials , bacteriophages , antimicrobial peptides and anti- caries vaccines can be considered as new perspective of human in the dental caries control field. In addition, the use of complementary and alternative therapies , especially herbal drug therapy recently has been considered . Demonstrating the efficacy of complementary medicine against dental caries and its use in combination with conventional medicine or trial of new methods for decline of dental caries in the future would be hopeful.

  5. Alternatives to relational databases in precision medicine: Comparison of NoSQL approaches for big data storage using supercomputers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Enrique Israel

    Improvements in medical and genomic technologies have dramatically increased the production of electronic data over the last decade. As a result, data management is rapidly becoming a major determinant, and urgent challenge, for the development of Precision Medicine. Although successful data management is achievable using Relational Database Management Systems (RDBMS), exponential data growth is a significant contributor to failure scenarios. Growing amounts of data can also be observed in other sectors, such as economics and business, which, together with the previous facts, suggests that alternate database approaches (NoSQL) may soon be required for efficient storage and management of big databases. However, this hypothesis has been difficult to test in the Precision Medicine field since alternate database architectures are complex to assess and means to integrate heterogeneous electronic health records (EHR) with dynamic genomic data are not easily available. In this dissertation, we present a novel set of experiments for identifying NoSQL database approaches that enable effective data storage and management in Precision Medicine using patients' clinical and genomic information from the cancer genome atlas (TCGA). The first experiment draws on performance and scalability from biologically meaningful queries with differing complexity and database sizes. The second experiment measures performance and scalability in database updates without schema changes. The third experiment assesses performance and scalability in database updates with schema modifications due dynamic data. We have identified two NoSQL approach, based on Cassandra and Redis, which seems to be the ideal database management systems for our precision medicine queries in terms of performance and scalability. We present NoSQL approaches and show how they can be used to manage clinical and genomic big data. Our research is relevant to the public health since we are focusing on one of the main

  6. Control of VSC-HVDC in offshore AC islands with wind power plants: Comparison of two alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeni, Lorenzo; Hesselbæk, Bo; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Kjær, Philip C.

    2015-01-01

    The subject of this paper is the control of offshore AC collection and export networks behind a voltage source converter based high voltage direct current transmission system. The inertia-less nature of such grids makes the control of voltages and power flows potentially more flexible, but at the...... same time more prone to instabilities. Focus in this paper is on a voltage source converter based high voltage direct current connected wind power plant. Two state-of-art controllers for the offshore high voltage direct current converter station are compared, both at no-load and when wind turbine...... converters are producing power and controlled with usual vector current control. Sensitivity analyses help identify critical factors influencing stability. The influence of lumping the wind power plant into one converter is assessed by comparison with the full model. The conclusions identify the preferred...

  7. Comparison of joint designs for laser welding of cast metal plates and wrought wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Yasuko; Nomoto, Rie; Nakajima, Hiroyuki; Ohkubo, Chikahiro

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare joint designs for the laser welding of cast metal plates and wrought wire, and to evaluate the welded area internally using X-ray micro-focus computerized tomography (micro-CT). Cast metal plates (Ti, Co-Cr) and wrought wires (Ti, Co-Cr) were welded using similar metals. The specimens were welded using four joint designs in which the wrought wires and the parent metals were welded directly (two designs) or the wrought wires were welded to the groove of the parent metal from one or both sides (n = 5). The porosity and gap in the welded area were evaluated by micro-CT, and the maximum tensile load of the welded specimens was measured with a universal testing machine. An element analysis was conducted using an electron probe X-ray microanalyzer. The statistical analysis of the results was performed using Bonferroni's multiple comparisons (α = 0.05). The results included that all the specimens fractured at the wrought wire when subjected to tensile testing, although there were specimens that exhibited gaps due to the joint design. The wrought wires were affected by laser irradiation and observed to melt together and onto the filler metal. Both Mo and Sn elements found in the wrought wire were detected in the filler metal of the Ti specimens, and Ni was detected in the filler metal of the Co-Cr specimens. The four joint designs simulating the designs used clinically were confirmed to have adequate joint strength provided by laser welding. PMID:22080283

  8. Comparison of instructor-led automated external defibrillation training and three alternative DVD-based training methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. de Vries; N.M. Turner; K.G. Monsieurs; J.J.L.M. Bierens; R.W. Koster

    2010-01-01

    Background: Self-directed BLS-training, using a personal training manikin with video has been shown to be as effective as instructor-led training. This has not previously been investigated for AED-training. Materials and methods: This prospective, randomized study with a non-inferiority design compa

  9. COMPAS: a European project on the ''comparison of alternative waste management strategies for long-lived radioactive wastes''. Scope, working methods and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the content and major findings of a project on the ''COMParison of Alternative waste management Strategies for long-lived radioactive wastes'' (COMPAS) carried out within the 5th framework programme of the European commission. Under the leadership of NNC (UK), the project was carried out by individuals representing waste management organisations from 15 European countries. After having compiled information on the nature and amount of long-lived radioactive waste to be managed, issues influencing the selection of waste management strategies and options, presently adopted national strategies as well as options for the future were addressed. Conclusions concerning key issues for the success or otherwise of strategies and management solutions were drawn. (orig.)

  10. Comparison of Alternative Crop Phenology Detection Algorithms using MODIS NDVI Time Series Data in US Corn Belt Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Hong, S. Y.; Kang, S.

    2015-12-01

    Predicting crop phenology is important for understanding of crop development and growth processes and improving the accuracy of crop model. Remote sensing offers a feasible tool for monitoring spatio-temporal patterns of crop phenology in region and continental scales. Various methods have developed to determine the timing of crop phenological stages using spectral vegetation indices (i.e. NDVI and EVI) derived from satellite data. In our study, it was compared four alternative detection methods to identify crop phenological stages (i.e. the emergence and harvesting date) using high quality NDVI time series data derived from MODIS. In threshold method assumes the emergence and harvesting date when NDVI values exceed and decreases down to a given threshold, respectively. Two kind of threshold values were applied for NDVI and it increment for eight days. The other two methods use a logistic fitting model and inflection points on fitted curve, respectively. It was compared the four methods for corn and soybean, respectively. For validation, three kinds of datasets were utilized: AmeriFlux biological data of planting and harvest dates, and emergence date estimated from growing degree days (AGDDs) at flux tower sites, and state-level USDA Crop Progress Report (CPR). All methods showed substantial uncertainty but the threshold method showed relatively better agreement against with both site- and state-level data for soybean phenology. For better NDVI-based regional estimation of crop phenology, factors of uncertainty were examined and discussed in this study.

  11. Comparison of hot-hole injections in ultrashort channel LDD nMOSFETs with ultrathin oxide under an alternating stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The behaviours of three types of hot-hole injections in ultrashort channel lightly doped drain (LDD) nMOSFETs with ultrathin oxide under an alternating stress have been compared. The three types of hot-hole injections, i.e. low gate voltage hot hole injection (LGVHHI), gate-induced drain leakage induced hot-hole injection (GIDLIHHI) and substrate hot-hole injection (SHHI), have different influences on the devices damaged already by the previous hot electron injection (HEI) because of the different locations of trapping holes and interface states induced by the three types of injections,i.e. three types of stresses. Experimental results show that GIDLIHHI and LGVHHI cannot recover the degradation of electron trapping, but SHHI can. Although SHHI can recover the device's performance, the recovery is slight and reaches saturation quickly, which is suggested here to be attributed to the fact that trapped holes are too few and the equilibrium is reached between the trapping and releasing of holes which can be set up quickly in the ultrathin oxide.

  12. Timing of Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Yield: Comparison of Alternative Methods with the Classic Method for CD34+ Cell Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Fatorova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs, still represent a certain mystery in biology, have a unique property of dividing into equal cells and repopulating the hematopoietic tissue. This potential enables their use in transplantation treatments. The quality of the HSC grafts for transplantation is evaluated by flow cytometric determination of the CD34+ cells, which enables optimal timing of the first apheresis and the acquisition of maximal yield of the peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs. To identify a more efficient method for evaluating CD34+ cells, we compared the following alternative methods with the reference method: hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC enumeration (using the Sysmex XE-2100 analyser, detection of CD133+ cells, and quantification of aldehyde dehydrogenase activity in the PBSCs. 266 aphereses (84 patients were evaluated. In the preapheretic blood, the new methods produced data that were in agreement with the reference method. The ROC curves have shown that for the first-day apheresis target, the optimal predictive cut-off value was 0.032 cells/mL for the HPC method (sensitivity 73.4%, specificity 69.3%. HPC method exhibited a definite practical superiority as compared to other methods tested. HPC enumeration could serve as a supplementary method for the optimal timing of the first apheresis; it is simple, rapid, and cheap.

  13. A comparison of methods to compute the "effective duration" of the autocorrelation function and an alternative proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orazio, Dario; De Cesaris, Simona; Garai, Massimo

    2011-10-01

    The "effective duration" of the autocorrelation function (ACF), τ(e), is an important factor in architectural and musical acoustics. For a general application, an accurate evaluation of τ(e) is relevant. This paper is focused to the methods for the extraction of τ(e) values from the ACF. Various methods have been proposed in literature for the extraction of the τ(e) from a given signal, but these methods are not unambiguously defined or may not work properly in case of particular signals. Therefore, the general use of these methods may sometimes give rise to questionable results. In the present work, the methods existing in literature for extracting τ(e) are analyzed, their advantages and drawbacks are summarized, and finally an alternative method is proposed. The proposed algorithm is compared to those found in previous literature, applying them on the same sound signals (classic literature references and other ones publicly available on the Internet). It is shown that the results obtained with the proposed method are consistent with the results of the previous literature; moreover the proposed method may overcome some of the limitations of the existing methods. PMID:21973350

  14. A Comparison of Wind Energy Investment Alternatives Using Interval-Valued Intuitionistic Fuzzy Benefit/Cost Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Kahraman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the tools for maintaining environmental sustainability is transformation from fossil-based energy sources to renewable energy sources in energy consumption. Among renewable energy alternatives, wind energy is the most prominent and reliable energy source for fulfilling energy demand. Traditional investment evaluation techniques based on discounted cash flows are not capable of capturing the uncertainty and vagueness in the data related to the wind energy investment parameters. Fuzzy capital budgeting techniques can capture this vagueness and model the imprecise estimations of parameter values. In this paper, we develop interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy benefit-cost analysis for the evaluation of wind energy technology investments. The fuzzy benefit-cost analyses are based on both present worth and annual worth analyses. The developed analyses can handle the assessments of multiple experts through aggregation operators. In the proposed economic model, the components of each wind energy investment parameter are incorporated into the equations in detail. A real case study is also presented in this paper.

  15. The Development of Mini Portable Digester Designs for Domestic and Restaurant Solid Waste Processing to be Clean Biogas as Energy's Alternative to Replace LPG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, A.; Janari dan, D.; Setiawan, N.

    2016-02-01

    Biofuel is developed as an alternative source of second generation energy that could be attained from organic waste. This research is purposed to create applicative and cheap Portable digester unit for society. The design concepts’ screening that was made under considerations of the experts is finally resumed. Design 1 with final weight score of 1, design 2 with final weight score of -1, design 3 with final weight score of 2, design 4 with final weight score 3, design 5 with final weight score of -1, design 6 with final weight score of 0. Accepted designs for further concept assessment are design 1, 2 and 6. The result of concept assessment applies weighting for the scoring. Design 1 resulting 2.67, design 2 results 2.15 while design 3 results 2.52. Design 1 is concluded as the design with biggest result, which is 2.67. Its specification is explained as follows: tank capacity of 60 liters, manual rotating crank pivot, tank's material is plastic with symbol 1, material of axle swivel arm is grey cast iron, 2 mm rotary blades with hole. The experiment 1 contained 23.78% methane and 13.65 carbon dioxide that resulted from content test.

  16. Computer-aided design system for technical and economical comparison of crane electrical drives

    OpenAIRE

    Gerasymiak, Rostyslav; Busher, Viktor; Shvets, Liudmyla; Savich, Svitlana

    2012-01-01

    Computer-aided design system for technical and economic comparison of crane electrical drives, considering the ratio of static and dynamic modes, load and moment inertia, relative running time with reduced speed, is designed. The computer-aided design system provides an opportunity to make a better informed decision about the choice or upgrading of electrical drives. Розроблено програмний комплекс для техніко-економічного порівняння кранових електроприводів з урахуванням співвідношення ста...

  17. A comparison of the effect of doxorubicin and phenol on the skeletal muscle. May doxorubicin be a new alternative treatment agent for spasticity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullu, Emre; Ozkan, Ilhan; Culhaci, Nil; Alparslan, Bulent

    2005-03-01

    Since spasticity is still an unsolved problem for orthopaedic surgeons, different chemical agents are tried before surgery. Phenol is a chemical agent which has been used for spasticity treatment for a long time. Doxorubicin is an antitumoral agent that has recently been used for chemomyectomy. The intramuscular effects of phenol and two different dose of doxorubicin were compared in that experimental study. In the first group 0.5 mg/0.5 cm3 doxorubicin, in the second group 1 mg/0.5 doxorubicin and in the third group 5% aqueous solution of fenol/0.5 injection were applied into left quadriceps muscle of rats. Degeneration areas were wider in the high dose doxorubicin group (29.9%; 8.5-61), in comparison with the low dose doxorubicin group (6.4%; 3.1-12) and phenol group (4%; 0-14) after 6 weeks. Differences in degeneration area among three groups were statistically significant (P<0.001). The difference was significant between the high dose doxorubicin group and the phenol group (P=0.001) and also between the high dose doxorubicin group and the low dose doxorubicin group (P<0.001). The results of this study suggested that doxorubicin could provide an alternative treatment modality for neuromuscular disease causing spasticity and it has a dose-dependent effect. Further studies are needed for long-term comparison and clinical use of doxorubicin for spasticity treatment. PMID:15703526

  18. Treatment Comparison in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Head-to-Head Trials and Innovative Study Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ennio Giulio Favalli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the increasing knowledge in the area of rheumatoid arthritis has progressively expanded the arsenal of available drugs, especially with the introduction of novel targeted therapies such as biological disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs. In this situation, rheumatologists are offered a wide range of treatment options, but on the other side the need for comparisons between available drugs becomes more and more crucial in order to better define the strategies for the choice and the optimal sequencing. Indirect comparisons or meta-analyses of data coming from different randomised controlled trials (RCTs are not immune to conceptual and technical challenges and often provide inconsistent results. In this review we examine some of the possible evolutions of traditional RCTs, such as the inclusion of active comparators, aimed at individualising treatments in real-life conditions. Although head-to-head RCTs may be considered the best tool to directly compare the efficacy and safety of two different DMARDs, surprisingly only 20 studies with such design have been published in the last 25 years. Given the recent advent of the first RCTs truly comparing biological DMARDs, we also review the state of the art of head-to-head trials in RA.

  19. A comparison of single oxidants versus advanced oxidation processes as chlorine-alternatives for wild blueberry processing (Vaccinium angustifolium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Kristi M; Bushway, Alfred A; Bushway, Rodney J; Davis-Dentici, Katherine; Hazen, Russell A

    2007-05-01

    Advanced oxidation processes and single chemical oxidants were evaluated for their antimicrobial efficacy against common spoilage bacteria isolated from lowbush blueberries. Predominant bacterial flora were identified using biochemical testing with the assessment of relative abundance using non-selective and differential media. Single chemical oxidants evaluated for postharvest processing of lowbush blueberries included 1% hydrogen peroxide, 100 ppm chlorine, and 1 ppm aqueous ozone while advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) included combinations of 1% hydrogen peroxide/UV, 100 ppm chlorine/UV, and 1 ppm ozone/1% hydrogen peroxide/UV. Enterobacter agglomerans and Pseudomonas fluorescens were found to comprise 90-95% of the bacterial flora on lowbush blueberries. Results of inoculation studies reveal significant log reductions (pagglomerans and P. fluorescens on all samples receiving treatment with 1% hydrogen peroxide, 1% hydrogen peroxide/UV, 1 ppm ozone, or a combined ozone/hydrogen peroxide/UV treatment as compared to chlorine treatments and unwashed control berries. Although population reductions approached 2.5 log CFU/g, microbial reductions among these treatments were not found to be significantly different (p< or 5) from each other despite the synergistic potential that should result from AOPs; furthermore, as a single oxidant, UV inactivation of inoculated bacteria was minimal and did not prove effective as a non-aqueous bactericidal process for fresh pack blueberries. Overall, results indicate that hydrogen peroxide and ozone, as single chemical oxidants, are as effective as AOPs and could be considered as chlorine-alternatives in improving the microbiological quality of lowbush blueberries. PMID:17350128

  20. Comparison of HTGR fuel design, manufacture and quality control methods between Japan and China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first-loading fuel for the HTTR was started to fabricate at Nuclear Fuel Industries (NFI) in 1995 and the HTTR reached criticality in 1998. Meanwhile, 10 MW high temperature reactor (HTR-10) was constructed in Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology (INET) of Tsinghua University, and the first-loading fuel was fabricated concurrently. The HTR-10 reached criticality in December 2000. Though fuel type is different, i.e., pin-in-block type for the HTTR and pebble bed type for the HTR-10, the fabrication method of TRISO coated fuel particles is similar to each other. This report describes comparison of fuel design, fabrication process and quality inspection between them. (author)

  1. Target selection and comparison of mission design for space debris removal by DLR's advanced study group

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Pas, Niels; Lousada, Joao; Terhes, Claudia; Bernabeu, Marc; Bauer, Waldemar

    2014-09-01

    Space debris is a growing problem. Models show that the Kessler syndrome, the exponential growth of debris due to collisions, has become unavoidable unless an active debris removal program is initiated. The debris population in LEO with inclination between 60° and 95° is considered as the most critical zone. In order to stabilize the debris population in orbit, especially in LEO, 5 to 10 objects will need to be removed every year. The unique circumstances of such a mission could require that several objects are removed with a single launch. This will require a mission to rendezvous with a multitude of objects orbiting on different altitudes, inclinations and planes. Removal models have assumed that the top priority targets will be removed first. However this will lead to a suboptimal mission design and increase the ΔV-budget. Since there is a multitude of targets to choose from, the targets can be selected for an optimal mission design. In order to select a group of targets for a removal mission the orbital parameters and political constraints should also be taken into account. Within this paper a number of the target selection criteria are presented. The possible mission targets and their order of retrieval is dependent on the mission architecture. A comparison between several global mission architectures is given. Under consideration are 3 global missions of which a number of parameters are varied. The first mission launches multiple separate deorbit kits. The second launches a mother craft with deorbit kits. The third launches an orbital tug which pulls the debris in a lower orbit, after which a deorbit kit performs the final deorbit burn. A RoM mass and cost comparison is presented. The research described in this paper has been conducted as part of an active debris removal study by the Advanced Study Group (ASG). The ASG is an interdisciplinary student group working at the DLR, analyzing existing technologies and developing new ideas into preliminary

  2. Internally gas-cooled radiofrequency applicators as an alternative to conventional radiofrequency and microwave ablation devices: An in vivo comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rempp, Hansjörg, E-mail: Hansjoerg.rempp@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen, Tübingen University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hoppe-Seyler-Straße 3, Tübingen, 72076 (Germany); Voigtländer, Matthias [ERBE Elektromedizin GmbH, Waldhörnlestraße 17, 72072 Tübingen (Germany); Schenk, Martin [Eberhard Karls University of Tuebingen, Tübingen University Hospital, Department of General, Visceral and Transplant Surgery, Hoppe-Seyler-Straße 3, 72076 Tübingen (Germany); Enderle, Markus D. [ERBE Elektromedizin GmbH, Waldhörnlestraße 17, 72072 Tübingen (Germany); Scharpf, Marcus [Eberhard Karls University of Tuebingen, Insitute of Pathology, Department on General Pathology and Pathological Anatomy, Liebermeisterstraße 8, 72076 Tübingen (Germany); Greiner, Tim O. [Eberhard Karls University of Tuebingen, Tübingen University Hospital, Department of General, Visceral and Transplant Surgery, Hoppe-Seyler-Straße 3, 72076 Tübingen (Germany); Neugebauer, Alexander [ERBE Elektromedizin GmbH, Waldhörnlestraße 17, 72072 Tübingen (Germany); and others

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: To test the efficacy of internally CO{sub 2}-cooled radiofrequency (RF) ablation in vivo and to compare its effectiveness to a standard water-cooled RF probe and to a gas-cooled microwave (MW) device. Method and materials: 49 ablations were performed on 15 pigs under general anesthesia using 15G monopolar CO{sub 2}-cooled RF applicators, 17G monopolar water-cooled RF applicators and 15G internally CO{sub 2}-cooled microwave devices. The power of the MW device was 45 W, the current of the gas-cooled RF device was 1200–1600 mA. At the water-cooled RF probe, maximum power of 200 W was set. Ablation time was 15 min. The short and long axes of the ablation zone were measured. Histological analyses and NADH-staining were performed. The diameters and the ablation volumes were compared using an analysis of variance. Results: No spots of untreated tissue were observed close to the cooled needle track in any of the ablation zones. The largest short axis diameter was 3.4 ± 0.5 cm achieved with the gas-cooled monopolar applicator. With the water-cooled applicators, short axis diameter was significantly smaller, reaching 2.5 ± 0.4 cm. Gas-cooled MW probes achieved 2.9 ± 1.0 cm. The largest ablation volume was 31.5 ± 12 ml (gas-cooled RF), and the smallest was 12.7 ± 4 ml (water-cooled RF). Short/long axis ratio was largest for gas-cooled RF probes with 0.73 ± 0.08 versus 0.64 ± 0.04 for the water-cooled probes and 0.49 ± 0.25 for the microwave applicator. Conclusion: Gas-cooled RF applicators may have a higher potential for effective destruction of liver lesions than comparable water-cooled RF systems, and may be an alternative to standard RF and MW ablation devices.

  3. Internally gas-cooled radiofrequency applicators as an alternative to conventional radiofrequency and microwave ablation devices: An in vivo comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To test the efficacy of internally CO2-cooled radiofrequency (RF) ablation in vivo and to compare its effectiveness to a standard water-cooled RF probe and to a gas-cooled microwave (MW) device. Method and materials: 49 ablations were performed on 15 pigs under general anesthesia using 15G monopolar CO2-cooled RF applicators, 17G monopolar water-cooled RF applicators and 15G internally CO2-cooled microwave devices. The power of the MW device was 45 W, the current of the gas-cooled RF device was 1200–1600 mA. At the water-cooled RF probe, maximum power of 200 W was set. Ablation time was 15 min. The short and long axes of the ablation zone were measured. Histological analyses and NADH-staining were performed. The diameters and the ablation volumes were compared using an analysis of variance. Results: No spots of untreated tissue were observed close to the cooled needle track in any of the ablation zones. The largest short axis diameter was 3.4 ± 0.5 cm achieved with the gas-cooled monopolar applicator. With the water-cooled applicators, short axis diameter was significantly smaller, reaching 2.5 ± 0.4 cm. Gas-cooled MW probes achieved 2.9 ± 1.0 cm. The largest ablation volume was 31.5 ± 12 ml (gas-cooled RF), and the smallest was 12.7 ± 4 ml (water-cooled RF). Short/long axis ratio was largest for gas-cooled RF probes with 0.73 ± 0.08 versus 0.64 ± 0.04 for the water-cooled probes and 0.49 ± 0.25 for the microwave applicator. Conclusion: Gas-cooled RF applicators may have a higher potential for effective destruction of liver lesions than comparable water-cooled RF systems, and may be an alternative to standard RF and MW ablation devices

  4. EAF Steel Slag Filters for Phosphorus Removal from Milk Parlor Effluent: The Effects of Solids Loading, Alternate Feeding Regimes and In-Series Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon C. Bird

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Electric arc furnace (EAF steel slag filters were investigated for their efficiency at reducing the concentration of phosphorus (P from dairy farm wastewater in Vermont. The primary objective for this study was to examine the use of in series design on filters’ performance in P removal from dairy farm wastewater at subzero temperatures. Other research objectives were to investigate operational parameters such as the effects of total suspended solids (TSS daily mass loading rates and of alternating feeding and resting periods on EAF steel slag filters’ TSS, dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP and total phosphorus (TP removal efficiencies and filter system life-span. The utilization of in series filter design increased filter DRP removal efficiency by 35%. In series design also allows for alternating feeding and resting periods, which resulted in a 16%, 57% and 74% increase in TSS, DRP and TP removal efficiencies, respectively, by the first filter in series over a single period. Additionally, the system life span was extended 3.25 fold (from 52 to 169 day. Based on this research, we recommend alternate feeding and resting cycles and in series design to be integrated in the design of EAF steel slag filter systems for highly concentrated agricultural effluents in cold climates.

  5. Design of two-stage thermoacoustic stirling engine coupled with push-pull linear alternator for waste heat recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Hamood, A; Mao, X.; Jaworski, AJ

    2015-01-01

    Thermoacoustics is suitable technology for recovering waste heat and generating electricity. In this paper, a novel thermoacoustic electricity generator using a push-pull linear alternator is proposed. It is aimed to recover part of the internal combustion engine exhaust waste heat and produce useful electricity. It consists of two half wave length identical stages and a linear alternator connected in between them. The physically identical stages produce identical wave halves with acoustic pr...

  6. Comparison of design, materials selection and characterization of pacifiers produced in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliprandini P

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundA pacifier is an object designed for use by children aged twoweeks to around five years old. Although a convenient andan efficient alternative to children sucking their thumb, itsuse is highly questionable. With the advancement ofmedicine and technology, harms related to its use werediscovered and were related to poor development of theteeth. Furthermore, the use of some industrial rawmaterials may cause damage to the child’s health during thegrowing process.MethodThis study evaluates different models of pacifiers availableon the market, taking into consideration the design,materials and attendance to Brazilian Standards.ResultsThe Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR analysisof the five different models of pacifiers indicates the use ofdifferent materials. For models A, B and E, the nipple isbasically composed of silicone, while the guard is made ofpolycarbonate. For model C and D, the nipple is basicallycomposed of natural rubber, while the guard and the ringare made of polycarbonate. For model D and E, however,the presence of Bisphenol A (BPA was also used incomposition. For the tensile strength tests, only model Cwas disapproved.ConclusionSilicon and natural rubber satisfy the requirements fortechnical performance. However, this does not take intoaccount hygiene and toxicity as parameters for theselection, which are also important when considering childhealth.

  7. Is 161Tb and alternative to 177Lu? In vitro and in vivo comparison using DOTA-Folate conjugates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows. Background: The radio-lanthanide 161Tb decays with a half-life of 165.4 h by emission of low energy β- particles and Auger-e- for therapeutic purposes and γ-radiation suitable for SPECT. 161Tb was recently proposed as a potential alternative to 177Lu for targeted radionuclide tumor therapy [Refs.1,2]. The goal of this study was to compare 161Tb and 177Lu using a tumor targeted DOTA-folate conjugate (cm09 [Ref.3]). Methods. 161Tb was produced by a previously published procedure at PSI [Refs.2,3]. 177Lu was obtained from ITG GmbH, Munich, Germany). Radiolabeling of cm09 was carried out by incubation of the reaction mixture at 95 C. degrees for 10 min. In vitro the effects of 161Tb-cm09 and 177Lu-cm09 were tested on folate receptor (FR)-positive KB cells using an MTT viability assay. In vivo the therapeutic effects of 161Tb-cm09 and 177Lu-cm09 (10 MBq, 0.5 nmol) were compared over 7 weeks in KB tumor bearing mice. Results: 161TbCl3 was prepared in an excellent quality and at high radioactivity concentration. Both, 161Tb-cm09 and 177Lu-cm09 were obtained at high purity (> 98%) at a specific activity of > 40 MBq/nmol. In KB tumor cells, 161Tb-cm09 reduced cell viability more effectively than 177Lu-cm09 (161Tb-cm09: IC50 ∼ 0.014 MBq/ml versus 177Lu-cm09: IC50: ∼ 0.063 MBq/ml). In vivo 161Tb-cm09 showed an increased therapeutic efficacy to reduce tumor growth compared to 177Lu-cm09 which was in agreement with an increased absorbed tumor dose (3.3 Gy/MBq for 161Tb-cm09 versus 2.4 Gy/MBq for 177Lu-cm09). Hence an increased average survival time was observed for mice treated with 161Tb-cm09 (54 d) compared to 177Lu-cm09 (35 d). Conclusions. In this study we demonstrated increased therapeutic efficacy of 161Tb-cm09 compared to 177Lu-cm09 to reduce tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Further investigations with other tumor targeting agents will be necessary to draw final conclusions about the future clinical perspectives of 161Tb

  8. Comparison of Permeability and Groutability of Ostur Dam Site Rock Mass for Grout Curtain Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghiyeh, S. M.; Hashemi, M.; Ajalloeian, R.

    2013-03-01

    The focus of this study is the empirical hydromechanical behaviour of the Ostur dam site rock mass. The area surrounding the dam mostly consists of diorite and andesite, with primary fractures and hydrothermal veins. The hydromechanical behaviour of the rocks was determined using 500 water pressure tests at 5-m intervals. The hydrothermal veins and 2,739 discontinuities were studied and mapped along the dam axis. As a result, it was possible to design an optimum grout curtain for the dam axis. The empirical hydromechanical behaviour of the rock was studied to determine water flow and grout pressurised flow during the field tests that were conducted on two representative A-series grouting operation boreholes (one borehole for each abutment). The secondary permeability index (SPI), Lugeon value (LU), rock quality designation (RQD) and cement take (CT) values are presented and compared in this article. It is concluded that permeability and groutability are mostly controlled by the specifications and characteristics of the veins, especially in shallow areas and lower depths. A procedure is proposed based on a comparison of the trends in the RQD-SPI and LU-CT, and it is suggested that the areas with diverging trends require no treatment and that those with converging trends require heavy treatment. Additional complementary studies that were conducted during the construction stage have validated these results.

  9. The azido ligand: a useful tool in designing chain compounds exhibiting alternating ferro- and antiferro-magnetic interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Viau, Guillaume; Lombardi, Maria Grazia; De Munno, Giovanni; Julve Olcina, Miguel; Lloret Pastor, Francisco; Faus, Juan; Caneschi, Andrea; Clemente Juan, Juan Modesto

    1997-01-01

    A one-pot reaction of NiII 1, CoII 2, FeII 3 and MnII 4 with 2,2A-bipyridine (bipy) and azide in water leads to [M(bipy)(N3)2]n chains where the metal ion is alternatively bridged by double end-on (EO) and end-to-end (EE) azido bridges; theoretical analysis of the variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility data of 1 and 4 reveals the occurrence of intrachain alternating ferro- (through EO) and antiferro-magnetic (through EE) interactions. Julve Olcina, Miguel, ; Lloret...

  10. Comparison of seismic actions and structural design requirements in Chinese Code GB 50011 and International Standard ISO 3010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚勇

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison between the Chinese Code GB50011-2001 and the International Standard ISO3010: 2001(E), emphasizing the similarities and differences related to design requirements, seismic actions and analytical approaches. Similarities include: earthquake return period, conceptual design, site classification, structural strength and ductility requirements, deformation limits, response spectra, seismic analysis procedures, isolation and energy dissipation,and nonstructural elements. Differences exist in the following areas: seismic levels, earthquake loading, mode damping factors and structural control.

  11. Comparison of Sampling Designs for Estimating Deforestation from Landsat TM and MODIS Imagery: A Case Study in Mato Grosso, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Shanyou Zhu; Hailong Zhang; Ronggao Liu; Yun Cao; Guixin Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Sampling designs are commonly used to estimate deforestation over large areas, but comparisons between different sampling strategies are required. Using PRODES deforestation data as a reference, deforestation in the state of Mato Grosso in Brazil from 2005 to 2006 is evaluated using Landsat imagery and a nearly synchronous MODIS dataset. The MODIS-derived deforestation is used to assist in sampling and extrapolation. Three sampling designs are compared according to the estimated deforestation...

  12. Complexity measurement of a graphical programming language and comparison of a graphical and a textual design language

    OpenAIRE

    Goff, Roger Allen

    1987-01-01

    For many years the software engineering community has been attacking the software reliability problem on two fronts. First via design methodologies, languages and tools as a precheck on quality and second by measuring the quality of produced software as a postcheck. This research attempts to unify the approach to creating reliable software by providing the ability to measure the quality of a design prior to its implementation. Also presented is a comparison of a graphical and a...

  13. Passion-based learning:the design and implementation of a new approach to project-based learning (PBL) for alternative education

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, Joanne Amelia

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the factors that influence the design and implementation of a project-based learning (PBL) curriculum within an alternative education program in a suburban public school district. The study sought to tell the story of the implementation of PBL from the perspectives of staff and students at the school. A narrative inquiry methodology was selected. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with twelve staff members and eight students. Data also included field notes made ...

  14. Comparison of 2-compartment, 3-compartment and stack designs for electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from harbour sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kristine B.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland;

    2015-01-01

    Comparisons of cell and stack designs for the electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from two harbour sediments, were made. Multivariate modelling showed that sediment properties and experimental set-ups had the highest influence on the heavy metal removal indicating that they should be modelled...

  15. Comparison of alternative representations of hydraulic-conductivity anisotropy in folded fractured-sedimentary rock: Modeling groundwater flow in the Shenandoah Valley (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, R.M.; Voss, C.I.; Southworth, S.

    2009-01-01

    A numerical representation that explicitly represents the generalized three-dimensional anisotropy of folded fractured-sedimentary rocks in a groundwater model best reproduces the salient features of the flow system in the Shenandoah Valley, USA. This conclusion results from a comparison of four alternative representations of anisotropy in which the hydraulic-conductivity tensor represents the bedrock structure as (model A) anisotropic with variable strikes and dips, (model B) horizontally anisotropic with a uniform strike, (model C) horizontally anisotropic with variable strikes, and (model D) isotropic. Simulations using the US Geological Survey groundwater flow and transport model SUTRA are based on a representation of hydraulic conductivity that conforms to bedding planes in a three-dimensional structural model of the valley that duplicates the pattern of folded sedimentary rocks. In the most general representation, (model A), the directions of maximum and medium hydraulic conductivity conform to the strike and dip of bedding, respectively, while the minimum hydraulic-conductivity direction is perpendicular to bedding. Model A produced a physically realistic flow system that reflects the underlying bedrock structure, with a flow field that is significantly different from those produced by the other three models. ?? Springer-Verlag 2009.

  16. Comparison of facially amphiphilic versus segregated monomers in the design of antibacterial copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Gregory J; Maegerlein, Janet A; Nelson, Christopher F; Dabkowski, Jeffrey M; Eren, Tarik; Nüsslein, Klaus; Tew, Gregory N

    2009-01-01

    A direct comparison of two strategies for designing antimicrobial polymers is presented. Previously, we published several reports on the use of facially amphiphilic (FA) monomers which led to polynorbornenes with excellent antimicrobial activities and selectivities. Our polymers obtained by copolymerization of structurally similar segregated monomers, in which cationic and non-polar moieties reside on separate repeat units, led to polymers with less pronounced activities. A wide range of polymer amphiphilicities was surveyed by pairing a cationic oxanorbornene with eleven different non-polar monomers and varying the comonomer feed ratios. Their properties were tested using antimicrobial assays and copolymers possessing intermediate hydrophobicities were the most active. Polymer-induced leakage of dye-filled liposomes and microscopy of polymer-treated bacteria support a membrane-based mode of action. From these results there appears to be profound differences in how a polymer made from FA monomers interacts with the phospholipid bilayer compared with copolymers from segregated monomers. We conclude that a well-defined spatial relationship of the whole polymer is crucial to obtain synthetic mimics of antimicrobial peptides (SMAMPs): charged and non-polar moieties need to be balanced locally, for example, at the monomer level, and not just globally. We advocate the use of FA monomers for better control of biological properties. It is expected that this principle will be usefully applied to other backbones such as the polyacrylates, polystyrenes, and non-natural polyamides. PMID:19021176

  17. Alternative security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains the following chapters: The Military and Alternative Security: New Missions for Stable Conventional Security; Technology and Alternative Security: A Cherished Myth Expires; Law and Alternative Security: Toward a Just World Peace; Politics and Alternative Security: Toward a More Democratic, Therefore More Peaceful, World; Economics and Alternative Security: Toward a Peacekeeping International Economy; Psychology and Alternative Security: Needs, Perceptions, and Misperceptions; Religion and Alternative Security: A Prophetic Vision; and Toward Post-Nuclear Global Security: An Overview

  18. Concept Blending and Dissimilarity: Factors for Creative Design Process: A Comparison between the Linguistic Interpretation Process and Design Process

    OpenAIRE

    Nagai, Yukari; Taura, Toshiharu; Mukai, Futoshi

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the design process in order to clarify the characteristics of the essence of the creative design process vis-à-vis the interpretation process, by carrying out design experiments. The authors analyzed the characteristics of the creative design process by comparing it with the linguistic interpretation process, from the viewpoints of thought types (analogy, blending, and thematic relation) and recognition types (commonalities and alignable and nonalignable differences). ...

  19. Is the Linear Modeling Technique Good Enough for Optimal Form Design? A Comparison of Quantitative Analysis Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Cheng Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available How to design highly reputable and hot-selling products is an essential issue in product design. Whether consumers choose a product depends largely on their perception of the product image. A consumer-oriented design approach presented in this paper helps product designers incorporate consumers’ perceptions of product forms in the design process. The consumer-oriented design approach uses quantification theory type I, grey prediction (the linear modeling technique, and neural networks (the nonlinear modeling technique to determine the optimal form combination of product design for matching a given product image. An experimental study based on the concept of Kansei Engineering is conducted to collect numerical data for examining the relationship between consumers’ perception of product image and product form elements of personal digital assistants (PDAs. The result of performance comparison shows that the QTTI model is good enough to help product designers determine the optimal form combination of product design. Although the PDA form design is used as a case study, the approach is applicable to other consumer products with various design elements and product images. The approach provides an effective mechanism for facilitating the consumer-oriented product design process.

  20. Design and Comparison of a Novel Stator Interior Permanent Magnet Generator for Direct-Drive Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Johan Xi; Chen, Zhe; Cheng, M.

    2007-01-01

    A novel stator interior permanent magnet generator (SIPMG) is presented. A modular stator design is used for convenience in manufacture and maintenance. The generator has the advantages of rugged rotor and concentrated winding design whereas the torque ripple is smaller than that produced by a...... doubly salient machine. Several low-speed multi-pole SIPMGs are designed for direct-drive wind turbines with ratings from 3 to 10 MW. Comparisons between the SIPMG and rotor-surface-mounted permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) show that the SIPMGs have about 120% torque density and 78% cost per...

  1. A large volume striped bass egg incubation chamber: design and comparison with a traditional method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, C.J.

    2009-01-01

    I conducted a comparative study of a new jar design (experimental chamber) with a standard egg incubation vessel (McDonald jar). Experimental chambers measured 0.4 m in diameter by 1.3 m in height and had a volume of 200 L. McDonald hatching jars measured 16 cm in diameter by 45 cm in height and had a volume of 6 L. Post-hatch survival was estimated at 48, 96 and 144 h. Stocking rates resulted in an average egg density of 21.9 eggs ml-1 (range = 21.6 – 22.1) for McDonald jars and 10.9 eggs ml-1 (range = 7.0 – 16.8) for experimental chambers. I was unable to detect an effect of container type on survival to 48, 96 or 144 h. At 144 h striped bass fry survival averaged 37.3% for McDonald jars and 34.2% for experimental chambers. Survival among replicates was significantly different. Survival of striped bass significantly decreased between 96 and 144 h. Mean survival among replicates ranged from 12.4 to 57.3%. I was unable to detect an effect of initial stocking density on survival. Experimental jars allow for incubation of a larger number of eggs in a much smaller space. As hatchery production is often limited by space or water supply, experimental chambers offer an alternative to extending spawning activities, thereby reducing manpower and cost. However, the increase in the number of eggs per rearing container does increase the risk associated with catastrophic loss of a production unit. I conclude the experimental chamber is suitable for striped bass egg incubation.

  2. Simulated annealing method for electronic circuits design: adaptation and comparison with other optimization methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The circuit design problem consists in determining acceptable parameter values (resistors, capacitors, transistors geometries ...) which allow the circuit to meet various user given operational criteria (DC consumption, AC bandwidth, transient times ...). This task is equivalent to a multidimensional and/or multi objective optimization problem: n-variables functions have to be minimized in an hyper-rectangular domain ; equality constraints can be eventually specified. A similar problem consists in fitting component models. In this way, the optimization variables are the model parameters and one aims at minimizing a cost function built on the error between the model response and the data measured on the component. The chosen optimization method for this kind of problem is the simulated annealing method. This method, provided by the combinatorial optimization domain, has been adapted and compared with other global optimization methods for the continuous variables problems. An efficient strategy of variables discretization and a set of complementary stopping criteria have been proposed. The different parameters of the method have been adjusted with analytical functions of which minima are known, classically used in the literature. Our simulated annealing algorithm has been coupled with an open electrical simulator SPICE-PAC of which the modular structure allows the chaining of simulations required by the circuit optimization process. We proposed, for high-dimensional problems, a partitioning technique which ensures proportionality between CPU-time and variables number. To compare our method with others, we have adapted three other methods coming from combinatorial optimization domain - the threshold method, a genetic algorithm and the Tabu search method - The tests have been performed on the same set of test functions and the results allow a first comparison between these methods applied to continuous optimization variables. Finally, our simulated annealing program

  3. Using Behavioral Science to Design a Peer Comparison Intervention for Postabortion Family Planning in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Hannah; Datta, Saugato; Sapkota, Sabitri

    2016-01-01

    Despite the provision of free and subsidized family planning services and clients' demonstrated intentions to delay pregnancies, family planning uptake among women who receive abortion and postabortion services at Sunaulo Parivar Nepal (SPN), one of Nepal's largest non-governmental sexual and reproductive health (SRH) providers, remains low. Through meetings, interviews, and observations with SPN's stakeholders, service providers, and clients at its 36 SRH centers, we developed hypotheses about client- and provider-side barriers that may inhibit postabortion family planning (PAFP) uptake. On the provider side, we found that the lack of benchmarks (such as the performance of other facilities) against which providers could compare their own performance and the lack of feedback on the performance were important barriers to PAFP uptake. We designed several variants of three interventions to address these barriers. Through conversations with team members at SPN's centralized support office and service providers at SPN centers, we prioritized a peer-comparison tool that allows providers at one center to compare their performance with that of other similar centers. We used feedback from the community of providers on the tools' usability and features to select a variant of the tool that also leverages and reinforces providers' strong intrinsic motivation to provide quality PAFP services. In this paper, we detail the process of identifying barriers and creating an intervention to overcome those barriers. The intervention's effectiveness will be tested with a center-level, stepped-wedge randomized control trial in which SPN's 36 centers will be randomly assigned to receive the intervention at 1-month intervals over a 6-month period. Existing medical record data will be used to monitor family planning uptake. PMID:27446891

  4. FIRE DESIGN: DIRECT COMPARISON BETWEEN FIRE CURVES. THE CASE STUDY OF A NURSERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Lombardi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available According to fire safety engineering, the present study analyzes fire design settings for simulation of fire in a nursery and proposes to compare simulations developed with a natural fire curve and nominal fire curve. Comparative analysis was developed according to thermo-fluid dynamic parameters that are relevant to the safety of the exposed and for the representative period of the danger flow to the exposed, which are mainly children between 0 and 3 years of age, helpless under ordinary conditions and even more so in case of emergency. Defined conditions of structure and ventilation, Two fire simulations, differentiated by fire curve, have been implemented: First simulation: the parameters have been derived from the simulation of a fire, characterized by analytic function of Heat Release Rate (HRR Second simulation: the HRR function was obtained ex post by making a simulation of natural fire in realistically furnished room by imposing a minimum effective primer. The simulated HRR curve, appropriately linearized, allows to estimate a Likely Fire Curve (LFC. The simulations have been developed for a time of about 15 min, starting from the ignition of fire whereas the flow of the danger is serious for exposed mainly in this first phase of fire. The comparison between the parameters of fire involved the Temperature-Time Curve and HRR-Time Curve of both simulations and the ISO 834 Curve, which is a consolidated benchmark in Fire Safety Engineering (FSE. The nominal curves have been introduced for the purpose of checking whether the structural strength and integrity: the adoption of these curves in the fire safety engineering was made by analogy, on the assumption that the phenomena of major intensity, that these curves represent, ensure a safe approach on the choice of the fire design. The study showed indeed that the analytical curve, adopted in order to verify the structural strength, produces fields of both temperature and toxic concentrations

  5. Problem Decomposition and Recomposition in Engineering Design: A Comparison of Design Behavior between Professional Engineers, Engineering Seniors, and Engineering Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ting; Becker, Kurt; Gero, John; DeBerard, Scott; DeBerard, Oenardi; Reeve, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated the differences in using problem decomposition and problem recomposition between dyads of engineering experts, engineering seniors, and engineering freshmen. Participants worked in dyads to complete an engineering design challenge within 1 hour. The entire design process was video and audio recorded. After the design…

  6. Comparison of the Performances of APEX and SWAT Models in Simulating the Impacts of Alternate Grazing Management Practices on Hydrology and Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale, S.; Park, J.; Teague, W. R.

    2015-12-01

    Comparison of hydrologic and water quality models is useful to contrast merits and demerits of each model and enable user to select an appropriate model for an intended purpose. In this study, the performances of APEX and SWAT models in evaluating the effects of alternate grazing management practices on water balances, and sediment and nutrient losses in a rangeland-dominated Clear Creek watershed (763 km2) located in north central Texas, were compared. Three grazing management practices including the light continuous (LC), heavy continuous (HC) and planned multi-paddock (MP) grazing were simulated. Measured data on vegetation, soil physical and hydrological properties, and grazing management at four study ranches within the study watershed (two under planned MP and one each under LC and HC grazing management), was used to parameterize both APEX and SWAT models. Both models were calibrated and validated using the measured streamflow (1980-2013), sediment (1994-2009), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorous (TP) (1986-2009) load data at the watershed outlet. Preliminary results indicated that in general, both models performed equally well in terms of hydrology, but the APEX model performed better in predicting sediment and nutrient losses. At the watershed level, shifting grazing management from the baseline HC scenario to planned MP grazing decreased annual streamflow by 29% and 27%, and TN load by 47% and 35%, according to the APEX and SWAT models, respectively. The simulated reduction in sediment load with the change in grazing management from the baseline HC to the planned MP grazing was about the same (40%) according to both models.

  7. Osiris and SOMBRERO inertial confinement fusion power plant designs. Volume 2, Designs, assessments, and comparisons, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, W.R.; Bieri, R.L.; Monsler, M.J.

    1992-03-01

    The primary objective of the of the IFE Reactor Design Studies was to provide the Office of Fusion Energy with an evaluation of the potential of inertial fusion for electric power production. The term reactor studies is somewhat of a misnomer since these studies included the conceptual design and analysis of all aspects of the IFE power plants: the chambers, heat transport and power conversion systems, other balance of plant facilities, target systems (including the target production, injection, and tracking systems), and the two drivers. The scope of the IFE Reactor Design Studies was quite ambitious. The majority of our effort was spent on the conceptual design of two IFE electric power plants, one using an induction linac heavy ion beam (HIB) driver and the other using a Krypton Fluoride (KrF) laser driver. After the two point designs were developed, they were assessed in terms of their (1) environmental and safety aspects; (2) reliability, availability, and maintainability; (3) technical issues and technology development requirements; and (4) economics. Finally, we compared the design features and the results of the assessments for the two designs.

  8. Preliminary Structural Design Using Topology Optimization with a Comparison of Results from Gradient and Genetic Algorithm Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Adam O.; Tinker, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, genetic algorithm based and gradient-based topology optimization is presented in application to a real hardware design problem. Preliminary design of a planetary lander mockup structure is accomplished using these methods that prove to provide major weight savings by addressing the structural efficiency during the design cycle. This paper presents two alternative formulations of the topology optimization problem. The first is the widely-used gradient-based implementation using commercially available algorithms. The second is formulated using genetic algorithms and internally developed capabilities. These two approaches are applied to a practical design problem for hardware that has been built, tested and proven to be functional. Both formulations converged on similar solutions and therefore were proven to be equally valid implementations of the process. This paper discusses both of these formulations at a high level.

  9. A relative risk comparison of criticality control strategies based on fresh fuel and burnup credit design bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposed use of burnup credit in spent fuel cask design and operation represents a departure from current regulatory practice, and creates technical issues that ultimately must be resolved for the concept to be implemented. Issues related to specific technical considerations can generally be resolved conclusively. However, an underlying perception may still exist that the use of burnup credit compromises criticality safety. In practice, individual casks are designed to satisfy regulatory requirements in a generally conservative manner. The designer's application of the regulatory requirements involves some engineering judgement, as does the regulator's implementation of them. This does not have an adverse effect on safety, but does make it difficult to objectively compare new or alternative designs and/or operating approaches. 5 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Future high school teachers' difficulties and alternatives found to planning electromagnetism activities designed for visual handicapped students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder Pires de Camargo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We report here partial outcomes of a study aimed to verify future High School teachers' performance when, during the development of a called "Teaching Practice" undergraduate course, were asked to plan, elaborate and teach, in classroom situations, electromagnetism topics to a students class which included visual handicapped pupils. Data analyzed show that the main difficulties presented by the future Physics High School teachers are related to the approach to know physics phenomena as dependent of vision and to break with some elements of the traditional pedagogy. By other hand, as alternatives, future teachers showed creativity in order to surpass passive aptitudes related to this educational problem, working out methodological strategies deprived of the relation knowing/seeing, as well as, the work with orality in a physics education context.

  11. Evaluation of the efficiency of alternative two-tier nucleus breeding systems designed to improve meat sheep in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gicheha, M G; Kosgey, I S; Bebe, B O; Kahi, A K

    2006-08-01

    A deterministic approach was used to genetically and economically evaluate the efficiency of five two-tier nucleus breeding systems for meat sheep in Kenya. The nucleus breeding systems differed in terms of whether the system was closed or open, in the type of animals that were involved in the movement of genetic superiority and in the number of selection pathways in each system. These systems were compared under four alternative breeding objectives based on monetary genetic gain and profit per ewe. The first objective simulated a situation where the flock size cannot be increased due to non-feed related constraints (FLOCK). The second specifically assumed that the flock size is restricted due to limited amount of feed resources (FEED). The third and fourth objectives assumed that sheep performed only tangible roles (TR) and both tangible and intangible roles (IR) in the production system respectively. Monetary genetic gains were highest for all objectives in an open nucleus system with a certain proportion of commercial-born ewes being introduced in the nucleus while at the same time utilizing young rams from the nucleus to breed sires and dams for the nucleus and commercial sector (ONyre). Utilizing young rams in a closed nucleus system for the dissemination of superior genes resulted in higher annual monetary genetic gain than utilization of old rams. Profit per ewe was significantly higher for FLOCK and IR in ONyre. In a closed system that allowed for downward movement of dams from the nucleus to the commercial sector to breed sires and dams, profit per ewe was highest for FEED and TR. The success of a nucleus breeding system should also focus on the profitability and logistics of establishing it. The implication of these results on the choice of two-tier nucleus breeding systems for the improvement of meat sheep is discussed. PMID:16882091

  12. Evaluation of simulation alternatives for the brute-force ray-tracing approach used in backlight design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desnijder, Karel; Hanselaer, Peter; Meuret, Youri

    2016-04-01

    A key requirement to obtain a uniform luminance for a side-lit LED backlight is the optimised spatial pattern of structures on the light guide that extract the light. The generation of such a scatter pattern is usually performed by applying an iterative approach. In each iteration, the luminance distribution of the backlight with a particular scatter pattern is analysed. This is typically performed with a brute-force ray-tracing algorithm, although this approach results in a time-consuming optimisation process. In this study, the Adding-Doubling method is explored as an alternative way for evaluating the luminance of a backlight. Due to the similarities between light propagating in a backlight with extraction structures and light scattering in a cloud of light scatterers, the Adding-Doubling method which is used to model the latter could also be used to model the light distribution in a backlight. The backlight problem is translated to a form upon which the Adding-Doubling method is directly applicable. The calculated luminance for a simple uniform extraction pattern with the Adding-Doubling method matches the luminance generated by a commercial raytracer very well. Although successful, no clear computational advantage over ray tracers is realised. However, the dynamics of light propagation in a light guide as used the Adding-Doubling method, also allow to enhance the efficiency of brute-force ray-tracing algorithms. The performance of this enhanced ray-tracing approach for the simulation of backlights is also evaluated against a typical brute-force ray-tracing approach.

  13. Comparison of licensing activities for operating plants designed by Babcock and Wilcox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a comparison of a number of licensing activities for the operating Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) plants with emphasis on Rancho Seco. The factors selected were a comparison of staff resources expended in FY84, active licensing action reviews, implementation of NUREG-0737 modifications, exemptions to regulations, SALP reports, enforcement actions, and Licensee Event Reports (LERs). The eight licensed operating plants examined are as follows: Arkansas Nuclear One Unit 1 (ANO-1), Crystal River Unit 3, Davis Besse, Oconee Units 1, 2, and 3, Rancho Seco, and Three Mile Island Unit 1 (TMI-1)

  14. Superconducting generators and alternators: design. January, 1975-September, 1981 (citations from the International Information Service for the Physics and Engineering Communities data base). Report for Jan 75-Sep 81

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Citations in this bibliography cover the design, development, performance, and associated testing of various types of superconducting generators and alternators and related components and systems. These superconducting machines are for a number of applications

  15. Computing Variances from Data with Complex Sampling Designs: A Comparison of Stata and SPSS

    OpenAIRE

    Alicia C. Dowd; Michael B. Duggan

    2001-01-01

    Most of the data sets available through the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) are based on complex sampling designs involving multi-stage sampling, stratification, and clustering. These complex designs require appropriate statistical techniques to calculate the variance. Stata employs specialized methods that appropriately adjust for the complex designs, while SPSS does not. Researchers using SPSS must obtain the design effects through NCES and adjust the standard errors generat...

  16. Electric market models, competitive model and alternative design; Modelos de mercado electrico, paradigma competitivo y alternativas de diseno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnedillo, O.

    2007-07-01

    Almost ten years after the liberalization of the Spanish electric system, its market design has remained basically unchanged. Therefore, it is reasonable to consider whether the current model continues to be adequate or whether it should be changed. However, although the current model is far from the absolute optimum, it is suited to the current state of the Spanish system. Only some improvements, such as the reform of the capacity guarantee payment can be undertaken immediately. It will only be possible to undertake other improvements as distribution companies cover all of their electricity needs in forward contracts acquired through a competitive process. (Author)

  17. Comparison of vibrational comfort assessment criteria for design of timber floors among the European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Binsheng; Rasmussen, Birgit; Jorissen, André;

    2013-01-01

    , followed by Italy, the Netherlands, Austria and Norway, while Denmark, the UK and Ireland are the most generous. Even though EN 1995-1-1 has given general criteria for vibrational serviceability design of timber floors, the variations in the design equations and design limits are still large in the...

  18. Comparison of gap frame designs and materials for precision cathode strip chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Precision cathode strip chamber perimeter designs that incorporate either continuous or discrete-post gap frames are analyzed. The effects of ten design and material combinations on gravity sag, mass, stress, and deflected shape are evaluated. Procedures are recommended for minimizing mass in the chamber perimeter region while retaining structural integrity and electrical design latitude

  19. Comparison of gap frame designs and materials for precision cathode strip chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horvath, J.A.; Pratuch, S.M.; Belser, F.C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-09-16

    Precision cathode strip chamber perimeter designs that incorporate either continuous or discrete-post gap frames are analyzed. The effects of ten design and material combinations on gravity sag, mass, stress, and deflected shape are evaluated. Procedures are recommended for minimizing mass in the chamber perimeter region while retaining structural integrity and electrical design latitude.

  20. Comparison of sensor systems designed using multizone, zonal, and CFD data for protection of indoor environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y. Lisa; Wen, Jin [Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Sensors that detect chemical and biological warfare agents can offer early warning of dangerous contaminants. However, current sensor system design is mostly by intuition and experience rather than by systematic design. To develop a sensor system design methodology, the proper selection of an indoor airflow model is needed. Various indoor airflow models exist in the literature, from complex computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to simpler approaches such as multizone and zonal models. Airflow models provide the contaminant concentration data, to which an optimization method can be applied to design sensor systems. The authors utilized a subzonal modeling approach when using a multizone model and were the first to utilize a zonal model for systematic sensor system design. The objective of the study was to examine whether or not data from a simpler airflow model could be used to design sensor systems capable of performing just as well as those designed using data from more complex CFD models. Three test environments, a small office, a large hall, and an office suite were examined. Results showed that when a unique sensor system design was not needed, sensor systems designed using data from simpler airflow models could perform just as well as those designed using CFD data. Further, only for the small office did the common engineering sensor system design practice of placing a sensor at the exhaust result in sensor system performance that was equivalent to one designed using CFD data. (author)

  1. Conceptual design of a thermo-electrical energy storage system based on heat integration of thermodynamic cycles – Part B: Alternative system configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermo-electrical energy storage (TEES) based on thermodynamic cycles is currently under investigation at ABB corporate research as an alternative solution to more consolidated but site-dependent electricity storage technologies such as pump-hydro or compressed air energy storage. During charge electricity is converted into thermal energy by means of a heat pump and during discharge a thermal engine converts thermal energy into electricity. The synthesis and the thermodynamic optimization of a TEES system based on hot water, ice storage and on transcritical CO2 cycles is discussed in two papers (part A and part B). A methodology for the conceptual design of a TEES system based on Pinch Analysis tools was introduced in part A together with the results of a thermodynamic optimization of a base case. The overall synthesis problem was solved by implementing in the optimization a heuristic procedure for the synthesis of the heat exchanger network and the storage tanks thus letting the optimal complete system structure and its design parameters to be found for given values of cycle parameters. In part A, basic topologies for the CO2 heat pump (HP) and thermal engine (TE) were considered, and no alternative cycle configurations were investigated through the optimization. A larger synthesis problem involving the change of cycle topologies is addressed in this second paper. Different system configurations were generated by modifying the base case configuration through an organized procedure and were optimized separately following the objective of maximum roundtrip efficiency only, as done for the base case in part A. The optimization results of the new configurations are discussed and compared with the base case scenario. A complete picture of the impact of design choices on the maximum system performances is obtained. -- Highlights: ► A thermo-electrical energy storage (TEES) system based on hot water, ice storage and transcritical CO2 cycles is investigated.

  2. Development and field testing of an alternative latrine design utilizing basic oxygen furnace slag as a treatment media for pathogen removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimson, J.; Suhogusoff, A. V.; Blowes, D. W.; Hirata, R. A.; Ptacek, C. J.; Robertson, W. D.; Emelko, M. B.

    2009-05-01

    In densely-populated communities in developing countries, appropriate setback distances for pit latrines often cannot be met. An alternative latrine was designed that incorporates two permeable reactive media to treat pathogens and nitrate from effluent. Basic oxygen furnace (BOF) slag in contact with wastewater effluent elevates pH to levels (> 11) that inactivate pathogens. Saturated woodchip creates reducing conditions that encourage the growth of denitrifying bacteria which remove NO3-. The field application was constructed in Santo Antônio, a peri-urban community located 25 km south of the city of São Paulo, Brazil. A 2-m diameter pit was excavated to a depth of 4 m into the sandy-clay unsaturated zone. A geotextile liner was emplaced to create saturated conditions in the 0.5-m thick woodchip barrier. Above the woodchip barrier, a 1-m thick layer of BOF slag mixed with pea gravel and sand was emplaced. A series of filter layers, grading upward from coarse sand to fine gravel, where placed above the BOF layer, and gravel was also infilled around the outer perimeter of the excavation, to ensure O2 diffusion into the design, the formation of biofilm, and degradation of organic material. A control latrine, constructed with similar hydraulic characteristics and nonreactive materials, was constructed at a locality 100 m away, in the same geological materials. Total coliform, thermotolerant coliform, and E. coli are removed by approximately 4-5 log concentration units in less than one meter of vertical transport through the BOF slag media. In the control latrine, comparable reductions in these pathogenic indicators are observed over three meters of vertical transport. Removal of sulphur-reducing Clostridia, Clostridium perfrigens and somatic coliphage are also achieved in the alternative design, but initial concentrations in effluent are low. Some measurable concentrations of pathogen indicators are measured in lysimeters below the BOF layer, but are associated

  3. Multi-scale near-field thermohydrologic analysis of alternative designs for the potential repository at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multi-scale, thermohydrologic (TH) modeling methodology has been developed that integrates the results from 1-, 2-, and 3-D drift-scale models and a 3-D mountain-scale model to calculate the near-field TH variables affecting the performance of the engineered barrier system (EBS) of the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. This information was used by Total System Performance Assessment--Viability Assessment (TSPA-VA) and is being used by the ongoing TSPA, supporting the License Application Design Selection, to assess waste-package (WP) corrosion, waste-form dissolution, and radionuclide transport in the EBS. Line-load WP spacing, which places WPs nearly end to end in widely spaced drifts, results in more locally intensive and uniform heating along drifts, causing hotter, drier, and more uniform conditions on WPs than point-load spacing, which is used in the VA design. Backfilling drifts with a granular material with coarse, well-sorted, nonporous grains (e.g., a coarse quartz sand) results in a large, persistent reduction in RH on WPs; point-load spacing allows only the medium-to-high-heat-output WPs to benefit from RH reduction, but line-load spacing enables all WPs to benefit

  4. A relative risk comparison of criticality control strategies based on fresh fuel and burnup credit design bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fresh fuel design basis provides some margin of safety, i.e., criticality safety is almost independent of loading operations if fuel designs do not change significantly over the next 40 years. However, the design basis enrichment for future nuclear fuel will most likely vary with time. As a result, it cannot be guaranteed that the perceived passivity of the concept will be maintained over the life cycle of a future cask system. Several options are available to ensure that the reliability of a burnup credit system is comparable to or greater than that of a system based on a fresh fuel assumption. Criticality safety and control reliability could increase with burnup credit implementation. The safety of a burnup credit system could be comparable to that for a system based on the fresh fuel assumption. A burnup credit philosophy could be implemented without any cost-benefit tradeoff. A burnup credit design basis could result in a significant reduction in total system risk as well as economic benefits. These reductions occur primarily as a result of increased cask capacities and, thus, fewer shipments. Fewer shipments also result in fewer operations over the useful life of a cask, and opportunities for error decrease. The system concept can be designed such that only benefits occur. These benefits could include enhanced criticality safety and the overall reliability of cask operations, as well as system risk and economic benefits. Thus, burnup credit should be available as an alternative for the criticality design of spent fuel shipping casks

  5. Design of an accelerated test to determine the attack of the sulphates on concrete structures, and the suggest alternative to design a container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work at demonstrating one of the accelerated tests in the frame of the Norm ASTM E-632-82, in order to evaluate the life of service for Reinforced Concrete Structures with High Performance.These will be used as barriers of engineering in containers for Radioactive Wastes.The results of the evaluation are necessary for the probabilistic and deterministic analysis, which are required to obtain licentiate for the emplacement and construction of this type of installations.Since concrete is the principal material used in this type of containers, its properties, in particular, its durability must be evaluated taking into accounts both, intrinsic factors and the extrinsic factors.Within the intrinsic factors we can mention your formulation, including design of armors of steel, production, treated and structural design.As extrinsic factors, weather and environmental, soil characteristic and service operation must be considered.It is important to emphasize that within the criteria used in the conceptual design of these types of repositories, the structures that act of barrier must not alter their insulation properties during all the period of service, which may be several hundreds of years.Although it is not possible to guarantee that repository's performance will not be altered throughout its time of service, the fact to obtain results of accelerated tests and the long term, it will enable us to estimate the durability of such structures, across the support of mathematical suitable models.The different stages which should be taken into account for the development of the evaluation tests, determining the relevant parameters to be considered in them and results obtained so far, are showing in this work

  6. Assessment of off-design performance of a small-scale combined cooling and power system using an alternative operating strategy for gas turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We develop an off-design model for a CCP system driven by gas turbine. • An alternative operating strategy is proposed to improve the system performance. • Off-design performance of the combined cooling and power system (CCP) is enhanced. • Effects of both the different operating strategy are analyzed and compared. • Performance enhancement mechanism of the proposed operating strategy is presented. - Abstract: A small-scale combined cooling and power (CCP) system usually serves district air conditioning apart from power generation purposes. The typical system consists of a gas turbine and an exhaust gas-fired absorption refrigerator. The surplus heat of the gas turbine is recovered to generate cooling energy. In this way, the CCP system has a high overall efficiency at the design point. However, the CCP system usually runs under off-design conditions because the users’ demand varies frequently. The operating strategy of the gas turbine will affect the thermodynamic performance of itself and the entire CCP system. The operating strategies for gas turbines include the reducing turbine inlet temperature (TIT) and the compressor inlet air throttling (IAT). A CCP system, consisting of an OPRA gas turbine and a double effects absorption refrigerator, is investigated to identify the effects of different operating strategies. The CCP system is simulated based on the partial-load model of gas turbine and absorption refrigerator. The off-design performance of the CCP system is compared under different operating strategies. The results show that the IAT strategy is the better one. At 50% rated power output of the gas turbine, the IAT operating strategy can increase overall system efficiency by 10% compared with the TIT strategy. In general, the IAT operating strategy is suited for other gas turbines. However, the benefits of IAT should be investigated in the future, when different gas turbine is adopted. This study may provide a new operating

  7. Differential Item Functioning Comparisons on a Performance-Based Alternate Assessment for Students with Severe Cognitive Impairments, Autism and Orthopedic Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitusis, Cara Cahalan; Maneckshana, Behroz; Monfils, Lora; Ahlgrim-Delzell, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine Differential Item Functioning (DIF) by disability groups on an on-demand performance assessment for students with severe cognitive impairments. Researchers examined the presence of DIF for two comparisons. One comparison involved students with severe cognitive impairments who served as the reference group…

  8. A comparison between prescriptive- and performance-based approaches in fire safety design of structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budny, Iwona; Giuliani, Luisa

    2010-01-01

    A provision of an adequate consideration of both the people and structure safety is a crucial goal in a rational fire design. However, only a partial agreement concerning the general structural fire safety approach exists, and several meaningful discrepancies concerning the design and verification...... therefore of interest. Furthermore, the method based on prescriptive procedures is not free of design limitations and does not provide detailed information about the structure’s performance under high temperature, which is often crucial if a disproportionate collapse must be avoided. The more advanced...... approach of performance-based fire design (PBFD) becomes therefore more and more popular. A higher design flexibility based on performance objectives constitutes a beneficial and competitive concept within the structural fire safety engineering, ensuring a higher safety level of a design choice. The aim of...

  9. The alternative library

    OpenAIRE

    Collinson, Timothy; A. Williams

    2004-01-01

    Much time and effort has been devoted to designing and developing library Web sites that are easy to navigate by both new students and experienced researchers. In a review of the Southampton Institute Library it was decided that in addition to updating the existing homepage an alternative would be offered. Drawing on theory relating to user interface design, learning styles and creative thinking, an Alternative Library navigation system was added to the more traditional library homepage. The ...

  10. COMPARISON OF ALTERNATIVE MANURE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS: EFFECT ON THE ENVIRONMENT, TOTAL ENERGY REQUIREMENT, NUTRIENT CONSERVATION, CONTRIBUTION TO CORN SILAGE PRODUCTION AND ECONOMICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study compares alternative dairy manure management systems operated under full scale commercial conditions. The study investigates weight of manure handled per cow per year, labor and energy requirements, effect on the environment, nutrient conservation, corn silage producti...

  11. Design principles of molecular networks revealed by global comparisons and composite motifs

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Haiyuan; Xia, Yu; Trifonov, Valery; Gerstein, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Background Molecular networks are of current interest, particularly with the publication of many large-scale datasets. Previous analyses have focused on topologic structures of individual networks. Results Here, we present a global comparison of four basic molecular networks: regulatory, co-expression, interaction, and metabolic. In terms of overall topologic correlation - whether nearby proteins in one network are close in another - we find that the four are quite similar. However, focusing ...

  12. Treatment Comparison in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Head-to-Head Trials and Innovative Study Designs

    OpenAIRE

    Ennio Giulio Favalli; Serena Bugatti; Martina Biggioggero; Roberto Caporali

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decades, the increasing knowledge in the area of rheumatoid arthritis has progressively expanded the arsenal of available drugs, especially with the introduction of novel targeted therapies such as biological disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). In this situation, rheumatologists are offered a wide range of treatment options, but on the other side the need for comparisons between available drugs becomes more and more crucial in order to better define the strategies fo...

  13. A Comparison between Mechanisms of Multi-Alternative Perceptual Decision Making: Ability to Explain Human Behavior, Predictions for Neurophysiology, and Relationship with Decision Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Ditterich, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    While there seems to be relatively wide agreement about perceptual decision making relying on integration-to-threshold mechanisms, proposed models differ in a variety of details. This study compares a range of mechanisms for multi-alternative perceptual decision making, including integration with and without leakage, feedforward and feedback inhibition for mediating the competition between integrators, as well as linear and non-linear mechanisms for combining signals across alternatives. It i...

  14. Design and Development Comparison of Rapid Cycle Amine 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chullen, Cinda; Campbell, Colin; Papale, William; Murray, Sean; Wichowski, Robert; Conger, Bruce; McMillin, Summer

    2016-01-01

    The development of the Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) swing-bed technology for carbon dioxide (CO2) removal has been in progress since favorable results were published in 1996. Shortly thereafter, a prototype was designed, developed, and tested successfully and delivered to Johnson Space Center in 1999. An improved prototype (RCA 1.0) was delivered to NASA in 2006 and sized for the extravehicular activity (EVA). The RCA swing-bed technology is a regenerative system which employs two alternating solid-amine sorbent beds to remove CO2 and water. The two-bed design employs a chemisorption process whereby the beds alternate between adsorption and desorption. This process provides for an efficient RCA operation that enables one bed to be in adsorb (uptake) mode, while the other is in the desorb (regeneration) mode. The RCA has progressed through several iterations of technology readiness levels. Test articles have now been designed, developed, and tested for the advanced space suit portable life support system (PLSS) including RCA 1.0, RCA 2.0, and RCA 3.0. The RCA 3.0 was the most recent RCA fabrication and was delivered to NASA-JSC in June 2015. The RCA 1.0 test article was designed with a pneumatically actuated linear motion spool valve. The RCA 2.0 and 3.0 test articles were designed with a valve assembly which allows for switching between uptake and regeneration modes while minimizing gas volume losses to the vacuum source. RCA 2.0 and 3.0 also include an embedded controller design to control RCA operation and provide the capability of interfacing with various sensors and other ventilation loop components. The RCA technology is low power, small, and has fulfilled all test requirements levied upon the technology during development testing thus far. This paper will provide an overview of the design and development of RCA 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 including detail differences between the design specifications of each. Nomenclature.

  15. The conceptual Design of a hybrid Life Support System based on the Evaluation and Comparison of Terrestrial Testbeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czupalla, M.; Horneck, G.; Blome, H. J.

    This report summarizes a trade study which was conducted at the DLR in Cologne as part of an Aerospace Engineering Thesis for the University of Applied Sciences at Aachen. The goal of this study was the evaluation of bioregenerative options of a Life Support System (LSS) and a subsequent conceptual design of a hybrid LSS. This concept is supported by previous work on P/C LSS. Baseline for the evaluation of bioregenerative options were the terrestrial experiments in the LSS area. The experiments considered for the study were as follows. MELISSA (ESA's Microbial LSS Approach) BIOS (Russia experiments on CELSS) ALS Project (American practical and theoretical work on LSS) Computer models including mass flows were established for each of the systems with the goal of closing system loops to the extent possible. The terrestrial test initiatives achieved different levels of maturity as of supported crew size and the provided nutrition. For comparison, all systems were scaled for supporting a crew of six as given in the NASA Design Reference Mission Scenario (DRM). In addition one uniform nutritional baseline, as of calories, was applied to all models. Equivalent System Mass analysis was used to compare the scaled terrestrial designs against each other. Following the comparison of the terrestrial systems, the system specific subsystem options for Food Supply, Waste Processing, Water Management and Atmosphere Revitalization were evaluated separately in a trade study. Resulting technologies were integrated into an overall design solution based on mass flow relationships. The bioregenerative part of the LSS was hereby supplemented with P/C LSS technologies in order to enhance system performance and to minimize re-supply requirements. Eventually an iterated conceptual hybrid LSS for DRM type mission was designed and will be presented.

  16. Comparisons among Designs for Equating Mixed-Format Tests in Large-Scale Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sooyeon; Walker, Michael E.; McHale, Frederick

    2010-01-01

    In this study we examined variations of the nonequivalent groups equating design for tests containing both multiple-choice (MC) and constructed-response (CR) items to determine which design was most effective in producing equivalent scores across the two tests to be equated. Using data from a large-scale exam, this study investigated the use of…

  17. Comparison of Design Methods for Axially Loaded Driven Piles in Cohesionless Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    For offshore wind turbines on deeper waters, a jacket sub-structure supported by axially loaded piles is thought to be the most suitable solution. The design method recommended by API and two CPT-based design methods are compared for two uniform sand profiles. The analysis show great difference in...

  18. Design Comparison of Autonomous High Voltage Driving System for DEAP Actuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Lina; Pittini, Riccardo; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    As a new type of smart material, the Dielectric Electro Active Polymer (DEAP) is introduced in terms of configuration, working principle and potential applications. The design of an autonomous high voltage driving system for DEAP actuator is investigated. The system configuration and the design...

  19. A Comparison of Parallelism in Interface Designs for Computer-Based Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Rik; Yu, Tao; Spenkelink, Gerd; Vos, Hans

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we discuss an experiment that was carried out with a prototype, designed in conformity with the concept of parallelism and the Parallel Instruction theory (the PI theory). We designed this prototype with five different interfaces, and ran an empirical study in which 18 participants completed an abstract task. The five basic designs…

  20. Designing Online Interaction to Address Disciplinary Competencies: A Cross-Country Comparison of Faculty Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberà, Elena; Layne, Ludmila; Gunawardena, Charlotte N.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted at colleges in three countries (United States, Venezuela, and Spain) and across three academic disciplines (engineering, education, and business), to examine how experienced faculty define competencies for their discipline, and design instructional interaction for online courses. A qualitative research design employing…

  1. Motivating Students through Positive Learning Experiences: A Comparison of Three Learning Designs for Computer Programming Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykke, Marianne; Coto, Mayela; Jantzen, Christian; Mora, Sonia; Vandel, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Based on the assumption that wellbeing, positive emotions and engagement influence motivation for learning, the aim of this paper is to provide insight into students' emotional responses to and engagement in different learning designs. By comparing students' reports on the experiential qualities of three different learning designs, their…

  2. A Preliminary Study on the Conceptual Design of Thorium/Uranium Mixed Nuclear Fuel for the Alternative of Burnable Poison in Commercial Pressurized Water Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorium has higher neutron absorption cross section than that of U-238. Thus, the thorium mixed uranium oxide nuclear fuel can reduce the initial excessive reactivity and the long-live radio-wastes with increasing the fuel utilization efficiency. In this study, a preliminary study on the application of the thorium/uranium mixed fuel is performed for the alternative of the PLUS7 fuel assembly which includes burnable poison. A conceptual design without geometrical change is proposed and the reactor characteristics are analyzed. In this study, a fuel assembly using the uranium/thorium mixed fuel was designed to substitute the assembly which includes burnable poison. The reactor characteristics, which are kinf, power distribution and plutonium production rate, were evaluated and the results are compared with the E1 assembly which is used in the OPR1000 reactor. The results show that the proposed design can efficiently reduce the excessive reactivity, peak power, and plutonium production with increasing the fuel utilization period

  3. Simple rules for design of exhaust mufflers and a comparison with four-pole and FEM calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Skaarup; Ødegaard, John

    For good muffler design it is advisable to use an advanced computational method such as four-pole theory or FEM or BEM. To get a starting points for these methods and to suggest adjustments to the geometry and materials it is useful to have some simple rules of thumb. This paper presents a number...... of such "rules", and illustrates their reliability and limitations by comparing with results using some of the advanced computational methods. At the same time, this investigation also gives a comparison between four-pole theory and BEM....

  4. Comparison of glucose oxidases from Penicillium adametzii, Penicillium Funiculosum and Aspergillus Niger in the design of amperometric glucose biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanavicius, Arunas; Voronovic, Jaroslav; Semashko, Tatiana; Mikhailova, Raisa; Kausaite-Minkstimiene, Asta; Ramanaviciene, Almira

    2014-01-01

    The properties of amperometric glucose biosensors based on three different glucose oxidases and various redox mediators were evaluated. Glucose oxidases (GOx) from Penicillium adametzii, Penicillium funiculosum and Aspergillus niger and artificial redox mediators, such as ferrocene, ferrocenecarboxaldehyde, α-methylferrocene methanol and ferrocenecarboxylic acid, were used for modifying the graphite rod electrode and amperometrical reagent-less glucose detection. The obtained results were compared using N-methylphenazonium methyl sulphate in the solution. Taking into account the experimental kinetic parameters and the stability of the tested enzymatic electrodes, GOx from Penicillium funiculosum proved to be more suitable for glucose biosensor design in comparison with other evaluated enzymes. PMID:25492463

  5. A comparison of design variables for control theory based airfoil optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuther, James; Jameson, Antony

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of optimization techniques based on control theory for airfoil design. In our previous work in the area it was shown that control theory could be employed to devise effective optimization procedures for two-dimensional profiles by using either the potential flow or the Euler equations with either a conformal mapping or a general coordinate system. We have also explored three-dimensional extensions of these formulations recently. The goal of our present work is to demonstrate the versatility of the control theory approach by designing airfoils using both Hicks-Henne functions and B-spline control points as design variables. The research also demonstrates that the parameterization of the design space is an open question in aerodynamic design.

  6. Comparison of Sampling Designs for Estimating Deforestation from Landsat TM and MODIS Imagery: A Case Study in Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanyou Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sampling designs are commonly used to estimate deforestation over large areas, but comparisons between different sampling strategies are required. Using PRODES deforestation data as a reference, deforestation in the state of Mato Grosso in Brazil from 2005 to 2006 is evaluated using Landsat imagery and a nearly synchronous MODIS dataset. The MODIS-derived deforestation is used to assist in sampling and extrapolation. Three sampling designs are compared according to the estimated deforestation of the entire study area based on simple extrapolation and linear regression models. The results show that stratified sampling for strata construction and sample allocation using the MODIS-derived deforestation hotspots provided more precise estimations than simple random and systematic sampling. Moreover, the relationship between the MODIS-derived and TM-derived deforestation provides a precise estimate of the total deforestation area as well as the distribution of deforestation in each block.

  7. Theoretical comparison of solar water/space-heating combi systems and stratification design options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon

    2007-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of differently designed solar combi systems is performed with weather data from the Danish Design Reference Year (55ºN). Three solar combi system designs found on the market are investigated. The investigation focuses on the influence of stratification on the thermal...... performance under different operation conditions with different domestic hot water and space heating demands. The solar combi systems are initially equipped with heat exchanger spirals and direct inlets to the tank. A step-by-step investigation is performed demonstrating the influence on the thermal...... performance of using inlet stratification pipes at the different inlets. Also, it is investigated how the design of the space heating system, the control system of the solar collectors, and the system size influence the thermal performance of solar combi systems. The work is carried out within the Solar...

  8. Competitive Comparison of Optimal Designs of Experiments for Sampling-based Sensitivity Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Janouchova, Eliska

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, the numerical models of real-world structures are more precise, more complex and, of course, more time-consuming. Despite the growth of a computational effort, the exploration of model behaviour remains a complex task. The sensitivity analysis is a basic tool for investigating the sensitivity of the model to its inputs. One widely used strategy to assess the sensitivity is based on a finite set of simulations for a given sets of input parameters, i.e. points in the design space. An estimate of the sensitivity can be then obtained by computing correlations between the input parameters and the chosen response of the model. The accuracy of the sensitivity prediction depends on the choice of design points called the design of experiments. The aim of the presented paper is to review and compare available criteria determining the quality of the design of experiments suitable for sampling-based sensitivity analysis.

  9. Design comparison of single-anode and double-anode 300-MW magnetron injection gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, W.; Specht, V. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States))

    1993-07-01

    Analytic tradeoff equations based on adiabatic assumptions are used to explore feasible design regions for single-anode Magnetron Injection Guns (MIG's). Particle simulations are then used to optimize a single-anode and a double-anode design for a 1-[mu]s, 500-kV, 600-A MIG which is required for a second-harmonic gyroklystron. The advantages and disadvantages of each configuration are critically examined.

  10. Designing Online Interaction to Address Disciplinary Competencies: A Cross-Country Comparison of Faculty Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Barberà; Ludmila Layne; Charlotte N. Gunawardena

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted at colleges in three countries (United States, Venezuela, and Spain) and across three academic disciplines (engineering, education, and business), to examine how experienced faculty define competencies for their discipline, and design instructional interaction for online courses. A qualitative research design employing in-depth interviews was selected. Results show that disciplinary knowledge takes precedence when faculty members select competencies to be developed in...

  11. Systemic Design approach applied to building. Analysis and comparison of international case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Montrucchio, Valeria

    2013-01-01

    This thesis starts from the assumption that design is becoming more and more like a platform connecting various fields of knowledge. In particular in this thesis the design discipline is adopted to investigate issues concerning buildings (from architecture to technical plants) in order to reach a minimization of resource depletion and a reduction of costs. The decision to focus this study on the built environment field is due to two main factors: the huge environmental impact which has derive...

  12. Cementless Hip Arthroplasty in Southern Iran, Midterm Outcome and Comparison of Two Designs

    OpenAIRE

    Gholam Hossein Shahcheraghi; Seyed Ali Hashemi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cementless hip prosthesis was designed to provide biologic fixation, without the use of cement. The second generation components have shown more reliable bone ingrowths and survival rates. We are reporting a midterm result of two designs of cementless prosthesis in a unique culture with different social habits and expectations. Methods: 52 primary cementless total hip arthroplasty in 42 patients with the mean age of 48.8 years were retrospectively studied. Two groups of prosthe...

  13. Comparison of the effect of chamfer and radial shoulder finish line designs on marginal adaptation of

    OpenAIRE

    Mirtorabi M; Jalalian E

    2010-01-01

    "nBackground and Aims: Marginal adaptation is important for the long-term success of full-coverage restorations. Preparation design is one of the important factors influencing the marginal integrity. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the effect of radial shoulder and chamfer finish line designs on the marginal adaptation of all-ceramic Cercon restorations."nMaterials and Methods: This in vitro study was done using single blind experimental technique. One stainless ...

  14. Comparison between Genetic Algorithms and Particle Swarm Optimization Methods on Standard Test Functions and Machine Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nica, Florin Valentin Traian; Ritchie, Ewen; Leban, Krisztina Monika

    2013-01-01

    , genetic algorithm and particle swarm are shortly presented in this paper. These two algorithms are tested to determine their performance on five different benchmark test functions. The algorithms are tested based on three requirements: precision of the result, number of iterations and calculation time....... Both algorithms are also tested on an analytical design process of a Transverse Flux Permanent Magnet Generator to observe their performances in an electrical machine design application....

  15. Comparison of the Design of Water Treatment Plant by Manual and by Software Method

    OpenAIRE

    S P Sharma; S. D. Kolte; N. S. Marape; S. D. Darshanwad; S. K. Dongare; H. S. Kumawat

    2013-01-01

    The primary objective of any water supply scheme isto provide safe and adequate water supply to the area for which itis designed. Water treatment plant is the key component of such awater supply scheme, which transforms the raw water into potablewater by using the appropriate treatment processes. The selectionof treatment processes depends upon the raw water quality and thefinished water quality objectives. The design of components ofwater treatment plant, construction together with good oper...

  16. Bioclimatic Technology in High Rise Office Building Design: A Comparison Study for Indoor Environmental Condition

    OpenAIRE

    Lokman Hakim Ismail; Magda Sibley; Izudinshah Abdul Wahab

    2011-01-01

    The shift towards a more sustainable architecture for high-rise building is discussed and illustrated through the work of Ken Yeang and other architects. The claimed benefits of such a bioclimatic design approach are examined in the light of the results of previously conducted research projects, dealing with indoor thermal condition of high-rise office buildings. This paper reports on a study to determine if high-rise buildings designed on bioclimatic principles perform better than convention...

  17. Comparison of Research Designs for Two Controlled Trials of Mass Media Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Flynn, Brian S.; Worden, John K.; Bunn, Janice Yanushka

    2009-01-01

    This paper compares two controlled trials of mass media interventions, factors influencing their designs, and design lessons learned from these experiences. Mass media evaluations based on a scientific research model are motivated by gaps in knowledge. The results of such research are intended to serve the needs of consensus development processes through which confident recommendations can be made for intervention strategies that should be more widely applied. For these purposes, the scientif...

  18. Trend analysis and comparison of basic parameters for tunnel blast design models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khalili Soroush; Yavary Mehdi; Ebrahimabadi Arash

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important factors influencing on a tunnel blast efficiency is the proper design of blasting pattern. Among blasting parameters, blasthole diameter and tunnel face area are more significant so that any change in these parameters could finally affect on specific charge and specific drilling. There are mainly two groups of methods for tunnel blast design categorized based on the parallel cuts and angular cuts. In this research, a software for tunnel blast design was developed to analyze the effect and sensi-tiveness of blasthole diameter and the tunnel face area on blasting results in different blast design mod-els. Using the software, it is quickly possible to determine specific charge, specific drilling and number of blastholes for each blast design model. The relations between both of blasthole diameters and the tunnel face area with the above parameters in different blast design models were then investigated to yield a set of equations with the highest correlations to compare the methods. The results showed that angular method requires more blasthole numbers than parallel method in similar condition (blasthole diameter and tunnel face area). Moreover, the specific charge values yielded by the two methods are approximately the same and very close together.

  19. Comparison of metaheuristic optimization techniques for BWR fuel reloads pattern design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► This paper shows a performance comparison of several optimization techniques for fuel reload in BWR. ► Genetic Algorithms, Neural Networks, Tabu Search and several Ant Algorithms were used. ► All optimization techniques were executed under same conditions: objective function and an equilibrium cycle. ► Fuel bundles with minor actinides were loaded into the core. ► Tabu search and Ant System were the best optimization technique for the studied problem. -- Abstract: Fuel reload pattern optimization is a crucial fuel management activity in nuclear power reactors. Along the years, a lot of work has been done in this area. In particular, several metaheuristic optimization techniques have been applied with good results for boiling water reactors (BWRs). In this paper, a comparison of different metaheuristics: genetic algorithms, tabu search, recurrent neural networks and several ant colony optimization techniques, were applied, in order to evaluate their performance. The optimization of an equilibrium core of a BWR, loaded with mixed oxide fuel composed of plutonium and minor actinides, was selected to be optimized. Results show that the best average values are obtained with the recurrent neural networks technique, meanwhile the best fuel reload was obtained with tabu search. However, according to the number of objective functions evaluated, the two fastest optimization techniques are tabu search and Ant System.

  20. Design comparison of single phase outer and inner-rotor hybrid excitation flux switching motor for hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlan, Mohamed Mubin Aizat; Sulaiman, Erwan; Husin, Zhafir Aizat; Othman, Syed Muhammad Naufal Syed; Khan, Faisal

    2015-05-01

    In hybrid excitation machines (HEMs), there are two main flux sources which are permanent magnet (PM) and field excitation coil (FEC). These HEMs have better features when compared with the interior permanent magnet synchronous machines (IPMSM) used in conventional hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Since all flux sources including PM, FEC and armature coils are located on the stator core, the rotor becomes a single piece structure similar with switch reluctance machine (SRM). The combined flux generated by PM and FEC established more excitation fluxes that are required to produce much higher torque of the motor. In addition, variable DC FEC can control the flux capabilities of the motor, thus the machine can be applied for high-speed motor drive system. In this paper, the comparisons of single-phase 8S-4P outer and inner rotor hybrid excitation flux switching machine (HEFSM) are presented. Initially, design procedures of the HEFSM including parts drawing, materials and conditions setting, and properties setting are explained. Flux comparisons analysis is performed to investigate the flux capabilities at various current densities. Then the flux linkages of PM with DC FEC of various DC FEC current densities are examined. Finally torque performances are analyzed at various armature and FEC current densities for both designs. As a result, the outer-rotor HEFSM has higher flux linkage of PM with DC FEC and higher average torque of approximately 10% when compared with inner-rotor HEFSM.

  1. Designing Online Interaction to Address Disciplinary Competencies: A Cross-Country Comparison of Faculty Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Barberà

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted at colleges in three countries (United States, Venezuela, and Spain and across three academic disciplines (engineering, education, and business, to examine how experienced faculty define competencies for their discipline, and design instructional interaction for online courses. A qualitative research design employing in-depth interviews was selected. Results show that disciplinary knowledge takes precedence when faculty members select competencies to be developed in online courses for their respective professions. In all three disciplines, the design of interaction to correspond with disciplinary competencies was often influenced by contextual factors that modify faculty intention. Therefore, instructional design will vary across countries in the same discipline to address the local context, such as the needs and expectations of the learners, faculty perspectives, beliefs and values, and the needs of the institution, the community, and country. The three disciplines from the three countries agreed on the importance of the following competencies: knowledge of the field, higher order cognitive processes such as critical thinking, analysis, problem solving, transfer of knowledge, oral and written communication skills, team work, decision making, leadership and management skills, indicating far more similarities in competencies than differences between the three different applied disciplines. We found a lack of correspondence between faculty’s intent to develop collaborative learning skills and the actual development of them. Contextual factors such as faculty prior experience in design, student reluctance to engage in collaborative learning, and institutional assessment systems that focus on individual performance were some of these reasons.

  2. COMPARISON OF THE TRADITIONAL STRENGTH OF MATERIALS APPROACH TO DESIGN WITH THE FRACTURE MECHANICS APPROACH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this activity is to show that the use of the traditional strength of materials approach to the drip shield and the waste package (WP) designs is bounding and appropriate when compared to the fracture mechanics approach. The scope of this activity is limited to determining the failure assessment diagrams for the two materials at issue: Ti-7 and Alloy 22. This calculation is intended for use in support of the license application design of the drip shield and the WP. This activity is associated with the drip shield and the WP designs. The activity evaluation for work package number P32 12234F2, included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Waste Package Design Description for LA'' (Ref. 1, p. A-6), has determined that the development of this document is subject to ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' requirements. The control of the electronic management of data is accomplished in accordance with the methods specified in Reference 1, Section 10. AP-3.124, ''Design Calculations and Analysis'' (Ref. 2), is used to develop and document the calculation

  3. Electro-mechanical coupled design of self-powered sensing systems and performances comparison through experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Somà

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in low-power sensors and electronic components open to innovative strategies in structural monitoring and real-time data processing, in particular for industrial and vehicular fields. Dedicated devices for harvesting the energy dissipated by mechanical vibrations of machines are showing their applicability in supplying autonomous distributed sensing systems. The harvester will replace cables and storage batteries, with relevant benefits on the sensing system capillarity, accessibility and applicability. The design of the interfaces of the electric, magnetic and structural coupled systems forming the harvester include static and dynamic modeling and simulation of the interactions involved; smart and effective architectures are need to satisfy the general requirements of bandwidth, tunability and efficiency required by each application. This paper reports the research advances in this field as a result of laboratory tests and design studies, with particular focus on the design methodologies involved in the definition of energy harvesters.

  4. Former Soviet Regulations for seismic design of NPPs and comparison with current international practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostarev, V.; Schukin, A.; Berkovski, A. [CKTI-Vibroseism Co. Ltd. (Cape Verde)

    1997-03-01

    This paper presents a summary of current earthquake design criteria used in former Soviet Regulations for equipment and piping systems of nuclear power plants in light of those used in United States and Japan. The detailed comparative seismic analysis of PWR (WWER) Primary Coolant Loop System (PCLS) according to Former Soviet (Russian) PNAE Code and ASME BPV Code with some comments regarding to Japan Code JEAG - 4601 was undertaken for better understanding of the differences and coincidences of seismic design criteria and requirements. The selection of these three guides for the study has very simple explanation: according to ASME BVPC, JEAG and PNAE the huge majority of existing NPPs has been designed. (J.P.N.)

  5. Former Soviet Regulations for seismic design of NPPs and comparison with current international practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a summary of current earthquake design criteria used in former Soviet Regulations for equipment and piping systems of nuclear power plants in light of those used in United States and Japan. The detailed comparative seismic analysis of PWR (WWER) Primary Coolant Loop System (PCLS) according to Former Soviet (Russian) PNAE Code and ASME BPV Code with some comments regarding to Japan Code JEAG - 4601 was undertaken for better understanding of the differences and coincidences of seismic design criteria and requirements. The selection of these three guides for the study has very simple explanation: according to ASME BVPC, JEAG and PNAE the huge majority of existing NPPs has been designed. (J.P.N.)

  6. Comparison of Methods for Evaluating Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Tie-Tube Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapernick, Richard J.; Dixon, David D.

    2008-01-01

    One of the fundamental structural components in a nuclear thermal rocket design is the tie tube. Proper cooling and flow modeling is important both for the structural integrity of the reactor core and for proper design of downstream components that operate on the hydrogen exiting the tie tube. Two models have been developed. The first is a spreadsheet-based tool designed for sizing tie-tube components, considering mechanical stress and strain limits, deposited moderator power, thermal expansion along the flow path, and conduction from adjacent fuel blocks. The second is a three-dimensional SINDA/FLUINT model used as a benchmark, containing a complete finite-element fuel block and a 1/6th tie-tube model. This paper discusses the performance of both models, as well as the advantages and limitations of each.

  7. A comparison of frequency domain design and l1-optimal control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasuriya, Suhada; Sobhani, Massoud; Zentgraf, Peter

    1991-01-01

    A frequency-domain design methodology is applied to a DC motor-speed control system and the results are compared to those obtained using l1-optimal control theory (Pearson and Bamieh, 1990). Both methods synthesize controllers that maximize the allowable size of an unknown-but-bounded disturbance while satisfying prespecified constraints on the control, the control rate, and the outputs. The frequency-domain design technique in general results in much lower-order compensators than those required by the l1-optimal method for a given size of disturbance. Also, the design trade-offs regarding the bandwidth of the system, the size of the disturbance input, and the structural complexity of the controller transfer function become quite transparent.

  8. An assessment of the validity of inelastic design analysis methods by comparisons of predictions with test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of computer programs that employ relatively complex constitutive theories and analysis procedures to perform inelastic design calculations on fast reactor system components introduces questions of validation and acceptance of the analysis results. We may ask ourselves, ''How valid are the answers.'' These questions, in turn, involve the concepts of verification of computer programs as well as qualification of the computer programs and of the underlying constitutive theories and analysis procedures. This paper addresses the latter - the qualification of the analysis methods for inelastic design calculations. Some of the work underway in the United States to provide the necessary information to evaluate inelastic analysis methods and computer programs is described, and typical comparisons of analysis predictions with inelastic structural test results are presented. It is emphasized throughout that rather than asking ourselves how valid, or correct, are the analytical predictions, we might more properly question whether or not the combination of the predictions and the associated high-temperature design criteria leads to an acceptable level of structural integrity. It is believed that in this context the analysis predictions are generally valid, even though exact correlations between predictions and actual behavior are not obtained and cannot be expected. Final judgment, however, must be reserved for the design analyst in each specific case. (author)

  9. Comparison of a Conventional Heat Exchangers with a New Designed Heat Exchanger Experimentally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tansel Koyun

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the air-water heat exchanger designed have been experimentally compared to conventional heat exchangers with and without fin. The same parameters for the three heat exchangers (pump flow, heating power, etc... have been used. In the experiments, speed-flow adjustment has been made to supply heat transfer at an optimum. As a result, during the circulation of water in pipe of the air-water heat exchanger, the corrosion fouling factor has not been formed. In addition, the efficiency of the new designed heat exchanger has been found between fin and finless heat exchanger efficiencies. The results have been shown in the diagrams.

  10. Comparison of Models Needed for Conceptual Design of Man-Machine Systems in Different Application Domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    and subjective preferences. For design of man-machine systems in process control, a framework has been developed in terms of separate representation of the problem domain, the decision task, and the information processing strategies required. The author analyzes the application of this framework to a......For systematic and computer-aided design of man-machine systems, a consistent framework is needed, i. e. , a set of models which allows the selection of system characteristics which serve the individual user not only to satisfy his goal, but also to select mental processes that match his resources...

  11. Comparison of Existing Multipliers and Proposal of a New Design for Optimized Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Dhanabal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Multipliers are inevitable components in digital system design and embedded applications. The performance parameters of multipliers play a vital role in maximizing the efficiency of these applications. Different algorithms have been proposed for improving the performance parameters of multipliers. This paper formulates a comparative study of some of the well known existing multipliers and thereafter proposes a robust design. The multiplier with a carry-look-ahead adder has shown a better performance over the multiplier with a ripple adder in terms of gate delays.

  12. Comparison of irradiation behavior of different uranium silicide dispersion fuel element designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculations of fuel swelling of U3SiAl-Al and U3Si2 were performed for various dispersion fuel element designs. Breakaway swelling criteria in the form of critical fuel volume fractions were derived with data obtained from U3SiAl-Al plate irradiations. The results of the analysis show that rod-type elements remain well below the pillowing threshold. However, tubular fuel elements, which behave essentially like plates, will likely develop pillows or blisters at around 90% 235U burnup. The U3Si2-Al compounds demonstrate stable swelling behavior throughout the entire burnup range for all fuel element designs

  13. Design of an Interior Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Machine for an Integrated Starter-Alternator System Used on an Hybrid-Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    FILIP Andrei-Toader; HANGIU Radu-Petru; MARŢIŞ Claudia; BIRO Karoly-Agoston

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, to reduce fuel consumption, weuse more often vehicles with hybrid propulsion usingfor traction an electric motor and the regularcombustion engine. There are three types of hybridvehicles: serial, parallel and mixed propulsion.Hybrid vehicles use Integrated Starter Alternator(ISA) system instead of usual starter and alternator.This article points out the advantages of using anIntegrated Starter Alternator System in comparisonwith the classical starter and alternator. This systemsaves...

  14. A Comparison of Financing Illinois Unit School Districts for the School Year 1974-75 with the Alternative Financing Models Developed by the National Educational Finance Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Dennis R.

    This study compares the present method of financing Illinois public schools for the school year 1973-74 with six alternative financing models developed by the National Educational Finance Project (NEFP). The NEFP models were as follows: complete local support, flat grant with local leeway limit of 12 mills of equalized assessed valuation,…

  15. A comparison of the in vitro cyto- and neurotoxicity of brominated and halogen-free flame retardants : prioritization in search for safe(r) alternatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Hester S; Meijer, Marieke; Muilwijk, Mirthe; van den Berg, Martin; Westerink, Remco H S

    2014-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are abundant persistent organic pollutants with well-studied toxicity. The toxicological and ecological concerns associated with BFRs argue for replacement by safe(r) alternatives. Though previous research identified the nervous system as a sensitive target organ f

  16. A Comparison of Different Teaching Designs of "Acids and Bases" Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ültay, Neslihan; Çalik, Muammer

    2016-01-01

    Inability to link the acid-base concepts with daily life phenomena (as contexts) highlights the need for further research on the context-based acid-base chemistry. In this vein, the aim of this study is to investigate the effects of different teaching designs (REACT strategy, 5Es learning model and traditional (existing) instruction) relevant with…

  17. A comparison of shoreline assessment study designs used for the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoreline assessment studies may be used after an oil spill to determine whether an injury has occurred and estimate the extent of injuries. Design of these studies generally cannot meet the randomisation and replication requirements of classical experimental designs. For example, oil spills cannot be replicated, nor can oiling be applied randomly to experimental units (sites). Furthermore, species counts and other measures of abundance generally do not meet the assumptions of normal theory models. This leaves the statistician and principal investigators the task of finding design and analysis strategies that take into account these departures from standard statistical practices. This paper examines the study design, analysis method and statistical power (i.e. the ability to detect oil spill effects) of three shoreline assessment programs conducted after the Exxon Valdez oil spill (Exxon's Shoreline Ecology Program, the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Council's Coastal Habitat Injury Assessment study, and NOAA's biological Monitoring Survey) and shows the types of techniques used are influenced by study objectives. (Author)

  18. A thrombus susceptibility comparison of two pulsatile Penn State 50 cc left ventricular assist device designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navitsky, Michael A; Deutsch, Steven; Manning, Keefe B

    2013-01-01

    Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) have proven successful as bridge to transplant devices for patients awaiting donor organs. While survival rates continue to increase, destination therapy remains hindered by thrombus formation within the device. Research has shown that thrombosis is correlated to the fluid dynamics within the device and may be a result of sustained shear rates below 500 s(-1) on the polyurethane blood sac used in the Penn State pulsatile LVAD. Particle image velocimetry is used to compare flow within two 50 cc LVAD designs to assess fluid patterns and quantify wall shear rates in regions known from in vivo studies to be susceptible to thrombus formation. The two designs differ in their front face geometry. The V-1 model has an outward-facing "dome" whereas the face of the V-2 model is flat. A thrombus susceptibility metric, which uses measured wall shear rates and exposure times, was applied to objectively compare pump designs over the entire cardiac cycle. For each design, there are regions where wall shear rates remained below 500 s(-1) for the entire cardiac cycle resulting in high thrombus susceptibility potential. Results of this study indicate that the V-2 device had an overall lower propensity for thrombus formation in the current region of interest. PMID:22825798

  19. Comparison of CRBR design-basis events with those of foreign LMFBR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the Construction Permit (CP) review of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBR), the Brookhaven National Laboratory was asked to compare the Design Basis Accidents that are considered in CRBR Preliminary Safety Analysis Report with those of the foreign contemporary plants (PHENIX, SUPER-PHENIX, SNR-300, PFR, and MONJU). A brief introductory review of any special or unusual characteristics of these plants is given. This is followed by discussions of the design basis accidents and their acceptance criteria. In spite of some discrepancies due either to semantics or to licensing decisions, there appears to be a considerable degree of unanimity in the selection (definition) of DBAs in all of these plants

  20. Design comparisons of TRU burner cores with similar sodium void worth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study summarizes the neutronic performance and fuel cycle behavior of five geometrically-different transuranic (TRU) burner cores with similar low sodium void reactivity. The conceptual cores encompass core geometries for annular, two-region homogeneous, dual pin type, pan-shaped and H-shaped cores. They have been designed with the same assembly specifications and managed to have similar end-of-cycle sodium void reactivities and beginning-of-cycle peak power densities through the changes in the core size and configuration. The requirement of low sodium void reactivity is shown to lead each design concept to characteristic neutronics performance and fuel cycle behavior. The H-/pan-shaped cores allow the core compaction as well as higher rate of TRU burning. (author)

  1. Design and Comparison of Power Systems for a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2008-01-01

    In a fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle (FCHEV) the fuel cell stack is assisted by one or more energy storage devices. Thereby the system cost, mass, and volume can be decreased, and a significant better performance can be obtained. Two often used energy storage devices are the battery and...... ultracapacitors are the only energy storage device the system becomes too big and heavy. A fuel cell/battery/ultracapacitor hybrid provides the longest life time of the batteries. If the fuel cell stack power is too small, the system will be big, heavy, and have a poor efficiency....... ultracapacitor. In this paper a design method to design the power system of a FCHEV is presented. 10 cases of combining the fuel stack with either the battery, ultracapacitor, or both are investigated. The system volume, mass, efficiency, and battery lifetime are also compared. It is concluded that when...

  2. A comparison of pharmacoepidemiological study designs in medication use and traffic safety research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to explore how the choice of different study designs could influence the risk estimates, a case–crossover and case–time–control study were carried out and their outcomes were compared with those of a traditional case–control study design that evaluated the association between the exposure to psychotropic medications and the risk of having a motor vehicle accident (MVA). A record-linkage database availing data for 3,786 cases and 18,089 controls during the period 2000–2007 was used. The study designs (i.e., case–crossover and case–time–control) were derived from published literature, and the following psychotropic medicines were examined: antipsychotics, anxiolytics, hypnotics and sedatives, and antidepressants, stratified in the two groups selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and other antidepressants. Moreover, in order to further investigate the effects of frequency of psychoactive medication exposure on the outcomes of the case–crossover analysis, the data were also stratified by the number of defined daily doses (DDDs) and days of medication use in the 12 months before the motor vehicle accident. Three-thousand seven-hundred fifty-two cases were included in this second part of the case–crossover analysis. The case–crossover design did not show any statistically significant association between psychotropic medication exposure and MVA risk [e.g., SSRIs—Adj. OR = 1.00 (95 % CI: 0.69–1.46); Anxiolytics—Adj. OR = 0.95 (95 % CI: 0.68–1.31)]. The case–time–control design only showed a borderline statistically significant increased traffic accident risk in SSRI users [Adj. OR = 1.16 (95 % CI: 1.01–1.34)]. With respect to the stratifications by the number of DDDs and days of medication use, the analyses showed no increased traffic accident risk associated with the exposure to the selected medication groups [e.g., SSRIs, <20 DDDs—Adj. OR = 0.65 (95 % CI: 0.11–3.87); SSRIs, 16–150 days—Adj. OR = 0.55 (95 % CI

  3. Comparison of depth-dose distributions between reactor and accelerator neutron beams proposed by design studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accelerator epithermal neutron beams produced by 7Li(p,n)7Be reactions were compared with reactor neutron beams using a fission converter (20% enriched 235U 5mm-thick plate) from view points of neutron spectrum and depth-dose distributions in a phantom. It is possible to design accelerator epithermal neutron beams having better depth-dose distributions than reactor neutron beams. (author)

  4. Design and comparison of three-level three-phase T-source inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shults, T.; Husev, Oleksandr; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents guidelines for component design of recently proposed topologies of the three-level three-phase T-source inverters. Two different topologies are considered: T-source inverters with discontinuous input current and T-source inverters with continuous input current. Steady state...... analysis and estimation of components size for both schemes are described and compared. Simulation results have confirmed most of theoretical predictions....

  5. Visualization of ergonomic guidelines - A comparison of two computer aided systems to support vehicle design

    OpenAIRE

    Blomé, Mikael; Johansson, Curt R; Odenrick, Per

    2006-01-01

    Guidelines are used in information and quality management systems to ensure high quality by supporting design, production and communication processes. These guidelines can be presented as a conventional system on an intranet suitable for printouts, visualized as a traditional text-based report with a list of headings accompanied by tables and pictures or presented as paper documents in manuals or binders. Such approaches do not always correspond to some companys' requirements for usabilit...

  6. Comparison between system design optimization strategies for more electric aircraft networks

    OpenAIRE

    Hadbi, Djamel; Retière, Nicolas; Wurtz, Frédéric; Roboam, Xavier; Sareni, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, embedded aircraft system contains electrical devices which must cooperate in safe and light weight network. For designing such systems, different local strategies have been developed but no global optimization has been performed so far. In this paper, we present and compare three strategies applied to the sizing of a whole network of more electric aircraft: a simplified case study with only two components is considered to illustrate methodological issues. The quality of the solution...

  7. Design and CFD Simulation of the Drift Eliminators in Comparison with PIV Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodůlka, Jiří; Vitkovičová, Rut

    2015-05-01

    Drift eliminators are the essential part of all modern cooling towers preventing significant losses of liquid water escaping to the enviroment. These eliminators need to be effective in terms of water capture but on the other hand causing only minimal pressure loss as well. A new type of such eliminator was designed and numerically simulated using CFD tools. Results of the simulation are compared with PIV visulisation on the prototype model.

  8. Design and CFD Simulation of the Drift Eliminators in Comparison with PIV Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stodůlka Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Drift eliminators are the essential part of all modern cooling towers preventing significant losses of liquid water escaping to the enviroment. These eliminators need to be effective in terms of water capture but on the other hand causing only minimal pressure loss as well. A new type of such eliminator was designed and numerically simulated using CFD tools. Results of the simulation are compared with PIV visulisation on the prototype model.

  9. Calculational benchmark comparisons for a low sodium void worth actinide burner core design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, a number of low void worth core designs with non-conventional core geometries have been proposed. Since these designs lack a good experimental and computational data base, benchmark calculations are useful for the identification of possible biases in performance characteristics predictions. In this paper, a simplified benchmark model of a metal fueled, low void worth actinide burner design is detailed: and two independent neutronic performance evaluations are compared. Calculated performance characteristics are evaluated for three spatially uniform compositions (fresh uranium/plutonium, batch-averaged uranium/transuranic, and batch-averaged uranium/transuranic with fission products) and a regional depleted distribution obtained from a benchmark depletion calculation. For each core composition, the flooded and voided multiplication factor, power peaking factor, sodium void worth (and its components), flooded Doppler coefficient and control rod worth predictions are compared. In addition, the burnup swing, average discharge burnup, peak linear power, and fresh fuel enrichment are calculated for the depletion case. In general, remarkably good agreement is observed between the evaluations. The mot significant difference in predicted performance characteristics is a 0.3-05% Δk/(kk') bias in the sodium void worth. Significant differences in the transmutation rate of higher actinides are also observed; however, these differences do not cause discrepancies in the performance predictions

  10. Comparison of the effect of chamfer and radial shoulder finish line designs on marginal adaptation of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirtorabi M

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aims: Marginal adaptation is important for the long-term success of full-coverage restorations. Preparation design is one of the important factors influencing the marginal integrity. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the effect of radial shoulder and chamfer finish line designs on the marginal adaptation of all-ceramic Cercon restorations."nMaterials and Methods: This in vitro study was done using single blind experimental technique. One stainless steel die with 7 mm height and 5 mm diameter was prepared by milling machine. The preparation design consisted of half radial shoulder with 1mm depth and half chamfer with 0.8mm depth. All walls had a convergence angle of 10º. Ten stone dies and ten ZrO2 copings of Cercon (Cercon Smart Ceramics, DeguDent, Hanau, Germany were made and after cementation were ground at buccolingual direction. Then marginal gap of each sample was measured by scanning electron microscopy. Data were then analyzed using t-test."nResult: The mean marginal gap for radial shoulder was 98.4µ and for chamfer was 39.7µ. The difference was statistically significant (P=0.002."nConclusion: The marginal gap of chamfer preparation is less than that of radial shoulder.

  11. Performance comparison of liquid metal and gas cooled ATW system point designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the Advanced Accelerator Application (AAA) program in the U.S., preliminary design studies have been performed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to define and compare candidate Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) systems. The studies at ANL have focused primarily on the transmutation blanket component of the overall system. Lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE), sodium, and gas cooled systems are among the blanket technology options currently under consideration. This paper summarizes the results from neutronics trade studies performed at ANL. Core designs have been developed for LBE and sodium cooled 840 MWt fast spectrum accelerator driven systems employing re-cycle. Additionally, neutronics analyses have been performed for a helium-cooled 600 MWt hybrid thermal and fast spectrum system proposed by General Atomics (GA), which is operated in the critical mode for three cycles and in a subcritical accelerator driven mode for a subsequent single cycle. For these three point designs, isotopic inventories, consumption rates, and annual burnup rates are compared. The mass flows and the ultimate loss of transuranic (TRU) isotopes to the waste stream per unit of heat generated during transmutation are also compared on a consistent basis. (author)

  12. Design of Orthogonal Filtered Multitone Modulation Systems and Comparison among Efficient Realizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moret Nicola

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We address the efficient realization of a filtered multitone (FMT modulation system and its orthogonal design. FMT modulation can be viewed as a Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT modulated filter bank (FB. It generalizes the popular orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM scheme by deploying frequency confined subchannel pulses. We compare three realizations that have been described by Cvetković and Vetterli (1998, and Weiss and Stewart (2000, and Tonello (2006. A detailed derivation of them is performed in the time-domain via the exploitation of different FB polyphase decompositions. We then consider the design of an orthogonal FMT system and we exploit the third realization which allows simplifying the orthogonal FB design and obtaining a block diagonal system matrix with independent subblocks. A numerical method is then presented to obtain an orthogonal FB with well frequency confined subchannel pulses for arbitrarily large number of subchannels. Several examples of pulses with minimal length are reported and their performance is evaluated in typical multipath fading channels. Finally, we compare the orthogonal FMT system with a cyclically prefixed OFDM system in the IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN channel. In this scenario, FMT with minimal length pulses and single tap subchannel equalization outperforms the OFDM system in achievable rate.

  13. Design of Orthogonal Filtered Multitone Modulation Systems and Comparison among Efficient Realizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea M. Tonello

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the efficient realization of a filtered multitone (FMT modulation system and its orthogonal design. FMT modulation can be viewed as a Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT modulated filter bank (FB. It generalizes the popular orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM scheme by deploying frequency confined subchannel pulses. We compare three realizations that have been described by Cvetković and Vetterli (1998, and Weiss and Stewart (2000, and Tonello (2006. A detailed derivation of them is performed in the time-domain via the exploitation of different FB polyphase decompositions. We then consider the design of an orthogonal FMT system and we exploit the third realization which allows simplifying the orthogonal FB design and obtaining a block diagonal system matrix with independent subblocks. A numerical method is then presented to obtain an orthogonal FB with well frequency confined subchannel pulses for arbitrarily large number of subchannels. Several examples of pulses with minimal length are reported and their performance is evaluated in typical multipath fading channels. Finally, we compare the orthogonal FMT system with a cyclically prefixed OFDM system in the IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN channel. In this scenario, FMT with minimal length pulses and single tap subchannel equalization outperforms the OFDM system in achievable rate.

  14. Bioclimatic Technology in High Rise Office Building Design: A Comparison Study for Indoor Environmental Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokman Hakim Ismail

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The shift towards a more sustainable architecture for high-rise building is discussed and illustrated through the work of Ken Yeang and other architects. The claimed benefits of such a bioclimatic design approach are examined in the light of the results of previously conducted research projects, dealing with indoor thermal condition of high-rise office buildings. This paper reports on a study to determine if high-rise buildings designed on bioclimatic principles perform better than conventional designed ones, when situated in a tropical climate such as that in Malaysia. The paper describes a number of case studies which compare Malaysian bioclimatic and conventional building using indoor environmental parameter criteria such as air temperature, relative humidity and air velocity. Building energy index for both types of buildings is presented to illustrate the real energy savings in both types of buildings. The major finding of this work is that, the bioclimatic buildings offering a more comfortable indoor environment, increase satisfaction and show an improvement in energy saving.

  15. Monte Carlo comparison of mid-size telescope designs for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Jogler, T; Dumm, J

    2012-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a future very high energy gamma-ray observatory. CTA will be comprised of small-, medium- and large-size telescopes covering an energy range from tens of GeV to hundreds of TeV and will surpass existing telescopes in sensitivity by an order of magnitude. The aim of our study is to find the optimal design for the medium-size telescopes (MSTs), which will determine the sensitivity in the key energy range between a few hundred GeV to about ten TeV. To study the effect of the telescope design parameters on the array performance, we simulated arrays of 61 MSTs with 120 m spacing and a variety of telescope configurations. We investigated the influence of the primary telescope characteristics including optical resolution, pixel size, and light collection area on the total array performance with a particular emphasis on telescope configurations with imaging performance similar to the proposed Davis-Cotton (DC) and Schwarzschild-Couder (SC) MST designs. We compare the performance...

  16. Monte Carlo comparison of medium-size telescope designs for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Jogler, T; Dumm, J

    2013-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a future very high energy gamma-ray observatory. CTA will be comprised of small-,medium- and large-size telescopes covering an energy range from tens of GeV to hundreds of TeV and will surpass existing telescopes in sensitivity by an order of magnitude. The aim of our study is to find the optimal design for the medium-size telescopes (MSTs), which will determine the sensitivity in the key energy range between a few hundred GeV to about ten TeV. To study the effect of the telescope design parameters on the array performance, we simulated arrays of 61 MSTs with 120 m spacing and a variety of telescope configurations. We investigated the influence of the primary telescope characteristics including optical resolution, pixel size, and light collection area on the total array performance with a particular emphasis on telescope configurations with imaging performance similar to the proposed Davies-Cotton (DC) and Schwarzschild-Couder (SC) MST designs. We compare the performance...

  17. Calculational benchmark comparisons for a low sodium void worth actinide burner core design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, a number of low void worth core designs with non-conventional core geometries have been proposed. Since these designs lack a good experimental and computational database, benchmark calculations are useful for the identification of possible biases in performance characteristics predictions. In this paper, a simplified benchmark model of a metal fueled, low void worth actinide burner design is detailed; and two independent neutronic performance evaluations are compared. Calculated performance characteristics are evaluated for three spatially uniform compositions (fresh uranium/plutonium, batch-averaged uranium/transuranic, and batch-averaged uranium/transuranic with fission products) and a regional depleted distribution obtained from a benchmark depletion calculation. For each core composition, the flooded and voided multiplication factor, power peaking factor, sodium void worth (and its components), flooded Doppler coefficient and control rod worth predictions are compared. In addition, the burnup swing, average discharge burnup, peak linear power, and fresh fuel enrichment are calculated for the depletion case. In general, remarkably good agreement is observed between the evaluations. The most significant difference is predicted performance characteristics is a 0.3--0.5% Δk/(kk) bias in the sodium void worth. Significant differences in the transmutation rate of higher actinides are also observed; however, these differences do not cause discrepancies in the performing predictions

  18. System design of programmable 4f phase modulation techniques for rapid intensity shaping: a conceptual comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Matthias; Heber, Jörg; Janschek, Klaus

    2016-03-01

    The present study analyses three beam shaping approaches with respect to a light-efficient generation of i) patterns and ii) multiple spots by means of a generic optical 4f-setup. 4f approaches share the property that due to the one-to-one relationship between output intensity and input phase, the need for time-consuming, iterative calculation can be avoided. The resulting low computational complexity offers a particular advantage compared to the widely used holographic principles and makes them potential candidates for real-time applications. The increasing availability of high-speed phase modulators, e.g. on the basis of MEMS, calls for an evaluation of the performances of these concepts. Our second interest is the applicability of 4f methods to high-power applications. We discuss the variants of 4f intensity shaping by phase modulation from a system-level point of view which requires the consideration of application relevant boundary conditions. The discussion includes i) the micro mirror based phase manipulation combined with amplitude masking in the Fourier plane, ii) the Generalized Phase Contrast, and iii) matched phase-only correlation filtering combined with GPC. The conceptual comparison relies on comparative figures of merit for energy efficiency, pattern homogeneity, pattern image quality, maximum output intensity and flexibility with respect to the displayable pattern. Numerical simulations illustrate our findings.

  19. Economic analysis of alternative bison and elk management practices on the National Elk Refuge and Grand Teton National Park: A comparison of visitor and household responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, John B.; Caughlan, Lynne

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the National Park Service (NPS) are preparing a management plan for bison and elk inhabiting the National Elk Refuge (NER) and Grand Teton National Park (GTNP). These animals are part of the bison and elk herds in Jackson Hole, one of the largest concentrations of freeranging bison and elk in the world. A range of alternatives for managing the bison and elk herds in the project area will be developed in an Environmental Impact Statement. The EIS will likely include such issues as habitat management, disease management, winter-feeding and hunting programs related to the NER and GTNP. The purposes of this study are to determine how the current management and EIS alternatives for bison and elk inhabiting the NER and GTNP would change: Visitor use

  20. Systematic comparison of tissue fixation with alternative fixatives to conventional tissue fixation with buffered formalin in a xenograft-based model

    OpenAIRE

    Nietner, Thorben; Jarutat, Tiantom; Mertens, Alfred

    2012-01-01

    In our study we systematically compared the alternative fixatives acidified formal alcohol (AFA), PAXgene®, HOPE®, and combinations of AFA or formalin with ultrasound treatment to standard (buffered) formalin fixation. We examined general morphology and detectability of protein structures by immunohistochemistry of the membrane receptors epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R), and phosphorylated human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (phospho...

  1. Comparison of Single and Blend Acidifiers as Alternative to Antibiotics on Growth Performance, Fecal Microflora, and Humoral Immunity in Weaned Piglets

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, S. T.; Hwang, J. A.; de Hoon, J; Mun, H. S.; Yang, C. J.

    2014-01-01

    The banning of the use of antibiotics as feed additive has accelerated investigations of alternative feed additives in animal production. This experiment investigated the effect of pure citric acid or acidifier blend supplementation as substitute for antibiotic growth promoters on growth performance, fecal microbial count, and humoral immunity in weaned piglets challenged with Salmonella enterica serover Typhimurium and Escherichia coli KCTC 2571. A total of 60 newly weaned piglets (crossbred...

  2. Environmental considerations for alternative fusion reactor blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparisons of alternative fusion reactor blanket/coolant systems suggest that environmental considerations will enter strongly into selection of design and materials. Liquid blankets and coolants tend to maximize transport of radioactive corrosion products. Liquid lithium interacts strongly with tritium, minimizing permeation and escape of gaseous tritium in accidents. However, liquid lithium coolants tend to create large tritium inventories and have a large fire potential compared to flibe and solid blankets. Helium coolants minimize radiation transport, but do not have ability to bind the tritium in case of accidental releases. (auth)

  3. Fatigue Analysis and Design of Mooring Systems. Assessment and comparison of different methods.

    OpenAIRE

    Saidee, Mohammad hasan

    2015-01-01

    This master thesis deals with several problems in connection with the evaluation of fatigue damage for mooring lines. One basic problem is to find out the sea states contributing most to the fatigue loads characterized by the waves height (H_s) and the spectral peak period (T_p). This problem is investigated by designing an intact mooring system and carrying out long term simulations both in frequency domain (FD) and time domain (TD). It is found that sea states with wave heights from 6m to 1...

  4. Design and Comparison of Full-size Converters for Large Variable-Speed Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Xiang Jun; Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe

    2007-01-01

    The full-size converters for wind turbine systems can flexibly realize variable-speed control and meet power system operational requirements. The designs of Two-Level, Three-Level Neutral Point Clamped and Three-Level Flying Capacitor converter as full-size back-to-back converters for large wind...... turbine system are discussed in this paper. The harmonic standard and power system operation requirements for the converters are considered. And SVPWM with the on-off control is proposed to suppress the neutral point potential or fly-capacitor voltage deviation and drift for the three-level converters...

  5. Comparison of a Conventional Heat Exchangers with a New Designed Heat Exchanger Experimentally

    OpenAIRE

    Tansel Koyun; Semih Avcı

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the air-water heat exchanger designed have been experimentally compared to conventional heat exchangers with and without fin. The same parameters for the three heat exchangers (pump flow, heating power, etc...) have been used. In the experiments, speed-flow adjustment has been made to supply heat transfer at an optimum. As a result, during the circulation of water in pipe of the air-water heat exchanger, the corrosion fouling factor has not been formed. In addition, the efficie...

  6. A comparison of measurement concepts across physical science and social science domains: instrument design, calibration, and measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Is there a framework common to measurement in both physical and social sciences? The answer to this question would determine to an important extent the possibility of building a shared measurement-related body of knowledge across these traditionally separate domains. In this paper, we outline a framework of the processes involved in the construction and use of measures that includes instrument design, instrument calibration, and ultimately measurement using the instrument. A comparison of these steps across the two domains reveals both (a) formal parallelism, and (b) important differences in the way calibration is intended and implemented. We examine the similarities and differences to determine whether this is a case of irreducible difference, or whether the similarities are such that measurement in the two domains can be viewed within a single conceptualization

  7. Secondary Heat Exchanger Design and Comparison for Advanced High Temperature Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Ali Siahpush; Michael McKellar; Michael Patterson; Eung Soo Kim

    2012-06-01

    The goals of next generation nuclear reactors, such as the high temperature gas-cooled reactor and advance high temperature reactor (AHTR), are to increase energy efficiency in the production of electricity and provide high temperature heat for industrial processes. The efficient transfer of energy for industrial applications depends on the ability to incorporate effective heat exchangers between the nuclear heat transport system and the industrial process heat transport system. The need for efficiency, compactness, and safety challenge the boundaries of existing heat exchanger technology, giving rise to the following study. Various studies have been performed in attempts to update the secondary heat exchanger that is downstream of the primary heat exchanger, mostly because its performance is strongly tied to the ability to employ more efficient conversion cycles, such as the Rankine super critical and subcritical cycles. This study considers two different types of heat exchangers—helical coiled heat exchanger and printed circuit heat exchanger—as possible options for the AHTR secondary heat exchangers with the following three different options: (1) A single heat exchanger transfers all the heat (3,400 MW(t)) from the intermediate heat transfer loop to the power conversion system or process plants; (2) Two heat exchangers share heat to transfer total heat of 3,400 MW(t) from the intermediate heat transfer loop to the power conversion system or process plants, each exchanger transfers 1,700 MW(t) with a parallel configuration; and (3) Three heat exchangers share heat to transfer total heat of 3,400 MW(t) from the intermediate heat transfer loop to the power conversion system or process plants. Each heat exchanger transfers 1,130 MW(t) with a parallel configuration. A preliminary cost comparison will be provided for all different cases along with challenges and recommendations.

  8. Multi-objective Optimisation Design of Water Distribution Systems:Comparison of Two Evolutionary Algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haixing Liu,Jing Lu,Ming Zhao∗; Yixing Yuan

    2016-01-01

    In order to compare two advanced multi⁃objective evolutionary algorithms, a multi⁃objective water distribution problem is formulated in this paper. The multi⁃objective optimization has received more attention in the water distribution system design. On the one hand the cost of water distribution system including capital, operational, and maintenance cost is mostly concerned issue by the utilities all the time; on the other hand improving the performance of water distribution systems is of equivalent importance, which is often conflicting with the previous goal. Many performance metrics of water networks are developed in recent years, including total or maximum pressure deficit, resilience, inequity, probabilistic robustness, and risk measure. In this paper, a new resilience metric based on the energy analysis of water distribution systems is proposed. Two optimization objectives are comprised of capital cost and the new resilience index. A heuristic algorithm, speed⁃constrained multi⁃objective particle swarm optimization ( SMPSO) extended on the basis of the multi⁃objective particle swarm algorithm, is introduced to compare with another state⁃of⁃the⁃art heuristic algorithm, NSGA⁃II. The solutions are evaluated by two metrics, namely spread and hypervolume. To illustrate the capability of SMPSO to efficiently identify good designs, two benchmark problems ( two⁃loop network and Hanoi network) are employed. From several aspects the results demonstrate that SMPSO is a competitive and potential tool to tackle with the optimization problem of complex systems.

  9. Comparison of deterministic and stochastic techniques for estimation of design basis floods for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA Safety Guide 50-SG-S10A recommends that design basis floods be estimated by deterministic techniques using probable maximum precipitation and a rainfall runoff model to evaluate the corresponding flood. The Guide indicates that stochastic techniques are also acceptable in which case floods of very low probability have to be estimated. The paper compares the results of applying the two techniques in two river basins at a number of locations and concludes that the uncertainty of the results of both techniques is of the same order of magnitude. However, the use of the unit hydrograph as the rainfall runoff model may lead in some cases to nonconservative estimates. A distributed non-linear rainfall runoff model leads to estimates of probable maximum flood flows which are very close to values of flows having a 106 - 107 years return interval estimated using a conservative and relatively simple stochastic technique. Recommendations on the practical application of Safety Guide 50-SG-10A are made and the extension of the stochastic technique to ungauged sites and other design parameters is discussed

  10. Hepatotoxicity of piperazine designer drugs: Comparison of different in vitro models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias-da-Silva, D; Arbo, M D; Valente, M J; Bastos, M L; Carmo, H

    2015-08-01

    Piperazine derived drugs emerged on the drug market in the last decade. The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro the potential hepatotoxicity of the designer drugs N-benzylpiperazine (BZP), 1-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazine (TFMPP), 1-(4-methoxyphenyl)piperazine (MeOPP) and 1-(3,4-methylenedioxybenzyl)piperazine (MDBP) in two human hepatic cell lines (HepaRG and HepG2) and in primary rat hepatocytes. Cell death was evaluated by the MTT assay, after 24 h-incubations. Among the tested drugs, TFMPP was the most cytotoxic. HepaRG cells and primary hepatocytes revealed to be the most and the least resistant cellular models, respectively. To ascertain whether the CYP450 metabolism could explain their higher susceptibility, primary hepatocytes were co-incubated with the piperazines and the CYP450 inhibitors metyrapone and quinidine, showing that CYP450-mediated metabolism contributes to the detoxification of these drugs. Additionally, the intracellular contents of reactive species, ATP, reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione, changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) and caspase-3 activation were further evaluated in primary cells. Overall, an increase in reactive species formation, followed by intracellular GSH and ATP depletion, loss of Δψm and caspase-3 activation was observed for all piperazines, in a concentration-dependent manner. In conclusion, piperazine designer drugs produce hepatic detrimental effects that can vary in magnitude among the different analogues. PMID:25863214

  11. Alternative Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find your chapter: search by state Home > Alzheimer's Disease > Treatments > Alternative Treatments Overview What Is Dementia? What Is Alzheimer's? Younger/Early Onset Facts and Figures Know the 10 Signs Stages Inside the Brain: ...

  12. Disposal of post-consumer polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles: comparison of five disposal alternatives in the small island state of Mauritius using a life cycle assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foolmaun, Rajendra Kumar; Ramjeeawon, Toolseeram

    2012-01-01

    Used polyethylene terephthalate bottles (PET) dumped indiscriminately onto bare lands and water bodies constitute an eyesore. This problem is viewed as a serious impediment to the flourishing tourism industry in Mauritius. Currently, over 100 million PET bottles are generated annually and the only fully operational disposal route is through the sole sanitary landfill. There is no formal segregation of waste and therefore used PET bottles are disposed of commingled with domestic waste. Despite a satisfactory waste collection system, a considerable amount of used PET bottles unfortunately end up in water bodies and on bare lands. An appreciable amount of PET bottles is now being collected separately for flake production prior to export to South Africa. This paper investigated the environmental impact of five waste management scenarios (100% landfill; 100% incineration with energy recovery; 50% incineration and 50% landfill; 34% flake production and 66% landfill; 100% flake production) for used PET bottles in Mauritius. Comparison of the five scenarios was based on the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology described in ISO 14040 and ISO 14044. SimaPro 7.1 software was used to analyse the data. Comparison of the five scenarios showed that the highest environmental impacts occurred when 100% of used PET bottles were sent to the landfill. The comparison also indicated that there were least impacts on the environment when all used PET bottles were incinerated with energy recovery. PMID:22629630

  13. Power comparison between two multivariate permutation tests for matched-pairs designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A permutation maximal paired t-test (MPT) and permutation maximal parried signed rank test (MPSR) for testing problem in matched pairs designs are compared. A simulation study is conducted to estimate the power of these two tests for various parent populations. The effect of the dimension of the response variable on the power of these tests is studied. It has been observed that the power of these tests increases as the dimension of the response variable increases. In addition, the power of these two tests increases as the correlation between the components of the response variable decreases. It has also been noticed that when the underlying distribution is symmetric, the MPT test pro forms better than the MPSR test, while their performances are close when the distribution is skewed. (author). 18 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs

  14. Design criteria and comparison between conventional and subaperture SAR processing in airborne systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prats, Pau; Bara, Marc; Broquetas, Antoni

    2002-02-01

    This paper compares two different approaches for designing airborne SAR systems. The first one is the most common where conventional processing is employed, and therefore wide antenna beams are to be used in order to avoid ambiguities in the final image due to attitude variations. A second approach is proposed to lower the requirements such system imposes based on subaperture processing. The idea is to follow the azimuth variations of the Doppler centroid, without increasing the hardware requirements of the system. As it is shown in this paper, this processing procedure must be complemented with precise radiometric corrections, because the platform may experience small attitude variations, which could increase/decrease the target observation time, inducing a significant azimuth modulation in the final image. This leads to the definition of a new criterion concerning maximum attitude deviations for an airborne platform.

  15. Comparison of strategies and regulator design for active control of MHD modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system of evenly spaced poloidal arrays of saddle coils was recently installed on the reversed field pinch device EXTRAP T2R to perform experiments on the active control of MHD modes. The implementation of different control strategies, such as 'intelligent shell' and 'mode control', was made possible by a flexible digital control system. After giving some results on the performances of the innermost coil current control loop, two versions of 'mode control' recently tested on the machine are presented. In the 'wise shell' approach, equilibrium related modes are ruled out and a systematic increase of the pulse length is obtained. In a second, more model based, approach, a mode estimator/controller is designed aiming at a full state feedback by including modes, which are not directly measurable due to the limited number of available real-time signals

  16. Comparison of Design and Practices for Radiation Safety among Five Synchrotron Radiation Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, James C.; Rokni, Sayed H.; /SLAC; Asano, Yoshihiro; /JAERI-RIKEN, Hyogo; Casey, William R.; /Brookhaven; Donahue, Richard J.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2005-06-29

    There are more and more third-generation synchrotron radiation (SR) facilities in the world that utilize low emittance electron (or positron) beam circulating in a storage ring to generate synchrotron light for various types of experiments. A storage ring based SR facility consists of an injector, a storage ring, and many SR beamlines. When compared to other types of accelerator facilities, the design and practices for radiation safety of storage ring and SR beamlines are unique to SR facilities. Unlike many other accelerator facilities, the storage ring and beamlines of a SR facility are generally above ground with users and workers occupying the experimental floor frequently. The users are generally non-radiation workers and do not wear dosimeters, though basic facility safety training is required. Thus, the shielding design typically aims for an annual dose limit of 100 mrem over 2000 h without the need for administrative control for radiation hazards. On the other hand, for operational and cost considerations, the concrete ring wall (both lateral and ratchet walls) is often desired to be no more than a few feet thick (with an even thinner roof). Most SR facilities have similar operation modes and beam parameters (both injection and stored) for storage ring and SR beamlines. The facility typically operates almost full year with one-month start-up period, 10-month science program for experiments (with short accelerator physics studies and routine maintenance during the period of science program), and a month-long shutdown period. A typical operational mode for science program consists of long periods of circulating stored beam (which decays with a lifetime in tens of hours), interposed with short injection events (in minutes) to fill the stored current. The stored beam energy ranges from a few hundreds MeV to 10 GeV with a low injection beam power (generally less than 10 watts). The injection beam energy can be the same as, or lower than, the stored beam energy

  17. Life cycle assessment of a railway bridge: comparison of two superstructure designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Guangli; Karoumi, Raid

    2011-01-01

    Railway bridges currently encounter the challenges of increasing the load capacity while the environmental sustainability should be achieved. However, it has been realised that the environmental assessment of railway bridges has not been integrated into the decision-making process, the standard...... guideline and criterion is still missing in this field. Therefore, the implementation of life cycle assessment (LCA) method is introduced into railway bridges. This article provides a systematic bridge LCA model as a guideline to quantify the environmental burdens for the railway bridge structures. A...... database. Results show that the fixed-slab bridge option has a better environmental performance than the ballasted design due to the ease of maintenances. The initial material manufacture stage is responsible for the largest environmental burden, while the impacts from the construction machinery and...

  18. Comparison of different phantom designs for CT scanner automatic tube current modulation system tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern CT scanners modulate tube current during scans according to patient size, shape and attenuation. However, the ATCM (automatic tube current modulation) systems for different CT manufacturers work on different principles. Although the systems are used for the majority of patients and examinations, there is no standard phantom for routine quality control of CT scanner ATCM operation. The ideal phantom for testing these systems should be capable of evaluating how tube current and image quality as well as dose vary according to changes in patient size and shape. For this study, a conical phantom designed by ImPACT has been compared with two phantoms made from elliptical sections with varying dimensions. The concept of the designs is to reflect the ATCM performance for the varying shapes and dimensions along the length of the human body. The first phantom comprises five elliptical sections with a wide range of different dimensions and the second has three sections that are more similar in size. The phantoms have been used to test ATCM systems for Philips, Siemens, GE and Toshiba scanners. Although the results of the tube current modulation patterns were similar for all CT scanners, the abrupt changes in attenuation for the first sectional phantom provoked an abnormal ATCM response for the GE and Toshiba scanners. The second sectional phantom was developed from the results of the first, and was more effective for ATCM system testing and could be used for dose and image quality assessment in standard positions. However, the ImPACT conical phantom provided the best overall assessment of performance in terms of tube current modulations and noise pattern. (paper)

  19. Cementless Hip Arthroplasty in Southern Iran, Midterm Outcome and Comparison of Two Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Hossein Shahcheraghi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cementless hip prosthesis was designed to provide biologic fixation, without the use of cement. The second generation components have shown more reliable bone ingrowths and survival rates. We are reporting a midterm result of two designs of cementless prosthesis in a unique culture with different social habits and expectations. Methods: 52 primary cementless total hip arthroplasty in 42 patients with the mean age of 48.8 years were retrospectively studied. Two groups of prosthesis had been implanted: Harris-Galante II (HGII in 15 and Versys-Trilogy (V-T in 37 hips, both from Zimmer company. The patients were assessed clinically, radiographically and with Harris hip score, SF36, WOMAC, and MACTAR questionnaires, with 65 months (26-136 mean follow-up. Results: All the V-T prostheses had survived well. Eight of HG II were revised by the last follow-up in 19-102 months. All had undergone acetabular revision and 2 combined with femoral revision. Broken tines of HGII cups were seen in 4 radiographs. The 65 months overall survival was 96.2% for femoral and 84.6% for acetabular components. 90% had good or excellent Harris hip scores. The functional scores were poorer in the HG II group. Pain relief and improved walking were the two main patients’ expectations fulfilled in 97.6% and 92.8%, respectively. Conclusions: The outcome of cementless total hip arthroplasty (THA is satisfactory and comparable with the literature based on the results of function and survival of this small comparative group. The use of HGII acetabular component should be abandoned.

  20. Comparison of Different Instructional Multimedia Designs for Improving Student Science-Process Skill Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Yu-Ta; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2012-02-01

    This study developed three forms of computer-based multimedia, including Static Graphics (SG), Simple Learner-Pacing Animation (SLPA), and Full Learner-Pacing Animation (FLPA), to assist students in learning topographic measuring. The interactive design of FLPA allowed students to physically manipulate the virtual measuring mechanism, rather than passively observe dynamic or static images. The students were randomly assigned to different multimedia groups. The results of a one-way ANOVA analysis indicated that (1) there was a significant difference with a large effect size ( f = .69) in mental effort ratings among three groups, and the post-hoc test indicated that FLPA imposed less cognitive load on students than did SG ( p = .007); (2) the differences of practical performance scores among groups reached the statistic significant level with a large effect size ( f = .76), and the post-hoc test indicated that FLPA fostered better learning outcomes than both SLPA and SG ( p = .004 and p = .05, respectively); (3) the difference in instructional efficiency that was computed by the z-score combination of students' mental effort ratings and practical performance scores among the three groups obtained the statistic significant level with a large effect size ( f = .79), and the post-hoc test indicated that FLPA brought students higher instructional efficiency than those of both SLPA and SG ( p = .01 and .005, respectively); (4) no significant effect was found in instructional time-spans between groups ( p = .637). Overall, FLPA was recommended as the best multimedia form to facilitate topographic measurement learning. The implications of instructional multimedia design were discussed from the perspective of cognitive load theory.

  1. The conceptual design of a hybrid life support system based on the evaluation and comparison of terrestrial testbeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czupalla, M.; Horneck, G.; Blome, H. J.

    This report summarizes a trade study of different options of a bioregenerative Life Support System (LSS) and a subsequent conceptual design of a hybrid LSS. The evaluation was based mainly on the terrestrial testbed projects MELISSA (ESA) and BIOS (Russia). In addition, some methods suggested by the Advanced Life Support Project (NASA) were considered. Computer models, including mass flows were established for each of the systems with the goal of closing system loops to the extent possible. In order to cope with the differences in the supported crew size and provided nutrition, all systems were scaled for supporting a crew of six for a 780 day Mars mission (180 days transport to Mars; 600 days surface period) as given in the NASA Design Reference Mission Scenario [Hoffman, S.J., Kaplan, D.L. Human exploration of Mars: the Reference Mission of the NASA Mars Exploratory Study, 1997]. All models were scaled to provide the same daily allowances, as of calories, to the crew. Equivalent System Mass (ESM) analysis was used to compare the investigated system models against each other. Following the comparison of the terrestrial systems, the system specific subsystem options for Food Supply, Solid Waste Processing, Water Management and Atmosphere Revitalization were evaluated in a separate trade study. The best subsystem technologies from the trade study were integrated into an overall design solution based on mass flow relationships. The optimized LSS is mainly a bioregenerative system, complemented by a few physico-chemical elements, with a total ESM of 18,088 kg, which is about 4 times higher than that of a pure physico-chemical LSS, as designed in an earlier study.

  2. Current levels and composition profiles of PBDEs and alternative flame retardants in surface sediments from the Pearl River Delta, southern China: Comparison with historical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and alternative flame retardants were measured in surface sediments collected during 2009–2010 from the Pearl River Delta, southern China (a large manufacturing base for electronics/electrical products), to evaluate the influence of China's RoHS directive (adopted in 2006) on their environmental occurrence. The concentrations in sediments from different water systems ranged from 3.67 to 2520 ng/g (average of 17.1–588 ng/g) for PBDEs and from 0.22 to 5270 ng/g (average of 11.3–454 ng/g) for the alternative retardants. Although the PBDE levels have decreased significantly compared with those in sediments collected in 2002 in this region, the levels of alternative decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) have exceeded those of BDE209 (two predominant halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) in China) in the majority of sediments. This finding suggests a different contaminant pattern of HFRs in current sediments due to the replacement of the deca-BDE mixture with DBDPE in this region. In addition, sediment concentrations of discontinued PBDEs in the rural area are clearly elevated due to e-waste dismantling. The congener profiles of PBDEs in the current sediments (with more abundant lower-brominated congeners) differed substantially from those in 2002 and from the technical products, suggesting that biological or photolytic debromination of PBDEs may have occurred in the environment. - Highlights: ► PBDE levels in sediments have decreased substantially since China's RoHS directive. ► Contamination of novel DBDPE has exceeded that of deca-BDE in the PRD sediments. ► The congener profiles of PBDEs in the sediments have changed significantly. ► Significant biological or photolytic degradation of PBDEs may occur in the environment

  3. Design of an Interior Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Machine for an Integrated Starter-Alternator System Used on an Hybrid-Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FILIP Andrei-Toader

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, to reduce fuel consumption, weuse more often vehicles with hybrid propulsion usingfor traction an electric motor and the regularcombustion engine. There are three types of hybridvehicles: serial, parallel and mixed propulsion.Hybrid vehicles use Integrated Starter Alternator(ISA system instead of usual starter and alternator.This article points out the advantages of using anIntegrated Starter Alternator System in comparisonwith the classical starter and alternator. This systemsaves energy by using the stop/start function andproviding assistance during driving. For the study, apermanent magnet synchronous motor was chosen,due to its high efficiency.

  4. The disposal alternative deep boreholes. Content and scope of R and D programme necessary for comparison with the KBS-3 method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deposition of spent fuel elements in ≥ 2000 m deep boreholes is an alternative to the KBS-3 method that has been developed in Sweden for more than 20 years. This report gives an account of the research and development needed in order to bring the deep borehole method to the same level of development as the KBS-3 method. Five majors areas are discussed: Geoscience, Technical issues, Technical barriers, Safety assessment and Time-plans and costs. It is estimated that a full R,D and D programme would need about 30 years to be completed, and the costs would amount to around 4 billion SEK (over 400 million USD)

  5. Color Shift Investigations for LED Secondary Optical Designs: Comparison between BPA-PC and PMMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guangjun; Yazdan Mehr, M.; van Driel, W. D.; Fan, Xuejun; Fan, Jiajie; Jansen, K. M. B.; Zhang, G. Q.

    2015-07-01

    Recently, color shift of LED-based lighting products has attracted much attention due to its increasing impact on the field application. However, significant research investigations on the color shift mechanisms are not publically available especially for important transmission materials used for secondary optical design. In this paper, broadly used such commercial materials (BPA-PC and PMMA) are experimentally investigated on the color shift effects during aging. Besides this, color shift mechanisms of degradation of transmittance are also studied. Results revealed: (1) Inconsistent degradation of wavelength-dependent transmittance induces the decrease of the blue/yellow light intensity ratio and thus gives rise to the color shift toward the yellow field, which is the color shift mechanism of BPA-PC; (2) Even for the non-aged BPA-PC, the transmittance varies with wavelength in the visible light field due to the chemistry of the material, which caused the change of intensify ratio of blue light to yellow light in the SPD, leading to color change in perception; (3) Oxidation plays a key role in the degradation of transmittance at around the peak wavelength of the blue light field, which is in correlation with the discoloration of thermally-aged BPA-PC materials. By contrast, for the PMMA specimen aged up to 3000 h, oxidation was neither occurred at 85 °C, nor with additional exposure to blue light, nor even with additional humidity of 85%RH.

  6. Comparison of silicon photonic crystal resonator designs for optical trapping of nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of silicon photonic devices for optical manipulation has recently enabled the direct handling of objects like nucleic acids and nanoparticles that are much smaller than could previously be trapped using traditional laser tweezers. The ability to manipulate even smaller matter however requires the development of photonic structures with even stronger trapping potentials. In this work we investigate theoretically several photonic crystal resonator designs and characterize the achievable trapping stiffness and trapping potential depth (sometimes referred to as the trapping stability). Two effects are shown to increase these trapping parameters: field enhancement in the resonator and strong field containment. We find trapping stiffness as high as 22.3 pN nm-1 for 100 nm polystyrene beads as well as potential depth of 51 000 kBT at T = 300 K, for one Watt of power input to the bus waveguide. Under the same conditions for 70 nm polystyrene beads, we find a stiffness of 69 pN nm-1 and a potential depth of 177 000 kBT. Our calculations suggest that with input power of 10 mW we could trap particles as small as 7.7 nm diameter with a trapping depth of 500 kBT. We expect these traps to eventually enable the manipulation of small matter such as single proteins, carbon nanotubes and metallic nanoparticles.

  7. Comparison of conventional and disjunct eddy covariance fluxes for the validation of a new disjunct sampler design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghi, R.; Durand, P.; Jambert, C.; Delon, C.; Jarnot, C.; Martin, J.; Ceschia, E.; Keravec, P.; Serca, D.

    2012-12-01

    While Eddy Covariance (EC) is the most direct method to assess trace gas flux at ecosystem scale, it is still limited to a small number of species as it requires fast response analyzers. Alternative approaches have been introduced to relax the constraint on analysis time. An interesting alternative method is the Disjunct Eddy Covariance (DEC) technique, which allows longer integration times (1 s - 10 s) for a small (and therefore acceptable) reduction of flux estimate accuracy. DEC relies on the same assumptions as EC but sub-samples the time series. As a result, it gives more time for concentration measurements between quickly grabbed samples. An innovative design for a disjunct sampling system was developed and tested. The prototype named MEDEE features two pressure regulated reservoirs and chemically inert materials. Built in a 19" rack, this system is suitable for tower based or airplane DEC measurements. It is compatible with most analyzers with relatively slow response (up to 10 s) as it transfers samples continuously at constant pressure. Here we present the results from a validation campaign. DEC and EC measurements of CO2 and water vapor fluxes were performed concurrently with different analyzers over a winter wheat crop. Fluxes measured by the two techniques were in good agreement and encourage the use of this prototype for measurements of species were EC is not applicable. A similar validation campaign has been conducted in June and July 2012 on the French ATR-42 aircraft and will be presented elsewhere. The system is prone to be used in the CHARMEX project on biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions in the Mediterranean area, which are known to play a significant role in atmospheric chemistry (e.g. in photo-oxidant pollution): the CHARMEX project.

  8. Evaluation and comparison of three IR detectors and three amplifier designs for a new, high-speed IR pyrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), a high-speed, four-wavelength, infrared (IR) pyrometer has been used for surface temperature measurements in shock-physics experiments for several years. The pyrometer uses solid state detectors and a single fiber-optic cable for transmission of light from the target surface to the detectors. This instrument has recently been redesigned for an upcoming experiment at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Three different IR detectors (two HgCdTe variants as well as the existing InSb chip) were compared for sensitivity, signal-to-noise ratio, and bandwidth. Of major concern was detector amplifier recovery time from overload saturation. In shock physics experiments, a short but very bright precursor frequently accompanies shock breakout (often from trapped air). This precursor can saturate the amplifier and may ''swamp-out'' the signal of interest before the amplifier recovers. With this in mind, we evaluated two new amplifier designs by the Perry Amplifier Company for linearity, signal-to-noise characteristics, gain, and saturation recovery time. This paper describes experimental setup for detector comparison and results obtained. Furthermore, we discuss new amplifier design and suitability for highspeed infrared pyrometry in shock physics experiments

  9. Comparison of computational performance of GA and PSO optimization techniques when designing similar systems - Typical PWR core case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Performance of PSO and GA techniques applied to similar system design. → This work uses ANGRA1 (two loop PWR) core as a prototype. → Results indicate that PSO technique is more adequate than GA to solve this kind of problem. - Abstract: This paper compares the performance of two optimization techniques, particle swarm optimization (PSO) and genetic algorithm (GA) applied to the design a typical reduced scale two loop Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) core, at full power in single phase forced circulation flow. This comparison aims at analyzing the performance in reaching the global optimum, considering that both heuristics are based on population search methods, that is, methods whose population (candidate solution set) evolve from one generation to the next using a combination of deterministic and probabilistic rules. The simulated PWR, similar to ANGRA 1 power plant, was used as a case example to compare the performance of PSO and GA. Results from simulations indicated that PSO is more adequate to solve this kind of problem.

  10. Design schemes and comparison research of the end-effector of large space manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Fei; Liu, Yiwei; Liu, Hong; Cai, Hegao

    2012-07-01

    The end-effector of the large space manipulator is employed to assist the manipulator in handling and manipulating large payloads on orbit. Currently, there are few researches about the end-effector, and the existing end-effectors have some disadvantages, such as poor misalignment tolerance capability and complex mechanical components. According to the end positioning errors and the residual vibration characters of the large space manipulators, two basic performance requirements of the end-effector which include the capabilities of misalignment tolerance and soft capture are proposed. And the end-effector should accommodate the following misalignments of the mechanical interface. The translation misalignments in axial and radial directions and the angular misalignments in roll, pitch and yaw are ±100 mm, 100 mm, ±10o, ±15o, ±15o, respectively. Seven end-effector schemes are presented and the capabilities of misalignment tolerance and soft capture are analyzed elementarily. The three fingers-three petals end-effector and the steel cable-snared end-effector are the most feasible schemes among the seven schemes, and they are designed in detail. The capabilities of misalignment tolerance and soft capture are validated and evaluated, through the experiment on the micro-gravity simulating device and the dynamic analysis in ADAMS software. The results show that the misalignment tolerance capabilities of these two schemes could satisfy the requirement. And the translation misalignment tolerances in axial and radial directions and the angular misalignment tolerances in roll, pitch and yaw of the steel cable-snared end-effector are 30mm, 15mm, 6o, 3o and 3o larger than those of the three fingers-three petals end-effector, respectively. And the contact force of the steel cable-snared end-effector is smaller and smoother than that of the three fingers-three petals end-effector. The end-effector schemes and research methods are beneficial to the developments of the large

  11. Cosmic alternatives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Ruth

    2009-04-01

    "Cosmologists are often in error but never in doubt." This pithy characterization by the Soviet physicist Lev Landau sums up the raison d'être of Facts and Speculations in Cosmology. Authors Jayant Narlikar and Geoffrey Burbidge are proponents of a "steady state" theory of cosmology, and they argue that the cosmological community has become fixated on a "Big Bang" dogma, suppressing alternative viewpoints. This book very much does what it says on the tin: it sets out what is known in cosmology, and puts forward the authors' point of view on an alternative to the Big Bang.

  12. Support vector machine regression (SVR/LS-SVM)--an alternative to neural networks (ANN) for analytical chemistry? Comparison of nonlinear methods on near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabin, Roman M; Lomakina, Ekaterina I

    2011-04-21

    In this study, we make a general comparison of the accuracy and robustness of five multivariate calibration models: partial least squares (PLS) regression or projection to latent structures, polynomial partial least squares (Poly-PLS) regression, artificial neural networks (ANNs), and two novel techniques based on support vector machines (SVMs) for multivariate data analysis: support vector regression (SVR) and least-squares support vector machines (LS-SVMs). The comparison is based on fourteen (14) different datasets: seven sets of gasoline data (density, benzene content, and fractional composition/boiling points), two sets of ethanol gasoline fuel data (density and ethanol content), one set of diesel fuel data (total sulfur content), three sets of petroleum (crude oil) macromolecules data (weight percentages of asphaltenes, resins, and paraffins), and one set of petroleum resins data (resins content). Vibrational (near-infrared, NIR) spectroscopic data are used to predict the properties and quality coefficients of gasoline, biofuel/biodiesel, diesel fuel, and other samples of interest. The four systems presented here range greatly in composition, properties, strength of intermolecular interactions (e.g., van der Waals forces, H-bonds), colloid structure, and phase behavior. Due to the high diversity of chemical systems studied, general conclusions about SVM regression methods can be made. We try to answer the following question: to what extent can SVM-based techniques replace ANN-based approaches in real-world (industrial/scientific) applications? The results show that both SVR and LS-SVM methods are comparable to ANNs in accuracy. Due to the much higher robustness of the former, the SVM-based approaches are recommended for practical (industrial) application. This has been shown to be especially true for complicated, highly nonlinear objects. PMID:21350755

  13. Growing Alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Petersen, Mai Corlin

    2014-01-01

    From 2014, Anhui Province will pilot a reform of the residential land market in China, thus integrating rural Anhui in the national housing market. In contrast, artist and activist Ou Ning has proposed the Bishan time money currency, intending to establish an alternative economic circuit in Bishan...

  14. Preoperative mapping of speech-eloquent areas with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI): comparison of different task designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a well-established, non-invasive method for pre-operative mapping of speech-eloquent areas. This investigation tests three simple paradigms to evaluate speech lateralisation and visualisation of speech-eloquent areas. Materials and Methods: 14 healthy volunteers and 16 brain tumour patients were given three tasks: to enumerate months in the correct order (EM), to generate verbs fitting to a given noun (GV) and to generate words fitting to a given alphabetic character (GW). We used a blocked design with 80 measurements which consisted of 4 intervals of speech activation alternating with relaxation periods. The data were analysed on the basis of the general linear model using Brainvoyager registered. The activated clusters in the inferior frontal (Broca) and the posterior temporal (Wernicke) cortex were analysed and the laterality indices calculated. Results: In both groups the paradigms GV and GW activated the Broca's area very robustly. Visualisation of the Wernicke's area was best achieved by the paradigm GV. The paradigm EM did not reliably stimulate either the frontal or the temporal cortex. Frontal lateralisation was best determined by GW and GV, temporal lateralisation by GV. Conclusion: The paradigms GV and GW visualise two essential aspects of speech processing: semantic word processing and word production. In a clinical setting with brain tumour patients, both, GV and GW can be used to visualise frontal and temporal speech areas, and to determine speech dominance. (orig.)

  15. The comparison of performance by using alternative refrigerant R152a in automobile climate system with different artificial neural network models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkisim, A. T.; Hasiloglu, A. S.; Bilen, K.

    2016-04-01

    Due to the refrigerant gas R134a which is used in automobile air conditioning systems and has greater global warming impact will be phased out gradually, an alternative gas is being desired to be used without much change on existing air conditioning systems. It is aimed to obtain the easier solution for intermediate values on the performance by creating a Neural Network Model in case of using a fluid (R152a) in automobile air conditioning systems that has the thermodynamic properties close to each other and near-zero global warming impact. In this instance, a network structure giving the most accurate result has been established by identifying which model provides the best education with which network structure and makes the most accurate predictions in the light of the data obtained after five different ANN models was trained with three different network structures. During training of Artificial Neural Network, Quick Propagation, Quasi-Newton, Levenberg-Marquardt and Conjugate Gradient Descent Batch Back Propagation methodsincluding five inputs and one output were trained with various network structures. Over 1500 iterations have been evaluated and the most appropriate model was identified by determining minimum error rates. The accuracy of the determined ANN model was revealed by comparing with estimates made by the Multi-Regression method.

  16. Designing Products Using Quality Function Deployment and Conjoint Analysis: A Comparison in a Market for Elderly People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Assab, Samah; Baier, Daniel

    In this paper, we compare two product design approaches, quality function deployment (QFD) and conjoint analysis (CA), on the example of mobile phones for elderly people as a target group. Then, we compare between our results and the results from former similar comparisons, e.g., Pullman et al. (J Prod Innov Manage 19(5):354-364, 2002) and Katz (J Innov Manage 21:61-63, 2004). In this work, the same procedures and conditions are taken into consideration as that taken by Pullman et al. in their paper. They viewed the relation between the two methods: QFD and CA as a complementary one in which both should be simultaneously implemented since each provide feedback to the other. They concluded that CA is more efficient in reflecting the end-users’ present preferences for the product attributes, whereas QFD is definitely better in satisfying end-users’ needs from the developers’ point of view. Katz in his response from a practitioner’s point of view agreed with Pullman et al. However, he concluded that the two methods are better used sequentially and that QFD should precede conjoint analysis. We test these results in a market for elderly people.

  17. Alternative 23

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Alternative 23 is a curated exhibition of works by Steve Aylett, David Blandy & Daniel Locke, Let Me Feel Your Finger First, Laura Oldfield Ford, Plastique Fantastique and Henrik Schrat, including the first screening of Let Me Feel Your Finger First’s Postcolonial Capers. In 1985 DC Comics in the US had taken the commercial decision to unify the complex and contradictory character story arcs from its various strips such as Superman, Batman and Green Lantern. The resultant crossover series...

  18. Attitudes towards complementary and alternative medicine in chronic pain syndromes: a questionnaire-based comparison between primary headache and low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czaja Eva

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM is widely used and popular among patients with primary headache or low back pain (LBP. Aim of the study was to analyze attitudes of headache and LBP patients towards the use of CAM. Methods Two questionnaire-based surveys were applied comparing 432 primary headache and 194 LBP patients. Results In total, 84.75% of all patients reported use of CAM; with significantly more LBP patients. The most frequently-used CAM therapies in headache were acupuncture (71.4%, massages (56.4%, and thermotherapy (29.2%, in LBP thermotherapy (77.4%, massages (62.7%, and acupuncture (51.4%. The most frequent attitudes towards CAM use in headache vs. LBP: "leave nothing undone" (62.5% vs. 52.1%; p = 0.006, "take action against the disease" (56.8% vs. 43.2%; p = 0.006. Nearly all patients with previous experience with CAM currently use CAM in both conditions (93.6% in headache; 100% in LBP. However, the majority of the patients had no previous experience. Conclusion Understanding motivations for CAM treatment is important, because attitudes derive from wishes for non-pharmacological treatment, to be more involved in treatment and avoid side effects. Despite higher age and more permanent pain in LBP, both groups show high use of CAM with only little specific difference in preferred methods and attitudes towards CAM use. This may reflect deficits and unfulfilled goals in conventional treatment. Maybe CAM can decrease the gap between patients' expectations about pain therapy and treatment reality, considering that both conditions are often chronic diseases, causing high burdens for daily life.

  19. Systemic Design: Two Canadian Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Ryan; Mark Leung

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces two novel applications of systemic design to facilitate a comparison of alternative methodologies that integrate systems thinking and design. In the first case study, systemic design helped the Procurement Department at the University of Toronto re-envision how public policy is implemented and how value is created in the broader university purchasing ecosystem. This resulted in an estimated $1.5 million in savings in the first year, and a rise in user retention rates fro...

  20. Designing alternative strategies for the European industry according to its strength and weaknesses and taking into consideration the opportunities and threats of the PV market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives were to generate a variety of strategies to identify alternative ways that the PV Sector can use its specific strengths to capitalize on opportunities or to avoid threats and to overcome its weaknesses. The so-called SWOT analysis provides a matrix illustrating how businesses can match the external opportunities and threats facing the sector with its internal strengths and weaknesses to yield in possible strategic alternatives. This method lends itself to brainstorming to create alternative strategies and actions, which might not otherwise be considered. In two working group meetings with participants from the PV industry, research and other stakeholders the SWOT were performed to result into implications for the PV sector. Through workshops the results will be discussed within an expert group and priorities for the future activities will be defined. The project is co-financed through the 6. Framework Programme of the EC. (authors)