WorldWideScience

Sample records for alternative automotive power

  1. Development and performance measurement of micro-power pack using micro-gas turbine driven automotive alternators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, Kyuho; Koo, Bonjin; Kim, Chang Ho; Kim, Tae Ho

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We develop micro-power pack using automotive alternator and micro-gas turbine. ► We measure rotordynamic and power generation performance of micro-power pack. ► Micro-power pack shows dramatic increases in mass and volumetric power densities. ► Test results assure feasibility of micro-power pack for electric vehicles. -- Abstract: This paper presents the development of a micro-power pack using automotive alternators powered by a micro-gas turbine (MGT) to recharge battery packs, in particular for electric vehicles (EVs). The thermodynamic efficiency for the MGT with the power turbine is estimated from a simple Brayton cycle analysis. The rotordynamic and power generation performance of the MGT driven alternator was measured during a series of experiments under electrical no-loading and loading conditions, and with belt-pulley and flexible bellows couplings. The flexible coupling showed superior rotordynamic and power generation performance than the belt coupling due to the enhanced alignment of the alternator rotor and the reduced mechanical frictions. Furthermore, the micro-power pack showed dramatic increases in the mass and volumetric power densities by ∼4 times and ∼5 times, respectively, compared with those of a commercial diesel generator with similar power level. As a result, this paper assures the feasibility of the light-weight micro-power pack using a MGT and automotive alternators for EVs.

  2. Sliding mode observers for automotive alternator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, De-Shiou

    Estimator development for synchronous rectification of the automotive alternator is a desirable approach for estimating alternator's back electromotive forces (EMFs) without a direct mechanical sensor of the rotor position. Recent theoretical studies show that estimation of the back EMF may be observed based on system's phase current model by sensing electrical variables (AC phase currents and DC bus voltage) of the synchronous rectifier. Observer design of the back EMF estimation has been developed for constant engine speed. In this work, we are interested in nonlinear observer design of the back EMF estimation for the real case of variable engine speed. Initial back EMF estimate can be obtained from a first-order sliding mode observer (SMO) based on the phase current model. A fourth-order nonlinear asymptotic observer (NAO), complemented by the dynamics of the back EMF with time-varying frequency and amplitude, is then incorporated into the observer design for chattering reduction. Since the cost of required phase current sensors may be prohibitive, the most applicable approach in real implementation by measuring DC current of the synchronous rectifier is carried out in the dissertation. It is shown that the DC link current consists of sequential "windows" with partial information of the phase currents, hence, the cascaded NAO is responsible not only for the purpose of chattering reduction but also for necessarily accomplishing the process of estimation. Stability analyses of the proposed estimators are considered for most linear and time-varying cases. The stability of the NAO without speed information is substantiated by both numerical and experimental results. Prospective estimation algorithms for the case of battery current measurements are investigated. Theoretical study indicates that the convergence of the proposed LAO may be provided by high gain inputs. Since the order of the LAO/NAO for the battery current case is one order higher than that of the link

  3. Energy management for automotive power nets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.

    2007-01-01

    Reducing fuel consumption has always been a major challenge to the automotive industry. Whereas first marketing aspects gave rise to innovative research, today the environmental regulations have become the main driving force behind new technologies. Historically, the research concentrated on

  4. Multifunctional Converter Drive for Automotive Electric Power Steering Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hackner, T.J.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis it is shown that in the case of an automotive electric power steering system, critical pulse power loads can be decoupled from the power net with a storage element and a multifunctional converter. A multifunctional converter system is proposed because it uses the motor drive system as

  5. Fuel cell power plants for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, J. F.

    1983-02-01

    While the Solid Polymer Electrolyte (SPE) fuel cell has until recently not been considered competitive with such commercial and industrial energy systems as gas turbine generators and internal combustion engines, electrical current density improvements have markedly improved the capital cost/kW output rating performance of SPE systems. Recent studies of SPE fuel cell applicability to vehicular propulsion have indicated that with adequate development, a powerplant may be produced which will satisfy the performance, size and weight objectives required for viable electric vehicles, and that the cost for such a system would be competitive with alternative advanced power systems.

  6. Challenges and Alternatives to Plastics Recycling in the Automotive Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Miller

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Plastics are increasingly a preferred material choice in designing and developing complex, consumer products, such as automobiles, because they are mouldable, lightweight, and are often perceived to be highly recyclable materials. However, actually recycling the heterogeneous plastics used in such durable items is challenging, and presents very different scenarios to how simple products, such as water bottles, are recovered via curbside or container recycling initiatives. While the technology exists to recycle plastics, their feasibility to do so from high level consumer or industrial applications is bounded by technological and economical restraints. Obstacles include the lack of market for recyclates, and the lack of cost efficient recovery infrastructures or processes. Furthermore, there is a knowledge gap between manufacturers, consumers, and end-of-life facility operators. For these reasons, end-of-life plastics are more likely to end up down-cycled, or as shredder residue and then landfilled. This paper reviews these challenges and several alternatives to recycling plastics in order to broaden the mindset surrounding plastics recycling to improve their sustainability. The paper focuses on the automotive sector for examples, but discussion can be applied to a wide range of plastic components from similarly complex products.

  7. Challenges and Alternatives to Plastics Recycling in the Automotive Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lindsay; Soulliere, Katie; Sawyer-Beaulieu, Susan; Tseng, Simon; Tam, Edwin

    2014-01-01

    Plastics are increasingly a preferred material choice in designing and developing complex, consumer products, such as automobiles, because they are mouldable, lightweight, and are often perceived to be highly recyclable materials. However, actually recycling the heterogeneous plastics used in such durable items is challenging, and presents very different scenarios to how simple products, such as water bottles, are recovered via curbside or container recycling initiatives. While the technology exists to recycle plastics, their feasibility to do so from high level consumer or industrial applications is bounded by technological and economical restraints. Obstacles include the lack of market for recyclates, and the lack of cost efficient recovery infrastructures or processes. Furthermore, there is a knowledge gap between manufacturers, consumers, and end-of-life facility operators. For these reasons, end-of-life plastics are more likely to end up down-cycled, or as shredder residue and then landfilled. This paper reviews these challenges and several alternatives to recycling plastics in order to broaden the mindset surrounding plastics recycling to improve their sustainability. The paper focuses on the automotive sector for examples, but discussion can be applied to a wide range of plastic components from similarly complex products. PMID:28788167

  8. Applicability of advanced automotive heat engines to solar thermal power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beremand, D. G.; Evans, D. G.; Alger, D. L.

    The requirements of a solar thermal power system are reviewed and compared with the predicted characteristics of automobile engines under development. A good match is found in terms of power level and efficiency when the automobile engines, designed for maximum powers of 65-100 kW (87 to 133 hp) are operated to the nominal 20-40 kW electric output requirement of the solar thermal application. At these reduced power levels it appears that the automotive gas turbine and Stirling engines have the potential to deliver the 40+ percent efficiency goal of the solar thermal program.

  9. Energy and power alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messerle, H.K.

    1992-01-01

    Taking into consideration the need for a safe energy supply, rising demand for energy worldwide and limited oil reserves, alternative energy resources for bulk power are discussed. They are nuclear fuel, fluidized bed combustion of coal, coal gasification with combined cycle process, coal-oil mixture combustion and MHD power generation process. It is pointed out that the major environmental impact of fossil fuels is in accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and air pollution due to sulphur emission. (M.G.B.)

  10. Passive Two-Phase Cooling of Automotive Power Electronics: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, G.; Jeffers, J. R.; Narumanchi, S.; Bennion, K.

    2014-08-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of a passive two-phase cooling strategy as a means of cooling automotive power electronics. The proposed cooling approach utilizes an indirect cooling configuration to alleviate some reliability concerns and to allow the use of conventional power modules. An inverter-scale proof-of-concept cooling system was fabricated, and tests were conducted using the refrigerants hydrofluoroolefin HFO-1234yf and hydrofluorocarbon HFC-245fa. Results demonstrated that the system can dissipate at least 3.5 kW of heat with 250 cm3 of HFC-245fa. An advanced evaporator design that incorporates features to improve performance and reduce size was conceived. Simulation results indicate its thermal resistance can be 37% to 48% lower than automotive dual side cooled power modules. Tests were also conducted to measure the thermal performance of two air-cooled condensers--plain and rifled finned tube designs. The results combined with some analysis were then used to estimate the required condenser size per operating conditions and maximum allowable system (i.e., vapor and liquid) temperatures.

  11. The nuclear power alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blix, H.

    1989-04-01

    The Director General of the IAEA stressed the need for energy policies and other measures which would help to slow and eventually halt the present build-up of carbon dioxide, methane and other so-called greenhouse gases, which are held to cause global warming. He urged that nuclear power and various other sources of energy, none of which contribute to global warming, should not be seen as alternatives, but should all be used to counteract the greenhouse effect. He pointed out that the commercially used renewable energies, apart from hydropower, currently represent only 0.3% of the world's energy consumption and, by contrast, the 5% of the world's energy consumption coming from nuclear power is not insignificant. Dr. Blix noted that opposition for nuclear power stems from fear of accidents and concern about the nuclear wastes. But no generation of electricity, whether by coal, hydro, gas or nuclear power, is without some risk. He emphasized that safety can never be a static concept, and that many new measures are being taken by governments and by the IAEA to further strengthen the safety of nuclear power

  12. Heat exchangers for automotive gas turbine power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penny, R.N.

    1974-01-01

    Automotive gas turbine power plants are now in the final stages of development for quantity manufacture. A crucial factor in this development is the regenerative heat exchanger. The relative merits of the rotary regenerative and static recuperative heat exchanger are compared. Thermal efficiency and initial cost are two vital issues involved in the design of small gas turbines for the commercial establishment of gas turbine vehicles. The selection of a material for the rotaty regenerator is essentially related to resolving the two vital issues of future small gas turbines and is, therefore, analysed. The account of the pioneering work involved in engineering the glass ceramic and other non-metal regenerators includes a complete failure analysis based on running experience with over 200 ceramic regenerators. The problems of sealing, supporting and manufacturing the ceramic regenerator are discussed and future practical designs are outlined. Heat exchange theory applied to small gas turbines is also reviewed

  13. SOI technology for power management in automotive and industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stork, Johannes M. C.; Hosey, George P.

    2017-02-01

    Semiconductor on Insulator (SOI) technology offers an assortment of opportunities for chip manufacturers in the Power Management market. Recent advances in the automotive and industrial markets, along with emerging features, the increasing use of sensors, and the ever-expanding "Internet of Things" (IoT) are providing for continued growth in these markets while also driving more complex solutions. The potential benefits of SOI include the ability to place both high-voltage and low-voltage devices on a single chip, saving space and cost, simplifying designs and models, and improving performance, thereby cutting development costs and improving time to market. SOI also offers novel new approaches to long-standing technologies.

  14. HIL Simulation of Power Electronics and Electric Drives for Automotive Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Frank Puschmann; Axel Kiffe; Thomas Schulte

    2012-01-01

    Hardware-in-the-loop simulation is today a standard method for testing electronic equipment in the automotive industry. Since electric drives and power electronic devices are more and more important in automotive applications, these kinds of systems have to be integrated into the hardware-in-the-loop simulation. Power converters and electric drives are used in many different applications in vehicles today (hybrid electric or electric powertrain, electric steering systems, DC-DC converters, et...

  15. Mechanisms of joint and microstructure formation in high power ultrasonic spot welding 6111 aluminium automotive sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakavos, D.; Prangnell, P.B.

    2010-01-01

    Resistance spot welding (RSW) is difficult to apply to aluminium automotive alloys. High power ultrasonic spot welding (HP-USW) is a new alternative method which is extremely efficient, using ∼2% of the energy of RSW. However, to date there have been few studies of the mechanisms of bond formation and the material interactions that take place with this process. Here, we report on a detailed investigation where we have used X-ray tomography, high resolution SEM, and EBSD, and dissimilar alloy welds, to track the interface position and characterise the stages of weld formation, and microstructure evolution, as a function of welding energy. Under optimum conditions high quality welds are produced, showing few defects. Welding proceeds by the development and spread of microwelds, until extensive plastic deformation occurs within the weld zone, where the temperature reaches ∼380 deg. C. The origin of the weld interface 'flow features' characteristic of HP-USW are discussed.

  16. HIL Simulation of Power Electronics and Electric Drives for Automotive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Puschmann

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Hardware-in-the-loop simulation is today a standard method for testing electronic equipment in the automotive industry. Since electric drives and power electronic devices are more and more important in automotive applications, these kinds of systems have to be integrated into the hardware-in-the-loop simulation. Power converters and electric drives are used in many different applications in vehicles today (hybrid electric or electric powertrain, electric steering systems, DC-DC converters, etc.. The wide range of applications, topologies, and power levels results in various different approaches and solutions for hardware-in-the-loop testing. This paper gives an overview of hardware-in-the-loop simulation of power electronics and electric drives in the automotive industry. The currently available technologies are described and future challenges are outlined.

  17. Pineapple leaf fiber as reinforce in composite materials, an alternative for automotive industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Rejane Daniela de; Seo, Emilia Satoshi Miyamaru

    2013-01-01

    The composites appear as an extremely favorable alternative for different industries, due to the fact that it combines the best mechanical properties with the best physic-chemical properties of two or more materials. Nowadays, in the evaluation of materials, besides criteria such as economic viability and performance, the environmental criterion was included in this evaluation. Part of the environmental criteria is the use of biodegradable materials and/or recycled materials. In this sense, researches focused on vegetal fibers, as reinforcement in composites are growing considerably and positive results for its performance were achieved. Moreover, the environmental-friendly approach not only is the unique advantage on usage of vegetal fibers, but also it has an economical advantage, because of the low cost and good performance due to low density. The fiber extracted from the pineapple leaf (PALF) is a new alternative for automotive industry as cellulose-based fiber composite. In this sense, the present paper aims to present the characterization of the pineapple leaf fiber for manufacturing the automotive composite materials. Milled pineapple fibers extracted, in two different ways and submitted to mercerisation treatments, were characterized by mechanical and thermal properties; density; morphology; FTIR spectroscopy, EDX and X-ray diffraction. It is important to characterize the fibers, in order to obtain appropriate mechanical properties of composite. (author)

  18. Pineapple leaf fiber as reinforce in composite materials, an alternative for automotive industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Rejane Daniela de; Seo, Emilia Satoshi Miyamaru, E-mail: rejanedaniela@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The composites appear as an extremely favorable alternative for different industries, due to the fact that it combines the best mechanical properties with the best physic-chemical properties of two or more materials. Nowadays, in the evaluation of materials, besides criteria such as economic viability and performance, the environmental criterion was included in this evaluation. Part of the environmental criteria is the use of biodegradable materials and/or recycled materials. In this sense, researches focused on vegetal fibers, as reinforcement in composites are growing considerably and positive results for its performance were achieved. Moreover, the environmental-friendly approach not only is the unique advantage on usage of vegetal fibers, but also it has an economical advantage, because of the low cost and good performance due to low density. The fiber extracted from the pineapple leaf (PALF) is a new alternative for automotive industry as cellulose-based fiber composite. In this sense, the present paper aims to present the characterization of the pineapple leaf fiber for manufacturing the automotive composite materials. Milled pineapple fibers extracted, in two different ways and submitted to mercerisation treatments, were characterized by mechanical and thermal properties; density; morphology; FTIR spectroscopy, EDX and X-ray diffraction. It is important to characterize the fibers, in order to obtain appropriate mechanical properties of composite. (author)

  19. Thermoelectric automotive waste heat energy recovery using maximum power point tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Chuang; Chau, K.T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes and implements a thermoelectric waste heat energy recovery system for internal combustion engine automobiles, including gasoline vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. The key is to directly convert the heat energy from automotive waste heat to electrical energy using a thermoelectric generator, which is then regulated by a DC-DC Cuk converter to charge a battery using maximum power point tracking. Hence, the electrical power stored in the battery can be maximized. Both analysis and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system can work well under different working conditions, and is promising for automotive industry.

  20. Development of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) automotive auxiliary power unit (APU) fueled by gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMinco, C.; Mukerjee, S.; Grieve, J.; Faville, M.; Noetzel, J.; Perry, M.; Horvath, A.; Prediger, D.; Pastula, M.; Boersma, R.; Ghosh, D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the design and the development progress of a 3 to 5 auxiliary power unit (APU) based on a gasoline fueled solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). This fuel cell was supplied reformate gas (reactant) by a partial oxidation (POx) catalytic reformer utilizing liquid gasoline and designed by Delphi Automotive Systems. This reformate gas consists mainly of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and nitrogen and was fed directly in to the SOFC stack without any additional fuel reformer processing. The SOFC stack was developed by Global Thermoelectric and operates around 700 o C. This automotive APU produces power to support future 42 volt vehicle electrical architectures and loads. The balance of the APU, designed by Delphi Automotive Systems, employs a packaging and insulation design to facilitate installation and operation on-board automobiles. (author)

  1. Design of shape memory alloy actuators for direct power by an automotive battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leary, M.; Huang, S.; Ataalla, T.; Baxter, A.; Subic, A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We model Ni–Ti SMA actuators directly powered by a standard automotive battery. ► Feasible permutations for direct power are identified and confirmed experimentally. ► 0.5 mm diameter SMA of 225 mm length or larger is feasible for direct power. ► The feasibility of 0.25 mm SMA is greater, although the actuation force is lower. ► Prototype actuators are developed for long-stroke and short-stroke applications. -- Abstract: Nickel–Titanium (Ni–Ti) Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) are increasingly utilized as mechanical actuators due to high power-to-mass ratio, high fatigue life and low cost. The implementation of SMA actuators in an automotive environment is of particular interest due to the potential for lower end-user functional efforts, together with reduced component mass and cost within a limited packaging space. In applications of this kind, the actuators are powered by a standard automotive (six cell lead-acid) battery. Although resistors and electronic devices can be used to avoid overload of either the SMA or battery system, the feasibility of supplying power to the actuators directly from the battery becomes a key objective for reducing system cost and complexity. In this study, the electrical resistivity of a linear Ni–Ti SMA actuator was theoretically calculated and experimentally verified. Based on this developed knowledge, the resistance of various actuator permutations was calculated, and the feasibility of operating the actuators with a standard automotive battery was assessed. To confirm the feasibility of powering SMA actuators directly from the automotive battery, two SMA actuator concepts were developed and experimentally validated.

  2. Integrated Automotive High-Power LED-Lighting Systems in 3D-MID Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, W.

    2014-01-01

    The growing energy consumption of lighting as well as rising luminous efficacies and -fluxes of high-power Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) have contributed to the widespread use of LEDs in modern lighting systems. One of the most prominent users of the LED-technology is automotive (exterior) lighting.

  3. VISA Final Report: Fully Integrated Power Electronic Systems in Automotive Electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waffenschmidt, E.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities related to the public funded project “Vollintegrierte leistungselektronische Systeme in der Automobilelektronik – VISA” (Fully Integrated Power Electronic Systems in Automotive Electronics). Aim of the project is to investigate the integration of components into

  4. Analysis of automotive rolling lobe air spring under alternative factors with finite element model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Pak Kin; Xie, Zhengchao; Zhao, Jing; Xu, Tao; He, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Air springs are widely used in automotive suspensions for their superior performance in terms of low friction motion, adjustable load carrying capacity and user-friendly ride height control. However, it has posed great difficulties in constructing an accurate model as well as the analysis of the influence of alternative factors, such as cord angle, cord diameter and initial pressure. In this paper, a numerical model of the rolling lobe air spring (RLAS) is built by using finite element method and compared with an existing analytical model. An experiment with respect to the vertical stiffness of the RLAS is carried out to validate the accuracy of the proposed model. Evaluation result reveals that the existing analytical model cannot represent the performance of the RLAS very well, whereas the accuracy of the numerical model is very good. With the verified numerical model, the impacts of many alternative factors on the characteristics of the RLAS are analyzed. Numerical results show that the newly proposed model is reliable to determine the vertical characteristic and physical dimensions of the RLAS under the alternative factors.

  5. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT XVI, LEARNING ABOUT AC GENERATOR (ALTERNATOR) PRINCIPLES (PART I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATING PRINCIPLES OF ALTERNATING CURRENT GENERATORS USED ON DIESEL POWERED EQUIPMENT. TOPICS ARE REVIEWING ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS, AND OPERATING PRINCIPLES OF ALTERNATORS. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM "AC GENERATORS…

  6. Nuclear power and its alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendee, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    For nuclear power to contribute significantly to the alleviation of demands for increased electricity by the year 2000, a further obstacle must be overcome, namely the present nuclear phobia of the American public. This phobia can be addressed only through public education leading to a balanced perspective of the benefits and hazards of nuclear power compared with those of alternate sources of energy and to the risks associated with an insufficient supply of energy in a few years. Also to be considered in a public education effort should be the precarious and capricious nature of this country's continued reliance on energy sources imported from politically unstable countries, as well as the risk this importation poses for the nation's economic, social and military security

  7. Entering an era of ferment : radical vs incrementalist strategies in automotive power train development

    OpenAIRE

    Magnusson, Thomas; Berggren, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Incremental improvement of a deeply embedded technology system has been a hallmark of the automotive industry for a very long time. Efforts to develop alternatives have repeatedly failed. This paper analyses how Toyota started to challenge this pattern in the late 1990s, by the architectural innovation embodied in Prius, the first mass-produced hybrid-electric car. This is followed by an account of how key competitors reacted by accelerating their incremental innovation efforts, in an era whe...

  8. Lithium Ion Battery Chemistries from Renewable Energy Storage to Automotive and Back-up Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stan, Ana-Irina; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Ioan

    2014-01-01

    Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries have been extensively used in consumer electronics because of their characteristics, such as high efficiency, long life, and high gravimetric and volumetric energy. In addition, Li-ion batteries are becoming the most attractive candidate as electrochemical storage...... systems for stationary applications, as well as power source for sustainable automotive and back-up power supply applications. This paper gives an overview of the Li-ion battery chemistries that are available at present in the market, and describes the three out of four main applications (except...... the consumers’ applications), grid support, automotive, and back-up power, for which the Li-ion batteries are suitable. Each of these applications has its own specifications and thus, the chemistry of the Li-ion battery should be chosen to fulfil the requirements of the corresponding application. Consequently...

  9. Grain structure, texture and mechanical property evolution of automotive aluminium sheet during high power ultrasonic welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddadi, Farid; Tsivoulas, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    High power ultrasonic spot welding (HPUSW) is a joining technique which is performed within less than a second and provides a more energy-efficient alternative to friction stir spot welding (FSSW), which is considered a longer cycle manufacturing process for joining automotive alloys. To date, only a few reports exist on the deformation mechanisms that take place during high power ultrasonic spot welding. In this work, dynamic recrystallization and grain growth were examined using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). HPUSW causes extensive deformation within the weld zone where the temperature increases to 440 °C. An ultra-fine grain structure was observed in a thin band of flat weld interface within a short welding time of 0.10 s. With increasing welding time the interface was displaced and ‘folds’ or ‘crests’ appeared together with shear bands. The weld interface progressively changed from flat to sinusoidal and eventually to a convoluted wave-like pattern when the tool fully penetrated the workpiece, having a wavelength of ~ 1 mm after 0.40 s. Finally, the microstructure and texture varied significantly depending on the location within the weld. Although the texture near the weld interface was relatively weak, a shift was observed with increasing welding time from an initially Cube-dominated texture to one where the typical β-fibre Brass component prevailed. - Highlights: •Lap shear strength of ~2.9 kN was achieved in 0.30 sec welding time. •Temperature approached 440 °C along the weld centreline for the highest welding time. •The texture near the teeth was dominated by Brass, P and S components at optimum condition. •The weld interface showed typical β-fibre deformation texture at optimum condition.

  10. Grain structure, texture and mechanical property evolution of automotive aluminium sheet during high power ultrasonic welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddadi, Farid, E-mail: farid.haddadi@gmail.com [Clemson University–International Center for Automotive Research (CU-ICAR), #347, 4 Research Drive, Greenville, SC 29607 (United States); School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Tsivoulas, Dimitrios, E-mail: dim.tsivoulas@gmail.com [School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Clean Energy/Nuclear Services, Amec Foster Wheeler, 601 Faraday Street, Birchwood Park, Warrington WA3 6GN (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-15

    High power ultrasonic spot welding (HPUSW) is a joining technique which is performed within less than a second and provides a more energy-efficient alternative to friction stir spot welding (FSSW), which is considered a longer cycle manufacturing process for joining automotive alloys. To date, only a few reports exist on the deformation mechanisms that take place during high power ultrasonic spot welding. In this work, dynamic recrystallization and grain growth were examined using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). HPUSW causes extensive deformation within the weld zone where the temperature increases to 440 °C. An ultra-fine grain structure was observed in a thin band of flat weld interface within a short welding time of 0.10 s. With increasing welding time the interface was displaced and ‘folds’ or ‘crests’ appeared together with shear bands. The weld interface progressively changed from flat to sinusoidal and eventually to a convoluted wave-like pattern when the tool fully penetrated the workpiece, having a wavelength of ~ 1 mm after 0.40 s. Finally, the microstructure and texture varied significantly depending on the location within the weld. Although the texture near the weld interface was relatively weak, a shift was observed with increasing welding time from an initially Cube-dominated texture to one where the typical β-fibre Brass component prevailed. - Highlights: •Lap shear strength of ~2.9 kN was achieved in 0.30 sec welding time. •Temperature approached 440 °C along the weld centreline for the highest welding time. •The texture near the teeth was dominated by Brass, P and S components at optimum condition. •The weld interface showed typical β-fibre deformation texture at optimum condition.

  11. POWER SPECTRUM DENSITY (PSD ANALYSIS OF AUTOMOTIVE PEDAL-PAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMED RITHAUDDEEN YUSOFF

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Vibration at the pedal-pad may contribute to discomfort of foot plantar fascia during driving. This is due to transmission of vibration to the mount, chassis, pedal, and then to the foot plantar fascia. This experimental study is conducted to determine the estimation of peak value using the power spectral density of the vertical vibration input at the foot. The power spectral density value is calculated based on the frequency range between 13 Hz to 18 Hz. This experiment was conducted using 12 subjects testing on three size of pedal-pads; small, medium and large. The result shows that peak value occurs at resonance frequency of 15 Hz. The PSD values at that resonance frequency are 0.251 (m/s2 2/Hz for small pedal-pad, followed by the medium pedal-pad is at 0.387 (m/s2 2/Hz and lastly for the large pedal-pad is at 0.483 (m/s22/Hz. The resultsindicate that during driving, the foot vibration when interact with the large pedal-pad contributed higher stimulus compared with the small and medium pedal-pad. The pedal-pad size plays an important role in the pedal element designs in terms of vibration-transfer from pedal-pads on the feet, particularly to provide comfort to the driver while driving.

  12. Risks and factors influencing raw material availability and consequences for the development of future automotive power trains; Risiken und Faktoren der Rohstoffverfuegbarkeit und deren Folgen fuer die Entwicklung zukuenftiger Automobilantriebe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagliardi, David; Finken, Thomas [Ricardo Deutschland GmbH, Schwaebisch Gmuend (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    This paper aims to explore key risks and extraneous factors influencing raw material availability and related consequences for the realization of future automotive power trains. Important raw materials for the electro mobility are presented followed by an evaluation of their future supply risk. A review of the current situation and a summary of expectations for future technological developments are presented. The current situation of political factors, access to resources and other important factors are then discussed, highlighting some of the major risks and their influence on up-take rates of alternative power train technologies. Specifically the specific relationships between demand and supply side for specific rare earth elements and their effects on price development is investigated and suggests how these factors might influence existing relationships within the automotive industry. The paper concludes with suggestions for alternative strategies for specific groups within the automotive value chain to mitigate those risks. (orig.)

  13. Alternative institutional arrangements for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussard, D.

    1980-08-01

    This paper investigates how alternative organizations of nuclear power generation would effect the regulatory environment for nuclear power production, how it would effect financial constraints on new construction, and what governmental barriers to such reorganization exist

  14. Is nuclear power and alternative?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lejon, E.

    1996-01-01

    In this chapter of the book author deals with the historical background for the nuclear energy power. Some statistical data about nuclear power stations as well as on radioactive wastes are given. The Chernobyl catastrophe is described. Author thinks that nuclear energy is not safe and it has no perspective in future

  15. Alternative Approach to Power Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Knud Ole Helgesen; Havemann, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    as young and dynamic. Consequently, the new courses apply IT as a gateway to power engineering. The courses present the students with: (1) a meaningful, easy understandable power engineering problem; (2) a realistic set-up in the laboratory; and (3) a microprocessor system used as a tool to solve...

  16. Evaluation of Performance and Opportunities for Improvements in Automotive Power Electronics Systems: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Gilberto; Bennion, Kevin; King, Charles; Narumanchi, Sreekant

    2016-06-14

    Thermal management strategies for automotive power electronic systems have evolved over time to reduce system cost and to improve reliability and thermal performance. In this study, we characterized the power electronic thermal management systems of two electric-drive vehicles--the 2012 Nissan LEAF and 2014 Honda Accord Hybrid. Tests were conducted to measure the insulated-gate bipolar transistor-to-coolant thermal resistances for both steady-state and transient conditions at various coolant flow rates. Water-ethylene glycol at a temperature of 65 degrees C was used as the coolant for these experiments. Computational fluid dynamics and finite element analysis models of the vehicle's power electronics thermal management system were then created and validated using experimentally obtained results. Results indicate that the Accord module provides lower steady-state thermal resistance as compared with the LEAF module. However, the LEAF design may provide improved performance in transient conditions and may have cost benefits.

  17. Hydrogen as automotive fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosini, G.; Ciancia, A.; Pede, G.; Brighigna, M.

    1993-01-01

    Hydrogen fueled vehicles may just be the answer to the air pollution problem in highly polluted urban environments where the innovative vehicle's air pollution abatement characteristics would justify its high operating costs as compared with those of conventional automotive alternatives. This paper examines the feasibility of hydrogen as an automotive fuel by analyzing the following aspects: the chemical-physical properties of hydrogen in relation to its use in internal combustion engines; the modifications necessary to adapt internal combustion engines to hydrogen use; hydrogen fuel injection systems; current production technologies and commercialization status of hydrogen automotive fuels; energy efficiency ratings; environmental impacts; in-vehicle storage systems - involving the use of hydrides, high pressure systems and liquid hydrogen storage systems; performance in terms of pay-load ratio; autonomous operation; and operating costs. With reference to recent trial results being obtained in the USA, an assessment is also made of the feasibility of the use of methane-hydrogen mixtures as automotive fuels. The paper concludes with a review of progress being made by ENEA (the Italian Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) in the development of fuel storage and electronic fuel injection systems for hydrogen powered vehicles

  18. High-temperature and high-power-density nanostructured thermoelectric generator for automotive waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yanliang; Cleary, Martin; Wang, Xiaowei; Kempf, Nicholas; Schoensee, Luke; Yang, Jian; Joshi, Giri; Meda, Lakshmikanth

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A thermoelectric generator (TEG) is fabricated using nanostructured half-Heusler materials. • The TE unicouple devices produce superior power density above 5 W/cm"2. • A TEG system with over 1 kW power output is demonstrated by recovering automotive waste heat. - Abstract: Given increasing energy use as well as decreasing fossil fuel sources worldwide, it is no surprise that interest in promoting energy efficiency through waste heat recovery is also increasing. Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) are one of the most promising pathways for waste heat recovery. Despite recent thermoelectric efficiency improvement in nanostructured materials, a variety of challenges have nevertheless resulted in few demonstrations of these materials for large-scale waste heat recovery. Here we demonstrate a high-performance TEG by combining high-efficiency nanostructured bulk materials with a novel direct metal brazing process to increase the device operating temperature. A unicouple device generates a high power density of 5.26 W cm"−"2 with a 500 °C temperature difference between hot and cold sides. A 1 kW TEG system is experimentally demonstrated by recovering the exhaust waste heat from an automotive diesel engine. The TEG system operated with a 2.1% heat-to-electricity efficiency under the average temperature difference of 339 °C between the TEG hot- and cold-side surfaces at a 550 °C exhaust temperature. The high-performance TEG reported here open up opportunities to use TEGs for energy harvesting and power generation applications.

  19. Power Modulation Investigation for High Temperature (175-200 degrees Celcius) Automotive Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCluskey, F. P.

    2007-04-30

    Hybrid electric vehicles were re-introduced in the late 1990s after a century dominated by purely internal combustion powered engines[1]. Automotive players, such as GM, Ford, DaimlerChrysler, Honda, and Toyota, together with major energy producers, such as BPAmoco, were the major force in the development of hybrid electric vehicles. Most notable was the development by Toyota of its Prius, which was launched in Japan in 1997 and worldwide in 2001. The shift to hybrids was driven by the fact that the sheer volume of vehicles on the road had begun to tax the ability of the environment to withstand the pollution of the internal combustion engine and the ability of the fossil fuel industry to produce a sufficient amount of refined gasoline. In addition, the number of vehicles was anticipated to rise exponentially with the increasing affluence of China and India. Over the last fifteen years, major advances have been made in all the technologies essential to hybrid vehicle success, including batteries, motors, power control and conditioning electronics, regenerative braking, and power sources, including fuel cells. Current hybrid electric vehicles are gasoline internal combustion--electric motor hybrids. These hybrid electric vehicles range from micro-hybrids, where a stop/start system cuts the engine while the vehicle is stopped, and mild hybrids where the stop/start system is supplemented by regenerative braking and power assist, to full hybrids where the combustion motor is optimized for electric power production, and there is full electric drive and full regenerative braking. PSA Peugeot Citroen estimates the increased energy efficiency will range from 3-6% for the micro-hybrids to 15-25% for the full hybrids.[2] Gasoline-electric hybrids are preferred in US because they permit long distance travel with low emissions and high gasoline mileage, while still using the existing refueling infrastructure. One of the most critical areas in which technology has been

  20. Successful and failing challengers: Diesel and steam as alternatives to the gasoline automotive engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haard, M. [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology (Norway). Centre for Technology and Society; Jamison, A. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Research Policy Inst.

    1996-07-01

    This paper aims at explaining why it is that some technologies become so entrenched in our society that it becomes virtually impossible to alter them, and why some challengers nevertheless succeed. It attempts to show that it is seldom enough to explain success and failure by reference to technical factors. By means of an historically comparative analysis of two challengers to the automobile gasoline engine - steam and diesel, the paper tries to show that history can help us understand and perhaps amend the problems that contemporary politicians and other social actors experience in trying to find niches for unconventional technologies. The central thesis is that established technologies remain because they have gained symbolic power, are carried by deeply embedded organizational structures, and have helped to create strong behavioral patterns. An alternative technology seldom succeeds if it poses an alternative at all three levels; indeed, the contention is that a too ambitious alternative is less likely to succeed than a conservative one. In this particular case, the diesel slowly but surely rid itself of the symbolism that had for a long time put it at a disadvantage compared to the gasoline engine; it was taken up by the same actors and organizations that supported the gasoline engine; its engineers managed to provide users with functions that were so familiar that they did not have to change their set patterns of behavior. The steamer, by contrast, did not succeed in any of these respects; its meaning came to be associated (negatively) with high fuel consumption; its organizational affiliations were weak; and users were never given the opportunity to test their willingness to modify their behavior. 50 refs

  1. Public concerns and alternative nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayo, L.H.

    1980-02-01

    The basic task undertaken in this study was to assess the relative public acceptability of three general types of nuclear power systems as alternatives to the existing Light Water Reactor (LWR) system. Concerns registered toward nuclear power constituted the basic data for this assessment. The primary measure adopted for determining the significance of concerns was the degree of difficulty posed by the concern to the nuclear power decisional structure in the establishment and maintenance of norms to control risks or to advance intended energy objectives. Alleviations or exacerbations of concern resulting from particular attributes of alternative systems were measured from an LWR baseline

  2. Alternatives to Nuclear Power in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrei, L.; Manea, Gh.

    1996-01-01

    The paper proposes alternatives to nuclear power generation in Romania. The priorities are: improvement of efficiency in producing, transmission, and energy use; promoting the renewable resources of energy, especially of hydroelectric power; restructuring industry under criteria of power consumption efficiency; commercial purposes from horizontal nuclear sector activity in Romania. There are described the causes behind the energy crisis in Romania and present energy policy solutions to it. (author). 2 tabs., 10 refs

  3. Alternative power generation concepts for space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandhorst, H.W. Jr.; Juhasz, A.J.; Jones, B.I.

    1994-01-01

    With the advent of the NASA Space Station, there has emerged a general realization that large quantities of power in space are necessary and, in fact, enabling. This realization has led to the examination of alternative options to the ubiquitous solar array/battery power system. Several factors led to the consideration of solar dynamic and nuclear power systems. These include better scaling to high power levels, higher efficiency conversion and storage subsystems, and lower system specific mass. The objective of this paper is to present the results of trade and optimization studies that high-light the potential of solar and nuclear dynamic systems relative to photovoltaic power systems

  4. Environmental potential of the alternative automotive fuels biogas, ethanol, methanol, natural gas, rape oil methyl ester, and dimethyl ether

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egebaeck, K.E.; Westerholm, R.

    1997-09-01

    The aim of the project was to estimate the future emission levels when using alternative fuels, as a contribution to the Committee for Evaluation of Alternative Automotive Fuels (organized by the Swedish Ministry of Environment). The method used for the project was to use the today's knowledge about the emission levels and the emission control technology as a base for the estimation of what additional potential there is to decrease the emissions by coming development of vehicles and the emission control technology. The results of the analysis and the estimations show that there exist a positive development for all types of vehicles and alternative fuels. However, there will be a difference between the different fuel alternatives depending on chemical and physical differences between the different fuels. There will also be a difference in the possibilities of the different fuels to capture a market which will have certain impact on the willingness and the economic possibilities for the car manufacturers to invest in the development needed to reach low emission levels. 124 refs

  5. Technology development goals for automotive fuel cell power systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, B.D.; Baum, G.N.; Kuhn, I.F. Jr. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1994-08-01

    This report determines cost and performance requirements for Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell vehicles carrying pure H{sub 2} fuel, to achieve parity with internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles. A conceptual design of a near term FCEV (fuel cell electric vehicle) is presented. Complete power system weight and cost breakdowns are presented for baseline design. Near term FCEV power system weight is 6% higher than ICE system, mid-term FCEV projected weights are 29% lower than ICE`s. There are no inherently high-cost components in FCE, and at automotive production volumes, near term FCEV cost viability is closer at hand than at first thought. PEM current vs voltage performance is presented for leading PEM manufacturers and researchers. 5 current and proposed onboard hydrogen storage techniques are critically compared: pressurized gas, cryogenic liquid, combined pressurized/cryogenic, rechargeable hydride, adsorption. Battery, capacitor, and motor/controller performance is summarized. Fuel cell power system component weight and cost densities (threshold and goal) are tabulated.

  6. Reliable and repeatable bonding technology for high temperature automotive power modules for electrified vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sang Won; Shiozaki, Koji; Glover, Michael D; Mantooth, H Alan

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the feasibility of highly reliable and repeatable copper–tin transient liquid phase (Cu–Sn TLP) bonding as applied to die attachment in high temperature operational power modules. Electrified vehicles are attracting particular interest as eco-friendly vehicles, but their power modules are challenged because of increasing power densities which lead to high temperatures. Such high temperature operation addresses the importance of advanced bonding technology that is highly reliable (for high temperature operation) and repeatable (for fabrication of advanced structures). Cu–Sn TLP bonding is employed herein because of its high remelting temperature and desirable thermal and electrical conductivities. The bonding starts with a stack of Cu–Sn–Cu metal layers that eventually transforms to Cu–Sn alloys. As the alloys have melting temperatures (Cu 3 Sn: > 600 °C, Cu 6 Sn 5 : > 400 °C) significantly higher than the process temperature, the process can be repeated without damaging previously bonded layers. A Cu–Sn TLP bonding process was developed using thin Sn metal sheets inserted between copper layers on silicon die and direct bonded copper substrates, emulating the process used to construct automotive power modules. Bond quality is characterized using (1) proof-of-concept fabrication, (2) material identification using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis, and (3) optical analysis using optical microscopy and scanning acoustic microscope. The feasibility of multiple-sided Cu–Sn TLP bonding is demonstrated by the absence of bondline damage in multiple test samples fabricated with double- or four-sided bonding using the TLP bonding process. (paper)

  7. Wavelength stabilized high pulse power laser diodes for automotive LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knigge, A.; Klehr, A.; Wenzel, H.; Zeghuzi, A.; Fricke, J.; Maaßdorf, A.; Liero, A.; Tränkle, G.

    2018-03-01

    Diode lasers generating optical pulses with high peak power and lengths in the nanosecond range are key components of systems for free-space communication, metrology, material processing, spectroscopy, and light detection and ranging (LiDAR) as needed for object detection and autonomous driving. Automotive LiDAR systems demand additionally a good beam quality and low wavelength shift with temperature due to the wide operating temperature span. We present here internally wavelength stabilized lasers emitting ns optical pulses from an emission aperture between 30 μm and 100 μm with peak powers of tens of Watts at wavelengths around 905 nm. The vertical structure based on AlGaAs (confinement and cladding layers) and InGaAs (active quantum well) is especially optimized for pulsed operation with respect to the implementation of a surface Bragg grating with a high reflectivity. The fabricated 6 mm long distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) broad area (BA) lasers are electrically driven by an in-house developed high-speed unit generating 3 to 10 ns long nearly rectangular shaped current pulses with amplitudes of up to 250 A. Such lasers emit optical pulses with a peak power of more than 30 W at 95 A pulse current up to a temperature of 85°C with a wavelength shift as low as 65 pm/K and a lateral beam propagation factor less than 10. The influence of the lateral aperture width and the pulse length on the beam quality will be shown. A monolithic integration of 3 DBR BA lasers on a single chip whose emission can be combined into a single beam raises the output power to more than 100 W.

  8. Biofuel Cells – Alternative Power Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babanova, Sofia; Yolina Hubenova; Mario Mitov

    2009-01-01

    Energy generation from renewable sources and effective waste treatment are two key challenges for the sustainable development. Microbiological (or Bio-) Fuel Cells provide an elegant solution by linking both tasks. Biofuel cells, which can directly generate electricity from biodegradable substances, have rapidly gained increasing research attention. Widely available fuel sources and moderate operational conditions make them promising in renewable energy generation, wastewater treatment, power sources for remote devices, etc. This paper reviews the use of microorganisms as biocatalysts in microbiological fuel cells. The principle of biofuel cells and their construction elements are discussed. Keywords: alternative power sources, biofuel cells, biocatalysts

  9. Investments in power networks and alternative measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Measures taken with respect to production and consumption are often alternatives to investments in the power networks. While decisions about production and consumption are taken in the market, the network operation is subject to monopoly regulation. In the central network, Statnett's commission is to invest on the basis of socioeconomic profitability. There is a need for much better coordination between network investments and other measures in the power system. The price signal from the market and general tariffs are not sufficient to realize optimal solutions, and there is a need for a ''visible hand'' that can contribute to the realization of the solutions that are the best in each individual situation. It is desirable to create processes and incentives that realize the best solutions, independently of dealing with network investments, local power production or other measures.

  10. Alternatives of seawater desalination using nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Gustavo; Vargas, Samuel; Valle, Edmundo del; Ramirez, Ramon

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cogeneration is economically assessed using two different size nuclear reactors. ► Mexican northwest region was the case for economical comparisons of cogeneration. ► Medium size nuclear reactors provide more flexibility to meet coupling demands. ► Although there is a higher overnight cost for medium size reactors, they are cost competitive. ► Cogeneration alternative using medium size reactors is less expensive. - Abstract: Nuclear power is a clean energy alternative that is already used to provide water and electricity and it helps to reduce concern of climate change. The new deployments of nuclear power are based on the Generation III reactors which come in sizes from 1100 to 1700 MWe, in addition there is a process in the very close future to provide a new generation of small and medium size reactors, less than 600 MWe. Thus, cogeneration of electricity and potable water from desalination can be based on big or small/medium reactors. This paper performs an economical comparison of nuclear desalination using two PWR (pressurized water reactor) reactor type, a big one, AP1000, against a medium reactor, IRIS. It assesses the electricity and potable water needs for the northwest region of Mexico and presents alternatives of supply based on cogeneration, using the three different single potable water processes, reverse osmosis (RO), multi-stage flash distillation (MSF) and multi-effect distillation (MED), and two hybrid methods for different potable water quality based on the amount of dissolved solids in the potable water. Investment results for the specific need are presented for all the alternatives assessed along with advantages and disadvantages.

  11. Alternative Shutdown Panel. Amaraz Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saenz de Santa Maria Valin, J.

    2016-07-01

    Between 2010 and 2014 the Nuclear Power Plant of Almaraz conducted one of the most complex projects in its history: The installation of an Alternative Shutdown Panel with the capability to stop the plant in case of fire in the Control room or in the Cable room. This project represented a great economic and organizational effort for the plant, but at the same time has been a great improvement in the safety of the installation, which was demonstrated by the achievement of a major milestone in the history of Almaraz: The actual shutdown from outside of the Control room. (Author)

  12. Active Electromagnetic Interference Cancelation for Automotive Switch-Mode Audio Power Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knott, Arnold; Pfaffinger, Gerhard; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2009-01-01

    Recent trends in the automotive audio industry have shown the importance of active noise cancelation (ANC) for major improvements in mobile entertainment environments. These approaches target the acoustical noise in the cabin and superimpose an inverse noise signal to cancel disturbances. Electro......Recent trends in the automotive audio industry have shown the importance of active noise cancelation (ANC) for major improvements in mobile entertainment environments. These approaches target the acoustical noise in the cabin and superimpose an inverse noise signal to cancel disturbances...

  13. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT XVIII, ALTERNATOR AND REGULATOR SERVICING AND TESTING, AND AN INTRODUCTION TO TRANSISTOR REGULATORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED AS A REVIEW OF THE OPERATING PRINCIPLES AND SERVICING PROCEDURES FOR GENERATORS AND AS AN INTRODUCTION TO TRANSISTOR CONTROLLED VOLTAGE REGULATION FOR GENERATORS USED ON DIESEL POWERED EQUIPMENT. TOPICS ARE (1) REVIEW OF GENERATOR PRINCIPLES, AC AND DC, (2) SERVICING AND TESTING ALTERNATORS, AND (3)…

  14. Powering Kuwait into the 21. century: Alternatives for power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boncourt, Maite de

    2012-01-01

    Kuwait is facing a surge in the consumption of power. The current power fuel mix, based on oil, appears unsustainable. Yet Kuwait has a large number of assets. The power fuel mix can be optimized and diversified to include alternatives to oil such as gas or renewables, so as to benefit from the opportunity cost of oil (the price at which this oil could be sold on international market). The country has gas reserves and a good potential in renewable technologies. If energy efficiency can be considered as a potential resource, then much can be achieved in this area as well, given Kuwait's current power and water per capita consumption rates, which are among the highest in the world. The present tendency has been to go for step-by-step fixes, adding emergency power plants which have increased power generation costs and a non-optimized system. Kuwait is on the verge of defining a new power fuel mix, with more gas, and developing new R and D projects. In this context, this memorandum looks at alternatives, and concludes that in the long term a diversified power mix has to be developed. The current gas glut at the world level, resulting both from the production of unconventional gas resources and the economic recession hitting Europe, offers a sizable opportunity for gas imports. A transition strategy for the power sector could make use of gas imports. In the longer term, however, Kuwait should not make a one-way bet and develop its domestic gas resources. This paper urges the adoption of a common gas strategy integrated into a power sector strategy, through consultation with all actors. It would include reserves, costs, feasibility and potential uses, as well as economic opportunities. As the region is facing gas shortages and Kuwait ranks independence of supply among its policy priorities, renewable, and in particular solar have their own place in the power mix. The country indeed disposes of substantial and relatively predictable renewable energy resources. Those are

  15. Alternative evacuation strategies for nuclear power accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, Gregory D.; Bier, Vicki M.

    2015-01-01

    In the U.S., current protective-action strategies to safeguard the public following a nuclear power accident have remained largely unchanged since their implementation in the early 1980s. In the past thirty years, new technologies have been introduced, allowing faster computations, better modeling of predicted radiological consequences, and improved accident mapping using geographic information systems (GIS). Utilizing these new technologies, we evaluate the efficacy of alternative strategies, called adaptive protective action zones (APAZs), that use site-specific and event-specific data to dynamically determine evacuation boundaries with simple heuristics in order to better inform protective action decisions (rather than relying on pre-event regulatory bright lines). Several candidate APAZs were developed and then compared to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s keyhole evacuation strategy (and full evacuation of the emergency planning zone). Two of the APAZs were better on average than existing NRC strategies at reducing either the radiological exposure, the population evacuated, or both. These APAZs are especially effective for larger radioactive plumes and at high population sites; one of them is better at reducing radiation exposure, while the other is better at reducing the size of the population evacuated. - Highlights: • Developed framework to compare nuclear power accident evacuation strategies. • Evacuation strategies were compared on basis of radiological and evacuation risk. • Current strategies are adequate for smaller scale nuclear power accidents. • New strategies reduced radiation exposure and evacuation size for larger accidents

  16. Recurrent-neural-network-based identification of a cascade hydraulic actuator for closed-loop automotive power transmission control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Seung Han; Hahn, Jin Oh

    2012-01-01

    By virtue of its ease of operation compared with its conventional manual counterpart, automatic transmissions are commonly used as automotive power transmission control system in today's passenger cars. In accordance with this trend, research efforts on closed-loop automatic transmission controls have been extensively carried out to improve ride quality and fuel economy. State-of-the-art power transmission control algorithms may have limitations in performance because they rely on the steady-state characteristics of the hydraulic actuator rather than fully exploit its dynamic characteristics. Since the ultimate viability of closed-loop power transmission control is dominated by precise pressure control at the level of hydraulic actuator, closed-loop control can potentially attain superior efficacy in case the hydraulic actuator can be easily incorporated into model-based observer/controller design. In this paper, we propose to use a recurrent neural network (RNN) to establish a nonlinear empirical model of a cascade hydraulic actuator in a passenger car automatic transmission, which has potential to be easily incorporated in designing observers and controllers. Experimental analysis is performed to grasp key system characteristics, based on which a nonlinear system identification procedure is carried out. Extensive experimental validation of the established model suggests that it has superb one-step-ahead prediction capability over appropriate frequency range, making it an attractive approach for model-based observer/controller design applications in automotive systems

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Recycled Cooking Oil Powers Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehicles in Vermont Recycled Cooking Oil Powers Biodiesel Vehicles in Vermont to someone by E -mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Recycled Cooking Oil Powers Biodiesel Vehicles in Vermont on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Recycled Cooking Oil Powers Biodiesel Vehicles in

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Natural Gas From Landfill Powers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refuse Vehicles Renewable Natural Gas From Landfill Powers Refuse Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Natural Gas From Landfill Powers Refuse Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Natural Gas From Landfill Powers Refuse

  19. Fischer–tropsch diesel production and evaluation as alternative automotive fuel in pilot-scale integrated biomass-to-liquid process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young-Doo; Yang, Chang-Won; Kim, Beom-Jong; Moon, Ji-Hong; Jeong, Jae-Yong; Jeong, Soo-Hwa; Lee, See-Hoon; Kim, Jae-Ho; Seo, Myung-Won; Lee, Sang-Bong; Kim, Jae-Kon; Lee, Uen-Do

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A pilot scale biomass-to-liquid (BTL) process was investigated for Fischer-Tropsch diesel production. • 200 kW_t_h dual fluidized bed gasifier was integrated with 1 bbl/day F-T synthesis reactor. • Purified syngas satisfies minimum requirements of F-T synthesis. • F-T diesel produced successfully (1 L/h) and satisfies the automotive fuel standard. • Fully integrated BTL system was operated successfully more than 500 h. - Abstract: Fischer–Tropsch (F-T) diesel produced from biomass through gasification is a promising alternative fuel. In this study, a biomass-to-liquid (BTL) system involving a dual fluidized bed gasifier (DFBG), a methanol absorption tower, and an F-T synthesis process was investigated for producing clean biodiesel as an automotive fuel. A DFBG, which is an efficient indirect gasifier, can produce syngas with high caloric value while minimizing the amount of nitrogen in the product gas. In order to meet the strict requirements of syngas for F-T synthesis, any contaminants in the syngas must be minimized and its composition must be carefully controlled. In this work, the syngas mainly comprised 35 vol% of H_2 and 21.3 vol% of CO. The concentrations of H_2S and COS in the syngas were less than 1 ppmV owing to the use of chilled methanol cleaning process. Furthermore, long-term operation of a fully integrated BTL system was successfully conducted for over 500 h. The results showed that the BTL diesel can be used as an alternative automotive diesel fuel.

  20. A study of s new power semiconductor insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) characteristics and its application to automotive ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabah, K.V.O.

    1995-05-01

    Assessment has been made of the problem of the on-resistance and temperature effects in the three power transistor combinations, such as Darlington-types or IGBT. The IGBT is a device in which the drain of the MOSFET feeds the bipolar base in monolithic (IC and Power on the same chip) to give it both the MOS and bipolar advantages. The high temperature operating characteristics of the device are discussed and compared to that of power bipolar transistor. Unlike the power bipolar transistor whose operating current density shows current crowding at above forward collector current of 4Amps and forward voltage drop above 0.4V, the IGBT is found to maintain its high current density above forward collector of current 1Amp (or a forward voltage drop above 1.2V). The results also indicate that these devices (IGBTs) can be interdigited (paralleled) without current hogging problems if the forward conduction occurs at forward voltage drops in excess of 1.2V, and this makes it the best candidate for automotive ignition power switches. (author). 20 refs, 10 figs, 1 tab

  1. Assessment of a satellite power system and six alternative technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolsko, T.; Whitfield, R.; Samsa, M.; Habegger, L.S.; Levine, E.; Tanzman, E.

    1981-04-01

    The satellite power system is assessed in comparison to six alternative technologies. The alternatives are: central-station terrestrial photovoltaic systems, conventional coal-fired power plants, coal-gasification/combined-cycle power plants, light water reactor power plants, liquid-metal fast-breeder reactors, and fusion. The comparison is made regarding issues of cost and performance, health and safety, environmental effects, resources, socio-economic factors, and insitutional issues. The criteria for selecting the issues and the alternative technologies are given, and the methodology of the comparison is discussed. Brief descriptions of each of the technologies considered are included. (LEW)

  2. Space solar power - An energy alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    The space solar power concept is concerned with the use of a Space Power Satellite (SPS) which orbits the earth at geostationary altitude. Two large symmetrical solar collectors convert solar energy directly to electricity using photovoltaic cells woven into blankets. The dc electricity is directed to microwave generators incorporated in a transmitting antenna located between the solar collectors. The antenna directs the microwave beam to a receiving antenna on earth where the microwave energy is efficiently converted back to dc electricity. The SPS design promises 30-year and beyond lifetimes. The SPS is relatively pollution free as it promises earth-equivalence of 80-85% efficient ground-based thermal power plant.

  3. How Teachers Understand and Use Power in Alternative Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin H. K. Tan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available “Alternative assessment” is an increasingly common and popular discourse in education. The potential benefit of alternative assessment practices is premised on significant changes in assessment practices. However, assessment practices embody power relations between institutions, teachers and students, and these power relationships determine the possibility and the extent of actual changes in assessment practices. Labelling a practice as “alternative assessment does not guarantee meaningful departure from existing practice. Recent research has warned that assessment practices in education cannot be presumed to empower students in ways that enhance their learning. This is partly due to a tendency to speak of power in assessment in undefined terms. Hence, it would be useful to identify the types of power present in assessment practices and the contexts which give rise to them. This paper seeks to examine power in the context of different ways that alternative assessment is practiced and understood by teachers. Research on teachers’ conceptions of alternative assessment is presented, and each of the conceptions is then analysed for insights into teachers’ meanings and practices of power. In particular, instances of sovereign, epistemological and disciplinary power in alternative assessment are identified to illuminate new ways of understanding and using alternative assessment.

  4. A conceptual study of the potential for automotive-derived and free-piston Stirling engines in 30- to 400-kilowatt stationary power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatsky, A.; Chen, H. S.; Dineen, J.

    1982-01-01

    The technical feasibility of applying automotive-derived kinematic and free-piston Stirling engine concepts for stationary applications was explored. Automotive-derived engines offer cost advantages by providing a mature and developd engine technology base with downrating and parts commonality options for specific applications. Two engine sizes (30 and 400 kW), two Stirling engine configurations (kinematic and free-piston), and two output systems (crankshaft and hydraulic pump) were studied. The study includes the influences of using either hydrogen or helium as the working gas. The first kinematic configuration selects an existing Stirling engine design from an automotive application and adapts it to stationary requirements. A 50,000-hour life requirement was established by downrating the engine to 40 kW and reducing auxiliary loads. Efficiency improvements were gained by selective material and geometric variations and peak brake efficiency of 36.8 percent using helium gas was achieved. The second design was a four-cylinder, 400 kW engine, utilizing a new output drive system known as the z-crank, which provides lower friction losses and variable stroke power control. Three different material and working gas combinations were considered. Brake efficiency levels varied from 40.5 percent to 45.6 percent. A 37.5 kW single-cycle, free-piston hydraulic output design was generated by scaling one cylinder of the original automotive engine and mating it to a counterbalanced reciprocal hydraulic pump. Metallic diaphragms were utilized to transmit power.

  5. A conceptual study of the potential for automotive-derived and free-piston Stirling engines in 30- to 400-kilowatt stationary power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatsky, A.; Chen, H. S.; Dineen, J.

    1982-05-01

    The technical feasibility of applying automotive-derived kinematic and free-piston Stirling engine concepts for stationary applications was explored. Automotive-derived engines offer cost advantages by providing a mature and developd engine technology base with downrating and parts commonality options for specific applications. Two engine sizes (30 and 400 kW), two Stirling engine configurations (kinematic and free-piston), and two output systems (crankshaft and hydraulic pump) were studied. The study includes the influences of using either hydrogen or helium as the working gas. The first kinematic configuration selects an existing Stirling engine design from an automotive application and adapts it to stationary requirements. A 50,000-hour life requirement was established by downrating the engine to 40 kW and reducing auxiliary loads. Efficiency improvements were gained by selective material and geometric variations and peak brake efficiency of 36.8 percent using helium gas was achieved. The second design was a four-cylinder, 400 kW engine, utilizing a new output drive system known as the z-crank, which provides lower friction losses and variable stroke power control. Three different material and working gas combinations were considered. Brake efficiency levels varied from 40.5 percent to 45.6 percent. A 37.5 kW single-cycle, free-piston hydraulic output design was generated by scaling one cylinder of the original automotive engine and mating it to a counterbalanced reciprocal hydraulic pump. Metallic diaphragms were utilized to transmit power.

  6. Automotive Brake Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, orginally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide mechanics with an understanding of the basic operations of automotive brake systems on military vehicles. The course contains four study units covering hydraulic brakes, air brakes, power brakes, and auxiliary brake systems. A troubleshooting guide for…

  7. Compulsator, a high power compensated pulsed alternator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weldon, W.F.; Bird, W.L.; Driga, M.D.; Rylander, H.G.; Tolk, K.M.; Woodson, H.H.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter describes a pulsed power supply utilizing inertial energy storage as a possible replacement for large capacitor banks. The compulsator overcomes many of the limitations of the pulsed homopolar generators previously developed by the Center for Electromechanics and elsewhere in that it offers high voltage (10's of kV) and consequently higher pulse rise times, is self commutating, and offers the possibility of generating repetitive pulses. The compulsator converts rotational inertial energy directly into electrical energy utilizing the principles of both magnetic induction and flux compression. The theory of operation, a prototype compulsator design, and advanced compulsator designs are discussed

  8. Natural gas as an alternative to crude oil in automotive fuel chains well-to-wheel analysis and transition strategy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hekkert, M.P.; Hendriks, F.H.J.F.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Neelis, M.L.

    2005-01-01

    Road transport produces significant amounts of CO 2 by using crude oil as primary energy source. A reduction of CO 2 emissions can be achieved by implementing alternative fuel chains. This article studies CO 2 emissions and energy efficiencies by means of a well to wheel analysis of alternative automotive fuel chains, using natural gas (NG) as an alternative primary energy source to replace crude oil. The results indicate that NG-based hydrogen applied in fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) lead to largest CO 2 emission reductions (up to 40% compared to current practice). However, large implementation barriers for this option are foreseen, both technically and in terms of network change. Two different transition strategies are discussed to gradually make the transition to these preferred fuel chains. Important transition technologies that are the backbone of these routes are traditional engine technology fuelled by compressed NG and a FCV fuelled by gasoline. The first is preferred in terms of carbon emissions. The results furthermore indicate that an innovation in the conventional chain, the diesel hybrid vehicle, is more efficient than many NG-based chains. This option scores well in terms of carbon emissions and implementation barriers and is a very strong option for the future

  9. An automotive thermoelectric-photovoltaic hybrid energy system using maximum power point tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaodong; Chau, K.T.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, there has been active research on exhaust gas waste heat energy recovery for automobiles. Meanwhile, the use of solar energy is also proposed to promote on-board renewable energy and hence to improve their fuel economy. In this paper, a new thermoelectric-photovoltaic (TE-PV) hybrid energy system is proposed and implemented for automobiles. The key is to newly develop the power conditioning circuit using maximum power point tracking so that the output power of the proposed TE-PV hybrid energy system can be maximized. An experimental system is prototyped and tested to verify the validity of the proposed system.

  10. Thermal Management and Reliability of Automotive Power Electronics and Electric Machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narumanchi, Sreekant V [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bennion, Kevin S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cousineau, Justine E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); DeVoto, Douglas J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Feng, Xuhui [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kekelia, Bidzina [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kozak, Joseph P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Major, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Moreno, Gilberto [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Paret, Paul P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tomerlin, Jeff J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-09

    Low-cost, high-performance thermal management technologies are helping meet aggressive power density, specific power, cost, and reliability targets for power electronics and electric machines. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory is working closely with numerous industry and research partners to help influence development of components that meet aggressive performance and cost targets through development and characterization of cooling technologies, and thermal characterization and improvements of passive stack materials and interfaces. Thermomechanical reliability and lifetime estimation models are important enablers for industry in cost-and time-effective design.

  11. Energy-autonomous wireless sensor nodes for automotive applications, powered by thermoelectric energy harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehne, P.; Lickert, F.; Bäumker, E.; Kroener, M.; Woias, P.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we will first present the measurement of temperatures on different positions at a diesel-powered car. As a result, several locations are identified as suitable to implement a wireless sensor node powered by thermal energy harvesting. Based on the data gained a thermoelectric generator (TEG) has been selected, and measurements of energy generation have been performed. Further, a complete energy-autonomous wireless sensor node was designed, including the TEG with its mounting bracket, an electronic power management, and a Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) sensor node. Based on temperature differences from -10 K up to 75.3 K occurring in test drives, a low power set up was chosen to achieve a system startup time below 10 minutes and to ensure service even under difficult ambient conditions, like high ambient temperatures or a slow movement of the car in stocking traffic. 2 minutes after starting the engine a power about of 10 mW is available from the chosen TEG, and in peak the power exceeds 1 W. In a 50 minute test drive it was possible to generate 650 J of energy. This information was used to develop the complete system, demonstrating the opportunity to deploy energy-autonomous wireless sensor nodes in a car, e.g. for exhaust gas monitoring. The system is used to gather sensor data, like temperature and humidity, and transmits data successfully via BLE to a prepared main node based on a Raspberry Pi. (paper)

  12. Energy-autonomous wireless sensor nodes for automotive applications, powered by thermoelectric energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehne, P.; Lickert, F.; Bäumker, E.; Kroener, M.; Woias, P.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we will first present the measurement of temperatures on different positions at a diesel-powered car. As a result, several locations are identified as suitable to implement a wireless sensor node powered by thermal energy harvesting. Based on the data gained a thermoelectric generator (TEG) has been selected, and measurements of energy generation have been performed. Further, a complete energy-autonomous wireless sensor node was designed, including the TEG with its mounting bracket, an electronic power management, and a Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) sensor node. Based on temperature differences from -10 K up to 75.3 K occurring in test drives, a low power set up was chosen to achieve a system startup time below 10 minutes and to ensure service even under difficult ambient conditions, like high ambient temperatures or a slow movement of the car in stocking traffic. 2 minutes after starting the engine a power about of 10 mW is available from the chosen TEG, and in peak the power exceeds 1 W. In a 50 minute test drive it was possible to generate 650 J of energy. This information was used to develop the complete system, demonstrating the opportunity to deploy energy-autonomous wireless sensor nodes in a car, e.g. for exhaust gas monitoring. The system is used to gather sensor data, like temperature and humidity, and transmits data successfully via BLE to a prepared main node based on a Raspberry Pi.

  13. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XXX, I--CATERPILLAR DIESEL ENGINE MAINTENANCE SUMMARY, II--REIEWING FACTS ABOUT ALTERNATORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO PROVIDE A SUMMARY OF DIESEL ENGINE MAINTENANCE FACTORS AND A REVIEW OF DIESEL ENGINE ALTERNATOR OPERATION. THE SEVEN SECTIONS COVER DIESEL ENGINE TROUBLESHOOTING AND THE OPERATION, TESTING, AND ADJUSTING OF ALTERNATORS. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM…

  14. Automotive websites

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Todd A

    2006-01-01

    For anyone buying a new car, restoring an old favorite, collecting license plates or looking for motorsports information, the internet is the place to go and this is the book to help you get there. Now with over 650 internet addresses, this expanded and updated guide provides detailed descriptions and reviews of the biggest, best and most interesting automotive websites on the net. Beginning with a brief internet history and helpful hints, it aids the novice (or not so novice) user in picking through the countless automotive sites on the internet. Websites are arranged by topics such as afterm

  15. Efficient Substrate Noise Coupling Verification and Failure Analysis Methodology for Smart Power ICs in Automotive Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Moursy , Yasser; Zou , Hao; Khalil , Raouf; Iskander , Ramy; Tisserand , Pierre; Ton , Dieu-My; Pasetti , Giuseppe; Louërat , Marie-Minerve

    2016-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents a methodology to analyze the substrate noise coupling and reduce their effects in smart power integrated circuits. This methodology considers the propagation of minority carriers in the substrate. Hence, it models the lateral bipolar junction transistors that are layout dependent and are not modeled in conventional substrate extraction tools. It allows the designer to simulate substrate currents and check their effects on circuits functionality. The...

  16. Business and Translation as Power Games: the automotive industry in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Brunelière

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Corporate translation represents a real paradox for Translation Studies (TS: while the discipline’s academic institutionalization and the origins of many translation training centres are heavily indebted to the globalization movement, fundamental research on communication in the economic pulse of this movement is still underdeveloped. The various impacts (in terms of economy, manpower and prestige of international operations, which largely depend on multilingualism and translation, represent an excellent motivation for studying multinational companies’ behaviour, especially at the intersection of language and power. With this in mind, the present article focuses on PSA Peugeot Citroën’s activity in the Brazilian market in the expectation that the character of its power structure will be revealed in its external communication. A descriptive methodology was used to analyse all 2013 press releases on its Brazilian corporate website, in comparison with those on Argentinian and International sites, to determine how questions of power can explain textual shifts. The analysis demonstrates the extent of Brazilian publishing autonomy and the subsidiary’s relationships with other corporate divisions. This case study could be considered an illustration of how corporate translation can quickly lead to core issues within TS.

  17. A CRITICAL THOUGHT OF INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGY: DEVELOPING ANALYTICAL CAPABILITY OF AUTOMOTIVE STUDENTS BY MANAGING MORE APPLICABLE MOVIE FRAGMENTS, POWER POINT, AND INTERACTIVE TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Riyanto -

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available What most sensed about Technical High School (known as SMK students is their lack of analytical capability. As their nature of academic orientation is aimed at job fullfillment, the students are enhanced to follow Standard Operational Procedure (SOP without questioning why such SOP should be followed. As for automotive students, they simply following the steps of doing things related to any activities of repairing car and other mechanical work required just because the job will be done well when the procedure completed.  This kind of mentality “following order or SOP” fits to those who only want to be workers not the men who take higher responsibilities. The progress of automotive technology demand on understanding the concept of how some system used in a car. Failure to comprehend to concept will jeopardize the performance of a car. At the same time, the progress of automotive technology is also propelled by the progress of information technology which provides more open resources that can be used to promote the quality of instuctional process.  Realizing that having analysis compentence is terribly important to run higher responsibilites and continuing education to a university, automotive students need to learn how to analyze. To promote this, teacher can use some automotive movies or animations and then chop them into many fragments related to instructional objectives. The way how the teachers arrange and present the fragments can be combined into power point and ended up with an interactive test with different model of methods, strategies, or techniques. Movies, movie cutter application, interactive test Creator ,  paint into fragments can be obtained freely from the internet. The using of movie fragments integrated into power point, arrange the fragment into various strategies, ended up with interactive test will likely focus the students into more realistic understanding toward the concept taught in the classroom. In return the

  18. Is the nuclear power an ethic alternative for the development?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilegan, Constantin Iosif; Chirica, Teodor

    1999-01-01

    Is the nuclear power an ethical alternative for the development of the energy sector? This is the question the authors try to answer. Nuclear power is subject to constant attacks from different opponent groups. They have managed to make negative public opinion, especially after the Chernobyl accident, which tends to minimise the important of that alternative. Unfortunately, nuclear professionals are also the subjects of that propaganda and even some of us are pessimistic about the future of our sector. The public will accept nuclear power if the producer guarantees that he is able to meet three conditions for the electricity supply: generation without risks for public or the environment, as cost-effective as possible and with high availability. In order to keep the confidence of general public for nuclear power, the authors, with total openness, compared the up-to-date power alternatives. The conclusion is, that for the next future, to avoid the global heating effect and to meet the constrains for a 'cleaner world', the humanity must to rely on nuclear power, besides other cleaner conventional alternatives, as ethical sources of energy. (authors)

  19. Making aerospace technology work for the automotive industry - Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, W. T.

    1978-01-01

    In many cases it has been found that advances made in one technical field can contribute to other fields. An investigation is in this connection conducted concerning subjects from contemporary NASA programs and projects which might have relevance and potential usefulness to the automotive industry. Examples regarding aerospace developments which have been utilized by the automotive industry are related to electronic design, computer systems, quality control experience, a NASA combustion scanner and television display, exhaust gas analyzers, and a device for suppressing noise propagated through ducts. Projects undertaken by NASA's center for propulsion and power research are examined with respect to their value for the automotive industry. As a result of some of these projects, a gas turbine engine and a Stirling engine might each become a possible alternative to the conventional spark ignition engine.

  20. Reducing automotive emissions—The potentials of combustion engine technologies and the power of policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berggren, Christian; Magnusson, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Reducing transport emissions, in particular vehicular emissions, is a key element for mitigating the risks of climate change. In much of the academic and public discourse the focus has been on alternative vehicle technologies and fuels (e.g. electric cars, fuel cells and hydrogen), whereas vehicles based on internal combustion engines have been perceived as close to their development limits. This paper offers a different perspective by demonstrating the accelerated improvement processes taking place in established combustion technologies as a result of a new competition between manufacturers and technologies, encouraged both by more stringent EU legislation and new CAFE levels in the US. The short-term perspective is complemented by an analysis of future improvement potentials in internal combustion technologies, which may be realized if efficient regulation is in place. Based on a comparison of four different regulatory approaches, the paper identifies the need for a long-term technology-neutral framework with stepwise increasing stringencies, arguing that this will encourage continual innovation and diffusion in the most effective way. - Highlights: ► From 1990 to 2008, CO 2 emissions from road transportation in the EU increased by 21%. ► Alternative vehicles are important, but internal combustion engines (ICE) will remain dominant. ► The paper shows how competition and new regulation accelerate the improvement of ICE-vehicles. ► The key factor for long-term emissions reduction is appropriate regulation, not technology. ► Most effective is a technology-neutral framework with stepwise increasing stringencies.

  1. Automotive Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Ralph C.; And Others

    This curriculum guide, which was validated by vocational teachers and mechanics in the field, describes the competencies needed by entry-level automotive mechanics. This guide lists 15 competencies; for each competency, various tasks with their performance objective, student learning experiences, suggested instructional techniques, instructional…

  2. Alternative off-site power supply improves nuclear power plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjorgiev, Blaže; Volkanovski, Andrija; Kančev, Duško; Čepin, Marko

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Additional power supply for mitigation of the station blackout event in NPP is used. • A hydro power plant is considered as an off-site alternative power supply. • An upgrade of the probabilistic safety assessment from its traditional use is made. • The obtained results show improvement of nuclear power plant safety. - Abstract: A reliable power system is important for safe operation of the nuclear power plants. The station blackout event is of great importance for nuclear power plant safety. This event is caused by the loss of all alternating current power supply to the safety and non-safety buses of the nuclear power plant. In this study an independent electrical connection between a pumped-storage hydro power plant and a nuclear power plant is assumed as a standpoint for safety and reliability analysis. The pumped-storage hydro power plant is considered as an alternative power supply. The connection with conventional accumulation type of hydro power plant is analysed in addition. The objective of this paper is to investigate the improvement of nuclear power plant safety resulting from the consideration of the alternative power supplies. The safety of the nuclear power plant is analysed through the core damage frequency, a risk measure assess by the probabilistic safety assessment. The presented method upgrades the probabilistic safety assessment from its common traditional use in sense that it considers non-plant sited systems. The obtained results show significant decrease of the core damage frequency, indicating improvement of nuclear safety if hydro power plant is introduced as an alternative off-site power source

  3. Review on Automotive Power Generation System on Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles & Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leong Yap Wee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative braking is a function to recharge power bank on the Plug-in electric vehicles (PHEV and electric vehicles (EV. The weakness of this system is, it can only perform its function when the vehicle is slowing down or by stepping the brake foot pedal. In other words, the electricity recharging system is inconsistent, non-continuous and geography dependent. To overcome the weakness of the regenerative braking system, it is suggested that to apply another generator which is going to be parallel with the regenerative braking system so that continuous charging can be achieved. Since the ironless electricity generator has a less counter electromotive force (CEMF comparing to an ironcored electricity generator and no cogging torque. Applying the ironless electricity generator parallel to the regenerative braking system is seen one of the options which creates sustainable charging system compared to cored electricity generator.

  4. The future of automotive technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, J.A.Jr.; Hamilton, D. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States); Shah, R.; Belanger, M. [Computer Systems Management Inc., Alexandria, VA (United States)

    2000-07-01

    An overview of the technological advances that have been made in the automotive industry worldwide in recent years were presented with a brief insight into the potential ramifications in terms of fuel efficiency and pollution abatement. Developments in power trains, materials and alternative fuels were reviewed. Up to and including the 1980's most vehicles consisted of internal combustion engines. Today, advanced spark ignition and electric vehicles/hybrid electric vehicles are already in production in Japan, North America and Europe and all major automakers are working on vehicles powered by fuel cells. The use of alternative fuels such as natural gas, propane, alcohols, biodiesel and hydrogen will be encouraged for economic, environmental and energy security reasons. These alternative fuels, however, will not reduce emissions of carbon dioxide as long as they are made from fossil-carbon sources. Cars with all aluminum or fiber-reinforced polymetric-matrix composite bodies and aluminum chassis are emerging as a challenge to steel's domination. Also family sedans with fuel efficiencies of 80 miles per US gallon will be common place. It was emphasized that the extent to which these new technologies will be implemented will depend on consumer acceptance and on governmental regulations. 8 refs., 1 tab.

  5. Power train and emission control: allocation procedure by OBD-II system for automotive technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Porag

    2017-06-01

    OBD-II, systems were designed to maintain low emissions of in use vehicles, including light and medium duty vehicles. In 1989, the California code of Regulations (CCR) known as OBD - II was adopted by the California Air Resource Board (CARB) and the objective to reduce hydrocarbon (HC) emission caused by malfunction of the vehicles emission control systems. OBD-II provides additional information to engineer for diagnosis and repair of emissions related problems. OBD-II, standardizes on the amount of memory (Freeze Frame) it uses to store the readings of the vehicle sensor when it logs on emission related Intermittent Trouble code (IT). The intent of OBD-II, systems is to detect most vehicle malfunctions when performance of a power train component or system deteriorates to the point that the vehicle’s HC emission exceed standard. The vehicle operator is notified at the time when the vehicle begins to marginally exceed emission standards, by illuminating the Malfunctions Indicator Light (MIL).

  6. Integrated Photovoltaic System Used as an Alternative Power Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Laurentiu Alboteanu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a solution to use solar energy as an alternative source of electricity to conventional sources. The solution is to use a compact photovoltaic system integrated into a micro smart grid. The studied photovoltaic system is used into concrete application for the power supply lighting in a didactic laboratory.

  7. STUDY OF ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND EFFECTS OF COMPRESSION RATIO ON THERMAL EFFICIENCY AND ENGINE POWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarjito Sarjito

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper was a case study during the sabatical program at Kingston University London in February 2007. It has been studied by team of motorsport automotive department Kingston University London and it has been elaborated as a final project on Master Program. This study takes into account some of the issues surrounding the debate about alcohol fuels in Motorsport and the wider automotive sector and is primarily concerned to add data where there seems to be little existing research since Motorsport is a secretive business. Motorsport plays an important part in the automotive industry and is a sport enjoyed worldwide. Racing practice is regarded as using the best available resources and technology as it requires optimal performance. The racing arena gives engineers the opportunity to test valuable technological solutions to prove their merits. Therefore, racing is the natural starting point for introducing new technological solutions to the public and could lead to the wholesale conversion to renewable fuels to meet our automotive energy needs. Alcohol has unique properties that make superior in many ways to ordinary gasoline. The higher knock resistance allows for higher compression ratios to be utilized resulting in higher power outputs and thermal efficiency. The efficient use of energy is of growing concern in all spheres of life and the automotive sector needs to be front runner in these efforts.

  8. Life cycle energy, environment and economic assessment of soybean-based biodiesel as an alternative automotive fuel in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Zhiyuan; Tan, Piqiang; Lou, Diming; Yan, Xiaoyu

    2008-01-01

    Life cycle energy, environment and economic assessment for conventional diesel (CD) and soybean-based biodiesel (SB) in China was carried out in this paper. The results of the assessment have shown that compared with CD, SB has similar source-to-tank (StT) total energy consumption, 76% lower StT fossil energy consumption, 79% higher source-to-wheel (StW) nitrogen oxides (NO X ) emissions, 31%, 44%, 36%, 29%, and 67% lower StW hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter (PM), sulfur oxides (SO X ), and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions, respectively. SB is thus considered to be much more renewable and cleaner than CD. However, the retail price of SB at gas stations would be about 86% higher than that of CD without government subsidy according to the cost assessment and China had to import large amount of soybean to meet the demand in recent years. Therefore, although SB is one of the most promising clean and alternative fuels, currently it is not a good choice for China. It is strategically important for China to diversify the feedstock for biodiesel and to consider other kinds of alternative fuels to substitute CD. (author)

  9. Alternative route for the MDW project for automotive fuels in the Dutch highway sector. A legal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Haute, J.S.R.; Kooy, J.

    2002-01-01

    In February 1998, the Dutch Government initiated an MDW project ('Marktwerking, Deregulering en Wetgevingskwaliteit', i.e. market functioning, deregulation and quality of legislation) to review ways in which competition within the motorway segment of the Dutch retail fuel market could be improved. The project reviewed the entry barriers and considered ways to stimulate competition, including preferential treatment of new entrants. The Dutch Major oil companies protested against the original plans of the Government and announced legal proceedings. The Government agreed to engage in negotiations with the oil industry in order to reach a compromise solution and avoid a legal battle. This resulted in an alternative route, which is analyzed in this article from a legal perspective [nl

  10. Alternative power supply systems for remote industrial customers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharlamova, N. V.; Khalyasmaa, A. I.; Eroshenko, S. A.

    2017-06-01

    The paper addresses the problem of alternative power supply of remote industrial clusters with renewable electric energy generation. As a result of different technologies comparison, consideration is given to wind energy application. The authors present a methodology of mean expected wind generation output calculation, based on Weibull distribution, which provides an effective express-tool for preliminary assessment of required installed generation capacity. The case study is based on real data including database of meteorological information, relief characteristics, power system topology etc. Wind generation feasibility estimation for a specific territory is followed by power flow calculations using Monte Carlo methodology. Finally, the paper provides a set of recommendations to ensure safe and reliable power supply for the final customers and, subsequently, to provide sustainable development of the regions, located far from megalopolises and industrial centres.

  11. High Power Alternator Test Unit (ATU) Electrical System Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchenough, Arthur; Hervol, David

    2007-01-01

    The Alternator Test Unit (ATU) in the Lunar Power System Facility (LPSF) located at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, OH was used to simulate the operating conditions and evaluate the performance of the ATU and it s interaction with various LPSF components in accordance with the JIMO AC Power System Requirements. The testing was carried out at the breadboard development level. Results of these tests will be used for the development and validation of analytical models for performance and lifetime prediction.

  12. Innovative Vehicle Concept for the Integration of Alternative Power Trains

    OpenAIRE

    Steinle, Philipp; Kriescher, Michael; Friedrich, Horst E.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: The Institute of Vehicle Concepts is developing a safe, modularisable vehicle concept in rib and space frame design for tomorrow’s vehicles with alternative power trains. The vehicle can be powered either by a fuel cell system, a free-piston linear generator developed at the DLR, or a traction battery. Taking into account the given boundary conditions, the challenge is to design a body structure that is light and performs well in the event of an accident. The rib and space fra...

  13. An approach to evaluating alternatives for wind power plant locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehman, Ateekh Ur

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Multi-criteria decision approaches are preferred for achieving multi-dimensional sustainable renewable energy goals. A more critical issue faced by the wind power industry is the selection of a location to tap prospective energy, which needs to be evaluated on multiple measures. In this paper, the aim is to assess and rank alternative wind power plant locations in Saudi Arabia. The approach presented here takes multiple criteria into consideration, such as wind speed, wind availability, site advantages, terrain details, risk and uncertainty, technology used, third party support, projected demand, types of customers, and government policies. A comparative analysis of feasible alternatives that satisfy all multi- criteria objectives is carried out. The results obtained are subjected to sensitivity analysis. Concepts such as ‘threshold values’ and ‘attribute weights’ make the approach more sensitive.

  14. Automotive sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Jiri; Illing, Matthias

    2003-01-01

    Sensors are an essential component of most electronic systems in the car. They deliver input parameters for comfort features, engine and emission control as well as for the active and passive safety systems. New technologies such as silicon micromachining play an important role for the introduction of these sensors in all vehicle classes. The importance and use of these sensor technologies in today"s automotive applications will be shown in this article. Finally an outlook on important current developments and new functions in the car will be given.

  15. Hydrogen as automotive fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dini, D.; Ciancia, A.; Pede, G.; Sglavo, V.; ENEA, Rome

    1992-01-01

    An assessment of the technical/economic feasibility of the use of hydrogen as an automotive fuel is made based on analyses of the following: the chemical- physical properties of hydrogen in relation to its use in internal combustion engines; the modifications necessary to adapt internal combustion engines to hydrogen use; hydrogen fuel injection systems - with water vapour injection, cryogenic injection, and the low or high pressure injection of hydrogen directly into the combustion chamber; the current commercialization status of hydrogen automotive fuels; energy efficiency ratings; environmental impacts; in-vehicle storage systems - involving the use of hydrides, high pressure systems and liquid hydrogen storage systems; performance in terms of pay-load ratio; autonomous operation; and operating costs. The paper concludes that, considering current costs for hydrogen fuel production, distribution and use, at present, the employment of hydrogen fuelled vehicles is feasible only in highly polluted urban environments where the innovative vehicle's air pollution abatement characteristics would justify its high operating costs as compared with those of conventional automotive alternatives

  16. Workshop on power conditioning for alternative energy technologies. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    As various alternative energy technologies such as photovoltaics, wind, fuel cells, and batteries are emerging as potential sources of energy for the future, the need arises for development of suitable power-conditioning systems to interface these sources to their respective loads. Since most of these sources produce dc electricity and most electrical loads require ac, an important component of the required power-conditioning units is a dc-to-ac inverter. The discussions deal with the development of power conditioners for each alternative energy technology. Discussion topics include assessments of current technology, identification of operational requirements with a comparison of requirements for each source technology, the identification of future technology trends, the determination of mass production and marketing requirements, and recommendations for program direction. Specifically, one working group dealt with source technology: photovoltaics, fuel cells and batteries, and wind followed by sessions discussing system size and application: large grid-connected systems, small grid-connected systems, and stand alone and dc applications. A combined group session provided an opportunity to discuss problems common to power conditioning development.

  17. The Performance Evaluation of Overall Heat Transfer and Pumping Power of γ-Al2O3/water Nanofluid as Coolant in Automotive Diesel Engine Radiator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Bozorgan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of γ-Al2O3/water nanofluid as coolant is investigated in the present study. γ-Al2O3 nanoparticles with diameters of 20 nm dispersed in water with volume concentrations up 2% are selected and their performance in a radiator of Chevrolet Suburban diesel engine under turbulent flow conditions are numerically studied. The performance of an automobile radiator is a function of overall heat transfer coefficient and total heat transfer area. The heat transfer relations between nanofluid and airflow have been investigated to evaluate the overall heat transfer and the pumping power of γ-Al2O3/water nanofluid in the radiator with a given heat exchange capacity. In the present paper, the effects of the automotive speed and Reynolds number of the nanofluid in the different volume concentrations on the radiator performance are also investigated. As an example, the results show that for 2% γ-Al2O3 nanoparticles in water with Renf=6000 in the radiator while the automotive speed is 50 mph, the overall heat transfer coefficient and pumping power are approximately 11.11% and 29.17% more than that of water for given conditions, respectively. These results confirm that γ-Al2O3/water nanofluid offers higher overall heat transfer performance than water and can be reduced the total heat transfer area of the radiator.

  18. Power generation costs for alternate reactor fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolen, G.R.; Delene, J.G.

    1980-09-01

    The total electric generating costs at the power plant busbar are estimated for various nuclear reactor fuel cycles which may be considered for power generation in the future. The reactor systems include pressurized water reactors (PWR), heavy-water reactors (HWR), high-temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGR), liquid-metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR), light-water pre-breeder and breeder reactors (LWPR, LWBR), and a fast mixed spectrum reactor (FMSR). Fuel cycles include once-through, uranium-only recycle, and full recycle of the uranium and plutonium in the spent fuel assemblies. The U 3 O 8 price for economic transition from once-through LWR fuel cycles to both PWR recycle and LMFBR systems is estimated. Electric power generation costs were determined both for a reference set of unit cost parameters and for a range of uncertainty in these parameters. In addition, cost sensitivity parameters are provided so that independent estimations can be made for alternate cost assumptions

  19. Using Technology to Enhance an Automotive Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Denis

    2009-01-01

    Denis Ashton uses technology in his automotive technology program at East Valley Institute of Technology (EVIT) to positively impact student outcomes. Ashton, the department chair for the automotive programs at EVIT, in Mesa, Arizona, says that using an interactive PowerPoint curriculum makes learning fun for students and provides immediate…

  20. Evaluation of hybrid power system alternatives: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, Andrew L.

    1999-01-01

    Pursuant to executive and statutory policies, the National Park Service (NPS) has been evaluating the use of photovoltaic (PV) hybrid power systems, for many of its remote, off-grid areas. This paper reports the results of a detailed technical and economic evaluation for one such area: the Needles District of Canyonlands National Park. The study evaluates the presented power systems and five alternative power generation configurations, four of which utilise PV. Projections are provided for the generator run-time and fuel use associated with each configuration as well as all initial and future costs. Included in the study are specific recommendations for energy efficiency improvements at the site. Results show that the generation systems presently in use, two full-time diesel generators, has the lowest conventional 20-year life cycle costs (LCC) of the six systems evaluated. However, when emissions costs are included (per NPS guidelines), several of the PV hybrid alternatives attain a lower LCC than the diesel-only systems. General discussion of the effects of initial versus future costs of PV hybrids as they compare with engine generator system is presented. (Author)

  1. Evaluation of electrical power alternatives for the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-09-01

    This study evaluates the concept of implementation of large-scale energy conservation to reduce end-use demand for electrical energy as an alternative to the need for continued construction of new power plants to meet projected energy requirements for the Pacific Northwest. In particular, the numerical accuracy, economic feasibility, and institutional impact of a conservation-oriented scenario developed by the Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc., is assessed, relative to the energy forecast prepared by the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Commission. The results of this study are presented in four detailed sections following an introductory and summary section: Reconstruction and Numerical Evaluation of Alternative Scenario; Economic Analysis; Institutional Impact; and Impact of New National Energy Policy.

  2. Impacts of Western Area Power Administration's power marketing alternatives on electric utility systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veselka, T.D.; Portante, E.C.; Koritarov, V.

    1995-03-01

    This technical memorandum estimates the effects of alternative contractual commitments that may be initiated by the Western Area Power Administration's Salt Lake City Area Office. It also studies hydropower operational restrictions at the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects in combination with these alternatives. Power marketing and hydropower operational effects are estimated in support of Western's Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Electricity production and capacity expansion for utility systems that will be directly affected by alternatives specified in the EIS are simulated. Cost estimates are presented by utility type and for various activities such as capacity expansion, generation, long-term firm purchases and sales, fixed operation and maintenance expenses, and spot market activities. Operational changes at hydropower facilities are also investigated

  3. Alternative Contracting and Ownership Approaches for New Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-09-01

    This publication examines alternative contracting and ownership approaches for the development, construction, commissioning, operation, and decommissioning of new nuclear power plants. It identifies issues faced by IAEA Member States considering the applicability of such approaches to their respective national programmes. Two new approaches to nuclear project development are analysed. These are, firstly, the Build-Own-Operate (BOO)/Build-Own-Operate-Transfer (BOO(T)) and, secondly, Regional approaches. The information includes practical examples, current practices, and case studies, and reflects the presentations and discussions that took place in a series of IAEA meetings on this topic

  4. Research and investigation of a communication chain on optical fiber with a Fabry-Perot power diode for the automotive industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacis, Irina Bristena; Vasile, Alexandru; Ionescu, Ciprian; Marghescu, Cristina

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze different power devices - emitters of optical flow, from the point of view of optical coupling, emitted optical powers, optical fiber losses and receiver. The research and characterization of the transmission through a power optical system is done using a computer system specialized for the automotive industry. This system/platform can deliver current pulses that are controlled by a computer through a software (it is possible to set different parameters such as pulse repetition frequency, duty cycle, and current intensity). For the experiments a power Fabry Perot 1035 laser diode operating in pulse with μφ 1055 nm, Ith = 40 mA, and Iop =750 mA was used with a single-mode SFM 128 optical fiber and an EM type optical coupler connected through alignment. Two types of measurements were conducted to demonstrate the usefulness of the experimental structure. In the first case the amplitude of the voltage pulses was measured at the output of an optical detector with receiving diode in a built-in amplifier with a 50 kΩ load resistance. In the second stage measurements were conducted to determine the optical power injected in the optical fiber and received at the reception cell of a power meter. Another parameter of optical coupling that can be measured using the experimental structure is irradiation. This parameter is very important to determine the optimum cutting angle of the fiber for continuity welding.

  5. Ultracapacitors for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtiani, Cyrus; Wright, Randy; Hunt, Gary

    In response to a growing consensus in the auto industry that ultracapacitors can potentially play a key role in the modern vehicle power distribution network, a task force was created at the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) to tackle issues facing the fledging industry. The task force embarked on first developing and establishing standards for performance and abuse tolerance of ultracapacitors in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy and National Labs. Subsequently, potential applications in the automotive industry were identified and a consensus requirement specification was drawn as a development guide for the industry.

  6. Ultracapacitors for automotive applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashtiani, Cyrus [DaimlerChrysler Corp., CIMS 526-00-00, 1870 Technology Dr., Troy, MI 48083 (United States); Wright, Randy; Hunt, Gary [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 834415-3830 (United States)

    2006-03-21

    In response to a growing consensus in the auto industry that ultracapacitors can potentially play a key role in the modern vehicle power distribution network, a task force was created at the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) to tackle issues facing the fledging industry. The task force embarked on first developing and establishing standards for performance and abuse tolerance of ultracapacitors in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy and National Labs. Subsequently, potential applications in the automotive industry were identified and a consensus requirement specification was drawn as a development guide for the industry. (author)

  7. Fuel cell - An alternative for power and heat generating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubcu, Victor; Ursescu, Gabriel; Zubcu, Dorina Silvia; Miler, Mihai Cristian

    2004-01-01

    One of the most promising energy generating technologies is the fuel cell (FC) because of its high efficiency and low emissions. There are even zero chemical emissions FC and cogeneration plants based on FC generate low heat emissions too. FC was invented 160 years ago but it was usually used only since 1960 in space missions. A FC farm tractor was tested 40 years ago. FC was again taken into account by power engineering since 1990 and it is now considered a credible alternative to power and heat generating. The thermal power engineers (and not only they) have two problems of cardinal importance for mankind to solve: - Energy saving (by increasing of energy generating efficiency) and - Environmental protection (by reducing chemical and heat emissions). The possibilities to use FC to generate power and heat are practically endless: on the earth, in the air and outer space, by and under water, in numberless areas of human activities. FC are now powering buses, cars, trains, boats, plains, scooters, highway road signs etc. There are already miniature FC for portable electronics. Homes, schools, hospitals, institutes, banks, police stations, etc are using FC to generate power and heat for their facilities. The methane gas produced by wastewater treatment plants and landfills is converted into electricity by using FC. Being less expensive than nuclear and solar source of energy, FC is now generally used in the space missions (in addition FC generates water). In this work an analysis of the possibilities to use FC especially for combined power and heat generating is presented. FC is favourite as energy source in space missions because it is less expensive than nuclear or solar sources. All major automobile companies have FC powered automobiles in testing stage. Mini FC for phone, laptop, and electronics are already on market. FC will be use to pagers, video recorders, small portable tools, miniature robots, special devices as hearing aid various devices, smoke detectors

  8. Requirements for future automotive batteries - a snapshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karden, Eckhard; Shinn, Paul; Bostock, Paul; Cunningham, James; Schoultz, Evan; Kok, Daniel

    Introduction of new fuel economy, performance, safety, and comfort features in future automobiles will bring up many new, power-hungry electrical systems. As a consequence, demands on automotive batteries will grow substantially, e.g. regarding reliability, energy throughput (shallow-cycle life), charge acceptance, and high-rate partial state-of-charge (HRPSOC) operation. As higher voltage levels are mostly not an economically feasible alternative for the short term, the existing 14 V electrical system will have to fulfil these new demands, utilizing advanced 12 V energy storage devices. The well-established lead-acid battery technology is expected to keep playing a key role in this application. Compared to traditional starting-lighting-ignition (SLI) batteries, significant technological progress has been achieved or can be expected, which improve both performance and service life. System integration of the storage device into the vehicle will become increasingly important. Battery monitoring systems (BMS) are expected to become a commodity, penetrating the automotive volume market from both highly equipped premium cars and dedicated fuel-economy vehicles (e.g. stop/start). Battery monitoring systems will allow for more aggressive battery operating strategies, at the same time improving the reliability of the power supply system. Where a single lead-acid battery cannot fulfil the increasing demands, dual-storage systems may form a cost-efficient extension. They consist either of two lead-acid batteries or of a lead-acid battery plus another storage device.

  9. Power Electronic Semiconductor Materials for Automotive and Energy Saving Applications – SiC, GaN, Ga2O3, and Diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Power electronics belongs to the future key technologies in order to increase system efficiency as well as performance in automotive and energy saving applications. Silicon is the major material for electronic switches since decades. Advanced fabrication processes and sophisticated electronic device designs have optimized the silicon electronic device performance almost to their theoretical limit. Therefore, to increase the system performance, new materials that exhibit physical and chemical properties beyond silicon need to be explored. A number of wide bandgap semiconductors like silicon carbide, gallium nitride, gallium oxide, and diamond exhibit outstanding characteristics that may pave the way to new performance levels. The review will introduce these materials by (i) highlighting their properties, (ii) introducing the challenges in materials growth, and (iii) outlining limits that need innovation steps in materials processing to outperform current technologies. PMID:29200530

  10. Power Electronic Semiconductor Materials for Automotive and Energy Saving Applications - SiC, GaN, Ga2O3, and Diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellmann, Peter J

    2017-11-17

    Power electronics belongs to the future key technologies in order to increase system efficiency as well as performance in automotive and energy saving applications. Silicon is the major material for electronic switches since decades. Advanced fabrication processes and sophisticated electronic device designs have optimized the silicon electronic device performance almost to their theoretical limit. Therefore, to increase the system performance, new materials that exhibit physical and chemical properties beyond silicon need to be explored. A number of wide bandgap semiconductors like silicon carbide, gallium nitride, gallium oxide, and diamond exhibit outstanding characteristics that may pave the way to new performance levels. The review will introduce these materials by (i) highlighting their properties, (ii) introducing the challenges in materials growth, and (iii) outlining limits that need innovation steps in materials processing to outperform current technologies.

  11. Correlation expansion: a powerful alternative multiple scattering calculation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Haifeng; Wu Ziyu; Sebilleau, Didier

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a powerful alternative expansion method to perform multiple scattering calculations. In contrast to standard MS series expansion, where the scattering contributions are grouped in terms of scattering order and may diverge in the low energy region, this expansion, called correlation expansion, partitions the scattering process into contributions from different small atom groups and converges at all energies. It converges faster than MS series expansion when the latter is convergent. Furthermore, it takes less memory than the full MS method so it can be used in the near edge region without any divergence problem, even for large clusters. The correlation expansion framework we derive here is very general and can serve to calculate all the elements of the scattering path operator matrix. Photoelectron diffraction calculations in a cluster containing 23 atoms are presented to test the method and compare it to full MS and standard MS series expansion

  12. Nuclear power and the possibility of alternative fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelmann, P.

    1979-01-01

    Concern about the societal implications, potential risks and the possibility of nuclear weapons proliferation has slowed down the growth of nuclear energy. Assuming a further moderate growth of nuclear power in the Federal Republic of Germany several fuel cycle and reactor strategies can the followed without exhausting the nuclear the resources before the year 2100. The uranium demand of various reactor strategies with LWR's FBR's and HTR's is compared for two demand cases in the FRG. While recycling of spent fuel seems necessary in any case, it is shown that the Th/U cycle can provide a realistic alternative to the U/Pu cycle. The parallel introduction of both cycles appears as the best solution, as it reduces the overall risks and leads to minimum uranium demand. The risk of nuclear proliferation does not vary considerably with the fuel cycle applied; it can, however, be reduced to acceptable levels by safeguards methods and institutional means. (orig.) [de

  13. local alternative sources for cogeneration combined heat and power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agll, Abdulhakim Amer

    Global demand for energy continues to grow while countries around the globe race to reduce their reliance on fossil fuels and greenhouse gas emissions by implementing policy measures and advancing technology. Sustainability has become an important issue in transportation and infrastructure development projects. While several agencies are trying to incorporate a range of sustainability measures in their goals and missions, only a few planning agencies have been able to implement these policies and they are far from perfect. The low rate of success in implementing sustainable policies is primarily due to incomplete understanding of the system and the interaction between various elements of the system. The conventional planning efforts focuses mainly on performance measures pertaining to the system and its impact on the environment but seldom on the social and economic impacts. The objective of this study is to use clean and alternative energy can be produced from many sources, and even use existing materials for energy generation. One such pathway is using wastewater, animal and organic waste, or landfills to create biogas for energy production. There are three tasks for this study. In topic one evaluated the energy saving that produced from combined hydrogen, heat, and power and mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by using local sustainable energy at the Missouri S&T campus to reduce energy consumption and fossil fuel usage. Second topic aimed to estimate energy recovery and power generation from alternative energy source by using Rankin steam cycle from municipal solid waste at Benghazi-Libya. And the last task is in progress. The results for topics one and two have been presented.

  14. Nuclear power generation alternative for a clean energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simionov, V; Ibadula, R.; Popescu, Ion.; Bobric, Elena

    2001-01-01

    many arguments in favor of nuclear energy as a reliable source such as the large size of the plants, their long periods of operation and the expertise with which they are run. The risks associated with radiation are among the most extensively studied hazards known to man but several factors make preserving public anxiety about radiation. Nuclear energy has, in normal operation, a low impact on health and the environment. In order to meet the sustainable development goals, it is necessary to maintain its high standards of safety in spite of increasing competition in the electricity sector and reactors ageing in order to achieve a higher level of public acceptance. The complex technologies used by nuclear fuel cycle facilities are controlled and regulated by international and national institutions. A framework of regulatory, institutional and technical measures is already in place ensuring that the use of nuclear energy does not significantly modify natural environment. The governments have an important role in making the public to understand social, ethical and political issues related to nuclear energy into perspective with the issues raised by alternatives. The paper presents statistical data concerning the weight of nuclear power in Romania, highlights the environmental problems with fossil fuels, discussed the risks and radiological particularly the environmental protection at nuclear power plant. Also, address are the issues of the spent fuel and radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants. (authors)

  15. Nuclear power a viable alternative in global warming context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cretu, Ileana; Balan, Iosif Bogdan; Ionila, Maria; Petra, Nicoleta Mihaela

    2008-01-01

    Energy sources available in the world include: coal, oil, gas, biomass, nuclear, hydroelectric, wind, solar, refuse-based, and hydrogen. In addition, fusion had been originally proposed as the long-term source. Every form of energy generation has both advantages and disadvantages. Burning fuel for energy requirements represent about 88% from the total emission of NO x and CO 2 , and about 90% from SO 2 respectively, and about 72% from suspension powder evacuated into the atmosphere. Global warming represents a real threat and is the most visible sign of the climatic changes which take place all over the world. To reduce the emission of greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), nitrous oxide (N 2 O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), sulphur hexafluoride (SF 6 ), the 'Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations framework convention on climate change' has been adopted in 1997. According to this protocol European countries must reduce their overall emissions of greenhouse gases by at least 5% below 1990 levels in the commitment period 2008 -- 2012. In this context, because the natural resources for power generation based on the fossil fuels are decreasing and their prices are rising, nuclear power has become a real alternative for classical energy sources. It is indicated by: - Fuel is inexpensive because uranium represents a very small part of nuclear power cost and uranium sediment is found on a large scale all over the world; - No greenhouse emission or acid rain effects occur during a normal operation. Nuclear power is also named 'clean energy'; - Wastes are more compact than those of any source of energy and are stored in underground and secured deposits; - Nuclear energy has a number of advantages which warrant its use as one of the many methods of fulfilling the energy-demand of the world. Even with conservation efforts, energy demand increased and will continue to increase. Using each and every one of these forms of energy

  16. Alternative ORC bottoming cycles FOR combined cycle power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacartegui, R.; Sanchez, D.; Munoz, J.M.; Sanchez, T.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, low temperature Organic Rankine Cycles are studied as bottoming cycle in medium and large scale combined cycle power plants. The analysis aims to show the interest of using these alternative cycles with high efficiency heavy duty gas turbines, for example recuperative gas turbines with lower gas turbine exhaust temperatures than in conventional combined cycle gas turbines. The following organic fluids have been considered: R113, R245, isobutene, toluene, cyclohexane and isopentane. Competitive results have been obtained for toluene and cyclohexane ORC combined cycles, with reasonably high global efficiencies. The paper is structured in four main parts. A review of combined cycle and ORC cycle technologies is presented, followed by a thermodynamic analysis of combined cycles with commercial gas turbines and ORC low temperature bottoming cycles. Then, a parametric optimization of an ORC combined cycle plant is performed in order to achieve a better integration between these two technologies. Finally, some economic considerations related to the use of ORC in combined cycles are discussed.

  17. Gear shift strategies for automotive transmissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngo, D.V.

    2012-01-01

    The development history of automotive engineering has shown the essential role of transmissions in road vehicles primarily powered by internal combustion engines. The engine with its physical constraints on the torque and speed requires a transmission to have its power converted to the drive power

  18. Advanced ignition for automotive engines

    OpenAIRE

    Pineda, Daniel Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Spark plugs have been igniting combustible mixtures like those found in automotive engines for over a century, and the principles of the associated ignition techniques using thermal plasma (inductive or capacitive sparks) have remained relatively unchanged during that time. However, internal combustion engines are increasingly operating with boosted intake pressures (i.e. turbo- or super-charged) in order to maintain power output while simultaneously reducing engine size and weight, and they ...

  19. European Automotive Congress

    CERN Document Server

    Clenci, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The volume includes selected and reviewed papers from the European Automotive Congress held in Bucharest, Romania, in November 2015. Authors are experts from research, industry and universities coming from 14 countries worldwide. The papers are covering the latest developments in fuel economy and environment, automotive safety and comfort, automotive reliability and maintenance, new materials and technologies, traffic and road transport systems, advanced engineering methods and tools, as well as advanced powertrains and hybrid and electric drives.

  20. Effect of water injection and off scheduling of variable inlet guide vanes, gas generator speed and power turbine nozzle angle on the performance of an automotive gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, E. L.

    1980-01-01

    The Chrysler/ERDA baseline automotive gas turbine engine was used to experimentally determine the power augmentation and emissions reductions achieved by the effect of variable compressor and power engine geometry, water injection downstream of the compressor, and increases in gas generator speed. Results were dependent on the mode of variable geometry utilization. Over 20 percent increase in power was accompanied by over 5 percent reduction in SFC. A fuel economy improvement of at least 6 percent was estimated for a vehicle with a 75 kW (100 hp) engine which could be augmented to 89 kW (120 hp) relative to an 89 Kw (120 hp) unaugmented engine.

  1. sizing of wind powered axial flux permanent magnet alternator using

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2016-10-04

    Oct 4, 2016 ... Keywords: Wind-Power, Axial flux, Axial Flux Permanent Machines (AFPM), Axial Flux Permanent Magnet ... energy for power generation, a high constraint is the .... arrangements as Single-Rotor Single-Stator Structure.

  2. Microwave power - An energy transmission alternative for the year 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalos, E.; Sperber, R.

    1980-01-01

    Recent technological advances related to the feasibility of efficient RF-dc rectification make it likely that by the year 2000 the transmission of power through space will have become a practical reality. Proposals have been made to power helicopters, aircraft, balloons, and rockets remotely. Other proposals consider the transfer of power from point to point on earth via relay through space or a transmission of power from large power sources in space. Attention has also been given to possibilities regarding the transmission of power between various points in the solar system. An outline is provided of the microwave power transmission system envisaged for the solar power satellite, taking into account the transmitting antenna, the receiver on earth, aspects of beam formation and control, transmitter options, the receiving antenna design, and cost and efficiency considerations.

  3. Wideband continuous-time ΣΔ ADCs, automotive electronics, and power management : advances in analog circuit design 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baschirotto, A.; Harpe, P.J.A.; Makinwa, K.A.A.

    2017-01-01

    This book is based on the 18 tutorials presented during the 25th workshop on Advances in Analog Circuit Design. Expert designers present readers with information about a variety of topics at the frontier of analog circuit design, including low-power and energy-efficient analog electronics, with

  4. Distributed Electrical Power Generation: Summary of Alternative Available Technologies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scott, Sarah

    2003-01-01

    .... While distributed generation (DG) technologies offer many of the benefits of alternative, efficient energy sources, few DG systems can currently be commercially purchased "off the shelf", and complicated codes and standards deter potential users...

  5. Automotive Technology Skill Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Tom; Asay, Don; Evans, Richard; Barbie, Bill; Herdener, John; Teague, Todd; Allen, Scott; Benshoof, James

    2009-01-01

    The standards in this document are for Automotive Technology programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school automotive program. Minimally, the student will complete a three-year program to achieve all standards. Although these exit-level standards are designed…

  6. The Nordic power market: Are there alternatives to expensive clearing?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nerdrum, Per Kaare; Poulsson, Christian

    2003-01-01

    The Enron scandal of 2002 has set focus on counter party risk in the Nordic power market and is an important cause of increased clearing of bilateral financial power contracts. The article discusses whether expensive clearing is always the best tool for dealing with counter party risk

  7. Automotive electronics design fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Zaman, Najamuz

    2015-01-01

    This book explains the topology behind automotive electronics architectures and examines how they can be profoundly augmented with embedded controllers. These controllers serve as the core building blocks of today’s vehicle electronics. Rather than simply teaching electrical basics, this unique resource focuses on the fundamental concepts of vehicle electronics architecture, and details the wide variety of Electronic Control Modules (ECMs) that enable the increasingly sophisticated "bells & whistles" of modern designs.  A must-have for automotive design engineers, technicians working in automotive electronics repair centers and students taking automotive electronics courses, this guide bridges the gap between academic instruction and industry practice with clear, concise advice on how to design and optimize automotive electronics with embedded controllers.

  8. Final report: U.S. competitive position in automotive technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, Michael B.; Cheney, Margaret; Thomas, Patrick; Kroll, Peter

    2002-09-30

    Patent data are presented and analyzed to assess the U.S. competitive position in eleven advanced automotive technology categories, including automotive fuel cells, hydrogen storage, advanced batteries, hybrid electric vehicles and others. Inventive activity in most of the technologies is found to be growing at a rapid pace, particularly in advanced batteries, automotive fuel cells and ultracapacitors. The U.S. is the clear leader in automotive fuel cells, on-board hydrogen storage and light weight materials. Japan leads in advanced batteries, hybrid electric vehicles, ultracapacitors, and appears to be close to overtaking the U.S. in other areas of power electronics.

  9. Alternative technology of containment construction for WWER 1000 nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalus, Z.

    1982-01-01

    A number of alternatives was assessed for the assembly of the steel elements of the cylindrical part of containment. Alternative 1 is based on the common technology of manufacture, transport and assembly of reinforced concrete blocks of ca. 3x12 m in size, used for building leak-proof walls of WWER 440 nuclear power plants. Alternative 2 is based on reinforced concrete blocks using 12x12 m blocks assembled from individual elements on the building. site. Alternative 3 is a specific variant of the previous alternative. Alternative 4 envisages the assembly of a prefabricated support structure made of steel. Alternative 5 is based on the gradual assembly of partial elements mounted onto a support structure. Alternative 6 only differs from 5 in the method of assembly and manufacture of the support structure. All alternatives are shown in diagrams. (J.B.)

  10. The development of nuclear power as an alternative energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Mingguang; Ye Cheng; Han Xu

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the world's recent development of nuclear power, which does not seem to achieve what has been anticipated by the groups of experts. In this regard, there is before us a heavy responsibility and a long way to go. Nuclear power is very important for China's environmental protection and economic development. Suggestions are made for longer-term demand for the electricity and long-term nuclear power plan in China.According to the nuclear power strategy adopted by developed nations, we believe that China's nuclear power strategy and nuclear techniques shall be based on advanced PWR, such as AP1000, CAP1000, CAP1400 and CAP1700, which will be the main NPP types in a long time in China, and the latter two shall be highly competitive in the world.For generation IV reactors, the SCWR (Supercritical Water Reactor) is more suitable than others, in terms of the industrial development in PWRs and fossil fuel super critical generator systems in China. In addition,investment should be increased in fast reactors to achieve the fuel closed-cycle, and attentions should be paid to the TWR (Traveling-wave Reactor), and small and medium-sized reactor as well.Finally, conclusions are given for large scale development of nuclear power in China. (authors)

  11. Compressed Natural Gas Technology for Alternative Fuel Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujotomo, Isworo

    2018-02-01

    Gas has great potential to be converted into electrical energy. Indonesia has natural gas reserves up to 50 years in the future, but the optimization of the gas to be converted into electricity is low and unable to compete with coal. Gas is converted into electricity has low electrical efficiency (25%), and the raw materials are more expensive than coal. Steam from a lot of wasted gas turbine, thus the need for utilizing exhaust gas results from gas turbine units. Combined cycle technology (Gas and Steam Power Plant) be a solution to improve the efficiency of electricity. Among other Thermal Units, Steam Power Plant (Combined Cycle Power Plant) has a high electrical efficiency (45%). Weakness of the current Gas and Steam Power Plant peak burden still using fuel oil. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Technology may be used to accommodate the gas with little land use. CNG gas stored in the circumstances of great pressure up to 250 bar, in contrast to gas directly converted into electricity in a power plant only 27 bar pressure. Stored in CNG gas used as a fuel to replace load bearing peak. Lawyer System on CNG conversion as well as the power plant is generally only used compressed gas with greater pressure and a bit of land.

  12. 78 FR 55765 - Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN-FIRE) AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft..., ``Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN-FIRE).'' In... caused by impaired fire protection features at nuclear power plants. The report documents the history of...

  13. Alternatives to coal and candles: wind power in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lew, Debra J.

    2000-01-01

    China is in a unique position to be able to exploit her vast wind resources to satisfy both the rapidly growing energy demand which fuels her economy as well as needs of approximately 72 million people who live in rural areas and have no access to conventional electricity services. China, mainly through the efforts of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, has already successfully disseminated over 150,000 small-scale wind electric generators which power households in rural areas, through a well-coordinated combination of local research and development, technology transfer, industry support, end-user incentives, and an infrastructure for information dissemination and technical training. In this paper, we review China's utilisation of wind energy and discuss how it can be increased for both rural electrification and the rapidly growing power sector. We find that novel approaches in technical implementation of wind power use may help to better meet China's needs. Use of hybrid systems may help to provide higher quality, more reliable power for rural households and villages than is currently provided through wind-only systems. Grid-connected wind power, which currently is more costly and less reliable than coal power, can become cost-competitive and more reliable through local, mass production of wind turbines combined with storage systems. We examine governmental support, through policy, infrastructure development and financial incentives, that have fostered the successes of dissemination of small-scale wind turbines and also the support, or lack thereof, that has hindered commercial development of large-scale wind power, We find that a better policy and regulatory framework is the most important measure that China can take to increase the use of this indigenous, clean resource. (Author)

  14. Development of a Low Inductance Linear Alternator for Stirling Power Convertors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Steven M.; Schifer, Nicholas A.

    2017-01-01

    The free-piston Stirling power convertor is a promising technology for high efficiency heat-to-electricity power conversion in space. Stirling power convertors typically utilize linear alternators for converting mechanical motion into electricity. The linear alternator is one of the heaviest components of modern Stirling power convertors. In addition, state-of-art Stirling linear alternators usually require the use of tuning capacitors or active power factor correction controllers to maximize convertor output power. The linear alternator to be discussed in this paper, eliminates the need for tuning capacitors and delivers electrical power output in which current is inherently in phase with voltage. No power factor correction is needed. In addition, the linear alternator concept requires very little iron, so core loss has been virtually eliminated. This concept is a unique moving coil design where the magnetic flux path is defined by the magnets themselves. This paper presents computational predictions for two different low inductance alternator configurations, and compares the predictions with experimental data for one of the configurations that has been built and is currently being tested.

  15. Development of a Low-Inductance Linear Alternator for Stirling Power Convertors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Steven M.; Schifer, Nicholas A.

    2017-01-01

    The free-piston Stirling power convertor is a promising technology for high-efficiency heat-to-electricity power conversion in space. Stirling power convertors typically utilize linear alternators for converting mechanical motion into electricity. The linear alternator is one of the heaviest components of modern Stirling power convertors. In addition, state-of-the-art Stirling linear alternators usually require the use of tuning capacitors or active power factor correction controllers to maximize convertor output power. The linear alternator to be discussed in this paper eliminates the need for tuning capacitors and delivers electrical power output in which current is inherently in phase with voltage. No power factor correction is needed. In addition, the linear alternator concept requires very little iron, so core loss has been virtually eliminated. This concept is a unique moving coil design where the magnetic flux path is defined by the magnets themselves. This paper presents computational predictions for two different low inductance alternator configurations. Additionally, one of the configurations was built and tested at GRC, and the experimental data is compared with the predictions.

  16. Alternative strategies for electricity supply from RENEL's power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladescu, A.; Popescu, M.; Breazu, F.; Valcereanu, G.; Oprea, G.; Velcescu, O.; Popovici, D.

    1996-01-01

    The transition to the market economy imposes the refurbishment and rehabilitation of the energy sector. This development must be based on the principles of economic efficiency having in view both the conditions of environmental protection and the energy demand and supply. This paper will describe some alternative strategies for electricity supply, taking into account the forecast of electricity demand integrated into total energy demand, as well as the environmental protection regulations. (author). 1 fig., 4 refs

  17. Power shopping - practical advice and cost-saving alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthofer, J.

    1999-01-01

    Encore Energy Solutions is a power consulting company which operates in California, Alberta and Ontario. The company manages electricity portfolios, sells risk management instruments and works with end users to lower power costs. It also helps utilities manage the evolution to a competitive energy market. In this presentation, a series of overhead viewgraphs were used to explain the roles of different players in Ontario's electric power industry, including generators, retailers, distributors, wholesale sellers, transmitters, wholesale consumers, independent market operators (IMOs), and consultants. The challenges facing municipal electric utilities regarding the wires business and retail services were also discussed. The trends in today's evolving power market were highlighted. These included price elasticity, load dispatch, granularity, long- and short-term volatility, gas prices, day/night spread, transmission tariffs, congestion and cost of capital. A graph depicting volatility term structures for electricity, natural gas and crude oil suggests that instantaneous volatility of power is almost infinite. Issues regarding risk management in terms of shareholder's portfolio values were also discussed. 17 figs

  18. Economic consequences of alternative nuclear power plant lifetimes in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindenberger, D.; Wissen, R.; Bartels, M.; Buttermann, H.G.; Hillebrand, B.

    2006-01-01

    The coalition agreement of the Christian Democratic (CDU), Christian Social (CSU), and Social Democratic (SPD) parties contains a provision under which the existing regulations about phasing out the peaceful use of nuclear power will remain in force because of different opinions about the use of nuclear power in Germany. This article studies the consequences of longer lifetimes of the nuclear power plants currently in operation as compared to the provisions in opt-out legislation. The details examined include the effects of longer nuclear power plant lifetimes on the development of generating capacities in Germany, electricity generation, fuel consumption and fuel imports, the resultant CO 2 emissions, costs of electricity generation and electricity prices as well as the associated impact on production and employment in this sector and in industry as a whole. A summary is presented of the findings of a comprehensive study published under the same title in October 2005. The study was compiled by the Institute of Power Economics of the University of Cologne (EWI) and by Energy Environment Forecast Analysis GmbH, and had been commissioned by the Federation of German Industries (BDI). (orig.)

  19. Modern materials for automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hovorun T. P.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The car industry uses a tremendous number of materials to build cars, including iron, aluminum, steel, glass, rubber, petroleum products, copper, steel and others. These materials have evolved greatly over the decades, becoming more sophisticated, better built, and safer. They've changed as new automotive manufacturing technologies have emerged over the years, and they're used in increasingly innovative ways. This article is devoted to systematization information on the introduction and application of modern materials in the automotive industry. Given both domestic and foreign sources of information, it follows that car manufacturers are constantly pushing to create the lightest cars possible to increase speed and power. Research and development into lightweight materials is essential for lowering their cost, increasing their ability to be recycled, enabling their integration into vehicles, and maximizing their fuel economy benefits. Light weighting without loss of strength and speed properties is the present, and the future, of the automotive manufacturing industry. It brings innovative materials to the frontline of design.

  20. Online Reputation in Automotive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vodák Josef

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the issue of online reputation, namely the social networking profile of businesses. Selected companies in the automotive industry through social profiles communicate with their customers, the public and they trying to improve their name and the name of their products in the public eye. Online reputation analysis was carried out to determine the current situation on the territory of Slovakia. On the basis of the data found, measures were proposed to improve the current state and reputation of automotive companies. Recommendations suggested by the findings can be used on any market to improve the current state and increase the competitiveness of automotive companies.

  1. Alternative trends in development of thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prisyazhniuk, Vitaly A.

    2008-01-01

    Thermal (or fossil fuel) power plants (TPP) are the major polluters of man's environment, discharging into the atmosphere the basic product of carbon fuel combustion, CO 2 . It is this very gas that accounts for the greenhouse effect causing the global climate warm-up on our planet. A natural solution of the problem of reducing carbon dioxide discharge into the atmosphere lies in power saving, thus reducing the amount of the fuel burnt. This approach can be justified from any standpoint, both economically and ecologically. The ideal way of solving the problem would be to completely give up burning carbon-containing fuel, such as coal, petroleum products, and other power resources of organic nature. This work is intended to outline the ways of reducing consumption of fuel by TPP and, consequently, of reducing their discharging into the atmosphere the gases producing the greenhouse effect. One of the ways lies in changing the thermophysical characteristics of the working medium, which becomes possible if we can modify the conventional working medium, that is water, or can use some working medium with quite different thermophysical properties. The article dwells on various technological ways providing for a practical solution of the problem, such as the Kalina cycle; modification of water properties by way of magneto-hydrodynamic resonance (MHD resonance); and employing, in the thermodynamic cycle of Thermal Power Plants, liquids boiling at temperatures which are lower than that of the environment

  2. Reliability of emergency alternating-current power systems at nuclear power plants: a discussion of NUREG/CR-2989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battle, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    The reliability of emergency alternating-current power systems typical of most nuclear power plants was estimated by using fault-tree analysis of selected typical designs. The failure probabilities used in the fault trees were calculated from extensive historical data collected from Licensee Event Reports and from operating experience information obtained from nuclear plant licensees. Trends of diesel generator independent failure on demand are included. No one or two improvements can be made at all plants to increase significantly the industry-average emergency alternating-current power system reliability; the most beneficial improvements are varied and plant specific

  3. Laser solenoid: an alternate use of lasers in fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, P.H.

    1977-01-01

    A unique laser assisted fusion approach is under development at Mathematical Sciences Northwest, Inc. (MSNW). This approach captures one of the most developed aspects of high energy laser technology, the efficient, large, scalable, pulsed electron beam initiated, electric discharge, CO 2 infrared laser. This advanced technology is then combined with the simple geometry of a linear magnetic confinement system. The laser solenoid concept will be described, current work and experimental progress will be discussed, and the technological problems of building such a system will be assessed. Finally a comparison will be made of the technology and economics for the laser solenoid and alternative fusion approaches

  4. Nanotechnology impact on the automotive industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kaufui V; Paddon, Patrick A

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology has been implemented widely in the automotive industry. This technology is particularly useful in coatings, fabrics, structural materials, fluids, lubricants, tires, and preliminary applications in smart glass/windows and video display systems. A special sub-class of improved materials, alternative energy, has also seen a boost from advances in nanotechnology, and continues to be an active research area. A correlation exists in the automotive industry between the areas with increased nanotechnology incorporation and those with increased profit margins via improvements and customer demands.

  5. IMPROVING MODEL OF CHANNEL AIRBORN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM OF ALTERNATING CURRENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Artemenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to math modeling of channel of alternating current airborne electrical power-supply system. Mathematical modeling of generator, voltage regulator, constant speed drive is considered.

  6. National Automotive Center - NAC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Encouraged by the advantages of collaboration, the U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) worked with the Secretary of the...

  7. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XXIV, I--MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM PART III--CATERPILLAR DIESEL ENGINE, II--UNDERSTANDING THE VOLTAGE REGULATOR/ALTERNATOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL AND BATTERY CHARGING SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE (1) INJECTION TIMING CONTROLS, (2) GOVERNOR, (3) FUEL SYSTEM MAINTENANCE TIPS, (4) THE CHARGING SYSTEM, (5) REGULATING THE GENERATOR/ALTERNATOR, AND (6) CHARGING SYSTEM SERVICE…

  8. Using of alternative sources of the electric power on telecommunication network of Uzbekistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullaev, D.A.; Isaev, R.I.; Makhkamdzhanov, V.M.; Mansurov, M.S.

    1997-01-01

    The article presents the talk on the using of alternative sources of the electric power on telecommunication network of Uzbekistan given at the International Workshop on applied solar energy held in Tashkent (Uzbekistan) in June 1997. As an alternative source the combined solar-wind power plant on the basis of solar cells battery and wind-generator is proposed. The efficiency of proposed system is considered. (A.A.D.)

  9. Nuclear power: is it the future's economic and environmental alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, Liz.

    1989-01-01

    The future for uranium mining and nuclear power in the Asian Pacific region and in particular in Australia, is discussed. Given the depressed uranium market, where there is ample capacity (both worldwide and within Australia) to meet uncommitted demand, there does not seem to be any overwhelming economic imperative for new production centres in Australia. However, in the context of growing environmental concerns of the Greenhouse Effect, if the coal-fired stations are to compete with the cleanliness of nuclear stations it is suggested that governments will have to rethink their energy policies. 2 tabs

  10. The Power of Unit Root Tests Against Nonlinear Local Alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demetrescu, Matei; Kruse, Robinson

    of Econometrics 112, 359-379) in comparison to the linear Dickey-Fuller test. To this end, we consider different adjustment schemes for deterministic terms. We provide asymptotic results which imply that the error variance has a severe impact on the behavior of the tests in the nonlinear case; the reason...... for such behavior is the interplay of nonstationarity and nonlinearity. In particular, we show that nonlinearity of the data generating process can be asymptotically negligible when the error variance is moderate or large (compared to the "amount of nonlinearity"), rendering the linear test more powerful than...

  11. Analysis of alternative fuels for power plant usage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szucs, I.; Szemmelveisz, K.; Palotas, A.B.; Winkler, L. [University of Miskolc, Miskolc-Egyetembaros (Hungary)

    2008-07-01

    Decision makers and researchers, mainly experts involved in energy production and environmental protection, are now in agreement that substitution of renewable energy sources for some portion of the fossil fuel usage is one of the potential solutions for mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions. Current firing experience has shown that biomass utilisation in power plants still entails a number of difficulties that need to be addressed. Plant experience shows that one of the most critical parts of biomass firing is the moisture content of the fuel. The purpose of our research was to examine the combustion characteristics of several alterative fuels (wood-chips, energy-grass, sunflower seed shell, help, SRF, coal, DDGS). 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Coal, an alternative to nuclear power in Europe's energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paillard, Christophe-Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    The impending demise of nuclear power in several European countries and the projected strong increase in world energy requirements are placing coal in the forefront again. From being the primary energy source in the 19. century, coal is making a quite remarkable come-back in the 21. century with the advent of 'clean coal' and with its dominance in the energy mix of rapidly emerging countries such as China. New mines should open in Europe. In France, the last mine closed in 2004, but there is potential for new ones in the centre of France in areas such as Auvergne and Bourgogne, as well as Midi Pyrenees. These could create new jobs and reduce France's energy dependency. Far from the topical scenes of the past described in books such as Germinal, with its tips and misery, coal is again a promising energy source, with potential to satisfy a rising share of Europe's energy demand. (author)

  13. Study on alternatives of inertisation of nuclear power plant containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, J.H.; Zarate, S.M.

    1998-01-01

    In the course of a severe accident in a nuclear power plant, the hydrogen generation and other flammable gases, during the core degradation phase and the interaction corium-concrete, could produce the failure of the containment by overpressure of by combustion. According to the analysis of the potential effects of hydrogen evolution, following accidents inside the containment trough a Defense-in depth principle, which attempts to assure that the containment must not fail catastrophically, two techniques have been evaluated: a: Inertisation pre-accident and b: Inertisation post-accident. The technique of inertisation pre-accident consists in replacing the air of the containment with inert-gas like nitrogen (N 2 ) or carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) during the normal operation. The inertisation post-accident in combination with early venting system consists in replacing the air of the containment with inert-gas like nitrogen (N 2 ) or carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), immediately after the beginning of the accident, while the radioactivity is still negligible inside the containment. A system of inertisation pre-accident with nitrogen is used on BWR Mark I and Mark II. Investigations on the inertisation post-accident of the containment atmosphere during severe accidents have been carried out with different objectives from principles of the decade of 1980. Studies concerning hydrogen problem for the nuclear power plants Atucha I and CAREM-25 have permitted to know that the hydrogen generation during an accidental sequence with core degradation, would result important, being able to arrive to form explosive mixtures. In the present work, the applicability of the techniques of inertisation is analyzed for the containment of the Atucha I and CAREM-25, considering the particular design characteristics of these plants. (author) [es

  14. Social response to nuclear power and alternative energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savellano, R.A.; Bulaon, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    Phase I of this study analyzed attitudes and beliefs of respondents drawn from Metro Manila. The second phase utilized a sample drawn from residents near a geothermal power plant site in the Southern Philippines. Four dimensions of beliefs (psychological environmental risks, technological benefits/development, economic benefits/implications, and socio-political/implications/benefit) were identified through factor analysis of beliefs items on nuclear energy and refined empirically to determine perceptions of respondents about all other energy systems. Identification of the relationship between dimensions provided insight into the shared perceptions about each energy system held by the various groups of respondents. The overall attitude of the respondents towards energy systems (nuclear, solar, hydro, geothermal and oil) was determined using three attitude measures: the Fishbein model, Osgood's semantic differential technique, and direct response to unfavorability/favorability scale. The belief dimensions were correlated with the attitude measures to determine the degree of contribution to attitude. A comparative analysis was made to different attitudes and beliefs held by the PRO and CON nuclear groups and by the subsamples: university students, science teachers and barangay leaders of Metro Manila sample. Attitudes and beliefs relating to the demographic variables were also examined for the two samples. (author)

  15. Alternate seismic support for pipeline systems in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muthumani, K.; Gopalakrishnan, N.; Sathish Kumar, K.; Sreekala, R.; Rama Rao, G.V.; Reddy, G.R.; Parulekar, Y.M.

    2008-01-01

    Failure free design of supporting systems for pipe lines carrying highly toxic or radioactive liquids at very high temperature is an important issue in the safety aspect for a nuclear power plant installation which is a key topic for researchers all around the world. Generally, these pipeline systems are designed to be held rigid by conventional snubber supports for protection from earthquakes. The piping design must balance seismic deformations and other deformations due to thermal effect. A rigid pipeline system using conventional snubber supports always leads to an increase in thermal stresses; hence a rational seismic design for pipeline supporting systems becomes essential. Contrary to this rigid design, it is possible to design a flexible pipeline system and to decrease the seismic response by increasing the damping through the use of passive energy absorbing elements, which dissipate vibration energy. This paper presents the experimental and analytical studies carried out on modeling yielding type elasto-plastic passive energy-absorbing elements to be used in a passive energy-dissipating device for the control of large seismic deformations of pipelines subjected to earthquake loading. (author)

  16. Public attitudes towards nuclear power and alternative energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-10-01

    Phase I of this study analyzed attitudes and beliefs of respondents drawn from Metro-Manila. The second phase utilized a sample drawn from residents near a geothermal power plant site in Southern Philippines. Four dimensions of beliefs (psychological/environmental risks, technological benefits/development, economic benefits/implications and socio-political implications/benefits) were identified through factor analysis of belief items on nuclear energy and refined empirically to determine perceptions of respondents about all energy systems. Identification of the relationships between dimensions provided insight into the shared perceptions about each energy system held by the various groups of respondents. The overall attitude of the respondents towards energy systems (nuclear, solar, hydro, geothermal and oil) was determined using three attitude measures: Fishbein model, Osgood's semantic differential technique, and direct response to unfavorability/favorability scale. The belief dimensions were correlated with the attitude measures to determine the degree of contribution of each dimension to attitude. A comparative analysis was made to differentiate attitudes and beliefs held by the PRO and CON nuclear groups, and by the subsamples: university students, science teachers and barangay leaders of the Metro-Manila sample. Attitudes and beliefs relating to the demographic variables were also examined for the two samples. (author)

  17. Alternative implementations of the Monte Carlo power method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomquist, R.N.; Gelbard, E.M.

    2002-01-01

    We compare nominal efficiencies, i.e. variances in power shapes for equal running time, of different versions of the Monte Carlo eigenvalue computation, as applied to criticality safety analysis calculations. The two main methods considered here are ''conventional'' Monte Carlo and the superhistory method, and both are used in criticality safety codes. Within each of these major methods, different variants are available for the main steps of the basic Monte Carlo algorithm. Thus, for example, different treatments of the fission process may vary in the extent to which they follow, in analog fashion, the details of real-world fission, or may vary in details of the methods by which they choose next-generation source sites. In general the same options are available in both the superhistory method and conventional Monte Carlo, but there seems not to have been much examination of the special properties of the two major methods and their minor variants. We find, first, that the superhistory method is just as efficient as conventional Monte Carlo and, secondly, that use of different variants of the basic algorithms may, in special cases, have a surprisingly large effect on Monte Carlo computational efficiency

  18. Alternative Implementations of the Monte Carlo Power Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomquist, R.N.; Gelbard, E.M.

    2002-01-01

    We compare nominal efficiencies, i.e., variances in power shapes for equal running time, of different versions of the Monte Carlo (MC) eigenvalue computation. The two main methods considered here are 'conventional' MC and the superhistory method. Within each of these major methods, different variants are available for the main steps of the basic MC algorithm. Thus, for example, different treatments of the fission process may vary in the extent to which they follow, in analog fashion, the details of real-world fission, or they may vary in details of the methods by which they choose next-generation source sites. In general the same options are available in both the superhistory method and conventional MC, but there seems not to have been much examination of the special properties of the two major methods and their minor variants. We find, first, that the superhistory method is just as efficient as conventional MC and, second, that use of different variants of the basic algorithms may, in special cases, have a surprisingly large effect on MC computational efficiency

  19. Technology mix alternatives with high shares of wind power and photovoltaics—case study for Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubi, Ghassan

    2011-01-01

    The shift to a low carbon society is an issue of highest priority in the EU. For electricity generation, such a target counts with three main alternatives: renewable energies, nuclear power and carbon capture and storage. This paper focuses on the renewables’ alternative. Due to resource availability, a technology mix with a high share of PV and wind power is gaining increasing interest as a major solution for several EU member states and in part for the EU collectively to achieve decarbonization and energy security with acceptable costs. Due to their intermittency, the integration of high shares of PV and wind power in the electricity supply is challenging. This paper presents a techno-economic assessment of technology mix alternatives with a high share of PV and wind power in Spain, as an example. Thereby, the focus is on the option of increasing wind curtailment versus substituting rigid baseload generation in favor of the more flexible gas turbines and combined cycle gas turbines. - Highlights: ► The potential of power generation from renewable energy resources in the EU is illustrated. ► The LEC of the different technologies considered is calculated for today and future scenarios. ► An excel-based model for the technology mix assessment is applied using Spanish data. ► Technology mix alternatives with a high share of PV and wind power are assessed. ► The focus is on increasing wind curtailment vs. relying on more flexible power generation units.

  20. Automotive Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisner, Gregory P.

    2015-03-01

    Considerable fuel energy, as much as 70%, is not converted to useful work by internal combustion engines but is instead rejected as waste heat, and more than half of the waste heat, nearly 40% of fuel energy, is contained in vehicle exhaust gas. This provides an opportunity to recover some of the wasted fuel energy and convert it from heat into useful work, subject to the laws of thermodynamics, and thereby improve vehicle energy efficiency. Thermoelectric (TE) materials have been extensively researched and TE devices are now being developed for operation at high temperatures corresponding to automotive exhaust gases for direct solid-state conversion of heat into electricity. This has stimulated substantial progress in the development of practical TE generator (TEG) systems for large-scale commercialization. A significant enabler of this progress has been the US Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program through funding for low cost solutions for automotive TE waste heat recovery to improve fuel economy. Our current project at General Motors has culminated in the identification of the potential supply chain for all components and assembly of an automotive TEG. A significant focus has been to develop integrated and iterative modeling tools for a fully optimized TEG design that includes all components and subsystems (TE modules, heat exchangers, thermal interfaces, electrical interconnects, power conditioning, and vehicle integration for maximal use of TEG power). We have built and tested a new, low-cost Initial TEG prototype based on state-of-the-art production-scale skutterudite TE modules, novel heat exchanger designs, and practical solutions to the many technical challenges for optimum TEG performance. We will use the results for our Initial TEG prototype to refine our modeling and design tools for a Final automotive TEG system prototype. Our recent results will be presented. Thanks to: J.R. Salvador, E.R. Gundlach, D. Thompson, N.K. Bucknor, M

  1. Proposal for implementation of alternative source term in the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazan L, A.; Lopez L, M.; Vargas A, A.; Cardenas J, J. B.

    2009-10-01

    In 2010 the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde will implement the extended power upbeat in both units of the plant. Agree with methodology of NEDC-33004P-A, (constant pressure power up rate), and the source term of core, for accidents evaluations, were increased in proportion to the ratio of power level. This means that for the case of a design basis accident of loss of coolant an increase of power of 15% originated an increase of 15% in dose to main control room. Using the method of NEDC-33004P-A to extended power upbeat conditions was determined that the dose value to main control room is very near to regulatory limit established by SRP 6.4. By the above and in order to recover the margin, the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde will calculate an alternative source term following the criteria established in RG 1.183 (alternative radiological source term for evaluating DBA at nuclear power reactor). This approach also have a more realistic dose value using the criterion of 10-CFR-50.67, in addition is predicted to get the benefit of additional operational flexibilities. This paper present the proposal of implementing the alternative source term in Laguna Verde. (Author)

  2. A Curriculum Guide for Power Technology, Grades 9-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, J. Thomas

    Designed to help the high school industrial arts instructor in teaching power technology, this curriculum guide concentrates on seven subject areas: exploratory power technology, electricity, electronics, small gas engines, automotive repair, transportation, and alternate energy sources. The general course objectives are identified as enabling the…

  3. Automotive NVH technology

    CERN Document Server

    Nijman, Eugenius; Priebsch, Hans-Herwig

    2016-01-01

    This book presents seven chapters examining selected noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) topics that are highly relevant for automotive vehicle development. These include applications following the major trends toward increased passenger comfort, vehicle electrification and lightweight design. The authors of the seven chapters, all of which are experts from the automotive industry and academia, present the foremost challenges and potential solutions in this demanding field. Among others, applications for sound optimization in downsized engines, noise optimization in electric powertrains, weight reduction options for exhaust systems, porous materials description, and the vibro-acoustic analysis of geared systems are discussed.

  4. Identification for automotive systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hjalmarsson, Håkan; Re, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    Increasing complexity and performance and reliability expectations make modeling of automotive system both more difficult and more urgent. Automotive control has slowly evolved from an add-on to classical engine and vehicle design to a key technology to enforce consumption, pollution and safety limits. Modeling, however, is still mainly based on classical methods, even though much progress has been done in the identification community to speed it up and improve it. This book, the product of a workshop of representatives of different communities, offers an insight on how to close the gap and exploit this progress for the next generations of vehicles.

  5. Electricity supply from thermal power plants and alternative sources at the Adriatic coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurek, J.

    1999-01-01

    The Croatian coastline with its numerous islands offers the most appropriate region in the whole of Croatia for the realisation of energy supply from alternative sources as a substitute for the electricity supplied from coal-driven thermal power plants, not only from the point of view of energy but also financial results. Investment costs of a 100 MW thermal power plant served for the estimation of results which would be achieved with the introduction of alternative sources (the sun, small hydro power plants and biomass) as well as for the rationalisation of consumption and savings of the existing energy sources. The alternative programmes can be conducted partially and the investments financed from savings. However, without a systematic solution for the whole country no significant results can be expected. (author)

  6. Aluminium cables in automotive applications : Prestudy of aluminium cable uses in Scania products&Failure analysis and evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Man, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The increasing demand of light constructed vehicles as well as soaring price of copper metal owing to limited nature resources have been promoting the use of aluminium metal as an alternative conductor of automotive cables. This thesis work is to lay theoretical foundations for further research and development regarding the introduction of new automotive cables i.e. aluminium cables. Current application of automotive aluminium cables in automotive industry as well as failure analysis and eval...

  7. Standardized Curriculum for Automotive Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: automotive mechanics I and II. The six units in automotive mechanics I are as follows: orientation and safety; tools, equipment, and manuals; measurement; automotive engines; basic electrical systems; and fuel systems. Automotive…

  8. SEI power source alternatives for rovers and other multi-kWe distributed surface applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bents, David J.; Kohout, L. L.; Mckissock, Barbara I.; Rodriguez, C. D.; Withrow, C. A.; Colozza, A.; Hanlon, James C.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    1991-01-01

    To support the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), a study was performed to investigate power system alternatives for the rover vehicles and servicers that were subsequently generated for each of these rovers and servicers, candidate power sources incorporating various power generation and energy storage technologies were identified. The technologies were those believed most appropriate to the SEI missions, and included solar, electrochemical, and isotope systems. The candidates were characterized with respect to system mass, deployed area, and volume. For each of the missions a preliminary selection was made. Results of this study depict the available power sources in light of mission requirements as they are currently defined.

  9. Autonomous Driving – a Challenge for the Automotive Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Bardt, Hubertus

    2017-01-01

    The automotive industry is one of the most important industries in Europe. This industry is responsible for 14% of total production and capital investment in the European manufacturing sector, and in Germany the share amounts to 22%. Structural change within this crucial sector is of relevance for the whole economy. Along with alternative propulsion systems such as electromobility, (semi-)autonomous vehicles are one of the big trends in the automotive industry. For established providers, the ...

  10. 10 CFR 503.8 - No alternate power supply-general requirement for certain exemptions for new powerplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false No alternate power supply-general requirement for certain exemptions for new powerplants. 503.8 Section 503.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES General Requirements for Exemptions § 503.8 No alternate power supply—general...

  11. Development of a method to evaluate shared alternate AC power source effects in multi-unit nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Woo Sik; Yang, Joon Eun

    2003-07-01

    In order to evaluate accurately a Station BlackOut (SBO) event frequency of a multi-unit nuclear power plant that has a shared Alternate AC (AAC) power source, an approach has been developed which accommodates the complex inter-unit behavior of the shared AAC power source under multi-unit Loss Of Offsite Power (LOOP) conditions. The approach is illustrated for two cases, 2 units and 4 units at a single site, and generalized for a multi-unit site. Furthermore, the SBO frequency of the first unit of the 2-unit site is quantified. The SBO frequency at a target unit of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) could be underestimated if the inter-unit dependency of the shared AAC power source is not properly modeled. The effect of the inter-unit behavior of the shared AAC power source on the SBO frequency is not negligible depending on the Common Cause Failure (CCF) characteristics among AC power sources. The methodology suggested in the present report is believed to be very useful in evaluating the SBO frequency and the core damage frequency resulting from the SBO event. This approach is also applicable to the probabilistic evaluation of the other shared systems in a multi-unit nuclear power plant

  12. Calculation of core axial power shapes using alternating conditional expectation algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Ki; Kim, Yong Hee; Cha, Kune Ho; Park, Moon Kyu

    1998-01-01

    We have introduced the alternating conditional expectation (ACE) algorithm in the method of reconstructing 20 node axial power shapes from five level detector powers. The ACE algorithm was used to find the optimal relationships between each plane power and normalized five detector powers. The obtained all optimal transformations had simple forms to be represented with polynomials. The reference axial power shapes and simulated detector powers were drawn out of the 3-dimensional results of Reactor Operation and Control Simulation (ROCS) code for various core states. By the ACE algorithm, we obtained the optimal relationship between dependent variable plane power, y, and independent variable detector powers, {Di, i=1,...,5 without any preprocessing, where a total of ≅3490 data sets per each cycle of YongGwang Nuclear (YGN) Power Plant units 3 and 4 are used. To test the validity and accuracy of the new method, about 21,200 cases of reconstructed axial power shapes are compared to original ROCS axial power shapes, and they are also contrasted with those obtained by Fourier fitting method (FFM). The average error of root mean square (rms), axial peak (DFZ), and axial shape index (DASI) of our new method for total 21204 data cases are 0.81%, 0.51% and 0.00204, while FFM 2.29%, 2.37% and 0.00264, respectively. The evaluation results for the data sets not used in the ACE transformations also show that the accuracy of new method is much better than that of FFM

  13. Transient analysis for alternating over-current characteristics of HTSC power transmission cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, S. H.; Hwang, S. D.

    2006-10-01

    In this paper, the transient analysis for the alternating over-current distribution in case that the over-current was applied for a high-TC superconducting (HTSC) power transmission cable was performed. The transient analysis for the alternating over-current characteristics of HTSC power transmission cable with multi-layer is required to estimate the redistribution of the over-current between its conducting layers and to protect the cable system from the over-current in case that the quench in one or two layers of the HTSC power cable happens. For its transient analysis, the resistance generation of the conducting layers for the alternating over-current was reflected on its equivalent circuit, based on the resistance equation obtained by applying discrete Fourier transform (DFT) for the voltage and the current waveforms of the HTSC tape, which comprises each layer of the HTSC power transmission cable. It was confirmed through the numerical analysis on its equivalent circuit that after the current redistribution from the outermost layer into the inner layers first happened, the fast current redistribution between the inner layers developed as the amplitude of the alternating over-current increased.

  14. An alternative approach for real-time balancing of electrical power systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Virag, A.; Jokic, A.; Lampropoulos, I.; Hermans, R.M.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on the inefficiencies of current real-time balancing of power systems and propose an alternative solution. Our approach is based on the introduction of double-sided markets for the provision of secondary control and a market-based provision of primary control. We propose

  15. Decarbonizing Europe's power sector by 2050 — Analyzing the economic implications of alternative decarbonization pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jägemann, Cosima; Fürsch, Michaela; Hagspiel, Simeon; Nagl, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    The European Union aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 80–95% in 2050 compared to 1990 levels. The transition towards a low-carbon economy implies the almost complete decarbonization of Europe's power sector, which could be achieved along various pathways. In this paper, we evaluate the economic implications of alternative energy policies for Europe's power sector by applying a linear dynamic electricity system optimization model in over 36 scenarios. We find that the costs of decarbonizing Europe's power sector by 2050 vary between 139 and 633 bn € 2010 , which corresponds to an increase of between 11% and 44% compared to the total system costs when no CO 2 reduction targets are implemented. In line with economic theory, the decarbonization of Europe's power sector is achieved at minimal costs under a stand-alone CO 2 reduction target, which ensures competition between all low-carbon technologies. If, however, renewable energies are exempted from competition via supplementary renewable energy (RES-E) targets or if investments in new nuclear and CCS power plants are politically restricted, the costs of decarbonization significantly rise. Moreover, we find that the excess costs of supplementary RES-E targets depend on the acceptance of alternative low carbon technologies. For example, given a complete nuclear phase-out in Europe by 2050 and politically implemented restrictions on the application of CCS to conventional power plants, supplementary RES-E targets are redundant. While in such a scenario the overall costs of decarbonization are comparatively high, the excess costs of supplementary RES-E targets are close to zero. - Highlights: • We evaluate the economic implications of alternative energy policies for Europe's power sector. • Total decarbonization costs vary between 139 and 633 billion € 2010 up to 2050. • Decarbonization at minimal costs is ensured by competition between all low carbon technologies. • Excess costs of supplementary

  16. Bosch automotive electrics and automotive electronics. Systems and components, networking and hybrid drive. 5. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    Complete reference guide to automotive electrics and electronics. The significance of electrical and electronic systems has increased considerably in the last few years and this trend is set to continue. The characteristics feature of innovative systems is the fact that they can work together in a network. This requires powerful bus systems that the electronic control units can use to exchange information. Networking and the various bus systems used in motor vehicles are the prominent new topic in the 5th edition of the ''Automotive Electric, Automotive Electronics'' technical manual. The existing chapters have also been updated, so that this new edition brings the reader up to date on the subjects of electrical and electronic systems in the motor vehicle.

  17. Statistical utility theory for comparison of nuclear versus fossil power plant alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garribba, S.; Ovi, A.

    1977-01-01

    A statistical formulation of utility theory is developed for decision problems concerned with the choice among alternative strategies in electric energy production. Four alternatives are considered: nuclear power, fossil power, solar energy, and conservation policy. Attention is focused on a public electric utility thought of as a rational decision-maker. A framework for decisions is then suggested where the admissible strategies and their possible consequences represent the information available to the decision-maker. Once the objectives of the decision process are assessed, consequences can be quantified in terms of measures of effectiveness. Maximum expected utility is the criterion of choice among alternatives. Steps toward expected values are the evaluation of the multidimensional utility function and the assessment of subjective probabilities for consequences. In this respect, the multiplicative form of the utility function seems less restrictive than the additive form and almost as manageable to implement. Probabilities are expressed through subjective marginal probability density functions given at a discrete number of points. The final stage of the decision model is to establish the value of each strategy. To this scope, expected utilities are computed and scaled. The result is that nuclear power offers the best alternative. 8 figures, 9 tables, 32 references

  18. Rotordynamics of automotive turbochargers

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen-Schäfer, Hung

    2015-01-01

    Rotordynamics of automotive turbochargers is dealt with in this book encompassing the widely working field of small turbomachines under real operating conditions at the very high rotor speeds up to 300000 rpm. The broadly interdisciplinary field of turbocharger rotordynamics involves 1) Thermodynamics and Turbo-Matching of Turbochargers 2) Dynamics of Turbomachinery 3) Stability Analysis of Linear Rotordynamics with the Eigenvalue Theory 4) Stability Analysis of Nonlinear Rotordynamics with the Bifurcation Theory 5) Bearing Dynamics of the Oil Film using the Two-Phase Reynolds Equation 6) Computation of Nonlinear Responses of a Turbocharger Rotor 7) Aero and Vibroacoustics of Turbochargers 8) Shop and Trim Balancing at Two Planes of the Rotor 9) Tribology of the Bearing Surface Roughness 10) Design of Turbocharger Platforms using the Similarity Laws The rotor response of an automotive turbocharger at high rotor speeds is studied analytically, computationally, and experimentally. Due to the nonlinear character...

  19. Automotive systems engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurer, Markus [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Regelungstechnik; Winner, Hermann (eds.) [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Fachgebiet Fahrzeugtechnik

    2013-06-01

    Innovative state-of-the-art book. Presents brand new results of a joint workshop in the field of automotive systems engineering. Recommendable to students for further reading even though not a primary text book. This book reflects the shift in design paradigm in automobile industry. It presents future innovations, often referred as ''automotive systems engineering''. These cause fundamental innovations in the field of driver assistance systems and electro-mobility as well as fundamental changes in the architecture of the vehicles. New driving functionalities can only be realized if the software programs of multiple electronic control units work together correctly. This volume presents the new and innovative methods which are mandatory to master the complexity of the vehicle of the future.

  20. Automotive turbogenerator design options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, C. [ITC, San Diego, CA (United States); McDonald, C. [McDonald Thermal Engineering, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    For the small turbogenerator to find reception in the hybrid electric automotive market its major features must be dominated by the following considerations, low cost, high performance, low emissions, compact size and high reliability. Not meeting the first two criteria has been the nemesis of earlier attempts to introduce the small gas turbine for automotive service. With emphasis on the design for low cost and high performance, this paper presents several turbogenerator design flowpath configuration options for the major engine components. The projected evolution from today`s state-of-the-art all metallic engines, to advanced technology ceramic units for service in the early decade of the 21st century, is the major topic of this paper. (author)

  1. The economic evaluation of alternatives to reduce SO2 emissions from power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abboud, Nadim; Chaaban, Farid

    1997-01-01

    Global environmental problems, such as acid rain, ozone layer depletion, and global warming, have become a main source of public as well as official concerns. These problems are partly caused by the widespread dispersion in the atmosphere of sulphur dioxide and other pollutants which result from combustion of fossil-fuel in thermal power plants and other industrial complexes. Options to reduce sulfur dioxide from power plants emissions include, among others, the use of low sulfur but expensive fuels. Alternatively, fuel gas desulfurization systems are being used in association with cheap fuels at the pre combustion stage. This paper presents an economic evaluation of these two alternatives to determine the more economically feasible one. In comparing the alternatives, an assessment should be made concerning the true of the cost of the damage caused by sulfur emissions. However, given the difficulty in assessing the social and environmental costs, the problem can be limited to finding the alternative with the lower economic cost. Such that sulfur dioxide emissions do not exceed 0.3 % by weight, a limit set by international organizations. The engineering economy models developed for both alternatives are implemented on a 600-MW thermal power plant in Lebanon. Sensitivity analysis is performed on several parameters; such as, the planning horizon of the study, the discount rate to be used, the installation cost of the fuel gas desulfurization system, and fuel costs. While all parameters can influence the decision to be made, fuel cost is the most critical one that needs to be carefully estimated. Under most realistic situations however, it appears that the fuel gas desulfurization system is the preferred alternative

  2. Automotive fuels. Quality current and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avella, F.

    1999-01-01

    In the present paper, a general view of the automotive fuel characteristics and of the influence of the most important fuel parameters on the engine performance and emissions are presented. At short term, the future scenario is conditioned by the application of the next European Directive on fuel specifications, that will came into effect on 1 January 2000. The composition of liquid fuels shall be subject to modifications nd restrictions to meet the new specifications Among alternative fuels, natural gas and Lpg (liquefied petroleum gases) are the most interesting in the view point of environmental protection. Biodiesel constitutes a potential and valid alternative to mineral gas oil in diesel engines [it

  3. Design of a Low-Power, Small-Area AEC-Q100-Compliant SENT Transmitter in Signal Conditioning IC for Automotive Pressure and Temperature Complex Sensors in 180 Nm CMOS Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikhan, Behnam Samadpoor; Kim, Dong-Gyu; Lee, Dong-Soo; Rehman, Muhammad Riaz Ur; Abbasizadeh, Hamed; Asif, Muhammad; Lee, Minjae; Yang, Youngoo; Lee, Kang-Yoon

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a low-power and small-area Single Edge Nibble Transmission (SENT) transmitter design is proposed for automotive pressure and temperature complex sensor applications. To reduce the cost and size of the hardware, the pressure and temperature information is processed with a single integrated circuit (IC) and transmitted at the same time to the electronic control unit (ECU) through SENT. Due to its digital nature, it is immune to noise, has reduced sensitivity to electromagnetic interference (EMI), and generates low EMI. It requires only one PAD for its connectivity with ECU, and thus reduces the pin requirements, simplifies the connectivity, and minimizes the printed circuit board (PCB) complexity. The design is fully synthesizable, and independent of technology. The finite state machine-based approach is employed for area efficient implementation, and to translate the proposed architecture into hardware. The IC is fabricated in 1P6M 180 nm CMOS process with an area of (116 μm × 116 μm) and 4.314 K gates. The current consumption is 50 μA from a 1.8 V supply with a total 90 μW power. For compliance with AEC-Q100 for automotive reliability, a reverse and over voltage protection circuit is also implemented with human body model (HBM) electro-static discharge (ESD) of +6 kV, reverse voltage of −16 V to 0 V, over voltage of 8.2 V to 16 V, and fabricated area of 330 μm × 680 μm. The extensive testing, measurement, and simulation results prove that the design is fully compliant with SAE J2716 standard. PMID:29757996

  4. INVESTIGATION OF PEM FUEL CELL FOR AUTOMOTIVE USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. M. Mohiuddin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a brief investigation on suitability of Proton-exchange  membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs as the source of power for transportation purposes. Hydrogen is an attractive alternative transportation fuel. It is the least polluting fuel that can be used in an internal combustion engine (ICE and it is widely available. If hydrogen is used in a fuel cell which converts the chemical energy of hydrogen into electricity, (NOx emissions are eliminated. The investigation was carried out on a  fuel cell car model by implementing polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM types of fuel cell as the source of power to propel the prototype car. This PEMFC has capability to propel the electric motor by converting chemical energy stored in hydrogen gas into useful electrical energy. PEM fuel cell alone is used as the power source for the electric motor without the aid of any other power source such as battery associated with it. Experimental investigations were carried out to investigate the characteristics of fuel cell used and the performance of the fuel cell car. Investigated papameters are the power it develops, voltage, current and speed it produces under different load conditions. KEYWORDS: fuel cell; automotive; proton exchange membrane; polymer electrolyte membrane; internal combustion engine

  5. Possible alternatives for diesel powered mobile equipment for the conditions of deep mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paraszczak, J.; Kotersi, O [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Mining, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering

    2008-07-01

    The challenges associated with mining at considerable depths were discussed. Mines such as Kidd Creek, LaRonde and Creighton are deeper than 2500 m. High rock temperature is among the challenges that operators face in such conditions. Conventional diesel powered load-hauling equipment constitute an additional source of heat and noxious gases. As such, more intense ventilation is needed in order to keep ambient temperature and air quality at a level that is acceptable for human workers. This paper examined possible alternatives for diesel powered equipment, including those that are commercially available as well as those that are underdevelopment or in the prototype stage. The equipment was reviewed with reference to the required infrastructure, stage of technology development and progress. The flexibility, practicality and economic viability of the equipment was also investigated. The potential for its use in deep Canadian mines was discussed along with the most promising drive alternatives for vehicles designed for deep mine operations. Electric drives have proven to be effective in many mining applications since they have significant advantages over diesel drives. The characteristics of cable powered equipment, trolley-wire powered equipment, and battery powered equipment were described. The key advantages and disadvantages of hybrid diesel electric equipment were also reviewed along with the viability of power plants based on the use of hydrogen. The principle types of hydrogen power plants include hydrogen combustion engines; HY-Drive systems and fuel cells. It was concluded that although there is no viable alternative for diesel engines at present, Canadian mining companies operating at great depths have made significant progress in these fields and remain among the leaders in mining innovation. 17 refs.

  6. Impacts on irrigated agriculture of changes in electricity costs resulting from Western Area Power Administration's power marketing alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, B.K.; Flaim, S.J.; Howitt, R.E.; Palmer, S.C.

    1995-03-01

    Irrigation is a major factor in the growth of US agricultural productivity, especially in western states, which account for more than 85% of the nation's irrigated acreage. In some of these states, almost all cropland is irrigated, and nearly 50% of the irrigation is done with electrically powered pumps. Therefore, even small increases in the cost of electricity could have a disproportionate impact on irrigated agriculture. This technical memorandum examines the impacts that could result from proposed changes in the power marketing programs of the Western Area Power Administration's Salt Lake City Area Office. The changes could increase the cost of power to all Western customers, including rural municipalities and irrigation districts that rely on inexpensive federal power to pump water. The impacts are assessed by translating changes in Western's wholesale power rate into changes in the cost of pumping water as an input for agricultural production. Farmers can adapt to higher electricity prices in many ways, such as (1) using different pumping fuels, (2) adding workers and increasing management to irrigate more efficiently, and (3) growing more drought-tolerant crops. This study projects several responses, including using less groundwater and planting fewer waterintensive crops. The study finds that when dependence on Western's power is high, the cost of power can have a major effect on energy use, agricultural practices, and the distribution of planted acreage. The biggest percentage changes in farm income would occur (1) in Nevada and Utah (however, all projected changes are less than 2% of the baseline) and (2) under the marketing alternatives that represent the lowest capacity and energy offer considered in Western's Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement. The aggregate impact on farm incomes and the value of total farm production would be much smaller than that suggested by the changes in water use and planted acreage

  7. Alternative fuel cycle options: performance characteristics and impact on nuclear power growth potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.I.; Till, C.E.; Rudolph, R.R.; Deen, J.R.; King, M.J.

    1977-09-01

    The fuel utilization characteristics for LWR, SSCR, CANDU and LMFBR reactor concepts are quantified for various fuel cycle options, including once-through cycles, thorium cycles, and denatured cycles. The implications of various alternative reactor deployment strategies on the long-term nuclear power growth potential are then quantified in terms of the maximum nuclear capacity that can be achieved and the growth pattern over time, subject to the constraint of a fixed uranium-resource base. The overall objective of this study is to shed light on any large differences in the long-term potential that exist between various alternative reactor/fuel cycle deployment strategies

  8. Analysis of policy alternatives on the public acceptance of nuclear power plant in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young-Sung; Lee, Byong-Whi

    1995-01-01

    Public acceptance has become an important factor in nuclear power program particularly after Chernobyl accident and recent rapid democratization in Korea. A method reflecting public opinions in order to improve public acceptance is to find out the public preference values for its policy alternatives. In this study, the conjoint analysis was applied to find out the quantitative values of public preferences for twelve policy alternatives to support communities surrounding nuclear power plants in Korea. To implement the analysis, questionnaires of trade-off matrix form were mailed to the science teachers of middle or high school through-out the country who had the experience of visiting nuclear power plant. The quantitative preference values for potential policy alternatives were estimated, which made it possible to forecast the effectiveness of each option. It was revealed that the improvement of reactor safety 100 times and the establishment of civilian monitoring system for nuclear safety would be two best options to improve public acceptance of nuclear power in Korea. (author)

  9. Developing a Hierarchical Decision Model to Evaluate Nuclear Power Plant Alternative Siting Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingga, Marwan Mossa

    A strong trend of returning to nuclear power is evident in different places in the world. Forty-five countries are planning to add nuclear power to their grids and more than 66 nuclear power plants are under construction. Nuclear power plants that generate electricity and steam need to improve safety to become more acceptable to governments and the public. One novel practical solution to increase nuclear power plants' safety factor is to build them away from urban areas, such as offshore or underground. To date, Land-Based siting is the dominant option for siting all commercial operational nuclear power plants. However, the literature reveals several options for building nuclear power plants in safer sitings than Land-Based sitings. The alternatives are several and each has advantages and disadvantages, and it is difficult to distinguish among them and choose the best for a specific project. In this research, we recall the old idea of using the alternatives of offshore and underground sitings for new nuclear power plants and propose a tool to help in choosing the best siting technology. This research involved the development of a decision model for evaluating several potential nuclear power plant siting technologies, both those that are currently available and future ones. The decision model was developed based on the Hierarchical Decision Modeling (HDM) methodology. The model considers five major dimensions, social, technical, economic, environmental, and political (STEEP), and their related criteria and sub-criteria. The model was designed and developed by the author, and its elements' validation and evaluation were done by a large number of experts in the field of nuclear energy. The decision model was applied in evaluating five potential siting technologies and ranked the Natural Island as the best in comparison to Land-Based, Floating Plant, Artificial Island, and Semi-Embedded plant.

  10. FISITA 2012 World Automotive Congress

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Proceedings of the FISITA 2012 World Automotive Congress are selected from nearly 2,000 papers submitted to the 34th FISITA World Automotive Congress, which is held by Society of Automotive Engineers of China (SAE-China ) and the International Federation of Automotive Engineering Societies (FISITA). This proceedings focus on solutions for sustainable mobility in all areas of passenger car, truck and bus transportation. Volume 8: Vehicle Design and Testing (II) focuses on: •Automotive Reliability Technology •Lightweight Design Technology •Design for Recycling •Dynamic Modeling •Simulation and Experimental Validation •Virtual Design, Testing and Validation •Testing of Components, Systems and Full Vehicle Above all researchers, professional engineers and graduates in fields of automotive engineering, mechanical engineering and electronic engineering will benefit from this book.   SAE-China is a national academic organization composed of enterprises and professionals who focus on research, design a...

  11. Reconstruction of core axial power shapes using the alternating conditional expectation algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Ki; Kim, Yong Hee; Cha, Kune Ho; Park, Moon Ghu

    1999-01-01

    We have introduced the alternating conditional expectation (ACE) algorithm in reconstructing 20-node axial core power shapes from five-level in-core detector powers. The core design code, Reactor Operation and Control Simulation (ROCS), calculates 3-dimensional power distributions for various core states, and the reference core-averaged axial power shapes and corresponding simulated detector powers are utilized to synthesize the axial power shape. By using the ACE algorithm, the optimal relationship between a dependent variable, the plane power, and independent variables, five detector powers, is determined without any preprocessing. A total of ∼3490 data sets per each cycle of YongGwang Nuclear (YGN) power plant units 3 and 4 is used for the regression. Continuous analytic function corresponding to each optimal transformation is calculated by simple regression model. The reconstructed axial power shapes of ∼21,200 cases are compared to the original ROCS axial power shapes. Also, to test the validity and accuracy of the new method, its performance is compared with that of the Fourier fitting method (FFM), a typical method of the deterministic approach. For a total of 21,204 data cases, the averages of root mean square (rms) error, axial peak error (ΔF z ), and axial shape index error (ΔASI) of new method are calculated as 0.81%, 0.51% and 0.00204, while those of FFM are 2.29%, 2.37% and 0.00264, respectively. We also evaluated the wide range of axial power profiles from the xenon-oscillation. The results show that the newly developed method is far superior to FFM; average rms and axial peak error are just ∼35 and ∼20% of those of FFM, respectively

  12. Economical analysis of an alternative strategy for CO2 mitigation based on nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Gustavo; Valle, Edmundo del

    2013-01-01

    Many countries are pursuing greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation policies resulting in the increase of use of renewable sources in the electricity sector to mitigate CO 2 emissions. Nuclear energy is a non-emitting CO 2 source that could be used as part of that policy. However, its main drawback is the high investment required for its deployment. On the other hand, wind power is the clean source preferred option to mitigate CO 2 emissions. However, due to its intermittence backup power is needed, in most of the cases it must be provided with combined cycle thermal plants using natural gas. This study performs an economical comparison of a hypothetical implementation of a nuclear strategy to meet the same CO 2 emissions reduction goal that has been obtained by the actual Spaniard strategy (2005–2010) based on wind power. The investment required in both strategies is assessed under different investment scenarios and electricity production conditions for nuclear power. Also, the cost of electricity generation is compared for both strategies. - Highlights: ► Wind power electricity cost including its backup in Spain is assessed. ► Nuclear power is proposed as an alternative to produce the same CO 2 reduction. ► Nuclear power requires less installed capacity deployment. ► Investment to produce the same CO 2 reduction is smaller using nuclear power. ► Electricity generating cost is less expensive using the nuclear option

  13. Controlled soil warming powered by alternative energy for remote field sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Jill F; Henkelman, Jonathan; Allen, Kirsten; Helgason, Warren; Bedard-Haughn, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Experiments using controlled manipulation of climate variables in the field are critical for developing and testing mechanistic models of ecosystem responses to climate change. Despite rapid changes in climate observed in many high latitude and high altitude environments, controlled manipulations in these remote regions have largely been limited to passive experimental methods with variable effects on environmental factors. In this study, we tested a method of controlled soil warming suitable for remote field locations that can be powered using alternative energy sources. The design was tested in high latitude, alpine tundra of southern Yukon Territory, Canada, in 2010 and 2011. Electrical warming probes were inserted vertically in the near-surface soil and powered with photovoltaics attached to a monitoring and control system. The warming manipulation achieved a stable target warming of 1.3 to 2 °C in 1 m(2) plots while minimizing disturbance to soil and vegetation. Active control of power output in the warming plots allowed the treatment to closely match spatial and temporal variations in soil temperature while optimizing system performance during periods of low power supply. Active soil heating with vertical electric probes powered by alternative energy is a viable option for remote sites and presents a low-disturbance option for soil warming experiments. This active heating design provides a valuable tool for examining the impacts of soil warming on ecosystem processes.

  14. Controlled soil warming powered by alternative energy for remote field sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill F Johnstone

    Full Text Available Experiments using controlled manipulation of climate variables in the field are critical for developing and testing mechanistic models of ecosystem responses to climate change. Despite rapid changes in climate observed in many high latitude and high altitude environments, controlled manipulations in these remote regions have largely been limited to passive experimental methods with variable effects on environmental factors. In this study, we tested a method of controlled soil warming suitable for remote field locations that can be powered using alternative energy sources. The design was tested in high latitude, alpine tundra of southern Yukon Territory, Canada, in 2010 and 2011. Electrical warming probes were inserted vertically in the near-surface soil and powered with photovoltaics attached to a monitoring and control system. The warming manipulation achieved a stable target warming of 1.3 to 2 °C in 1 m(2 plots while minimizing disturbance to soil and vegetation. Active control of power output in the warming plots allowed the treatment to closely match spatial and temporal variations in soil temperature while optimizing system performance during periods of low power supply. Active soil heating with vertical electric probes powered by alternative energy is a viable option for remote sites and presents a low-disturbance option for soil warming experiments. This active heating design provides a valuable tool for examining the impacts of soil warming on ecosystem processes.

  15. Alternative power supply and dump resistor connections for similar, mutually coupled, superconducting coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, E.W.; Shimer, W.; Wang, S.T.

    1983-01-01

    Alternative methods of connecting similar mutually coupled coils to their power supplies and dump resistors are investigated. The circuits are evaluated for both operating and fault conditions. The factors considered are the voltage to ground during a dump, short circuits, open circuits, quenches, and failure of the protection system to detect a quench. Of particular interest are the currents induced in coils that remain superconducting when one or more coils quench. The alternative connections include combined power supplies, individual dump resistors, combined resistors and series and parallel dump resistors. A new circuit that contains ''coupling'' resistors is proposed. The coupling resistors do not affect normal fast dumps but reduce the peak induced currents while also reducing the energy rating of the dump resistors. Another novel circuit, the series circuit with diodes, is discussed. The MFTF-B central-cell solenoids are used as an example

  16. Alternative power supply and dump resistor connections for similar, mutally coupled, superconducting coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, E.W.; Shimer, D.W.; Wang, S.T.

    1983-01-01

    Alternative methods of connecting similar mutually coupled coils to their power supplies and dump resistors are investigated. The circuits are evaluated for both operating and fault conditions. The factors considered are the voltage to ground during a dump, short circuits, open circuits, quenches, and failure of the protection system to detect a quench. Of particular interest are the currents induced in coils that remain superconducting when one or more coils quench. The alternative connections include combined power supplies, individual dump resistors, combined resistors and series and parallel dump resistors. A new circuit that contains coupling resistors is proposed. The coupling resistors do not affect normal fast dumps but reduce the peak induced currents while also reducing the energy rating of the dump resistors. Another novel circuit, the series circuit with diodes, is discussed. The MFTF-B central-cell solenoids are used as an example

  17. Alternative depreciation policies for promoting combined heat and power (CHP) development in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Jeferson Borghetti; Szklo, Alexandre Salem; Tolmasquim, Mauricio Tiomno

    2006-01-01

    This paper assessed the economic impact of alternative depreciation methods on the development of combined heat-and-power (CHP) systems in the Brazilian industrial sector. Alternative depreciation methods were proposed and the case study of a Brazilian chemical plant showed that the most effective depreciation method for the promotion of CHP plants in Brazil was the Matheson method with an accelerated depreciation schedule of 7 years. This alternative method was then applied to the Brazilian chemical industry as a whole, increasing its installed capacity in CHP systems by 24%. Therefore, fiscal incentives can be an interesting tool for promoting energy efficiency in the Brazilian industrial sector, promoting the expansion of CHP plants. It reduces government fiscal revenues, but it also induces the technological reposition and improves the feasibility of ventures that are not installed without this kind of incentive

  18. Get Your Automotive Program Nationally Certified!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, Patricia A.

    2000-01-01

    Automotive programs that nationally certified enhance student recruitment and give students better employment opportunities. Technicians who earn the Automotive Service Excellence credential have joined the ranks of professionals in the automotive service industry. (Author/JOW)

  19. Robust optical sensors for safety critical automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Locht, Cliff; De Knibber, Sven; Maddalena, Sam

    2008-02-01

    Optical sensors for the automotive industry need to be robust, high performing and low cost. This paper focuses on the impact of automotive requirements on optical sensor design and packaging. Main strategies to lower optical sensor entry barriers in the automotive market include: Perform sensor calibration and tuning by the sensor manufacturer, sensor test modes on chip to guarantee functional integrity at operation, and package technology is key. As a conclusion, optical sensor applications are growing in automotive. Optical sensor robustness matured to the level of safety critical applications like Electrical Power Assisted Steering (EPAS) and Drive-by-Wire by optical linear arrays based systems and Automated Cruise Control (ACC), Lane Change Assist and Driver Classification/Smart Airbag Deployment by camera imagers based systems.

  20. Automotive Engines; Automotive Mechanics I: 9043.03.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This automotive engines course studies and demonstrates the theory and principles of operation of the automotive four stroke cycle engine. The student will develop an understanding of the systems necessary to make the engine perform as designed, such as cooling, fuel, ignition and lubrication. This is a one or two quinmester credit course of 45…

  1. Automotive Chassis; Automotive Mechanics-Basic: 9043.02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This automotive chassis course is designed to familiarize the beginning student of the history and development of the automobile with basic concepts common to the automobile industry, and general information that is required for successful advancement in the automotive mechanics field. It is one quinmester in a series of quinmester outlines…

  2. The alternative strategies of the development of the nuclear power industry in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goverdovskii, A. A.; Kalyakin, S. G.; Rachkov, V. I.

    2014-05-01

    This paper emphasizes the urgency of scientific-and-technical and sociopolitical problems of the modern nuclear power industry without solving of which the transition from local nuclear power systems now in operation to a large-scale nuclear power industry would be impossible. The existing concepts of the longterm strategy of the development of the nuclear power industry have been analyzed. On the basis of the scenarios having been developed it was shown that the most promising alternative is the orientation towards the closed nuclear fuel cycle with fast neutron reactors (hereinafter referred to as fast reactors) that would meet the requirements on the acceptable safety. It was concluded that the main provisions of "The Strategy of the Development of the Nuclear Power Industry of Russia for the First Half of the 21st Century" approved by the Government of the Russian Federation in the year 2000 remain the same at present as well, although they require to be elaborated with due regard for new realities in the market for fossil fuels, the state of both the Russian and the world economy, as well as tightening of requirements related to safe operation of nuclear power stations (NPSs) (for example, after the severe accident at the Fukushima nuclear power station, Japan) and nonproliferation of nuclear weapons.

  3. The MAX Statistic is Less Powerful for Genome Wide Association Studies Under Most Alternative Hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifflett, Benjamin; Huang, Rong; Edland, Steven D

    2017-01-01

    Genotypic association studies are prone to inflated type I error rates if multiple hypothesis testing is performed, e.g., sequentially testing for recessive, multiplicative, and dominant risk. Alternatives to multiple hypothesis testing include the model independent genotypic χ 2 test, the efficiency robust MAX statistic, which corrects for multiple comparisons but with some loss of power, or a single Armitage test for multiplicative trend, which has optimal power when the multiplicative model holds but with some loss of power when dominant or recessive models underlie the genetic association. We used Monte Carlo simulations to describe the relative performance of these three approaches under a range of scenarios. All three approaches maintained their nominal type I error rates. The genotypic χ 2 and MAX statistics were more powerful when testing a strictly recessive genetic effect or when testing a dominant effect when the allele frequency was high. The Armitage test for multiplicative trend was most powerful for the broad range of scenarios where heterozygote risk is intermediate between recessive and dominant risk. Moreover, all tests had limited power to detect recessive genetic risk unless the sample size was large, and conversely all tests were relatively well powered to detect dominant risk. Taken together, these results suggest the general utility of the multiplicative trend test when the underlying genetic model is unknown.

  4. Semi-Markov reliability analysis of alternating systems in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.N.; Cho, N.Z.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear power plant operations that follow current testing and maintenance requirements sometimes result in inadvertent reactor trips, and operating staffs devote a significant amount of time and effort in complying with these requirements. Significant benefits could result from changes in current technical specifications. In this paper the benefits and impacts of changes in allowed outage times (AOTs) and surveillance test intervals (STIs) are evaluated for an alternative system that consists of multiple trains and whose operation is alternated train by train. because of testing and AOT requirements, the alternating system exhibits semi-Markovian characteristics that change states in accordance with a Markov process but take an arbitrarily distributed amount of time between changes. The state probabilities are quantified by memorizing the necessary number of past state probabilities. Two measures of plant performance, namely, core damage probability and plant unavailability (reactor downtime), were calculated for the evaluation of AOT and STI. Results indicate that there is an optimal point that gives the lowest core damage probability and that the methodology developed in this study can be applied to existing alternating systems to evaluate accurately the various alternatives in the technical specifications

  5. Automotive mechatronics automotive networking, driving stability systems, electronics

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    As the complexity of automotive vehicles increases this book presents operational and practical issues of automotive mechatronics. It is a comprehensive introduction to controlled automotive systems and provides detailed information of sensors for travel, angle, engine speed, vehicle speed, acceleration, pressure, temperature, flow, gas concentration etc. The measurement principles of the different sensor groups are explained and examples to show the measurement principles applied in different types. Contents Basics of mechatronics.- Architecture.- Electronic control unit.- Software development.- Basic principles of networking.- Automotive networking.- Bus systems.- Automotive sensors.- Sensor measuring principles.- Sensor types.- Electric actuators.- Electrohydraulic actuators.- Electronic transmission control.- Electronic transmission control unit.- Modules for transmission control.- Antilock braking system.- Traction control system.- Electronic stability program.- Automatic brake functions.- Hydraulic modu...

  6. Automotive systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Winner, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    This book reflects the shift in design paradigm in automobile industry. It presents future innovations, often referred as  “automotive systems engineering”.  These cause fundamental innovations in the field of driver assistance systems and electro-mobility as well as fundamental changes in the architecture of the vehicles. New driving functionalities can only be realized if the software programs of multiple electronic control units work together correctly. This volume presents the new and innovative methods which are mandatory to master the complexity of the vehicle of the future.

  7. The automotive transmission book

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Robert; Jürgens, Gunter; Najork, Rolf; Pollak, Burkhard

    2015-01-01

    This book presents essential information on systems and interactions in automotive transmission technology and outlines the methodologies used to analyze and develop transmission concepts and designs. Functions of and interactions between components and subassemblies of transmissions are introduced, providing a basis for designing transmission systems and for determining their potentials and properties in vehicle-specific applications: passenger cars, trucks, buses, tractors, and motorcycles. With these fundamentals the presentation provides universal resources for both state-of-the-art and future transmission technologies, including systems for electric and hybrid electric vehicles.

  8. Automotive battery technology

    CERN Document Server

    Watzenig, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The use of electrochemical energy storage systems in automotive applications also involves new requirements for modeling these systems, especially in terms of model depth and model quality. Currently, mainly simple application-oriented models are used to describe the physical behavior of batteries. This book provides a step beyond of state-of-the-art modeling showing various different approaches covering following aspects: system safety, misuse behavior (crash, thermal runaway), battery state estimation and electrochemical modeling with the needed analysis (pre/post mortem). All this different approaches are developed to support the overall integration process from a multidisciplinary point-of-view and depict their further enhancements to this process.

  9. AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO LOW FREQUENCY RF ACCELERATORS AND POWER SOURCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZHAO, Y.

    2001-01-01

    The Muon Collider and Neutrino Factory projects require low frequency rf cavities because the size and emittance of the muon beam is much larger than is usual for electron or proton beams. The range of 30 MHz to 200 MHz is of special interest. However, the size of an accelerator with low frequency will be impractically large if it is simply scaled up from usual designs. In addition, to get very high peak power in this range is difficult. Presented in this paper is an alternative structure that employs a quasi-lumped inductance that can significantly reduce the transverse size while keeping high gradient. Also addressed is a power compression scheme with a thyratron. This gives a possible solution to provide very high peak power

  10. A Modified Load Flow Algorithm in Power Systems with Alternative Energy Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras, D.L.; Cañedo, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper an algorithm for calculating the steady state of electrical networks including wind and photovoltaic generation is presented. The wind generators considered are; asynchronous (squirrel cage and doubly fed) and synchronous generators using permanent magnets. The proposed algorithm is based on the formulation of nodal power injections that is solved with the modified Newton Raphson technique in its polar formulation using complex matrices notation. Each power injection of wind and photovoltaic generators is calculated independently in each iteration according to its particular mathematical model, which is generally non-linear. Results are presented with a 30-node test system. The computation time of the proposed algorithm is compared with the conventional methodology to include alternative energy sources in power flows studies. (author)

  11. Up-Rating - An Alternative Approach to Meeting Future Power Demands - Exploitation of Design Margins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce, Barnaby; Schwarz, Thomas [AREVA NP GmbH, Freyeslebenstr. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Up-rating is a world-wide implemented approach that takes advantage of increased calculation and analytic abilities developed since commissioning and applies them to old plants. In doing so, what would possibly be considered today as over-engineered design margins are exploited and plant performance is improved, without necessarily involving extensive modifications or replacement of hardware. It is therefore a short-term alternative, compared to new plants, with little change in environmental ramifications for power production capacity gained. Up-rating is also more accepted by the wider community and licensing authorities, thus complimenting the building of new plants. The 10% thermal up-rating of the nuclear power plant at Almaraz, Spain, requires a comprehensive reanalysis of all power components. This paper focuses on those measures required to ensure the performance of the steam generators at increased load as an example of design margin exploitation in such crucial components. (authors)

  12. Reliability in automotive ethernet networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Fabio L.; Campelo, Divanilson R.; Yan, Ying

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of in-vehicle communication networks and addresses the challenges of providing reliability in automotive Ethernet in particular.......This paper provides an overview of in-vehicle communication networks and addresses the challenges of providing reliability in automotive Ethernet in particular....

  13. Automotive Fuel and Exhaust Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irby, James F.; And Others

    Materials are provided for a 14-hour course designed to introduce the automotive mechanic to the basic operations of automotive fuel and exhaust systems incorporated on military vehicles. The four study units cover characteristics of fuels, gasoline fuel system, diesel fuel systems, and exhaust system. Each study unit begins with a general…

  14. A Review on the Development of Gravitational Water Vortex Power Plant as Alternative Renewable Energy Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M. M.; Tan, J. H.; Fadzlita, M. T.; Khairul Muzammil, A. R. Wan

    2017-07-01

    Gravitational water vortex power plant is a green technology that generates electricity from alternative or renewable energy source. In the vortex power plant, water is introduced into a circular basin tangentially that creates a free vortex and energy is extracted from the free vortex by using a turbine. The main advantages of this type of power plant is the generation of electricity from ultra-low hydraulic pressure and it is also environmental friendly. Since the hydraulic head requirement is as low as 1m, this type of power plant can be installed at a river or a stream to generate electricity for few houses. It is a new and not well-developed technology to harvest electricity from low pressure water energy sources. There are limited literatures available on the design, fabrication and physical geometry of the vortex turbine and generator. Past researches focus on the optimization of turbine design, inlets, outlets and basin geometry. However, there are still insufficient literatures available for the technology to proceed beyond prototyping stage. The maximum efficiency obtained by the researchers are approximately 30% while the commercial companies claimed about 50% of efficiency with 500W to 20kW of power generated. Hence, the aim of this paper is to determine the gap in the vortex power plant technology development through past works and a set of research recommendations will be developed as efforts to accelerate the development of GWVPP.

  15. INTEGRATED AUTOMOTIVE MANUFACTURING SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J.S. Van Dyk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Supply planning and traffic flow planning are major activities in the automotive manufacturing environment worldwide. Traditionally, the impact of supply planning strategies on plant traffic is rarely considered. This paper describes the development of a Decision Support System (DSS that will assist automotive manufacturers to analyse the effect of supply planning decisions on plant traffic during the supply planning phase of their logistics planning process. In essence, this DSS consists of a Supply Medium Decision Support Tool (SMDST (an interactive MS-Excel model with Visual Basic interfacing and a traffic flow simulation model tool (using eMPlant simulation software.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Verskaffingsbeplanning en verkeersvloeibeplanning is belangrike aktiwiteite in die motorvervaardigingsbedryf wêreldwyd. Tradisioneel word die uitwerking van verskaffings-beplanningsstrategië op aanlegverkeer selde in ag geneem. Hierdie artikel beskryf die ontwikkeling van ’n Besluitnemings Ondersteuningstelsel (DSS wat motorvervaardigers sal ondersteun in die analise van die effek van verskaffingsbeplanningbesluite op aanlegverkeer tydens die verskaffingsbeplanningsfase van hulle logistieke beplanningsproses. Hierdie DSS bestaan hoofsaaklik uit ’n Verskaffings-vervoermiddel Besluitnemingshulpmiddel (SMDST (’n interaktiewe MS-Excel model met “Visual Basic” koppelling asook ’n simulasiemodel van verkeersvloei (met eM-Plant simulasiesagteware.

  16. Concentrating solar thermal power as a viable alternative in China's electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung-Ling Chien, John; Lior, Noam

    2011-01-01

    Study of low-carbon and pollution renewable alternatives for China revealed that concentrating solar thermal (CST) electric power generation was underemphasized in China's renewable energy plan. The analysis shows the competitive viability of CST: (1) China has the key prerequisites to make CST power generation economical including high-quality insolation and appropriate land, (2) CST's proven history, scale, and dispatchability makes it a good utility-scale power option, especially in the economically underdeveloped Western regions, (3) while CST power is currently more expensive than coal-fired electricity on a nominal basis, when costs of externalities are accounted for, CST, at 11.4 US cents/kWh, can become 57% cheaper than scrubbed coal and 29% cheaper than nuclear power, (4) CST power continues dropping in cost due to economies of scale and technological improvements and can potentially realize a levelized electricity cost of around 4 cents/kWh within ten years, (5) it would significantly rise in competitiveness if and when China completes the extensive smart grid for connecting its solar-abundant western regions with the high-demand eastern regions, (6) CST has the potential to positively impact Western China's economy, but proper policy and deal structure must be in place to ensure that the local community shares the benefit. - Highlights: ► We analyze inclusion of concentrating solar thermal (CST) power in China. ► We find that CST needs emphasis in China's renewable energy plan. ► The analysis shows that CST is competitive with coal if externalities are considered. ► We recommend a policy that would develop CST power generation in western regions. ► This would be of significant benefit to Western China's economy and to China.

  17. Alternatives and costs for the decommissioning of Angra Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carajilescov, Pedro; Moreira, Joao Manoel Losada; Maiorino, Jose Rubens, E-mail: pedro.carajilescov@ufabc.edu.br [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The decommissioning of a nuclear reactor requires several actions involving legal basis, decommissioning strategies, planning, dismantling, packing, transport and storage of a large volume of radioactive materials, qualified personnel and financial resources. The paper discusses the several aspects of these actions for the decommissioning of Angra nuclear Power Plants, based on the international experiences. The main phases of the decommissioning process, the Brazilian regulation and cost estimations are also presented. Finally, two alternatives for the decommissioning of the plants, based on logistic aspects, are discussed. (author)

  18. Alternatives and costs for the decommissioning of Angra Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carajilescov, Pedro; Moreira, Joao Manoel Losada; Maiorino, Jose Rubens

    2013-01-01

    The decommissioning of a nuclear reactor requires several actions involving legal basis, decommissioning strategies, planning, dismantling, packing, transport and storage of a large volume of radioactive materials, qualified personnel and financial resources. The paper discusses the several aspects of these actions for the decommissioning of Angra nuclear Power Plants, based on the international experiences. The main phases of the decommissioning process, the Brazilian regulation and cost estimations are also presented. Finally, two alternatives for the decommissioning of the plants, based on logistic aspects, are discussed. (author)

  19. 75 FR 34483 - In the Matter of Certain Automotive Vehicles and Designs Therefore; Notice of Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... automotive vehicles and designs therefore that infringe U.S. Patent No. D513,395, and whether an industry in... Industry Zone, Yongkang, Zhejiang Province, China 321307. Shanghai Xingyue Power Machinery Co. Ltd., No... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-722] In the Matter of Certain Automotive Vehicles...

  20. Diode-laser-illuminated automotive lamp systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Michael A.; Remillard, Jeffrey T.

    1998-05-01

    We have utilized the high brightness of state-of-the-art diode laser sources, and a variety of emerging optical technologies to develop a new class of thin, uniquely styled automotive brake and signal lamps. Using optics based on thin (5 mm) plastic sheets, these lamps provide appearance and functional advantages not attainable with traditional automotive lighting systems. The light is coupled into the sheets using a 1 mm diameter glass fiber, and manipulated using refraction and reflection from edges, surfaces, and shaped cut-outs. Light can be extracted with an efficiency of approximately 50% and formed into a luminance distribution that meets the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) photometric requirements. Prototype lamps using these optics have been constructed and are less than one inch in thickness. Thin lamps reduce sheet metal costs, complexity, material usage, weight, and allow for increased trunk volume. In addition, these optics enhance lamp design flexibility. When the lamps are not energized, they can appear body colored, and when lighted, the brightness distribution across the lamp can be uniform or structured. A diode laser based brake lamp consumes seven times less electrical power than one using an incandescent source and has instant on capability. Also, diode lasers have the potential to be 10-year/150,000 mile light sources.

  1. Methodology for the comparative assessment of the Satellite Power System (SPS) and alternative technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolsko, T.; Buehring, W.; Cirillo, R.; Gasper, J.; Habegger, L.; Hub, K.; Newsom, D.; Samsa, M.; Stenehjem, E.; Whitfield, R.

    1980-01-01

    A description of the initial methodology for the Comparative Assessment of the Satellite Power System Concept Development and Evaluation Program of NASA and DOE is presented. Included are study objectives, issue identification, units of measurement, methods, and data bases. The energy systems concerned are the satellite power system, several coal technologies, geothermal energy, fission, fusion, terrestrial solar systems, and ocean thermal energy conversion. Guidelines are suggested for the characterization of these systems, side-by-side analysis, alternative futures analysis, and integration and aggregation of data. The bulk of this report is a description of the methods for assessing the technical, economic, environmental, societal, and institutional issues surrounding the development of the selected energy technologies.

  2. Liquid metals as alternative solution for the power exhaust of future fusion devices: status and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coenen, J W; Philipps, V; Sergienko, G; Terra, A; Unterberg, B; Wegener, T; De Temmerman, G; Van den Bekerom, D C M; Federici, G; Strohmayer, G

    2014-01-01

    Applying liquid metals as plasma facing components for fusion power-exhaust can potentially ameliorate lifetime issues as well as limitations to the maximum allowed surface heat loads by allowing for a more direct contact with the coolant. The material choice has so far been focused on lithium (Li), as it showed beneficial impact on plasma operation. Here materials such as tin (Sn), gallium (Ga) and aluminum (Al) are discussed as alternatives potentially allowing higher operating temperatures without strong evaporation. Power loads of up to 25 MW m −2 for a Sn/W component can be envisioned based on calculations and modeling. Reaching a higher operating temperature due to material re-deposition will be discussed. Liquids typically face stability issues due to j × B forces, potential pressure and magnetohydrodynamic driven instabilities. The capillary porous system is used for stabilization by a mesh (W and Mo) substrate and replenishment by means of capillary action. (paper)

  3. The vulnerabilities of the power-grid system: renewable microgrids as an alternative source of energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Victor; Myres, Charles; Bakshi, Nitin

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyse the vulnerabilities of current power-grid systems and to propose alternatives to using fossil fuel power generation and infrastructure solutions in the form of microgrids, particularly those from renewable energy sources. One of the key potential benefits of microgrids, apart from their inherent sustainability and ecological advantages, is increased resilience. The analysis is targeted towards the context of business process outsourcing in India. However, much of the research on vulnerabilities has been derived from the USA and as such many of the examples cite vulnerabilities in the USA and other developed economies. Nevertheless, the vulnerabilities noted are to a degree common to all grid systems, and so the analysis may be more broadly applicable.

  4. Tank-automotive robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Gerald R.

    1999-07-01

    To provide an overview of Tank-Automotive Robotics. The briefing will contain program overviews & inter-relationships and technology challenges of TARDEC managed unmanned and robotic ground vehicle programs. Specific emphasis will focus on technology developments/approaches to achieve semi- autonomous operation and inherent chassis mobility features. Programs to be discussed include: DemoIII Experimental Unmanned Vehicle (XUV), Tactical Mobile Robotics (TMR), Intelligent Mobility, Commanders Driver Testbed, Collision Avoidance, International Ground Robotics Competition (ICGRC). Specifically, the paper will discuss unique exterior/outdoor challenges facing the IGRC competing teams and the synergy created between the IGRC and ongoing DoD semi-autonomous Unmanned Ground Vehicle and DoT Intelligent Transportation System programs. Sensor and chassis approaches to meet the IGRC challenges and obstacles will be shown and discussed. Shortfalls in performance to meet the IGRC challenges will be identified.

  5. Institutional impediments to using alternative water sources in thermoelectric power plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-08-03

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the Existing Plants Research Program's overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. Obtaining adequate water supplies for cooling and other operations at a reasonable cost is a key factor in siting new and maintaining existing thermoelectric power plant operations. One way to reduce freshwater consumption is to use alternative water sources such as reclaimed (or recycled) water, mine pool water, and other nontraditional sources. The use of these alternative sources can pose institutional challenges that can cause schedule delays, increase costs, or even require plants to abandon their plans to use alternative sources. This report identifies and describes a variety of institutional challenges experienced by power plant owners and operators across the country, and for many of these challenges it identifies potential mitigating approaches. The information comes from publically available sources and from conversations with power plant owners/operators familiar with using alternative sources. Institutional challenges identified in this investigation include, but are not limited to, the following: (1) Institutional actions and decisions that are beyond the control of the power plant. Such actions can include changes in local administrative policies that can affect the use of reclaimed water, inaccurate growth projections regarding the amount of water that will be available when needed, and agency workloads and other priorities that can cause delays in the permitting and approval processes. (2) Developing, cultivating, and maintaining institutional relationships with the purveyor(s) of the alternative water source, typically a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP

  6. Evaluation of applicability of alternative source terms to operating nuclear power plants in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, S. N.; Park, Y. S.; Nam, K. M.; Song, D. B.; Bae, Y. J.; Lee, Y. J.; Jung, C. Y.

    2002-01-01

    In 1995 and 2000, NRC issued NUREG-1465 and Regulatory Guide 1.183 with respect to Alternative Source Terms(AST) replacing the existing source terms of TID-14844 and Regulatory Guide 1.4, 1.25, and 1.77 for radiological Design Basis Accidents(DBA) analysis. In 1990, ICRP published ICRP Pub. 60 which represents new recommendations on dose criteria and concepts. In Korea, alternative source terms were used for evaluation of effective doses for design basis accidents of Advanced Power Reactor(APR1400) using the computer program developed by an overseas company. Recently, DBADOSE, new computer program for DBA analysis incorporating AST and effective dose concept was developed by KHNP and KOPEC, and reanalysis applying AST to operating nuclear power plants, Kori units 3 and 4 in Korea using DBADOSE has been performed. As the results of this analysis, it was concluded that some conservative variables or operation procedures of operating plants could be mitigated or simplified by virtue of increased safety margin and consequently, economical and operational benefits ensue. In this paper, methodologies and results of Kori 3 and 4 DBA reanalysis and sensitivity analysis for mitigation of main design variables are introduced

  7. Automotive Stirling Engine Development Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, William D.; Shaltens, Richard K.

    1997-01-01

    The development and verification of automotive Stirling engine (ASE) component and system technology is described as it evolved through two experimental engine designs: the Mod 1 and the Mod 2. Engine operation and performance and endurance test results for the Mod 1 are summarized. Mod 2 engine and component development progress is traced from the original design through hardware development, laboratory test, and vehicle installation. More than 21,000 hr of testing were accomplished, including 4800 hr with vehicles that were driven more dm 59,000 miles. Mod 2 engine dynamometer tests demonstrated that the engine system configuration had accomplished its performance goals for power (60 kW) and efficiency (38.5%) to within a few percent. Tests with the Mod 2 engine installed in a delivery van demonstrated combined metro-highway fuel economy improvements consistent with engine performance goals and the potential for low emission levels. A modified version of the Mod 2 has been identified as a manufacturable design for an ASE. As part of the ASE project, the Industry Test and Evaluation Program (ITEP), NASA Technology Utilization (TU) project, and the industry-funded Stirling Natural Gas Engine program were undertaken to transfer ASE technology to end users. The results of these technology transfer efforts are also summarized.

  8. Development of Alternative Power Industry Based on Nanotechnologies: Forecast Effects for Russian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inshakova Elena Ivanovna

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aspiration of countries to achieve sustainable economic growth by reducing the energy dependence of the main suppliers of energy resources and by increasing national energy security induces in the conditions of increasing competition between participants in the global energy market the necessity to intensify the use of internal development resources, including the introduction of energy-saving technologies and development of alternative power industry. The urgency of the problems of international competitiveness achievement based on the energy security strengthening, solution of which largely determines the directions of the energy sector development, is increasingly recognized in many countries, including Russia. Timeliness of preparation to the use of substitute innovative energy resources and energy sources, while the traditional fossil fuels are dwindling, is marked as one of the most important principles of the state policy of Russia. All these factors update the development of domestic alternative energy in accordance with the megatrends of the world energy sector. The prospects for the development of modern energy, especially alternative, are associated by many experts with the use of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials. Nanotechnologies contribute to the new opportunities for the use of renewable energy sources and a significant contribution to the production and conservation of energy. The main directions of the effective use of nanotechnologies in the energy sector are: the use of renewable sources; energy storage; reducing the consumption of materials; the use of alternative materials. On the example of the world and Russian practice of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials use in the sphere of wind and solar energy the basic effects of their application, important for the development of alternative energy and of the Russian national economy as a whole, are identified in the article. The most important effects include strengthening

  9. The European automotive LPG market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    The European automotive LPG market could reach at least 4 % of the European fuel market in 2005 versus 1 % in 1990. This would represent a rise of about 35 % in automotive LPG sales (from 2,4 million tonnes in 1997 to 7 million tonnes estimated for 2005). This was underlined by Alain Deleuse, Primagaz group's Marketing Director, in the paper he delivered at the AEGPL Budapest Convention. We publish large excepts of this paper. (author)

  10. A nuclear power plant for Lima city. Is it a real alternative?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romani A, J.

    1992-01-01

    At the present, Peru has an installed electricity capacity of 4112 MW from which the 80% comes from hydroelectric sources and other 20% from thermal sources. Lima city concentrates the larger industrial activities and uses 95% of the hydro-electric supply the 5% comes from thermal origin. This situation provokes an energetic vulnerability to Lima, a city with more them 10 million of inhabitants, because climatic changes and the electric towers destruction. In the 1989-1992 period lack of energy meant economic losses for about US$ 2 100 000. To solve this problem the government is building a 300 MW thermal station. This alternative means a low investment for Kw installed but high production costs. Additionally the installation of the plant in Lima will increase the environmental contamination due to emission of about 20000 TM/year of SOx and 7500 TM/year of NOx. The research study recommends as a solution the diversification of energy sources, avoiding dependence of the hydro-electrical ones. In the same form it suggests that the next 300 MW power station to be installed for about 1998 would be a nuclear power plant but not thermal one. It also makes a revision of the new designs for nuclear power plants called safe inherently which design and construction philosophy avoid the possibility of accidents like Chernobyl. (author). 15 refs., 5 tabs., 13 figs

  11. Comparative evaluation of three alternative power cycles for waste heat recovery from the exhaust of adiabatic diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, M. M.

    1985-01-01

    Three alternative power cycles were compared in application as an exhaust-gas heat-recovery system for use with advanced adiabatic diesel engines. The power cycle alternatives considered were steam Rankine, organic Rankine with RC-1 as the working fluid, and variations of an air Brayton cycle. The comparison was made in terms of fuel economy and economic payback potential for heavy-duty trucks operating in line-haul service. The results indicate that, in terms of engine rated specific fuel consumption, a diesel/alternative-power-cycle engine offers a significant improvement over the turbocompound diesel used as the baseline for comparison. The maximum imporvement resulted from the use of a Rankine cycle heat-recovery system in series with turbocompounding. The air Brayton cycle alternatives studied, which included both simple-cycle and compression-intercooled configurations, were less effective and provided about half the fuel consumption improvement of the Rankine cycle alternatives under the same conditions. Capital and maintenance cost estimates were also developed for each of the heat-recovery power cycle systems. These costs were integrated with the fuel savings to identify the time required for net annual savings to pay back the initial capital investment. The sensitivity of capital payback time to arbitrary increases in fuel price, not accompanied by corresponding hardware cost inflation, was also examined. The results indicate that a fuel price increase is required for the alternative power cycles to pay back capital within an acceptable time period.

  12. Storing electricity, the technological challenge of the automotive sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moulet, C.

    2010-01-01

    The search for alternatives to the internal combustion engine for motor vehicles may be nothing new, but the present focus on environmental issues (dwindling fossil fuel reserves, growing awareness of the environmental impact of the internal combustion engine, etc.) makes it more topical than ever. It is no coincidence that most manufacturers and OEMs on the automotive market, and many research centers, are studying the use of batteries and fuel cells as a means of developing greener, sustainable transport solutions for the future. The European Union is considering ways of compelling manufacturers to market vehicles that are more fuel-efficient at a time when the members of the European Automobile Manufacturers Association, unlike their counterparts in Japan, are failing to meet the targets defined in voluntary agreements. Through their sales of hybrid vehicles, Japanese manufacturers have lent credibility to the notion of a market for electrified vehicles. In this way, market constraints (environmental impact of the internal combustion engine, the cost of fossil fuel, consumers, and national or European lawmakers) will push the automotive industry into marketing 'low-carbon' vehicles in the very short term. Manufacturers' product plans reveal that a wave of electrified products can be expected on the market in 2015. That implies a significant R and D effort between now and 2012, with demonstrator vehicles up and running by 2013-2014 at the latest. So now is a crucial time for research organisations to position themselves in preparation for this emerging market. Industry is hoping for technological progress in areas that cut across these varying degrees of hybridisation and electrification, namely the storage and management of electrical energy and power electronics. It is these areas that will be at the heart of research programs. In these highly competitive times, efforts should focus on: - Lowering costs (by a factor of 5 to 10 for fuel cells and 2 to 4 for

  13. Automotive mechatronics operational and practical issues

    CERN Document Server

    Fijalkowski, B T

    2011-01-01

    This book presents operational and practical issues of automotive mechatronics with special emphasis on the heterogeneous automotive vehicle systems approach, and is intended as a graduate text as well as a reference for scientists and engineers involved in the design of automotive mechatronic control systems. As the complexity of automotive vehicles increases, so does the dearth of high competence, multi-disciplined automotive scientists and engineers. This book provides a discussion into the type of mechatronic control systems found in modern vehicles and the skills required by automotive scientists and engineers working in this environment. Divided into two volumes and five parts, Automotive Mechatronics aims at improving automotive mechatronics education and emphasises the training of students' experimental hands-on abilities, stimulating and promoting experience among high education institutes and produce more automotive mechatronics and automation engineers. The main subject that are treated are: VOLUME...

  14. Bosch automotive electrics and automotive electronics systems and components, networking and hybrid drive

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The significance of electrical and electronic systems has increased considerably in the last few years and this trend is set to continue. The characteristics feature of innovative systems is the fact that they can work together in a network. This requires powerful bus systems that the electronic control units can use to exchange information. Networking and the various bus systems used in motor vehicles are the prominent new topic in the 5th edition of the "Automotive Electric, Automotive Electronics" technical manual. The existing chapters have also been updated, so that this new edition brings the reader up to date on the subjects of electrical and electronic systems in the motor vehicle. Content Electrical and electronical systems – Basic principles of networking - Examples of networked vehicles – Bus systems – Architecture of electronic systems – Mechatronics – Elektronics – Electronic control Units – Software – Sensors – Actuators – Hybrid drives – Vehicle electrical system – Start...

  15. Preliminary design study of an alternate heat source assembly for a Brayton isotope power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumpf, H. J.

    1978-01-01

    Results are presented for a study of the preliminary design of an alternate heat source assembly (HSA) intended for use in the Brayton isotope power system (BIPS). The BIPS converts thermal energy emitted by a radioactive heat source into electrical energy by means of a closed Brayton cycle. A heat source heat exchanger configuration was selected and optimized. The design consists of a 10 turn helically wound Hastelloy X tube. Thermal analyses were performed for various operating conditions to ensure that post impact containment shell (PICS) temperatures remain within specified limits. These limits are essentially satisfied for all modes of operation except for the emergency cooling system for which the PICS temperatures are too high. Neon was found to be the best choice for a fill gas for auxiliary cooling system operation. Low cycle fatigue life, natural frequency, and dynamic loading requirements can be met with minor modifications to the existing HSA.

  16. Technological development with reference to hydro-power, nuclear, and alternative energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, T R; Baumgartner, T

    1985-01-01

    This report outlines a theoretical framework for describing and analyzing the introduction of new technologies and the development of socio-technical systems associated with such innovations. While the report is largely theoretical in nature, it refers to certain strategic aspects of the development of nuclear, hydro-power and alternative energy systems. The ease with which technological innovation and development occur, the directions they take, and the impacts they have on the social and physical environments depend not only on purely technical and economic factors. Barriers, regulators and facilitators are inherent in the socio-political, institutional and cultural structures within which any attempts at innovation and technological development take place. The final section of the report explores some of the implications of the theory for policy and strategy, including consideration of environmental policy.

  17. Message to complementary and alternative medicine: evidence is a better friend than power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vickers Andrew J

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence-based medicine (EBM is being embraced by an increasing number of practitioners and advocates of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM. A significant constituency within CAM, however, appears to have substantive doubts about EBM and some are expressly hostile. Discussion Many of the arguments raised against EBM within the CAM community are based on a caricature radically at odds with established, accepted and published principles of EBM practice. Contrary to what has sometimes been argued, EBM is not cookbook medicine that ignores individual needs. Neither does EBM mandate that only proven therapies should be used. Before EBM, decisions on health care tended to be based on tradition, power and influence. Such modes usually act to the disadvantage of marginal groups. Conclusion By placing CAM on an equal footing with conventional medicine - what matters for both is evidence of effectiveness - EBM provides an opportunity for CAM to find an appropriate and just place in health care.

  18. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Automotive Repair. Course: Brake Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, C.; Osland, Walt

    One of twelve individualized courses included in an automotive repair curriculum, this course covers theory, operation, and repair of drum brakes, disc brakes, and brake system components. The course is comprised of six units: (1) Fundamentals of Brake Systems, (2) Master Cylinder, (3) Drum Brakes, (4) Disc Brakes, (5) Power Brakes, and (6)…

  19. An efficient enzyme-powered micromotor device fabricated by cyclic alternate hybridization assembly for DNA detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shizhe; Zhang, Xueqing; Xie, Yuzhe; Wu, Jie; Ju, Huangxian

    2017-07-06

    An efficient enzyme-powered micromotor device was fabricated by assembling multiple layers of catalase on the inner surface of a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene and sodium 4-styrenesulfonate)/Au microtube (PEDOT-PSS/Au). The catalase assembly was achieved by programmed DNA hybridization, which was performed by immobilizing a designed sandwich DNA structure as the sensing unit on the PEDOT-PSS/Au, and then alternately hybridizing with two assisting DNA to bind the enzyme for efficient motor motion. The micromotor device showed unique features of good reproducibility, stability and motion performance. Under optimal conditions, it showed a speed of 420 μm s -1 in 2% H 2 O 2 and even 51 μm s -1 in 0.25% H 2 O 2 . In the presence of target DNA, the sensing unit hybridized with target DNA to release the multi-layer DNA as well as the multi-catalase, resulting in a decrease of the motion speed. By using the speed as a signal, the micromotor device could detect DNA from 10 nM to 1 μM. The proposed micromotor device along with the cyclic alternate DNA hybridization assembly technique provided a new path to fabricate efficient and versatile micromotors, which would be an exceptional tool for rapid and simple detection of biomolecules.

  20. Automotive SOI-BCD Technology Using Bonded Wafers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himi, H.; Fujino, S.

    2008-01-01

    The SOI-BCD device is excelling in high temperature operation and noise immunity because the integrated elements can be electrically separated by dielectric isolation. We have promptly paid attention to this feature and have concentrated to develop SOI-BCD devices seeking to match the automotive requirement. In this paper, the feature technologies specialized for automotive SOI-BCD devices, such as buried N + layer for impurity gettering and noise shielding, LDMOS with improved ESD robustness, crystal defect-less process, and wafer direct bonding through the amorphous layer for intelligent power IC are introduced.

  1. MEMS for automotive and aerospace applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kraft, Michael

    2013-01-01

    MEMS for automotive and aerospace applications reviews the use of Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) in developing solutions to the unique challenges presented by the automotive and aerospace industries.Part one explores MEMS for a variety of automotive applications. The role of MEMS in passenger safety and comfort, sensors for automotive vehicle stability control applications and automotive tire pressure monitoring systems are considered, along with pressure and flow sensors for engine management, and RF MEMS for automotive radar sensors. Part two then goes on to explore MEMS for

  2. Silicon Power MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Casey, Megan; Campola, Michael; Ladbury, Raymond; Label, Kenneth; Wilcox, Ted; Phan, Anthony; Kim, Hak; Topper, Alyson

    2017-01-01

    Recent work for the NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging Program Power MOSFET task is presented. The Task technology focus, roadmap, and partners are given. Recent single-event effect test results on commercial, automotive, and radiation hardened trench power MOSFETs are summarized with an emphasis on risk of using commercial and automotive trench-gate power MOSFETs in space applications.

  3. Ceramic technologies for automotive industry: Current status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Akira

    2009-01-01

    The automotive industry has developed substantially through advances in mechanical technologies, and technologies such as electronics and advanced materials have also contributed to further advances in automobiles. The contribution of ceramic materials to automobile technologies ranges over driving performance, exhaust gas purification, and fuel efficiency improvements. Several ceramic components, such as knock sensors, oxygen sensors, exhaust gas catalysts, and silicon nitride parts for automotive engines, have been successfully applied to automobiles. This paper focuses on the contribution of ceramics to automotive technologies. It also mentions potential contributions in the future, including adiabatic turbo-compound diesels, ceramic gas turbines, fuel cells, and electric vehicles because ceramic technologies have been intensively involved in the challenge to achieve advanced power sources.

  4. Socioeconomic effects of power marketing alternatives for the Central Valley and Washoe Projects: 2005 regional econmic impact analysis using IMPLAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.M.; Godoy-Kain, P.; Gu, A.Y.; Ulibarri, C.A.

    1996-11-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) was founded by the Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 to market and transmit federal hydroelectric power in 15 western states outside the Pacific Northwest, which is served by the Bonneville Power Administration. Western is divided into four independent Customer Service Regions including the Sierra Nevada Region (Sierra Nevada), the focus of this report. The Central Valley Project (CVP) and the Washoe Project provide the primary power resources marketed by Sierra Nevada. Sierra Nevada also purchases and markets power generated by the Bonneville Power Administration, Pacific Gas and Electric (PG ampersand E), and various power pools. Sierra Nevada currently markets approximately 1,480 megawatts of power to 77 customers in northern and central California. These customers include investor-owned utilities, public utilities, government agencies, military bases, and irrigation districts. Methods and conclusions from an economic analysis are summarized concerning distributional effects of alternative actions that Sierra Nevada could take with it's new marketing plan

  5. Potential alternatives of heat and power technology application using rice straw in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suramaythangkoor, Tritib; Gheewala, Shabbir H.

    2010-01-01

    Rice straw could be used for heat and power with the current technologies available in Thailand. The cost of rice straw for power generation at 0.38-0.61 Baht/MJ e (at rice straw price 930-1500 Baht/t) is not competitive with coal at 0.30 Baht/MJ e but comparable with other biomass at 0.35-0.53 Baht/MJ e . However, utilization of rice straw in industrial boilers is a more competitive and flexible option with two alternatives; (1) installing rice straw fired boilers instead of heavy oil fired or natural gas ones when selecting new boilers; and (2) fuel switching from coal to rice straw for existing boilers with cost saving of feedstock supply by 0.01 Baht/MJ h . Based on its properties (Slagging index, R s = 0.04; fouling index, R f 0.24), rice straw is not expected to have significant operating problems or different emissions compared with wheat straw and rice husk under similar operating conditions. (author)

  6. Proposal and Development of a High Voltage Variable Frequency Alternating Current Power System for Hybrid Electric Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadey, David J.; Taylor, Linda M.; Beach, Raymond F.

    2017-01-01

    The development of ultra-efficient commercial vehicles and the transition to low-carbon emission propulsion are seen as strategic thrust paths within NASA Aeronautics. A critical enabler to these paths comes in the form of hybrid electric propulsion systems. For megawatt-class systems, the best power system topology for these hybrid electric propulsion systems is debatable. Current proposals within NASA and the Aero community suggest using a combination of alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC) for power generation, transmission, and distribution. This paper proposes an alternative to the current thought model through the use of a primarily high voltage AC power system, supported by the Convergent Aeronautics Solutions (CAS) Project. This system relies heavily on the use of doubly-fed induction machines (DFIMs), which provide high power densities, minimal power conversion, and variable speed operation. The paper presents background on the activity along with the system architecture, development status, and preliminary results.

  7. Automotive fuel efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelson, P.H.

    1992-01-01

    For at least the remainder of this century, the United States faces a growing dependence on imported oil. Costs are substantial, and they will mount. In June 1992, net imports provided nearly 50% of supplies, and their cost was $4.3 billion. Cost of net imports of motor vehicles and parts amounted to $3.0 billion. The two items combined totaled more than the negative trade balance of $6.6 billion. The light-duty highway fleet alone accounted for 38.2% of U.S. oil consumption in 1988. Correspondingly, the fleet was a substantial emitter of air pollutants - NO x , CO, and nonmethane hydrocarbons. In addition, it was a major source of CO 2 . The twin problems of oil imports and pollution would be ameliorated if the fuel economy if cars and trucks could be improved and their emissions were also reduced. In principle, the mileage of US automobiles could be substantially improved. But on purchasing a car, U.S. buyers rank fuel efficiency eight when making their choice. They are attracted to options that lower mileage. Consumers also tend to prefer large cars over small ones for reasons of safety. Increasingly, buyers are purchasing light trucks and vans that have inferior fuel efficiency. As a result of the above trends, the average mileage of the US automotive fleet has been diminishing. As long as fuel is available at comparatively low prices and there is no federal requirement for better mileage, improvement is unlikely. Moreover, even if improvements were mandated, change would be slow

  8. Performance evaluation of an automotive thermoelectric generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubitsky, Andrei O.

    Around 40% of the total fuel energy in typical internal combustion engines (ICEs) is rejected to the environment in the form of exhaust gas waste heat. Efficient recovery of this waste heat in automobiles can promise a fuel economy improvement of 5%. The thermal energy can be harvested through thermoelectric generators (TEGs) utilizing the Seebeck effect. In the present work, a versatile test bench has been designed and built in order to simulate conditions found on test vehicles. This allows experimental performance evaluation and model validation of automotive thermoelectric generators. An electrically heated exhaust gas circuit and a circulator based coolant loop enable integrated system testing of hot and cold side heat exchangers, thermoelectric modules (TEMs), and thermal interface materials at various scales. A transient thermal model of the coolant loop was created in order to design a system which can maintain constant coolant temperature under variable heat input. Additionally, as electrical heaters cannot match the transient response of an ICE, modelling was completed in order to design a relaxed exhaust flow and temperature history utilizing the system thermal lag. This profile reduced required heating power and gas flow rates by over 50%. The test bench was used to evaluate a DOE/GM initial prototype automotive TEG and validate analytical performance models. The maximum electrical power generation was found to be 54 W with a thermal conversion efficiency of 1.8%. It has been found that thermal interface management is critical for achieving maximum system performance, with novel designs being considered for further improvement.

  9. An evaluation of light water breeder reactor system (LWBR) as an alternative for nuclear power generation in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, I.L.

    1981-01-01

    The LWBR system as an alternative for nuclear power generation in Brazil, was technically and economically evaluated. The LWBR system has been characterized comparatively with the Pressurized Water Reactors through technological and investment cost analysis and through the analysis of the processes and unit costs of the fuel cycle stages. The characteristics of the LWBR system in comparison to the PWR system, with respect to utilization and cumulative consumption of uranium and thorium resources, fuel cycle processes and associated costs have been determined for possible alternatives of nuclear power participation in the Brazilian hidro-thermal electricity generating system. The analysis concluded that the LWBR system does not represent an attractive alternative for nuclear power generation in Brazil and even has no potential to compete with conventional Pressurized Water Reactors. (Author) [pt

  10. Automotive engineering aspects of solar-powered vehicles on the example of the world-champion EMCar. Fahrzeugtechnische Aspekte von Solarautomobilen am Beispiel des Weltmeisters EMCar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichhorn, U.

    1992-11-01

    Various faculties of Darmstadt Technical University cooperated to build a solar-powered vehicle capable of running in competitions for this category. Safety, handling and efficiency considerations led to the concept of a fourwheeler with reduced rear track-width. The composite body consists of a NACA-profile containing all aggregates with an off-center canopy for the deriver. An integrated drive/rear-axle unit carriers the motor and the toothed-belt transmission. Its kinematics are designed to compensate some unwellcome effect from the narrow track-width for improved straight-line driven and concerning. Together with the double-A-arm front suspension roll in corner as well as dive and squat in braking and acceleration are reduced to near zero. Minimum overall energy consumption in straight and level driving is 2 kWh/100 km at a constant 25 km/h. In mid-day sunshine this speed can be maintained with energy from the solar generator alone. (orig./HW).

  11. Sustainable automotive energy system in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiliang (ed.) [Tsinghua Univ. Beijing (China). China Automotive Energy Research Center

    2013-06-01

    The latest research available on automotive energy system analysis in China. Thorough introduction on automotive energy system in China. Provides the broad perspective to aid in planning sustainable road transport in China. Sustainable Automotive Energy System in China aims at identifying and addressing the key issues of automotive energy in China in a systematic way, covering demography, economics, technology and policy, based on systematic and in-depth, multidisciplinary and comprehensive studies. Five scenarios of China's automotive energy development are created to analyze the possible contributions in the fields of automotive energy, vehicle fuel economy improvement, electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles and the 2nd generation biofuel development. Thanks to this book, readers can gain a better understanding of the nature of China's automotive energy development and be informed about: (1) the current status of automotive energy consumption, vehicle technology development, automotive energy technology development and policy; (2) the future of automotive energy development, fuel consumption, propulsion technology penetration and automotive energy technology development, and (3) the pathways of sustainable automotive energy transformation in China, in particular, the technological and the policy-related options. This book is intended for researchers, engineers and graduates students in the low-carbon transportation and environmental protection field.

  12. Action Handbook for Automotive Service Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association of the U.S., Inc., Detroit, MI.

    The document is a handbook for a vocational automotive service education program which was formulated as a result of a four-day series of intensive workshops called the National Automotive Service Vocational Education Conference. The handbook discusses the major components of an automotive service vocational education program and aspects of their…

  13. Validation of battery-alternator model against experimental data - a first step towards developing a future power supply system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulos, A.M.; Burnham, K.J.; Mahtani, J.L. [Coventry University (United Kingdom). Control Theory and Applications Centre; Pacaud, C. [Jaguar Cars Ltd., Coventry (United Kingdom). Engineering Centre

    2004-01-01

    The electric power system of a modern vehicle has to supply enough electrical energy to drive numerous electrical and electronic systems and components. The electric power system of a vehicle consists of two major components: an alternator and a battery. A detailed understanding of the characteristics of the electric power system, electrical load demands and the operating environment, such as road conditions and vehicle laden weight, is required when the capacities of the generator and the battery are to be determined for a vehicle. In this study, a battery-alternator system has been developed and simulated in MATLAB/Simulink, and data obtained from vehicle tests have been used as a basis for validating the models. This is considered to be a necessary first step in the design and development of a new 42 V power supply system. (author)

  14. Downsizing assessment of automotive Stirling engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, R. H.; Tew, R. C., Jr.; Klann, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    A 67 kW (90 hp) Stirling engine design, sized for use in a 1984 1440 kg (3170 lb) automobile was the focal point for developing automotive Stirling engine technology. Since recent trends are towards lighter vehicles, an assessment was made of the applicability of the Stirling technology being developed for smaller, lower power engines. Using both the Philips scaling laws and a Lewis Research Center (Lewis) Stirling engine performance code, dimensional and performance characteristics were determined for a 26 kW (35 hp) and a 37 kW (50 hp) engine for use in a nominal 907 kg (2000 lb) vehicle. Key engine elements were sized and stressed and mechanical layouts were made to ensure mechanical fit and integrity of the engines. Fuel economy estimates indicated that the Stirling engine would maintain a 30 to 45 percent fuel economy advantage comparable spark ignition and diesel powered vehicles in the 1984 period.

  15. De minimis applications for alternative disposal of very low level radioactive waste at Duke Power Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan, C.

    1986-01-01

    Existing NRC regulations provide no minimum level of radioactivity in waste from a licensee's facility that may be disposed of in a manner other than as radioactive waste. With one exception, in 10CFRsection20.306, licensees may dispose of certain levels of tritium and carbon-14 in liquid-scintillation and animal-carcass waste without regard to its radioactivity. In the interim, before specific or generic provisions for disposing of very low level radioactive wastes are adopted through rule making, licensees have another alternative for obtaining approval to dispose of large volumes of materials contaminated with very low levels of radioactivity under provision 10CFRsection20.302(a) ''Method for obtaining approval of proposed disposal procedures.'' This paper provides the experiences of obtaining both NRC and states (North Carolina and South Carolina) approval for disposing of very low-level radioactive wastes from Duke Power Company's nuclear stations. The approved disposal procedures include landfarming of water treatment residues, on-site disposal (burial) of sand and feedwater heaters, and include offsite release for treatment and disposal of sanitary sewage sludge. In summary, users of radioactive materials should not exclude this approach in their quest to reduce the volume of radioactive waste. It is expected that such submittals could provide a data base for further development of generic limits for radioactive wastes

  16. Caenorhabditis elegans as a powerful alternative model organism to promote research in genetic toxicology and biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honnen, Sebastian

    2017-05-01

    In view of increased life expectancy the risk for disturbed integrity of genetic information increases. This inevitably holds the implication for higher incidence of age-related diseases leading to considerable cost increase in health care systems. To develop preventive strategies it is crucial to evaluate external and internal noxae as possible threats to our DNA. Especially the interplay of DNA damage response (DDR) and DNA repair (DR) mechanisms needs further deciphering. Moreover, there is a distinct need for alternative in vivo test systems for basic research and also risk assessment in toxicology. Especially the evaluation of combinational toxicity of environmentally present genotoxins and adverse effects of clinically used DNA damaging anticancer drugs is a major challenge for modern toxicology. This review focuses on the applicability of Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism to unravel and tackle scientific questions related to the biological consequences of genotoxin exposure and highlights methods for studying DDR and DR. In this regard large-scale in vivo screens of mixtures of chemicals and extensive parallel sequencing are highlighted as unique advantages of C. elegans. In addition, concise information regarding evolutionary conserved molecular mechanisms of the DDR and DR as well as currently available data obtained from the use of prototypical genotoxins and preferential read-outs of genotoxin testing are discussed. The use of established protocols, which are already available in the community, is encouraged to facilitate and further improve the implementation of C. elegans as a powerful genetic model system in genetic toxicology and biomedicine.

  17. Experimental investigation of hydrocarbon mixtures to replace HFC-134a in an automotive air conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wongwises, Somchai; Kamboon, Amnouy; Orachon, Banchob

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study on the application of hydrocarbon mixtures to replace HFC-134a in automotive air conditioners. The hydrocarbons investigated are propane (R290), butane (R600) and isobutane (R600a). The measured data are obtained from an automotive air conditioning test facility utilizing HFC-134a as the refrigerant. The air conditioner, with a capacity of 3.5 kW driven by a Diesel engine, is charged and tested with four different ratios of hydrocarbon mixtures. The experiments are conducted at the same surrounding conditions. The temperature and pressure of the refrigerant at every major position in the refrigerant loop, the temperature, flow rate and humidity of air, torque and engine speed are recorded and analyzed. The parameters investigated are the refrigeration capacity, the compressor power and the coefficient of performance (COP). The results show that propane/butane/isobutane: 50%/40%/10% is the most appropriate alternative refrigerant to replace HFC-134a, having the best performance of all the hydrocarbon mixtures investigated

  18. Automotive, the Future of Mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rieck, Frank; Machielsen, C.; van Duin, Ron

    2017-01-01

    Will the Automotive era come to an end in the 21th century? Looking at today’s environmental and economic challenges of the use of cars based on last century technology and listening to some trend watchers one could think so. Cars can be regarded, as an old school status product indeed, for which

  19. Future perspectives on automotive CAE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bensler, Henry; Eller, Tom; Kabat vel Job, Alexander; Magoulas, Nikolaos; Yigit, Emrah; Van Tongeren, A.

    2014-01-01

    Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) is an integral part of today’s automotive design process. Very often OEM’s rely solely on software vendors to provide appropriate solutions. On the other hand, some companies still use in-house developed software for specific applications. It is, however, a

  20. Automotive the Future of Mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ir. F.G. Rieck; ir. Cees Machielse; Ron van Duin

    2017-01-01

    Will the Automotive era come to an end in the 21th century? Looking at today’s environmental and economic challenges of the use of last century technology cars and listening to some trend watchers one could think so. Cars can be regarded, as an old school status product indeed, for which there is

  1. Automotive Mechanics. Student Learning Guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridge Vocational-Technical Center, Winter Haven, FL.

    These 33 learning guides are self-instructional packets for 33 tasks identified as essential for performance on an entry-level job in automotive mechanics. Each guide is based on a terminal performance objective (task) and 1-9 enabling objectives. For each enabliing objective, some or all of these materials may be presented: learning steps…

  2. Automotive Electronics. Teacher Edition (Revised).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackert, Howard C.; Heiserman, Russell L.

    This learning module addresses computers and their applications in contemporary automobiles. The text provides students with information on automotive microcomputers and hands-on activities that will help them see how semiconductors and digital logic devices fit into the modern repair facility. The module contains nine instructional units that…

  3. On Ugliness and the Automotive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herriott, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The function of this essay is to to see what consequences a consideration of ugliness in automotive styling has for the theories of three writers on aesthetics in design: David Pye, Roger Scruton and Ralf Weber. As such, the concepts of beauty and ugliness will be treated in brief before moving...

  4. Innovative Technology in Automotive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, John

    2007-01-01

    Automotive Technology combines hands-on training along with a fully integrated, interactive, computerized multistationed facility. Our program is a competency based, true open-entry/open-exit program that utilizes flexible self-paced course outlines. It is designed around an industry partnership that promotes community and economic development,…

  5. Efficiency Standard in automotive industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldoni, G.

    2008-01-01

    A technological transition in the transport sector could be only be possible with a convergence of objectives of the automotive and the fuel industries, which is not very simple to obtain. Fuel economy standards could differently reduce the growing trend of CO 2 emissions in this sector but regulators should avoid capture from domestic industry. [it

  6. Hybrid-electric propulsion for automotive and aviation applications

    OpenAIRE

    Friedrich, C; Robertson, Paul Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In parallel with the automotive industry, hybrid-electric propulsion is becoming a viable alternative propulsion technology for the aviation sector and reveals potential advantages including fuel savings, lower pollution, and reduced noise emission. Hybrid-electric propulsion systems can take advantage of the synergy between two technologies by utilizing both internal combustion engines and electric motors together, each operating at their respective optimum conditions...

  7. Environmental sustainability: plastic's evolving role in the automotive life cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jekel, L.; Tam, E.K.L.

    2002-01-01

    One method of assessing the sustainability of manufactured products involves performing a life cycle analysis for a product and comparing it to alternative ones, or else examining if individual stages of the product can be modified. LCA applications are being used more extensively, especially in the automotive and related industries. Automotive plastics in particular are being scrutinized with much greater care. Plastic components have replaced metal ones in vehicle manufacturing to improve vehicle fuel efficiency and aesthetics. However, at the end of a vehicle's life, recycling rates for plastic are negligible when compared to those of steel. In order to gain the full environmental benefits of using plastic as a vehicle material, plastics must be recycled at the end of a vehicle's life, especially given their increasing use. While a variety of processes have been developed for the recycling of automotive plastics, the challenges of sorting, processing, and finally recycling a heterogeneous mixture of used plastics have yet to be effectively solved. A preliminary life cycle assessment of a plastic automotive fascia demonstrates the usefulness of this eco-balance technique in evaluating potential improvements to manufacturing and end-of-life processes. Improving the manufacturing process may reduce environmental burdens to a larger extent than just recycling the plastic. (author)

  8. The Progressive Insurance Automotive X PRIZE Education Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robyn Ready

    2011-12-31

    The Progressive Insurance Automotive X PRIZE Education Program conducted education and outreach activities and used the competition's technical goals and vehicle demonstrations as a means of attracting students and the public to learn more about advanced vehicle technologies, energy efficiency, climate change, alternative fuels, and the science and math behind efficient vehicle development. The Progressive Insurance Automotive X PRIZE Education Program comprised three integrated components that were designed to educate the general public and create a multi-tiered initiative to engage students and showcase the 21st century skills students will need to compete in our global economy: teamwork, creativity, strong literacy, math and science skills, and innovative thinking. The elements included an Online Experience, a National Student Contest, and in person education events and activites. The project leveraged online connections, strategic partnerships, in-classroom, and beyond-the-classroom initiatives, as well as mainstream media. This education program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) also funded the specification of vehicle telemetry and the full development and operation of an interactive online experience that allowed internet users to follow the Progressive Insurance Automotive X PRIZE vehicles as they performed in real-time during the Progressive Insurance Automotive X PRIZE competition events.

  9. Future automotive fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepik, M.

    1993-01-01

    There are several important factors which are fundamental to the choice of alternative automobile fuels: the chain of energetic efficiency of fuels; costs; environmental friendliness; suitability for usual engines or adapting easiness; existing reserves of crude oil, natural gas or the fossil energy sources; and, alternatively, agricultural potentiality. This paper covers all these factors. The fuels dealt with in this paper are alcohol, vegetable oil, gaseous fuel, hydrogen and ammonia fuels. Renewable fuels are the most valuable forms of renewable energy. In addition to that rank, they can contribute to three other problem areas: agricultural surpluses, environmental degradation, and conservation of natural resources. Due to the competitive utilization of biomass for food energy production, bio-fuels should mainly be produced in those countries where an energy shortage is combined with a food surplus. The fuels arousing the most interest are alcohol and vegetable oil, the latter for diesel engines, even in northern countries. (au)

  10. Alternatives to reach safeguards goals at Atucha I nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, E.; Orpet, P.; Marzo, M.; Valentino, L.; Vicens, H.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: This paper describes the main features of Atucha I Nuclear Power Plant and the current safeguards' approach applied to this installation by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC). The reasons for not completely fulfilling the IAEA safeguards criteria with the current approach are also described and a conceptual proposal of an unattended system developed jointly by ABACC and the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Argentina (ARN) is presented. Finally, the paper addresses an alternative proposal to the previous one aiming at fulfilling the above mentioned objectives. Atucha I Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) was built in the 70's and has been under operation since 1974, This is an On Load Reactor, moderated and refrigerated with heavy water (PHWR). From its starting up to about a year ago, this NPP operated with natural uranium fuel assemblies but presently the reactor core is fed with slightly enriched uranium fuel assemblies (0,85 %). This Plant generates up to 357 Mwe. An outstanding operating characteristic of this power reactor is that low burn-up fuels assemblies already discharged into the pond may be re-used when necessary upon neutron flux requirements (re-shuffling). This installation has a pond storage capacity of about 10,000 fuel assemblies. At the highest power rate, the reactor core must be fed with a frequency of about 0,72 fuel assemblies per day. Before the application of the Agency Safeguards Criteria (IAEA-SC) in (1991), Atucha l had always satisfied the IAEA safeguards goals. Since 1991 the IAEA-SC demanded for On Load Reactors the control of the flow of irradiated fuel assemblies that leave or enter into the core (re-shuffling). By that time, Atucha I had been working for about seventeen years and there was no possibilities to install specific safeguards equipment without making significant construction modifications on this installation. Under the

  11. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume V. Economics and systems analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    This assessment considers the economics of alternative nuclear reactor and fuel-cycle systems in the light of possible patterns of uranium supply and energy demand, as well as the economic implications of improving the proliferation resistance of the various systems. The assessment focuses on the costs of alternative nuclear technologies and the possible timing of their implementation, based on their economic attractiveness. The objectives of this assessment are to identify when economic incentives to deploy advanced nuclear power systems might exist, to estimate the costs of using technologies that would reduce the risk of proliferation, to assess the impact of major economic uncertainties on the transition to new technologies, and to compare the investments required for alternative systems. This information can then be used to assess the potential economic benefits of alternative research, development, and demonstration programs and the timing of those programs

  12. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume V. Economics and systems analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-12-01

    This assessment considers the economics of alternative nuclear reactor and fuel-cycle systems in the light of possible patterns of uranium supply and energy demand, as well as the economic implications of improving the proliferation resistance of the various systems. The assessment focuses on the costs of alternative nuclear technologies and the possible timing of their implementation, based on their economic attractiveness. The objectives of this assessment are to identify when economic incentives to deploy advanced nuclear power systems might exist, to estimate the costs of using technologies that would reduce the risk of proliferation, to assess the impact of major economic uncertainties on the transition to new technologies, and to compare the investments required for alternative systems. This information can then be used to assess the potential economic benefits of alternative research, development, and demonstration programs and the timing of those programs.

  13. Analysis on perception of nuclear power plant and the preference of its policy alternatives for public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Sung; Lee, Byong Whi

    1995-01-01

    Public acceptance has become an important factor in nuclear power program particularly after Chernobyl accident and recent rapid democratization in Korea. Methods reflection public opinions in order to improve public acceptance are firstly to understand what the public think about nuclear power plant and secondly to find out the public preference values for its policies. For this purpose, simplified multi-attribute utility(MAU) model was applied to analyze the public perception for five power production system. And the conjoint analysis was applied to find out he quantitative values of public preferences for twelve policy alternatives to improve the safety and support communities surrounding nuclear power plants in Korea. To implement these perception and preference analyses, mail survey was conducted to the qualified sample who had the experience of visiting nuclear power plant. Diagnosis of their perception pattern for five power production systems was made by the simplified MAU model. Estimation of the quantitative preference values for potential policy alternatives was made by the conjoint measurement technique, which made it possible to forecast the effectiveness of each option. The results from the qualified sample and the methods used in this study would be helpful to set up new policy of nuclear power plant. 4 figs., 7 tabs., 18 refs. (Author)

  14. How "Green" Is Your Fuel? Creation and Comparison of Automotive Biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Eugene P.; Koehle, Maura A.; Moyle, Todd M.; Lambert, Patrick D.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, biofuel development and use has risen significantly. This undergraduate laboratory experiment educates students on the various alternative fuels that are being developed for automotive applications and the advantages and disadvantages of each. Students replicate commercially available alternative fuels, E85 and biodiesel, as well…

  15. Examining the impact of alternative power measures on individual time use in American and Danish couple households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Stratton, Leslie S.

    2010-01-01

    We exploit time diary data for couple households in Denmark and the United States to examine the impact alternative measures of intrahousehold bargaining power have upon different measures of individual time use. Power measures have traditionally been based on current earnings, but earnings are d...... and significantly associated with `power' than housework time and that education share performs quite well as a measure of power. These results are particularly strong on non-work days and in the United States....... are determined by past/present time use decisions and hence potentially endogenous. More powerful individuals have been hypothesized to spend less time on housework, however, housework time also depends upon relative preferences for home produced goods and relative productivity in home production. Gendered...

  16. Intelligent automotive battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witehira, P.

    A single power-supply battery is incompatible with modern vehicles. A one-cmbination 12 cell/12 V battery, developed by Power Beat International Limited (PBIL), is described. The battery is designed to be a 'drop in' replacement for existing batteries. The cell structures, however, are designed according to load function, i.e., high-current shallow-discharge cycles and low-current deep-discharge cycles. The preferred energy discharge management logic and integration into the power distribution network of the vehicle to provide safe user-friendly usage is described. The system is designed to operate transparent to the vehicle user. The integrity of the volatile high-current cells is maintained by temperature-sensitive voltage control and discharge management. The deep-cycle cells can be fully utilized without affecting startability under extreme conditions. Electric energy management synchronization with engine starting will provide at least 6% overall reduction in hydrocarbon emissions using an intelligent on-board power-supply technology developed by PBIL.

  17. Integration of a nuclear power plant in electrical systems, alternative programs, optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, J.A.M. de.

    1991-01-01

    The problem of integration of a nuclear power plants in a electrical power system, to support the power demand of the system, and mainly also support the power demand at the critical period, I.E., peak demands, is analysed. The factors considered in this analysis are: the demand structure of the region, the availability of others power plants in the electrical net and the capacity factor. (author)

  18. Does environmental impact assessment really support technological change? Analyzing alternatives to coal-fired power stations in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, H.; Hvelplund, F.

    1997-01-01

    Danish energy policy calls for development of decentralized, cleaner technologies to replace conventional power stations and, since 1990, aims to reduce CO 2 emissions in 2005 to 20% below their 1988 level. These political goals require a technological change, from conventional, central power stations to cleaner, decentralized technologies such as energy conservation, cogeneration, and renewable energy. In principle, environmental impact assessment (EIA) supports this change on a project-by-project basis. The EU directive on EIA was based on the preventive principle: to eliminate pollution source rather than attempting to counteract it subsequently. According to the Danish implementation of the directive, an EIA must review a project's main alternatives and the environmental consequences of the alternatives. If this were done properly, EIAs could assist Denmark in meeting its CO 2 reduction goals. However, because EIA is implemented on a restricted, regional basis, it does not support technological change. Responsibility for the preparation of the EIA is given to the regional authorities through a law which does not require alternatives to be assessed that extend geographically beyond the boundaries of a regional authority. Thus, there is no certainty of serious analysis of cleaner technology alternatives to large coal-fired power stations. This conclusion is based on examination of three case studies using a participatory research method

  19. Automotive dual-mode hydrogen generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, D. A.

    The automotive dual mode hydrogen generation system is advocated as a supplementary hydrogen fuel means along with the current metallic hydride hydrogen storage method for vehicles. This system consists of utilizing conventional electrolysis cells with the low voltage dc electrical power supplied by two electrical generating sources within the vehicle. Since the automobile engine exhaust manifold(s) are presently an untapped useful source of thermal energy, they can be employed as the heat source for a simple heat engine/generator arrangement. The second, and minor electrical generating means consists of multiple, miniature air disk generators which are mounted directly under the vehicle's hood and at other convenient locations within the engine compartment. The air disk generators are revolved at a speed which is proportionate to the vehicles forward speed and do not impose a drag on the vehicles motion.

  20. Automotive mechatronic systems. General developments and examples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isermann, R. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Automatisierungstechnik, FG Regelungstechnik und Prozessautomatisierung

    2006-08-15

    Automobiles are showing an increasing integration of mechanics with digital electronics and information processing. This integration is between the components (hardware) and by the information-driven functions (software), resulting in integrated systems called mechatronic systems. Their development involves finding an optimal balance between the basic mechanical structure, sensor and actuator implementation, communication, automatic information processing and overall control. This contribution summarizes some ongoing developments for mechatronic systems in automobiles, shows design approaches and examples and considers the various embedded control functions and systems integrity. Some examples of automotive mechatronic systems are shown in more detail. Great progress can be observed in braking systems (ABS, ESP), the first brake-by-wire electro-hydraulic brake system (EHB), steering systems (electrical power steering, active front steering) and active suspension systems. (orig.)

  1. Active gated imaging for automotive safety applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauer, Yoav; Sonn, Ezri

    2015-03-01

    The paper presents the Active Gated Imaging System (AGIS), in relation to the automotive field. AGIS is based on a fast gated-camera equipped with a unique Gated-CMOS sensor, and a pulsed Illuminator, synchronized in the time domain to record images of a certain range of interest which are then processed by computer vision real-time algorithms. In recent years we have learned the system parameters which are most beneficial to night-time driving in terms of; field of view, illumination profile, resolution and processing power. AGIS provides also day-time imaging with additional capabilities, which enhances computer vision safety applications. AGIS provides an excellent candidate for camera-based Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and the path for autonomous driving, in the future, based on its outstanding low/high light-level, harsh weather conditions capabilities and 3D potential growth capabilities.

  2. Advances in LEDs for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Jy; Peddada, Rao; Spinger, Benno

    2016-03-01

    High power LEDs were introduced in automotive headlights in 2006-2007, for example as full LED headlights in the Audi R8 or low beam in Lexus. Since then, LED headlighting has become established in premium and volume automotive segments and beginning to enable new compact form factors such as distributed low beam and new functions such as adaptive driving beam. New generations of highly versatile high power LEDs are emerging to meet these application needs. In this paper, we will detail ongoing advances in LED technology that enable revolutionary styling, performance and adaptive control in automotive headlights. As the standards which govern the necessary lumens on the road are well established, increasing luminance enables not only more design freedom but also headlight cost reduction with space and weight saving through more compact optics. Adaptive headlighting is based on LED pixelation and requires high contrast, high luminance, smaller LEDs with high-packing density for pixelated Matrix Lighting sources. Matrix applications require an extremely tight tolerance on not only the X, Y placement accuracy, but also on the Z height of the LEDs given the precision optics used to image the LEDs onto the road. A new generation of chip scale packaged (CSP) LEDs based on Wafer Level Packaging (WLP) have been developed to meet these needs, offering a form factor less than 20% increase over the LED emitter surface footprint. These miniature LEDs are surface mount devices compatible with automated tools for L2 board direct attach (without the need for an interposer or L1 substrate), meeting the high position accuracy as well as the optical and thermal performance. To illustrate the versatility of the CSP LEDs, we will show the results of, firstly, a reflector-based distributed low beam using multiple individual cavities each with only 20mm height and secondly 3x4 to 3x28 Matrix arrays for adaptive full beam. Also a few key trends in rear lighting and impact on LED light

  3. Serving a Higher Power: The Influence of Alternative Break Programs on Students' Religiousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehaus, Elizabeth; Rivera, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between students' religiousness and participation in alternative breaks (ABs) using both survey and interview data from the National Survey of Alternative Breaks. Findings from this mixed methods study demonstrate the potential for ABs to facilitate religiousness and help students connect…

  4. Free-Piston Diesel-Fueled Linear Alternator for Auxiliary Power Unit Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Atkinson, Christopher

    1999-01-01

    .... Previous studies of free-piston engine designs have indicated that they would be useful where linear power delivery could be used, such as in fluid power delivery, or in electrical energy applications.

  5. GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES IN AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETA ISAC

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The automotive sector is characterised by a relatively low trade/salesratio. While the production of most automotive producers in the world is spread over variouscountries in the value chain, the brands are still considered to reflect some national identity.Internationalisation strategies may change over the lifecycle of the product and automakerstend to pursue diametrically opposed strategies. In mature markets, it is about managing whatgoes on beneath a static surface; in emerging markets’ dynamic environments, companies muststrategically position themselves to benefit from growth opportunities. However, without theright strategy and execution in mature markets, it is clear that traditional OEMs cannot profitfrom emerging markets-the persistence of structural issues in mature market operationseventually will rob all but the most resilient competitors of the opportunity to compete inemerging markets.

  6. Antenna Arrays and Automotive Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rabinovich, Victor

    2013-01-01

    This book throws a lifeline to designers wading through mounds of antenna array patents looking for the most suitable systems for their projects. Drastically reducing the research time required to locate solutions to the latest challenges in automotive communications, it sorts and systematizes material on cutting-edge antenna arrays that feature multi-element communication systems with enormous potential for the automotive industry. These new systems promise to make driving safer and more efficient, opening up myriad applications, including vehicle-to-vehicle traffic that prevents collisions, automatic toll collection, vehicle location and fine-tuning for cruise control systems. This book’s exhaustive coverage begins with currently deployed systems, frequency ranges and key parameters. It proceeds to examine system geometry, analog and digital beam steering technology (including "smart" beams formed in noisy environments), maximizing signal-to-noise ratios, miniaturization, and base station technology that ...

  7. Advanced Materials for Automotive Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tisza, M

    2013-01-01

    In this paper some recent material developments will be overviewed mainly from the point of view of automotive industry. In car industry, metal forming is one of the most important manufacturing processes imposing severe restrictions on materials; these are often contradictory requirements, e.g. high strength simultaneously with good formability, etc. Due to these challenges and the ever increasing demand new material classes have been developed; however, the more and more wide application of high strength materials meeting the requirements stated by the mass reduction lead to increasing difficulties concerning the formability which requires significant technological developments as well. In this paper, the recent materials developments will be overviewed from the point of view of the automotive industry

  8. Bond graph modeling and simulation of impact dynamics of an automotive crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khurshid, A.; Malik, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    With increase in the speeds of automotives, safety has become more and more important aspect of designers to care for. Thus, it is necessary to design the automobile body structure keeping in view all the safety requirements. As a result of the above-mentioned facts, in the recent years, the designers in making automotives more safe, more collision resistant and crash worthy have focused increased attention on designing automotives, which provides greater protection for the drivers and the passengers in case of an accident. Before a new model is launched into the market, a complete collision analysis is carried out to check the damage reduction capabilities and impact protection of automotives in case of an accident. Research in the field of automotive collision and impact analysis is a continuing activity and dedicated groups of engineers are devoting their full time and efforts for this. In this research work, the main attention is focused to provide a detailed knowledge about automotive collision analysis. The objective of this research paper is to develop an understanding of the automotive collision response. For this, we have done a simulation experiment in which, on a railroad, a train car is separated from a train and is moving towards two stationary train cars. By using a bond graph model of the system its state-space equations are found. Then by using software, the simulation is carried out. The bond graph method is a graphical presentation of the power flow using bonds. (author)

  9. A Study Examining Photovoltaic (PV) Solar Power as an Alternative for the Rebuilding of the Iraqi Electrical Power Generation Infrastructure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Austin, Curtis; Borja, Ralph; Phillips, Jeffery

    2005-01-01

    .... engineers' actions upon entering Iraq, the increased need for electrical power in Iraq, the costs of insurgent attacks on the electrical system, and security issues that need to be dealt with for the...

  10. Natural gas - an alternative. Swedish electric power from Norwegian natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    The report describes the possible substitution of electric power by natural gas on the heat source market and how gas can be used for power production. The cost of distribution and means of supply are presented. 1/3 of the electric power produced by nuclear power plants can be replaced by the middle of the nineties. Transport techniques for gas and its total volume as well as transport cost from Norwegian North Sea are discussed

  11. Computational intelligence in automotive applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokhorov, Danil (ed.) [Toyota Motor Engineering and Manufacturing (TEMA), Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Toyota Technical Center

    2008-07-01

    What is computational intelligence (CI)? Traditionally, CI is understood as a collection of methods from the fields of neural networks (NN), fuzzy logic and evolutionary computation. This edited volume is the first of its kind, suitable to automotive researchers, engineers and students. It provides a representative sample of contemporary CI activities in the area of automotive technology. The volume consists of 13 chapters, including but not limited to these topics: vehicle diagnostics and vehicle system safety, control of vehicular systems, quality control of automotive processes, driver state estimation, safety of pedestrians, intelligent vehicles. All chapters contain overviews of state of the art, and several chapters illustrate their methodologies on examples of real-world systems. About the Editor: Danil Prokhorov began his technical career in St. Petersburg, Russia, after graduating with Honors from Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation in 1992 (MS in Robotics). He worked as a research engineer in St. Petersburg Institute for Informatics and Automation, one of the institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences. He came to the US in late 1993 for Ph.D. studies. He became involved in automotive research in 1995 when he was a Summer intern at Ford Scientific Research Lab in Dearborn, MI. Upon his graduation from the EE Department of Texas Tech University, Lubbock, in 1997, he joined Ford to pursue application-driven research on neural networks and other machine learning algorithms. While at Ford, he took part in several production-bound projects including neural network based engine misfire detection. Since 2005 he is with Toyota Technical Center, Ann Arbor, MI, overseeing important mid- and long-term research projects in computational intelligence. (orig.)

  12. Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting: A Green and Clean Alternative for Sustained Power Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook-Chennault, Kimberly Ann; Thambi, Nithya; Bitetto, Mary Anne; Hameyie, E. B.

    2008-01-01

    Providing efficient and clean power is a challenge for devices that range from the micro to macro in scale. Although there has been significant progress in the development of micro-, meso-, and macro-scale power supplies and technologies, realization of many devices is limited by the inability of power supplies to scale with the diminishing sizes…

  13. 78 FR 45573 - Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN-FIRE) AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of... Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN-FIRE), Draft Report for Comment.'' DATES: Comments on this... caused by impaired fire protection features at nuclear power plants. The report documents the history of...

  14. The effect of cojugate energy consumptions on comparative efficiency of alternatives of the development of nuclear power engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubnov, V.P.; Bykov, A.I.; Egorushkin, S.V.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of control of conjugate energy consumptions on comparative efficiency of alternatives of the development of nuclear power engineering, including NPPs with thermal and fast reactors has been calculated. Economical-mathematical models of the system of nuclear power engineering including the subsystems of fuel utilization, fuel supply and conjugate industries, have been used. It has been shown, that with allowance for conjugate energy consumptions, the economic characteristics of nuclear power engineering sharply degradate when it develops only on the basis of thermal reactors. Putting the fast reactors into the system of nuclear power engineering has an important effect on reduction of conjugate energy consumptions and favors the increase of the efficiency of the system functioning during the considered time interval (60 years). Positive effects from putting breeders into operation become appreciable only on the latest estimated time intervals

  15. Flywheel Energy Storage for Automotive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Hedlund

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A review of flywheel energy storage technology was made, with a special focus on the progress in automotive applications. We found that there are at least 26 university research groups and 27 companies contributing to flywheel technology development. Flywheels are seen to excel in high-power applications, placing them closer in functionality to supercapacitors than to batteries. Examples of flywheels optimized for vehicular applications were found with a specific power of 5.5 kW/kg and a specific energy of 3.5 Wh/kg. Another flywheel system had 3.15 kW/kg and 6.4 Wh/kg, which can be compared to a state-of-the-art supercapacitor vehicular system with 1.7 kW/kg and 2.3 Wh/kg, respectively. Flywheel energy storage is reaching maturity, with 500 flywheel power buffer systems being deployed for London buses (resulting in fuel savings of over 20%, 400 flywheels in operation for grid frequency regulation and many hundreds more installed for uninterruptible power supply (UPS applications. The industry estimates the mass-production cost of a specific consumer-car flywheel system to be 2000 USD. For regular cars, this system has been shown to save 35% fuel in the U.S. Federal Test Procedure (FTP drive cycle.

  16. BEGA Starter/Alternator - Vector Control Implementation and Performance for Wide Speed Range at Unity Power Factor Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Boldea, Ion; Coroban-Schramel, Vasile

    2008-01-01

    Biaxial Excitation Generator for Automobile (BEGA) is proposed as a solution for integrated starter/alternator systems used in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). This paper demonstrates through experiments and simulations that BEGA has a very large constant power speed range (CPSR), theoretically...... to infinite. A vector control structure is proposed for BEGA operation during motoring and generating, at unity power factor with zero d-axis current (id) and zero q-axis flux (Ψq) control. In such conditions BEGA behaves like a truly dc. brush machine (with zero reactance in steady state !). A high iq...

  17. Low Emissions Alternative Power (LEAP) Project Office Business Team of the Aeropropulsion Research Program Office (ARPO) Org. 0140

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttler, Jennifer A.

    2004-01-01

    The program for which I am working at this summer is Propulsion and Power/Low Emissions Alternative Power (P&P/LEAP). It invests in a fundamental TRL 1-6 research and technology portfolio that will enable the future of: Alternative fuels and/or alternative propulsion systems, non-combustion (electric) propulsion systems. P&P/LEAP will identify and capitalize on the highest potential concepts generated both internal and external to the Agency. During my 2004 summer at NASA Glenn Research Center, I worked with my mentor Barbara Mader, in the Project Office with the Business Team completing various tasks for the project and personnel. The LEAP project is a highly matrixed organization. The Project Office is responsible for the goals advocacy and dollar (budget) of the LEAP project. The objectives of the LEAP Project are to discover new energy sources and develop unconventional engines and power systems directed towards greatly reduced emissions, enable new vehicle concepts for public mobility, new science missions and national security. The Propulsion and PowerLow Emissions Alternative Power directly supports the environmental, mobility, national security objectives of the Vehicle Systems Program and the Aeronautics Technology Theme. Technology deliverables include the demonstration through integrated ground tests, a constant volume combustor in an engine system, and UAV/small transport aircraft all electric power system. My mentor serves as a key member of the management team for the Aeropropulsion Research Program Office (ARPO). She has represented the office on numerous occasions, and is a member of a number of center-wide panels/teams, such as the Space management Committee and is chair to the Business Process Consolidation Team. She is responsible for the overall coordination of resources for the Propulsion and Power Project - from advocacy to implementation. The goal for my summer at NASA was to document processes and archive program documents from the past

  18. Power supply for pumping systems in northern Chile: Photovoltaics as alternative to grid extension and diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chueco-Fernandez, Francisco J.; Bayod-Rujula, Angel A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines and compares the cost-effectiveness to energize pumping systems in remote areas on northern Chile by means of photovoltaic systems, diesel engines and grid extension. Variables such as the distance to the power grid, the voltage grid, the prices of electricity and fuel, and the required investments, are taken into account. The comparison is made for wide range of variable values, distances and pumping requirements. The results obtained are useful for choosing the best alternative for the power supply of pumping systems in wells in Northern Chile. (author)

  19. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume VII. International perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    The purpose of this volume is to assess the proliferation vulnerabilities of the present deployment of civilian nuclear-power systems within the current nonproliferation regime and, in light of their prospective deployment, to consider technical and institutional measures and alternatives which may contribute to an improved regime in which nuclear power could play a significant part. An assessment of these measures must include consideration of their nonproliferation effectiveness as well as their bearing upon energy security, and their operational, economic, and political implications. The nature of these considerations can provide some measure of their likely acceptability to various nations.

  20. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume VII. International perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-06-01

    The purpose of this volume is to assess the proliferation vulnerabilities of the present deployment of civilian nuclear-power systems within the current nonproliferation regime and, in light of their prospective deployment, to consider technical and institutional measures and alternatives which may contribute to an improved regime in which nuclear power could play a significant part. An assessment of these measures must include consideration of their nonproliferation effectiveness as well as their bearing upon energy security, and their operational, economic, and political implications. The nature of these considerations can provide some measure of their likely acceptability to various nations

  1. Incentive policies for promoting wind power production in Brazil: Scenarios for the Alternative Energy Sources Incentive Program (PROINFA) under the New Brazilian electric power sector regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutra, Ricardo Marques; Szklo, Alexandre Salem

    2008-01-01

    The Alternative Energy Sources Incentive Program (PROINFA) was designed in 2002 to stimulate the electricity generation from three energy sources (wind, biomass and small-scale hydro) in Brazil. The Program was divided into two phases. The first one uses feed-in tariffs for promoting the development of 3300 MW. The second one that was originally based on feed-in tariffs was modified in 2003, in order to be based on biddings for renewables. These biddings are capped to limit their impact on the final electricity tariff. Due to this bound, the highest-cost power option promoted by PROINFA (wind power generation) might have development problems. Simulating different scenarios for the biddings, it was verified that the only way to reach the original goal set by PROINFA (10% of the annual electricity consumption provided by alternative sources up to 2020) and, simultaneously, not overcome the bidding bound is to promote biomass-fired power generation alone, during the Program's second phase. However, this action contradicts one of the targets of the Program, which is to diversify the energy matrix. An alternative option could be biddings for renewables according to specific criteria (complementarities, industrial and technological development and cost), based not only on their cost-effectiveness. (author)

  2. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the nonproliferation alternative systems assessment program. Volume V. Economics and systems analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    This NASAP assessment considers the economics of alternative nuclear reactor and fuel-cycle systems in the light of possible patterns of uranium supply and energy demand, as well as the economic implications of improving the proliferation resistance of the various systems. The assessment focuses on the costs of alternative nuclear technologies and the possible timing of their implementation, based on their economic attractiveness. The objectives of this assessment are to identify when economic incentives to deploy advanced nuclear power systems might exist, to estimate the costs of using technologies that would reduce the risk of proliferation, to assess the impact of major economic uncertainties on the transition to new technologies, and to compare the investments required for alternative systems

  3. 14 CFR 121.197 - Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate airports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... obstruction clearance plane and the runway. In the case of an alternate airport for departure, as provided in § 121.617, allowance may be made for fuel jettisoning in addition to normal consumption of fuel and oil...

  4. Implications of using alternate fuel cycles to meet Ontario's nuclear power demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, J.H.K.

    1978-08-01

    The use of alternate fuel cycles to meet an assumed nuclear capacity growth rate in Ontario is examined. Two criteria are used: the ability of the alternate fuel cycles to lessen the uranium demand; and the ease of commercialization. The nuclear strategies considered assume the use of the natural uranium cycle and, starting in the year 2000, the gradual introduction of an alternate fuel cycle. The alternate fuel cycles reviewed are enriched uranium, mixed oxides, and a variety of thorium cycles. The cumulative uranium requirement to the year 2070, and the growth and size of the reprocessing and fuel fabrication industries are discussed in detail. Sensitivity analyses on nuclear capacity growth rate, recycling loss and delay time are also described. (auth)

  5. Regional economic impacts of changes in electricity rates resulting from Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, T.; Griffes, P.; Edwards, B.K.

    1995-03-01

    This technical memorandum describes an analysis of regional economic impacts resulting from changes in retail electricity rates due to six power marketing programs proposed by Western Area Power Administration (Western). Regional economic impacts of changes in rates are estimated in terms of five key regional economic variables: population, gross regional product, disposable income, employment, and household income. The REMI (Regional Impact Models, Inc.) and IMPLAN (Impact Analysis for Planning) models simulate economic impacts in nine subregions in the area in which Western power is sold for the years 1993, 2000, and 2008. Estimates show that impacts on aggregate economic activity in any of the subregions or years would be minimal for three reasons. First, the utilities that buy power from Western sell only a relatively small proportion of the total electricity sold in any of the subregions. Second, reliance of Western customers on Western power is fairly low in each subregion. Finally, electricity is not a significant input cost for any industry or for households in any subregion.

  6. Future use of robots in the automotive industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, M P

    1982-01-01

    The future will see a dramatic increase in the number of robots used in the automotive industry. Well established applications, such as resistance spot welding, will continue to grow in the short term. Longer term, the much wider use of structural adhesives will supplant the spot welding process with robots applying the adhesives. Practical perception systems will enhance robot performance in arc welding, grinding, fettling, seam sealing and assembly operations, leading again to robot growth as vital elements of truly flexible manufacturing systems (FMS). A major robotic impact will be made in automotive paint shops as the need to conserve energy increases. The development of alternative painting materials, offering improved performance will add further impetus. Robotics of the future will progressively move to a CAD/CAM orientated data base, offering off-line programming capability, which together with essential inspection elements, will provide the means for totally automatic manufacture.

  7. Three alternatives to a full scope control room simulator for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, C.P.

    1988-01-01

    Many utilities are purchasing full scope control room simulators for training purposes. But, depending upon training requirements and finances, an alternative to a full scope control room simulator may be a viable option. Westinghouse has recently built and delivered two styles of alternative simulators. This paper discusses the design and operation of both of these simulators, including advantages and limitations of each design. In addition, the design of a hybrid system which combines features from both of these designs is presented

  8. Automotive fuels - environmental and health implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, A.G.

    1992-01-01

    This document covers papers presented to the Institute of Petroleum's conference ''Automotive Fuels: Environmental and Health Implications'' held on the 9th October 1991. This wide ranging title meant that topics covered included the biochemistry, pathology and epidemiology of automotive fuel use, combustion science, environmental chemistry and atmospheric modelling. Also discussed are the technology of fuel and engine manufacture, limiting and containing emissions and social and political aspects relating to the use of automotive fuels. (UK)

  9. Rare earth metals for automotive exhaust catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinjoh, Hirohumi

    2006-01-01

    The usage of rare earth metals for automotive exhaust catalysts is demonstrated in this paper. Rare earth metals have been widely used in automotive catalysts. In particular, three-way catalysts require the use of ceria compounds as oxygen storage materials, and lanthana as both a stabilizer of alumina and a promoter. The application for diesel catalysts is also illustrated. Effects of inclusion of rare earth metals in automotive catalysts are discussed

  10. Modularity analysis of automotive control software

    OpenAIRE

    Dajsuren, Y.; Brand, van den, M.G.J.; Serebrenik, A.

    2013-01-01

    A design language and tool like MATLAB/Simulink is used for the graphical modelling and simulation of automotive control software. As the functionality based on electronics and software systems increases in motor vehicles, it is becoming increasingly important for system/software architects and control engineers in the automotive industry to ensure the quality of the highly complex MATLAB/Simulink control software. For automotive software, modularity is recognized as being a crucial quality a...

  11. International Congress of Automotive and Transport Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Ispas, Nicolae

    2017-01-01

    The volume will include selected and reviewed papers from CONAT - International Congress of Automotive and Transport Engineering to be held in Brasov, Romania, in October 2016. Authors are experts from research, industry and universities coming from 14 countries worldwide. The papers are covering the latest developments in automotive vehicles and environment, advanced transport systems and road traffic, heavy and special vehicles, new materials, manufacturing technologies and logistics, accident research and analysis and innovative solutions for automotive vehicles. The conference will be organized by SIAR (Society of Automotive Engineers from Romania) in cooperation with FISITA. .

  12. 75 FR 34170 - Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Anderson, SC; Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Anderson, SC; Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Troy, MI... the Anderson, South Carolina location of Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, working out of Troy... certification to include workers in support of the Anderson, South Carolina facility working out of Troy...

  13. Performance analysis of a waste heat recovery thermoelectric generation system for automotive application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.; Deng, Y.D.; Li, Z.; Su, C.Q.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A new automotive exhaust-based thermoelectric generator and its “four-TEGs” system are constructed, and the performance characteristics of system are discussed through road test and revolving drum test. - Highlights: • The automotive thermoelectric generator system was constructed and studied. • Road test and revolving drum test were used to measure the output power. • A performance of 201.7 V (open circuit voltage)/944 W obtained. - Abstract: Thermoelectric power generators are one of the promising green energy sources. In this case study, an energy-harvesting system which extracts heat from an automotive exhaust pipe and turns the heat into electricity by using thermoelectric power generators (TEGs) has been constructed. The test bench is developed to analysis the performance of TEG system characteristics, which are undertaken to assess the feasibility of automotive applications. Based on the test bench, a new system called “four-TEGs” system is designed and assembled into prototype vehicle called “Warrior”, through the road test and revolving drum test table, characteristics of the system such as hot-side temperature, cold-side temperature, open circuit voltage and power output are studied, and a maximum power of 944 W was obtained, which completely meets the automotive application. The present study shows the promising potential of using this kind of thermoelectric generator for low-temperature waste heat recovery vehicle

  14. Efficient production of automotive biofuels; Effektiv produktion av biodrivmedel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gode, Jenny; Hagberg, Linus; Rydberg, Tomas; Raadberg, Henrik; Saernholm, Erik

    2008-07-01

    The report describes opportunities and consequences associated with biomass polygeneration plants, in particular the role that heat plants (HP) or combined heat and power plants (CHP) in district heating systems can play in the production of automotive biofuels. The aim of the report is to provide a knowledge base to stakeholders to help assess energy and environmental benefits associated with collaborative approaches in planning, constructing and operating energy plants. Several configurations are possible for an energy polygeneration plant, but this report focuses on configurations in which a plant for automotive biofuel production and a district heating system with HPs or CHPs have been integrated in some way in order to achieve added value. The modes of integration are several, e.g.: - Supply of process steam from the CHP to the fuel plant, by which the time of operation for the CHP can be extended; Supply of surplus heat from the fuel plant to the district heating system; Material exchange between the systems, by use of residue streams from the fuel plant as fuel in the HP/CHP; Surplus heat from the fuel plant used for drying of the solid fuel to the HP/CHP or for drying of raw material for pellets production; Co-location providing opportunities for shared infrastructure for raw material handling, service systems, utilities and/or logistics. The report principally addresses integration options of the first three types, but describes briefly also pellets production. The starting point for the analysis of integration options is the description of technologies of interest for the production of automotive biofuels. Commercially available technologies are of prime interest, but also a couple of technologies under development are included in this part of the study. In addition to outlining the process characteristics for these processes, surrounding conditions and system requirements are briefly outlined. The results are summarized in Table S1. Ethanol fermentation

  15. Evaluation of Handheld Scanners for Automotive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadea Ameen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of generating a computerized geometric model for an existing part is known as Reverse Engineering (RE. It is a very useful technique in product development and plays a significant role in automotive, aerospace, and medical industries. In fact, it has been getting remarkable attention in manufacturing industries owing to its advanced data acquisition technologies. The process of RE is based on two primary steps: data acquisition (also known as scanning and data processing. To facilitate point data acquisition, a variety of scanning systems is available with different capabilities and limitations. Although the optical control of 3D scanners is fully developed, still several factors can affect the quality of the scanned data. As a result, the proper selection of scanning parameters, such as resolution, laser power, shutter time, etc., becomes very crucial. This kind of investigation can be very helpful and provide its users with guidelines to identify the appropriate factors. Moreover, it is worth noting that no single system is ideal in all applications. Accordingly, this work has compared two portable (handheld systems based on laser scanning and white light optical scanning for automotive applications. A car door containing a free-form surface has been used to achieve the above-mentioned goal. The design of experiments has been employed to determine the effects of different scanning parameters and optimize them. The capabilities and limitations have been identified by comparing the two scanners in terms of accuracy, scanning time, triangle numbers, ease of use, and portability. Then, the relationships between the system capabilities and the application requirements have been established. The results revealed that the laser scanner performed better than the white light scanner in terms of accuracy, while the white light scanner performed better in terms of acquisition speed and triangle numbers.

  16. Advancing Material Models for Automotive Forming Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vegter, H.; An, Y.; Horn, C.H.L.J. ten; Atzema, E.H.; Roelofsen, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    Simulations in automotive industry need more advanced material models to achieve highly reliable forming and springback predictions. Conventional material models implemented in the FEM-simulation models are not capable to describe the plastic material behaviour during monotonic strain paths with sufficient accuracy. Recently, ESI and Corus co-operate on the implementation of an advanced material model in the FEM-code PAMSTAMP 2G. This applies to the strain hardening model, the influence of strain rate, and the description of the yield locus in these models. A subsequent challenge is the description of the material after a change of strain path.The use of advanced high strength steels in the automotive industry requires a description of plastic material behaviour of multiphase steels. The simplest variant is dual phase steel consisting of a ferritic and a martensitic phase. Multiphase materials also contain a bainitic phase in addition to the ferritic and martensitic phase. More physical descriptions of strain hardening than simple fitted Ludwik/Nadai curves are necessary.Methods to predict plastic behaviour of single-phase materials use a simple dislocation interaction model based on the formed cells structures only. At Corus, a new method is proposed to predict plastic behaviour of multiphase materials have to take hard phases into account, which deform less easily. The resulting deformation gradients create geometrically necessary dislocations. Additional micro-structural information such as morphology and size of hard phase particles or grains is necessary to derive the strain hardening models for this type of materials.Measurements available from the Numisheet benchmarks allow these models to be validated. At Corus, additional measured values are available from cross-die tests. This laboratory test can attain critical deformations by large variations in blank size and processing conditions. The tests are a powerful tool in optimising forming simulations prior

  17. Energy policy under power. Alternatives of power generation in the acceptance test; Energiepolitik unter Strom. Alternativen der Stromerzeugung im Akzeptanztest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheer, Dirk [Univ. Stuttgart (Germany). Zentrum fuer interdisziplinaere Risiko- und Innovationsforschung (ZIRIUS); Forschungsinstitut Dialogik, Stuttgart (Germany); Konrad, Wilfried [Forschungsinstitut Dialogik, Stuttgart (Germany); Renn, Ortwin [Univ. Stuttgart (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Umwelt- und Techniksoziologie; Forschungsinstitut Dialogik, Stuttgart (Germany); Univ. Stuttgart (Germany). Zentrum fuer interdisziplinaere Risiko- und Innovationsforschung (ZIRIUS); Scheel, Oliver [Univ. Stuttgart (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Umwelt- und Techniksoziologie; Univ. Stuttgart (Germany). Zentrum fuer interdisziplinaere Risiko- und Innovationsforschung (ZIRIUS)

    2014-07-01

    As illustrated, both the quantitative and qualitative analysis of the evaluations of the examined seven electricity mixes the image of a rejection of nuclear and coal power with or without carbon capture (CCS) with simultaneous support for a renewable energy focus in the center of the transformation of the German systems on the electricity. Energy-political strategies that the electricity produced from renewable sources less space than concede the nuclear power and/or the coal found only in very rare and exceptional cases decidedly on consent. Conversely: if the way in which renewable energy production convincingly by high levels of the electricity mix of ecological power plants are expressed, reduced amounts of nuclear and coal power are accepted as a transitional phenomenon. The finding that actually can get unpopular technologies from the focus of criticism by an appropriate context design, also applies to the CCS technology. This makes it possible to identify some evidence that in the context of nuclear energy-free RE-mixes modern coal-fired power plants with CCS are not be refused per se. However, it should also be noted that CCS will be rejected as a supposedly extra evil often still more vehement than the ''familiar'' nuclear power. [German] Wie dargestellt wird weist sowohl die quantitative als auch die qualitative Analyse der Bewertungen der untersuchten sieben Strommixe das Bild einer Ablehnung von Atom- und Kohlekraft mit oder ohne Carbon Capture (CCS) bei gleichzeitiger Unterstuetzung fuer eine die Erneuerbaren Energien in den Mittelpunkt stellenden Transformation des deutschen Systems der Stromerzeugung auf. Energiepolitische Strategien, die der Elektrizitaetsgewinnung aus regenerativen Quellen weniger Raum einraeumen als der Atomkraft und/oder der Kohleverstromung treffen nur in sehr seltenen Ausnahmefaellen dezidiert auf Zustimmung. Umgekehrt gilt: Wird der Weg in die regenerative Energieproduktion ueberzeugend durch hohe Anteile

  18. Health and safety. Preliminary comparative assessment of the satellite power system (SPS) and other energy alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habegger, L.J.; Gasper, J.R.; Brown, C.D.

    1980-04-01

    Existing data on the health and safety risks of a satellite power system and four electrical generation systems are analyzed: a combined-cycle coal power system with a low-Btu gasifier and open-cycle gas turbine, a fission power system with fuel reprocessing, a central-station, terrestrial, solar-photovoltaic power system, and a first-generation design for a fusion power system. The systems are compared on the basis of expected deaths and person-days lost per year associated with 1000 MW of average electricity generation and the number of health and safety risks that are identified as potentially significant but unquantifiable. The appendices provide more detailed information on risks, uncertainties, additional research needed, and references for the identified impacts of each system

  19. Baseload, industrial-scale wind power: An alternative to coal in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lew, D.J.; Williams, R.H. [Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ (United States); Xie Shaoxiong; Zhang Shihui [Ministry of Electric Power, Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    This report presents a novel strategy for developing wind power on an industrial-scale in China. Oversized wind farms, large-scale electrical storage and long-distance transmission lines are integrated to deliver {open_quotes}baseload wind power{close_quotes} to distant electricity demand centers. The prospective costs for this approach to developing wind power are illustrated by modeling an oversized wind farm at Huitengxile, Inner Mongolia. Although storage adds to the total capital investment, it does not necessarily increase the cost of the delivered electricity. Storage makes it possible to increase the capacity factor of the electric transmission system, so that the unit cost for long-distance transmission is reduced. Moreover, baseload wind power is typically more valuable to the electric utility than intermittent wind power, so that storage can be economically attractive even in instances where the cost per kWh is somewhat higher than without storage. 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Study of Power Converter Topologies with Energy Recovery and grid power flow control Part C: a review of alternative structures

    CERN Document Server

    Papastergiou, Konstantinos; Maestri, Sebastian; Retegui, Rogelio Garcia; Uicich, Gustavo; Benedetti, Mario; Carrica, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    In the framework of a Transfer line (TT2) Consolidation Programme, a number of studies on Energy cycling have been commissioned. Part of this work involves the study of different power electronic system topologies for magnet energy recovery. The key objective of the study is to find topologies and control strategies that result in the control of the peak power required from the power network as well as to recover the magnet energy into capacitor banks with controlled voltage fluctuation. In previous reports, the use of a boost front-end converter and two-quadrant (2Q) converter supplying DC link of a four-quadrant magnet supply were analyzed. From this analysis, different features and figures of merit were considered in order to compare the structures, which allowed to define some considerations that a proper topology should have. Consequently, these considerations were used to define some novel topologies. The previous topologies are briefly summarized, as a starting point to develop some novel struc...

  1. Method and apparatus for detecting cyber attacks on an alternating current power grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachern, Alexander; Hofmann, Ronald

    2017-04-11

    A method and apparatus for detecting cyber attacks on remotely-operable elements of an alternating current distribution grid. Two state estimates of the distribution grid are prepared, one of which uses micro-synchrophasors. A difference between the two state estimates indicates a possible cyber attack.

  2. Modelling Electrical Energy Consumption in Automotive Paint Shop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktaviandri, Muchamad; Safiee, Aidil Shafiza Bin

    2018-03-01

    Industry players are seeking ways to reduce operational cost to sustain in a challenging economic trend. One key aspect is an energy cost reduction. However, implementing energy reduction strategy often struggle with obstructions, which slow down their realization and implementation. Discrete event simulation method is an approach actively discussed in current research trend to overcome such obstructions because of its flexibility and comprehensiveness. Meanwhile, in automotive industry, paint shop is considered the most energy consumer area which is reported consuming about 50%-70% of overall automotive plant consumption. Hence, this project aims at providing a tool to model and simulate energy consumption at paint shop area by conducting a case study at XYZ Company, one of the automotive companies located at Pekan, Pahang. The simulation model was developed using Tecnomatix Plant Simulation software version 13. From the simulation result, the model was accurately within ±5% for energy consumption and ±15% for maximum demand after validation with real system. Two different energy saving scenarios were tested. Scenario 1 was based on production scheduling approach under low demand situation which results energy saving up to 30% on the consumption. Meanwhile scenario 2 was based on substituting high power compressor with the lower power compressor. The results were energy consumption saving of approximately 1.42% and maximum demand reduction about 1.27%. This approach would help managers and engineers to justify worthiness of investment for implementing the reduction strategies.

  3. Investigation of thermal management materials for automotive electronic control units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallik, Sabuj; Ekere, Ndy; Best, Chris; Bhatti, Raj

    2011-01-01

    Today's electronics packages are smaller and more powerful than ever before. This leads to ever increasing thermal challenges for the systems designer. The automotive electronic control unit (ECU) package faces the same challenge of thermal management as the industry in general. This is coupled with the latest European Union legislation (Euro 6 standard) which forced the ECU manufacturers to completely re-design their ECU platform with improved hardware and software capability. This will result in increased power densities and therefore, the ability to dissipate heat will be a key factor. A higher thermal conductivity (TC) material for the ECU housing (than the currently used Aluminium) could improve heat dissipation from the ECU. This paper critically reviews the state-of-the-art in thermal management materials which may be applicable to an automotive ECU. This review shows that of the different materials currently available, the Al/SiC composites in particular have very good potential for automotive ECU application. In terms of metal composites processing, the liquid metal infiltration process is recommended as it has a lower processing cost and it also has the ability to produce near net-shape materials.

  4. Overview of AMD (Automotive Metal Division)/USAMP projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demeri, M. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States)

    2001-07-01

    This power point presentation described the mission of Ford's Automotive Metal Division (AMD) and presented a list of AMD projects. Their goal is to facilitate the development of improved materials and related manufacturing technologies for the automotive use of metals through cooperative, precompetitive programs, including those supporting PNGV. Some of the projects included: (1) magnesium casting for structural applications, (2) low cost powder metallurgy technology for particle reinforced aluminium, (3) sorting mixed alloys from shredded automobiles, (4) hydroforming aluminium tubes, (5) flexible binder controls for robust sampling, (6) long life electrodes for resistance spot welding of aluminium, sheet alloys, and coated high strength sheet steels, (7) NDE tools for evaluation of laser welded metals, (8) magnesium power train die cast components, (9) improved A206 alloy for cast automotive suspension components, (10) plasma arc welding of lightweight metals such as aluminium/magnesium, and (11) warm forming of aluminium alloys. The objectives, process controls and benefits of each of these projects were illustrated. Some of the issues that still need to be resolved include: an improved alloy with greater grain size and strength, an easily washable lubricant, a process to rapidly heat the blank and feed it into the heated dies, a method to achieve better thermal distribution in dies, and post forming mechanical properties. 5 figs.

  5. Carbon Fiber Composite Materials for Automotive Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, Jr., Robert E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mainka, Hendrik [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Volkswagen (VW) is internationally recognized for quantity and quality of world-wide vehicle production and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is internationally recognized in materials research and development. With automotive production ramping up in the recently constructed VW Group of America facility in Chattanooga, Tennessee, ORNL and VW initiated discussions in 2012 concerning opportunities for collaboration around ORNL’s carbon fiber and composites programs. ORNL is conducting an internationally recognized program to develop and implement lower cost carbon fibers and composites for automotive and other “energy missions” for the US Department of Energy. Significant effort is ongoing in selecting, developing, and evaluating alternative precursors, developing and demonstrating advanced conversion techniques, and developing and tailoring surface treatment, sizings, and formatting fiber for specific composite matrices and end-use applications. ORNL already had North America’s most comprehensive suite of tools for carbon fiber research and development and established a semiproduction demonstration line referred to as the Carbon Fiber Technology Facility (CFTF) to facilitate implementation of low cost carbon fiber (LCCF) approaches in early 2013. ORNL and VW agreed to collaborate in a formal Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (NFE-12-03992) specifically focused on evaluating applicability of low cost carbon fiber products for potential vehicle components. The goal of the work outlined in this report was to develop and qualify uses for carbon fiber-reinforced structures in connection with civilian ground transportation. Significant progress was achieved in evaluating and understanding lignin-based precursor materials; however, availability of carbon fiber converted from lignin precursor combined with logistical issues associated with the Visa limitations for the VW participant resulted in significantly shortening of the collaboration

  6. Health and safety: Preliminary comparative assessment of the Satellite Power System (SPS) and other energy alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habegger, L. J.; Gasper, J. R.; Brown, C.

    1980-01-01

    Data readily available from the literature were used to make an initial comparison of the health and safety risks of a fission power system with fuel reprocessing; a combined-cycle coal power system with a low-Btu gasifier and open-cycle gas turbine; a central-station, terrestrial, solar photovoltaic power system; the satellite power system; and a first-generation fusion system. The assessment approach consists of the identification of health and safety issues in each phase of the energy cycle from raw material extraction through electrical generation, waste disposal, and system deactivation; quantitative or qualitative evaluation of impact severity; and the rating of each issue with regard to known or potential impact level and level of uncertainty.

  7. Generating Electric Power in the Pacific Northwest. Implications of Alternative Technologies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pernin, Christopher

    2002-01-01

    ...: Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington. For much of the past 50 years, these states have relied heavily on hydroelectric power to meet their energy needs, and this inexpensive electricity has helped keep electricity rates low in the region...

  8. 4th International Conference on Sustainable Automotive Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Wellnitz, Jörg; Leary, Martin; Koopmans, Lucien

    2012-01-01

    The book on Sustainable Automotive Technologies aims to draw special attention to the research and practice focused on new technologies and approaches capable of meeting the challenges to sustainable mobility. In particular, the book features incremental and radical technical advancements that are able to meet social, economic and environmental targets in both local and global contexts. These include original solutions to the problems of pollution and congestion, vehicle and public safety, sustainable vehicle design and manufacture, new structures and materials, new power-train technologies and vehicle concepts. In addition to vehicle technologies, the book is also concerned with the broader systemic issues such as sustainable supply chain systems, integrated logistics and telematics, and end-of-life vehicle management. It captures selected peer reviewed papers accepted for presentation at the 4th International Conference on Sustainable Automotive Technologies, ICSAT2012, held at the RMIT, Melbourne, Australi...

  9. Veranderende automotive wereld vraagt om verandering onderwijs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J.C. Nas

    2011-01-01

    Met dit document wil ik de lezer een nieuwe invalshoek tonen op mobiliteit (Driving Guidance) en een andere benadering van automotive hbo onderwijs. De wereld om ons heen verandert en deze nieuwe wereld zal een ander type automotive ingenieur eisen. Dit is een korte weergave van een lezing voor de

  10. Dynamic and Acoustic Characterisation of Automotive Wheels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Curà

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is the dynamic and acoustic characterisation of an automotive wheel. In particular, an experimental research activity previously performed by the authors about the dynamic behaviour of automotive wheels has been extended to the acoustic field.

  11. Brakes Specialist. Teacher Edition. Automotive Service Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains teacher's materials for a course on becoming an automotive brakes specialist, based on the National Institute of Automotive Service Excellence task lists. The course consists of three instructional units: service brake hydraulic system and wheel bearings, service drum brakes, and service disc brakes. Depending on the…

  12. Carbon composite manufacturing in automotive volume production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiger, Raphael; Pahl, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Lightweight constructions are a continuously increasing trend in the automotive industry. Main drivers for that trend are the challenging emission reduction targets regarding combustion engines and increasing ranges in electric mobility. This article presents different composite production methods...... and discusses their ability within mass production giving also an example within the automotive production....

  13. Microbial fuel cells: a promising alternative for power generation and waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez-Larios, A. L.; Solorza-Feria, O.; Rinderknecht-Seijas, N.; Poggi-Varaldo, H. M.

    2009-01-01

    The current energy crisis has launched a renewed interest on alternative energy sources and non-fossil fuels. One promising technology is the direct production of electricity from organic matter or wastes in microbial fuel cells (MFC). A MFC can be envisioned as an bio-electrochemical reactor that converts the chemical energy stored in chemical bonds into electrical energy via the catalytic activity of microorganisms under anoxic conditions. (Author)

  14. CV or Not to Be? Alternatives to U.S. Sea-Based Air Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943-5000 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT...Stuart E. Johnson and Arthur K. Cebrowski, Alternative Fleet Architechture Design (Fort Lesley J. McNair, Washington D.C.: National Defense University...clock, immune to hazards such as sandstorms that grounded land-based aircraft. Organic air wings provided strike, electronic attack, airborne early

  15. Study of energy recovery and power generation from alternative energy source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhakim Amer A. Agll

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The energy requirement pattern of world is growing up and developing technology. The available sources, while exhausting and not friendly to the environment, are highly used. Looking at partial supply and different options of environment problems associated with usage, renewable energy sources are getting attention. MSW (Municipal solid waste composition data had been collected from 1997 to 2009, in Benghazi Libya, to evaluate the waste enthalpy. An incinerator with capacity of 47,250 kg/h was confirmed to burn all the quantity of waste generated by the city through the next 15 years. Initial study was performed to investigate energy flow and resource availability to insure sustainable MSW required by the incinerator to work at its maximum capacity during the designated period. The primary purpose of the paper is to discuss the design of Rankin steam cycle for the generation of both power (PG and combined heat power (CHP. In the power generation case, the system was found to be able to generate electrical power of 13.1 MW. Including the combined heat power case, the results showed that the system was able to produce 6.8 million m3/year of desalinated water and generate 11.33 MW of electricity. In conclusion, the CHP designed system has the greatest potential to maximize energy saving, due to the optimal combination of heat production and electricity generation.

  16. Comparative health and safety assessment of the satellite power system and other electrical generation alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    The work reported here is an analysis of existing data on the health and safety risks of a satellite power system and six electrical generation systems: a combined-cycle coal power system with a low-Btu gasifier and open-cycle gas turbine; a light water fission power system without fuel reprocessing; a liquid-metal, fast-breeder fission reactor; a centralized and decentralized, terrestrial, solar-photovoltaic power system; and a first-generation design for a fusion power system. The systems are compared on the basis of expected deaths and person-days lost per year associated with 1000 MW of average electricity generation. Risks are estimated and uncertainties indicated for all phases of the energy production cycle, including fuel and raw material extraction and processing, direct and indirect component manufacture, on-site construction, and system operation and maintenance. Also discussed is the potential significance of related major health and safety issues that remain largely unquantifiable. The appendices provide more detailed information on risks, uncertainties, additional research needed, and references for the identified impacts of each system

  17. False Operation of Static Random Access Memory Cells under Alternating Current Power Supply Voltage Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Takuya; Takata, Hidehiro; Nii, Koji; Nagata, Makoto

    2013-04-01

    Static random access memory (SRAM) cores exhibit susceptibility against power supply voltage variation. False operation is investigated among SRAM cells under sinusoidal voltage variation on power lines introduced by direct RF power injection. A standard SRAM core of 16 kbyte in a 90 nm 1.5 V technology is diagnosed with built-in self test and on-die noise monitor techniques. The sensitivity of bit error rate is shown to be high against the frequency of injected voltage variation, while it is not greatly influenced by the difference in frequency and phase against SRAM clocking. It is also observed that the distribution of false bits is substantially random in a cell array.

  18. Valuation of selected environmental impacts associated with Bonneville Power Administration Resource Program alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englin, J.E.; Gygi, K.F.

    1992-03-01

    This report documents work undertaken by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and its contractors to assist the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) in assessing the potential environmental consequences of new power resources. A major purpose of this effort is to describe and evaluate the techniques available for economic valuation of environmental costs. Another is to provide estimates of the environmental costs associated with specific power resources called for under Bonneville's Resource Programs. Bonneville's efforts to extend valuation techniques to as many impacts as can be reliably assessed represents a substantial advance in the application of state-of-the-art economic techniques to environmental assessments. This economic analysis evaluates effects on human health, wildlife, crops, and visibility impacts associated with air pollution. This report also discusses river recreation (primarily fishing) which may be affected by fluctuations in water levels. 70 refs

  19. Stirling Radioisotope Power System as an Alternative for NASAs Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaltens, R. K.; Mason, L. S.; Schreiber, J. G.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and the Department of Energy (DOE) are developing a free-piston Stirling convertor for a Stirling Radioisotope Power System (SRPS) to provide on-board electric power for future NASA deep space missions. The SRPS currently being developed provides about 100 watts and reduces the amount of radioisotope fuel by a factor of four over conventional Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG). The present SRPS design has a specific power of approximately 4 W/kg which is comparable to an RTG. GRC estimates for advanced versions of the SRPS with improved heat source integration, lightweight Stirling convertors, composite radiators, and chip-packaged controllers improves the specific mass to about 8 W/kg. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  20. Nuclear power unnecessary for climate protection. There are more cost-efficient alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemfert, Claudia; Oei, Pao-Yu [DIW Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Energy, Transportation, Environment; Burandt, Thorsten; Hainsch, Karlo [TU Berlin (Germany); Loeffler, Konstantin [TU Berlin (Germany); DIW Berlin (Germany); Hirschhausen, Christian von [DIW Berlin (Germany). International Infrastructure Policy and Industrial Organization

    2017-07-01

    The world needs to continue working to protect the climate - this is generally undisputed. However, there is no agreement on which technologies should be used to decarbonize the energy sector. Many international scenarios still assume a relevant role for nuclear power in the future. However, a study by the German Institute for Economic Research shows that the Paris climate protection target - limiting global warming to below two degrees - can be achieved inexpensively without nuclear power. The results of a global energy system model indicate that no new nuclear power plants have to be built in order to meet the global climate target. It would be cheaper to use a combination of renewable energy and energy storage systems.

  1. Power plant emissions: particulate matter-related health damages and the benefits of alternative emission reduction scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, C.

    2004-06-15

    This report estimates the avoidable health effects of each of a series of alternative regulatory scenarios for power plants, focusing on the adverse human health effects due to exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) This report uses the same analytical methods that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency used in 2003 to prepare an analysis of the potential health effects of the proposed Clear Skies Act (EPA 2003). This report conducts an analysis of the impacts in 2010 and 2020 of three policy alternatives to the proposed Clear Skies Act, The Jeffords/Lieberman/Collins 'The Clean Power Act', S. 366, and the EPA August 2001 Straw Proposal (one of several alternatives EPA analyzed prior to the announcement of the Clear Skies Initiative in 2002). The report also examines the health impacts associated with the total emissions from coal fired electricity generating units in 2010. Chapter 2 describes the emissions inventory estimates, and the changes in the emissions associated with each scenario analyzed. Chapter 3 describes the methods used to estimate changes in particulate matter concentrations. Chapter 4 describes general issues arising in estimating and valuing changes in adverse health effects associated with changes in particulate matter. Chapter 5 describes in some detail the methods used for estimating and valuing adverse health effects, and Chapter 6 presents the results of these analyses. Chapter 7 presents estimates of the impact of these alternative policy options on the PM non-attainment status. 117 refs., 21 figs., 32 tabs., 3 apps.

  2. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume VII. International perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    The purpose of this volume is to assess the proliferation vulnerabilities of the present deployment of civilian nuclear-power systems within the current nonproliferation regime and, in light of their prospective deployment, to consider technical and institutional measures and alternatives which may contribute to an improved regime in which nuclear power could play a significant part. An assessment of these measures must include consideration of their nonproliferation effectiveness as well as their bearing upon energy security, and their operational, economic, and political implications. The nature of these considerations can provide some measure of their likely acceptability to various nations. While any final assessment of such measures and alternatives would have to examine the circumstances particular to each nation, it is hoped that the more generic assessments conducted here will be useful in suggesting guidelines for developing an improved nonproliferation regime which also helps to meet nuclear-energy needs. One chapter outlines the existing nonproliferation regime, including the Treaty for the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards, bilateral and multilateral requirements for agreements of cooperation and transfers of technology, and existing provisons for sanctions for violation of nonproliferation commitments. The chapter then proceeds to an assessment of various alternatives for providing assurance of fuel supply in light of this current regime. Another chapter examines a set of technical and institutional measures and alternatives for various components of once-through and closed fuel cycles. The components of the once-through fuel cycle assessed are enrichment services and spent-fuel management; the components of closed fuel cycles assessed are reprocessing and plutonium management and fast-breeder reactor (FBR) deployment

  3. A comparison between fuel cells and other alternatives for marine electric power generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousri M.A. Welaya

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The world is facing a challenge in meeting its needs for energy. Global energy consumption in the last half-century has increased very rapidly and is expected to continue to grow over the next 50 years. However, it is expected to see significant differences between the last 50 years and the next. This paper aims at introducing a good solution to replace or work with conventional marine power plants. This includes the use of fuel cell power plant operated with hydrogen produced through water electrolysis or hydrogen produced from natural gas, gasoline, or diesel fuels through steam reforming processes to mitigate air pollution from ships.

  4. A comparison between fuel cells and other alternatives for marine electric power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welaya, Yousri M. A.; El Gohary, M. Morsy; Ammar, Nader R.

    2011-06-01

    The world is facing a challenge in meeting its needs for energy. Global energy consumption in the last halfcentury has increased very rapidly and is expected to continue to grow over the next 50 years. However, it is expected to see significant differences between the last 50 years and the next. This paper aims at introducing a good solution to replace or work with conventional marine power plants. This includes the use of fuel cell power plant operated with hydrogen produced through water electrolysis or hydrogen produced from natural gas, gasoline, or diesel fuels through steam reforming processes to mitigate air pollution from ships.

  5. Analysis of the alternatives for the chemical treatment of the secondary circuit of PWR power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, J.P.G.; Silva Neto, A.J. da; Braganca Junior, A.; Dominguez, D.

    1990-01-01

    The operational experiences within PWR power plants shows that the major problems which affect the plant availability occurs in the secondary side, mainly in the steam generators and condenser. The aim of this report is to perform an evaluation of the main chemical treatment processes, which are applied to the secondary side of PWR power plants in order to reduce the corrosion problems to which are exposed the system equipment, minimizing in this way the shut down and maintenance cost for repairs and replacement of damaged components. (author)

  6. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume IV. Commercial potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    This volume of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP) report provides time and cost estimates for positioning new nuclear power systems for commercial deployment. The assessment also estimates the rates at which the new systems might penetrate the domestic market, assuming the continuing viability of the massive light-water reactor network that now exists worldwide. This assessment does not recommend specific, detailed program plans and budgets for individual systems; however, it is clear from this analysis that any of the systems investigated could be deployed if dictated by national interest.

  7. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume IV. Commercial potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-06-01

    This volume of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP) report provides time and cost estimates for positioning new nuclear power systems for commercial deployment. The assessment also estimates the rates at which the new systems might penetrate the domestic market, assuming the continuing viability of the massive light-water reactor network that now exists worldwide. This assessment does not recommend specific, detailed program plans and budgets for individual systems; however, it is clear from this analysis that any of the systems investigated could be deployed if dictated by national interest

  8. Peaceful power today and tomorrow: Policy alternatives for the back-end

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedore, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Atoms for Peace is thirty years old. Twenty-six nations currently operate large-scale commercial reactors for uranium electricity generation, and another five countries seem likely to join this group soon. The author reviews international policy options regarding two of the perceived major problems of civil nuclear power in many parts of the world: nuclear waste and potential nuclear weapons proliferation

  9. Economical analyses of build-operate-transfer model in establishing alternative power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yumurtaci, Zehra [Yildiz Technical University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Y.T.U. Mak. Fak. Mak. Muh. Bolumu, Besiktas, 34349 Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: zyumur@yildiz.edu.tr; Erdem, Hasan Hueseyin [Yildiz Technical University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Y.T.U. Mak. Fak. Mak. Muh. Bolumu, Besiktas, 34349 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2007-01-15

    The most widely employed method to meet the increasing electricity demand is building new power plants. The most important issue in building new power plants is to find financial funds. Various models are employed, especially in developing countries, in order to overcome this problem and to find a financial source. One of these models is the build-operate-transfer (BOT) model. In this model, the investor raises all the funds for mandatory expenses and provides financing, builds the plant and, after a certain plant operation period, transfers the plant to the national power organization. In this model, the object is to decrease the burden of power plants on the state budget. The most important issue in the BOT model is the dependence of the unit electricity cost on the transfer period. In this study, the model giving the unit electricity cost depending on the transfer of the plants established according to the BOT model, has been discussed. Unit electricity investment cost and unit electricity cost in relation to transfer period for plant types have been determined. Furthermore, unit electricity cost change depending on load factor, which is one of the parameters affecting annual electricity production, has been determined, and the results have been analyzed. This method can be employed for comparing the production costs of different plants that are planned to be established according to the BOT model, or it can be employed to determine the appropriateness of the BOT model.

  10. Peak Shaving and Alternative Power: A Question of Economy, Quality of Life and Quality of Electricity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, David

    1999-01-01

    .... Fuel cells offer a variety of options for co-generation and power management. A prudent use of the by-products of electric generation from a fuel cell could increase efficiency of the plant and provide cost savings to the user...

  11. Economical analyses of build-operate-transfer model in establishing alternative power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yumurtaci, Zehra; Erdem, Hasan Hueseyin

    2007-01-01

    The most widely employed method to meet the increasing electricity demand is building new power plants. The most important issue in building new power plants is to find financial funds. Various models are employed, especially in developing countries, in order to overcome this problem and to find a financial source. One of these models is the build-operate-transfer (BOT) model. In this model, the investor raises all the funds for mandatory expenses and provides financing, builds the plant and, after a certain plant operation period, transfers the plant to the national power organization. In this model, the object is to decrease the burden of power plants on the state budget. The most important issue in the BOT model is the dependence of the unit electricity cost on the transfer period. In this study, the model giving the unit electricity cost depending on the transfer of the plants established according to the BOT model, has been discussed. Unit electricity investment cost and unit electricity cost in relation to transfer period for plant types have been determined. Furthermore, unit electricity cost change depending on load factor, which is one of the parameters affecting annual electricity production, has been determined, and the results have been analyzed. This method can be employed for comparing the production costs of different plants that are planned to be established according to the BOT model, or it can be employed to determine the appropriateness of the BOT model

  12. Hydrogen: the great debate. 'Power to Gas - how to cope with the challenge of electricity storage?; Hydrogen in energy transition: which challenges to be faced?; Hydrogen, essential today, indispensable tomorrow; Electrolytic hydrogen, a solution for energy transition?; Development of high power electrolysis systems: need and approach; Hydrogen as energy vector, Potential and stakes: a perspective; The Toyota Fuel Cell System: a new era for the automotive industry; Three key factors: production, applications to mobility, and public acceptance; Hydrogen, benevolent fairy or tempting demon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauet, Jean-Pierre; Boucly, Philippe; Beeker, Etienne; Mauberger, Pascal; Quint, Aliette; Pierre, Helene; Lucchese, Paul; Bouillon-Delporte, Valerie; Chauvet, Bertrand; Brisse, Annabelle; Gautier, Ludmila; Hercberg, Sylvain; De Volder, Marc; Gruson, Jean-Francois; Marion, Pierre; Grellier, Sebastien; Devezeaux, Jean-Guy; Mansilla, Christine; Le Net, Elisabeth; Le Duigou, Alain; Maire, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    This publication proposes a set of contributions which address various issues related to the development of the use of hydrogen as an energy source. More precisely, these contributions discuss how to face the challenge of electricity storage by using the Power-to-Gas technology, the challenges to be faced regarding the role of hydrogen in energy transition, the essential current role of hydrogen and its indispensable role for tomorrow, the possible role of electrolytic hydrogen as a solution for energy transition, the need of and the approach to a development of high power electrolysis systems, the potential and stakes of hydrogen as an energy vector, the Toyota fuel cell system as a sign for new era for automotive industry, the three main factors (production, applications to mobility, and public acceptance) for the use of hydrogen in energy transition, and the role of hydrogen perceived either as a benevolent fairy or a tempting demon

  13. Inflation with primordial broken power law spectrum as an alternative to the concordance cosmological model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandolfi, Stefania; Giusarma, Elena; Lattanzi, Massimiliano; Melchiorri, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    We consider cosmological models with a non-scale-invariant spectrum of primordial perturbations and assess whether they represent a viable alternative to the concordance ΛCDM model. We find that in the framework of a model selection analysis, the WMAP and 2dF data do not provide any conclusive evidence in favor of one or the other kind of model. However, when a marginalization over the entire space of nuisance parameters is performed, models with a modified primordial spectrum and Ω Λ =0 are strongly disfavored.

  14. Automotive emission standards. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning emission standards and air quality standards applied to automobile emissions. Included are federal and state regulations and policies regarding these emission standards. Techniques to meet emission standards are also addressed, involving fuel injection, catalysts, alternate engines, and automotive fuel refinery operations. Studies concerning implementation of automobile emission standards explore economic and environmental effects, testing and inspection procedures, and the automobile industry point of view. Most of the citations refer to gasoline engines, but a few pertain to diesel and other fuels. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. The Davidson Method as an alternative to power iterations for criticality calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, C.; Van Criekingen, S.; Heuveline, V.; Nataf, F.; Have, P.

    2011-01-01

    The Davidson method is implemented within the neutron transport core solver parafish to solve k-eigenvalue criticality transport problems. The parafish solver is based on domain decomposition, uses spherical harmonics (P_N method) for angular discretization, and nonconforming finite elements for spatial discretization. The Davidson method is compared to the traditional power iteration method in that context. Encouraging numerical results are obtained with both sequential and parallel calculations. (author)

  16. Gas power plant with CO2 handling. A study of alternative technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolland, Olav; Hagen, Roger I.; Maurstad, Ola; Tangen, Grethe; Juliussen, Olav; Svendsen, Hallvard

    2002-01-01

    The report documents a study which compares 12 different technologies for gas power plants with CO 2 handling. The additional costs in removing the CO 2 in connection with electricity production is calculated to at least 18-19 oere /kWh compared to conventional gas power production without CO 2 capture. The calculated extra costs are somewhat higher than previously published figures. The difference is mainly due to that the estimated costs for pipelines and injection system for CO 2 are higher than in other studies. The removal of CO 2 in connection with gas power production implies increased use of natural gas. The most developed technologies would lead to a procentual increase in the gas consumption per kWh electricity of 18-25%. Gas power plants based on the present technologies would have efficiencies in the size of 46-49%. The efficiency of power plants without CO 2 handling is supposed to be 58%. There is no foundation for pointing out a ''winner's' among the compared technologies in the study. The present available technologies excepted, there are no technology which stands out as better than the others from an economic viewpoint. Gas turbine with membrane based separation of oxygen from air (AZEP) has a potential for lower costs but implies challenging technological development and thence considerable technological risks. Two technologies, capture of carbon from natural gas previous to combustion and exhaust gas purification based on absorption, may be employed in 3 - 4 years. The other technologies require more development and maturing. Three of the technologies may be particularly interesting because hydrogen may be produced as a byproduct. Demonstration plant and choice of technology: 1) There is a limited need for demonstration plants with respect to technology development. 2) It is important for the technology development to be able to test various technologies in a laboratory or in a flexible pilot plant. 3) Many technologies and components may be

  17. Development of moving alternating magnetic filter using permanent magnet for removal of radioactive corrosion product from nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, M. C.; Kim, S. I.; Lee, K. J.

    2002-01-01

    Radioactive Corrosion Products (CRUD) which are generated by the neutron activation of general corrosion products at the nuclear power plant are the major source of occupational radiation exposure. Most of the CRUD has a characteristic of showing strong ferrimagnetisms. Along with the new development and production of permanent magnet (rare earth magnet) which generates much stronger magnetic field than the conventional magnet, new type of magnetic filter that can separate CRUD efficiently and eventually reduce radiation exposure of personnel at nuclear power plant is suggested. This separator consists of inner and outer magnet assemblies, coolant channel and container surrounding the outer magnet assembly. The rotational motion of the inner and outer permanent magnet assemblies surrounding the coolant channel by driving motor system produces moving alternating magnetic fields in the coolant channel. The CRUD can be separated from the coolant by the moving alternating magnetic field. This study describes the results of preliminary experiment performed with the different flow rates of coolant and rotation velocities of magnet assemblies. This new magnetic filter shows better performance results of filtering the magnetite at coolant (water). Flow rates, rotating velocities of magnet assemblies and particle sizes turn out to be very important design parameters

  18. Alternative possibilities of development in the power economy of the FRG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rath-Nagel, S.

    1975-06-01

    In the investigation presented here, problem areas of the energy supply as reserves, reliability of supply, environmental pollution and investment and financial questions are discussed. The author tries to represent quantitatively the boundary conditions of our energy supply system and the cause-effect relations determining the energy market. For the Federal Republic of Germany a simulation model consisting of coupled differential equations is developed, which is able to demonstrate the variations of the energy economic structure of supply and demand under various external conditions. There is in particular a close analysis of the strength of feedback between energy consumption and economic growth, the effects of various modes of supply under abnormal conditions and of realizable alternative supply patterns during the investigatory period. (orig.) [de

  19. Alternative sources of power generation, incentives and regulatory mandates: a theoretical approach to the Colombian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata, Carlos M; Zuluaga Monica M; Dyner, Isaac

    2005-01-01

    Alternative Energy Generation Sources are turning relevant in several countries worldwide because of technology improvement and the environmental treatment. In this paper, the most common problems of renewable energy sources are accomplished, different incentives and regulatory mandates from several countries are exposed, and a first theoretical approach to a renewable energies incentive system in Colombia is discussed. The paper is fundamentally in theoretical aspects and international experience in renewable energies incentives to accelerate their diffusion; features are analyzed towards a special incentive system for renewable energies in Colombia. As a conclusion, in Colombia will be apply indirect incentives like low interest rate, taxes exemptions and so on. But these incentives are applied to limit the support of electricity productivity in generating organizations.

  20. Novel thermocouples for automotive applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gierth

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of temperatures in engine and exhaust systems in automotive applications is necessary for thermal protection of the parts and optimizing of the combustion process. State-of-the-art temperature sensors are very limited in their response characteristic and installation space requirement. Miniaturized sensor concepts with a customizable geometry are needed. The basic idea of this novel sensor concept is to use thick-film technology on component surfaces. Different standardized and especially nonstandard material combinations of thermocouples have been produced for the validation of this technology concept. Application-oriented measurements took place in the exhaust system of a test vehicle and were compared to standard laboratory conditions.

  1. Parametric studies on automotive radiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliet, C.; Oliva, A.; Castro, J.; Perez-Segarra, C.D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a set of parametric studies performed on automotive radiators by means of a detailed rating and design heat exchanger model developed by the authors. This numerical tool has been previously verified and validated using a wide experimental data bank. A first part of the analysis focuses on the influence of working conditions on both fluids (mass flows, inlet temperatures) and the impact of the selected coolant fluid. Following these studies, the influence of some geometrical parameters is analysed (fin pitch, louver angle) as well as the importance of coolant flow lay-out on the radiator global performance. This work provides an overall behaviour report of automobile radiators working at usual range of operating conditions, while significant knowledge-based design conclusions have also been reported. The results show the utility of this numerical model as a rating and design tool for heat exchangers manufacturers, being a reasonable compromise between classic ε - NTU methods and CFD

  2. Health aspects of automotive pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouan, M

    1973-01-01

    General health aspects of carbon monoxide, lead, nitrogen oxides, unburned hydrocarbons, and aldehydes are described. Unlike spark ignition engines, diesel engines emit but minimal quantities of carbon monoxide. Automotive carbon monoxide may cause chronic poisoning by its combination with hemoglobin. The threshold value beyond which physiological changes occur lies at 2.5 percent carboxyhemoglobin. Nitric oxide, and especially nitrogen dioxide cause pulmonary edema, impaired respiratory function, and chronic bronchitis in very low concentrations. According to regulations implemented in France, a CO concentration of 40 ppM/hr must occur not more than 1 percent of the time on a yearly basis. A level of 15 ppm must not be exceeded for more than 15 percent of the time in any 9-hour period. The maximum allowable 1-hour nitrogen oxide concentration is set at 0.25 ppM. The emission standards implemented, as well as favorable meteorological conditions have resulted in an abatement of the CO concentrations in Paris.

  3. Prospects for MEMS in the Automotive Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard DIXON

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available An automotive sector as a growth market for MEMS sensors is analyzed in the article. The automotive sector accounted for $1.6 billion, making this the second biggest opportunity after IT peripherals and inkjet print heads. By 2011 the market will top $2.2 billion, a CAGR of around 7%. The main applications in revenues terms are, in order, pressure sensors, gyroscopes, accelerometers and flow sensors and this will remain so for the foreseeable future. Automotive companies are forced to innovate as a result of competition and price pressures.

  4. Future carbon regulations and current investments in alternative coal-fired power plant technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekar, Ram C.; Parsons, John E.; Herzog, Howard J.; Jacoby, Henry D.

    2007-01-01

    We analyze how uncertain future US carbon regulations shape the current choice of the type of power plant to build. Our focus is on two coal-fired technologies, pulverized coal (PC) and integrated coal gasification combined cycle technology (IGCC). The PC technology is cheapest-assuming there is no need to control carbon emissions. The IGCC technology may be cheaper if carbon must be captured. Since power plants last many years and future regulations are uncertain, a US electric utility faces a standard decision under uncertainty. A company will confront the range of possible outcomes, assigning its best estimate of the probability of each scenario, averaging the results and determining the power plant technology with the lowest possible cost inclusive of expected future carbon related costs, whether those costs be in the form of emissions charges paid or capital expenditures for retrofitting to capture carbon. If the company assigns high probability to no regulation or to less stringent regulation of carbon, then it makes sense for it to build the PC plant. But if it assigns sufficient probability to scenarios with more stringent regulation, then the IGCC technology is warranted. We provide some useful benchmarks for possible future regulation and show how these relate back to the relative costs of the two technologies and the optimal technology choice. Few of the policy proposals widely referenced in the public discussion warrant the choice of the IGCC technology. Instead, the PC technology remains the least costly. However, recent carbon prices in the European Emissions Trading System are higher than these benchmarks. If it is any guide to possible future penalties for emissions in the US, then current investment in the IGCC technology is warranted. Of course, other factors need to be factored into the decision as well

  5. Evaluation of alternatives for power system coordination and pooling in a competitive environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudnick, H.; Varela, R.; Hogan, W.

    1997-01-01

    The paper defines and classifies essential issues that relate the need for electric power system coordination with the increasing development of competition. Principles are formulated and a coordination model and a market structure are proposed, emphasizing the need for economic dispatch in the wholesale market. A detailed comparison is made of the market and pooling implementations developed in Argentina and Chile, countries that have pioneered the creation of competitive markets in the electric energy sector. An evaluation of strengths and weaknesses of those two implementations is included

  6. Alternative Solder Bond Packaging Approach for High-Voltage (HV) Pulsed Power Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    triggered into the ON-state with a fiber - optic transmitter once the capacitor has been charged up to the desired voltage of choice with a power supply...substrate, which results in a much higher conductivity compared to highly doped p-type substrates in SiC (Fig. 1). The anode layer was etched using...reactive ion etch and then the mesa of the device was etched for total isolation. The gate contact implant was followed using nitrogen in a box

  7. Impacts of alternative allowance allocation methods under a cap-and-trade program in power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Beibei; He Pan; Zhang Bing; Bi Jun

    2012-01-01

    Emission trading is considered to be a cost-effective environmental economic instrument for pollution control. However, the policy design of an emission trading program has a decisive impact on its performance. Allowance allocation is one of the most important policy design issues in emission trading, not only for equity but also for policy performance. In this research, an artificial market for sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) emission trading was constructed by applying an agent-based model. The performance of the Jiangsu SO 2 emission trading market was examined under different allowance allocation methods and transaction costs. The results showed that the market efficiency of emission trading would be affected by the allocation methods when the transaction costs are positive. The auction allowance allocation method was more efficient and had the lowest total emission control costs than the other three allocation methods examined. However, the use of this method will require that power plants pay for all of their allowance, and doing so will increase the production costs of power plants. On the other hand, output-based allowance allocation is the second best method. - Highlights: ► The impact of allowance allocation methods is examined for a cap-and-trade program. ► The market efficiency would be distinct when the transaction costs are positive. ► The auction method would have lowest total emission control costs.

  8. NTM stabilization by alternating O-point EC current drive using a high-power diplexer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasparek, W.; Doelman, N.; Stober, J.; Maraschek, M.; Zohm, H.; Monaco, F.; Eixenberger, H.; Klop, W.; Wagner, D.; Schubert, M.; Schütz, H.; Grünwald, G.; Plaum, B.; Munk, R.; Schlüter, K. H.; ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2016-12-01

    At the tokamak ASDEX Upgrade, experiments to stabilize neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) by electron cyclotron (EC) heating and current drive in the O-points of the magnetic islands were performed. For the first time, injection into the O-points of the revolving islands was performed via a fast directional switch, which toggled the EC power between two launchers synchronously to the island rotation. The switching was performed by a resonant diplexer employing a sharp resonance in the transfer function, and a small frequency modulation of the feeding gyrotron around the slope of the resonance. Thus, toggling of the power between the two outputs of the diplexer connected to two articulating launchers was possible. Phasing and control of the modulation were performed via a set of Mirnov coils and appropriate signal processing. In the paper, technological issues, the design of the diplexer, the tracking of the diplexer resonance to the gyrotron frequency, the generation and processing of control signals for the gyrotron, and the typical performance concerning switching contrast and efficiency are discussed. The plasma scenario is described, and plasma experiments are presented, where the launchers scanned the region of the resonant surface continuously and also where the launchers were at a fixed position near to the q  =  1.5-surface. In the second case, complete stabilization of a 3/2 NTM could be reached. These experiments are also seen as a technical demonstration for the applicability of diplexers in large-scale ECRH systems.

  9. Brackish groundwater as an alternative source of cooling water for nuclear power plants in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arad, A.; Olshina, A.

    1984-01-01

    The western Negev is being considered as a potential site for the location of a nuclear powerplant. Since this part of Israel has no surface water, the only alternatives for cooling water are piped-in water, Mediterranean water and local, brackish groundwater. The Judea Group aquifer was examined for its potential to provide the required amount of cooling water over the lifetime of the plant, without causing a drastic lowering of the regional water table. The salinity of the water tends to increase from east to west. Flow within the aquifer is in the direction of Beer Sheva, where the extraction rate is 32 to 35 million cu m/yr. This has resulted in a salinity creep of 5-10 mg Cl per year in the Beer Sheva area, which poses a danger of deterioration of its water supply in the long term. Given the assumed range of aquifer properties, extraction of brackish water for cooling purposes will not result in large changes in the regional water table. Exploitation of the more saline water to the southwest of Beer Sheva could preserve the quality of Beer Sheva's water supply, at the expense of an increase in the depth from which it must be pumped. 2 references, 7 figures, 2 tables

  10. Utilization of ash fractions from alternative biofuels used in power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaisen, L.; Hinge, J.; Christensen, I. (Danish Technological Inst., Aarhus (Denmark)); Dahl, J. (Force Technology, Broendby (Denmark)); Arendt Jensen, P. (DTU-CHEC, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Soendergaard Birkmose, T. (Dansk Landbrugsraadgivning, Landscentret, Aarhus (Denmark)); Sander, B. (DONG Energy, Fredericia (Denmark)); Kristensen, O. (Kommunekemi A/S, Nyborg (Denmark))

    2008-07-15

    It is expected, that demand for the traditional biomass resources wood and straw will increase over the next years. In other projects a number of agro industrial waste products has been tested and characterized as fuels for power plants. The annual production in Denmark of these fuels is estimated at roughly 400.000 tons of Dry Matter per year, so the potential is substantial. The agro industrial biomass products include: Grain screening waste, pea shells, soy waste, cocoa waste, sugar beet waste, sunflower waste, shea waste, coffee waste, olive waste, rice shell waste, potato waste, pectin waste, carrageen waste, tobacco waste, rape seed waste and mash from breweries. In the PSO project 5075, 5 different types of fuel pellets was produced, which were rendered suitable for combustion in power plants. In this project, ash is produced from the above mentioned 5 mixtures together with another 2 mixtures produced especially for this project. From the 5 mixtures from PSO 5075, ash is produced at Danish Technological Institute's slag analyzer. These ash products are rendered comparable to ash from grate fired boilers at power plants. The ash/slag from the combustion in the slag analyzer was then grinded - thus resulting in a total of 5 ash products. At DTU CHEC's Entrained Flow Reactor, ash products from the 5+2 mixtures were produced. These ash products are rendered comparable to ash produced form suspension fired boilers at power plants. For each of the 7 mixtures, bottom-, cyclone and filter ash was taken out separately resulting in a total of 21 ash samples. The produced ashes have been evaluated for their properties as directly applied fertilizer. Furthermore, scenarios have been set up to assess the feasibility in producing artificial fertilizer from the ash products, based on known processes. In the main components the content of Na, S, Cl and K is significantly higher in filter ashes, whereas the content of Mg, Al, Si and Ca is significantly lower. The

  11. Fish protection at steam-electric power plants: alternative screening devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, J.B.

    1978-01-01

    Since the enactment of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972, very few innovations have surfaced that advance the state of intake technology for fish protection at steam-electric power plants. After careful examination of basic hydrology, hydraulics, and ecology of the source water body is completed and after a suitable location for the intake is established, the design process reduces to the development of proper screening techniques and to the provision of a means of preventing resident and migratory species from entering the intake structure. As a result of this design process, three basic fish protection concepts have evolved: fish deterrence, fish collection and removal, and fish diversion. Intake screening devices that protect fish are discussed

  12. Alternative central-station electric power generation technologies: a consistent engineering-economic framework of comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baughman, M.L.; Gordon, J.B.; Woodson, H.H.

    1983-01-01

    The electric utility sector is an intermediate processing sector of the economy that utilizes the factor inputs of labor, capital, and materials to process and convert chemical, nuclear, and other basic energy forms into electricity. The electricity is then delivered to and consumed by other intermediate or final users for purposes of heating, cooling, lighting, motive power, and materials processing. The economics of electricity supply encompass not only the selection of the basic energy form to be converted but also the selection of possible physical conversion processes to accomplish the conversion. The conversion processes can vary immensely in technical detail, physical configuration, and the basic scientific principle governing their operation. But whatever the design and technical detail, the basic purpose is to process some form of energy and manufacture electricity

  13. Solar Panel Integration as an Alternate Power Source on Centaur 2 (SPIAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebara, Christine A.; Schuetze, Nich A.; Knochel, Aviana M.; Magruder, Darby F.

    2011-01-01

    The dream of exploration has inspired thousands throughout time. Space exploration, in particular, has taken the past century by storm and caused a great advance in technology. In this project, a retractable solar panel array will be developed for use on the Centaur 2 Rover. Energy generated by the solar panels will go to power the Centaur 2 Robot (C2) or Regolith & Environment Science & Oxygen & Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE) payload, an in-situ resource utilization project. Such payload is designed to drill into lunar and Martian terrain as well as be able to conduct other geological testing; RESOLVE is slated for testing in 2012. Ultimately, this project will fit into NASA s larger goal of deep space exploration as well as long term presence outside Earth s orbit.

  14. Perspective usage estimation of Volga region combustible shale as a power generating fuel alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, E.; Barieva, E.; Eskin, A.

    2018-05-01

    A comprehensive study of combustible shale, common within Tatarstan and Ulyanovsk region, is carried out. The rocks physicochemical parameters are found to meet the power generating fuels requirements. The predictive estimate of ash products properties of combustible shale burning is held. Minding furnace process technology it is necessary to know mineral and organic components behavior when combustible shale is burnt. Since the first will determine slagging properties of energy raw materials, the second – its calorific value. In consideration of this the main research methods were X-ray, thermal and X-ray fluorescence analyses. Summing up the obtained results, we can draw to the following conclusions: 1. The combustible shale in Tatarstan and the Ulyanovsk region has predominantly low calorific value (Qb d = 5-9 MJ/kg). In order to enhance its efficiency and to reduce cost it is possible to conduct rocks burning together with some other organic or organic mineral power generating fuels. 2. High ash content (Ad = 60-80%) that causes a high external ballast content in shale implies the appropriateness of using this fuel resource next to its exploitation site. The acceptable distance to a consumer will reduce unproductive transportation charges for large ash and moisture masses. 3. The performed fuel ash components characteristics, as well as the yield and volatiles composition allow us to specify the basic parameters for boiler units, designed for the Volga combustible shale burning. 4. The noncombustible residual components composition shows that shale ash can be used in manufacture of materials of construction.

  15. Comparative study of alternative ORC-based combined power systems to exploit high temperature waste heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Chengyu; Shu, Gequn; Tian, Hua; Wei, Haiqiao; Liang, Xingyu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Three ORC-based combined systems for ICE exhaust waste heat recovery are studied. • A parametric investigation is conducted under several typical engine conditions. • Performance is evaluated considering six thermodynamic, techno-economic indexes. • DORC distinguishes among other solutions for its highest energy recovery capacity. • TEG–ORC system becomes attractive when exhaust temperature is relatively low. - Abstract: In this paper, various combined power systems which regard organic Rankine cycle (ORC) as bottoming cycle to recover engine’s high temperature exhaust heat are proposed. The topping recovery cycle includes steam Rankine cycle (RC), Brayton cycle (BC) and thermoelectric generator (TEG). Comprehensive evaluations are conducted under five typical engine conditions, ranging from high load to low load, and system performance is assessed in terms of many thermodynamic indexes, such as net output power, thermal efficiency, recovery efficiency and exergy efficiency. Besides that, the irreversibility of each component is also discussed in detail. R123, R245fa and R600a for ORC system are considered to analyze the influence of working fluids. Considering the system techno-economy, the turbine size parameter (SP) and heat transfer capacity (UA) are chosen as key indicators. The results show that compared with the other two investigated approaches, dual-loop ORC (DORC) possesses the highest energy exploitation capacity under the whole operating region, with a 5.57% increase of fuel economy under the rated condition, but its values of SP and UA are large as well. TEG–ORC becomes appealing while under the relatively low load

  16. Supersonic plasma beams with controlled speed generated by the alternative low power hybrid ion engine (ALPHIE) for space propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, L.; Domenech-Garret, J. L.; Donoso, J. M.; Damba, J.; Tierno, S. P.; Alamillo-Gamboa, E.; Castillo, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    The characteristics of supersonic ion beams from the alternative low power hybrid ion engine (ALPHIE) are discussed. This simple concept of a DC powered plasma accelerator that only needs one electron source for both neutral gas ionization and ion beam neutralization is also examined. The plasma production and space charge neutralization processes are thus coupled in this plasma thruster that has a total DC power consumption of below 450 W, and uses xenon or argon gas as a propellant. The operation parameters of the plasma engine are studied in the laboratory in connection with the ion energy distribution function obtained with a retarding-field energy analyzer. The ALPHIE plasma beam expansion produces a mesothermal plasma flow with two-peaked ion energy distribution functions composed of low and high speed ion groups. The characteristic drift velocities of the fast ion groups, in the range 36.6-43.5 Km/s, are controlled by the acceleration voltage. These supersonic speeds are higher than the typical ion sound velocities of the low energy ion group produced by the expansion of the plasma jet. The temperatures of the slow ion population lead to ion Debye lengths longer than the electron Debye lengths. Furthermore, the electron impact ionization can coexist with collisional ionization by fast ions downstream the grids. Finally, the performance characteristics and comparisons with other plasma accelerator schemes are also discussed.

  17. INFLUENCE OF AUTOMOTIVE CLUSTERS IN REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin BORDEI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an overview of the evolution in the automotive sector in the process of regional development. The fundamental changes made by the component supplier sector improved the regional development and manufacturing process. Automotive industry is one of the modern sectors in many countries that benefits of a high technology impact and creates jobs that reduces unemployment across Europe. The auto industry changed cities, regions and countries into poles of development and it becomes more and more efficient. The high foreign direct investments from the automotive sector play an important role in regional development process. Continuous changes are being made in the economy, society, and company; in conclusion the automotive clusters will always be a subject of analysis.

  18. Nonlinear estimation and control of automotive drivetrains

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Nonlinear Estimation and Control of Automotive Drivetrains discusses the control problems involved in automotive drivetrains, particularly in hydraulic Automatic Transmission (AT), Dual Clutch Transmission (DCT) and Automated Manual Transmission (AMT). Challenging estimation and control problems, such as driveline torque estimation and gear shift control, are addressed by applying the latest nonlinear control theories, including constructive nonlinear control (Backstepping, Input-to-State Stable) and Model Predictive Control (MPC). The estimation and control performance is improved while the calibration effort is reduced significantly. The book presents many detailed examples of design processes and thus enables the readers to understand how to successfully combine purely theoretical methodologies with actual applications in vehicles. The book is intended for researchers, PhD students, control engineers and automotive engineers. Hong Chen is a professor at the State Key Laboratory of Automotive Simulation and...

  19. Formalizing correspondence rules for automotive architectural views

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dajsuren, Y.; Gerpheide, C.M.; Serebrenik, A.; Wijs, A.J.; Vasilescu, B.N.; Brand, van den M.G.J.; Seinturier, L.; Bures, T.; McGregor, J.D.

    2014-01-01

    Architecture views have long been used in software industry to systematically model complex systems by representing them from the perspective of related stakeholder concerns. However, consensus has not been reached for the architecture views between automotive architecture description languages and

  20. Sustainable automotive energy system in China

    CERN Document Server

    CAERC, Tsinghua University

    2014-01-01

    This book identifies and addresses key issues of automotive energy in China. It covers demography, economics, technology and policy, providing a broad perspective to aid in the planning of sustainable road transport in China.

  1. Fatal exit the automotive black box debate

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalick, Tom

    2005-01-01

    "Fatal Exit: The Automotive Black Box Debate cuts through thirty years of political wrangling and institutional biases to provide an argument for the Motor Vehicle Event Data Recorder (MVEDR). This automotive equivalent of an airplane's flight recorder or black box is intended to solve the mysteries of car crashes and improve the safety of our roads. The reader is taken inside the automotive industry and the government highway safety establishment to foster an understanding of the politics and the positions on all sides of this safety debate. The author takes an unbiased approach, chronologically presenting each argument and uncovering the agendas and mandates of each of the stakeholders." "This publication is essential reading for all consumers who need to have their voices heard on this critical issue, as well as for attorneys, public safety advocates, public policy administrators, engineers, automotive professionals, journalists, and insurance executives."--Jacket.

  2. Conceptual Design of Automotive Compressor for Integrated Portable Air Conditioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishak Muhammad Ikman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces a new concept of portable air conditioner which integrated with some available components in automotive air conditioning system. This new idea intends to solve the storage problems as well as to reduce the price of current portable air conditioner since some devices could directly be used from the automotive air conditioning system. The primary emphasis of this study was on the modification of automotive compressor design so as the system may alternately be operated. The length of conventional compressor shaft is extended to place an additional clutch pulley, a drive plate and a clutch coil. The new concept particularly the shaft and pulley were analysed through slope deflection and computational finite element analyses. The result of engineering analyses exhibited that the new design of compressor shaft and clutch pulleys promote a low risk of failure as the data values recorded are lower than the critical value for each criterion investigated.

  3. SELECTION METHOD FOR AUTOMOTIVE PARTS RECONDITIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Florin NITOI

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents technological methods for metal deposition, costs calculation and clasification for the main process that helps in automotive technologies to repair or to increase pieces properties. Paper was constructed based on many technological experiments that starts from practicans and returns to them. The main aim is to help young engineers or practicians engineers to choose the proper reconditioning process with the best information in repairing pieces from automotive industry.

  4. Automotive perspective on laser material processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roessler, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper a broad review is given of the development and use of laser processing in the automotive industry. a brief introduction to the major types of processing lasers and related systems is followed by a summary of the major processing regimes. Examples are given of the automotive industry's use of lasers in a variety of applications, from heat treating and welding, to cutting and marking

  5. EPA RE-Powering Mapper: Alternative Energy Potential at Cleanup Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Land and Emergency Management??s (OLEM) Office of Communications, Partnerships and Analysis (OCPA) initiated the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative to demonstrate the enormous potential that contaminated lands, landfills, and mine sites provide for developing renewable energy in the United States. EPA developed national level site screening criteria in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for wind, solar, biomass, and geothermal facilities. While the screening criteria demonstrate the potential to reuse contaminated land for renewable energy facilities, the criteria and data are neither designed to identify the best sites for developing renewable energy nor all-inclusive. Therefore, more detailed, site-specific analysis is necessary to identify or prioritize the best sites for developing renewable energy facilities based on the technical and economic potential. Please note that these sites were only pre-screened for renewable energy potential. The sites were not evaluated for land use constraints or current on the ground conditions. Additional research and site-specific analysis are needed to verify viability for renewable energy potential at a given site.

  6. Electrical efficiency and renewable energy - Economical alternatives to large-scale power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oettli, B.; Hammer, S.; Moret, F.; Iten, R.; Nordmann, T.

    2010-05-01

    This final report for WWF Switzerland, Greenpeace Switzerland, the Swiss Energy Foundation SES, Pro Natura and the Swiss Cantons of Basel City and Geneva takes a look at the energy-relevant effects of the propositions made by Swiss electricity utilities for large-scale power generation. These proposals are compared with a strategy that proposes investments in energy-efficiency and the use of renewable sources of energy. The effects of both scenarios on the environment and the risks involved are discussed, as are the investments involved. The associated effects on the Swiss national economy are also discussed. For the efficiency and renewables scenario, two implementation variants are discussed: Inland investments and production are examined as are foreign production options and/or import from foreign countries. The methods used in the study are introduced and discussed. Investment and cost considerations, earnings and effects on employment are also reviewed. The report is completed with an extensive appendix which, amongst other things, includes potential reviews, cost estimates and a discussion on 'smart grids'

  7. Two energy storage alternatives for a solar-powered sustainable single floor desert home

    KAUST Repository

    Serag-Eldin, M. A.

    2010-09-30

    This paper is concerned with the thermodynamic analysis of a totally solarpowered desert home. The home is air-conditioned and provides all modern comforts and facilities. It features closely spaced, roof mounted photovoltaic modules, which collect the solar energy driving the whole energy system. During the day time, the modules form an elevated horizontal surface above the roof, shielding it from direct solar radiation. After sunset, the photovoltaic modules are flipped vertically upwards to expose the roof to the sky, thus enhancing night-time cooling. Two methods of energy storage are proposed and compared, one using solely battery storage of electrical output, and the other employing a combination of cold water storage and battery storage. The analysis is based on detailed dynamic heat transfer calculations for the entire building envelope, coupled with a solar radiation model, and followed by energy balances. The results reveal that indeed it is feasible to employ solar energy as the only source of energy to power the home, and that each storage system has its own merits and shortcomings. © 2010 WIT Press.

  8. Automotive fuels from biomass via gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wennan

    2010-01-01

    There exists already a market of bio-automotive fuels i.e. bioethanol and biodiesel produced from food crops in many countries. From the viewpoint of economics, environment, land use, water use and chemical fertilizer use, however, there is a strong preference for the use of woody biomass and various forest/agricultural residues as the feedstock. Thus, the production of 2nd generation of bio-automotive fuels i.e. synthetic fuels such as methanol, ethanol, DME, FT-diesel, SNG and hydrogen through biomass gasification seems promising. The technology of producing synthetic fuels is well established based on fossil fuels. For biomass, however, it is fairly new and the technology is under development. Starting from the present market of the 1st generation bio-automotive fuels, this paper is trying to review the technology development of the 2nd generation bio-automotive fuels from syngas platform. The production of syngas is emphasized which suggests appropriate gasifier design for a high quality syngas production. A number of bio-automotive fuel demonstration plant will be presented, which gives the state of the art in the development of BTS (biomass to synthetic fuels) technologies. It can be concluded that the 2nd generation bio-automotive fuels are on the way to a breakthrough in the transport markets of industrial countries especially for those countries with a strong forest industry. (author)

  9. Automotive battery energy density — past, present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, K.

    Energy and power densities of automotive batteries at engine starting rates have doubled over the past twenty years. Most recent improvements can be credited to the use of both very thin plates with optimized grid design and low-resistance polyethylene separators with a thin backweb and a reduced rib height. Opportunities for further improvements using the same design approach and similar processing techniques are limited. The effect of some recent innovative developments on weight reduction and performance improvement are reviewed, together with possible changes to the electrical system of vehicles.

  10. The Northeastern United States Energy-Water Nexus: Climate Change Impacts and Alternative Water Management Strategies for the Power Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miara, A.; Macknick, J.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Cohen, S. M.; Rosenzweig, B.

    2014-12-01

    The Northeastern United States (NE) relies heavily on thermoelectric power plants (90% of total capacity) to provide electricity to more than 70 million people. This region's power plants require consistent, large volumes of water at sufficiently cold temperatures to generate electricity efficiently, and withdraw approximately 10.5 trillion gallons of water annually. Previous findings indicate that assessments of future electricity pathways must account for water availability, water temperature and the changing climate, as changes in these conditions may limit operational efficiency in the future. To account for such electric system vulnerabilities, we have created a link between an electricity system capacity expansion model (ReEDS) and a hydrologic model that is coupled to a power plant simulation model (FrAMES-TP2M) that allows for a new approach to analyze electricity system development, performance, and environmental impacts. Together, these coupled tools allow us to estimate electricity development and operations in the context of a changing climate and impacts on the seasonal spatial and temporal variability of water resources, downstream thermal effluents that cause plant-to-plant interferences and harm aquatic habitat, economic costs of water conservation methods and associated carbon emissions. In this study, we test and compare a business-as-usual strategy with three alternative water management scenarios that include changes in cooling technologies and water sources utilized for the years 2014-2050. Results of these experiments can provide useful insight into the feasibility of the electricity expansion scenarios in terms of associated water use and thermal impacts, carbon emissions, the cost of generating electricity, and also highlight the importance of accounting for water resources in future power sector planning and performance assessments.

  11. Compact Hybrid Automotive Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, G.

    1986-01-01

    Power train proposed for experimental vehicle powered by internal combustion engine and electric motor. Intended for front-wheel drive automobile, power train mass produced using existing technology. System includes internal-combustion engine, electric motor, continuously variable transmission, torque converter, differential, and control and adjustment systems for electric motor and transmission. Continuously variable transmission integrated into hydraulic system that also handles power steering and power brakes. Batteries for electric motor mounted elsewhere in vehicle.

  12. Automotive History and Development of the Automobile; Automotive Mechanics I: 9043.01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The automotive history and development of the automobile course is designed to familiarize the beginning student with basic concepts common to the automobile history and general information that is required for successful advancement in the automotive mechanics field. A course outline is provided and seven pages of post-tests are included in the…

  13. Secondary-Postsecondary Curriculum Development in Automotive Mechanics. Automotive Electrical Competencies. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoepner, Ronald

    Developed as part of a competency-based curriculum in automotive mechanics which is usable by students at both the secondary and postsecondary levels, this learning package focuses on automotive electrical systems. It is the first unit to be published in a series of eight which will cover the eight subject areas on the national certification…

  14. Automotive Electrical and Electronic System II; Automotive Mechanics-Intermediate: 9045.04.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This automotive electrical and electronic system course is an intermediate course designed for the student who has completed automotive Electrical and Electronic System I. The theory and principles of operation of the components of the starting and charging systems and other electrical accessory systems in the automobile will be learned by the…

  15. Automotive Electrical and Electronic Systems I; Automotive Mechanics 2: 9045.03.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The automotive electrical and electronic system I course is designed as one of a group of quinmester courses offered in the field of automotive mechanics. General information will be given along with technical knowledge, basic skills, attitudes and values that are required for job entry level. The nine week (135 clock hour) course overcomes some…

  16. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the Ontario automotive sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-11-01

    A variety of options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the automotive sector in Ontario over the next decade were discussed. Each option was assessed in terms of practicality and implications for implementation. I was concluded that improvements in fuel economy anticipated from advancing technology, with or without new mandated standards, will not be enough to offset the impact of growth in vehicle fleet size and kilometres driven. If the goal is to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions, other measures such as reducing the fleet size and vehicle kilometres travelled and accelerated vehicle retirement (scrappage) programs must be considered. Key constraints on expansion of the alternative fuel fleet were identified. These include: (1) limited availability of an adequate range of alternative fuel vehicles at competitive prices, (2) limited refuelling facility infrastructure in the case of natural gas, limited range and fuel storage capacity for natural gas; (3)current limited fuel ethanol production capacity, and (4) market perceptions of performance, reliability and safety. tabs

  17. Model predictive control of a waste heat recovery system for automotive diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feru, E.; Willems, F.P.T.; de Jager, A.G.; Steinbuch, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a switching Model Predictive Control strategy is designed for an automotive Waste Heat Recovery system with two parallel evaporators. The objective is to maximize Waste Heat Recovery system output power, while satisfying safe operation under highly dynamic disturbances from the

  18. Proposal for implementation of alternative source term in the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde; Propuesta de implementacion del termino fuente alternativo en la central nuclear Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazan L, A.; Lopez L, M.; Vargas A, A.; Cardenas J, J. B. [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde, Km. 7.5 Carretera Veracruz-Medellin, Dos Bocas, Veracruz (Mexico)], e-mail: ariadna.bazan@cfe.gob.mx

    2009-10-15

    In 2010 the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde will implement the extended power upbeat in both units of the plant. Agree with methodology of NEDC-33004P-A, (constant pressure power up rate), and the source term of core, for accidents evaluations, were increased in proportion to the ratio of power level. This means that for the case of a design basis accident of loss of coolant an increase of power of 15% originated an increase of 15% in dose to main control room. Using the method of NEDC-33004P-A to extended power upbeat conditions was determined that the dose value to main control room is very near to regulatory limit established by SRP 6.4. By the above and in order to recover the margin, the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde will calculate an alternative source term following the criteria established in RG 1.183 (alternative radiological source term for evaluating DBA at nuclear power reactor). This approach also have a more realistic dose value using the criterion of 10-CFR-50.67, in addition is predicted to get the benefit of additional operational flexibilities. This paper present the proposal of implementing the alternative source term in Laguna Verde. (Author)

  19. Electrification of the transportation sector: Is there a need for restructuring the automotive parts suppliers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekaslan, A. Ebru

    The future of the transportation sector has significant implications for the mitigation of climate change through reduced GHG emissions as well as achieving energy efficiency and energy independence. Battery-powered, plug-in, and hybrid electric vehicles are widely seen as the greatest source of a solution. This thesis analyzes the historical development and growth of the automotive industry as well as the restructuring toward the next generation technologies in comparison with the U.S. and China to shed light on the question of how a developing country can structure its strategies to be able to upgrade and be competitive over time. Conventional business models can become obsolete. Companies will find it difficult to maintain their market position unless they gain new perspectives on the outlook of the industry as a whole, and take into account the successful business models of tomorrow. The potential for further growth of the Turkish automotive supplier base particularly in the next generation of automotive technologies is therefore highly dependent on policies and strategies at the national level as much as its dependence on the global strategies of the automotive industry's major players. In this sense, the key questions that motivate this study are whether there are foreseeable technological changes and product-segmentation strategies that could significantly enhance the competitiveness of local Turkish suppliers of automotive components. The thesis builds on the theory of innovative enterprise and evolutionary agglomeration to examine the competitive potential of the Konya Auto Part Suppliers' Cluster in Turkey.

  20. Twenty-five years after introduction of automotive catalysts. What next?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelef, M.; McCabe, R.W. [Chemical and Physical Sciences Laboratory, Ford Research Laboratory, Ford Motor Company, MD-3179, SRL, PO Box 2053, 48121 Dearborn, MI (United States)

    2000-09-25

    The union of catalysts and the automobile has been one of the greatest successes of heterogeneous catalysis over the last 25 years. Here, the history of automotive catalysis is briefly reviewed, followed by an assessment of where automotive catalysis stands today and where it is headed in the future. A key distinction between past automotive catalysis experience and that projected for the future is an increased focus on catalysts in upstream of power plant applications, such as on-board fuel processing units for fuel cell vehicles. Driven by ever tighter regulations, there will be continued research and development activity focused also on downstream applications (i.e. exhaust emission aftertreatment), especially for fuel-efficient, lean-burn vehicles, both diesel and spark-ignited.

  1. Green competitiveness research on Chinese automotive enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanhui Li

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: More and more executives of automobileindustry in China start to recognize the concept of green competitiveness recently. However, relatively less research attention has been devoted to the consideration of measurement. This paper aims to find empirical approach to quantify green competitiveness for automotive enterprises. The connotation of green competitiveness is explored and one suite of evaluation index system has been proposed with four dimensions including environmental, resource, capability and knowledge.Design/methodology/approach: By introducing the factor analysis method, green competitiveness has been measured through an empirical analysis of 24 automotive enterprises within China.Findings: The results indicate that those elements, such as enterprise resource possession and utilization; environment, responsibility and knowledge; profitability; management efficiency, have significant effect on the green competitiveness for automotive enterprises. The further analysis also unveils the advantages and disadvantages of green competitiveness for each company and the direction for improvement.Research limitations/implications: Guide regulators and managers of automobile industry to take some measures to enhance their green competitive advantage.Practical implications: Provide practical methods to measure green competitiveness for automotive enterprises.Originality/value: This paper proposes an evaluation index system of green competitiveness for automotive enterprises. The suggestions of our research will be beneficial to enterprise executives and industry regulators.

  2. Contribution to the conception, the modelling and the control of automotive power train and of electric converters; Contribution a la conception, la modelisation et la commande du groupe motopropulseur automobile et de convertisseurs d`energie electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bidan, P.

    1998-12-14

    The overall work presented in this thesis globally deals with the conception, the modelling and the control of some applied systems. The first part is devoted to the automotive domain. It concerns the still actualized context of energy savings and reduction of atmospheric pollution, by the improvement of the engine/drive-train control and more particularly of the spark-ignition engine control. In this aim, a first investigation deals with the fuel/air ratio control during the transient phases and suggests the use of an intake manifold pressure control by means of an electric throttle actuator, in order to control the air filling. An original strategy of simultaneous control of fuel and air fillings is then proposed. Another improvement method by an electrical assistance of the engine using a self-controlled synchronous machine drive, is also developed. In the frame of idle-speed control, a prototype allows to show the contribution of this assistance in term of stability and consumption reduction. The second part of the report principally deals with the modelling and the control of electric converters. After a first section describing a methodology of a control-oriented modelling for some classes of static converters, an example of a design of the whole converter-controller is suggested. On the basis of a fourth order voltage switched-mode inverter which should operate as a function generator, the close interaction between filtering quality, structure design and control performances is analyzed and a solution is proposed. For every subject taken up, some prospective features are suggested as well. (author) 37 refs.

  3. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume VI. Safety and environmental considerations for licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-06-01

    This volume of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program report addresses safety and environmental considerations in licensing the principal alternative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles in the United States for large-scale commercial nuclear power plants. In addition, this volume examines the safety and environmental considerations for licensing fuel service centers. These centers, which have been proposed for controlling sensitive fuel-cycle facilities and special nuclear materials, would contain a combination of such facilities as reprocessing plants, fabrication plants, and reactors. For this analysis, two fuel service center concepts were selected - one with power - generating capability and one without

  4. Materials Challenges for Automotive PEM Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasteiger, Hubert

    2004-03-01

    Over the past few years, significant R efforts aimed at meeting the challenging cost and performance targets required for the use of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells in automotive applications. Besides engineering advances in bipolar plate materials and design, the optimization of membrane-electrode assemblies (MEAs) was an important enabler in reducing the cost and performance gaps towards commercial viability for the automotive market. On the one hand, platinum loadings were reduced from several mgPt/cm2MEA [1] to values of 0.5-0.6 mgPt/cm2MEA in current applications and loadings as low as 0.25 mgPt/cm2MEA have been demonstrated on the research level [2]. On the other hand, implementation of thin membranes (20-30 micrometer) [3, 4] as well as improvements in diffusion medium materials, essentially doubled the achievable power density of MEAs to ca. 0.9 W/cm2MEA (at 0.65 V) [5], thereby not only reducing the size of a PEMFC fuel cell system, but also reducing its overall materials cost (controlled to a large extent by membrane and Pt-catalyst cost). While this demonstrated a clear path towards automotive applications, a renewed focus of R efforts is now required to develop materials and fundamental materials understanding to assure long-term durability of PEM fuel cells. This presentation therefore will discuss the state-of-the-art knowledge of catalyst, catalyst-support, and membrane degradation mechanisms. In the area of Pt-catalysts, experience with phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs) has shown that platinum sintering leads to long-term performance losses [6]. While this is less critical at the lower PEMFC operating temperatures (200C), very little is known about the dependence of Pt-sintering on temperature, cell voltage, and catalyst type (i.e., Pt versus Pt-alloys) and will be discussed here. Similarly, carbon-support corrosion can contribute significantly to voltage degradation in PAFCs [7], and even in the PEMFC environment more corrosion

  5. ROS (Robot Operating System) für Automotive

    OpenAIRE

    Bubeck, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    - Introduction into the Robot Operating System - Open Source in the automotive industries - Application of ROS in the automotive industry - ROS navigation - ROS with real time control - ROS in the embedded world - Outlook: ROS 2.0 - Summary

  6. Optimization and optimal control in automotive systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kolmanovsky, Ilya; Steinbuch, Maarten; Re, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    This book demonstrates the use of the optimization techniques that are becoming essential to meet the increasing stringency and variety of requirements for automotive systems. It shows the reader how to move away from earlier  approaches, based on some degree of heuristics, to the use of  more and more common systematic methods. Even systematic methods can be developed and applied in a large number of forms so the text collects contributions from across the theory, methods and real-world automotive applications of optimization. Greater fuel economy, significant reductions in permissible emissions, new drivability requirements and the generally increasing complexity of automotive systems are among the criteria that the contributing authors set themselves to meet. In many cases multiple and often conflicting requirements give rise to multi-objective constrained optimization problems which are also considered. Some of these problems fall into the domain of the traditional multi-disciplinary optimization applie...

  7. USE OF NANOTECHNOLOGY PRE-TREATMENT IN AUTOMOTIVE PAINTING LINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Nei Carvalho Costa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The current safety requirements, environmental impacts and performance have been ledding the automotive industry to search for new alternatives, not just for new car bodies materials, also for new sheet surface treatments as well, used in the painting process in order to fit simultaneous, environmental requirements and corrosion resistance maintenance, that are the key feature guarantees offered by automakers and are also vital to the durability of the vehicle. This fact is of great importance considering that, besides the various types of steels and their metalic coatings, another factor that directly influences the corrosion resistance is the painting system used. Within this context, the GMB, in partnership with CSN, has been performing several works by adding the knowledge of the supplier to automotive technology. An example of this partnership we have the present study, which aimed to, comparatively, evaluate the corrosion resistance of two systems of painted galvanized steel, the first one with pre-treatment based on a traditional phosphate, and the another one based on a nano-ceramic film. In this study, was found out that materials with pre-treatment based on results of nanotechnology showed similar corrosion resistance comparing the phosphatized materials in a traditional way.

  8. New market strategies in the automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokić Miljko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The world automotive industry has about 30% of excessive capacity. Regardless of that, the new plants are being constantly built. The countries of the East Europe, China and India are selected as suitable areas by almost all world leading car manufactures to build their additional plants in order to make profits. An open world market is subject to an uncompromising striving for each customer. Our manufacturers have to meet the same requirements if want to offer their products in the world market. Finding out of foreign strategic partners is the fastest way to recover a domestic automotive industry and to increase an employment rate.

  9. Fatigue life of automotive rubber jounce bumper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidhu, R S; Ali, Aidy

    2010-01-01

    It is evident that most rubber components in the automotive industry are subjected to repetitive loading. Vigorous research is needed towards improving the safety and reliability of the components. The study was done on an automotive rubber jounce bumper with a rubber hardness of 60 IRHD. The test was conducted in displacement-controlled environment under compressive load. The existing models by Kim, Harbour, Woo and Li were adopted to predict the fatigue life. The experimental results show strong similarities with the predicted models.

  10. Automotive sensors: past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prosser, S J

    2007-01-01

    This paper will provide a review of past, present and future automotive sensors. Today's vehicles have become highly complex sophisticated electronic control systems and the majority of innovations have been solely achieved through electronics and the use of advanced sensors. A range of technologies have been used over the past twenty years including silicon microengineering, thick film, capacitive, variable reluctance, optical and radar. The automotive sensor market continues to grow with respect to vehicle production level in recognition of the transition to electronically controlled electrically actuated systems. The environment for these sensors continues to be increasingly challenging with respect to robustness, reliability, quality and cost

  11. Automotive sensors: past, present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, S. J.

    2007-07-01

    This paper will provide a review of past, present and future automotive sensors. Today's vehicles have become highly complex sophisticated electronic control systems and the majority of innovations have been solely achieved through electronics and the use of advanced sensors. A range of technologies have been used over the past twenty years including silicon microengineering, thick film, capacitive, variable reluctance, optical and radar. The automotive sensor market continues to grow with respect to vehicle production level in recognition of the transition to electronically controlled electrically actuated systems. The environment for these sensors continues to be increasingly challenging with respect to robustness, reliability, quality and cost.

  12. The Development and Preliminary Test of a Powered Alternately Walking Exoskeleton With the Wheeled Foot for Paraplegic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingchuan; Ji, Linhong; Wang, Rencheng

    2018-02-01

    Upright walking has both physical and social meanings for paraplegic patients. The main purpose of this paper is to reduce the automatic functioning of the powered exoskeleton and enable the user to fully control the walking procedure in real-time, aiming to further improve the engagement of the patient during rehabilitation training. For this prototype, a custom-made hub motor was placed at the bottom of the exoskeleton's foot, and a pair of crutches with the embedded wireless controller were utilized as the auxiliary device. The user could alternatively press the button of the crutch to control the movement of the leg and by repeating this procedure, the user could complete a continuous walking motion. For safety, an automatic brake and mechanical limitation for maximum step length were implemented. A gait analysis was performed to evaluate the exoskeleton's motion capability and corresponding response of user's major muscles. The kinematic results of this paper showed that this exoskeleton could assist the user to walk in a motion trend close to the normally walk, especially for ankle joint. The electromyography results indicated that this exoskeleton could decrease the loading burden of the user's lower limb while requiring more involvements of upper-limb muscles to maintain balance while walking.

  13. Best Practices in School-to-Careers: The Automotive Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Employer Leadership Council, Washington, DC.

    This document highlights the school-to-careers (STC) partnerships connecting workplace experiences to classroom learning to prepare students for successful employment in the automotive industry. First, the current state of the automotive industry is reviewed and the role of STC in addressing automotive service needs is explained. Next, the…

  14. Automotive Lithium-ion Cell Manufacturing: Regional Cost Structures and Supply Chain Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Donald [Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center, Godlen, CO (United States); Elgqvist, Emma [Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center, Godlen, CO (United States); Santhanagopalan, Shriram [Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center, Godlen, CO (United States)

    2016-04-08

    Manufacturing capacity for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs)--which power many consumer electronics and are increasingly used to power electric vehicles--is heavily concentrated in east Asia. Currently, China, Japan, and Korea collectively host 88% of all LIB cell and 79% of automotive LIB cell manufacturing capacity. Mature supply chains and strong cumulative production experience suggest that most LIB cell production will remain concentrated in Asia. However, other regions--including North America--could be competitive in the growing automotive LIB cell market under certain conditions. To illuminate the factors that drive regional competitiveness in automotive LIB cell production, this study models cell manufacturing cost and minimum sustainable price, and examines development of LIB supply chains and current LIB market conditions. Modeled costs are for large format, 20-Ah stacked pouch cells with lithium-nickel-manganese-cobalt-oxide (NMC) cathodes and graphite anodes suitable for automotive application. Production volume is assumed to be at commercial scale, 600 MWh per year.

  15. Profiles of Major Suppliers to the Automotive Industry : Vol. 5. Multinational Automotive Parts and Components Suppliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    This study summarizes extensive information collected over a two-year period (October 1978 to October 1980) on suppliers of parts and components, materials, and machine tools to the automotive industry in the United States. The objective of the study...

  16. Profiles of Major Suppliers to the Automotive Industry : Vol. 6. Foreign Automotive Parts and Components Suppliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    This study summarizes extensive information collected over a two-year period (October 1978 to October 1980) on suppliers of parts and components, materials, and machine tools to the automotive industry in the United States. The objective of the study...

  17. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume VI. Safety and environmental considerations for licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    Volume 6 of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program report addresses safety and environmental considerations in licensing the principal alternative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles in the United States for large-scale commercial nuclear power plants. In addition, this volume examines the safety and environmental considerations for licensing fuel service centers. These centers, which have been proposed for controlling sensitive fuel-cycle facilities and special nuclear materials, would contain a combination of such facilities as reprocessing plants, fabrication plants, and reactors. For this analysis, two fuel service center concepts were selected - one with power-generating capability and one without. This volume also provides estimates of the time required for development of large-scale commercial reactor systems to reach the construction permit application stage and for fuel-cycle facilities to reach the operating license application stage, which is a measure of the relative technical status of alternative nuclear systems

  18. Technology Learning Activities. Design Brief--Measuring Inaccessible Distances. Alternative Energy Sources: Designing a Wind Powered Generator. Alternative Energy Sources: Designing a Hot Dog Heater Using Solar Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology Teacher, 1991

    1991-01-01

    These three learning activities are on measuring accessible distances, designing a wind powered generator, and designing a hot dog heater using solar energy. Each activity includes description of context, objectives, list of materials and equipment, challenge to students, and evaluation questions. (SK)

  19. Recycling of platinum group metals from the automotive catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benevit, Mariana; Petter, Patricia Melo Halmenschlager; Veit, Hugo Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    Currently it is very important to use alternative sources of raw material for obtaining metals, avoiding the traditional mining. This work aims to characterize and evaluate the recoverability of platinum group metals present in automotive catalysts. Thus, the catalysts were divided into two groups: the first was catalysts used in 1.0 cars and the second was catalyst used in 2.0 cars. DRX and FRX techniques and chemical analysis performed by ICP/OES was used to characterized these materials. The results showed that there is a significant amount of platinum group elements in catalyst waste, which can be separated and reused. In the next step, hydro and pyrometallurgical routes, for metals extraction from catalyst waste, will be studied. (author)

  20. PERFORMANCE OF AN AUTOMOTIVE BUMPER FROM LALLOH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The work presented here is the production of an automotive Bumper from Lalloh plant (Corchorus tridenL.) fibre reinforced epoxy composite and its performance evaluation using the drop weight test method. An impact test was carried out on the bumper using a test rig modeled after the Dynatup Model 8150 drop weight test ...

  1. International Conference on Vehicle and Automotive Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Bolló, Betti

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the first vehicle engineering and vehicle industry conference. It captures the outcome of theoretical and practical studies as well as the future development trends in a wide field of automotive research. The themes of the conference include design, manufacturing, economic and educational topics.

  2. Automotive Stirling engine development program: A success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, W. K.

    1987-01-01

    The original 5-yr Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program has been extended to 10 years due to reduced annual funding levels. With an estimated completion date of April 1988, the technical achievements and the prospectives of meeting the original program objectives are reviewed. Various other applications of this developed Stirling engine technology are also discussed.

  3. Analysis of the Advertising Market Automotive Brands

    OpenAIRE

    Rešlová, Pavlína

    2012-01-01

    The thesis deals with advertising expenditure major automotive brands, which are compared with their marketability. The thesis reflects the strategic marketing process and outlines the components of advertising. The aim of the work is to verify whether the investment in television advertising significantly and directly affects the marketability of vehicles, or there are some other factors.

  4. Automotive Mechanics Occupational Performance Survey. Interim Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcher, Sidney D.; Leiter, Paul B.

    The purpose of this federally-funded interim report is to present the results of a task inventory analysis survey of automotive mechanics completed by project staff within the Instructional Systems Design Program at the Center for Vocational and Technical Education. Intended for use in curriculum development for vocational education programs in…

  5. Orientation: Automotive Mechanics Instructional Program. Block 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Ralph D.

    The first six instructional blocks in automotive mechanics, the lessons and supportive information in the document provide a guide for teachers in planning an instructional program in the basic theory and practice of a beginning course at the secondary and post-secondary level. The material, as organized, is a suggested sequence of instruction…

  6. Basic Automotive Mechanics. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This program guide identifies primary concerns in the organization, operation, and evaluation of a basic automotive mechanics program. It is designed for local school district and community college administrators, instructors, program advisory committees, and regional coordinating councils. The guide begins with the Dictionary of Occupational…

  7. Techno-economic requirements for automotive composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Scot

    1993-01-01

    New technology generally serves two main goals of the automotive industry: one is to enable vehicles to comply with various governmental regulations and the other is to provide a competitive edge in the market. The latter goal can either be served through improved manufacturing and design capabilities, such as computer aided design and computer aided manufacturing, or through improved product performance, such as anti-lock braking (ABS). Although safety features are sometimes customer driven, such as the increasing use of airbags and ABS, most are determined by regulations as outlined by the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS). Other standards, set by the Environmental Protection Agency, determine acceptable levels of emissions and fuel consumption. State governments, such as in California, are also setting precedent standards, such as requiring manufacturers to offer zero-emission vehicles as a certain fraction of their sales in the state. The drive to apply new materials in the automobile stems from the need to reduce weight and improve fuel efficiency. Topics discussed include: new lightweight materials; types of automotive materials; automotive composite applications; the role for composite materials in automotive applications; advantages and disadvantages of composite materials; material substitution economics; economic perspective; production economics; and composite materials production economics.

  8. Green innovation adoption in automotive supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zailani, Suhaiza; Govindan, Kannan; Iranmanesh, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    generators of industrial waste that affect the quality of the natural environment. This study aims to investigate the determinants of green innovation adoption and its effect on firm performance. Data were gathered by surveying 153 firms in the Malaysian automotive supply chain industry. Data were analyzed...

  9. Optimization and Optimal Control in Automotive Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waschl, H.; Kolmanovsky, I.V.; Steinbuch, M.; Re, del L.

    2014-01-01

    This book demonstrates the use of the optimization techniques that are becoming essential to meet the increasing stringency and variety of requirements for automotive systems. It shows the reader how to move away from earlier approaches, based on some degree of heuristics, to the use of more and

  10. Aero and vibroacoustics of automotive turbochargers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen-Schaefer, Hung [Bosch Mahle Turbo Systems GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2013-02-01

    First book about the aeroacoustics of automotive turbochargers. Author of the book ''Rotordynamics of Automotive Turbochargers'', Springer, 2012. Written by an R and D expert in the turbocharger industry. Aero and Vibroacoustics of Automotive Turbochargers is a topic involving aspects from the working fields of thermodynamics of turbomachinery, aerodynamics, rotordynamics, and noise propagation computation. In this broadly interdisciplinary subject, thermodynamics of turbomachinery is used to design the turbocharger and to determine its operating conditions. Aerodynamics is needed to study the compressor flow dynamics and flow instabilities of rotating stall and surge, which can produce growling and whining-type noises. Rotordynamics is necessary to study rotor unbalance and self-excited oil-whirl instabilities, which lead to whistling and constant tone-type noises in rotating floating oil-film type bearings. For the special case of turbochargers using ball bearings, some high-order harmonic and wear noises also manifest in the rotor operating range. Lastly, noise propagation computation, based on Lighthill's analogy, is required to investigate airborne noises produced by turbochargers in passenger vehicles. The content of this book is intended for advanced undergraduates, graduates in mechanical engineering, research scientists and practicing engineers who want to better understand the interactions between these working fields and the resulting impact on the interesting topic of Aero and Vibroacoustics of Automotive Turbochargers.

  11. The evolution of automotive technology : a handbook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mom, G.P.A.

    2015-01-01

    This book covers one and a quarter century of the automobile, conceived as a cultural history of its technology, aimed at engineering students and all those who wish to have a concise introduction into the basics of automotive technology and its long-term development. Its approach is systemic and

  12. A listening test system for automotive audio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Flemming; Geoff, Martin; Minnaar, Pauli

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a system for simulating automotive audio through headphones for the purposes of conducting listening experiments in the laboratory. The system is based on binaural technology and consists of a component for reproducing the sound of the audio system itself and a component...

  13. Modularity analysis of automotive control software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dajsuren, Y.; Brand, van den M.G.J.; Serebrenik, A.

    2013-01-01

    A design language and tool like MATLAB/Simulink is used for the graphical modelling and simulation of automotive control software. As the functionality based on electronics and software systems increases in motor vehicles, it is becoming increasingly important for system/software architects and

  14. Degradation of automotive materials in palm biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazal, M.A.; Haseeb, A.S.M.A.; Masjuki, H.H.

    2012-01-01

    As compared to petroleum diesel, biodiesel is more corrosive for automotive materials. Studies on the characterization of corrosion products of fuel exposed automotive materials are scarce. Automotive fuel system and engine components are made from different ferrous and non-ferrous materials. The present study aims to investigate the corrosion products of different types of automotive materials such as copper, brass, aluminum and cast iron upon exposure to diesel and palm biodiesel. Changes in fuel properties due to exposure of different materials were also examined. Degradation of metal surface was characterized by digital camera, SEM/EDS and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Fuel properties were examined by measuring TAN (total acid number), density and viscosity. Among the metal investigated, copper is found to be least resistant in biodiesel and formed comparatively more corrosion products than other metals. Upon exposure of metals in biodiesel, TAN number crosses the limit given by standard while density and viscosity remain within the acceptable range of limit. -- Highlights: ► Order of incompatible metals in palm biodiesel: copper > brass > aluminum > cast iron. ► The possible reactions for the degradation of copper and cast iron have been discussed. ► For metal exposed biodiesel, only TAN number crosses the limit while density and viscosity remain within the limit. ► Copper and copper based alloy (brass) increase TAN number comparatively more than other metals.

  15. Model-based control for automotive applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naus, G.J.L.

    2010-01-01

    The number of distributed control systems in modern vehicles has increased exponentially over the past decades. Today’s performance improvements and innovations in the automotive industry are often resolved using embedded control systems. As a result, a modern vehicle can be regarded as a complex

  16. Environmental Innovation Dynamics in the Automotive industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuik, O

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the innovation dynamics induced by environmental policy in the automotive industry. It examines car fuel efficiency programs in the EU, the US and Japan. It concludes that existing programs have not yet succeeded in promoting radical and breakthrough technologies, but that, at

  17. Training Issues for the European Automotive Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dankbaar, B.

    1996-01-01

    Provides an overview of the results of an investigation carried out for the European Commission. Aims to identify themes and issues in the field of continuing training in the European automotive industry. A large number of interviews were carried out in all the major car manufacturing countries of

  18. Training issues for the European automotive industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dankbaar, B.

    1999-01-01

    Provides an overview of the results of an investigation carried out for the European Commission. Aims to identify themes and issues in the field of continuing training in the European automotive industry. A large number of interviews were carried out in all the major car manufacturing countries of

  19. Incumbents' asymmetric responses to environmentally friendly entrants in the automotive industry

    OpenAIRE

    Diekhof, Josefine; Cantner, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    In the context of technological change, the influence of innovative entrants on incumbents is considered a major driving force. Using global patent data, we analyze this influence for the case of the transition from combustion engine vehicles towards alternative technology vehicles (ATVs). Entrants play a key role in developing ATV-related patents, whereas automotive incumbents are considered as being less motivated in pursuing this new technology. Our results indicate that entrants' ATV-rela...

  20. Development status of metallic, dispersion and non-oxide advanced and alternative fuels for power and research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    The current thermal power reactors use less than 1% of the energy contained in uranium. Long term perspectives aiming at a better economical extraction of the potential supplied by uranium motivated the development of new reactor types and, of course, new fuel concepts. Most of them dated from the sixties including liquid metal cooled fast (FR) and high temperature gas cooled (HTGR) reactors. Unfortunately, these impulses slowed down during the last twenty years; nuclear energy had to face political and consensus problems, in particular in the United States of America and in Europe, resulting from the consequences of the TMI and Chernobyl accidents. Good economical results obtained by the thermal power reactors also contributed to this process. During the last twenty years mainly France, India, Japan and the Russian Federation have maintained a relatively high level of technological development with appropriate financial items, in particular, in fuel research for the above mentioned reactor types. China and South Africa are now progressing in development of FR/HTGR and HTGR technologies, respectively. The purpose of this report is not only to summarise knowledge accumulated in the fuel research since the beginning of the sixties. This subject has been well covered in literature up to the end of the eighties. This report rather concentrates on the 'advanced fuels 'for the current different types of reactors including metallic, carbide and nitride fuels for fast reactors, so-called 'cold' fuels and fuels to burn excessive ex-weapons plutonium in thermal power reactors, alternative fuels for small size and research reactors. Emphasis has been put on the aspects of fabrication and irradiation behaviour of these fuels; available basic data concerning essential properties that help to understand the phenomena have been mentioned as well. This report brings complementary information to the earlier published monographs and concerns developments carried out after the early

  1. Investigations on electroluminescent tapes and foils in relation to their applications in automotive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotog, Ioan

    2015-02-01

    The electroluminescent (EL) tapes or foils having barrier films for an additional level of protection against the toughest environments conditions, offer a large area of applications. The EL lights, due to their characteristics, began to be used not only in the entertainment industry, but also for automotive and aerospace applications. In the paper, the investigations regarding EL foils technical performances in relation to their applications as light sources in automotive ambient light were presented. The experiments were designed based on the results of EL foils electrical properties previous investigations done in laboratory conditions, taking into account the range of automotive ambient temperatures for sinusoidal alternative supply voltage. The measurements for different temperatures were done by keeping the EL foils into electronic controlled oven that ensures the dark enclosure offering conditions to use a lux-meter in order to measure and maintain under control light emission intensity. The experiments results define the EL foils characteristics as load in automotive ambient temperatures condition, assuring so the data for optimal design of a dedicated inverter.

  2. Alternatives for power supply to natural-gas export compressors combined with heat production evaluated with respect to exergy utilization and CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woelneberg, Pia W.; Ertesvaag, Ivar S.

    2008-01-01

    The supply of process steam in combination with power for natural-gas export compressors was investigated using exergy analysis. The existing system with three 12.32 MW direct drive gas turbines each with a HRSG delivering 19.2 kg/s high-pressure steam was compared with an alternative where the gas turbines were replaced with new turbines. The exergy efficiencies were 46.7% and 48.6%, respectively, for the two cases. A second alternative with electric motors and a new CHP was investigated in three variants, all with some surplus electricity production. All variants gave higher exergy efficiencies than the other alternatives, from 51.5% to 53.6%. A third alternative with electric motors, stand-alone boilers and purchase of electricity was also analyzed, considering different origins of the electricity. This alternative gave the lowest exergy efficiencies, from 37.1% to 41.4% for different variants. In accordance with the exergy utilization, the CO 2 emissions per unit of exergy delivered were the lowest for the second alternative, while the total emissions were the highest for the third alternative. However, the domestic emissions, important in relation to international CO 2 agreements, were shown to be the lowest for the stand-alone boiler in combination with imported electricity. (author)

  3. Hybrid Automotive Engine Using Ethanol-Burning Miller Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Leonard

    2004-01-01

    A proposed hybrid (internal-combustion/ electric) automotive engine system would include as its internal-combustion subsystem, a modified Miller-cycle engine with regenerative air preheating and with autoignition like that of a Diesel engine. The fuel would be ethanol and would be burned lean to ensure complete combustion. Although the proposed engine would have a relatively low power-to-weight ratio compared to most present engines, this would not be the problem encountered if this engine were used in a non-hybrid system since hybrid systems require significantly lower power and thus smaller engines than purely internal-combustion-engine-driven vehicles. The disadvantage would be offset by the advantages of high fuel efficiency, low emission of nitrogen oxides and particulate pollutants, and the fact that ethanol is a renewable fuel. The original Miller-cycle engine, named after its inventor, was patented in the 1940s and is the basis of engines used in some modern automobiles, but is not widely known. In somewhat oversimplified terms, the main difference between a Miller-cycle engine and a common (Otto-cycle) automobile engine is that the Miller-cycle engine has a longer expansion stroke while retaining the shorter compression stroke. This is accomplished by leaving the intake valve open for part of the compression stroke, whereas in the Otto cycle engine, the intake valve is kept closed during the entire compression stroke. This greater expansion ratio makes it possible to extract more energy from the combustion process without expending more energy for compression. The net result is greater efficiency. In the proposed engine, the regenerative preheating would be effected by running the intake air through a heat exchanger connected to the engine block. The regenerative preheating would offer two advantages: It would ensure reliable autoignition during operation at low ambient temperature and would help to cool the engine, thereby reducing the remainder of the

  4. Brake Fundamentals. Automotive Articulation Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Larry; And Others

    Designed for secondary and postsecondary auto mechanics programs, this curriculum guide contains learning exercises in seven areas: (1) brake fundamentals; (2) brake lines, fluid, and hoses; (3) drum brakes; (4) disc brake system and service; (5) master cylinder, power boost, and control valves; (6) parking brakes; and (7) trouble shooting. Each…

  5. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume V. Economics and systems analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-06-01

    This NASAP assessment considers the economics of alternative nuclear reactor and fuel-cycle systems in the light of possible patterns of uranium supply and energy demand, as well as the economic implications of improvng the proliferation resistance of the various systems. The assessment focuses on the costs of alternative nuclear technologies and the possible timing of their implementation, based on their economic attractiveness

  6. A comparison of mainline and alternate approaches to fusion energy and their application to commercial power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayman, P.W.; Roth, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    The tokamak and tandem mirror concepts are compared with alternate confinement concepts using the criteria established in DOE/ET-0047, ''An Evaluation of Alternate Magnetic Fusion Concepts 1977''. The concepts are evaluated and rated in each of three broad categories: confidence in physics, confidence in technology and reactor desirability. The STARFIRE reactor and Mars reactor were used as a basis for comparing the mainline tokamak and tandem mirror concepts with the 12 alternate concepts evaluated in DOE/ET-0047. Results indicate that the physics of tokamaks and tandem mirrors is better understood than most alternate concepts. Both rank near the middle for technology requirements, and both rank near or at the bottom when compared with the reactor desirability of alternate concepts

  7. Alternative additives; Alternative additiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-08-15

    In this project a number of industrial and agricultural waste products have been characterised and evaluated in terms of alkali-getter performance. The intended use is for biomass-fired power stations aiming at reducing corrosion or slagging related problems. The following products have been obtained, characterised and evaluated: 1) Brewery draff 2) Danish de-gassed manure 3) Paper sludge 4) Moulding sand 5) Spent bleaching earth 6) Anorthosite 7) Sand 8) Clay-sludge. Most of the above alternative additive candidates are deemed unsuitable due to insufficient chemical effect and/or expensive requirements for pre-treatment (such as drying and transportation). 3 products were selected for full-scale testing: de-gassed manure, spent bleaching earth and clay slugde. The full scale tests were undertaken at the biomass-fired power stations in Koege, Slagelse and Ensted. Spent bleaching earth (SBE) and clay sludge were the only tested additive candidates that had a proven ability to react with KCl, to thereby reduce Cl-concentrations in deposits, and reduce the deposit flux to superheater tubes. Their performance was shown to nearly as good as commercial additives. De-gassed manure, however, did not evaluate positively due to inhibiting effects of Ca in the manure. Furthermore, de-gassed manure has a high concentration of heavy metals, which imposes a financial burden with regard to proper disposal of the ash by-products. Clay-sludge is a wet clay slurring, and drying and transportation of this product entails substantial costs. Spent bleaching does not require much pre-treatment and is therefore the most promising alternative additive. On the other hand, bleaching earth contains residual plant oil which means that a range of legislation relating to waste combustion comes into play. Not least a waste combustion fee of 330 DKK/tonne. For all alternative (and commercial) additives disposal costs of the increase ash by-products represents a significant cost. This is

  8. IPI tax relief policy and its impact on automotive and related sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antônio Abrantes

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The policy of IPI tax relief in the automotive industry came from the need of answers to the Global Financial Crisis of 2008, which affected Brazil. This way, Brazilian Government set the reduction of the percentages of rates applied to automotive products and related sectors, according to several factors such as engine power, fuel type and production site, in order to restore the sector demand and stimulate the economy. In this context, this work aims to evaluate the implications of IPI tax relief policy, since 2009, on the turnover of joint-stock companies of the automotive and related sectors. The methodology was a multiple regression analysis model with Dynamic Panel data, in order to explain the variations of companies' turnover in the sector, regarding IPI tax relief. The data used were of 84 companies of this sector, for the period from 1998 to 2015, based on the software Economática. The results showed a decrease of IPI tax collection in the periods of relief, both in general and specific scope. In addition, we verified that the adoption of the policy had a negative influence on the turnover of the evaluated companies. Thus, we concluded that the tax policy under analysis did not contribute to an increase of automotive sector companies' turnover.

  9. Simulation of automotive starter faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dziubiński Mieczysław

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a new diagnostic method of a motor starter based on the analysis of the starter’s power and the Hall effect. Using the Matlab Simulink program the wear and tear impact of the starter sleeves on power characteristics was simulated. For the analysis of the flux propagation and the distribution of magnetic induction for selected states of the wear and tear of the sleeve the QuickField program was used. Within the experimental tests, registration of the distribution of magnetic induction was conducted by the Hall sensor placed in the link slot. The model and the tests made it possible to develop diagnostic patterns within the OBD diagnostics.

  10. Experiments and simulations on heat exchangers in thermoelectric generator for automotive application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.; Deng, Y.D.; Zhang, K.; Xu, M.; Xu, Y.; Su, C.Q.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, an energy-harvesting system which extracts heat from an automotive exhaust pipe and turns the heat into electricity by using thermoelectric power generators (TEGs) was built. Experiments show that the temperature difference in automotive system is not constant, especially the heat exchanger, which cannot provide the thermoelectric modules (TMs) large amount of heat. The thermal performance of different heat exchangers in exhaust-based TEGs is studied in this work, and the thermal characteristics of heat exchangers with different internal structures and thickness are discussed, to obtain higher interface temperature and thermal uniformity. Following computational fluid dynamics simulations, infrared experiments and output power testing system are carried out on a high-performance production engine with a dynamometer. Results show that a plate-shaped heat exchanger with chaos-shaped internal structure and thickness of 5 mm achieves a relatively ideal thermal performance, which is practically useful to enhance the thermal performance of the TEG, and larger total output power can be thus obtained. - Graphical abstract: The thermal and electrical characteristics of different heat exchangers of automotive exhaust-based thermoelectric generator are discussed, to obtain higher interface temperature and thermal uniformity. - Highlights: • Different internal structures and thickness of heat exchangers were proposed. • Power output testing system of the two heat exchangers was characterized. • Chaos-shaped heat exchanger (5 mm thickness) shows better performance

  11. On the efficiency of an advanced automotive fuel cell system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechi, F.N.; Freunberger, S.A.; Reum, M.; Tsukada, A.; Dietrich, P. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Electrochemistry Laboratory, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Paganelli, G.; Delfino, A. [Conception et Developpement Michelin, Route Andre-Piller 30, CH-1762 Givisiez (Switzerland)

    2007-04-15

    Efficiency is the key parameter for the application of fuel cells in automotive applications. The efficiency of a hydrogen/oxygen polymer electrolyte fuel cell system is analyzed and compared to hydrogen/air systems. The analysis is performed for the tank to electric power chain. Furthermore, the additional energy required for using pure oxygen as a second fuel is analyzed and included in the calculation. The results show that if hydrogen is produced from primary fossil energy carriers, such as natural gas and pure oxygen needs to be obtained by a conventional process; the fuel to electric current efficiency is comparable for hydrogen/oxygen and hydrogen/air systems. However, if hydrogen and oxygen are produced by the splitting of water, i.e., by electrolysis or by a thermochemical process, the fuel to electric current efficiency for the hydrogen/oxygen system is clearly superior. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  12. Reduction of the heat demand of cabins of electric-powered vehicles by means of an alternative glass technology; Reduzierung des Heizbedarfs von Elektrofahrzeugkabinen durch alternative Scheibentechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, Manuel; Spinnler, Markus; Sattelmayer, Thomas [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Thermodynamik

    2012-11-01

    Cruising range is a key factor in market penetration of electric vehicles (EVs) for the near future. Today, EVs achieve acceptable cruising range only through heavy and expensive batteries. Air-conditioning - and in temperate zones especially heating - of the passenger cabin are significant auxiliary loads that can reduce range substantially. At low ambient temperatures the necessary heating power can exceed the average drive power, thus reducing range by over 50%. This study, carried out in cooperation with AUDI AG under the BMBF research project ''e performance'' addresses measures that can potentially lead to a reduced heating demand. In addition to the rather poor insulation of today's vehicles, ventilation losses have been identified as a source of heating and defrosting load of up to 12kW in wintry conditions. At low ambient temperatures a high rate of air exchange is required to keep the humidity level low enough to avoid window fogging. Due to poor window insulation and high exterior heat transfer for a moving vehicle, temperatures at the inside surface of glass windows lie only slightly above the ambient temperature. Improving window insulation leads not only to reduced heat losses but also to higher allowable air humidity before condensation occurs, since the interior window surface is warmer. The air exchange rate can then be minimized as long as air quality standards remain satisfied. In this study steady-state air and window surface temperatures as well as humidity distributions in the cabin are determined by CFD-simulation of the interior flow-field. Window materials such as polycarbonate and double-pane glass are compared to glass at partly recirculated and fresh-air flow. (orig.)

  13. Optimized Characterization of Thermoelectric Generators for Automotive Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatarinov, Dimitri; Wallig, Daniel; Bastian, Georg

    2012-06-01

    New developments in the field of thermoelectric materials bring the prospect of consumer devices for recovery of some of the waste heat from internal combustion engines closer to reality. Efficiency improvements are expected due to the development of high-temperature thermoelectric generators (TEG). In contrast to already established radioisotope thermoelectric generators, the temperature difference in automotive systems is not constant, and this imposes a set of specific requirements on the TEG system components. In particular, the behavior of the TEGs and interface materials used to link the heat flow from the heat source through the TEG to the heat sink must be examined. Due to the usage patterns of automobiles, the TEG will be subject to cyclic thermal loads, which leads to module degradation. Additionally, the automotive TEG will be exposed to an inhomogeneous temperature distribution, leading to inhomogeneous mechanical loads and reduced system efficiency. Therefore, a characterization rig is required to allow determination of the electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties of such high-temperature TEG systems. This paper describes a measurement setup using controlled adjustment of cold-side and warm-side temperatures as well as controlled feed-in of electrical power for evaluation of TEGs for application in vehicles with combustion engines. The temperature profile in the setup can be varied to simulate any vehicle usage pattern, such as the European standard driving cycle, allowing the power yield of the TEGs to be evaluated for the chosen cycle. The spatially resolved temperature distribution of a TEG system can be examined by thermal imaging. Hotspots or cracks on thermocouples of the TEGs and the thermal resistance of thermal interface materials can also be examined using this technology. The construction of the setup is briefly explained, followed by detailed discussion of the experimental results.

  14. Automotive Stirling engine: Mod 2 design report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, Noel P.

    1986-01-01

    The design of an automotive Stirling engine that achieves the superior fuel economy potential of the Stirling cycle is described. As the culmination of a 9-yr development program, this engine, designated the Mod 2, also nullifies arguments that Stirling engines are heavy, expensive, unreliable, demonstrating poor performance. Installed in a General Motors Chevrolet Celebrity car, this engine has a predicted combined fuel economy on unleaded gasoline of 17.5 km/l (41 mpg)- a value 50% above the current vehicle fleet average. The Mod 2 Stirling engine is a four-cylinder V-drive design with a single crankshaft. The engine is also equipped with all the controls and auxiliaries necessary for automotive operation.

  15. The AGT 101 advanced automotive gas turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rackley, R. A.; Kidwell, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    A development program is described whose goal is the accumulation of the technology base needed by the U.S. automotive industry for the production of automotive gas turbine powertrains. Such gas turbine designs must exhibit reduced fuel consumption, a multi-fuel capability, and low exhaust emissions. The AGT101 powertrain described is a 74.6 kW, regenerated single-shaft gas turbine, operating at a maximum inlet temperature of 1644 K and coupled to a split differential gearbox and automatic overdrive transmission. The engine's single stage centrifugal compressor and single stage radial inflow turbine are mounted on a common shaft, and will operate at a maximum rotor speed of 100,000 rpm. All high temperature components, including the turbine rotor, are ceramic.

  16. Lightweight Steel Solutions for Automotive Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hong Woo; Kim, Gyosung; Park, Sung Ho

    2010-01-01

    Recently, improvement in fuel efficiency and safety has become the biggest issue in worldwide automotive industry. Although the regulation of environment and safety has been tightened up more and more, the majority of vehicle bodies are still manufactured from stamped steel components. This means that the optimized steel solutions enable to demonstrate its ability to reduce body weight with high crashworthiness performance instead of expensive light weight materials such as Al, Mg and composites. To provide the innovative steel solutions for automotive industry, POSCO has developed AHSS and its application technologies, which is directly connected to EVI activities. EVI is a technical cooperation program with customer covering all stages of new car project from design to mass production. Integrated light weight solutions through new forming technologies such as TWB, hydroforming and HPF are continuously developed and provided for EVI activities. This paper will discuss the detailed status of these technologies especially light weight steel solutions based on innovative technologies.

  17. Multichip module technology for automotive application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. Wayne; Evans, John L.; Bosley, Larry

    1995-01-01

    Advancements in multichip module technology are creating design freedoms previously unavailable to design engineers. These advancements are opening new markets for laminate based multichip module products. In particular, material improvements in laminate printed wiring boards are allowing multichip module technology to meet more stringent environmental conditions. In addition, improvements in encapsulants and adhesives are enhancing the capabilities of multichip module technology to meet harsh environment. Furthermore, improvements in manufacturing techniques are providing the reliability improvements necessary for use in high quality electronic systems. These advances are making multichip module technology viable for high volume, harsh environment applications like under-the-hood automotive electronics. This paper will provide a brief review of multichip module technology, a discussion of specific research activities with Chrysler for use of multichip modules in automotive engine controllers and finally a discussion of prototype multichip modules fabricated and tested.

  18. Polymer matrix nanocomposites for automotive structural components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naskar, Amit K.; Keum, Jong K.; Boeman, Raymond G.

    2016-12-01

    Over the past several decades, the automotive industry has expended significant effort to develop lightweight parts from new easy-to-process polymeric nanocomposites. These materials have been particularly attractive because they can increase fuel efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, attempts to reinforce soft matrices by nanoscale reinforcing agents at commercially deployable scales have been only sporadically successful to date. This situation is due primarily to the lack of fundamental understanding of how multiscale interfacial interactions and the resultant structures affect the properties of polymer nanocomposites. In this Perspective, we critically evaluate the state of the art in the field and propose a possible path that may help to overcome these barriers. Only once we achieve a deeper understanding of the structure-properties relationship of polymer matrix nanocomposites will we be able to develop novel structural nanocomposites with enhanced mechanical properties for automotive applications.

  19. Technological measures to improve automotive product quality

    OpenAIRE

    Gladkov, V.; Kruglov, S.

    2010-01-01

    The paper examines the basic technological measures aimed at improving product quality in automotive industry. While paying due attention to solving organizational and technological problems, including the development of certification systems for production processes, it is also necessary to improve the technical standards of specific technologies, equipment and materials as they largely determine product quality. Special emphasis is given to the importance of improving the production of auto...

  20. Lean tool used in the automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Ingaldi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the paper basic concepts of Lean Manufacturing were presented. A company specializing in the development of vehicle dynamics, driver assistance systems, brake systems, seat belt sand electronics technology was characterized. The company is engaged in designing and manufacturing world-class products for the automotive market. The Lean tools used in the production hall, such as Yamazumi chart, machine motion analysis, MTM method and timing, were presented.

  1. Directions for computational mechanics in automotive crashworthiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, James A.; Khalil, T. B.

    1993-01-01

    The automotive industry has used computational methods for crashworthiness since the early 1970's. These methods have ranged from simple lumped parameter models to full finite element models. The emergence of the full finite element models in the mid 1980's has significantly altered the research direction. However, there remains a need for both simple, rapid modeling methods and complex detailed methods. Some directions for continuing research are discussed.

  2. Forecasting Demand for Automotive Aftermarket Inventories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu-Alin DOBRICAN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Management decisions regarding the resource allocation in the automotive aftermarket in-volves a good understanding of it. This includes a better understanding of the participants in this market, the supply chains, specificities products and demand for these products. A useful instrument to anticipate the latter is the use of simulation methods, one of them being the Monte Carlo method, which, in this paper, is used to create various scenarios of supply.

  3. Photoacoustic CO2-Sensor for Automotive Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Huber, J.; Weber, C.; Eberhardt, A.; Wöllenstein, J.

    2016-01-01

    We present a field-tested miniaturized spectroscopic CO2 sensor which is based on the photoacoustic effect. The sensor is developed for automotive applications and considers the requirements for the usage in vehicles. The sensor measures two measurement ranges simultaneously: The monitoring of the indoor air quality and the detection of possible leakages of the coolant in CO2 air-conditioning systems. The sensor consists of a miniaturized innovative photoacoustic sensor unit with integrated e...

  4. Lean tool used in the automotive industry

    OpenAIRE

    Manuela Ingaldi; Marta Jagusiak-Kocik

    2014-01-01

    In the paper basic concepts of Lean Manufacturing were presented. A company specializing in the development of vehicle dynamics, driver assistance systems, brake systems, seat belt sand electronics technology was characterized. The company is engaged in designing and manufacturing world-class products for the automotive market. The Lean tools used in the production hall, such as Yamazumi chart, machine motion analysis, MTM method and timing, were presented.

  5. INNOVATION LEAN PRINCIPLES IN AUTOMOTIVE GREEN MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Sabadka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, industries such as automotive and manufacturing industries deal with a lot of environmental regulations. Lean is a production strategy whose fundamental principles drive the industry towards a more effective production of goods and services. The eco-efficiency concept is primary to sustainable development and intends to provide more value with less environmental impact. The aim of this study is to identify and explore the contributions of Lean to reduce environmental impacts that naturally result from industrial activity.

  6. The stretch zone of automotive steel sheets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The stretch zone of automotive steel sheets. L' AMBRIŠKO1,∗ and L PEŠEK2. 1Institute of Structural Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering,. Technical University of Košice, Vysokoškolská 4, 042 00 Košice, Slovak Republic. 2Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Metallurgy,. Technical University of Košice, Letná 9, ...

  7. Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2018-04-11

    An advanced vehicle powertrain systems analysis tool, the Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim) provides a simple way to compare powertrains and estimate the impact of technology improvements on light-, medium- and heavy-duty vehicle efficiency, performance, cost, and battery life. Created by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, FASTSim accommodates a range of vehicle types - including conventional vehicles, electric-drive vehicles, and fuel cell vehicles - and is available for free download in Microsoft Excel and Python formats.

  8. Occupational skin diseases in automotive industry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakut, Yunus; Uçmak, Derya; Akkurt, Zeynep Meltem; Akdeniz, Sedat; Palanci, Yilmaz; Sula, Bilal

    2014-03-01

    Studies on occupational skin diseases in workers of the automotive industry are few. To investigate the prevalence of occupational skin diseases in workers of the automotive industry. Between September and December 2011, a total of 405 workers from the automotive repair industry in Diyarbakır were interviewed. They were active workers in the repair industry who had been employed for at least six months. Business owners, sellers of spare parts and accounting officers were not included. The employees were examined at their workplaces and the working conditions were observed. Detailed dermatological examination was performed. The mean age of the 405 workers who participated in the study was 27.7 ± 10.3. The mean working time of employees was 13.3 ± 10.4 years. All of the employees were male. Dermatological diseases were not detected in 144 out of 405 workers (35.6%) and at least one condition was diagnosed in 261 (64.4%). The most frequent diagnosis was callus, hyperkeratosis, clavus (27.7%), followed by nail changes (16.8%) and superficial mycoses (12.1%). Contact dermatitis was seen at a rate of 5.9%. Traumatic lesions such as hyperkeratotic lesions and nail changes were found most frequently. Traumatic lesions were common among individuals who did not use gloves. Most nail changes were localized leuconychia, a finding not reported in the studies on automotive industry workers. In accordance with the literature, irritant contact dermatitis was observed in patients with a history of atopy and who had been working for a long time. Occupational skin diseases comprise an important field in dermatology, deserving much attention. Further studies on occupational dermatology are necessary.

  9. Green competitiveness research on Chinese automotive enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yuanhui

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: More and more executives of automobileindustry in China start to recognize the concept of green competitiveness recently. However, relatively less research attention has been devoted to the consideration of measurement. This paper aims to find empirical approach to quantify green competitiveness for automotive enterprises. The connotation of green competitiveness is explored and one suite of evaluation index system has been proposed with four dimensions including environmental, resou...

  10. Pedestrian recognition using automotive radar sensors

    OpenAIRE

    A. Bartsch; F. Fitzek; R. H. Rasshofer

    2012-01-01

    The application of modern series production automotive radar sensors to pedestrian recognition is an important topic in research on future driver assistance systems. The aim of this paper is to understand the potential and limits of such sensors in pedestrian recognition. This knowledge could be used to develop next generation radar sensors with improved pedestrian recognition capabilities. A new raw radar data signal processing algorithm is proposed that allows deep insight...

  11. On the High-dimensional Power of Linear-time Kernel Two-Sample Testing under Mean-difference Alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    Ramdas, Aaditya; Reddi, Sashank J.; Poczos, Barnabas; Singh, Aarti; Wasserman, Larry

    2014-01-01

    Nonparametric two sample testing deals with the question of consistently deciding if two distributions are different, given samples from both, without making any parametric assumptions about the form of the distributions. The current literature is split into two kinds of tests - those which are consistent without any assumptions about how the distributions may differ (\\textit{general} alternatives), and those which are designed to specifically test easier alternatives, like a difference in me...

  12. Electrical efficiency and renewable energy - Economical alternatives to large-scale power generation; Stromeffizienz und erneuerbare Energien - Wirtschaftliche alternative zu Grosskraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oettli, B.; Hammer, S.; Moret, F.; Iten, R. [Infras, Zuerich (Switzerland); Nordmann, T. [TNC Consulting AG, Erlenbach (Switzerland)

    2010-05-15

    This final report for WWF Switzerland, Greenpeace Switzerland, the Swiss Energy Foundation SES, Pro Natura and the Swiss Cantons of Basel City and Geneva takes a look at the energy-relevant effects of the propositions made by Swiss electricity utilities for large-scale power generation. These proposals are compared with a strategy that proposes investments in energy-efficiency and the use of renewable sources of energy. The effects of both scenarios on the environment and the risks involved are discussed, as are the investments involved. The associated effects on the Swiss national economy are also discussed. For the efficiency and renewables scenario, two implementation variants are discussed: Inland investments and production are examined as are foreign production options and/or import from foreign countries. The methods used in the study are introduced and discussed. Investment and cost considerations, earnings and effects on employment are also reviewed. The report is completed with an extensive appendix which, amongst other things, includes potential reviews, cost estimates and a discussion on 'smart grids'

  13. Technical evaluation of the alternate to the keylock control to the bypass valves for the Davis-Besse nuclear power plant, Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibarra, J.G.

    1979-09-01

    This report documents the technical evaluation of the alternate to the keylock control to the bypass valves for the Davis-Besse nuclear power plant, Unit 1. The review criteria are inferred from the NRC Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400) and the Safety Evaluation Report for Davis-Besse. This report is supplied as part of the Selected Electrical, Instrumentation, and Control Systems Issues Program being conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory

  14. Characterization of three-way automotive catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenik, E.A.; More, K.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); LaBarge, W. [Delphi Automotive Systems, Flint, MI (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    The CRADA between Delphi Automotive Systems (Delphi; formerly General Motors - AC Delco, Systems) and Lockheed Martin Energy Research (LMER) on automotive catalysts was completed at the end of FY96, after a ten month, no-cost extension. The CRADA was aimed at improved performance and lifetime of noble metal based three-way-catalysts (TWC), which are the primary catalytic system for automotive emission control systems. While these TWC can meet the currently required emission standards, higher than optimum noble metal loadings are often required to meet lifetime requirements. In addition, more stringent emission standards will be imposed in the near future, demanding improved performance and service life from these catalysts. Understanding the changes of TWC conversion efficiency with ageing is a critical need in improving these catalysts. Initially in a fresh catalyst, the active material is often distributed on a very fine scale, approaching single atoms or small atomic clusters. As such, a wide range of analytical techniques have been employed to provide high spatial resolution characterization of the evolving state of the catalytic material.

  15. Thermoelectric infrared imaging sensors for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Masaki; Nakajima, Yasushi; Saito, Masanori; Satou, Fuminori; Uchiyama, Makoto

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes three low-cost thermoelectric infrared imaging sensors having a 1,536, 2,304, and 10,800 element thermoelectric focal plane array (FPA) respectively and two experimental automotive application systems. The FPAs are basically fabricated with a conventional IC process and micromachining technologies and have a low cost potential. Among these sensors, the sensor having 2,304 elements provide high responsivity of 5,500 V/W and a very small size with adopting a vacuum-sealed package integrated with a wide-angle ZnS lens. One experimental system incorporated in the Nissan ASV-2 is a blind spot pedestrian warning system that employs four infrared imaging sensors. This system helps alert the driver to the presence of a pedestrian in a blind spot by detecting the infrared radiation emitted from the person"s body. The system can also prevent the vehicle from moving in the direction of the pedestrian. The other is a rearview camera system with an infrared detection function. This system consists of a visible camera and infrared sensors, and it helps alert the driver to the presence of a pedestrian in a rear blind spot. Various issues that will need to be addressed in order to expand the automotive applications of IR imaging sensors in the future are also summarized. This performance is suitable for consumer electronics as well as automotive applications.

  16. Millimeter-Wave Receiver Concepts for 77 GHz Automotive Radar in Silicon-Germanium Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Kissinger, Dietmar

    2012-01-01

    The book presents the analysis and design of integrated automotive radar receivers in Silicon-Germanium technology, for use in complex multi-channel radar transceiver front-ends in the 77GHz frequency band. The main emphasis of the work is the realization of high-linearity and low-power modular receiver channels as well as the investigation of millimeter-wave integrated test concepts for the receiver front-end.

  17. The water intensity of the plugged-in automotive economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Carey W; Webber, Michael E

    2008-06-15

    Converting light-duty vehicles from full gasoline power to electric power, by using either hybrid electric vehicles or fully electric power vehicles, is likely to increase demand for water resources. In the United States in 2005, drivers of 234 million cars, lighttrucks, and SUVs drove approximately 2.7 trillion miles and consumed over 380 million gallons of gasoline per day. We compare figures from literature and government surveys to calculate the water usage, consumption, and withdrawal, in the United States during petroleum refining and electricity generation. In displacing gasoline miles with electric miles, approximately 2-3 [corrected] times more water is consumed (0.24 [corrected] versus 0.07--0.14 gallons/mile) and over 12 [corrected] times more water is withdrawn (7.8 [corrected] versus 0.6 gallons/mile) primarily due to increased water cooling of thermoelectric power plants to accommodate increased electricity generation. Overall, we conclude that the impact on water resources from a widespread shift to grid-based transportation would be substantial enough to warrant consideration for relevant public policy decision-making. That is not to say that the negative impacts on water resources make such a shift undesirable, but rather this increase in water usage presents a significant potential impact on regional water resources and should be considered when planning for a plugged-in automotive economy.

  18. Alternative Green Technology for Power Generation Using Waste-Heat Energy And Advanced Thermoelectric Materials, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is interested in advancing green technology research for achieving sustainable and environmentally friendly energy sources. Thermo-electric power generation...

  19. Understanding the evolution of eco-innovative activity in the automotive sector: a patent based analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faria, Lourenco; Andersen, Maj Munch

    The paper aims to analyze the evolution of eco-innovative activity and strategies in the automotive sector over time. We suggest to use a patent count methodology tracking the development of selected technologies considered as promising ?green technologies? in the automotive sector. The paper...... their patent portfolios in order to generate competitive advantages derived from the introduction of eco-innovations, activities emerging in the 1990s and accelerating in scope and radicality in the end zeroes. All the firms are engaging in developing new alternative green trajectories to the existing dominant...... demonstrates the current fluid emerging stage of the greening of the economy but also illustrates that eco-innovation is already an important competitive factor globally....

  20. Advanced microsystems for automotive applications 2013 smart systems for safe and green vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Gereon

    2013-01-01

    The road vehicle of the future will embrace innovations from three major automotive technology fields: driver assistance systems, vehicle networking and alternative propulsion. Smart systems such as adaptive ICT components and MEMS devices, novel network architectures, integrated sensor systems, intelligent interfaces and functional materials form the basis of these features and permit their successful and synergetic integration. They increasingly appear to be the key enabling technologies for safe and green road mobility. For more than fifteen years the International Forum on Advanced Microsystems for Automotive Applications (AMAA) has been successful in detecting novel trends and in discussing the technological implications from early on. The topic of the AMAA 2013 will be “Smart Systems for Safe and Green Vehicles”. This book contains peer-reviewed papers written by leading engineers and researchers which all address the ongoing research and novel developments in the field. www.amaa.de.

  1. The fuzzy outline of the Mediterranean automotive space (In French)

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Bernard LAYAN (E3i-IFReDE-GRES); Yannick LUNG (E3i-IFReDE-GRES)

    2006-01-01

    The paper analyses the evolution of the automotive industry in the Mediterranean area during the last years. First part focuses on the impacts for this region of the geographical changes of the European automotive systems associated to location of multinational automotive firms in CEEC. This leads to difficulties for the automobile countries of the western part of the Mediterranean Europe (Italy, Spain, Portugal) on one side, and to a huge growth of the auto industry at the east, in Turkey, o...

  2. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications. 2009 Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Brian D. [Directed Technologies, Arlington, VA (United States); Kalinoski, Jeffrey A. [Directed Technologies, Arlington, VA (United States); Baum, Kevin N. [Directed Technologies, Arlington, VA (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This report is the third annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis. It contains estimates for material and manufacturing cost of complete 80 kWnet direct hydrogen proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems suitable for powering light duty automobiles.

  3. Mass Production Cost Estimation For Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systesm for Automotive Applications. 2010 Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Brian D. [Directed Technologies, Arlington, VA (United States); Kalinoski, Jeffrey A. [Directed Technologies, Arlington, VA (United States); Baum, Kevin N. [Directed Technologies, Arlington, VA (United States)

    2010-09-30

    This report is the fourth annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis. It contains estimates for material and manufacturing costs of complete 80 kWnet direct-hydrogen proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems suitable for powering light-duty automobiles.

  4. Design and development of an automotive propulsion system utilizing a Rankine cycle engine (water based fluid). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demler, R.L.

    1977-09-01

    Under EPA and ERDA sponsorship, SES successfully designed, fabricated and tested the first federally sponsored steam powered automobile. The automobile - referred to as the simulator - is a 1975 Dodge Monaco standard size passenger car with the SES preprototype Rankine cycle automotive propulsion system mounted in the engine compartment. In the latter half of 1975, the simulator successfully underwent test operations at the facilities of SES in Watertown, Massachusetts and demonstrated emission levels below those of the stringent federally established automotive requirements originally set for implementation by 1976. The demonstration was accomplished during testing over the Federal Driving Cycle on a Clayton chassis dynamometer. The design and performance of the vehicle are described.

  5. AUTOMOTIVE MARKET- FROM A GENERAL TO A MARKET SEGMENTATION APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviana Andreea Niminet

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Automotive market and its corresponding industry are undoubtedly of outmost importance and therefore proper market segmentation is crucial for market players, potential competitors and customers as well. Time has proved that market economic analysis often shown flaws in determining the relevant market, by using solely or mainly the geographic aspect and disregarding the importance of segments on the automotive market. For these reasons we propose a new approach of the automotive market proving the importance of proper market segmentation and defining the strategic groups within the automotive market.

  6. Renewable energy finance and project ownership. The impact of alternative development structures on the cost of wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiser, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    This paper uses traditional financial cash flow techniques to examine the impact of different ownership and financing structures on the cost of renewable energy, specifically wind power. Most large, non-hydroelectric, renewable energy projects are developed, owned and financed by private non-utility generators. Recently, however, US utilities have begun to consider owning and financing their own wind power facilities rather than purchasing power from independent renewable energy suppliers. Utilities in other countries have also expressed interest in direct renewable energy investments. A primary justification for utility ownership of wind turbine power plants is that utility self-financing and ownership is cheaper than purchasing wind energy from non-utility renewable energy suppliers. The results presented in this paper support that justification, although some of the estimated cost savings associated with utility ownership are a result of suboptimal utility analysis procedures and implicit risk shifting. Financing terms and variables are shown to significantly impact wind power costs. (author)

  7. Alternative powertrain strategies and fleet turnover in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    The changes taking place in the global automotive industry related to alternative : powertrains and fuels are affecting each country or region differently. Each country or : region has its own policies in place to monitor and manage vehicle fuel cons...

  8. Implications of healing power and positioning for collaboration between formal mental health services and traditional/alternative medicine: the case of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kpobi, Lily; Swartz, Leslie

    2018-01-01

    Many current debates about global mental health have increasingly called for collaboration between biomedical and traditional medical health systems. Despite these calls, not much has been written about the variables that would influence such collaboration. To a large extent, collaboration dialogues have considered biomedicine on the one hand, and a wide range of traditional and faith-based treatments on the other hand. However, this dualistic bifurcation does not reflect the plurality of healing systems in operation in many contexts, and the diverse investments that different non-biomedical healing approaches may have in their own power to heal. We set out to explore the diversity of different healers' perceptions of power, and the relationship between that power and the perceived power of biomedical approaches. Through a qualitative design, and using the case of medical pluralism in urban Ghana as an example, we conducted interviews among different categories of traditional and alternative medicine (TAM) practitioners living and/or working in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. Through thematic analyses, differences in the notions about collaboration between the different categories of healers were identified. Their perceptions of whether collaboration would be beneficial seemed, from this study, to co-occur with their perceptions of their own power. We suggest that an important way to move debates forward about collaboration amongst different sectors is to examine the notions of power and positioning of different categories of TAM healers in relation to biomedicine, and the attendant implications of those notions for integrative mental healthcare.

  9. Precious Metals in Automotive Technology: An Unsolvable Depletion Problem?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Bardi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the second half of the 20th century, various devices have been developed in order to reduce the emissions of harmful substances at the exhaust pipe of combustion engines. In the automotive field, the most diffuse and best known device of this kind is the “three way” catalytic converter for engines using the Otto cycle designed to abate the emissions of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and unburnt hydrocarbons. These catalytic converters can function only by means of precious metals (mainly platinum, rhodium and palladium which exist in a limited supply in economically exploitable ores. The recent increase in prices of all mineral commodities is already making these converters significantly expensive and it is not impossible that the progressive depletion of precious metals will make them too expensive for the market of private cars. The present paper examines how this potential scarcity could affect the technology of road transportation worldwide. We argue that the supply of precious metals for automotive converters is not at risk in the short term, but that in the future it will not be possible to continue using this technology as a result of increasing prices generated by progressive depletion. Mitigation methods such as reducing the amounts of precious metals in catalysts, or recycling them can help but cannot be considered as a definitive solution. We argue that precious metal scarcity is a critical factor that may determine the future development of road transportation in the world. As the problem is basically unsolvable in the long run, we must explore new technologies for road transportation and we conclude that it is likely that the clean engine of the future will be electric and powered by batteries.

  10. Service-Learning in a One-Year Alternative Route to Teacher Certification: A Powerful Multicultural Teaching Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Elinor L.

    2005-01-01

    This five-year study examined the effectiveness of an innovative approach to service-learning embedded in a one year site-based alternative route to teacher certification. The ten-week school-based study investigated the influence of service-learning on the multicultural perceptions, cross-cultural communication skills, and social justice…

  11. Modular PM Motor Drives for Automotive Traction Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, G.J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents modular permanent magnet (PM) motor drives for automotive traction applications. A partially modularized drive system consisting of a single PM motor and multiple inverters is described. The motor has multiple three-phase stator winding sets and each winding set is driven with a separate three-phase inverter module. A truly modularized inverter and motor configuration based on an axial-gap PM motor is then introduced, in which identical PM motor modules are mounted on a common shaft and each motor module is powered by a separate inverter module. The advantages of the modular approach for both inverter and motor include: (1) power rating scalability-one design meets different power requirements by simply stacking an adequate number of modules, thus avoiding redesigning and reducing the development cost, (2) increased fault tolerance, and (3) easy repairing. A prototype was constructed by using two inverters and an axial-gap PM motor with two sets of three-phase stat or windings, and it is used to assist the diesel engine in a hybrid electric vehicle converted from a Chevrolet Suburban. The effect of different pulse-width-modulation strategies for both motoring and regenerative modes on current control is analyzed. Torque and regenerative control algorithms are implemented with a digital signal processor. Analytical and initial testing results are included in the paper

  12. Control of VSC-HVDC in offshore AC islands with wind power plants: Comparison of two alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeni, Lorenzo; Hesselbæk, Bo; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2015-01-01

    The subject of this paper is the control of offshore AC collection and export networks behind a voltage source converter based high voltage direct current transmission system. The inertia-less nature of such grids makes the control of voltages and power flows potentially more flexible......, but at the same time more prone to instabilities. Focus in this paper is on a voltage source converter based high voltage direct current connected wind power plant. Two state-of-art controllers for the offshore high voltage direct current converter station are compared, both at no-load and when wind turbine...... converters are producing power and controlled with usual vector current control. Sensitivity analyses help identify critical factors influencing stability. The influence of lumping the wind power plant into one converter is assessed by comparison with the full model. The conclusions identify the preferred...

  13. Methodology for developing and implementing alternative temperature-time curves for testing the fire resistance of barriers for nuclear power plant applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, L.Y.; Steckler, K.D.

    1996-08-01

    Advances in fire science over the past 40 years have offered the potential for developing technically sound alternative temperature-time curves for use in evaluating fire barriers for areas where fire exposures can be expected to be significantly different than the ASTM E-119 standard temperature-time exposure. This report summarizes the development of the ASTM E-119, standard temperature-time curve, and the efforts by the federal government and the petrochemical industry to develop alternative fire endurance curves for specific applications. The report also provides a framework for the development of alternative curves for application at nuclear power plants. The staff has concluded that in view of the effort necessary for the development of nuclear power plant specific temperature-time curves, such curves are not a viable approach for resolving the issues concerning Thermo-Lag fire barriers. However, the approach may be useful to licensees in the development of performance-based fire protection methods in the future

  14. Methodology for developing and implementing alternative temperature-time curves for testing the fire resistance of barriers for nuclear power plant applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, L.Y.; Steckler, K.D.

    1996-08-01

    Advances in fire science over the past 40 years have offered the potential for developing technically sound alternative temperature-time curves for use in evaluating fire barriers for areas where fire exposures can be expected to be significantly different than the ASTM E-119 standard temperature-time exposure. This report summarizes the development of the ASTM E-119, standard temperature-time curve, and the efforts by the federal government and the petrochemical industry to develop alternative fire endurance curves for specific applications. The report also provides a framework for the development of alternative curves for application at nuclear power plants. The staff has concluded that in view of the effort necessary for the development of nuclear power plant specific temperature-time curves, such curves are not a viable approach for resolving the issues concerning Thermo-Lag fire barriers. However, the approach may be useful to licensees in the development of performance-based fire protection methods in the future.

  15. Managing knowledge boundaries for open innovation - lessons from the automotive industry : lessons from the automotive industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilhelm, Miriam; Dolfsma, Wilfred

    2018-01-01

    Purpose - The rising need to innovate and obtain knowledge from more distant knowledge sources calls for new innovation strategies and a better integration of other external actors who lie outside the traditional automotive supply chain. Such an open innovation strategy challenges organizational

  16. Automotive Body Trim and Glass; Automotive Mechanics 2: 9045.05.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to help students become employable with skills, knowledge, attitudes, and values necessary for performing the required service of the automotive trim and glass mechanic. The course of study includes an orientation to the course, service tools and bench skills development, and a study…

  17. Characterization of three-way automotive catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenik, E.A.; More, K.L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States); LaBarge, W. [General Motors-AC Delco Systems, Flint, MI (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    This has been the second year of a CRADA between General Motors - AC Delco Systems (GM-ACDS) and Martin Marietta Energy Systems (MMES) aimed at improved performance/lifetime of platinum-rhodium based three-way-catalysts (TWC) for automotive emission control systems. While current formulations meet existing emission standards, higher than optimum Pt-Rh loadings are often required. In additionk, more stringent emission standards have been imposed for the near future, demanding improved performance and service life from these catalysts. Understanding the changes of TWC conversion efficiency with ageing is a critical need in improving these catalysts.

  18. Advanced Microsystems for Automotive Applications 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valldorf, Jürgen; Gessner, Wolfgang

    Since 1995 the annual international forum on Advanced Microsystems for Automotive Applications (AMAA) has been held in Berlin. The event offers a unique opportunity for microsystems component developers, system suppliers and car manufacturers to show and to discuss competing technological approaches of microsystems based solutions in vehicles. The book accompanying the event has demonstrated to be an efficient instrument for the diffusion of new concepts and technology results. The present volume including the papers of the AMAA 2005 gives an overview on the state-of-the-art and outlines imminent and mid-term R&D perspectives.

  19. Cold neutron fluoroscopy of operating automotive engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, P.A.E.; Heritage, J.

    1983-01-01

    The application of neutron fluoroscopy in the automotive industry is a natural extension of previous studies with aircraft engines. This paper describes investigations with two sub-compact car engines. The extent and manner in which lubricants reached the various parts of the engines are compared and contrasted. The paper goes on to describe a study of the deposits inside turbochargers and postulates future topics worthy of investigation. The authors confirm that there is a place for neutron fluoroscopy both as a design tool and for investigations of ''in-service'' phenomena. (Auth.)

  20. Dynamic characteristics of automotive steel sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mihaliková

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experimental research was to perform an analysis of deformation characteristics on two different types of steel: IF steel, and micro-alloyed steel were used automotive industry. For that purpose changes of properties of these materials were carried out by static 10-3 · s-1 and dynamic 103 · s-1 strain rate assess its plastic properties. Vickers micro hardness test was carried out by the static and dynamic loading condition and describes different hardness distribution. The higher strain hardening of materials was obtained too that was confirmed by distribution of dislocations.