WorldWideScience

Sample records for alternating group a4

  1. Part 1 of a 4-part series Facial Cosmetics: Trends and Alternatives: Data from the American Contact Alternatives Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheman, Andrew; Jacob, Sharon; Katta, Rajani; Nedorost, Susan; Warshaw, Erin; Zirwas, Matt; Cha, Christina

    2011-06-01

    To provide updated data on usage of ingredients that are common potential contact allergens in several categories of facial cosmetics. To identify useful alternative products with few or no common contact allergens. In November 2009, the full ingredient lists of 5,416 skin, hair, and cosmetic products marketed by the CVS pharmacy chain were copied from CVS.com into Microsoft Word format for analysis. Computer searches were made in Microsoft Word using search/replace and sorting functions to accurately identify the presence of specific allergens in each website product. Percentages of American Contact Alternatives Group core series allergens were calculated. The usage of American Contact Alternatives Group core series allergens in facial cosmetics is reported along with suitable alternative products for individuals with contact allergy. Data on allergen usage and alternatives for facial cosmetics is not widely published. This article reviews some of the common potential allergens in facial cosmetics, including blushers and bronzers, concealers, eyeliners, eyeshadows, foundations, loose and pressed powders, and mascaras. Suitable available alternative products for patients with contact allergy are listed.

  2. Part 4 of a 4-part series Miscellaneous Products: Trends and Alternatives in Deodorants, Antiperspirants, Sunblocks, Shaving Products, Powders, and Wipes: Data from the American Contact Alternatives Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheman, Andrew; Jacob, Sharon; Katta, Rajani; Nedorost, Susan; Warshaw, Erin; Zirwas, Matt; Selbo, Nicole

    2011-10-01

    To provide updated data on the usage of ingredients that are common potential contact allergens in several categories of topical products. To identify useful alternative products with few or no common contact allergens. In November 2009, the full ingredient lists of 5,416 skin, hair, and cosmetic products marketed by the CVS pharmacy chain were copied from CVS.com into Microsoft Word format for analysis. Computer searches were made in Microsoft Word using search/replace and sorting functions to accurately identify the presence of specific allergens in each website product. Percentages of American Contact Dermatitis Society core series allergens (and other common preservatives and sunblocks) were calculated. The usage of American Contact Dermatitis Society core series allergens (and other preservatives and sunblocks) in various miscellaneous categories of topical products is reported. Data on allergens and alternatives for ancillary skin care products are not widely published. This article reviews some of the common potential allergens in antiperspirants, deodorants, shaving products, sunblocks, powders, and wipes. Suitable available alternative products for patients with contact allergy are listed.

  3. IRAG working group 5. Other assays. Interagency Regulatory Alternatives Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curren, R D; Sina, J F; Feder, P; Kruszewski, F H; Osborne, R; Régnier, J F

    1997-01-01

    As part of the Interagency Regulatory Alternatives Group (IRAG) program to evaluate the state of the art in the development of alternative (non-whole animal) eye irritation tests, academic and industrial organizations were invited to submit in vitro eye irritation data generated in their laboratories to one of several working groups for review. The assays reviewed in this report (from Working Group 5. "Other Assays") were the EYTEX assay, tissue equivalent assay, a cytotoxicity assay using three-dimensional human fibroblast constructs, the Microtox assay, and other miscellaneous assays. Each submission consisted of raw data for chemicals and products tested, a description of the methodology, and an analysis (generally by regression analysis and Pearson's correlation coefficient) for the performance of the in vitro test relative to its ability to predict individual ocular tissue scores or total ocular score. In vivo data were generated according to the scoring methods proposed by Draize. Working Group 5 evaluated the submissions and commented on the utility of the assays. The variability of the in vivo data made conclusions difficult in many situations. Most of these assays were deemed useful (within limited chemical classes) for screening purposes or for use in conjunction with other toxicological information.

  4. Alternative group V precursors for CVD applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, R. M.; Klingert, J. K.

    1991-01-01

    The chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques used to grow III/V semiconductors films, such as metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE), hydride VPE, chemical beam epitaxy (CBE) and gas source molecular beam epitaxy (GS-MBE), all use hydrides (AsH 3 and PH 3) as the Group V source. However, the hydrides are extremely toxic gases which are stored under high pressure (200-2000 psi). To reduce the safety hazards associated with these gases, alternative Group V precursors have been investigated. Organoarsenic and phosphorous compounds have received the most attention as replacements for AsH 3 and PH 3 because they are typically low vapor pressure liquids, and thus present significantly lower exposure risks than the hydrides. For AsH 3 these have included the methyl, ethyl and butyl-based derivatives RnAsH 3- n, with varying degrees ( n = 1-3) of hydrogen atom substitution. In this paper the growth properties, thermochemistry and toxicity of the various alkylarsine precursors are compared with arsine. Data are presented on the impact of the thermochemistry of these compounds on film electrical properties, and on the effects of precursor composition and purity on overall film quality. The suitability of alternative As-precursors for device applications is demonstrated, and selection criteria are presented for the most effective alkylarsine compound for a particular CVD growth process.

  5. Complex group algebras of the double covers of the symmetric and alternating group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bessenrodt, Christine; Nguyen, Hung Ngoc; Olsson, Jørn Børling

    2015-01-01

    We prove that the double covers of the alternating and symmetric groups are determined by their complex group algebras......We prove that the double covers of the alternating and symmetric groups are determined by their complex group algebras...

  6. Alternating groups as a quotient of

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Qaiser Mushtaq

    2018-03-19

    Mar 19, 2018 ... Abstract. In this study, we developed an algorithm to find the homomorphisms of the Picard group PSL(2, Z[i]) into a finite group G. This algorithm is helpful to find a homomorphism (if it is possible) of the Picard group to any finite group of order less than. 15! because of the limitations of the GAP and ...

  7. USD Catalysis Group for Alternative Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoefelmeyer, James D.; Koodali, Ranjit; Sereda, Grigoriy; Engebretson, Dan; Fong, Hao; Puszynski, Jan; Shende, Rajesh; Ahrenkiel, Phil

    2012-03-13

    The South Dakota Catalysis Group (SDCG) is a collaborative project with mission to develop advanced catalysts for energy conversion with two primary goals: (1) develop photocatalytic systems in which polyfunctionalized TiO2 are the basis for hydrogen/oxygen synthesis from water and sunlight (solar fuels group), (2) develop new materials for hydrogen utilization in fuel cells (fuel cell group). In tandem, these technologies complete a closed chemical cycle with zero emissions.

  8. Part 1 of a 4-part series Facial Cosmetics: Trends and Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Sharon; Katta, Rajani; Nedorost, Susan; Warshaw, Erin; Zirwas, Matt; Cha, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To provide updated data on usage of ingredients that are common potential contact allergens in several categories of facial cosmetics. To identify useful alternative products with few or no common contact allergens. Design: In November 2009, the full ingredient lists of 5,416 skin, hair, and cosmetic products marketed by the CVS pharmacy chain were copied from CVS.com into Microsoft Word format for analysis. Computer searches were made in Microsoft Word using search/replace and sorting functions to accurately identify the presence of specific allergens in each website product. Measurements: Percentages of American Contact Alternatives Group core series allergens were calculated. Results: The usage of American Contact Alternatives Group core series allergens in facial cosmetics is reported along with suitable alternative products for individuals with contact allergy. Conclusion: Data on allergen usage and alternatives for facial cosmetics is not widely published. This article reviews some of the common potential allergens in facial cosmetics, including blushers and bronzers, concealers, eyeliners, eyeshadows, foundations, loose and pressed powders, and mascaras. Suitable available alternative products for patients with contact allergy are listed. PMID:21779413

  9. The prime graph conjecture for integral group rings of some alternatings groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Salim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the classical Zassenhaus Conjecture (ZC for integral group rings of alternating groups A9 and A10. Even the question (ZC remains open as no counterexample is known up to date, it been confirmed for special types of groups such as nilpotent groups by Roggenkamp, Scot and Weiss. However, a new method based on the partial augmentation of torsion units been established by Luthar and Passi to confirm the (ZC for A5. Later a weaker version of (ZC was proposed in 2007, we call it the Prime Graph Conjecture (PGC about the Gruenberg-Kegel (prime graph of the group of all normalized units of the integral group ring of a finite group. Recently, the (PGC has a positive answer for solvable groups, Frobenius groups and several simple groups. Here, as a consequence of our results, we confirm the (PGC for integral group rings of alternating groups An for all n<11.

  10. Coxeter groups A4, B4 and D4 for two-qubit systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The Coxeter–Weyl groups W(A4), W(B4) and W(D4) have proven very useful for two-qubit systems in quantum information theory. A simple technique is employed to construct the unitary matrix representations of the groups, based on quaternionic transformation of the usual reflection matrices. The von Neumann ...

  11. Coxeter groups A4, B4 and D4 for two-qubit systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    physics pp. 247–260. Coxeter groups A4, B4 and D4 for two-qubit systems. RAMAZAN KOÇ1,∗. , M YAKUP HACIIBRAHIMO ˇGLU1 and MEHMET KOCA2 ... reflection matrices. The von Neumann entropy of each reduced density matrix is calculated. It is shown that these unitary matrix representations are naturally related to ...

  12. Alternating chain with Hubbard-type interactions: renormalization group analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzatu, F. D.; Jackeli, G.

    1998-01-01

    A large amount of work has been devoted to the study of alternating chains for a better understanding of the high-T c superconductivity mechanism. The same phenomenon renewed the interest in the Hubbard model and in its one-dimensional extensions. In this work we investigate, using the Renormalization Group (RG) method, the effect of the Hubbard-type interactions on the ground-state properties of a chain with alternating on-site atomic energies. The one-particle Hamiltonian in the tight binding approximation corresponding to an alternating chain with two nonequivalent sites per unit cell can be diagonalized by a canonical transformation; one gets a two band model. The Hubbard-type interactions give rise to both intra- and inter-band couplings; however, if the gap between the two bands is sufficiently large and the system is more than half-filled, as for the CuO 3 chain occurring in high-T c superconductors, the last ones can be neglected in describing the low energy physics. We restrict our considerations to the Hubbard-type interactions (upper band) in the particular case of alternating on-site energies and equal hopping amplitudes. The standard RG analysis (second order) is done in terms of the g-constants describing the elementary processes of forward, backward and Umklapp scatterings: their expressions are obtained by evaluating the Hubbard-type interactions (upper band) at the Fermi points. Using the scaling to the exact soluble models Tomonaga-Luttinger and Luther-Emery, we can predict the low energy physics of our system. The ground-state phase diagrams in terms of the model parameters and at arbitrary band filling are determined, where four types of instabilities have been considered: Charge Density Waves (CDW), Spin Density Waves (SDW), Singlet Superconductivity (SS) and Triplet Superconductivity (TS). The 3/4-filled case in terms of some renormalized Hubbard constants is presented. The relevance of our analysis to the case of the undistorted 3/4-filled Cu

  13. Independence of irrelevant alternatives and revealed group preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, P.P.; Peters, H.J.M.; Ichiishi, A.N.; Neyman, A.; Tauman, Y.

    1990-01-01

    It is shown that a Pareto optimal and continuous single-valued choice function defined on the compact convex subsets of the positive orthant of the plane maximizes a real-valued function if and only if it satisfies the independence of irrelevant alternatives condition. Further, this real-valued

  14. Independence of irrelevant alternatives and revealed group preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, P.P.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that a Pareto optimal and continuous single-valued choice function defined on the compact convex subsets of the positive orthant of the n-dimensional Euclidean space maximizes a real-valued function if and only if it satisfies the independence of irrelevant alternatives condition if n=2,

  15. Alternatives for Pragmatic Responses to Group Work Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoly Bozan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Group work can provide a valuable learning experience, one that is especially relevant for those preparing to enter the information system workforce. While much has been discussed about effective means of delivering the benefits of collaborative learning in groups, there are some problems that arise due to pragmatic environmental factors such as the part time work commitments of students. This study has identified a range of problems and reports on a longitudinal Action Research study in two universities (in Australia and the USA. Over three semesters problems were identified and methods trialed using collaborative tools. Several promising solutions are presented to the identified problems. These include the use of Google documents and color to ensure team contributions are more even.

  16. The effect of complementary and alternative medicines on CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of three different substrates : 7-benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethyl-coumarin, midazolam and docetaxel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooiman, Kim D; Maas-Bakker, Roel F; Hendrikx, Jeroen J M A; Bank, Paul C D; Rosing, Hilde; Beijnen, Jos H; Schellens, Jan H M; Meijerman, Irma

    OBJECTIVE: Concomitant use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and anticancer drugs can affect the pharmacokinetics of anticancer drugs by inhibiting the metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) (EC 1.14.13.157). Several in vitro studies determined whether CAM can inhibit CYP3A4,

  17. USD Catalysis Group for Alternative Energy - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoefelmeyer, James

    2014-10-03

    I. Project Summary Catalytic processes are a major technological underpinning of modern society, and are essential to the energy sector in the processing of chemical fuels from natural resources, fine chemicals synthesis, and energy conversion. Advances in catalyst technology are enormously valuable since these lead to reduced chemical waste, reduced energy loss, and reduced costs. New energy technologies, which are critical to future economic growth, are also heavily reliant on catalysts, including fuel cells and photo-electrochemical cells. Currently, the state of South Dakota is underdeveloped in terms of research infrastructure related to catalysis. If South Dakota intends to participate in significant economic growth opportunities that result from advances in catalyst technology, then this area of research needs to be made a high priority for investment. To this end, a focused research effort is proposed in which investigators from The University of South Dakota (USD) and The South Dakota School of Mines and Technology (SDSMT) will contribute to form the South Dakota Catalysis Group (SDCG). The multidisciplinary team of the (SDCG) include: (USD) Dan Engebretson, James Hoefelmeyer, Ranjit Koodali, and Grigoriy Sereda; (SDSMT) Phil Scott Ahrenkiel, Hao Fong, Jan Puszynski, Rajesh Shende, and Jacek Swiatkiewicz. The group is well suited to engage in a collaborative project due to the resources available within the existing programs. Activities within the SDCG will be monitored through an external committee consisting of three distinguished professors in chemistry. The committee will provide expert advice and recommendations to the SDCG. Advisory meetings in which committee members interact with South Dakota investigators will be accompanied by individual oral and poster presentations in a materials and catalysis symposium. The symposium will attract prominent scientists, and will enhance the visibility of research in the state of South Dakota. The SDCG requests

  18. Coxeter groups A4, B4 and D4 for two-qubit systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A simple technique is employed to construct the unitary matrix representations of the groups, based on quaternionic transformation of the usual reflection matrices. The von Neumann entropy of each reduced density matrix is calculated. It is shown that these unitary matrix representations are naturally related to various ...

  19. Practical application of non-whole animal alternatives: summary of IRAG workshop on eye irritation testing. Interagency Regulatory Alternatives Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradlaw, J; Gupta, K; Green, S; Hill, R; Wilcox, N

    1997-01-01

    In November 1993, the Interagency Regulatory Alternatives Group (IRAG) sponsored a workshop to examine the current scientific status of alternatives to the Draize eye irritation test by assessing the current practical application of methods used to predict in vivo eye irritation. Laboratories from around the world were invited to submit detailed in vitro and in vivo data in parallel according to a specific set of guidelines in a consistent format. In vitro scores were compared with individual tissue scores. Over 60 data sets from 41 laboratories were received for 29 different test methods. Methods were grouped into five categories: organotypic models, chorioallantoic membrane-based assays, cell function-based assays, cytotoxicity assays and other systems. Data submissions and correlation analyses have been used to demonstrate the application of guidelines in method evaluations. Findings are summarized and future directions are indicated. A significant outcome of the workshop was the co-operation demonstrated among representatives of industry, academia and government in sharing test data on more than 2000 chemicals, products and product formulations for evaluation by their peers. Information obtained from this workshop will add to the weight of scientific evidence and scientific consensus about in vitro test methods and will establish credibility for regulatory acceptance of non-whole animal alternatives for ocular irritation.

  20. IRAG working group 2. CAM-based assays. Interagency Regulatory Alternatives Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielmann, H; Liebsch, M; Moldenhauer, F; Holzhütter, H G; Bagley, D M; Lipman, J M; Pape, W J; Miltenburger, H; de Silva, O; Hofer, H; Steiling, W

    1997-01-01

    CAM-based assays, in which test material is applied to the chorion allantoic membrane (CAM) of embryonated chicken eggs, were assessed as alternatives to the Draize eye irritation test. Two general types of CAM-based assays are currently in use, the HET-CAM test and the CAMVA assay. Evaluations were made of five data sets produced with three different modifications of the HET-CAM test and two data sets obtained with the same CAMVA protocol. Data sets consisted of 9-133 test chemicals, usually from the sponsor's product line, and also from a validation trial. Each data set and assay protocol were analysed for quality of data, purpose and proposed use of the assay, range of responses covered, range of test materials amenable, current use in safety and risk assessment both in-house and for regulatory purposes. Since the MMAS Draize score was not available for all in vivo data sets, the sigma MMMIS, which correlates well with the MMAS, was used instead. In vitro/in vivo correlations calculated with Pearson's linear coefficient ranged from r = 0.6 to r = 0.9 for six of seven data sets. Corneal opacity and inflammation of the iris showed the best correlation to in vitro data. Prediction rates were significantly improved when partial linear regression was used, and the predictivity of three different HET-CAM protocols was almost the same. HET-CAM assays showed the best prediction with surfactants and surfactant-based formulations, whereas the CAMVA assay provided the best performance with alcohols.

  1. Alternative splicing of a group II intron in a surface layer protein gene in Clostridium tetani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Bonnie A; Simon, Dawn M; Zimmerly, Steven

    2014-02-01

    Group II introns are ribozymes and retroelements found in bacteria, and are thought to have been the ancestors of nuclear pre-mRNA introns. Whereas nuclear introns undergo prolific alternative splicing in some species, group II introns are not known to carry out equivalent reactions. Here we report a group II intron in the human pathogen Clostridium tetani, which undergoes four alternative splicing reactions in vivo. Together with unspliced transcript, five mRNAs are produced, each encoding a distinct surface layer protein isoform. Correct fusion of exon reading frames requires a shifted 5' splice site located 8 nt upstream of the canonical boundary motif. The shifted junction is accomplished by an altered IBS1-EBS1 pairing between the intron and 5' exon. Growth of C. tetani under a variety of conditions did not result in large changes in alternative splicing levels, raising the possibility that alternative splicing is constitutive. This work demonstrates a novel type of gene organization and regulation in bacteria, and provides an additional parallel between group II and nuclear pre-mRNA introns.

  2. An Evaluation Assessment of the CrossRoads Alternative Schools in Georgia (Focus Groups).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlin, Shary; Harnish, Dorothy

    This report describes results of focus group evaluation of the first year of Georgia's CrossRoads program, an alternative public school program to provide chronically disruptive, committed, and/or non-attending students (grades 6-12) with the social services and individualized instruction they require and to make the public schools more secure by…

  3. The effect of complementary and alternative medicines on CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of three different substrates: 7-benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethyl-coumarin, midazolam and docetaxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooiman, Kim D; Maas-Bakker, Roel F; Hendrikx, Jeroen J M A; Bank, Paul C D; Rosing, Hilde; Beijnen, Jos H; Schellens, Jan H M; Meijerman, Irma

    2014-06-01

    Concomitant use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and anticancer drugs can affect the pharmacokinetics of anticancer drugs by inhibiting the metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) (EC 1.14.13.157). Several in vitro studies determined whether CAM can inhibit CYP3A4, but these studies revealed contradictory results. A plausible explanation for these conflicting results is the use only of a single model CYP3A4 substrate in each study. Therefore, the objective was to determine the potential of selected CAM (β-carotene, Echinacea, garlic, Ginkgo biloba, ginseng, grape seed extract, green tea extract, milk thistle, saw palmetto, valerian, vitamin B6, B12 and C) to inhibit CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of different substrates: 7-benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethyl-coumarin (BFC), midazolam and docetaxel. The effect of CAM on CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of an anticancer drug has never been determined before in vitro, which makes this study unique. The oncolytic CYP3A4 substrate docetaxel was used to establish the predictive value of the model substrates for pharmacokinetic interactions between CAM and anticancer drugs in vitro, and to more closely predict these interactions in vivo. The inhibition of CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of 7-benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethyl-coumarin (BFC) by CAM was assessed in Supersomes, using the fluorometric CYP3A4 inhibition assay. In human liver microsomes (HLM) the inhibition of CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of midazolam and docetaxel was determined, using liquid-chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The results confirmed grape seed and green tea as potent inhibitors and milk thistle as moderate inhibitor of CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of BFC, midazolam and docetaxel. Clinical studies are required to determine the clinical relevance of the determined CYP3A4 inhibition by grape seed, green tea and milk thistle. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  4. Severe cyanide poisoning from an alternative medicine treatment with amygdalin and apricot kernels in a 4-year-old child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Harald; Wollny, Caroline; Oster, Isabel; Tutdibi, Erol; Gortner, Ludwig; Gottschling, Sven; Meyer, Sascha

    2015-05-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is widespread in children with cancer and is poorly regulated. Case report. We describe a case of severe cyanide poisoning arising from CAM use. A severely agitated, encephalopathic, unresponsive 4-year-old boy (initial Glasgow Coma Scale of 3) with a history of metastatic ependymoma was brought to our emergency department by ambulance services. Initial blood gas analysis demonstrated severe metabolic/lactic acidosis. On detailed questioning of the parents, the use of CAM including intravenous and oral "vitamin B 17" (amygdalin) and oral apricot kernel was reported. After administering sodium thiosulfate, rapid improvement in his medical condition with complete recovery without need for further intensive care treatment was seen. Serum cyanide level was markedly elevated. Cyanide poisoning can be the cause of severe encephalopathy in children receiving CAM treatment with substances containing cyanogenic glycosides.

  5. An Alternative Sorting Procedure for Interactive Group Decision Support Based on the Pseudo-criterion Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Bregar

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available An original interactive procedure is proposed, which aims at overcoming some of the major weaknesses of existing pseudocriterion based methods for group decision analysis. It refers to absolute judgements of feasible alternatives and is focused on complementary activities of opinion elicitation and robustness analysis. As a foundation, four interdependent principles are introduced – problem localization, interactivity on the basis of progressiveness approach, semiautomatic derivation of criteria weights according to selective effects of veto thresholds, and group consensus seeking. The principles are grounded and realized by appropriate methodological solutions.

  6. Identifying long cycles in finite alternating and symmetric groups acting on subsets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Linton

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Let $H$ be a permutation group on a set $\\Lambda$, which is permutationally isomorphic to a finite alternating or symmetric group $A_n$ or $S_n$ acting on the $k$-element subsets of points from $\\{1,\\ldots,n\\}$, for some arbitrary but fixed $k$. Suppose moreover that no isomorphism with this action is known. We show that key elements of $H$ needed to construct such an isomorphism $\\varphi$, such as those whose image under $\\varphi$ is an $n$-cycle or $(n-1$-cycle, can be recognised with high probability by the lengths of just four of their cycles in $\\Lambda$.

  7. "First among Others? Cohen's ""d"" vs. Alternative Standardized Mean Group Difference Measures"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorel Cahan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Standardized effect size measures typically employed in behavioral and social sciences research in the multi-group case (e.g., 2, f2 evaluate between-group variability in terms of either total or within-group variability, such as variance or standard deviation -' that is, measures of dispersion about the mean. In contrast, the definition of Cohen's d, the effect size measure typically computed in the two-group case, is incongruent due to a conceptual difference between the numerator -' which measures between-group variability by the intuitive and straightforward raw difference between the two group means -' and the denominator - which measures within-group variability in terms of the difference between all observations and the group mean (i.e., the pooled within-groups standard deviation, SW. Two congruent alternatives to d, in which the root square or absolute mean difference between all observation pairs is substituted for SW as the variability measure in the denominator of d, are suggested and their conceptual and statistical advantages and disadvantages are discussed.

  8. The effect of misapplied religious practices in some alternative religious groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan P. Pretorius

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The positive impact that religion generally has on human beings has been suggested by different studies. However, it cannot be assumed that religion always contributes to the well-being of believers. Religious systems can be misused, resulting in people being spiritually and even physically hurt and harmed. This study investigates certain aspects of some alternative religious group in order to determine the impact it has on the well-being of the members of these groups. It was found that people are drawn to these groups because of the challenges they present, the display of true love amongst members and the ‘message’ of an authoritative charismatic leader that resonates with them and convinces them to become part. As time pass, members were challenged with questionable aspects that appear in the activities and teaching of these groups. Obtaining clarity on these concerns was strongly discouraged by the culture and other members of the group, resulting in members suppressing doubts and emotions. Adherence to the tenets of the group then occurred as a result of peer pressure and out of fear instead of true conviction. The study concludes that most of the respondents in the study reported that their experience in these groups did not contribute to their well-being, and emotionally, they struggled to adapt to society and other religious groups after leaving the group.

  9. Group-Based Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers for Distributed Linear Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huihui; Gao, Yang; Shi, Yinghuan; Wang, Ruili

    2017-11-01

    The alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) algorithm has been widely employed for distributed machine learning tasks. However, it suffers from several limitations, e.g., a relative low convergence speed, and an expensive time cost. To this end, in this paper, a novel method, namely the group-based ADMM (GADMM), is proposed for distributed linear classification. In particular, to accelerate the convergence speed and improve global consensus, a group layer is first utilized in GADMM to divide all the slave nodes into several groups. Then, all the local variables (from the slave nodes) are gathered in the group layer to generate different group variables. Finally, by using a weighted average method, the group variables are coordinated to update the global variable (from the master node) until the solution of the global problem is reached. According to the theoretical analysis, we found that: 1) GADMM can mathematically converge at the rate , where is the number of outer iterations and 2) by using the grouping methods, GADMM can improve the convergence speed compared with the distributed ADMM framework without grouping methods. Moreover, we systematically evaluate GADMM on four publicly available LIBSVM datasets. Compared with disADMM and stochastic dual coordinate ascent with alternating direction method of multipliers-ADMM, for distributed classification, GADMM is able to reduce the number of outer iterations, which leads to faster convergence speed and better global consensus. In particular, the statistical significance test has been experimentally conducted and the results validate that GADMM can significantly save up to 30% of the total time cost (with less than 0.6% accuracy loss) compared with disADMM on large-scale datasets, e.g., webspam and epsilon.

  10. Impact of alternative definitions of contemporary groups on genetic evaluations of traits recorded at lambing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, N; Pabiou, T; Wall, E; McDermott, K; Berry, D P

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the impact of alternative contemporary group definitions for lambing traits on genetic evaluations in the Irish multibreed sheep population. Three lambing traits were considered for analysis: lambing difficulty, birth weight, and survival. Eight alternative contemporary group definitions were investigated for each lambing trait; all contemporary groups were formed within flock of lambing and included (flock by) week of lambing, week of lambing by litter size (i.e., singles vs. multiples), 2-wk interval (i.e., fortnight) of lambing, fortnight of lambing by litter size, month of lambing, and month of lambing by litter size or were based on an optimized algorithm that creates contemporary groups based on animals from the same flock that are born in close proximity of date. Three alternative scenarios were modeled for each of the lambing traits using the contemporary group definitions: the first scenario (termed Current Scenario) represented the editing criteria currently employed in the Irish national genetic evaluations; the second scenario (No Restriction Scenario) removed any restriction on number of records per contemporary group, and the final scenario (Variation Scenario) included only data from contemporary groups with some variability in the dependent variable. Variance components and EBV for each of the 3 lambing traits were estimated using linear mixed models. The direct heritability estimates ranged from 0.09 ± 0.02 to 0.29 ± 0.02 for lambing difficulty, 0.11 ± 0.01 to 0.24 ± 0.01 for birth weight, and 0.05 ± 0.02 to 0.10 ± 0.02 for lamb survival. Irrespective of lambing trait, greater estimated accuracy of the sire EBV was achieved with the No Restriction Scenario. Results for the ability to predict future lambing characteristics, based on only the direct and maternal EBV, revealed that the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve for the dichotomized lambing assistance phenotype varied from 0

  11. Fingerprints as an Alternative Method to Determine ABO and Rh Blood Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Sonam; Deuja, Sajana; Alam, Munna; Karmacharya, Poonam; Mondal, Monami

    2017-01-01

    Blood grouping is conventionally done with invasive method by taking blood samples. The objective of this study is to determine blood group with uninvasive procedure by taking fingerprints of the participants and know the associations between their fingerprints and blood groups. Seven hundred participants of both genders with no any age limitation from Manipal Teaching Hospital and Manipal College of Medical Sciences were randomly selected. The blood grouping was done by cross reacting blood sample with the antibodies. The fingerprints were taken with the help of stamp pad imprinting the finger ridges over A4 size white papers. The loop, whorl and arch patterns were studied. O+ve blood group 224 (32%) was most prevalent among 700 participants. The loop pattern was highly distributed 3708 (53%) in all blood groups except in A-ve blood group with highest distribution of whorl 20 (40%). The mean comparisons of specific fingerprint in total and also in individual fingers with different ABO and ABO-Rh blood groups showed no any statistical association with P>0.05. However, the loop distribution in individual finger was highest in right middle finger (M) of B-ve blood group 5 (10%). The whorl distribution in individual finger was highest in right index (I), left thumb (T) and left ring (R) fingers of AB+ve blood group 20 (5.5% each). Similarly, the arch distribution was highest in right index fingers of A-ve blood group 3 (6%). The mean comparison of different fingerprints with ABO and Rh blood groups showed no significant statistical association concluding fingerprints cannot be used for blood grouping.

  12. Report on the CSC project group meeting on alternative energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-11-01

    Under its coordinated R and D programme the Commonwealth Science Council in cooperation with the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Consumer Affairs, Barbados, organized a meeting to identify suitable projects for inter-country collaboration. Specifically the meeting had three aims: 1. Review present state of activities in alternative energy resources and assess small scale energy needs in the region. 2. Identify specific projects for inter-country collaboration. 3. Draft joint project proposals for such collaboration. A small group of experts (Annex VII) from Britain, Canada, USA and CSC secretariat staff made detailed plans for the Barbados meeting. With a view to assessing real energy needs locally, the Group recommended that a study be undertaken in Barbados prior to the meeting. A report on such a study was presented at the meeting. Member countries were also invited to prepare country papers. In addition, following the planning Group's recommendation, several technical papers were prepared. These covered subjects ranging from conceptual aspects to clarify objectives, assumptions and criteria to a review of all alternative energy technologies

  13. To Make Good Decision: A Group DSS for Multiple Criteria Alternative Rank and Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Shu Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Decision making is a recursive process and usually involves multiple decision criteria. However, such multiple criteria decision making may have a problem in which partial decision criteria may conflict with each other. An information technology, such as the decision support system (DSS and group DSS (GDSS, emerges to assist decision maker for decision-making process. Both the DSS and GDSS should integrate with a symmetrical approach to assist decision maker to take all decision criteria into consideration simultaneously. This study proposes a GDSS architecture named hybrid decision-making support model (HDMSM and integrated four decision approaches (Delphi, DEMATEL, ANP, and MDS to help decision maker to rank and select appropriate alternatives. The HDMSM consists of five steps, namely, criteria identification, criteria correlation calculation, criteria evaluation, critical criteria selection, and alternative rank and comparison. Finally, to validate the proposed feasibility of the proposed model, this study also conducts a case study to find out the important indexes of corporate social responsibility (CSR from multiple perspectives. As the case study demonstrates the proposed HDMSM enables a group of decision makers to implement the MCDM effectively and help them to analyze the relation and degree of mutual influence among different evaluation factors.

  14. Alternative group foster homes; a new place for young people to live.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, J S

    1976-11-01

    After a brief historical survey of child placement practices in the United States, this paper will address itself to an innovative form of placement for adolescents, "alternative group foster homes." The origins of two of these homes in "runaway houses" and their ideological underpinnings in the social and political critique of the counterculture will be discussed. The two homes will then be described and their functioning contrasted. One of them, Frye House, has managed to remain faithful to the radically democratic principles which animated its founding, and the other, Markham House, has not; the emphasis here will be on this difference and on its consequences for the homes as a whole and for the young people who have lived in them.

  15. Mounting of a group of Chinese scrolls from the Camilo Pessanha collection: an alternative solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel J. L. Lourenço

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is presented an alternative mounting solution that was developed after the treatment of a group of twelve Chinese scrolls of paintings and calligraphy. These art works are part of the Camilo Pessanha (1867 – 1926 collection that belongs to the Museu Nacional de Machado de Castro, and are currently on loan to the Museu do Oriente in Lisbon. The mounting of these scrolls was part of a project that was managed by the Fundação Oriente, and was supervised and carried out at the paper conservation and restoration department of the Instituto dos Museus e da Conservação. Issues pertaining to exhibition, environmental factors, handling and storage of oriental scrolls are discussed.

  16. Novel RNA structural features of an alternatively splicing group II intron from Clostridium tetani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Bonnie A; Zimmerly, Steven

    2014-06-01

    Group II introns are ribozymes in bacterial and organellar genomes that function as self-splicing introns and as retroelements. Previously, we reported that the group II intron C.te.I1 of Clostridium tetani alternatively splices in vivo to produce five distinct coding mRNAs. Accurate fusion of upstream and downstream reading frames requires a shifted 5' splice site located 8 nt upstream of the usual 5' GUGYG motif. This site is specified by the ribozyme through an altered intron/exon-binding site 1 (IBS1-EBS1) pairing. Here we use mutagenesis and self-splicing assays to investigate in more detail the significance of the structural features of the C.te.I1 ribozyme. The shifted 5' splice site is shown to be affected by structures in addition to IBS1-EBS1, and unlike other group II introns, C.te.I1 appears to require a spacer between IBS1 and the GUGYG motif. In addition, the mechanism of 3' exon recognition is modified from the ancestral IIB mechanism to a IIA-like mechanism that appears to be longer than the typical single base-pair interaction and may extend up to 4 bp. The novel ribozyme properties that have evolved for C.te.I1 illustrate the plasticity of group II introns in adapting new structural and catalytic properties that can be utilized to affect gene expression. © 2014 McNeil and Zimmerly; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  17. Head Start’s Impact is Contingent on Alternative Type of Care in Comparison Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Waldfogel, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Using data (n = 3,790 with 2,119 in the 3-year-old cohort and 1,671 in the 4-year-old cohort) from 353 Head Start centers in the Head Start Impact Study, the only large-scale randomized experiment in Head Start history, this paper examined the impact of Head Start on children’s cognitive and parent-reported social-behavioral outcomes through first grade contingent on the child care arrangements used by children who were randomly assigned to the control group (i.e., parental care, relative/non-relative care, another Head Start program, or other center-based care). A principal score matching approach was adopted to identify children assigned to Head Start who were similar to children in the control group with a specific care arrangement. Overall, the results showed that the effects of Head Start varied substantially contingent on the alternative child care arrangements. Compared to children in parental care and relative/non-relative care, Head Start participants generally had better cognitive and parent-reported behavioral development, with some benefits of Head Start persisting through first grade; in contrast, few differences were found between Head Start and other center-based care. The results have implications regarding the children for whom Head Start is most beneficial as well as how well Head Start compares to other center-based programs. PMID:25329552

  18. Comparison of 12-step groups to mutual help alternatives for AUD in a large, national study: Differences in membership characteristics and group participation, cohesion, and satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemore, Sarah E; Kaskutas, Lee Ann; Mericle, Amy; Hemberg, Jordana

    2017-02-01

    Many studies suggest that participation in 12-step groups contributes to better recovery outcomes, but people often object to such groups and most do not sustain regular involvement. Yet, research on alternatives to 12-step groups is very sparse. The present study aimed to extend the knowledge base on mutual help group alternatives for those with an alcohol use disorder (AUD), sampling from large, active, abstinence-focused groups including Women for Sobriety (WFS), LifeRing, and SMART Recovery (SMART). This paper presents a cross-sectional analysis of this longitudinal study, using baseline data to describe the profile and participation characteristics of attendees of these groups in comparison to 12-step members. Data from participants 18 and over with a lifetime AUD (N=651) were collected using Web-based surveys. Members of alternative 12-step groups were recruited in collaboration with group directors, who helped publicize the study by emailing meeting conveners and attendees and posting announcements on social media. A comparison group of current (past-30-day) 12-step attendees was recruited from an online meeting hub for recovering persons. Interested parties were directed to a Webpage where they were screened, and eligible participants completed an online survey assessing demographic and clinical variables; in-person and online mutual help involvement; and group satisfaction and cohesion. Analyses involved comparing those identifying WFS, SMART, and LifeRing as their primary group to 12-step members on the above characteristics. Compared to 12-step members, members of the mutual help alternatives were less religious and generally higher on education and income. WFS and LifeRing members were also older, more likely to be married, and lower on lifetime drug and psychiatric severity; meanwhile, LifeRing and SMART members were less likely to endorse the most stringent abstinence goal. Finally, despite lower levels of in-person meeting attendance, members of all

  19. Argus II retinal prosthesis implantation with scleral flap and autogenous temporalis fascia as alternative patch graft material: a 4-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matet, Alexandre; Amar, Nawel; Mohand-Said, Saddek; Sahel, José-Alain; Barale, Pierre-Olivier

    2016-01-01

    The Argus II retinal prosthesis is composed of an epiretinal electrode array positioned over the macula and connected to an extrascleral electronics case via a silicone cable, running through a sclerotomy. During implantation, the manufacturer recommends to cover the sclerotomy site with a patch of processed human pericardium to prevent postoperative hypotony and conjunctival erosion by the underlying electronics case. Due to biomedical regulations prohibiting the use of this material in France, we developed an alternative technique combining a scleral flap protecting the sclerotomy and an autogenous graft of superior temporalis fascia overlying the electronics case. The purpose of this study is to describe the 4-year outcomes of this modified procedure in three subjects who underwent Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System implantation. Clinical data consisting of intraocular pressure measurements and tolerance in terms of conjunctival erosion or inflammation were retrospectively assessed over a 4-year postoperative follow-up. None of the three patients implanted with the modified technique developed ocular hypotony over 4 years. A normal, transient conjunctival inflammation occurred during the first postoperative month but conjunctival erosion was not observed in any of the three patients over 4 years. Four years after implantation, the autogenous temporalis fascia graft remained well tolerated and the retinal prosthesis was functional in all three patients. The combination of an autograft of superficial temporalis fascia and a scleral flap efficiently prevented leakage through the sclerotomy site, ocular hypotony, and conjunctival erosion by the extrascleral electronics case. This modified technique is suitable for the implantation of existing and forthcoming retinal prostheses. Superficial temporalis fascia may also be used as alternative to commercial tectonic tissues for scleral wound repair in clinical settings where they are not available.

  20. The promise of a better group future: Cognitive alternatives increase students' self-efficacy and academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Aarti; Zhang, Airong; Jetten, Jolanda; Hao, Zhen; Cui, Lijuan

    2017-12-01

    Drawing on classic social identity theorizing (Tajfel, Differentiation between social groups: Studies in the social psychology of intergroup relations, London, UK, Academic Press, 1978), we propose that low-status minority group members' self-efficacy and performance on intellectual tasks can be enhanced by prompting them to believe in a better future for their group (i.e., increasing awareness of cognitive alternatives to the existing low-status position). Study 1 manipulated cognitive alternatives among 157 migrant workers' children in China, showing that self-efficacy was enhanced in the high compared to the low cognitive alternative condition. Study 2 extended this experimental finding among 114 migrant workers' children: Participants in the high cognitive alternative condition performed better on mathematics and attention tasks than did participants in the low cognitive alternative condition. Results highlight the power of believing in a better future for the collective as a means of enhancing self-efficacy and educational outcomes among members of disadvantaged groups. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Chiroptical properties of an alternatingly functionalized cellotriose bearing two porphyrin groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternatingly functionalized cellulose molecules have potential applications in optoelectronics and molecular receptors. For example, cellulose-based solar cells have been proposed. As a prototype for such molecules, the trisaccharide fragment of cellulose was modified by attachment of porphyrin gro...

  2. Identification of some clinical strains of CDC coryneform group A-3 and A-4 bacteria as Cellulomonas species and proposal of Cellulomonas hominis sp. nov. for some group A-3 strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, G; Ramos, C P; Collins, M D

    1995-01-01

    CDC coryneform group A-3 and A-4 bacteria were defined by Hollis and Weaver in 1981, but their taxonomic position is still unclear. By using biochemical and chemotaxonomical methods, four clinical strains belonging to CDC coryneform groups A-3 (n = 2) and A-4 (n = 2) were studied and could be assigned to the genus Cellulomonas, resulting in the first description of Cellulomonas strains isolated from clinical specimens. CDC coryneform group A-3 and A-4 strains were compared with the type strains of the seven species constituting the genus Cellulomonas at present as well as with the closely related species Oerskovia turbata, Oerskovia xanthineolytica, and Jonesia denitrificans, but their biochemical patterns were not compatible with the patterns of any of those species. Almost the entire sequences of the 16S rRNA genes of one representative strain of both CDC taxa were determined, and comparative sequence analysis confirmed the placement of the CDC coryneform group A-3 and A-4 strains studied in the Cellulomonas-Oerskovia subbranch of the actinomycetes. Both CDC taxa exhibited > 99% base pair homology within their 16S rDNAs. On the basis of phenotypic and molecular data, we formally propose a new species, Cellulomonas hominis sp. nov., for the CDC coryneform group A-3 bacteria examined. The type strain is DSM 9581. The precise taxonomic status of the CDC coryneform group A-4 strains studied remains to be established by quantitative DNA-DNA hybridizations. PMID:7559954

  3. Comparing Treatment and Control Groups on Multiple Outcomes: Robust Procedures for Testing a Directional Alternative Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lix, Lisa M.; Deering, Kathleen N.; Fouladi, Rachel T.; Manivong, Phongsack

    2009-01-01

    This study considers the problem of testing the difference between treatment and control groups on m [greater than or equal to] 2 measures when it is assumed a priori that the treatment group will perform better than the control group on all measures. Two procedures are investigated that do not rest on the assumptions of covariance homogeneity or…

  4. The Group Setting: A Viable Mental Health Alternative for the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger-Vartabedian, Laurel C.

    Group settings offer the elderly a unique outlet for interpersonal communication and can alleviate social isolation and aloneness. Group cohesiveness and instillation of hope are two curative factors in the group setting. Persons working with the elderly must be aware of their special problems and also be sensitive to their own age bias. Group…

  5. Evaluation of final waste forms and recommendations for baseline alternatives to group and glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleier, A.

    1997-09-01

    An assessment of final waste forms was made as part of the Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement/Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (FFCA/DDT&E) Program because supplemental waste-form technologies are needed for the hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes of concern to the Department of Energy and the problematic wastes on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The principal objective was to identify a primary waste-form candidate as an alternative to grout (cement) and glass. The effort principally comprised a literature search, the goal of which was to establish a knowledge base regarding four areas: (1) the waste-form technologies based on grout and glass, (2) candidate alternatives, (3) the wastes that need to be immobilized, and (4) the technical and regulatory constraints on the waste-from technologies. This report serves, in part, to meet this goal. Six families of materials emerged as relevant; inorganic, organic, vitrified, devitrified, ceramic, and metallic matrices. Multiple members of each family were assessed, emphasizing the materials-oriented factors and accounting for the fact that the two most prevalent types of wastes for the FFCA/DDT&E Program are aqueous liquids and inorganic sludges and solids. Presently, no individual matrix is sufficiently developed to permit its immediate implementation as a baseline alternative. Three thermoplastic materials, sulfur-polymer cement (inorganic), bitumen (organic), and polyethylene (organic), are the most technologically developed candidates. Each warrants further study, emphasizing the engineering and economic factors, but each also has limitations that regulate it to a status of short-term alternative. The crystallinity and flexible processing of sulfur provide sulfur-polymer cement with the highest potential for short-term success via encapsulation. Long-term immobilization demands chemical stabilization, which the thermoplastic matrices do not offer. Among the properties of the remaining

  6. A 4-year study on the effectiveness of alternate grazing of cattle and sheep in the control of bovine parasitic gastro-enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairden, K; Armour, J; Duncan, J L

    1995-11-01

    In many farming enterprises, animal management systems which could provide a practical and effective alternative to chemotherapy for the control of bovine helminthosis would be readily accepted. One system which has been proposed and shown to be effective in the short or medium term involves grazing different host species on a rotational basis. The study described here examined the effect of alternating cattle and sheep annually over an extended period of 4 years. Up to the second grazing season the system appeared to be successful, with a marked reduction in the cattle worm burdens. However, by the end of the study period the parasite burdens in calves grazed on the alternated pasture were equal to, or greater than, those of set-stocked control animals. It was thus clear that the alternate grazing strategy had failed. Data obtained from other parameters measured, i.e. faecal egg counts, pasture larval numbers and plasma pepsinogen levels, confirmed this observation.

  7. Solid polymer electrolytes based on alternating copolymers of vinyl ethers with methoxy oligo(ethyleneoxy)ethyl groups and vinylene carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Takahito; Fujita, Katsuhito; Inoue, Kentaro; Iwama, Hiroki; Kondoh, Kensaku; Uno, Takahiro; Kubo, Masataka

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Synthesis of alternating copolymers of vinyl ethers and vinylene carbonate. • Preparation of polymer electrolytes based on the alternating copolymers with LiTFSI. • Structure-property relationship for alternating copolymers-based electrolytes. • Interfacial stability between polymer electrolytes with lithium metal electrode. - Abstract: Alternating copolymers (poly(1a-g-alt-VC)) of vinyl ethers with various methoxy oligo(ethyleneoxy)ethyl groups and vinylene carbonate (VC) were prepared, and the thermal and electrochemical properties of their polymer electrolytes with LiTFSI and interfacial stability between the polymer electrolyte and Li metal electrode were investigated. T g 's increased linearly with salt contents, and decreased with an increase in the chain length of methoxy oligo(ethyleneoxy)ethyl groups in the vinyl ethers at constant salt concentration. The slopes of T g vs. [Li]/[O] were identical, independent of the polymer structure. The ionic conductivities of the polymer electrolytes increased with increasing the side-chain ethyleneoxy (EO) unit length of the vinyl ether unit in the alternating copolymers, and also their temperature dependences became relatively smaller in the polymer electrolytes having longer EO units in the vinyl ethers. The highest ionic conductivity, 1.2 × 10 −4 S/cm at 30 °C, was obtained in the alternating copolymer with a side-chain EO unit length of 23.5 in the vinyl ether unit. Ion transport coupled with the segmental motion of the polymer is dominant in these polymer electrolytes. Interfacial resistance increased gradually with contact time, indicative of the formation of passivation films on the Li metal electrode. These polymer electrolytes are thermally stable and have large electrochemical windows of use

  8. Spontaneous emergence, imitation and spread of alternative foraging techniques among groups of vervet monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica van de Waal

    Full Text Available Animal social learning has become a subject of broad interest, but demonstrations of bodily imitation in animals remain rare. Based on Voelkl and Huber's study of imitation by marmosets, we tested four groups of semi-captive vervet monkeys presented with food in modified film canisters ("aethipops'. One individual was trained to take the tops off canisters in each group and demonstrated five openings to them. In three groups these models used their mouth to remove the lid, but in one of the groups the model also spontaneously pulled ropes on a canister to open it. In the last group the model preferred to remove the lid with her hands. Following these spontaneous differentiations of foraging techniques in the models, we observed the techniques used by the other group members to open the canisters. We found that mouth opening was the most common technique overall, but the rope and hands methods were used significantly more in groups they were demonstrated in than in groups where they were not. Our results show bodily matching that is conventionally described as imitation. We discuss the relevance of these findings to discoveries about mirror neurons, and implications of the identity of the model for social transmission.

  9. To Make Good Decision: A Group DSS for Multiple Criteria Alternative Rank and Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Chen-Shu Wang; Heng-Li Yang; Shiang-Lin Lin

    2015-01-01

    Decision making is a recursive process and usually involves multiple decision criteria. However, such multiple criteria decision making may have a problem in which partial decision criteria may conflict with each other. An information technology, such as the decision support system (DSS) and group DSS (GDSS), emerges to assist decision maker for decision-making process. Both the DSS and GDSS should integrate with a symmetrical approach to assist decision maker to take all decision criteria in...

  10. [Co-agglutination as an alternative to precipitin testing in streptococcal grouping (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visintin, G; Revelant, P

    1979-01-01

    Grouping of beta-hemolytic streptococcal strains was performed over a six months period on a total of 102 isolates. The purpose was to compare the Lancefield method with three different possibilities offered by the Co-agglutination technique. The results show that the Co-agglutination is as reliable as precipitin testing but it can be much more sensitive and rapid than any other method.

  11. Part 4 of a 4-part series Miscellaneous Products: Trends and Alternatives in Deodorants, Antiperspirants, Sunblocks, Shaving Products, Powders, and Wipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Sharon; Katta, Rajani; Nedorost, Susan; Warshaw, Erin; Zirwas, Matt; Selbo, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To provide updated data on the usage of ingredients that are common potential contact allergens in several categories of topical products. To identify useful alternative products with few or no common contact allergens. Design: In November 2009, the full ingredient lists of 5,416 skin, hair, and cosmetic products marketed by the CVS pharmacy chain were copied from CVS.com into Microsoft Word format for analysis. Computer searches were made in Microsoft Word using search/replace and sorting functions to accurately identify the presence of specific allergens in each website product. Measurements: Percentages of American Contact Dermatitis Society core series allergens (and other common preservatives and sunblocks) were calculated. Results: The usage of American Contact Dermatitis Society core series allergens (and other preservatives and sunblocks) in various miscellaneous categories of topical products is reported. Conclusion: Data on allergens and alternatives for ancillary skin care products are not widely published. This article reviews some of the common potential allergens in antiperspirants, deodorants, shaving products, sunblocks, powders, and wipes. Suitable available alternative products for patients with contact allergy are listed. PMID:22010054

  12. Does a research group increase impact on the scientific community or general public discussion? Alternative metric-based evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Gregori M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Manuela De Gregori,1-3,* Valeria Scotti,4,* Annalisa De Silvestri,4 Moreno Curti,4 Guido Fanelli,2,5,6 Massimo Allegri,2,5,6 Michael E Schatman,2,7 1Pain Therapy Service, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy; 2Study In Multidisciplinary PAin Research Group, Parma, Italy; 3Young Against Pain Group, Parma, Italy; 4Center for Scientific Documentation and Biometry Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy; 5Anesthesia, Critical Care, and Pain Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Parma, Italy; 6Anesthesia, Intensive Care and Pain Therapy Service, Azienda Ospedaliero, Universitaria di Parma, Parma, Italy; 7US Pain Foundation, Bellevue, WA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work. Abstract: In this study, we investigated the impact of scientific publications of the Italian SIMPAR (Study In Multidisciplinary PAin Research group by using altmetrics, defined as nontraditional metrics constituting an alternative to more traditional citation-impact metrics, such as impact factor and H-index. By correlating traditional and alternative metrics, we attempted to verify whether publications by the SIMPAR group collectively had more impact than those performed by its individual members, either in solo publications or in publications coauthored by non-SIMPAR group investigators (which for the purpose of this study we will refer to as “individual publications”. For all the 12 members of the group analyzed (pain therapists, biologists, and pharmacologists, we created Open Researcher and Contributor ID and Impact Story accounts, and synchronized these data. Manually, we calculated the level metrics for each article by dividing the data obtained from the research community by those obtained from the public community. We analyzed 759 articles, 18 of which were published by the SIMPAR group. Altmetrics demonstrated that SIMPAR group publications were more likely to be saved (77.8% vs 45.9%, discussed

  13. E-cigarettes, a safer alternative for teenagers? A UK focus group study of teenagers' views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Shona; Weishaar, Heide; Sweeting, Helen; Trevisan, Filippo; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal

    2016-11-16

    Concerns exist that e-cigarettes may be a gateway to traditional cigarettes and/or (re)normalise teenage smoking. This qualitative study explores how teenagers in the UK currently perceive e-cigarettes and how and why they do or do not use them. 16 focus groups were conducted across the UK between November 2014 and February 2015, with 83 teenagers aged 14-17. All discussions were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, imported into NVivo 10 and thematically analysed. Teenagers generally agreed that e-cigarettes are useful products for smokers, including teenage smokers, to quit or reduce traditional cigarette use. Concerns were expressed about lack of information on their precise ingredients and any unknown risks for users and bystanders. However, teenagers typically viewed e-cigarettes as substantially less harmful than traditional cigarettes. They perceived e-cigarettes as attractive, with products described as 'fun' and having 'great flavourings'. Seeing websites or social media featuring e-cigarettes, especially YouTube 'vaping tricks', prompted some experimentation and imitation. E-cigarettes were used in a variety of situations, including at parties or when they could not smoke traditional cigarettes. A very few participants suggested covert use was a possibility and that e-cigarettes might help maintain a fledgling nicotine habit. Teenagers support the use of e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids for established adult smokers. However, they engage with these products differently from adults, with the novel hypothesis that covert use could potentially reinforce traditional cigarette smoking requiring further investigation. Policy responses should more clearly meet the needs of young people, as well as helping established adult smokers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Introduction and summary of the 13th meeting of the Scientific Group on Methodologies for the Safety Evaluation of Chemicals (SGOMSEC): alternative testing methodologies.

    OpenAIRE

    Stokes, W S; Marafante, E

    1998-01-01

    A workshop on alternative toxicological testing methodologies was convened by the Scientific Group on Methodologies for the Safety Evaluation of Chemicals (SGOMSEC) 26-31 January 1997 in Ispra, Italy, at the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods. The purpose of the workshop was to assess the current status of alternative testing methodologies available to evaluate adverse human health and environmental effects of chemicals. Another objective of the workshop was to identify...

  15. Is sociality required for the evolution of communicative complexity? Evidence weighed against alternative hypotheses in diverse taxonomic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ord, Terry J; Garcia-Porta, Joan

    2012-07-05

    Complex social communication is expected to evolve whenever animals engage in many and varied social interactions; that is, sociality should promote communicative complexity. Yet, informal comparisons among phylogenetically independent taxonomic groups seem to cast doubt on the putative role of social factors in the evolution of complex communication. Here, we provide a formal test of the sociality hypothesis alongside alternative explanations for the evolution of communicative complexity. We compiled data documenting variations in signal complexity among closely related species for several case study groups--ants, frogs, lizards and birds--and used new phylogenetic methods to investigate the factors underlying communication evolution. Social factors were only implicated in the evolution of complex visual signals in lizards. Ecology, and to some degree allometry, were most likely explanations for complexity in the vocal signals of frogs (ecology) and birds (ecology and allometry). There was some evidence for adaptive evolution in the pheromone complexity of ants, although no compelling selection pressure was identified. For most taxa, phylogenetic null models were consistently ranked above adaptive models and, for some taxa, signal complexity seems to have accumulated in species via incremental or random changes over long periods of evolutionary time. Becoming social presumably leads to the origin of social communication in animals, but its subsequent influence on the trajectory of signal evolution has been neither clear-cut nor general among taxonomic groups.

  16. Multi-stage ranking of emergency technology alternatives for water source pollution accidents using a fuzzy group decision making tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jianhua; Meng, Xianlin; You, Hong

    2016-06-05

    Due to the increasing number of unexpected water source pollution events, selection of the most appropriate disposal technology for a specific pollution scenario is of crucial importance to the security of urban water supplies. However, the formulation of the optimum option is considerably difficult owing to the substantial uncertainty of such accidents. In this research, a multi-stage technical screening and evaluation tool is proposed to determine the optimal technique scheme, considering the areas of pollutant elimination both in drinking water sources and water treatment plants. In stage 1, a CBR-based group decision tool was developed to screen available technologies for different scenarios. Then, the threat degree caused by the pollution was estimated in stage 2 using a threat evaluation system and was partitioned into four levels. For each threat level, a corresponding set of technique evaluation criteria weights was obtained using Group-G1. To identify the optimization alternatives corresponding to the different threat levels, an extension of TOPSIS, a multi-criteria interval-valued trapezoidal fuzzy decision making technique containing the four arrays of criteria weights, to a group decision environment was investigated in stage 3. The effectiveness of the developed tool was elaborated by two actual thallium-contaminated scenarios associated with different threat levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Four new diterpenes from the mangrove Ceriops tagal and structure revision of four dolabranes with a 4,18-epoxy group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Li, Wanshan; Shen, Li; Wu, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Four new diterpenes named tagalons A-D (1-4), comprising an isopimarane (1), two 16-nor-pimaranes (2-3), and a dolabrane (4), were isolated from the Chinese mangrove, Ceriops tagal, together with four known dolabranes containing a 4,18-epoxy group, viz. tagalene I (5), 4-epitagalene I (6), tagalsin A (7), and tagalsin B (8). The structures of these compounds were unambiguously established by HR-ESIMS and NMR spectroscopic data. Based on the new criteria of NOE interactions between H 2 -18/H 3 -19 and H 2 -18/H 3 -20, previously reported relative configurations of the above four known dolabranes were correctly revised as their C-4 epimers, respectively. The relative configuration of tagalon B (2) and the absolute configuration of tagalene I (5) were established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses, conducted with Cu Kα radiation. Most notably, tagalons C (3) and D (4) exhibited selective cytotoxicities against the human breast cancer cell line MT-1 with IC 50 values of 3.75 and 8.07μM, respectively; whereas tagalene I (5) displayed potent cytotoxic effects against four human breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-453, MDA-MB-231, SK-BR-3, and MT-1 with IC 50 values of 8.97, 8.97, 4.62, and 3.93μM, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The role of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM in Germany – A focus group study of GPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemann Thomas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a marked increase in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM in recent years worldwide. In Germany, apart from 'Heilpraktiker' (= state-licensed, non-medical CAM practitioners, some general practitioners (GPs provide CAM in their practices. This paper aims to explore the attitudes of GPs about the role of CAM in Germany, in relation to the healthcare system, quality of care, medical education and research. Furthermore, experiences of GPs integrating CAM in their daily practice were explored. Methods Using a qualitative methodological approach 3 focus groups with a convenience sample of 17 GPs were conducted. The discussions were transcribed verbatim and analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results The majority of the participating GPs had integrated one or more CAM therapies into their every-day practice. Four key themes were identified based on the topics covered in the focus groups: the role of CAM within the German healthcare system, quality of care, education and research. Within the theme 'role of CAM within the healthcare system' there were five categories: integration of CAM, CAM in the Statutory Health Insurance, modernisation of the Statutory Health Insurance Act, individual healthcare services and 'Heilpraktiker'. Regarding quality of care there were two broad groups of GPs: those who thought patients would benefit from standardizing CAM and those who feared that quality control would interfere with the individual approach of CAM. The main issues identified relating to research and education were the need for the development of alternative research strategies and the low quality of existing CAM education respectively. Conclusion The majority of the participating GPs considered CAM as a reasonable complementary approach within primary care. The study increased our understanding of GPs attitudes about the role of CAM within the German healthcare system and the use of

  19. Is sociality required for the evolution of communicative complexity? Evidence weighed against alternative hypotheses in diverse taxonomic groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ord, Terry J.; Garcia-Porta, Joan

    2012-01-01

    Complex social communication is expected to evolve whenever animals engage in many and varied social interactions; that is, sociality should promote communicative complexity. Yet, informal comparisons among phylogenetically independent taxonomic groups seem to cast doubt on the putative role of social factors in the evolution of complex communication. Here, we provide a formal test of the sociality hypothesis alongside alternative explanations for the evolution of communicative complexity. We compiled data documenting variations in signal complexity among closely related species for several case study groups—ants, frogs, lizards and birds—and used new phylogenetic methods to investigate the factors underlying communication evolution. Social factors were only implicated in the evolution of complex visual signals in lizards. Ecology, and to some degree allometry, were most likely explanations for complexity in the vocal signals of frogs (ecology) and birds (ecology and allometry). There was some evidence for adaptive evolution in the pheromone complexity of ants, although no compelling selection pressure was identified. For most taxa, phylogenetic null models were consistently ranked above adaptive models and, for some taxa, signal complexity seems to have accumulated in species via incremental or random changes over long periods of evolutionary time. Becoming social presumably leads to the origin of social communication in animals, but its subsequent influence on the trajectory of signal evolution has been neither clear-cut nor general among taxonomic groups. PMID:22641820

  20. Attitudes and perceptions of three groups of family farmers in Brazil on problems they perceive in raising broilers and alternative feeding strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Almeida, Gustavo Fonseca; Horsted, Klaus; Figueiredo, E. A.

    2015-01-01

    With the purpose to identify alternatives to the use of oil seed crops and cereals in broiler feeding, we interviewed 21 family farmers raising broilers in alternative systems located in three relevant sites for the poultry industry in Brazil. Two groups in the south (Parana and Rio Grande do Sul......) were organized in cooperatives raising slow-growing broilers in free-range systems. The third group was linked to a broiler company in the state of Sao Paulo producing antibiotic-free (AF) broilers in intensive systems. Individual assessments were performed through surveys with semi...

  1. Alternating treatment with didanosine and zidovudine versus either drug alone for the treatment of advanced HIV infection. The Alter Study. Nordic HIV Therapy Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerstoft, J; Melander, H; Bruun, J N

    1997-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of an alternating regime with zidovudine and didanosine versus treatment with either drug alone were investigated in a randomized, open, controlled trial, 552 patients with advanced HIV infection, 47% of whom had received prior treatment with zidovudine, were enrolled...... distributed between the 3 treatment groups. In the subgroup of patients with a CD4 count

  2. Pharmacodynamic effects of steady-state fingolimod on antibody response in healthy volunteers: a 4-week, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multiple-dose study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, Craig; Meiser, Karin; David, Olivier J; Schmouder, Robert

    2012-12-01

    Fingolimod, a first-in-class oral sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor (S1PR) modulator, is approved in many countries for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, at a once-daily 0.5-mg dose. A reduction in peripheral lymphocyte count is an expected consequence of the fingolimod mechanism of S1PR modulation. The authors investigated if this pharmacodynamic effect impacts humoral and cellular immunogenicity. In this double-blind, parallel-group, 4-week study, 72 healthy volunteers were randomized to steady state, fingolimod 0.5 mg, 1.25 mg, or to placebo. The authors compared T-cell dependent and independent responses to the neoantigens, keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), and pneumococcal polysaccharides vaccine (PPV-23), respectively, and additionally recall antigen response (tetanus toxoid [TT]) and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to KLH, TT, and Candida albicans. Fingolimod caused mild to moderate decreases in anti-KLH and anti-PPV-23 IgG and IgM levels versus placebo. Responder rates were identical between placebo and 0.5-mg groups for anti-KLH IgG (both > 90%) and comparable for anti-PPV-23 IgG (55% and 41%, respectively). Fingolimod did not affect anti-TT immunogenicity, and DTH response did not differ between placebo and fingolimod 0.5-mg groups. Expectedly, lymphocyte count reduced substantially in the fingolimod groups versus placebo but reversed by study end. Fingolimod was well tolerated, and the observed safety profile was consistent with previous reports.

  3. Use of Alternative Medications for Menopause-Related Symptoms in Three Major Ethnic Groups of Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohn Mar, Saw; Malhi, Fatehpal; Syed Rahim, Syed Hamid; Chua, Chin Tong; Sidhu, Sarjeet Singh; Sandheep, Sugathan

    2015-11-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the use of alternative medications to alleviate menopause-related symptoms among Malay, Chinese, and Indian women of Ipoh city. The prevalence, types, effectiveness, and associated factors were determined. The prevalence of alternative medication use was 41.4%. Evening primrose oil (EPO) was the most popular medication used (18.1%), followed by soy-based products (12.3%), green tea (6.8%), and gingko (5.8%). The medication was reported to be highly effective by 58.3% of soya bean diet users and 41.1% of EPO users. Significant variables associated with the use were Chinese or Indian ethnicity (P Chinese and Indians had significantly higher odds for the use than Malays (Chinese: odds ratio [OR] = 4.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.392-7.837; Indians: OR = 3.248, 95% CI = 1.586-6.654). © 2015 APJPH.

  4. Study and realization of static excitation of a synchronous motor-alternator group of 2700 kV A, 5500 V, 1500 rpm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustier, Marcel

    1978-01-01

    The herein reported work addressed the improvement of voltage regulation of synchronous groups (motor-alternator) which supply the electron linear accelerator (ALS) of the Saclay nuclear research centre. The design of this new regulation system is based on the experimental study of alternators. The author discusses the theoretical elements of the adjustment of a synchronous machine based on harmonic analysis, and reports the comprehensive calculation of a PID (proportional-integral-derivative) controller. After some generalities on semiconductors (power thyristors and transistors), the author reports the study of excitation currents for the group, and of the machine transmittance. He reports the determination of excitation amplifiers and transformers, the study of voltage regulation of the alternator, of the motor reactive power control, and of excitation transformers (the transformer for the motor and the transformer for the alternator). He finally reports and discusses results of tests and measurements when using either a thyristor-based or a transistor-based excitation for the controller [fr

  5. Critical appraisal of arguments for the delayed-start design proposed as alternative to the parallel-group randomized clinical trial design in the field of rare disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spineli, Loukia M; Jenz, Eva; Großhennig, Anika; Koch, Armin

    2017-08-17

    A number of papers have proposed or evaluated the delayed-start design as an alternative to the standard two-arm parallel group randomized clinical trial (RCT) design in the field of rare disease. However the discussion is felt to lack a sufficient degree of consideration devoted to the true virtues of the delayed start design and the implications either in terms of required sample-size, overall information, or interpretation of the estimate in the context of small populations. To evaluate whether there are real advantages of the delayed-start design particularly in terms of overall efficacy and sample size requirements as a proposed alternative to the standard parallel group RCT in the field of rare disease. We used a real-life example to compare the delayed-start design with the standard RCT in terms of sample size requirements. Then, based on three scenarios regarding the development of the treatment effect over time, the advantages, limitations and potential costs of the delayed-start design are discussed. We clarify that delayed-start design is not suitable for drugs that establish an immediate treatment effect, but for drugs with effects developing over time, instead. In addition, the sample size will always increase as an implication for a reduced time on placebo resulting in a decreased treatment effect. A number of papers have repeated well-known arguments to justify the delayed-start design as appropriate alternative to the standard parallel group RCT in the field of rare disease and do not discuss the specific needs of research methodology in this field. The main point is that a limited time on placebo will result in an underestimated treatment effect and, in consequence, in larger sample size requirements compared to those expected under a standard parallel-group design. This also impacts on benefit-risk assessment.

  6. SEARCHING FOR CFC’s AND HCFC’s ALTERNATIVES. Part I: A REFRIGERANT DESIGN STRATEGY USING GROUP CONTRIBUTION METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y KHETIB

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available It is now well established that the chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s, the hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC’s and other chlororinated hydrocarbons which are compounds mostly used as refrigerants, are causing more damages than benefits to the environment and particularly to the ozone layer. Therefore one can see how important it is to search for substitutes to these compounds with desirable combination of physical properties to meet the needs of specific applications but, ultimately, with no harms to the environment. In this paper, although the bases of a computer-aided design of refrigerants (CADR method being developed are outlined, the main purpose still remains the demonstration of the great ability and importance of group contribution methods in the development of such techniques, particularly for predicting vapour-liquid equilibria and other thermodynamic properties like the enthalpy or entropy of generated systems, by the use of models like the UNIFAC.

  7. Prediction of physico-chemical properties for PCs/DFs using the UNIFAC model with an alternative approximation for group assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramochi, Hidetoshi; Ohsako, Masahiro; Maeda, Kouji; Sakai, Shinichi

    2002-10-01

    The original-type UNIFAC model was used to predict the environmentally important physico-chemical properties of PCDDs/DFs, such as aqueous solubility, Henry's law constant, and 1-octanol/water partition coefficient, through the UNIFAC-derived infinite dilution activity coefficient. In this application, we suggest an alternative approximation that the aromatic ether group AC-O in PCDD/DF molecules is replaced with the aliphatic ether group CH-O, because the AC-O group is not available in the conventional UNIFAC model. With this approximation, the ability of the UNIFAC model to predict those properties was examined by comparing with experimental data. The UNIFAC model provided comparatively good estimation results. From these results, it is shown that the alternative approximation is useful for the UNIFAC estimation of physico-chemical properties for PCDDs/DFs. Furthermore, the predicted solubilities of 2,3,7,8-T4CDD and O8CDD in organic solvents and the co-solvency effect on solubility of PCDDs in methanol/water mixture indicate that the UNIFAC calculation presented here could well predict the physico-chemical properties of PCDDs/DFs in various solution conditions.

  8. Examining the Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Identity Scale Among Members of an Alternative Sexuality Special Interest Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Robert J; Golom, Frank D; Gemberling, Tess M; Trost, Kristen; Lewis, Robin; Wright, Susan

    2017-12-22

    The present study contributes to a growing body of literature developing psychometrically and theoretically grounded measures of sexual orientation minority identity. We tested psychometric properties and construct validity of a 27-item measure, the Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Identity Scale (LGBIS). The sample consisted of 475 adult (178 male, 237 female, 16 male-to-female, 14 female-to-male, and 30 gender queer persons) members of a special interest group, the National Coalition for Sexual Freedom. Participants completed a health needs questionnaire. Prominent findings included (1) confirmatory factor-analytic, internal consistency, and inter-correlation patterns support two LGBIS factor structures; (2) men, compared primarily to women, reported elevated scores on Acceptance Concerns, Concealment Motivation, Difficulty Process, and Negative Identity; (3) queer-identifying persons tended to report low Concealment Motivation, and high Identity Affirmation and Identity Centrality scores; (4) experimenting/fluid-identifying individuals tended toward higher Identity Uncertainty and Negative Identity, and lower Identity Centrality scores; (5) LGB community involvement was negatively associated with Concealment Motivation, Identity Uncertainty, and Negative Identity, and positively associated with Identity Superiority, Identity Affirmation, and Identity Centrality scores; and (6) Acceptance Concerns, Identity Uncertainty, and Internalized Homonegativity displayed significant positive associations with such mental health symptoms as general anxiety and posttraumatic stress. The LGBIS represents a useful approach to evaluating sexual orientation minority identity. Implications for identity theory, research, and practice are provided.

  9. A focus Group Study of Medical Students’ Views of an Integrated Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM Curriculum: Students Teaching Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Désirée Lie, M.D

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Student views of new curricula can shape training outcomes. This qualitative study elicited student opinions of CAM instruction to examine and distill best strategies.Methods: 49 second, third and fourth year students participated in focus groups using a predefined question route. Interviews were audio taped and transcribed.Results: Students successfully differentiated CAM curricula from other academic content and were supportive of a longitudinal integrated approach. They had positive disposition toward CAM use for themselves but this did not necessarily translate into patient recommendations. They agreed that goals of the CAM curriculum should center on awareness of patient use and evidence and information relevant to clinical practice. They advocated a case-based, hands-on, experiential strategy vs lectures. Students proposed greater institutional commitment to strengthen curricular effectiveness. The majority did not intend to practice CAM modalities but valued skills to assess them. Patient-centeredness was recognized. As training progressed, students exhibited a growing tendency to evaluate CAM efficacy, and therefore value, exclusively according to evidence.Conclusions: In-depth student input allowed examination of the effectiveness of a CAM curriculum,permitting improvement and assessment of program effectiveness.

  10. Working group 2: Alternative energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillon, L.

    1976-01-01

    Evaluations and considerations on the reserves of different forms of energy as wood, coal, petroleum, natural gas, shale oil, tar sand, tar shale, water-power, wind, geothermal and fusion power are presented for Belgium and the world. (A.F.)

  11. Estimating Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness With the Test-Negative Design Using Alternative Control Groups: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shuo; Cowling, Benjamin J; Kelly, Heath; Sullivan, Sheena G

    2018-02-01

    One important assumption in case-control studies is that control selection should be independent of exposure. Nevertheless, it has been hypothesized that virus interference might lead to a correlation between receipt of influenza vaccination and increased risk of infection with other respiratory viruses. We investigated whether such a phenomenon might affect a study design commonly used to estimate influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE). We searched publications in MEDLINE, PubMed, and Web of Science. We identified 12 studies using the test-negative design (2011-2017) that reported VE estimates separately derived by 3 alternative control groups: 1) all patients testing negative for influenza (FLU), VEFLU-; 2) patients who tested positive for other/another respiratory virus (ORV), VEORV+; and 3) patients who tested negative for all viruses in the panel (PAN), VEPAN-. These included VE estimates from 7 countries for all age groups from 2003/2004 to 2013/2014. We observed no difference in vaccination coverage between the ORV-positive and PAN-negative control groups. A total of 63 VEFLU- estimates, 62 VEORV+ estimates, and 33 VEPAN- estimates were extracted. Pooled estimates of the difference in VE (ΔVE) were very similar between groups. In meta-regression, no association was found between the selection of control group and VE estimates. In conclusion, we did not find any differences in VE estimates based on the choice of control group. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Project on Alternative Systems Study - PASS. Comparison of technology of KBS-3, MLH, VLH and VDH concepts by using an expert group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, Lars; Sandstedt, H.

    1992-09-01

    This report constitutes a technical comparison and ranking of four repository concepts for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel, that have been studied by SKB: KBS-3, Medium Long Holes (MLH), Very Long Holes (VLH) and Very Deep Holes (VDH). The technical comparison is part of the project 'Project on Alternative Systems Study, PASS', which was initiated by SKB. With the objective of presenting a ranking of the four concepts. Besides this comparison of Technology the ranking is separately made for Long-term Performance and Safety, and Costs before the merging into one verdict. The ranking regarding Technology was carried out in accordance with the method Analytical Hierarchy Process, AHP, and by the aid of expert judgement in the form of a group consisting of six experts. The AHP method implies that the criteria for comparison are ordered in a hierarchy and that the ranking is carried out by pairwise comparison of the criteria. In the evaluation process a measure of the relative importance of each criterion is obtained. The result of the expert judgement exercise was that each expert individually ranked the four concepts in the following order with the top ranked alternative first: KBS-3, MLH, VLH and VDH. The common opinion among the experts was that the top ranking of KBS-3 is significant and the the major criteria used in the study could change substantially without changing the top ranking of KBS-3

  13. The group I-like ribozyme DiGIR1 mediates alternative processing of pre-rRNA transcripts in Didymium iridis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vader, Anna; Johansen, Steinar; Nielsen, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    context, and presents a new example of the cost to the host of intron load. This is because the formation of the 7.5-kb RNA is incompatible with the formation of functional ribosomal RNA from the same transcript. In the formation of the 7.5-kb RNA, DiGIR1 catalysed cleavage takes place without prior...... splicing performed by DiGIR2. This contrasts with the processing order leading to mature rRNA and I-DirI mRNA in growing cells, suggesting an interplay between the two ribozymes of a twin-ribozyme intron.......During starvation induced encystment, cells of the myxomycete Didymium iridis accumulate a 7.5-kb RNA that is the result of alternative processing of pre-rRNA. The 5' end corresponds to an internal processing site cleaved by the group I-like ribozyme DiGIR1, located within the twin-ribozyme intron...

  14. Views and Preferences for Nicotine Products as an Alternative to Smoking: A Focus Group Study of People Living with Mental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurk, Carla; Ford, Pauline; Sharma, Ratika; Fitzgerald, Lisa; Gartner, Coral

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Background: People living with mental disorders experience a disproportionately higher burden of tobacco-related disease than the general population. Long-term substitution with less harmful nicotine products could reduce the tobacco-related harm among this population. This study investigated the views and preferences of people with mental health disorders about different nicotine products and their use as long-term substitutes for cigarettes. Methods: Semi-structured focus group discussion followed by a brief questionnaire. The discussion transcripts were analysed for content and themes and quantitative data summarised with descriptive statistics. Results: Twenty-nine participants took part in four focus groups. Vaping devices were the most acceptable nicotine products discussed; however preferences for nicotine products were individual and varied along aesthetic, pragmatic, sensory and symbolic dimensions. The concept of tobacco harm reduction was unfamiliar to participants, however they generally agreed with the logic of replacing cigarettes with less harmful nicotine products. Barriers to activating tobacco harm reduction included the symbolism of smoking and quitting; the importance placed on health; the consumer appeal of alternatives; and cost implications. Discussion and Conclusions: Engaging this population in tobacco harm reduction options will require communication that challenges black and white thinking (a conceptual framework in which smoking cigarettes or quitting all nicotine are the only legitimate options) as in practice this serves to support the continuance of smoking. Consumers should be encouraged to trial a range of nicotine products to find the most acceptable alternative to smoking that reduces health harms. Providing incentives to switch to nicotine products could help overcome barriers to using less harmful nicotine products among mental health consumers. PMID:27886046

  15. Views and Preferences for Nicotine Products as an Alternative to Smoking: A Focus Group Study of People Living with Mental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurk, Carla; Ford, Pauline; Sharma, Ratika; Fitzgerald, Lisa; Gartner, Coral

    2016-11-23

    Aims and Background : People living with mental disorders experience a disproportionately higher burden of tobacco-related disease than the general population. Long-term substitution with less harmful nicotine products could reduce the tobacco-related harm among this population. This study investigated the views and preferences of people with mental health disorders about different nicotine products and their use as long-term substitutes for cigarettes. Methods : Semi-structured focus group discussion followed by a brief questionnaire. The discussion transcripts were analysed for content and themes and quantitative data summarised with descriptive statistics. Results : Twenty-nine participants took part in four focus groups. Vaping devices were the most acceptable nicotine products discussed; however preferences for nicotine products were individual and varied along aesthetic, pragmatic, sensory and symbolic dimensions. The concept of tobacco harm reduction was unfamiliar to participants, however they generally agreed with the logic of replacing cigarettes with less harmful nicotine products. Barriers to activating tobacco harm reduction included the symbolism of smoking and quitting; the importance placed on health; the consumer appeal of alternatives; and cost implications. Discussion and Conclusions : Engaging this population in tobacco harm reduction options will require communication that challenges black and white thinking (a conceptual framework in which smoking cigarettes or quitting all nicotine are the only legitimate options) as in practice this serves to support the continuance of smoking. Consumers should be encouraged to trial a range of nicotine products to find the most acceptable alternative to smoking that reduces health harms. Providing incentives to switch to nicotine products could help overcome barriers to using less harmful nicotine products among mental health consumers.

  16. Views and Preferences for Nicotine Products as an Alternative to Smoking: A Focus Group Study of People Living with Mental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Meurk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Background: People living with mental disorders experience a disproportionately higher burden of tobacco-related disease than the general population. Long-term substitution with less harmful nicotine products could reduce the tobacco-related harm among this population. This study investigated the views and preferences of people with mental health disorders about different nicotine products and their use as long-term substitutes for cigarettes. Methods: Semi-structured focus group discussion followed by a brief questionnaire. The discussion transcripts were analysed for content and themes and quantitative data summarised with descriptive statistics. Results: Twenty-nine participants took part in four focus groups. Vaping devices were the most acceptable nicotine products discussed; however preferences for nicotine products were individual and varied along aesthetic, pragmatic, sensory and symbolic dimensions. The concept of tobacco harm reduction was unfamiliar to participants, however they generally agreed with the logic of replacing cigarettes with less harmful nicotine products. Barriers to activating tobacco harm reduction included the symbolism of smoking and quitting; the importance placed on health; the consumer appeal of alternatives; and cost implications. Discussion and Conclusions: Engaging this population in tobacco harm reduction options will require communication that challenges black and white thinking (a conceptual framework in which smoking cigarettes or quitting all nicotine are the only legitimate options as in practice this serves to support the continuance of smoking. Consumers should be encouraged to trial a range of nicotine products to find the most acceptable alternative to smoking that reduces health harms. Providing incentives to switch to nicotine products could help overcome barriers to using less harmful nicotine products among mental health consumers.

  17. The group I-like ribozyme DiGIR1 mediates alternative processing of pre-rRNA transcripts in Didymium iridis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vader, Anna; Johansen, Steinar; Nielsen, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    Dir.S956-1. The RNA retains the majority of Dir.S956-1 including the homing endonuclease gene and a small spliceosomal intron, the internal transcribed spacers ITS1 and ITS2, and the large subunit rRNA lacking its two group I introns. The formation of this RNA implies cleavage by DiGIR1 in a new RNA......During starvation induced encystment, cells of the myxomycete Didymium iridis accumulate a 7.5-kb RNA that is the result of alternative processing of pre-rRNA. The 5' end corresponds to an internal processing site cleaved by the group I-like ribozyme DiGIR1, located within the twin-ribozyme intron...... context, and presents a new example of the cost to the host of intron load. This is because the formation of the 7.5-kb RNA is incompatible with the formation of functional ribosomal RNA from the same transcript. In the formation of the 7.5-kb RNA, DiGIR1 catalysed cleavage takes place without prior...

  18. Designing augmentative and alternative communication applications: the results of focus groups with speech-language pathologists and parents of children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boster, Jamie B; McCarthy, John W

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain insight from speech-language pathologists (SLPs) and parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) regarding appealing features of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) applications. Two separate 1-hour focus groups were conducted with 8 SLPs and 5 parents of children with ASD to identify appealing design features of AAC Apps, their benefits and potential concerns. Participants were shown novel interface designs for communication mode, play mode and incentive systems. Participants responded to poll questions and provided benefits and drawbacks of the features as part of structured discussion. SLPs and parents identified a range of appealing features in communication mode (customization, animation and colour-coding) as well as in play mode (games and videos). SLPs preferred interfaces that supported motor planning and instruction while parents preferred those features such as character assistants that would appeal to their child. Overall SLPs and parents agreed on features for future AAC Apps. SLPs and parents have valuable input in regards to future AAC app design informed by their experiences with children with ASD. Both groups are key stakeholders in the design process and should be included in future design and research endeavors. Implications for Rehabilitation AAC applications for the iPad are often designed based on previous devices without consideration of new features. Ensuring the design of new interfaces are appealing and beneficial for children with ASD can potentially further support their communication. This study demonstrates how key stakeholders in AAC including speech language pathologists and parents can provide information to support the development of future AAC interface designs. Key stakeholders may be an untapped resource in the development of future AAC interfaces for children with ASD.

  19. Efficacy and safety of mixed amphetamine salts extended release (Adderall XR) in the management of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adolescent patients: a 4-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Thomas J; Wilens, Timothy E; Biederman, Joseph; Weisler, Richard H; Read, Stephanie C; Pratt, Raymond

    2006-02-01

    The ability to recognize and diagnose attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has increased in recent years. The persistence of ADHD symptoms puts adolescents with ADHD at risk for long-term adverse psychosocial outcomes. The primary goal of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of mixed amphetamine salts extended release (MAS XR) in the management of adolescents with ADHD. This was a 4-week, randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, forced-dose-titration study. Adolescents aged 13 to 17 years with ADHD were randomized to 1 of 4 active treatments (MAS XR 10, 20, 30 or 40 mg/d) or to placebo. All doses were given in the morning. This study used a forced-dose-titration design in which patients randomized to the 10-mg/d group received 1 dose of 10 mg/d for 4 weeks. Patients randomized to the 20-mg/d group received 1 dose of 10 mg/d for the first week and 1 dose of 20 mg/d for the remaining weeks; patients randomized to the 30-mg/d group received 1 dose of 10 mg/d for the first week, 1 dose of 20 mg/d for the second week, and 1 dose of 30 mg/d for the remaining 2 weeks; and patients randomized to the 40-mg/d group received 1 dose of 10 mg/d for the first week, 1 dose of 20 mg/d for the second week, 1 dose of 30 mg/d for the third week, and 1 dose of 40 mg/d for the fourth week. The primary efficacy measure was change from baseline to end point in the ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHD-RS-IV) score. The secondary efficacy measure was the score on the Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement (CGI-I) scale for ADHD. ADHD-RS-IV total scores were analyzed post hoc in patients with low baseline ADHD-RS-IV severity (ie, patients with baseline ADHD-RS-IV total scores less than the median) and high baseline ADHD-RS-IV severity (ie, patients with baseline ADHD-RS-IV total scores greater than the median). Safety was assessed by recording adverse events, vital signs, and body weight at all study visits and 30 days after drug

  20. Analysis of operational, institutional and international limitations for alternative fuel vehicles and technologies: Means/methods for implementing changes. [Public fleet groups--information needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    This project focused upon the development of an approach to assist public fleet managers in evaluating the characteristics and availability of alternative fuels (AF's) and alternative fuel vehicles (AFV's) that will serve as possible replacements for vehicles currently serving the needs of various public entities. Also of concern were the institutional/international limitations for alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. The City of Detroit and other public agencies in the Detroit area were the particular focus for the activities. As the development and initial stages of use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles proceeds, there will be an increasing need to provide information and guidance to decision-makers regarding differences in requirements and features of these fuels and vehicles. There wig be true differences in requirements for servicing, managing, and regulating. There will also be misunderstanding and misperception. There have been volumes of data collected on AFV'S, and as technology is improved, new data is constantly added. There are not, however, condensed and effective sources of information for public vehicle fleet managers on vehicle and equipment sources, characteristics, performance, costs, and environmental benefits. While theoretical modeling of public fleet requirements has been done, there do not seem to be readily available practical''. There is a need to provide the best possible information and means to minimize the problems for introducing the effective use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles.

  1. Alternative security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weston, B.H.

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters: The Military and Alternative Security: New Missions for Stable Conventional Security; Technology and Alternative Security: A Cherished Myth Expires; Law and Alternative Security: Toward a Just World Peace; Politics and Alternative Security: Toward a More Democratic, Therefore More Peaceful, World; Economics and Alternative Security: Toward a Peacekeeping International Economy; Psychology and Alternative Security: Needs, Perceptions, and Misperceptions; Religion and Alternative Security: A Prophetic Vision; and Toward Post-Nuclear Global Security: An Overview

  2. Who Are the Students Who May Qualify for an Alternate Assessment Based on Modified Academic Achievement Standards (AA-MAS)?: Focus Group Results. Synthesis Report 79

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Sandra; Ebben, Barbara; Kubinski, Eva; Sim, Grant; Liu, Kristin; Lazarus, Sheryl; Thurlow, Martha; Christian, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Beginning in 2007, federal regulations to two major education laws gave state departments of education the option to develop an alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS) for some students with disabilities. The regulations stated that the AA-MAS was intended for students who were being instructed in the grade-level…

  3. Alternative additives; Alternative additiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-08-15

    In this project a number of industrial and agricultural waste products have been characterised and evaluated in terms of alkali-getter performance. The intended use is for biomass-fired power stations aiming at reducing corrosion or slagging related problems. The following products have been obtained, characterised and evaluated: 1) Brewery draff 2) Danish de-gassed manure 3) Paper sludge 4) Moulding sand 5) Spent bleaching earth 6) Anorthosite 7) Sand 8) Clay-sludge. Most of the above alternative additive candidates are deemed unsuitable due to insufficient chemical effect and/or expensive requirements for pre-treatment (such as drying and transportation). 3 products were selected for full-scale testing: de-gassed manure, spent bleaching earth and clay slugde. The full scale tests were undertaken at the biomass-fired power stations in Koege, Slagelse and Ensted. Spent bleaching earth (SBE) and clay sludge were the only tested additive candidates that had a proven ability to react with KCl, to thereby reduce Cl-concentrations in deposits, and reduce the deposit flux to superheater tubes. Their performance was shown to nearly as good as commercial additives. De-gassed manure, however, did not evaluate positively due to inhibiting effects of Ca in the manure. Furthermore, de-gassed manure has a high concentration of heavy metals, which imposes a financial burden with regard to proper disposal of the ash by-products. Clay-sludge is a wet clay slurring, and drying and transportation of this product entails substantial costs. Spent bleaching does not require much pre-treatment and is therefore the most promising alternative additive. On the other hand, bleaching earth contains residual plant oil which means that a range of legislation relating to waste combustion comes into play. Not least a waste combustion fee of 330 DKK/tonne. For all alternative (and commercial) additives disposal costs of the increase ash by-products represents a significant cost. This is

  4. Quantum mechanical alternative to Arrhenius equation in the interpretation of proton spin-lattice relaxation data for the methyl groups in solids

    KAUST Repository

    Bernatowicz, Piotr

    2015-10-01

    Theory of nuclear spin-lattice relaxation in methyl groups in solids has been a recurring problem in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The current view is that, except for extreme cases of low torsional barriers where special quantum effects are at stake, the relaxation behaviour of the nuclear spins in methyl groups is controlled by thermally activated classical jumps of the methyl group between its three orientations. The temperature effects on the relaxation rates can be modelled by Arrhenius behaviour of the correlation time of the jump process. The entire variety of relaxation effects in protonated methyl groups has recently been given a consistently quantum mechanical explanation not invoking the jump model regardless of the temperature range. It exploits the damped quantum rotation (DQR) theory originally developed to describe NMR line shape effects for hindered methyl groups. In the DQR model, the incoherent dynamics of the methyl group include two quantum rate, i.e., coherence-damping processes. For proton relaxation only one of these processes is relevant. In this paper, temperature-dependent proton spin-lattice relaxation data for the methyl groups in polycrystalline methyltriphenyl silane and methyltriphenyl germanium, both deuterated in aromatic positions, are reported and interpreted in terms of the DQR model. A comparison with the conventional approach exploiting the phenomenological Arrhenius equation is made. The present observations provide further indications that incoherent motions of molecular moieties in condensed phase can retain quantum character over much broad temperature range than is commonly thought.

  5. Alternative Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative fuels include gaseous fuels such as hydrogen, natural gas, and propane; alcohols such as ethanol, methanol, and butanol; vegetable and waste-derived oils; and electricity. Overview of alternative fuels is here.

  6. The Integration of Family and Group Therapy as an Alternative to Juvenile Incarceration: A Quasi-Experimental Evaluation Using Parenting with Love and Limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Eli A; Sterrett, Emma M; Kiaer, Lynn

    2017-06-01

    The current study employed a quasi-experimental design using both intent-to-treat and protocol adherence analysis of 155 moderate- to high-risk juvenile offenders to evaluate the effectiveness of Parenting with Love and Limits® (PLL), an integrative group and family therapy approach. Youth completing PLL had significantly lower rates of recidivism than the comparison group. Parents also reported statistically significant improvements in youth behavior. Lengths of service were also significantly shorter for the treatment sample than the matched comparison group by an average of 4 months. This study contributes to the literature by suggesting that intensive community-based combined family and group treatment is effective in curbing recidivism among high-risk juveniles. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  7. Alternative loop rings

    CERN Document Server

    Goodaire, EG; Polcino Milies, C

    1996-01-01

    For the past ten years, alternative loop rings have intrigued mathematicians from a wide cross-section of modern algebra. As a consequence, the theory of alternative loop rings has grown tremendously. One of the main developments is the complete characterization of loops which have an alternative but not associative, loop ring. Furthermore, there is a very close relationship between the algebraic structures of loop rings and of group rings over 2-groups. Another major topic of research is the study of the unit loop of the integral loop ring. Here the interaction between loop rings and group ri

  8. Contemporary Jus Ad Bellum on Use of Force in Self-Defense by States Against Non-State Terrorist Groups -- Limitations, Evolutions and Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    FARC Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia ) ICJ International Court of Justice ICTY...s Resolution 748. Soon thereafter, the United States launched cruise missiles into Sudan and Afghanistan to destroy a Sudanese pharmaceutical plant...Arab states condemned the strikes against the Sudanese pharmaceutical factory, but not those against the bases in Afghanistan. The group of African

  9. The procedure of alternative site selection within the report of the study group on the radioactive waste final repository selection process (AKEnd)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nies, A.

    2005-01-01

    The study group on the selection procedures of radioactive waste final repository sites has presented the report in December 2002. The author dicusses the consequences of this report with respect to the site selection focussing on two topics: the serach for the best possible site and the prevention of prejudices

  10. Self-splicing of a group IIC intron: 5? exon recognition and alternative 5? splicing events implicate the stem?loop motif of a transcriptional terminator

    OpenAIRE

    Toor, Navtej; Robart, Aaron R.; Christianson, Joshua; Zimmerly, Steven

    2006-01-01

    Bacterial IIC introns are a newly recognized subclass of group II introns whose ribozyme properties have not been characterized in detail. IIC introns are typically located downstream of transcriptional terminator motifs (inverted repeat followed by T's) or other inverted repeats in bacterial genomes. Here we have characterized the self-splicing activity of a IIC intron, B.h.I1, from Bacillus halodurans. B.h.I1 self-splices in vitro through hydrolysis to produce linear intron, but interesting...

  11. Rapidly alternating combination of cisplatin-based chemotherapy and hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy in split course for Stage IIIA and Stage IIIB non-small cell lung cancer: results of a Phase I-II study by the GOTHA group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberto, P.; Mermillod, B. [Hopital Cantonal Geneve, Geneva (Switzerland); Mirimanoff, R.O.; Leyvraz, S.; Nagy-Mignotte, H.; Bolla, M.; Wellmann, D.; Moro, D.; Brambilla, E. [Hopital Cantonal Universitaire, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1995-08-01

    The prognosis of stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) can be improved by a combination of radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy (CT). In this study, the GOTHA group evaluated the feasibility, tolerance, tumour response, pattern of failure and effect on survival of a combination alternating accelerated hyperfractionated (AH) RT and CT in patients with tumour stage III NSCLC. Toxic effects were leucopenia, nausea and vomiting, mucositis, diarrhoea, alopecia and peripheral neuropathy. Alternating CT and AHRT, as used in this study, were well tolerated and allowed full dose delivery within less than 12 weeks. Initial response was not predictive of survival. The survival curve is encouraging and the 5 year survival is superior to the 5% generally observed with conventionally fractionated radiotherapy. (author).

  12. Tribimaximal neutrino mixing from A4 replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carone, Christopher D.; Lebed, Richard F.

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by dimensional deconstruction, we propose a model of tribimaximal neutrino mixing based on A 4 xA 4 symmetry. In this model, the two triplet symmetry-breaking fields of conventional A 4 models are taken to transform under different A 4 group factors, but are not distinguished by any other quantum numbers. An additional bi-triplet flavor field breaks A 4 xA 4 to its diagonal subgroup. If the bi-triplet transforms under an additional Z 3 symmetry, we show that one can construct a general, renormalizable superpotential that yields the desired pattern of symmetry breaking. We identify the features that this model has in common with a deconstructed 5D theory in which A 4 is a subgroup of a continuous gauged flavor symmetry in the bulk.

  13. How alternative are alternative fuels?

    OpenAIRE

    Soffritti, Tiziana; Danielis, Romeo

    1998-01-01

    Could alternative fuel vehicles contribute to a substantial reduction of air pollution? Is there a market for alternative fuel vehicles? Could a market be created via a pollution tax? The article answers these questions on the basis of the available estimates.

  14. Alternative Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the widespread and erroneous belief that they are natural and do no harm, and because their use offers the opportunity for more control over treatment options and procedures. Alternative therapies can reduce stress, pain, and/or fatigue. Some therapies are covered ...

  15. Growing Alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Petersen, Mai Corlin

    2014-01-01

    From 2014, Anhui Province will pilot a reform of the residential land market in China, thus integrating rural Anhui in the national housing market. In contrast, artist and activist Ou Ning has proposed the Bishan time money currency, intending to establish an alternative economic circuit in Bishan...

  16. Magnetostrictive Alternator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Rodger; Bruder, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    This innovation replaces the linear alternator presently used in Stirling engines with a continuous-gradient, impedance-matched, oscillating magnetostrictive transducer that eliminates all moving parts via compression, maintains high efficiency, costs less to manufacture, reduces mass, and eliminates the need for a bearing system. The key components of this new technology are the use of stacked magnetostrictive materials, such as Terfenol-D, under a biased magnetic and stress-induced compression, continuous-gradient impedance-matching material, coils, force-focusing metallic structure, and supports. The acoustic energy from the engine travels through an impedancematching layer that is physically connected to the magnetostrictive mass. Compression bolts keep the structure under compressive strain, allowing for the micron-scale compression of the magnetostrictive material and eliminating the need for bearings. The relatively large millimeter displacement of the pressure side of the impedance-matching material is reduced to micron motion, and undergoes stress amplification at the magnetostrictive interface. The alternating compression and expansion of the magnetostrictive material creates an alternating magnetic field that then induces an electric current in a coil that is wound around the stack. This produces electrical power from the acoustic pressure wave and, if the resonant frequency is tuned to match the engine, can replace the linear alternator that is commonly used.

  17. Alternative drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, M E; Chenoweth, J; Albertson, T E

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of drug abuse with alternative agents is increasing. The term "alternative drugs of abuse" is a catch-all term for abused chemicals that do not fit into one of the classic categories of drugs of abuse. The most common age group abusing these agents range from 17 to 25 years old and are often associated with group settings. Due to their diverse pharmacological nature, legislative efforts to classify these chemicals as a schedule I drug have lagged behind the development of new alternative agents. The potential reason for abuse of these agents is their hallucinogenic, dissociative, stimulant, anti-muscarinic, or sedative properties. Some of these drugs are easily obtainable such as Datura stramonium (Jimson Weed) or Lophophora williamsii (Peyote) because they are natural plants indigenous to certain regions. The diverse pharmacology and clinical effects of these agents are so broad that they do not produce a universal constellation of signs and symptoms. Detailed physical exams are essential for identifying clues leading one to suspect an alternative drug of abuse. Testing for the presence of these agents is often limited, and even when available, the results do not return in a timely fashion. Intoxications from these agents pose unique challenges for health care providers. Physician knowledge of the physiological effects of these alternative agents and the local patterns of drug of abuse are important for the accurate diagnosis and optimal care of poisoned patients. This review summarizes the current knowledge of alternative drugs of abuse and highlights their clinical presentations.

  18. Alternative 23

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Alternative 23 is a curated exhibition of works by Steve Aylett, David Blandy & Daniel Locke, Let Me Feel Your Finger First, Laura Oldfield Ford, Plastique Fantastique and Henrik Schrat, including the first screening of Let Me Feel Your Finger First’s Postcolonial Capers.\\ud \\ud In 1985 DC Comics in the US had taken the commercial decision to unify the complex and contradictory character story arcs from its various strips such as Superman, Batman and Green Lantern. The resultant crossover ser...

  19. Alternative detente

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soper, K.; Ryle, M.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of the Chernobyl accident on the disarmament and anti-nuclear movements is discussed. The accident directed attention towards the areas in common rather than the areas of disagreement. It also demonstrated the environmental impact of radioactivity, strengthening the ecological case of the anti-nuclear movement. The issues are discussed for the Western and Eastern bloc countries and the relationship between the two. Sections focus on the Eco-protest, Green politics and economics and on the politics of minority protest and the Green alternative. (U.K.)

  20. Alternative crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreasen, L.M.; Boon, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    Surplus cereal production in the EEC and decreasing product prices, mainly for cereals, has prompted considerable interest for new earnings in arable farming. The objective was to examine whether suggested new crops (fibre, oil, medicinal and alternative grains crops) could be considered as real alternatives. Whether a specific crop can compete economically with cereals and whether there is a market demand for the crop is analyzed. The described possibilities will result in ca. 50,000 hectares of new crops. It is expected that they would not immediately provide increased earnings, but in the long run expected price developments are more positive than for cereals. The area for new crops will not solve the current surplus cereal problem as the area used for new crops is only 3% of that used for cereals. Preconditions for many new crops is further research activities and development work as well as the establishment of processing units and organizational initiatives. Presumably, it is stated, there will then be a basis for a profitable production of new crops for some farmers. (AB) (47 refs.)

  1. Energy alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    English. A special committe of the Canadian House of Commons was established on 23 May 1980 to investigate the use of alternative energy sources such as 'gasohol', liquified coal, solar energy, methanol, wind and tidal power, biomass, and propane. In its final report, the committee envisions an energy system for Canada based on hydrogen and electricity, using solar and geothermal energy for low-grade heat. The committe was not able to say which method of generating electricty would dominate in the next century, although it recommends that fossil fuels should not be used. The fission process is not specifically discussed, but the outlook for fusion was investigated, and continued governmental support of fusion research is recommended. The report proposes some improvements in governmental energy organizations and programs

  2. The new Audi A4; Der neue Audi A4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basshuysen, R. van [ed.; Siebenpfeiffer, W. [comp.

    2000-11-01

    Details of the new Audi A4 are presented. The new car has a c{sub w} value of 0.28 in spite of a serial air conditioning system and a 'multitronic' control system for the 2.5 l V6 TDI engine with a rotary momentum of up to 310 Nm. A number of engines are available including a new spark ignition engine with a cubic capacity of 2 l and a five-valve technology. The high comfort of the car is illustrated by the examples of the voice-operated car phone and telematic system. Electrionic communication systems and infotainment are given high priority. The front window pane is heated by a 42 V heating system in order to improve the driving safety, and the air conditioning system was improved by two-zone contorl. This special issue of ATZ presents further details. [German] Mit der Weiterentwicklung des A4 hat Audi erneut seine Bereitschaft zum harten Wettbewerb im Segment der Mittelklasse signalisiert. Um die Kundenbeduerfnisse hinsichtlich sportlicher Dynamik und Komfort zu erfuellen, sind den Audi-Ingenieuren in vielen Details Loesungen gelungen, die den neuen A4 unverwechselbar machen. Hinter dem weiterentwickelten Audi-typischen Styling stecken innovative technische Entwicklungen. Die neu konstruierte Trapezlenker-Hinterachse beispielsweise verbessert die Fahreigenschaften. Ein c{sub w}-Wert von 0,28 bei den Basismotorisierungen - trotz serienmaessiger Klimaanlage - ist das Ergebnis umfangreicher Massnahmen bei der Aerodynamik. Die als vorbildlich geltende 'multitronic' ist nun auch fuer den 2,5-l-V6-TDI-Motor erhaeltlich und fuer ein Drehmoment von bis zu 310 Nm ausgelegt. Die Auswahl der Motoren - darunter ein neuer Ottomotor mit 2 l Hubraum und Fuenfventiltechnik - laesst kaum Wuensche offen. Was die Komfortausstattung betrifft, zeigt sich Audi mit dem neuen A4 wieder einmal als Trendsetter. Der Einsatz eines Sprachbediensystems fuer das Autotelefon und die angebotene Telematic sind Beispiele dafuer. Die gesamte Kommunikationselektronik und das

  3. Performance evaluation of the Bio-Rad Laboratories GS HIV Combo Ag/Ab EIA, a 4th generation HIV assay for the simultaneous detection of HIV p24 antigen and antibodies to HIV-1 (groups M and O) and HIV-2 in human serum or plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentsen, Christopher; McLaughlin, Lisa; Mitchell, Elizabeth; Ferrera, Carol; Liska, Sally; Myers, Robert; Peel, Sheila; Swenson, Paul; Gadelle, Stephane; Shriver, M Kathleen

    2011-12-01

    A multi-center study was conducted to evaluate the Bio-Rad GS HIV Combo Ag/Ab EIA, a 4th generation HIV-1/HIV-2 assay for the simultaneous detection of HIV p24 antigen and antibodies to HIV-1 (groups M and O) and HIV-2 in human serum or plasma in adult and pediatric populations. The objectives of the study were to assess assay performance for the detection of acute HIV infections; sensitivity in known HIV positive samples; percent agreement with HIV status; specificity in low and high risk individuals of unknown HIV status; and to compare assay performance to a 3rd generation HIV assay. The evaluation included testing 9150 samples at four U.S. clinical trial sites, using three kit lots. Unlinked samples were from routine testing, repositories or purchased from vendors. GS HIV Combo Ag/Ab EIA detection in samples from individuals in two separate populations with acute HIV infection was 95.2% (20/21) and 86.4% (38/44). Sensitivity was 100% (1603/1603) in known antibody positive [HIV-1 Groups M and O, and HIV-2] samples. HIV p24 antigen detection was 100% (53/53) in HIV-1 culture supernatants. HIV-1 seroconversion panel detection improved by a range of 0-20 days compared to a 3rd generation HIV test. Specificity was 99.9% (5989/5996) in low risk, 99.9% (959/960) in high risk and 100% (100/100) in pediatric populations. The GS HIV Combo Ag/Ab EIA significantly reduced the diagnostic window when compared to the 3rd generation screening assay, enabling earlier diagnosis of HIV infection. The performance parameters of the Bio-Rad GS HIV Combo Ag/Ab EIA are well suited for use in HIV diagnostic settings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Efficacy and safety of mixed amphetamine salts extended release (adderall XR) in the management of oppositional defiant disorder with or without comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in school-aged children and adolescents: A 4-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, forced-dose-escalation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Thomas J; Abikoff, Howard B; Connor, Daniel F; Biederman, Joseph; Pliszka, Steven R; Boellner, Samuel; Read, Stephanie C; Pratt, Raymond

    2006-03-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)is associated with a high degree of impairment in social skills, family interaction, and academic functioning. Comorbid ODD is reportedly present in 40% to 70% of children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The goal of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of mixed amphetamine salts extended release (MAS XR) for the treatment of ODD in children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years. This was a 4-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, forced-dose-escalation study. Patients were randomized to receive active treatment with MAS XR 10, 20, 30, or 40 mg/d or placebo. The primary efficacy end point was the ODD subscale of the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham-IV (SNAP-IV) parent rating. Primary safety measures included adverse events recorded at each visit and for 30 days after study drug discontinuation, and changes in vital signs, 12-lead electrocardiographic (ECG) findings, laboratory tests and physical examinations, and body weight. A post hoc efficacy reanalysis was completed based on the results for the per-protocol population. For this analysis, patients were divided into high and low baseline severity categories according to the dichotomized baseline ODD parent or teacher score or dichotomized baseline ADHD parent or teacher score (high defined as scores at the median or greater and low defined as scores less than the median). A total of 308 children and adolescents (age range, 6-17 years; 213 males, 95 females) were randomized to receive active treatment with MAS XR 10 mg/d (n = 60) 20 mg/d (n = 58), 30 mg/d (n = 69), or 40 mg/d (n = 61) or placebo (n = 60). Of the 308 study patients, 244 (79.2%) had comorbid ADHD. A significant change from baseline in the ODD symptoms measured with the SNAP-IV parent rating subscale was found for the MAS XR 30-mg/d (-0.52; P < 0.001) and 40-mg/d (-0.56; P = 0.002) groups in the per-protocol analysis and for the MAS XR

  5. Descrição das noções conceituais sobre os grupos alimentares por professores de 1ª a 4ª série: a necessidade de atualização dos conceitos A description of the conceptual notions about food groups by 1st to 4th grade teachers: the necessity to review the concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Martins Fernandez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Com base na realização de entrevistas individuais com professores de 1ª a 4ª séries em uma amostra de escolas públicas e privadas no Distrito Federal, procurou-se apontar a atualização da classificação dos grupos alimentares segundo exemplos e funções, além da execução de atividades de nutrição e fontes de informação consultadas pelos educadores. Os resultados mostraram associação do consumo dos alimentos energéticos e energéticos extras com uma alimentação inadequada, ao passo que os alimentos construtores e reguladores são identificados como prioritários na alimentação diária. Os livros didáticos destacaram-se como a principal fonte de informação e, em menor destaque, os manuais técnicos de alimentação e profissionais de saúde. Conclui-se que as ações educativas em nutrição precisam ser subsidiadas por professores bem formados e atualizados, além da revisão dos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais (PCNs na perspectiva de um ensino interdisciplinar e intersetorial em alimentação na escola.Individual interviews were carried out with teachers of 1st to 4th grades in a sample of public and private schools in the Federal District, and point out the need to update food classification groups according to examples and function, alongside nutrition activities and the sources of information consulted by educators. Results showed the association of consumption of energetic and extra energetic food with inappropriate food intake, while certain foods are identified as prioritized in a daily food intake. School books were highlighted as the main information source and on a smaller scale technical handbooks on dietary habits and those for health professionals. It is concluded that educative actions in nutrition need to be scrutinised by educated and updated teachers, alongside the revision of the Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais (PCNs (National Curriculum Parameters from the perspective of interdisciplinary and

  6. Alternate superior Julia sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Anju; Rani, Mamta

    2015-01-01

    Alternate Julia sets have been studied in Picard iterative procedures. The purpose of this paper is to study the quadratic and cubic maps using superior iterates to obtain Julia sets with different alternate structures. Analytically, graphically and computationally it has been shown that alternate superior Julia sets can be connected, disconnected and totally disconnected, and also fattier than the corresponding alternate Julia sets. A few examples have been studied by applying different type of alternate structures

  7. Alternatives to War in History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that human history is a story of paradoxes: cooperation and conflict, war and peace. States that, throughout history, various individuals and groups have sought alternatives to war. Describes attempts to keep the peace, to manage conflict, and to initiate social reforms that eliminate the causes of war. (CFR)

  8. Teaching Arithmetic Combinations of Multiplication and Division to Students with Learning Disabilities or Mild Intellectual Disability: The Impact of Alternative Fact Grouping and the Role of Cognitive and Learning Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaliotis, Ioannis; Teli, Afroditi

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of two instructional interventions was investigated in the context of teaching Arithmetic Combinations (ACs) of multiplication and division to students with Learning Disabilities (LD) or Mild Intellectual Disability (MID). The intervention for the control group (LD = 20, MID = 10) was based on principles of effective instruction,…

  9. Alternative end points to evaluate a therapeutic strategy in advanced colorectal cancer: evaluation of progression-free survival, duration of disease control, and time to failure of strategy--an Aide et Recherche en Cancerologie Digestive Group Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibaudel, Benoist; Bonnetain, Franck; Shi, Qian; Buyse, Marc; Tournigand, Christophe; Sargent, Daniel J; Allegra, Carmen J; Goldberg, Richard M; de Gramont, Aimery

    2011-11-01

    Progression-free survival (PFS) is not an optimal end point to evaluate therapeutic strategies in advanced colorectal cancer (ACRC). Therefore, composite end points have been proposed to evaluate a chemotherapy strategy when sequential treatments are available: duration of disease control (DDC) and time to failure of strategy (TFS). The goal of this study was to evaluate these alternative end points and their potential surrogacy for overall survival (OS). We pooled individual patient data from three randomized trials evaluating chemotherapy strategy, which accrued 1,042 patients with previously untreated ACRC. In these trials, first-line treatment was either oxaliplatin- or irinotecan-based chemotherapy. Compared with TFS, DDC included neither time interval between progression and next sequence of treatment nor time to progression if the best result of the next sequence of treatment was progression. There was good correlation between DDC and OS (correlation of median: r, 0.62; correlation of hazard ratio [HR]: adjusted copula R(2), 0.72) and between TFS and OS (correlation of median: r, 0.59; correlation of HR: adjusted copula R(2), 0.67). There was no correlation between PFS and OS (correlation of median: r, 0.45; correlation of HR: adjusted copula R(2), 0.47). DDC and TFS roughly achieved the same results. Both are acceptable new end points to evaluate a therapeutic strategy in ACRC. Although TFS achieved a pragmatic evaluation of a multiline strategy, DDC captured the effect of a specific sequence in a therapeutic strategy.

  10. Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Complementary and Alternative Medicine KidsHealth / For Teens / Complementary and Alternative Medicine What's ... a replacement. How Is CAM Different From Conventional Medicine? Conventional medicine is based on scientific knowledge of ...

  11. 45 CFR 12a.4 - Suitability determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suitability determination. 12a.4 Section 12a.4... PROPERTY TO ASSIST THE HOMELESS § 12a.4 Suitability determination. (a) Suitability determination. Within 30... determination to the landholding agency. Properties that are under lease, contract, license, or agreement by...

  12. 22 CFR 9a.4 - Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Classification. 9a.4 Section 9a.4 Foreign... ENERGY PROGRAMS; RELATED MATERIAL § 9a.4 Classification. (a) Section 1 of E.O. 11932, August 4, 1976.... If the officer determines that the information or material warrants classification, he shall assign...

  13. Depleted uranium management alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.

    1994-08-01

    This report evaluates two management alternatives for Department of Energy depleted uranium: continued storage as uranium hexafluoride, and conversion to uranium metal and fabrication to shielding for spent nuclear fuel containers. The results will be used to compare the costs with other alternatives, such as disposal. Cost estimates for the continued storage alternative are based on a life-cycle of 27 years through the year 2020. Cost estimates for the recycle alternative are based on existing conversion process costs and Capital costs for fabricating the containers. Additionally, the recycle alternative accounts for costs associated with intermediate product resale and secondary waste disposal for materials generated during the conversion process.

  14. Alternatives to Suspension: A Government Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Thomas G.; Zoldy, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Student discipline and the ineffectiveness of out-of-school suspension is examined in light of the Ontario (Canada) legislative reform that supported a greater emphasis on progressive discipline alternatives to out-of-school suspension. Alternative discipline herein is explored via the behavior education plan, the school survival group, and…

  15. EphA4 defines a class of excitatory locomotor-related interneurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butt, S. J B; Lundfald, Line; Kiehn, Ole

    2005-01-01

    of the role of these cells in the network. One such marker is the EphA4 axon guidance receptor. EphA4-null mice display an abnormal rabbit-like hopping gait that is thought to be the result of synchronization of the normally alternating, bilateral locomotor network via aberrant crossed connections...

  16. Alternative Auditing Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandt, Alicen J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-15

    This presentation for the 2017 Energy Exchange in Tampa, Florida, offers information about advanced auditing technologies and techniques including alternative auditing approaches and considerations and caveats.

  17. 32 CFR 168a.4 - Policy and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DEFENSE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING GRADUATE FELLOWSHIPS § 168a.4 Policy and procedures. (a) Sponsoring... to pursue graduate degrees in science, engineering, or other fields of study that are designated, in... members of groups (including minorities, women, and disabled persons) that historically have been...

  18. The neutrino mass matrix and (selected) variants of A4

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The neutrino mass matrix and (selected) variants of A4. MARTIN HIRSCH. AHEP Group, Instituto de Fısica Corpuscular – C.S.I.C./Universitat de Val`encia,. Edificio de Institutos de Paterna, Apartado 22085, E-46071 Val`encia, Spain. E-mail: mahirsch@ific.uv.es. Abstract. Recent neutrino oscillation experiments have ...

  19. Alternative health insurance schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Hansen, Bodil O.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we present a simple model of health insurance with asymmetric information, where we compare two alternative ways of organizing the insurance market. Either as a competitive insurance market, where some risks remain uninsured, or as a compulsory scheme, where however, the level...... competitive insurance; this situation turns out to be at least as good as either of the alternatives...

  20. Group X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, Susannah

    2007-08-16

    This project is currently under contract for research through the Department of Homeland Security until 2011. The group I was responsible for studying has to remain confidential so as not to affect the current project. All dates, reference links and authors, and other distinguishing characteristics of the original group have been removed from this report. All references to the name of this group or the individual splinter groups has been changed to 'Group X'. I have been collecting texts from a variety of sources intended for the use of recruiting and radicalizing members for Group X splinter groups for the purpose of researching the motivation and intent of leaders of those groups and their influence over the likelihood of group radicalization. This work included visiting many Group X websites to find information on splinter group leaders and finding their statements to new and old members. This proved difficult because the splinter groups of Group X are united in beliefs, but differ in public opinion. They are eager to tear each other down, prove their superiority, and yet remain anonymous. After a few weeks of intense searching, a list of eight recruiting texts and eight radicalizing texts from a variety of Group X leaders were compiled.

  1. VistA 4 Product Roadmap

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VistA 4 Product Roadmap outlines how the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), under the direction of the VistA Evolution Program, will build upon the previous...

  2. Advancing Alternative Analysis: Integration of Decision Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Timothy F; Zaunbrecher, Virginia M; Batteate, Christina M; Blake, Ann; Carroll, William F; Corbett, Charles J; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Lempert, Robert J; Linkov, Igor; McFadden, Roger; Moran, Kelly D; Olivetti, Elsa; Ostrom, Nancy K; Romero, Michelle; Schoenung, Julie M; Seager, Thomas P; Sinsheimer, Peter; Thayer, Kristina A

    2017-06-13

    Decision analysis-a systematic approach to solving complex problems-offers tools and frameworks to support decision making that are increasingly being applied to environmental challenges. Alternatives analysis is a method used in regulation and product design to identify, compare, and evaluate the safety and viability of potential substitutes for hazardous chemicals. We assessed whether decision science may assist the alternatives analysis decision maker in comparing alternatives across a range of metrics. A workshop was convened that included representatives from government, academia, business, and civil society and included experts in toxicology, decision science, alternatives assessment, engineering, and law and policy. Participants were divided into two groups and were prompted with targeted questions. Throughout the workshop, the groups periodically came together in plenary sessions to reflect on other groups' findings. We concluded that the further incorporation of decision science into alternatives analysis would advance the ability of companies and regulators to select alternatives to harmful ingredients and would also advance the science of decision analysis. We advance four recommendations: a ) engaging the systematic development and evaluation of decision approaches and tools; b ) using case studies to advance the integration of decision analysis into alternatives analysis; c ) supporting transdisciplinary research; and d ) supporting education and outreach efforts. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP483.

  3. Group Flow and Group Genius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Keith Sawyer views the spontaneous collaboration of group creativity and improvisation actions as "group flow," which organizations can use to function at optimum levels. Sawyer establishes ideal conditions for group flow: group goals, close listening, complete concentration, being in control, blending egos, equal participation, knowing…

  4. Independent student study groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Graham D; Hyde, Sarah J; Davy, Peter

    2005-07-01

    Teachers and students regulate learning to varying degrees in educational programmes in higher education. We present evidence that students in a student-centred medical programme self- and co-regulate their learning in independently formed study groups. We describe the perceived benefits of study groups and the effect of study group membership on student achievement. Years 1-2 of a 4-year, graduate-entry problem-based medical programme. We surveyed 233 year 2 students about features of their study groups and their study group membership in years 1-2. We compared study group membership with students' scores on a written summative assessment held at the end of their second year. For students who joined 1 study group, the length of time their group stayed together was positively related to achievement in the written summative assessment. There were no differences in summative assessment results between students who had been in a study group and students who had not been in a study group. Effective study groups are supportive, socially cohesive groups who generate mutual trust and loyalty, and self- and co-regulate their learning by giving and receiving explanations and summaries and motivating individual study. Teachers can support the formation of study groups by using small-group teaching/learning activities, providing clear learning outcomes and assessment criteria, minimising competition for grades and allocating room space.

  5. HL-LHC alternatives

    CERN Document Server

    Tomás, R; White, S

    2014-01-01

    The HL-LHC parameters assume unexplored regimes for hadron colliders in various aspects of accelerator beam dynamics and technology. This paper reviews three alternatives that could potentially improve the LHC performance: (i) the alternative filling scheme 8b+4e, (ii) the use of a 200 MHz RF system in the LHC and (iii) the use of proton cooling methods to reduce the beam emittance (at top energy and at injection). The alternatives are assessed in terms of feasibility, pros and cons, risks versus benefits and the impact on beam availability.

  6. Isopermutation group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muktibodh, A. S. [Department of Mathematics, Mohota College of Science, NAGPUR-440009 India E-mail: amukti2000@yahoo.com (India)

    2015-03-10

    The concept of ‘Isotopy’ as formulated by Ruggero Maria Santilli [1, 2, 3] plays a vital role in the development of Iso mathematics. Santilli defined iso-fields of characteristic zero. In this paper we extend this definition to define Iso-Galois fields [4] which are essentially of non-zero characteristic. Isotopically isomorphic realizations of a group define isopermutation group which gives a clear cut distinction between automorphic groups and isotopic groups.

  7. Sports Group: An Alternative Treatment Modality for Emotionally Disturbed Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, J. Emmett; And Others

    1978-01-01

    A therapeutic program of sports activities was instituted for selected adolescents in an out-patient psychiatric clinic. Adolescents who could not benefit maximally from individual psychotherapy and who had problems with self-esteem, body image, and peer relationships were expected to benefit. Results are presented through case illustrations.…

  8. Permutation groups

    CERN Document Server

    Passman, Donald S

    2012-01-01

    This volume by a prominent authority on permutation groups consists of lecture notes that provide a self-contained account of distinct classification theorems. A ready source of frequently quoted but usually inaccessible theorems, it is ideally suited for professional group theorists as well as students with a solid background in modern algebra.The three-part treatment begins with an introductory chapter and advances to an economical development of the tools of basic group theory, including group extensions, transfer theorems, and group representations and characters. The final chapter feature

  9. Alternative medicine: Soul healers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Marko

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The wars and subsequent crisis in the former Yugoslavia have brought about a different, distressed value system to the populations in Serbia. One of its reflections is seen in an establishment of the so-called alternative healing systems. The contemporary, modern medicine holds that illnesses are caused by various psycho-somatic agents, therefore, I take contemporary healers to be alternative psychiatrists and therapists which balance and cure individual distresses. Crisis in societies are psycho-physical triggers that initiate structural disturbances in personalities of active and passive participants, and initiate a search for psycho-therapeutic methods which include transcendental. The processes of globalization and urbanization have helped clear up the fact that the official/established and alternative/traditional medicines have structural determination and corresponding status with the prevailing value system and religious affiliation of the population. Cultural-historic processes are often established in the alternative, and the opposite.

  10. Alternative disinfectant water treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative disinfestant water treatments are disinfestants not as commonly used by the horticultural industry. Chlorine products that produce hypochlorous acid are the main disinfestants used for treating irrigation water. Chlorine dioxide will be the primary disinfestant discussed as an alternativ...

  11. Alternative gravity theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francaviglia, M.

    1990-01-01

    Although general relativity is a well-established discipline the theory deserves efforts aimed at producing alternative or more general frameworks for investigating the classical properties of gravity. These are either devoted to producing alternative viewpoints or interpretations of standard general relativity, or at constructing, discussing and proposing experimental tests for alternative descriptions of the dynamics of the gravitational field and its interaction (or unification) with external matter fields. Classical alternative theories of gravitation can roughly classified as follows; theories based on a still 4-dimensional picture, under the assumption that the dynamics of the gravitational field is more complicated than Einstein's and theories based on higher-dimensional pictures. This leads to supergravity and strings which are not included here. Theories based on higher-dimensional pictures on the assumption that space-time is replaced by a higher-dimensional manifold. Papers on these classifications are reviewed. (author)

  12. Seal design alternatives study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Sambeek, L.L.; Luo, D.D.; Lin, M.S.; Ostrowski, W.; Oyenuga, D.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results from a study of various sealing alternatives for the WIPP sealing system. Overall, the sealing system has the purpose of reducing to the extent possible the potential for fluids (either gas or liquid) from entering or leaving the repository. The sealing system is divided into three subsystems: drift and panel seals within the repository horizon, shaft seals in each of the four shafts, and borehole seals. Alternatives to the baseline configuration for the WIPP seal system design included evaluating different geometries and schedules for seal component installations and the use of different materials for seal components. Order-of-magnitude costs for the various alternatives were prepared as part of the study. Firm recommendations are not presented, but the advantages and disadvantages of the alternatives are discussed. Technical information deficiencies are identified and studies are outlined which can provide required information

  13. Alternative and Integrative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... government and regulatory agencies. In conventional medicine, effective cancer treatment is defined as one that causes a tumor to reduce in size or remain stable. Description Many alternative therapies seek to treat illness by helping the body ...

  14. Alternative fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penn, W.J.

    1979-05-01

    Uranium resource utilization and economic considerations provide incentives to study alternative fuel cycles as future options to the PHWR natural uranium cycle. Preliminary studies to define the most favourable alternatives and their possible introduction dates are discussed. The important and uncertain components which influence option selection are reviewed, including nuclear capacity growth, uranium availability and demand, economic potential, and required technological developments. Finally, a summary of Ontario Hydro's program to further assess cycle selection and define development needs is given. (auth)

  15. Alternative Aviation Fuels: Overview of Challenges, Opportunities, and Next Steps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-03-28

    The Alternative Aviation Fuels: Overview of Challenges, Opportunities, and Next Steps report, published by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) provides an overview of the current state of alternative aviation fuels, based upon findings from recent peer-reviewed studies, scientific working groups, and BETO stakeholder input provided during the Alternative Aviation Fuel Workshop.

  16. Alternative energy companies : a financier's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aitken, J.

    2002-01-01

    The Canadian energy technology sector can be divided into 2 categories: (1) alternative energy generators which include small hydro, wind, biomass, solar energy and fuel cells, and (2) energy technology services. This presentation focused on publicly traded entities and how financing alternatives are limited to project finance, and venture capital. This situation may change as the long term winners emerge and various segments are recognized as not requiring special regulatory and price incentives. Case studies were presented of financing renewable energy projects and the commitment of the Royal Bank of Canada's (RBC) Financial Group to provide financing for alternative energy projects that impact the transportation sector. 15 figs

  17. Alternative approaches to epilepsy treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy-Cox, Caitlin

    2009-07-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a diverse group of health care practices and products that fall outside the realm of traditional Western medical theory and practice and that are used to complement or replace conventional medical therapies. The use of CAM has increased over the past two decades, and surveys have shown that up to 44% of patients with epilepsy are using some form of CAM treatment. This article reviews the CAM modalities of meditation, yoga, relaxation techniques, biofeedback, nutritional and herbal supplements, dietary measures, chiropractic care, acupuncture, Reiki, and homeopathy and what is known about their potential efficacy in patients with epilepsy.

  18. Alternative fuels for vehicles; Alternative drivmidler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-02-15

    Up until 2020 and onwards the analysis indicates that especially electricity, biogas and natural gas as propellants is economically attractive compared to conventional gasoline and diesel while other fuels have the same or higher costs for petrol and diesel. Especially biogas and electricity will also offer significant reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions, but also hydrogen, methanol, DME and to a lesser extent the second generation bioethanol and most of the other alternative fuels reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Use of the traditional food-based first generation biofuels involves, at best, only modest climate benefits if land use changes are counted, and at worst, significant negative climate effects. Natural gas as a propellant involves a moderate climate gain, but may play a role for building infrastructure and market for gaseous fuels in large fleets, thereby contributing to the phasing in of biogas for transport. The electric-based automotive fuels are the most effective due to a high efficiency of the engine and an increasing proportion of wind energy in the electricity supply. The methanol track also has a relatively high efficiency. Among the others, the track based on diesel engines (biodiesel) is more effective than the track based on gasoline/Otto engines (gas and ethanol) as a result of the diesel engine's better efficiency. For the heavy vehicles all the selected alternative fuels to varying degrees reduce emissions of CO{sub 2}, particularly DME based on wood. The only exception to this is - as for passenger cars - the propellant synthetic diesel based on coal. (LN).

  19. Alternative energy in Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, H.B.; Bhandari, K.P.

    2011-05-15

    Renewable energy Technology (RET) becomes the mainstream option for rural Nepal to access modern source of energy. It focuses on the trend of RET applications consisting of biogas technology, solar thermal, micro and Pico hydropower, biomass technology bio fuel technology, wind power technology etc. The RET's which provide both electricity based as well as non electricity based services, have been shown to most immediately meet the needs of a cleaner indoor environment, better quality lightning for education and income generating, activities, alternative cooking fuels and agro processing as well as rural industries. Improved cooking stoves and much more beneficial than other technologies. Wind energy utilization is still not popular. Solar thermal to generate thermal energy to cook, warm and dry, biogas for lighting and cooking services. Micro hydropower for electric as well as mechanical use and solar PV mainly for domestic lighting may become choice. The most important Renewable Energy Technology (RET's) in Nepal are related to Pico hydropower and micro-hydropower, biomass energy (biogas, briquettes, gasifies, improved cooking stoves, bio-fuels etc.) solar photovoltaic energy, solar PV water pumping, solar thermal energy (solar heater, solar dryers, solar cookers etc.) and wind energy (such as wind generators, wind mills etc.). One renowned Non-governmental organization has been established in the Jhapa and Mornag Bhutanese refugee camp. Two families from all the seven camps in Nepal received one solar cooker, one hay box and two cooking posts to each family. Under this programme, a total of 6,850 solar cookers, 12600 hay boxes and 25,200 cooking pots have been distributed 2009. The number of beneficiaries from this program has reached 85,000. Before the distribution of the cookers and the utensils, the instruction and orientation training for the maintenance and repair and operation method was improved. The refugees were divided in 315 groups of 40

  20. Reflection groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggermont, G.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, PISA organised proactive meetings of reflection groups on involvement in decision making, expert culture and ethical aspects of radiation protection.All reflection group meetings address particular targeted audiences while the output publication in book form is put forward

  1. Group Theatre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Brian

    The group interpretation approach to theatre production is defined as a method that will lead to production of plays that will appeal to "all the layers of the conscious and unconscious mind." In practice, it means that the group will develop and use resources of the theatre that orthodox companies too often ignore. The first two chapters of this…

  2. Homogenous finitary symmetric groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto‎. ‎H‎. Kegel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We characterize strictly diagonal type of embeddings of finitary symmetric groups in terms of cardinality and the characteristic. Namely, we prove the following. Let kappa be an infinite cardinal. If G=underseti=1stackrelinftybigcupG i , where G i =FSym(kappan i , (H=underseti=1stackrelinftybigcupH i , where H i =Alt(kappan i , is a group of strictly diagonal type and xi=(p 1 ,p 2 ,ldots is an infinite sequence of primes, then G is isomorphic to the homogenous finitary symmetric group FSym(kappa(xi (H is isomorphic to the homogenous alternating group Alt(kappa(xi , where n 0 =1,n i =p 1 p 2 ldotsp i .

  3. A4 see-saw models and form dominance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, M-C; King, Stephen F.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the idea of Form Dominance in the (type I) see-saw mechanism, according to which a particular right-handed neutrino mass eigenstate is associated with a particular physical neutrino mass eigenstate, leading to a form diagonalizable effective neutrino mass matrix. Form Dominance, which allows an arbitrary neutrino mass spectrum, may be regarded as a generalization of Constrained Sequential Dominance which only allows strongly hierarchical neutrino masses. We consider alternative implementations of the see-saw mechanism in minimal A 4 see-saw models and show that such models satisfy Form Dominance, leading to neutrino mass sum rules which predict closely spaced neutrino masses with a normal or inverted neutrino mass ordering. To avoid the partial cancellations inherent in such models we propose Natural Form Dominance, in which a different flavon is associated with each physical neutrino mass eigenstate.

  4. Dynamical Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paldus, Josef

    The well known symmetry (invariance, degeneracy) dynamical groups or algebras of quantum mechanical Hamiltonians provide quantum numbers (conservation laws, integrals of motion) for state labeling and the associated selection rules. In addition, it is often advantageous to employ much larger groups, referred to as the dynamical groups (noninvariance groups, dynamical algebras, spectrum generating algebras), which may or may not be the invariance groups of the studied system [4.1,2,3,4,5,6,7]. In all known cases, they are Lie groups (LGs), or rather corresponding Lie algebras (LAs), and one usually requires that all states of interest of a system be contained in a single irreducible representation (irrep). Likewise, one may require that the Hamiltonian be expressible in terms of the Casimir operators of the corresponding universal enveloping algebra [4.8,9]. In a weaker sense, one regards any group (or corresponding algebra) as a dynamical group if the Hamiltonian can be expressed in terms of its generators [4.10,11,12]. In nuclear physics, one sometimes distinguishes exact (baryon number preserving), almost exact (e.g., total isospin), approximate (e.g., SU(3) of the "eightfold way") and model (e.g., nuclear shell model) dynamical symmetries [4.13]. The dynamical groups of interest in atomic and molecular physics can be conveniently classified by their topological characteristic of compactness. Noncompact LGs (LAs) generally arise in simple problems involving an infinite number of bound states, while those involving a finite number of bound states (e.g., molecular vibrations or ab initio models of electronic structure) exploit compact LG's.

  5. Catalysis for alternative energy generation

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Summarizes recent problems in using catalysts in alternative energy generation and proposes novel solutions  Reconsiders the role of catalysis in alternative energy generation  Contributors include catalysis and alternative energy experts from across the globe

  6. Alternative pricing methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    With the increased interest in competitive market forces and growing recognition of the deficiencies in current practices, FERC and others are exploring alternatives to embedded cost pricing. A number of these alternatives are discussed in this chapter. Marketplace pricing, discussed briefly here, is the subject of the next chapter. Obviously, the pricing formula may combine several of these methodologies. One utility of which the authors are aware is seeking a price equal to the sum of embedded costs, opportunity costs, line losses, value of service, FERC's percentage adder formula and a contract service charge

  7. Group Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article Karen Adams demonstrates how to incorporate group grammar techniques into a classroom activity. In the activity, students practice using the target grammar to do something they naturally enjoy: learning about each other.

  8. Computer group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, H.; Black, I.; Heusler, A.; Hoeptner, G.; Krafft, F.; Lang, R.; Moellenkamp, R.; Mueller, W.; Mueller, W.F.; Schati, C.; Schmidt, A.; Schwind, D.; Weber, G.

    1983-01-01

    The computer groups has been reorganized to take charge for the general purpose computers DEC10 and VAX and the computer network (Dataswitch, DECnet, IBM - connections to GSI and IPP, preparation for Datex-P). (orig.)

  9. Group technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rome, C.P.

    1976-01-01

    Group Technology has been conceptually applied to the manufacture of batch-lots of 554 machined electromechanical parts which now require 79 different types of metal-removal tools. The products have been grouped into 7 distinct families which require from 8 to 22 machines in each machine-cell. Throughput time can be significantly reduced and savings can be realized from tooling, direct-labor, and indirect-labor costs

  10. Lie groups and algebraic groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . These fields are interrelated and each of these fields contributes to the other. 2. Examples and classification. We first give some examples of Lie groups. The most frequently occurring ones are the linear classical groups GLn(R), GLn(C), ...

  11. Lie groups and algebraic groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M S RAGHUNATHAN and T N VENKATARAMANA. ∗. School of Mathematics, Tata Institute of Fundamental ... linear classical groups GLn(R), GLn(C), SOn(R),. SOn(C), Spn(R) and Spn(C). Let us call a con- nected Lie ..... split groups due respectively to C C Moore and. V Deodhar. B Sury solved the congruence subgroup ...

  12. Abelian groups

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, László

    2015-01-01

    Written by one of the subject’s foremost experts, this book focuses on the central developments and modern methods of the advanced theory of abelian groups, while remaining accessible, as an introduction and reference, to the non-specialist. It provides a coherent source for results scattered throughout the research literature with lots of new proofs. The presentation highlights major trends that have radically changed the modern character of the subject, in particular, the use of homological methods in the structure theory of various classes of abelian groups, and the use of advanced set-theoretical methods in the study of undecidability problems. The treatment of the latter trend includes Shelah’s seminal work on the undecidability in ZFC of Whitehead’s Problem; while the treatment of the former trend includes an extensive (but non-exhaustive) study of p-groups, torsion-free groups, mixed groups, and important classes of groups arising from ring theory. To prepare the reader to tackle these topics, th...

  13. Alternate energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens-Guille, P.D.

    1975-01-01

    The author highlights the interesting points made by the speeches during the conference on Energy and its Future in Southern Africa. He also draws attention to potential alternate energy sources such as power from tides, ocean waves, ocean temperature differences and geothermal power

  14. Energy conversion alternatives study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shure, L. T.

    1979-01-01

    Comparison of coal based energy systems is given. Study identifies and compares various advanced energy conversion systems using coal or coal derived fuels for baselaoad electric power generation. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS) reports provede government, industry, and general public with technically consistent basis for comparison of system's options of interest for fossilfired electric-utility application.

  15. Alternatives in solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schueler, D. G.

    1978-01-01

    Although solar energy has the potential of providing a significant source of clean and renewable energy for a variety of applications, it is expected to penetrate the nation's energy economy very slowly. The alternative solar energy technologies which employ direct collection and conversion of solar radiation as briefly described.

  16. TWTF design alternates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayers, A.L. Sr.

    1982-03-01

    The Transuranic Waste Treatment Facility (TWTF) will process transuranic (TRU) waste in retrievable storage at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The costs for a TWTF concept using a slagging pyrolysis incinerator were excessive. Alternate concepts using a slow speed shredder, a rotary kiln incinerator, and concrete immobilization should result in significant cost reductions. These will be included in future TWTF considerations

  17. Alternative Break Service Trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPre, Carrie

    2010-01-01

    Even as educators understand how their millennial students learn in such different ways than previous generations (watching how-to videos downloaded from YouTube or engaging in experiential learning adventures), colleges still rely heavily on in-the-classroom learning. The author can't offer an alternative to this classroom format, but she…

  18. Alternative Energy Busing

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFee, Scott

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, school districts have converted portions of their bus fleets to cleaner-burning, sometimes cheaper, alternative fossil fuels, such as compressed natural gas or propane. Others have adopted biodiesel, which combines regular diesel with fuel derived from organic sources, usually vegetable oils or animal fats. The number of biodiesel…

  19. Jubilite: A 4-,8-connected Cubic Structural Pattern in Space Group Pm3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A. Castro

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In the course of investigating structural modifications of the 3-,4-connected net known as the Pt3O4 structure-type (waserite, a novel 4-,8-connected structure-type was discovered. This lattice is generated by replacing the 3-connected trigonal planar vertices of the Pt3O4 structure-type with 4-connected tetrahedral vertices, to achieve a structure which possesses a generic empirical formula of JK6L8. In such a topological modification, the four 3-fold axes of the parent cubic, Pm3n, Pt3O4 structure-type are retained. Thus the 4-connected tetrahedral vertices are oriented so as to preserve cubic symmetry in the resulting Pm3, JK6L8 (jubilite lattice. The unit cell contains a single 8-connected cubecentered vertex, six 4-connected distorted square planar vertices and eight 4-connected distorted tetrahedral vertices. It is a Wellsean structure with a Wells point symbol given by (4166484(42826(43838 and a Schläfli symbol of (53/4, 4.2667. This latter index reveals a decrease in the lattice’s polygonality and concomitant increase in the connectivity through the transformation from waserite to jubilite. The topology of the parent waserite lattice (Pt3O4 corresponds to that of the Catalan structures with the Wells point symbol (843(834, which has the Schläfli symbol (8, 3.4285. Finally, it can be seen that a sequence of structure-types starting with waserite (Pt3O4 and moving to jubilite (JK6L8 and finally to fluorite (CaF2 represents a continuous crystallographic structural transformation in which the symmetry and topology undergo concomitant changes from one structure-type (waserite to the other structure-types. The topology of the fluorite lattice, represented by the Wells point symbol (424(462, and the Schläfli symbol (4, 51/3, indicates a discontinuous topological transformation from the intermediate jubilite lattice; like the discontinuous topological transformation from Pt3O4 to JK6L8; in which the polygonality is again reduced, in this step from 53/4 to 4, and the connectivity is concomitantly increased, from 4.2667 to 51/3, during the continuous structural transformation. The l index, a topological measure of the form of a structure-type in terms of the ratio of the weighted average polygonality to the weighted average connectivity in the unit cell, decreases in the sequence from Pt3O4 (2.3333 to jubilite (1.3476 to fluorite (0.7500. This indicates the discontinuous, though monotonic, appearance of more closed networks upon increasing the connectivity and concomitantly decreasing the polygonality in the structural sequence. Interestingly, the ratios of the form indexes of the adjacent members in this series: lwaserite/ljubilite and ljubilite/lfluorite, are approximately equal to each other.

  20. Group learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pimentel, Ricardo; Noguira, Eloy Eros da Silva; Elkjær, Bente

    The article presents a study that aims at the apprehension of the group learning in a top management team composed by teachers in a Brazilian Waldorf school whose management is collective. After deciding to extend the school, they had problems recruiting teachers who were already trained based...... with which they coexist. To achieve this, the research adopted phenomenology as a method and ethnography as strategy, using participant observation, in-depth interviews, and interviews-to-the-double. The results show that the collective management practice is a crossroad of other practices......, and they are interrelated to the group learning as the construction, maintenance and reconstruction of the intelligibility of practices. From this perspective, it can be said that learning is a practice and not an exceptional phenomenon. Building, maintaining and rebuilding the intelligibility is the group learning...

  1. Radioactive waste management alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranowski, F.P.

    1976-01-01

    The information in the US ERDA ''Technical Alternatives Document'' is summarized. The first two points show that waste treatment, interim storage and transportation technologies for all wastes are currently available. Third, an assessment of integrated waste management systems is needed. One such assessment will be provided in our expanded waste management environmental statement currently planned for release in about one year. Fourth, geologies expected to be suitable for final geologic storage are known. Fifth, repository system assessment methods, that is a means to determine and assess the acceptability of a terminal storage facility for nonretrievable storage, must and will be prepared. Sixth, alternatives to geologic storage are not now available. Seventh, waste quantities and characteristics are sensitive to technologies and fuel-cycle modes, and therefore an assessment of these technologies and modes is important. Eighth, and most important, it is felt that the LWR fuel cycle can be closed with current technologies

  2. Alternative propulsion for automobiles

    CERN Document Server

    Stan, Cornel

    2017-01-01

    The book presents – based on the most recent research and development results worldwide - the perspectives of new propulsion concepts such as electric cars with batteries and fuel cells, and furthermore plug in hybrids with conventional and alternative fuels. The propulsion concepts are evaluated based on specific power, torque characteristic, acceleration behaviour, specific fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. The alternative fuels are discussed in terms of availability, production, technical complexity of the storage on board, costs, safety and infrastructure. The book presents summarized data about vehicles with electric and hybrid propulsion. The propulsion of future cars will be marked by diversity – from compact electric city cars and range extender vehicles for suburban and rural areas up to hybrid or plug in SUV´s, Pick up´s and luxury class automobiles.

  3. [Alternatives to animal testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Isabelle

    2009-11-01

    The use of alternative methods to animal testing are an integral part of the 3Rs concept (refine, reduce, replace) defined by Russel & Burch in 1959. These approaches include in silico methods (databases and computer models), in vitro physicochemical analysis, biological methods using bacteria or isolated cells, reconstructed enzyme systems, and reconstructed tissues. Emerging "omic" methods used in integrated approaches further help to reduce animal use, while stem cells offer promising approaches to toxicologic and pathophysiologic studies, along with organotypic cultures and bio-artificial organs. Only a few alternative methods can so far be used in stand-alone tests as substitutes for animal testing. The best way to use these methods is to integrate them in tiered testing strategies (ITS), in which animals are only used as a last resort.

  4. Alternative REST Splicing Underappreciated

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Guo-Lin; Miller, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    As a major orchestrator of the cellular epigenome, the repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor (REST) can either repress or activate thousands of genes depending on cellular context, suggesting a highly context-dependent REST function tuned by environmental cues. While REST shows cell-type non-selective active transcription, an N-terminal REST4 isoform caused by alternative splicing - inclusion of an extra exon (N3c) which introduces a pre-mature stop codon - has been implicated in...

  5. Metamaterials critique and alternatives

    CERN Document Server

    Munk, Ben A

    2009-01-01

    A Convincing and Controversial Alternative Explanation of Metamaterials with a Negative Index of Refraction In a book that will generate both support and controversy, one of the world's foremost authorities on periodic structures addresses several of the current fashions in antenna design-most specifically, the popular subject of double negative metamaterials. Professor Munk provides a comprehensive theoretical electromagnetic investigation of the issues and concludes that many of the phenomena claimed by researchers may be impossible. While denying the existence of negative refractio

  6. The renewable alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses renewable energy sources as an alternative to a fossil fuel based economy. The topics discussed in the chapter include the historic aspects and current status of use of renewable energy, status of the renewable energy industry, market barriers to renewable energy, research and development and commercialization of renewable energy, the environmental and social costs associated with renewable energy, valuing future costs and benefits of energy use, and the potential market of renewable energy

  7. Alternative Energy Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Michaelides, Efstathios E (Stathis)

    2012-01-01

    Alternative Energy Sources is designed to give the reader, a clear view of the role each form of alternative energy may play in supplying the energy needs of the human society in the near and intermediate future (20-50 years).   The two first chapters on energy demand and supply and environmental effects, set the tone as to why the widespread use of alternative energy is essential for the future of human society. The third chapter exposes the reader to the laws of energy conversion processes, as well as the limitations of converting one energy form to another. The sections on exergy give a succinct, quantitative background on the capability/potential of each energy source to produce power on a global scale. The fourth, fifth and sixth chapters are expositions of fission and fusion nuclear energy. The following five chapters (seventh to eleventh) include detailed descriptions of the most common renewable energy sources – wind, solar, geothermal, biomass, hydroelectric – and some of the less common sources...

  8. Alternative Respiratory Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedow, James N.; Girvin, Mark E.

    1980-01-01

    Oxygen uptake during the first hours of imbibition in intact soybean and mung bean seeds showed a marked sensitivity to potassium cyanide but was unaffected by addition of either salicylhydroxamic acid or propyl gallate. However O2 uptake by finely ground seed particles was very sensitive to the addition of either compound. The results indicated that O2 uptake in intact, imbibing seeds was associated with a cyanide-sensitive process, most probably mitochondrial mediated respiration, and not the result of the cyanide-insensitive lipoxygenase activity which was readily detectable in ground seed particles. The antioxidant propyl gallate was found to inhibit specifically alternative pathway electron transfer in isolated mung bean mitochondria. Half-maximal inhibition occurred with 2 to 5 micromolar propyl gallate. Kinetic analysis indicated that propyl gallate inhibition of the alternative pathway occurred at, or very near, the site of inhibition of the alternative pathway by salicylhydroxamic acid. A high level of lipoxygenase activity was found to be associated with washed mitochondria isolated from a variety of etiolated plant tissues. Most of this lipoxygenase activity could be eliminated from mung bean mitochondria if the mitochondria were purified on a discontinuous sucrose gradient. This indicated that the mitochondrial-associated activity was probably the result of nonspecific adsorption of lipoxygenase onto the mitochondrial membranes during isolation. PMID:16661259

  9. Is garlic alternative medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivlin, Richard S

    2006-03-01

    Garlic has been used medicinally since antiquity. In virtually every early civilization known, such as ancient India, Egypt, Rome, China, and Japan, garlic was part of the therapeutic regimen for a variety of maladies. Therefore, the ancient medicinal tradition of garlic use would qualify it as a folk medicine or as an alternative or complementary medicine. But is garlic an alternative to established methods of disease prevention or treatment? Scientists from around the world have identified a number of bioactive substances in garlic that are water soluble (e.g., S-allyl methylcysteine), and fat soluble (e.g., diallyldisulfide). Mechanisms of action are being elucidated by modern technology. The validity of ancient medicine is now being evaluated critically in cell-free systems, animal models, and human populations. Preventive and therapeutic trials of garlic are still in early stages. There are many promising lines of research suggesting the potential effects of garlic. The current state of knowledge does not recognize garlic as a true alternative, but it will likely find a place for garlic as a complement to established methods of disease prevention and treatment. Our goal should be to examine garlic together with other agents to evaluate its possible efficacy and toxicity under conditions of actual use in humans.

  10. State alternative route designations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a ''state routing agency,'' defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective

  11. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    The CMS Communications Group, established at the start of 2010, has been busy in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure There are now 55 CMS Centres worldwide that are well used by physicists working on remote CMS shifts, Computing operations, data quality monitoring, data analysis and outreach. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, is the centre of the CMS offline and computing operations, hosting dedicated analysis efforts such as during the CMS Heavy Ion lead-lead running. With a majority of CMS sub-detectors now operating in a “shifterless” mode, many monitoring operations are now routinely performed from there, rather than in the main Control Room at P5. The CMS Communications Group, CERN IT and the EVO team are providing excellent videoconferencing support for the rapidly-increasing number of CMS meetings. In parallel, CERN IT and ...

  12. Maternal Nutrition and Four-Alternative Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Michael; Krageloh, Christian U.; Fraser, Mhoyra; Breier, Bernhard H.

    2007-01-01

    Two groups of 10 male rats were trained to nose poke for food pellets at four alternatives that provided differing rates of pellet delivery on aperiodic schedules. After a fixed number of pellets had been delivered, 5, 10 or 20 in different conditions of the experiment, a 10-s blackout occurred, and the locations of the differing rates of pellet…

  13. [Qualitative research: a valid alternative].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mira, J J; Pérez-Jover, V; Lorenzo, S; Aranaz, J; Vitaller, J

    2004-09-15

    To describe the main qualitative research techniques through systematic review of Spanish studies published during the previous 5 years. Systematic review. The Indice Médico Español (bibliographic database of items published in Spanish health sciences journals) was searched, and systematic searches of the journals Atención Primaria, Gaceta Sanitaria, and Revista de Calidad Asistencial were done. Study selection. We included studies carried out with any type of qualitative research technique. Also included were studies that reviewed qualitative research techniques. We excluded studies that used a qualitative technique but were based mainly on quantitative research techniques. The review was done during the period from April 1997 to April 2002. Most of the studies we reviewed used only one technique (80.5%). When more than one technique was used in combination (19.5% of the articles we reviewed), focus groups and interviews were usually used. The techniques identified were focus group (used in 34% of the articles reviewed), interview (24%), the Delphi technique (10%), content analysis (8%), nominal group (8%), metaplan (2%), and Philips 6/6 (2%). Qualitative research is a valid alternative, and if used with appropriate methodological rigor it can be of considerable use to health care professionals.

  14. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    The CMS Communications Group has been busy in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure The 55 CMS Centres worldwide are well used by physicists working on remote CMS shifts, Computing operations, data quality monitoring, data analysis and outreach. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, is the centre of the CMS Offline and Computing operations, and a number of subdetector shifts can now take place there, rather than in the main Control Room at P5. A new CMS meeting room has been equipped for videoconferencing in building 42, next to building 40. Our building 28 meeting room and the facilities at P5 will be refurbished soon and plans are underway to steadily upgrade the ageing equipment in all 15 CMS meeting rooms at CERN. The CMS evaluation of the Vidyo tool indicates that it is not yet ready to be considered as a potential replacement for EVO. The Communications Group provides the CMS-TV (web) cha...

  15. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2010-01-01

    The CMS Communications Group, established at the start of 2010, has been strengthening the activities in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure The Communications Group has invested a lot of effort to support the operations needs of CMS. Hence, the CMS Centres where physicists work on remote CMS shifts, Data Quality Monitoring, and Data Analysis are running very smoothly. There are now 55 CMS Centres worldwide, up from just 16 at the start of CMS data-taking. The latest to join are Imperial College London, the University of Iowa, and the Università di Napoli. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, which is now full repaired after the major flooding at the beginning of the year, has been at the centre of CMS offline and computing operations, most recently hosting a large fraction of the CMS Heavy Ion community during the lead-lead run. A number of sub-detector shifts can now take pla...

  16. Group play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, Michael; Brolund, Thea

    2008-01-01

    Role-playing games (RPGs) are a well-known game form, existing in a number of formats, including tabletop, live action, and various digital forms. Despite their popularity, empirical studies of these games are relatively rare. In particular there have been few examinations of the effects of the v......Role-playing games (RPGs) are a well-known game form, existing in a number of formats, including tabletop, live action, and various digital forms. Despite their popularity, empirical studies of these games are relatively rare. In particular there have been few examinations of the effects...... of the various formats used by RPGs on the gaming experience. This article presents the results of an empirical study, examining how multi-player tabletop RPGs are affected as they are ported to the digital medium. Issues examined include the use of disposition assessments to predict play experience, the effect...... of group dynamics, the influence of the fictional game characters and the comparative play experience between the two formats. The results indicate that group dynamics and the relationship between the players and their digital characters, are integral to the quality of the gaming experience in multiplayer...

  17. Alternative energy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, K.F.

    1983-01-01

    It is accepted that coal will continue to play the major role in the supply of energy to the country for the remainder of the century. In this paper, however, emphasis has been directed to those options which could supplement coal in an economic and technically sound manner. The general conclusion is that certain forms of solar energy hold the most promise and it is in this direction that research, development and implementation programmes should be directed. Tidal energy, fusion energy, geothermal energy, hydrogen energy and fuel cells are also discussed as alternative energy options

  18. Dounreay: an alternative development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, K.

    1990-01-01

    With the Government decision to phase out the Fast Reactor at Dounreay there is a need to find alternative employment in the area. Traditionally Caithness is an area of farming, fishing and tourism which could be damaged if Dounreay were to be made a nuclear waste repository. The suggestion is that Dounreay should become a centre for research, development and subsequent manufacture of renewable energy sources and devices to harness renewable energy. The Scottish coastline has potential for wind and wave power developments and this could lead to a whole industry in the future. (UK)

  19. Alternative energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, P.

    1978-01-01

    It is suggested that the development of alternative energy sources has made them more attractive than nuclear power, due to their characteristics, such as small scale and short lead times, moderate costs and minimal environmental impact. The objectives of energy policy are discussed in relation to forecasts of energy demand. Tables show (a) projected useful energy demands UK; (b) patterns of end-use of energy; (c) costs of heating fuels; (d) net present value of gas purchases; (e) useful-energy by end-use analysis; and (f) primary fuel summary 2025. The contributions of hydro, nuclear, waves, solar, oil, gas and coal are estimated to 2025. (U.K.)

  20. Alternate fuels; Combustibles alternos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Paredes R, Hernando; Ambriz G, Juan Jose [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana. Iztapalapa (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    In the definition and description of alternate fuels we must center ourselves in those technological alternatives that allow to obtain compounds that differ from the traditional ones, in their forms to be obtained. In this article it is tried to give an overview of alternate fuels to the conventional derivatives of petroleum and that allow to have a clear idea on the tendencies of modern investigation and the technological developments that can be implemented in the short term. It is not pretended to include all the tendencies and developments of the present world, but those that can hit in a relatively short term, in accordance with agreed with the average life of conventional fuels. Nevertheless, most of the conversion principles are applicable to the spectrum of carbonaceous or cellulosic materials which are in nature, are cultivated or wastes of organic origin. Thus one will approach them in a successive way, the physical, chemical and biological conversions that can take place in a production process of an alternate fuel or the same direct use of the fuel such as burning the sweepings derived from the forests. [Spanish] En la definicion y descripcion de combustibles alternos nos debemos centrar en aquellas alternativas tecnologicas que permitan obtener compuestos que difieren de los tradicionales, al menos en sus formas de ser obtenidos. En este articulo se pretende dar un panorama de los combustibles alternos a los convencionales derivados del petroleo y que permita tener una idea clara sobre las tendencias de la investigacion moderna y los desarrollos tecnologicos que puedan ser implementados en el corto plazo. No se pretende abarcar todas las tendencias y desarrollos del mundo actual, sino aquellas que pueden impactar en un plazo relativamente corto, acordes con la vida media de los combustibles convencionales. Sin embargo, la mayor parte de los principios de conversion son aplicables al espectro de materiales carbonaceos o celulosicos los cuales se

  1. Alternatives to eigenstate thermalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigol, Marcos; Srednicki, Mark

    2012-03-16

    An isolated quantum many-body system in an initial pure state will come to thermal equilibrium if it satisfies the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis (ETH). We consider alternatives to ETH that have been proposed. We first show that von Neumann's quantum ergodic theorem relies on an assumption that is essentially equivalent to ETH. We also investigate whether, following a sudden quench, special classes of pure states can lead to thermal behavior in systems that do not obey ETH, namely, integrable systems. We find examples of this, but only for initial states that obeyed ETH before the quench.

  2. Alternatives to Seesaw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, Hitoshi

    2004-01-01

    The seesaw mechanism is attractive not only because it 'explains' small neutrino mass, but also because of its packaging with the SUSY-GUT, leptogenesis, Dark Matter, and electroweak symmetry breaking. However, this package has the flavor, CP, and gravitino problems. I discuss two alternatives to the seesaw mechanism. In one of them, the anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking solves these problems, while predicts naturally light Dirac neutrinos. In the other, the light Majorana neutrinos arise from supersymmetry breaking with right-handed neutrinos below TeV, and the Dark Matter and collider phenomenology are significantly different.

  3. Cardiovascular group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomqvist, Gunnar

    1989-01-01

    As a starting point, the group defined a primary goal of maintaining in flight a level of systemic oxygen transport capacity comparable to each individual's preflight upright baseline. The goal of maintaining capacity at preflight levels would seem to be a reasonable objective for several different reasons, including the maintenance of good health in general and the preservation of sufficient cardiovascular reserve capacity to meet operational demands. It is also important not to introduce confounding variables in whatever other physiological studies are being performed. A change in the level of fitness is likely to be a significant confounding variable in the study of many organ systems. The principal component of the in-flight cardiovascular exercise program should be large-muscle activity such as treadmill exercise. It is desirable that at least one session per week be monitored to assure maintenance of proper functional levels and to provide guidance for any adjustments of the exercise prescription. Appropriate measurements include evaluation of the heart-rate/workload or the heart-rate/oxygen-uptake relationship. Respiratory gas analysis is helpful by providing better opportunities to document relative workload levels from analysis of the interrelationships among VO2, VCO2, and ventilation. The committee felt that there is no clear evidence that any particular in-flight exercise regimen is protective against orthostatic hypotension during the early readaptation phase. Some group members suggested that maintenance of the lower body muscle mass and muscle tone may be helpful. There is also evidence that late in-flight interventions to reexpand blood volume to preflight levels are helpful in preventing or minimizing postflight orthostatic hypotension.

  4. on some properties of the alternating sylvester series and alternating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    We investigate some properties connected with the alternating Sylvester series and alternating Engel Series representation for real numbers, in terms of the integer digits involved. In particular, we look at an algorithm that leads to a general alternating series expansion for real numbers in terms of rationals and deduce the ...

  5. Alternative fuels. Daitai nenryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, E. (Japan Automobile Research Inst. Inc., Tsukuba (Japan))

    1992-05-05

    Evaluation of alternative fuels has been conducted by various agencies since the first oil crisis in 1973 and at that time, the development of coal, oil shale, tar sand and such synthetic fuels as coal liquefaction oil etc. was pursued in several countries like Japan and the U.S.A. as national projects. However, since the second oil crisis, due to the progress of energy saving and other measures, demand and supply of petrolium has been relaxed and synthetic oil development projects have greatly been reduced in Japan as well as other countries. At the present, because of the environmental problems, the stress has been shifted to natural gas whose cost is lower than that of coal and whose exhaust gas is expected to be cleaner than that of coal. In this article, with regard to methanol and compressible natural gas which are most expected domestically as well as overseas as alternative fuels, evaluation from the viewpoint of character, evaluation from the viewpoint 'of utilization technique and evaluation from the viewpoint of production and supply are discussed respectively. 3 refs.

  6. Alternative Therapies for PKU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Spécola MD

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenylalanine (PHE-restricted diet has improved in quality and diversity over time and has proven to be effective in all patients. Nevertheless, this treatment imposes a heavy social and economic burden to patient and family and impacts quality of life. Sustained adherence to PHE restriction is difficult to maintain. Moreover, even patients with phenylketonuria (PKU with normal intelligence quotient (IQ have lower IQ than matched individuals without PKU and can have deficits in multiple other aspects of neuropsychological function, including cognitive and executive function, working memory. They can also have behavior problems, depression, and low self-esteem. In recent years, alternative treatments for PKU have been developed and their use has been indicated for some patients who are candidates for options besides traditional treatment. Sapropterindihydrochloride, large neutral amino acids, and glycomacropeptide are alternative treatment options in use for selected patients. The aim of this article is to review the current knowledge of these new approaches to PKU treatment.

  7. Group Work with Abusive Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Lois; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Social work students conclude from an experience that parents can consider alternative means of disciplining children when they participate in a parent group that is comfortable and when attendance is promoted by provision of tangible services. Parents achieved increased sense of self-worth and learned appropriate ways of expressing anger. (Author)

  8. Alternative Medicine and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Complementary and Alternative Medicine KidsHealth / For Parents / Complementary and Alternative Medicine What's ... why it works. How CAM Differs From Traditional Medicine CAM is frequently distinguished by its holistic methods, ...

  9. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2010-01-01

    The recently established CMS Communications Group, led by Lucas Taylor, has been busy in all three of its main are areas of responsibility: Communications Infrastructure, Information Systems, and Outreach and Education Communications Infrastructure The damage caused by the flooding of the CMS Centre@CERN on 21st December has been completely repaired and all systems are back in operation. Major repairs were made to the roofs, ceilings and one third of the floor had to be completely replaced. Throughout these works, the CMS Centre was kept operating and even hosted a major press event for first 7 TeV collisions, as described below. Incremental work behind the scenes is steadily improving the quality of the CMS communications infrastructure, particularly Webcasting, video conferencing, and meeting rooms at CERN. CERN/IT is also deploying a pilot service of a new videoconference tool called Vidyo, to assess whether it might provide an enhanced service at a lower cost, compared to the EVO tool currently in w...

  10. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2012-01-01

      Outreach and Education We are fortunate that our research has captured the public imagination, even though this inevitably puts us under the global media spotlight, as we saw with the Higgs seminar at CERN in December, which had 110,000 distinct webcast viewers. The media interest was huge with 71 media organisations registering to come to CERN to cover the Higgs seminar, which was followed by a press briefing with the DG and Spokespersons. This event resulted in about 2,000 generally positive stories in the global media. For this seminar, the CMS Communications Group prepared up-to-date news and public material, including links to the CMS results, animations and event displays [http://cern.ch/go/Ch8thttp://cern.ch/go/Ch8t]. There were 44,000 page-views on the CMS public website, with the Higgs news article being by far the most popular item. CMS event displays from iSpy are fast becoming the iconic media images, featuring on numerous major news outlets (BBC, CNN, MSN...) as well as in the sci...

  11. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Communications Infrastructure The 55 CMS Centres worldwide are well used by physicists working on remote CMS shifts, Computing operations, data quality monitoring, data analysis and outreach. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin is particularly busy at the moment, hosting about 50 physicists taking part in the heavy-ion data-taking and analysis. Three new CMS meeting room will be equipped for videoconferencing in early 2012: 40/5B-08, 42/R-031, and 28/S-029. The CMS-TV service showing LHC Page 1, CMS Page 1, etc. (http://cmsdoc.cern.ch/cmscc/projector/index.jsp) is now also available for mobile devices: http://cern.ch/mcmstv. Figure 12: Screenshots of CMS-TV for mobile devices Information Systems CMS has a new web site: (http://cern.ch/cms) using a modern web Content Management System to ensure content and links are managed and updated easily and coherently. It covers all CMS sub-projects and groups, replacing the iCMS internal pages. It also incorporates the existing CMS public web site (http:/...

  12. Change in the balance of excitatory and inhibitory midline fiber crossing as an explanation for the hopping phenotype in EphA4 knockout mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Restrepo, Carlos E.; Margaryan, Gayane; Borgius, Lotta

    2011-01-01

    A4-KO) mice, the normal alternating walking pattern is replaced by a rabbit-like hopping gait, which can be reproduced when locomotor-like activity is induced in the isolated spinal cord. This hopping phenotype has been explained by an abnormal midline crossing of ipsilateral axons. Here, we...... investigated the nature of this overcrossing in heterozygous EphA4 (EphA4 lacZ/+) mice that showed normal alternating gait and homozygous EphA4 (EphA4 lacZ/lacZ) mice with hopping gait. Localized lesions showed that the hopping phenotype is maintained by fibers crossing in the ventral commissure. Using...

  13. Alternative energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaelides, Efstathios E. (Stathis) [Texas Christian Univ., Forth Worth, TX (United States). Dept. of Engineering

    2012-07-01

    Alternative Energy Sources is designed to give the reader, a clear view of the role each form of alternative energy may play in supplying the energy needs of the human society in the near and intermediate future (20-50 years). The two first chapters on energy demand and supply and environmental effects, set the tone as to why the widespread use of alternative energy is essential for the future of human society. The third chapter exposes the reader to the laws of energy conversion processes, as well as the limitations of converting one energy form to another. The sections on exergy give a succinct, quantitative background on the capability/potential of each energy source to produce power on a global scale. The fourth, fifth and sixth chapters are expositions of fission and fusion nuclear energy. The following five chapters (seventh to eleventh) include detailed descriptions of the most common renewable energy sources - wind, solar, geothermal, biomass, hydroelectric - and some of the less common sources, such as tidal and wave energy. The emphasis of these chapters is on the global potential of each source; the engineering/technical systems that are currently used in harnessing the potential of each one of these energy sources; the technological developments that will contribute to wider utilization of the sources; and the environmental effects associated with their current and their wider use. The last three chapters are: energy storage, which is the main limitation of the wider use of solar and wind power and will become an important issue if renewable energy sources are to be used widely; energy conservation, which appears to be everyone's favorite issue, but by itself is not a solution to our energy challenge; and energy economics, a necessary consideration in market-driven economies. The fourteen chapters in the book have been chosen so that one may fit a semester University course around this book. At the end of every chapter, there are 12-20 problems

  14. ALTERNATIVE FUELS FOR DIESEL ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Caban

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development and genesis of the use of alternative fuels in internal combustion ignition engines. Based on the analysis of the literature, this article shows various alternative fuels used in Poland and all over the world. Furthermore, this article describes the research directions for alternative fuels use in road transport powered by diesel engines.

  15. Alternating chemoradiotherapy for oropharyngeal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaoka, Masahiro; Fuwa, Nobukazu; Matsumoto, Akira; Kimura, Yasuo; Furutani, Kazuhisa; Kamata, Minoru; Kodaira, Takeshi; Morita, Kouzou [Aichi Cancer Center, Nagoya (Japan)

    2000-12-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of chemoradiotherapy for oropharyngeal cancer, we retrospectively analyzed disease-free survival (DFS) and acute toxicities of the patients treated with this therapy. Between 1990 and 1998, 15 patients were treated with alternating chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Chemotherapy (CT) mainly consisted of 5-fluorouracil 700 mg/m{sup 2} (iv) on days 1-5 and nedaplatin 100-140 mg/m{sup 2} (iv) on day 6. Chemotherapy was administered before the beginning of radiotherapy. One cycle of this treatment consisted of CT and a subsequent 27 to 36 Gy of radiotherapy, as a general rule, two cycles were performed. Radiotherapy was delivered in single daily fractions of 1.8 to 2 Gy, to a total dose of 54 to 75 Gy for local lesions and 45 to 86.3 Gy for nodal metastases in the neck. As a historical control, 52 patients treated with curative radiotherapy between 1971 and 1990 were analyzed and compared with the CRT group in terms of DFS. The complete response rate with CRT was 100%. The three-year DFS were 87% and 38% with CRT and RT, respectively. There was a significant difference between the two groups (p=0.0081). The most frequent and severe acute toxicity was mucositis, with grade 3-4 occurring in 47%. Acute hematologic toxicities were mild. Therefore, this CRT is considered to be an effective and tolerable treatment, and is expected to improve survival for oropharyngeal cancer patients. (author)

  16. Alternate Reality Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Erik

    2014-01-01

    What. Urban Games are games that take place in the real-world of the players, and which make use of the properties of the city. Alternate Reality Games (ARGs) are urban games that pretend to be conspiracy theories that really are happening in the life of the players. The games are experienced...... through events, challenges and collaborative puzzle solving and may evolve through the engagement of the players. This new design method, Aulaia, addresses the design of urban games in the form of ARGs. Along with the design method several examples from real world ARGs are given. Why. ARGs and other urban...... games are usually large and complicated undertakings, which require many coordinated activities in order to make successful games. This design method secures a structured approach, not only for the design of the game, but also for the launch and running. ARGs develop along with the players and require...

  17. Alternative to BGO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.F.

    1982-01-01

    For some applications, the scintillating crystal RaF 2 may be preferable to BGO. When coupled to a liquid TMAE photocathode and wire chamber, RaF 2 offers the possibility of an order of magnitude better timing resolution, ease of operating in strong magnetic fields, greater flexibility of design, and more information. For BGO its main advantage is its radiation length and its disadvantages are cost, timing, and difficulty of use in a magnetic field. The main advantages of RaF 2 are its timing, the ease of working in a magnetic field with a wire chamber, the flexibility of design, and greater information out. Its disadvantages are cost and its radiation length. Although BaF 2 has its own shortcomings, coupled to a LPC it has some unique strengths that make it a viable alternative to BGO in some applications of calorimetry in high energy physics

  18. Alternative tsunami models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, A; Lyatskaya, I [Department of Physics, Alabama A and M University, Normal, AL 35762 (United States)], E-mail: arjun.tan@aamu.edu

    2009-01-15

    The interesting papers by Margaritondo (2005 Eur. J. Phys. 26 401) and by Helene and Yamashita (2006 Eur. J. Phys. 27 855) analysed the great Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004 using a simple one-dimensional canal wave model, which was appropriate for undergraduate students in physics and related fields of discipline. In this paper, two additional, easily understandable models, suitable for the same level of readership, are proposed: one, a two-dimensional model in flat space, and two, the same on a spherical surface. The models are used to study the tsunami produced by the central Kuril earthquake of November 2006. It is shown that the two alternative models, especially the latter one, give better representations of the wave amplitude, especially at far-flung locations. The latter model further demonstrates the enhancing effect on the amplitude due to the curvature of the Earth for far-reaching tsunami propagation.

  19. Alternatives to neoliberalism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warring, Niels; Ahrenkiel, Annegrethe; Nielsen, Birger Steen

    This paper will discuss the consequences of neoliberal governance in Danish day care centres, the social educators’ response, and the possible development of alternatives based on collective participation of social educators and union representatives. We will show how important and unnoticed...... professional competencies come under pressure, and how collective interest representation is challenged. We will discuss how concepts of “gestural knowledge”, “coherence” and “rhythm” open for a new understanding of professional competence. And we will conclude that the social educators and their unions have...... the possibility to contribute to the development of a new welfare paradigm. The paper is based on material from two research projects (Ahrenkiel et al. 2009, 2011) involving social educators and union representatives in day care institutions. We have observed everyday work activities in day care centres...

  20. Nuclear power: the alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    South Africa has only two resources for large-scale generation of energy, namely coal and uranium. The petrochemical industry uses more and more coal to provide internal combustion engines of fuel. Until an alternative for nuclear energy is found, the country will have to rely on nuclear energy to provide in the energy needs. According to mr. John Maree, former chairman of the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa, the last coal power station will be built more or less in the year 2030. Sites for the building of future nuclear power stations are already identified. The West Coast is ideally suited for this purpose mainly because of the geological stability of the area and the lack of industrial development. The development of the nuclear industry in South Africa is reviewed

  1. As Definições Alternativas de Grupo Estratégico e o Valor Explicativo das Diferenças em ResultadosAlternative Definitions of the Strategic Group and Explaining Value of Differences in ResultsLas Definiciones Alternativas de Grupo Estratégico y su Valor Explicativo de las Diferencias en Resultados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TABOADA, Lorenzo Revuelto

    2010-03-01

    refutes the significance of belonging to a specific strategic group in order to explain performance differences. Hence, in this work we have tried to review previous literature to provide a reasonable explanation to unevenness found in the empirical findings. This aim obliges us, firstly, to review previous literature taking into account alternative definitions of strategic group proposed by studies rooted in different theoretical traditions, strategic positioning approach, resource-based theory and cognitive psychology. Secondly, we have posed some propositions about the performance differences explaining power of alternative strategic group definitions rooted in these different theories. To contrast these propositions we have carried out an empirical work in the electric lighting equipment producers industry, using different measures of profitability, growth and productivity and their risk adjusted associated measures. First we have conducted ANOVA and post hoc analysis, to assess performance differences, using separately the different strategic group structures identified by cluster analysis. We have also conducted a two-factor ANOVA analysis, using input market positioning and output market positioning as independent variables. Our results show that the explaining power of strategic group structures of the industry is scarce, but the results are quite better when we take into account both, input market positioning and output market positioning. This is consistent with the hypothesis that a particular bundle of resources and capabilities fits better with a particular product-market strategy than with others.RESUMENLa relación grupos estratégicos-resultados ha sido analizada de forma recurrente durante más de tres décadas. Sin embargo, hasta el momento, la evidencia empírica proporcionada ha resultado escasa y conflictiva. El presente trabajo trata de ofrecer una explicación razonable a las inconsistencias observadas en los resultados obtenidos. Para ello, hemos

  2. Testing Alternative Definitions of Chronic Homelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Thomas; Culhane, Dennis P

    2015-09-01

    This study examined the potential impact of a proposed change to the official federal definition of chronic homelessness. Using administrative data from the emergency shelters in a large U.S. city, this study estimated the number of persons identified as chronically homeless under the current definition of chronic homelessness, a proposed new federal definition, and two alternative definitions and examined shelter utilization for each group. Fewer than half as many people were considered chronically homeless under the proposed new federal definition compared with the current definition. Persons considered chronically homeless by the proposed new definition and, to a lesser extent, by the two alternative definitions, made heavier use of shelter compared with persons who met the current definition. A proposed new and two alternative definitions of chronic homelessness are better suited than the existing federal definition for identifying persons with the most protracted experiences of homelessness.

  3. Group percolation in interdependent networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zexun; Zhou, Dong; Hu, Yanqing

    2018-03-01

    In many real network systems, nodes usually cooperate with each other and form groups to enhance their robustness to risks. This motivates us to study an alternative type of percolation, group percolation, in interdependent networks under attack. In this model, nodes belonging to the same group survive or fail together. We develop a theoretical framework for this group percolation and find that the formation of groups can improve the resilience of interdependent networks significantly. However, the percolation transition is always of first order, regardless of the distribution of group sizes. As an application, we map the interdependent networks with intersimilarity structures, which have attracted much attention recently, onto the group percolation and confirm the nonexistence of continuous phase transitions.

  4. Synthesis of Combretastatin A-4 Analogs and their Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, Agnieszka; Gensicka, Monika; Cholewinski, Grzegorz; Dzierzbicka, Krystyna

    2016-01-01

    Combretastatin A-4 (CA-4) is a natural product, which consists of two phenyl rings, linked by an ethylene bridge. CA-4, inhibitor of polymerization of tubulin to microtubules, possesses a strong antitumor and anti-vascular properties both in vitro and in vivo. Previous studies showed that disodium phosphate salt of CA-4, a water-soluble prodrug is well tolerated at therapeutically useful doses. However, it should be noted that the cis-configuration of the double bond and the 3,4,5-trimethoxy group on ring A is necessary for the biological activity of CA-4. Structure of CA-4 renders the compound readily susceptible to isomerization, which reduces the potency and bioavailability. To circumvent this problem, a lot of scientists in the world synthesized a series of cis-restricted CA-4 analogs, where the double bond has been replaced by introduction of non-heterocyclic groups or heterocyclic groups like β -lactam and oxadiazole. This paper reviews the most important approaches in analogs of combretastatin synthesis and presents structure-reactivity relationships for these compounds. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. The nuclear power alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blix, H.

    1989-04-01

    The Director General of the IAEA stressed the need for energy policies and other measures which would help to slow and eventually halt the present build-up of carbon dioxide, methane and other so-called greenhouse gases, which are held to cause global warming. He urged that nuclear power and various other sources of energy, none of which contribute to global warming, should not be seen as alternatives, but should all be used to counteract the greenhouse effect. He pointed out that the commercially used renewable energies, apart from hydropower, currently represent only 0.3% of the world's energy consumption and, by contrast, the 5% of the world's energy consumption coming from nuclear power is not insignificant. Dr. Blix noted that opposition for nuclear power stems from fear of accidents and concern about the nuclear wastes. But no generation of electricity, whether by coal, hydro, gas or nuclear power, is without some risk. He emphasized that safety can never be a static concept, and that many new measures are being taken by governments and by the IAEA to further strengthen the safety of nuclear power

  6. Alternative superconducting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In the context of the experiment on 'Development of high temperature superconducting system components' supported by the German Ministry of Research and Technology, investigations were carried out by the Working Party of Prof. von Schnering at the Max Planck Institute for Solids Research, the aim of which is to find characteristic structural features of superconducting substances. Alternative systems are to be looked for with the aid of correlation of superconducting properties with simple electronic and chemical structure models, where very powerful 3D computer graphics are used to visualize them. The theoretical and information technology part of the work was supplemented by experiments. Superconducting phases and related compounds were represented and their structures and physical properties were determined. According to the tasks described above, the report is divided into three sections. Starting with the description of a program system for three-dimensional representation of structures and properties of periodic systems, in the second section a process for calculating node surfaces is explained and the importance of curvature in chemical structures is pointed out. The results of the experiments are collected in the third part. (orig.) [de

  7. Visual reconciliation of alternative similarity spaces in climate modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    J Poco; A Dasgupta; Y Wei; William Hargrove; C.R. Schwalm; D.N. Huntzinger; R Cook; E Bertini; C.T. Silva

    2015-01-01

    Visual data analysis often requires grouping of data objects based on their similarity. In many application domains researchers use algorithms and techniques like clustering and multidimensional scaling to extract groupings from data. While extracting these groups using a single similarity criteria is relatively straightforward, comparing alternative criteria poses...

  8. The spatial patterns of beta/A4 deposit subtypes in Down's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstrong, R A

    1994-01-01

    The spatial patterns of diffuse, primitive and classic beta/A4 deposits were studied in coronal sections of the hippocampus and adjacent gyri in 11 cases of Down's syndrome (DS) varying in age from 38 to 67 years. The objectives of the study were first, to compare the spatial patterns of beta/A4 deposits revealed in DS with those reported in cases of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and second, to study how the spatial patterns of beta/A4 deposits may develop in the tissue. The spatial patterns revealed in DS exhibited a number of similarities with those reported in AD: (1) the range and frequency of the different types of spatial pattern revealed were similar, (2) beta/A4 deposits occurred in clusters and in many cortical tissues, the clusters were distributed in a regular pattern parallel to the pia, (3) the clusters of diffuse and primitive beta/A4 deposits occurred in an alternating pattern along the cortex, and (4) the clusters of classic beta/A4 deposits were not correlated with the clusters of the diffuse and primitive deposits. Primitive deposits may develop from the diffuse deposits in regions of the cortex where extracellular paired helical filaments were formed. However, clusters of the classic beta/A4 deposits, which are formed in older cases, appear to develop independently of the diffuse and primitive deposits.

  9. Embedding Post-Capitalist Alternatives: The Global Network of Alternative Knowledge Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William K. Carroll

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1970s, transnational alternative policy groups (TAPGs have emerged as a component of global civil society, generating visions and strategies for a "globalization from below" that point toward post-capitalist alternatives. Here, we map the global network ofTAPGs and kindred international groups in order to discern how TAPGs are embedded in a larger formation. In this era of capitalist globalization, do TAPGs, like their hegemonic counterparts, bridge across geographic spaces (e.g. North-South and movement domains to foster the convergence across difference that is taken as a criterial attribute of a counter-hegemonic historical bloc? Our network analysis suggests that TAPGs are well placed to participate in the transformation of the democratic globalization network from a gelatinous and unselfconscious state, into an historical bloc capable of collective action toward an alternative global order. However, there are gaps in the bloc, having to do with the representation and integration of regions and movement domains, and with the salience of post-capitalism as a unifying social vision. Also, our architectonic network analysis does not reveal what the various relations and mediations in which TAPGs are active agents actually mean in concrete practice. There is a need both for closer analysis of the specific kinds of relations that link transnational alternative policy groups to other international actors, including intergovernmental organizations and funding foundations, and for field work that explores the actual practices of these groups, in situ.

  10. Enhanced Design Alternative IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, N.E.

    1999-01-01

    This report evaluates Enhanced Design Alternative (EDA) IV as part of the second phase of the License Application Design Selection (LADS) effort. The EDA IV concept was compared to the VA reference design using criteria from the Design Input Request for LADS Phase II EDA Evaluations (CRWMS M and O 1999b) and (CRWMS M and O 1999f). Briefly, the EDA IV concept arranges the waste packages close together in an emplacement configuration known as line load. Continuous pre-closure ventilation keeps the waste packages from exceeding their 350 C cladding and 200 C (4.3.6) drift wall temperature limits. This EDA concept keeps relatively high, uniform emplacement drift temperatures (post-closure) to drive water away from the repository and thus dry out the pillars between emplacement drifts. The waste package is shielded to permit human access to emplacement drifts and includes an integral filler inside the package to reduce the amount of water that can contact the waste form. Closure of the repository is desired 50 years after first waste is emplaced. Both backfill and drip shields will be emplaced at closure to improve post-closure performance. The EDA IV concept includes more defense-in-depth layers than the VA reference design because of its backfill, drip shield, waste package shielding, and integral filler features. These features contribute to the low dose-rate to the public achieved during the first 10,000 years of repository life as shown in Figure 3. Investigation of the EDA IV concept has led to the following general conclusions: (1) The total life cycle cost for EDA IV is about $21.7 billion which equates to a $11.3 billion net present value (both figures rounded up). (2) The incidence of design basis events for EDA IV is similar to the VA reference design. (3) The emplacement of the waste packages in drifts will be similar to the VA reference design. However, heavier equipment may be required because the shielded waste package will be heavier. (4) The heavier

  11. EVALUATING THE IMPACT OF POLICY OPTIONS ON AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPES: AN ALTERNATIVE-FUTURES APPROACH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative-futures analysis was used to analyze different scenarios of future growth patterns and attendant resource allocations on the agricultural system of Oregon's Willamette River Basin. A stakeholder group formulated three policy alternatives: a continuation of current tr...

  12. Alternative Genres of IS Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avital, Michel; Mathiassen, Lars; Crowston, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    perspectives, research methods, semantic framing, literary styles, and media of expression. Overall, the application of alternative genres is considered to be a generative act that provides an opportunity to take a fresh look and to gain deeper understanding of the subject matter. Nonetheless, paradoxically......The potential value of alternative genres in IS research is the core question that drives this panel discussion. The term “Alternative Genres” refers to unconventional forms of thinking, doing, and communicating scholarship and practice. It relates to innovation with respect to epistemological...... the prevailing genres have much inertia, in spite of the inherent boundary spanning nature of alternative genres. Building on their own recent empirical research, the panelists will debate the potential value of alternative genres as unconventional modality of IS scholarship and how alternative genres might...

  13. ALTERNATIVE FUELS POSSIBILITY OR PARADOX

    OpenAIRE

    V. Saritha*, Manoj Kumar Karnena

    2016-01-01

    Shortage of oil will be experienced by future decade’s .Fossil fuels have been during mankind over the centuries and have come to a stage where they have become a resource. Mankind cannot make requirement to search for alternative energy resources to keep mankind moving. Many authors previously have discussed the importance of alternative fuels. This review presents a detailed description of harness technology, cost analysis and advantage of alternative fuels like bio diesels, Hydrogen energy...

  14. Alternative fuelds in urban fleets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay, T.

    1994-01-01

    In this presentation the author addresses four main objectives. They are to: discuss programs that are driving the introduction of alternative fuels into fleet operations in urban areas around the country; define alternative fuels; quantify the present use and future projections on alternative fuel vehicles (AVFs) in the Chicago metropolitan statistical area; and discuss benefits of increased use of alternative fuels in urban areas. Factors which touch on these points include: present domestic dependence on petroleum for autos, with usage exceeding production; the large populations in urban areas which do not meet Clean Air Standards; recent legislative initiatives which give guidance and aid in the adoption of such strategies

  15. Alternative fuelds in urban fleets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, T.

    1994-12-31

    In this presentation the author addresses four main objectives. They are to: discuss programs that are driving the introduction of alternative fuels into fleet operations in urban areas around the country; define alternative fuels; quantify the present use and future projections on alternative fuel vehicles (AVFs) in the Chicago metropolitan statistical area; and discuss benefits of increased use of alternative fuels in urban areas. Factors which touch on these points include: present domestic dependence on petroleum for autos, with usage exceeding production; the large populations in urban areas which do not meet Clean Air Standards; recent legislative initiatives which give guidance and aid in the adoption of such strategies.

  16. Traditional and Alternative Therapies for Refractory Angina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocyigit, Duygu; Gurses, Kadri Murat; Yalcin, Muhammed Ulvi; Tokgozoglu, Lale

    2017-01-01

    Refractory angina (RFA) is an unfavourable condition that is characterized with persistent angina due to reversible myocardial ischemia in patients with coronary artery disease that remains uncontrollable despite an optimal combination of pharmacological agents and revascularization. Despite significant advances in revascularization techniques and agents used in pharmacological therapy, there is still a significant population suffering from RFA and the global prevalence is even increasing. Anti- anginal treatment and secondary risk-factor modification are the traditional approaches for this group of patients. Furthermore, now there is still a large number of alternative treatment options. In order to review traditional and alternative treatment strategies in patients with RFA, we searched Pubmed for articles in English using the search terms "pharmacological therapy, refractory angina", "alternative therapy, refractory angina" between inception to June 2016. We also went through separately for each alternative treatment modality on Pubmed. To identify further articles, we handsearched related citations in review articles and commentaries. We also included data from the European Society of Cardiology (2013), and the Canadian Society of Cardiology/ Canadian Pain Society (2012) guidelines. Data show that besides traditional pharmacological agents, such as nitrates, beta- blockers or calcium channel blockers, novel antiischemic drugs and if symptoms persist, several non- invasive and/ or invasive alternative strategies may be considered. Impact of some pharmacological agents, such as rho- kinase inhibitors, and novel alternative treatment modalities, such as coronary sinus reducers, stem cell therapy, gene and protein therapy, on outcomes are still under investigation. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. Medical group mergers: strategies for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Will

    2014-01-01

    As consolidation sweeps over the healthcare industry, many medical groups are considering mergers with other groups as an alternative to employment. While mergers are challenging and fraught with risk, an organized approach to the merger process can dramatically increase the odds for success. Merging groups need to consider the benefits they seek from a merger, identify the obstacles that must be overcome to merge, and develop alternatives to overcome those obstacles. This article addresses the benefits to be gained and issues to be addressed, and provides a tested roadmap that has resulted in many successful medical group mergers.

  18. Alternative techniques in root canal debridement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, Ruxandra; Todea, Carmen; Bǎlǎbuc, Cosmin; Nica, Luminita; Armani, Giacomo; Locovei, Cosmin

    2014-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that conventional chemo-mechanical preparation is limited regarding the decontamination of the endodontic space, which is why alternative techniques such as laser radiation have their importance in the modern endodontic treatment. The present study aims to assess the possibility of improving the debridement of the root canals by removing smear layer using Er: YAG laser radiation. We used 18 extracted teeth, which were subjected to the same initial protocol and then divided into 5 study groups: the control group has not been treated with laser; the other 4 groups were exposed to laser radiation using two different geometries peaks of quartz and two energy levels. Scanning electronic microscopy revealed an increased efficiency in the debridement of all interested areas when using PIPS and XPulse tips at proper energy. In the two groups treated with inferior laser energy, the debridement didn't prove to be superior to the conventional treatment.

  19. Placental perfusion - a human alternative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Tina; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2006-01-01

    and represents a supplement and alternative to animal testing, bypassing the animal to human extrapolation. Placentas are readily obtainable from most births upon informed consent from the mothers and are considered a promising tissue alternative/supplement to animal experiments. The system is validated...... as a part of work package 2 of the integrated project ReProTect....

  20. Marital Alternatives and Marital Disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udry, J. Richard

    1981-01-01

    Explores the usefulness of "marital alternatives" as a dimension in explaining marital stability, using longitudinal data from a panel of married, White, urban couples from 16 urban areas. Results indicated the dimension of marital alternatives appeared to be a better predictor of marital disruption than marital satisfaction. (Author/RC)

  1. Alternative Fuels in Cement Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Boberg

    The substitution of alternative for fossil fuels in cement production has increased significantly in the last decade. Of these new alternative fuels, solid state fuels presently account for the largest part, and in particular, meat and bone meal, plastics and tyre derived fuels (TDF) accounted...... for the most significant alternative fuel energy contributors in the German cement industry. Solid alternative fuels are typically high in volatile content and they may differ significantly in physical and chemical properties compared to traditional solid fossil fuels. From the process point of view......, considering a modern kiln system for cement production, the use of alternative fuels mainly influences 1) kiln process stability (may accelerate build up of blockages preventing gas and/or solids flow), 2) cement clinker quality, 3) emissions, and 4) decreased production capacity. Kiln process stability...

  2. Alternative reconstruction after pancreaticoduodenectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooperman Avram M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pancreaticoduodenectomy is the procedure of choice for tumors of the head of the pancreas and periampulla. Despite advances in surgical technique and postoperative care, the procedure continues to carry a high morbidity rate. One of the most common morbidities is delayed gastric emptying with rates of 15%–40%. Following two prolonged cases of delayed gastric emptying, we altered our reconstruction to avoid this complication altogether. Subsequently, our patients underwent a classic pancreaticoduodenectomy with an undivided Roux-en-Y technique for reconstruction. Methods We reviewed the charts of our last 13 Whipple procedures evaluating them for complications, specifically delayed gastric emptying. We compared the outcomes of those patients to a control group of 15 patients who underwent the Whipple procedure with standard reconstruction. Results No instances of delayed gastric emptying occurred in patients who underwent an undivided Roux-en-Y technique for reconstruction. There was 1 wound infection (8%, 1 instance of pneumonia (8%, and 1 instance of bleeding from the gastrojejunal staple line (8%. There was no operative mortality. Conclusion Use of the undivided Roux-en-Y technique for reconstruction following the Whipple procedure may decrease the incidence of delayed gastric emptying. In addition, it has the added benefit of eliminating bile reflux gastritis. Future randomized control trials are recommended to further evaluate the efficacy of the procedure.

  3. Quark and lepton mass matrices with $A_4$ family symmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Sawanaka, H.

    2007-01-01

    Realistic quark masses and mixing angles are obtained applying the successful $A_4$ family symmetry for leptons, motivated by the quark-lepton assignments of SU(5). The $A_4$ symmetry is suitable to give tri-bimaximal neutrino mixing matrix which is consistent with current experimental data. We study new scenario for the quark sector with the $A_4$ symmetry.

  4. 8 CFR 274a.4 - Good faith defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Good faith defense. 274a.4 Section 274a.4... ALIENS Employer Requirements § 274a.4 Good faith defense. An employer or a recruiter or referrer for a... § 274a.2(b) of this part shall have established a rebuttable affirmative defense that the person or...

  5. Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Decision Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shedrow, C.B.

    1999-11-29

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) made a FY98 commitment to the Department of Energy (DOE) to recommend a technology for the disposal of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The two technologies being considered, direct co-disposal and melt and dilute, had been previously selected from a group of eleven potential SNF management technologies by the Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team chartered by the DOE''s Office of Spent Fuel Management. To meet this commitment, WSRC organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and ultimately provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE on a preferred SNF alternative management technology.

  6. Research requirements for alternative reactor development strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to estimate and compare resource requirements and other fuel cycle quantities for alternative reactor deployment strategies. The paper examines from global and national perspectives the interaction of various fuel cycle alternatives described in the previous U.S. submissions to Working Groups 4, 5, 8 and Subgroup 1A/2A. Nuclear energy forecasts of Subgroup 1A/2A are used in the calculation of uranium demand for each strategy. These uranium demands are then compared to U.S. estimates of annual uranium producibility. Annual rather than cumulative producibility was selected because it does not assume preplanned stockpiling, and is therefore more conservative. The strategies attempt to span a range of nuclear power mixes which could evolve if appropriate commercial and governmental climates develop

  7. Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Decision Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shedrow, C.B.

    1999-01-01

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) made a FY98 commitment to the Department of Energy (DOE) to recommend a technology for the disposal of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The two technologies being considered, direct co-disposal and melt and dilute, had been previously selected from a group of eleven potential SNF management technologies by the Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team chartered by the DOE''s Office of Spent Fuel Management. To meet this commitment, WSRC organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and ultimately provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE on a preferred SNF alternative management technology

  8. An Alternative Hypothesis for Special Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eckardt H.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available An alternative theory being analogous to Einstein’s special theory of relativity is pre- sented. While Einstein based his theory on the relativity principle of motion and con- stancy of the velocity of light, this theory assumes an absolute frame of reference and a general length contraction. Both concepts are taken from general relativity and applied to an asymptotically flat space. This results in a transformation group being differ- ent from the Lorentz transformation and a Eucledian addition theorem of velocitites. The results are in accordance with experiments and long known discrepancies between special relativity and experimental findings are resolved as well as paradoxa being in- troduced by Einstein’s original theory. Physical facts being unintelligible before can be interpreted in the light of the alternative theory.

  9. Pheromone based alternative route planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangbing Feng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we propose an improved alternative route calculation based on alternative figures, which is suitable for practical environments. The improvement is based on the fact that the main traffic route is the road network skeleton in a city. Our approach using nodes may generate a higher possibility of overlapping. We employ a bidirectional Dijkstra algorithm to search the route. To measure the quality of an Alternative Figures (AG, three quotas are proposed. The experiment results indicate that the improved algorithm proposed in this paper is more effective than others.

  10. Alternatives to shallow land burial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, B.W.

    1982-01-01

    During FY79 and FY80 the Los Alamos National Laboratory and its contractors performed a preliminary assessment of several alternatives to shallow land burial of low-level waste, including deeper burial, mined cavities, specially engineered storage buildings, well injection of liquid waste, and seabed disposal. Only deeper burial and mined cavities seem acceptable as near-term alternatives. A waste management program using a combination of disposal alternatives is recommended. Research needed to implement the deeper burial and mined cavity options is identified

  11. Atum: Scalable Group Communication Using Volatile Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Guerraoui, Rachid; Kermarrec, Anne-Marie; Pavlovic, Matej; Seredinschi, Dragos-Adrian

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents Atum, a group communication middleware for a large, dynamic, and hostile environment. At the heart of Atum lies the novel concept of volatile groups: small, dynamic groups of nodes, each executing a state machine replication protocol, organized in a flexible overlay. Using volatile groups, Atum scatters faulty nodes evenly among groups, and then masks each individual fault inside its group. To broadcast messages among volatile groups, Atum runs a gossip protocol across the...

  12. The effect of alternative assessment on the attitudes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the effect of exposing one of two groups of preservice female teachers to alternate forms of assessment. Both groups were first year students in a teacher training college and received 8 weeks of normal instruction in mathematics content and traditional assessment by the same teacher. The students ...

  13. Alternation and tunable composition in hydrogen bonded supramolecular copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Thorsten; de Greef, Tom F A; Nieuwenhuizen, Marko M L; Sijbesma, Rint P

    2014-03-07

    Sequence control in supramolecular copolymers is limited by the selectivity of the associating monomer end groups. Here we introduce the use of monomers with aminopyrimidinone and aminohydroxynaphthyridine quadruple hydrogen bonding end groups, which both homodimerize, but form even stronger heterodimers. These features allow the formation of supramolecular copolymers with a tunable composition and a preference for alternating sequences.

  14. Commercial aviation alternative fuels initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    This presentation looks at alternative fuels to enhance environmental stability, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, air quality benefits (e.g., SOx and PM), fuel supply stability, and fuel price stability.

  15. Alternatives in Environmental Health Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ahraf, Amer; Hanson, Donald

    1975-01-01

    The role environmental health should play in management of the environment is examined. Four major environmental health administration models presently available and possible alternatives are presented. A basic set of environmental health principles is included. (BT)

  16. Alternative energies updates on progress

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Germán

    2013-01-01

    This book examines the key pillars of alternative energy, including biomass, hydrogen, solar and geothermal. It features life cycle assessment and thermoeconomic analysis as tools for evaluating and optimising environmental and cost subjects.

  17. Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size: A A A Listen En Español Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines It is best to get ... also more likely to use dietary supplements. Using Supplements Safely If you’re one of the many ...

  18. Disturbance maintains alternative biome states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Vinícius de L; Hirota, Marina; Oliveira, Rafael S; Pausas, Juli G

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms controlling the distribution of biomes remains a challenge. Although tropical biome distribution has traditionally been explained by climate and soil, contrasting vegetation types often occur as mosaics with sharp boundaries under very similar environmental conditions. While evidence suggests that these biomes are alternative states, empirical broad-scale support to this hypothesis is still lacking. Using community-level field data and a novel resource-niche overlap approach, we show that, for a wide range of environmental conditions, fire feedbacks maintain savannas and forests as alternative biome states in both the Neotropics and the Afrotropics. In addition, wooded grasslands and savannas occurred as alternative grassy states in the Afrotropics, depending on the relative importance of fire and herbivory feedbacks. These results are consistent with landscape scale evidence and suggest that disturbance is a general factor driving and maintaining alternative biome states and vegetation mosaics in the tropics. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  19. Peat as an energy alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punwani, D. V.

    1980-07-01

    Although peat is used as an energy source in some countries including Russia, Ireland, and Finland, it is virtually unexploited in many countries such as the United States. An understanding of peat: its varieties, abundance, and distribution; its value as an energy alternative; its current and future role as an energy alternative; and the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of large-scale peat utilization are provided.

  20. The neurogenetics of alternative splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Celine K; Black, Douglas L; Zheng, Sika

    2016-05-01

    Alternative precursor-mRNA splicing is a key mechanism for regulating gene expression in mammals and is controlled by specialized RNA-binding proteins. The misregulation of splicing is implicated in multiple neurological disorders. We describe recent mouse genetic studies of alternative splicing that reveal its critical role in both neuronal development and the function of mature neurons. We discuss the challenges in understanding the extensive genetic programmes controlled by proteins that regulate splicing, both during development and in the adult brain.

  1. The neurogenetics of alternative splicing

    OpenAIRE

    Vuong, Celine K.; Black, Douglas L.; Zheng, Sika

    2016-01-01

    Alternative precursor-mRNA splicing is a key mechanism for regulating gene expression in mammals and is controlled by specialized RNA-binding proteins. The misregulation of splicing is implicated in multiple neurological disorders. We describe recent mouse genetic studies of alternative splicing that reveal its critical role in both neuronal development and the function of mature neurons. We discuss the challenges in understanding the extensive genetic programmes controlled by proteins that r...

  2. Alternative Splicing in Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Pio, Ruben; Montuenga, Luis M.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: Alterations in alternative splicing affect essential biologic processes and are the basis for a number of pathologic conditions, including cancer. In this review we will summarize the evidence supporting the relevance of alternative splicing in lung cancer. An example that illustrates this relevance is the altered balance between Bcl-xL and Bcl-xS, two splice variants of the apoptosis regulator Bcl-x. Splice modifications in cancer-related genes can be associated ...

  3. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed

  4. A Technique: Generating Alternative Thoughts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan AKKOYUNLU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the basic techniques of cognitive therapy is examination of automatic thoughts and reducing the belief in them. By employing this, we can overcome the cognitive bias apparent in mental disorders. Despite this view, according to another cognitive perspective in a given situation, there are distinct cognitive representations competing for retrieval from memory just like positive and negative schemas. In this sense generating or strengthening alternative explanations or balanced thoughts that explain the situation better than negative automatic thoughts is one of the important process goals of cognitive therapy.Objective: Aim of this review is to describe methods used to generate alternative/balanced thoughts that are used in examining automatic thoughts and also a part of automatic thought records. Alternative/balanced thoughts are the summary and end point of automatic thought work. In this text different ways including listing alternative thoughts, using examining the evidence for generating balanced thoughts, decatastrophizing in anxiety and a meta-cognitive method named two explanations are discussed. Different ways to use this technique as a homework assignment is also reviewed. Remarkable aspects of generating alternative explanations and realistic/balanced thoughts are also reviewed and exemplified using therapy transcripts. Conclusion: Generating alternative explanations and balanced thoughts are the end point and important part of therapy work on automatic thoughts. When applied properly and rehearsed as homework between sessions, these methods may lead to improvement in many mental disorders

  5. Extremely discrepant mutation spectrum of SLC26A4 between Chinese patients with isolated Mondini deformity and enlarged vestibular aqueduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shasha; Han, Dongyi; Yuan, Yongyi; Wang, Guojian; Kang, Dongyang; Zhang, Xin; Yan, Xiaofei; Meng, Xiaoxiao; Dong, Min; Dai, Pu

    2011-09-30

    Mutations in SLC26A4 cause Pendred syndrome (hearing loss with goiter) or DFNB4 (non-syndromic hearing loss with inner ear malformation, such as enlarged vestibular aqueduct or Mondini deformity). The relationship between mutations in SLC26A4 and Mondini deformity without enlarged vestibular aqueduct has not been studied in any Chinese deaf population. The purpose of this study was to assess whether mutations in the SLC26A4 gene cause Mondini deformity without an enlarged vestibular aqueduct (isolated Mondini deformity) in a Chinese population. In total, 144 patients with sensorineural hearing loss were included and subjected to high-resolution temporal bone CT. Among them, 28 patients with isolated Mondini dysplasia (MD group), 50 patients with enlarged vestibular aqueduct with Mondini dysplasia (EVA with MD group), 50 patients with enlarged vestibular aqueduct without Mondini dysplasia (EVA group), and 16 patients with other types of inner ear malformations (IEM group) were identified. The coding exons of SLC26A4 were analyzed in all subjects. DNA sequence analysis of SLC26A4 was performed in all 144 patients. In the different groups, the detection rate of the SLC26A4 mutation differed. In the isolated MD group, only one single allelic mutation in SLC26A4 was found in one patient (1/28, 3.6%). In the EVA with MD group, biallelic and monoallelic SLC26A4 mutations were identified in 46 patients (46/50, 92.0%) and three patients (3/50, 6.0%), respectively. Also, in the EVA group, biallelic and monoallelic SLC26A4 mutations were identified in 46 patients (46/50, 92.0%) and three patients (3/50, 6.0%), respectively. These percentages were identical to those in the EVA plus MD group. Only two patients carried monoallelic mutations of the SLC26A4 gene in the IEM group (2/16, 12.5%). There were significant differences in the frequency of SLC26A4 mutation among the groups (P0.5). Although mutations in the SLC26A4 gene were frequently found in Chinese EVA patients with and

  6. Which finite simple groups are unit groups?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Christopher James; Occhipinti, Tommy

    2014-01-01

    We prove that if G is a finite simple group which is the unit group of a ring, then G is isomorphic to either (a) a cyclic group of order 2; (b) a cyclic group of prime order 2^k −1 for some k; or (c) a projective special linear group PSLn(F2) for some n ≥ 3. Moreover, these groups do all occur...

  7. 75 FR 12769 - National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Announcement of Workshop on Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... Complementary and Alternative Medicine Announcement of Workshop on Control/Comparison Groups for Trials of Non... Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) was established in 1998 with the mission of exploring... Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, National Institutes of Health. [FR Doc. 2010-5767...

  8. Alternative Energy Lessons in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Julie

    2010-05-01

    In Scotland the new science curriculum for pupils aged 12 to 15 shall include the following outcomes: "Using my knowledge and understanding, I can express an informed view on a national or global environmental issue;" "I have participated in constructing a model to harness a renewable source of energy and can investigate how to optimise the output;" and "I can discuss why it is important to me and to the future of the world that alternatives to fossil fuels are developed." There will be an emphasis on creating lessons that will nurture responsible citizens, improve pupil engagement and allow students to develop their team working skills. To help teachers plan lessons to address this, the Scottish Schools Equipment Research Centre and Edinburgh University made teaching materials on four renewable energy resources. This poster describes how their suggested activities on solar cells, wind turbines, hydroelectric power stations and wave power were used in science lessons with twelve year old students. After an initial class discussion based on issues related to climate change and diminishing fossil fuel supplies, a workshop activity was carried out in three stages. The students were issued with a fact sheet about one of four imaginary islands (Skisdale, Cloudy Island, Surfsville and Sun City) and they were asked to work in teams to choose the most suitable method of generating electricity for their island. Issues such as costs, where it will be sited and environmental implications were considered. They were then asked to conduct practical activities by constructing and testing models for these forms of renewable energy. To conclude, they presented their proposal to the rest of the class with reasoned explanations. The kits used in the lessons can be purchased from Anderson Scientific (sales@andersonscientific.co.uk). The solar cells were simply connected to a voltmeter. The wind and hydroelectric groups used the same basic equipment. This was made using a small water

  9. Photodynamic responsiveness of human leukemia Jurkat/A4 cells with multidrug resistant phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philchenkov, A A; Shishko, E D; Zavelevich, M P; Kuiava, L M; Miura, K; Blokhin, D Y; Shton, I O; Gamaleia, N F

    2014-12-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is considered as a possible alternative approach to overcoming multidrug resistance (MDR). Analysis of cross-resistance to PDT in cells with different MDR pathways and resistance levels seems to be advantageous for elucidating the general mechanisms of cancer cell resistance to various treatment modalities. The aim of the study was to clarify whether the Jurkat/A4 leukemia cells with MDR phenotype are cross-resistant to PDT. Human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia line Jurkat and Jurkat/A4 subline with MDR phenotype were used. 5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and Photolon (a complex of chlorine-e6 and polyvinylpyrrolidone; PL) or gold nanocomposite of PL were applied as photosensitizers. The cells were pretreated with photosensitizers and exposed to laser radiation at corresponding wavelengths. The phototoxicity was assessed in trypan blue exclusion test. The hypodiploid cell fraction was analyzed by flow cytometry of propidium iodide-stained cells. Expression of genes related to PDT resistance was analyzed by microarray technique with Affymetrix U133A chips. ALA-mediated PDT resulted in dose-dependent cell death in both lines, the relative photodynamic efficacy in Jurkat/A4 cells being inferior to that in the parental Jurkat cells. There was no correlation between phototoxicity and apoptosis induction both in Jurkat and Jurkat/A4 cells. PL-mediated general phototoxicity in Jurkat cells amounted up to 75% at the maximal photosensitizer dose with about 40% of apoptotic death fraction. PL-phototoxicity in Jurkat/A4 cells was considerably lower. In contrast to Jurkat cells, PL-gold composite did not increase the efficacy of photosensitization as compared to free PL in Jurkat/A4 cells. Multidrug-resistant Jurkat/A4 cells exhibit reduced sensitivity to phototoxic effect in comparison with parental Jurkat cells independently of nature of the photosensitizer being assayed.

  10. Evaluation of jojoba oil as a low-energy fat. 1. A 4-week feeding study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschuren, P M

    1989-01-01

    The nutritional properties of jojoba oil (JO) were examined in a 4-wk feeding study of rats fed a diet with JO at dose levels of 2.2, 4.5 and 9%, supplemented with a conventional fat up to 18%. General health, survival and food intake were not adversely affected. Body-weight gains showed a dose-related decline, which amounted to 20% of the body weight in the high-dose group of both sexes. Clinical chemistry revealed significantly increased levels of various enzymes that were indicative of cell damage. Haematology showed a dose-related increase in white blood cells. On necropsy an apparent distension of the small intestine was found. Histopathological evaluation revealed marked intestinal changes characterized by massive vacuolization and lipid deposition in the enterocytes, accompanied by distension of the villi and an increased cell turnover of small intestinal cells. Faeces production and faeces lipid content were increased with increasing JO levels. The recovery of JO in the faeces also increased in a dose-related manner and was found to be correlated with the intestinal histopathological changes. The significant adverse clinical and histopathological effects observed in this study imply that JO cannot be considered as a promising alternative dietary fat with a low digestibility.

  11. Group Cohesion in Experiential Growth Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Sam; Vasserman-Stokes, Elaina; Vannatta, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the effect of web-based journaling on changes in group cohesion within experiential growth groups. Master's students were divided into 2 groups. Both used a web-based platform to journal after each session; however, only 1 of the groups was able to read each other's journals. Quantitative data collected before and…

  12. Tri-Bimaximal Neutrino Mixing, A4 and the Modular Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Altarelli, Guido; Altarelli, Guido; Feruglio, Ferruccio

    2006-01-01

    We formulate and discuss a 4-dimensional SUSY version of an A4 model for tri-bimaximal neutrino mixing which is completely natural. We also study the next-to-the-leading corrections and show that they are small, once the ratios of A4 breaking VEVs to the cutoff are fixed in a specified interval. We also point out an interesting way of presenting the A4 group starting from the modular group. In this approach, which could be interesting in itself as an indication on a possible origin of A4, the lagrangian basis where the symmetry is formulated coincides with the basis where the charged leptons are diagonal. If the same classification structure in A4 is extended from leptons to quarks, the CKM matrix coincides with the unit matrix in leading order and a study of non leading corrections shows that the departures from unity of the CKM matrix are far too small to accomodate the observed mixing angles.

  13. Probability groups as orbits of groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattarai, H.N.

    2003-11-01

    The set of double cosets of a group with respect to a subgroup and the set of orbits of a group with respect to a group of automorphisms have structures which can be studied as multigroups, hypergroups or Pasch geometries. When the subgroup or the group of automorphisms are finite, the multivalued products can be provided with some weightages forming so-called Probability Groups. It is shown in this paper that some abstract probability groups can be realized as orbit spaces of groups. (author)

  14. Autocratic strategies for alternating games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAvoy, Alex; Hauert, Christoph

    2017-02-01

    Repeated games have a long tradition in the behavioral sciences and evolutionary biology. Recently, strategies were discovered that permit an unprecedented level of control over repeated interactions by enabling a player to unilaterally enforce linear constraints on payoffs. Here, we extend this theory of "zero-determinant" (or, more generally, "autocratic") strategies to alternating games, which are often biologically more relevant than traditional synchronous games. Alternating games naturally result in asymmetries between players because the first move matters or because players might not move with equal probabilities. In a strictly-alternating game with two players, X and Y, we give conditions for the existence of autocratic strategies for player X when (i) X moves first and (ii) Y moves first. Furthermore, we show that autocratic strategies exist even for (iii) games with randomly-alternating moves. Particularly important categories of autocratic strategies are extortionate and generous strategies, which enforce unfavorable and favorable outcomes for the opponent, respectively. We illustrate these strategies using the continuous Donation Game, in which a player pays a cost to provide a benefit to the opponent according to a continuous cooperative investment level. Asymmetries due to alternating moves could easily arise from dominance hierarchies, and we show that they can endow subordinate players with more autocratic strategies than dominant players. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Complementary and alternative medical therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachter, Steven C

    2008-04-01

    Complementary and alternative medical therapies include herbs, acupuncture, and mind-body therapies. This review highlights the findings of recently published studies of complementary and alternative medical therapies and epilepsy, and provides an update of the US Food and Drug Administration's role in regulating herbal products. Complementary and alternative medical therapies are often tried by patients with epilepsy, frequently without physician knowledge. Many modalities have been evaluated in patients with epilepsy, though methodological issues preclude any firm conclusions of efficacy or safety. Some herbal medicines have been shown experimentally to have mechanisms of action relevant to epilepsy and promising actions in animal models. There is currently a paucity of credible evidence to support the use of complementary and alternative medical therapies in patients with epilepsy. Herbal medicines traditionally used for epilepsy and compounds isolated from them, as well as other herbal medicines and their constituent compounds that have been shown experimentally to have mechanisms of action relevant to epilepsy, should undergo further preclinical evaluation with a view towards clinical development under the new US Food and Drug Administration guidelines. Additional studies of other, nonherbal complementary and alternative medical therapies are also warranted based on anecdotal observations or pilot studies that suggest a favorable risk-benefit ratio.

  16. Plant-based milk alternatives an emerging segment of functional beverages: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Sethi, Swati; Tyagi, S. K.; Anurag, Rahul K.

    2016-01-01

    Plant-based or non-dairy milk alternative is the fast growing segment in newer food product development category of functional and specialty beverage across the globe. Nowadays, cow milk allergy, lactose intolerance, calorie concern and prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, more preference to vegan diets has influenced consumers towards choosing cow milk alternatives. Plant-based milk alternatives are a rising trend, which can serve as an inexpensive alternate to poor economic group of developi...

  17. Rare Presentation of Adrenocortical Carcinoma in a 4-Month-Old Boy

    OpenAIRE

    Malhotra, Sonali; Waikar, Apoorva R.; Singh, Prabhsimranjot; Guarini, Ludovico; Jacobson-Dickman, Elka; Motaghedi, Roja; Kazachkova, Irina

    2017-01-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy and even rarer in infancy. Most of these tumors in pediatric age group are hormonally active and predominantly present with virilization. Cortisol hypersecretion presenting as Cushing syndrome is extremely rare and seen in older age groups. We report a 4-month-old infant who presented with linear growth arrest and excessive weight gain in early infancy, consequently diagnosed with ACC. On long-term follow-up for 7 years, he remained metastas...

  18. ALTERNATIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUMBERTO ESCALANTE H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia, el procesamiento agroindustrial de fique genera aproximadamente 20 800 kg de residuos/ha sembrada que corresponden a. jugo y bagazo. Estos residuos son descartados al ambiente generando problemas de contaminación. El bagazo de fique tiene un valor calorífico de 3 297.91 kcal/kg, altas concentraciones de celulosa, hemicelulosa y una relación C/N favorable para tratar este residuo mediante conversión anaerobia. Sin embargo, la presencia de lignina en el bagazo hace que se requiera un consorcio microbiano específico para llevar a cabo la degradación. En este trabajo se estudio la producción de biogás a partir del bagazo de fique, empleando como inóculo una mezcla de líquido ruminal y lodo estiércol de cerdo. Se alcanzó una producción de metano de 0.35 m3CH4/kg Sólidos Volátiles (SV adicionados durante quince días de digestión, equivalente a 1.38 kWh/kg SV adicionado, indicando que el bagazo de fique es un residuo atractivo para ser usado como fuente de energía renovable.

  19. DESIGN OF ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popa Stefania

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available By energy sources we understand technologies and materials used to obtain various forms of energy necessary for the development of society. These sources must be in adequate quantities and be conveniently exploited in terms of technical, economic and sustainable perspective. Alternative energy uses the inherent power of natural sources like wind, tides, the sun. Alternative energy is a term used for some energy sources and energy storage technologies. Generally it indicates energies that are nontraditional and have low impact to the environment. The alternative energy term is used in contrast with the term fossil fuel according to some sources, while other sources use it with the meaning of renewable energy purposes.

  20. There Is Always an Alternative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Emil

    This doctoral study explores the case of The Alternative, a recently elected party in Denmark, by utilizing concepts and methods from organization studies in an effort to understand how a political party manages the process of entering parliament without losing political support. The Alternative...... was founded in late 2013 as a movement against the unsustainable program of neoliberal capitalism and the ‘old political culture’. However, instead of presenting a list of tangible demands and trademark issues, The Alternative was launches without a political program. During the course of only half a year......, the party developed its political program with inspiration from the open-source community by inviting everyone interested to participate in a series of ‘Political Laboratories’. This culminated with the publication of The Alternative’s first program in May 2014 – a document of no less than 63 pages...

  1. Advances in alternative cementitious binders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juenger, M.C.G.; Winnefeld, F.; Provis, J.L.; Ideker, J.H.

    2011-01-01

    There is a burgeoning interest in the development, characterization, and implementation of alternatives to Portland cement as a binder in concrete. The construction materials industry is under increasing pressure to reduce the energy used in production of Portland cement clinker and the associated greenhouse gas emissions. Further, Portland cement is not the ideal binder for all construction applications, as it suffers from durability problems in particularly aggressive environments. Several alternative binders have been available for almost as long as Portland cement, yet have not been extensively used, and new ones are being developed. In this paper, four promising binders available as alternatives to Portland cement are discussed, namely calcium aluminate cement, calcium sulfoaluminate cement, alkali-activated binders, and supersulfated cements. The history of the binders, their compositions and reaction mechanisms, benefits and drawbacks, unanswered questions, and primary challenges are described.

  2. FMDP reactor alternative summary report: Volume 4, Evolutionary LWR alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials [primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] have become surplus to national defense needs both in the United States and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. The purpose of this report is to provide schedule, cost, and technical information that will be used to support the Record of Process (ROD). Following the screening process, DOE/MD via its national laboratories initiated a more detailed analysis activity to further evaluate each of the ten plutonium disposition alternatives that survived the screening process. Three ``Alternative Teams,`` chartered by DOE and comprised of technical experts from across the DOE national laboratory complex, conducted these analyses. One team was chartered for each of the major disposition classes (borehole, immobilization, and reactors). During the last year and a half, the Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP) Reactor Alternative Team (RxAT) has conducted extensive analyses of the cost, schedule, technical maturity, S&S, and other characteristics of reactor-based plutonium disposition. The results of the RxAT`s analyses of the existing LWR, CANDU, and partially complete LWR alternatives are documented in Volumes 1-3 of this report. This document (Volume 4) summarizes the results of these analyses for the ELWR-based plutonium disposition option.

  3. La formation en alternance en France (Alternative Education in France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audet, Claudine

    "Alternative" or cooperative education is a way of organizing instruction that combines education in an academic institution with training in a professional setting. The approach has attracted a renewed interest in Europe in the past few years because of its potential for motivating students, reducing student attrition, and raising the…

  4. FMDP reactor alternative summary report: Volume 4, Evolutionary LWR alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials [primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] have become surplus to national defense needs both in the United States and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety, and health (ES ampersand H) consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. The purpose of this report is to provide schedule, cost, and technical information that will be used to support the Record of Process (ROD). Following the screening process, DOE/MD via its national laboratories initiated a more detailed analysis activity to further evaluate each of the ten plutonium disposition alternatives that survived the screening process. Three ''Alternative Teams,'' chartered by DOE and comprised of technical experts from across the DOE national laboratory complex, conducted these analyses. One team was chartered for each of the major disposition classes (borehole, immobilization, and reactors). During the last year and a half, the Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP) Reactor Alternative Team (RxAT) has conducted extensive analyses of the cost, schedule, technical maturity, S ampersand S, and other characteristics of reactor-based plutonium disposition. The results of the RxAT's analyses of the existing LWR, CANDU, and partially complete LWR alternatives are documented in Volumes 1-3 of this report. This document (Volume 4) summarizes the results of these analyses for the ELWR-based plutonium disposition option

  5. Alternative transportation fuels: Financing issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squadron, W.F.; Ward, C.O.; Brown, M.H.

    1992-06-01

    A multitude of alternative fuels could reduce air pollution and the impact of oil price shocks. Only a few of these fuels are readily available and inexpensive enough to merit serious consideration over the coming five years. In New York City, safety regulations narrow the field still further by eliminating propane. As a result, this study focuses on the three alternative fuels readily available in New York City: compressed natural gas, methanol, and electricity. Each has significant environmental benefits and each has different cost characteristics. With the Clean Air Act and the National Energy Strategy highlighting the country's need to improve urban air quality and move away from dependence on imported fuels, fleets may soon have little choice but to convert to altemative fuels. Given the potential for large infrastructure and vehicle costs, these fleets may have difficulty finding the capital to make that conversion. Ultimately, then, it will be the involvement of the private sector that will determine the success of alternative fuels. Whether it be utilities, fuel distributors or suppliers, private financing partners or others, it is critical that altemative fuels programs be structured and planned to attract their involvement. This report examines financing methods that do not involve government subsidies. It also explores financing methods that are specific to alternative fuels. Bond issues and other mechanisms that are used for conventional vehicles are not touched upon in this report. This report explores ways to spread the high cost of alternative fuels among a number of parties within the private sector. The emphasis is on structuring partnerships that suit methanol, electric, or natural gas vehicle fleets. Through these partnerships, alternative fuels may ultimately compete effectively against conventional vehicle fuels

  6. Alternative Fuel News, Vol. 6, No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-03-01

    Quarterly magazine with articles on Alternate Fuel Vehicles (AFVs) in India, alternative fuels for emergency preparedness, and testing of propane vehicles by UPS. Also an interview of author Jeremy Rifkin on how alternative fuels provide pathways to hydrogen.

  7. 22 CFR 3a.4 - Procedure for requesting approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... is also required by law for the applicant's acceptance of civil employment from a foreign government... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedure for requesting approval. 3a.4 Section 3a.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL ACCEPTANCE OF EMPLOYMENT FROM FOREIGN GOVERNMENTS...

  8. Placental perfusion - a human alternative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Tina; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2006-01-01

    between the mother and foetus. Dual perfusion of a single cotyledon in the human placenta can contribute to a better understanding of the placental barrier, transport rate and mechanisms of different substances and placental metabolism. The perfusion system has recently been established in Copenhagen...... and represents a supplement and alternative to animal testing, bypassing the animal to human extrapolation. Placentas are readily obtainable from most births upon informed consent from the mothers and are considered a promising tissue alternative/supplement to animal experiments. The system is validated...... as a part of work package 2 of the integrated project ReProTect....

  9. A remedial alternative prioritization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, S.A.; Travis, C.C.

    1987-01-01

    This study develops and tests a technique for evaluating and prioritizing alternative remedial actions for hazardous waste sites. The method is based on criteria involving risk, benefit and cost, and identifies the most cost-effective solution to a given remedial problem. Four sites on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) property in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, were used in a case study to develop and test the method. Results of the case study indicate that even if the cap providing in situ containment must be replaced every 10 years, it is a superior alternative to total excavation of the waste sites

  10. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed. (ATT)

  11. Alternative general-aircraft engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomazic, W. A.

    1976-01-01

    The most promising alternative engine (or engines) for application to general aircraft in the post-1985 time period was defined, and the level of technology was cited to the point where confident development of a new engine can begin early in the 1980's. Low emissions, multifuel capability, and fuel economy were emphasized. Six alternative propulsion concepts were considered to be viable candidates for future general-aircraft application: the advanced spark-ignition piston, rotary combustion, two- and four-stroke diesel, Stirling, and gas turbine engines.

  12. GLOBAL TRENDS OF ALTERNATIVE INVESTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan LUCHIAN

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available An alternative investment is an investment product other than the traditional investments of stocks, bonds, cash, or property. The term is a relatively loose one and includes tangible assets such as art, wine, antiques, coins, or stamps and some financial assets such as commodities, hedge funds, venture capital,and others. At the moment it was created a global industry opportunities for making investments in nontraditional form. The aim of this paper consists in demonstrating the possibilities of these investments. For this have been studied related main international markets, a fter then deducted world dominant trends. This article is concerned to present some details of alternative investments global market.

  13. Special Issue: Aviation Alternative Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of aviation alternative fuels has increased significantly in recent years in an effort to reduce the environment and climate impact by aviation industry. Special requirements have to be met for qualifying as a suitable aviation fuel. The fuel has to be high in energy content per unit of mass and volume, thermally stable and avoiding freezing at low temperatures. There are also many other special requirements on viscosity, ignition properties and compatibility with the typical aviation materials. There are quite a few contending alternative fuels which can be derived from coal, natural gas and biomass.[...

  14. Characterization of the genetic variation present in CYP3A4 in three South African populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drögemöller, Britt; Plummer, Marieth; Korkie, Lundi; Agenbag, Gloudi; Dunaiski, Anke; Niehaus, Dana; Koen, Liezl; Gebhardt, Stefan; Schneider, Nicol; Olckers, Antonel; Wright, Galen; Warnich, Louise

    2013-01-01

    The CYP3A4 enzyme is the most abundant human cytochrome P450 (CYP) and is regarded as the most important enzyme involved in drug metabolism. Inter-individual and inter-population variability in gene expression and enzyme activity are thought to be influenced, in part, by genetic variation. Although Southern African individuals have been shown to exhibit the highest levels of genetic diversity, they have been under-represented in pharmacogenetic research to date. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify genetic variation within CYP3A4 in three South African population groups comprising of 29 Khoisan, 65 Xhosa and 65 Mixed Ancestry (MA) individuals. To identify known and novel CYP3A4 variants, 15 individuals were randomly selected from each of the population groups for bi-directional Sanger sequencing of ~600 bp of the 5′-upstream region and all thirteen exons including flanking intronic regions. Genetic variants detected were genotyped in the rest of the cohort. In total, 24 SNPs were detected, including CYP3A4*12, CYP3A4*15, and the reportedly functional CYP3A4*1B promoter polymorphism, as well as two novel non-synonymous variants. These putatively functional variants, p.R162W and p.Q200H, were present in two of the three populations and all three populations, respectively, and in silico analysis predicted that the former would damage the protein product. Furthermore, the three populations were shown to exhibit distinct genetic profiles. These results confirm that South African populations show unique patterns of variation in the genes encoding xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. This research suggests that population-specific genetic profiles for CYP3A4 and other drug metabolizing genes would be essential to make full use of pharmacogenetics in Southern Africa. Further investigation is needed to determine if the identified genetic variants influence CYP3A4 metabolism phenotype in these populations. PMID:23423246

  15. Group typicality, group loyalty and cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Meagan M

    2014-09-01

    Over the course of childhood, children's thinking about social groups changes in a variety of ways. Developmental Subjective Group Dynamics (DSGD) theory emphasizes children's understanding of the importance of conforming to group norms. Abrams et al.'s study, which uses DSGD theory as a framework, demonstrates the social cognitive skills underlying young elementary school children's thinking about group norms. Future research on children's thinking about groups and group norms should explore additional elements of this topic, including aspects of typicality beyond loyalty. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  16. Alternative animal model for studies of total skin thickness burns

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Ana Laura Martins de; Parisi, Julia Risso; Brassolatti, Patrícia; Parizotto, Nivaldo Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: To present an alternative experimental model of third degree burn of easy reproducibility. Methods: Eighteen male Wister rats were randomly divided into three groups, 6 of which were allocated to each group. A soldering iron coupled to an aluminum plate was used to produce burn, at a temperature of 150ºC, with different exposure times per group. Group 5 (G5) animals were burned at 150°C with exposure time of 5 seconds; Group 10 (G10) the animals were burned at 150°C with e...

  17. Alternating multivariate trigonometric functions and corresponding Fourier transforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimyk, A U; Patera, J

    2008-01-01

    We define and study multivariate sine and cosine functions, symmetric with respect to the alternating group A n , which is a subgroup of the permutation (symmetric) group S n . These functions are eigenfunctions of the Laplace operator. They determine Fourier-type transforms. There exist three types of such transforms: expansions into corresponding sine-Fourier and cosine-Fourier series, integral sine-Fourier and cosine-Fourier transforms, and multivariate finite sine and cosine transforms. In all these transforms, alternating multivariate sine and cosine functions are used as a kernel

  18. Taxation, stateness and armed groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kasper; Vlassenroot, Koen; Marchais, Gauthier

    2016-01-01

    This contribution analyses the role of taxation in the constitution of authority in the conflict-ridden eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, where a multitude of authorities alternately compete and collude over the right to extract resources. Taxation ranges from simple plunder, to protection...... rackets, to the material reciprocation of the recognition of rights. Focusing on the taxation practices of armed groups, the article argues that taxation is at the core of armed groups’ production of public authority and citizenship, and that their modes of taxation are based on long-standing registers...

  19. An Alternative to Thought Suppression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boice, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "Setting free the bears: Escape from thought suppression," by D. M. Wegner (see record 2011-25622-008). While Wegner supposed that we might have to learn to live with bad thoughts, the present author discusses the use of imagination and guided imagery as an alternative to forced thought suppression.

  20. A Technique: Generating Alternative Thoughts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan AKKOYUNLU

    2013-04-01

    Conclusion: Generating alternative explanations and balanced thoughts are the end point and important part of therapy work on automatic thoughts. When applied properly and rehearsed as homework between sessions, these methods may lead to improvement in many mental disorders. [JCBPR 2013; 2(1.000: 53-59

  1. A two-matrix alternative

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rohn, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 26, 15 December (2013), s. 836-841 ISSN 1537-9582 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : two-matrix alternative * solution * algorithm Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.514, year: 2013 http://www.math.technion.ac.il/iic/ela/ela-articles/articles/vol26_pp836-841.pdf

  2. Alternative Design of Boat Fenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banke, Lars

    1996-01-01

    On offshore platforms the purpose of fenders is to protect the oil-risers against minor accidental collisions with supply vessels. Normally, the fender is designed by use of thin-walled tubes. However, the tube itself is not capable of resisting the impact load of the boat. Therefore, alternative...

  3. Alternative energies. Updates on progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, German

    2013-01-01

    Presents fundamental and applied research of alternative energies. Address key pillars in the alternative energy field, such as: biomass energy, hydrogen energy, solar energy, wind energy, hydroelectric power, geothermal energy and their environmental implications, with the most updated progress. Includes the life cycle assessment and thermoeconomic analysis as tools for evaluating and optimising environmental and cost subjects. This book presents nine chapters based on fundamental and applied research of alternative energies. At the present time, the challenge is that technology has to come up with solutions that can provide environmentally friendly energy supply options that are able to cover the current world energy demand. Experts around the world are working on these issues for providing new solutions that will break the existing technological barriers. This book aims to address key pillars in the alternative energy field, such as: biomass energy, hydrogen energy, solar energy, wind energy, hydroelectric power, geothermal energy and their environmental implications, with the most updated progress for each pillar. It also includes the life cycle assessment (LCA) and thermoeconomic analysis (TA) as tools for evaluating and optimising environmental and cost subjects. Chapters are organized into fundamental research, applied research and future trends; and written for engineers, academic researches and scientists.

  4. Alternate Models to Dark Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Arun, Kenath; Gudennavar, S B; Prasad, A; Sivaram, C

    2017-01-01

    One of the unresolved questions currently in cosmology is that of the non-linear accelerated expansion of the universe. This has been attributed to the so called Dark Energy (DE). The accelerated expansion of the universe is deduced from measurements of Type Ia supernovae. Here we propose alternate models to account for the Type Ia supernovae measurements without invoking dark energy.

  5. Alternate models to dark energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, Kenath; Gudennavar, S. B.; Prasad, A.; Sivaram, C.

    2018-01-01

    One of the unresolved questions currently in cosmology is that of the non-linear accelerated expansion of the universe. This has been attributed to the so called Dark Energy (DE). The accelerated expansion of the universe is deduced from measurements of Type Ia supernovae. Here we propose alternate models to account for the Type Ia supernovae measurements without invoking dark energy.

  6. Alternate formulations of classical electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beil, R.G.

    1975-01-01

    The Lorentz--Dirac, Wheeler--Feynman, and Synge formulations of classical electrodynamics are compared with regard to their equations of motion for charged particles and their treatment of radiation. It is found that the less familiar Synge theory offers a viable alternate to the other two, since it is theoretically consistent and predicts results not at variance with experiment

  7. Language Alternation in University Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, T. A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the alternate use of Arabic and English in the context of a university classroom, where a policy to use the former language in place of the latter was being implemented. Analysis of a sample of recorded university lectures of English and Arabic medium classes in sciences and humanities reveals that teachers use code switching,…

  8. Looking for alternative energy sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Michael

    2012-02-21

    With unrest in oil-exporting countries, backlashes against biofuels and photovoltaics, and a nuclear incident in Japan, the year 2011 rattled confidence in future energy supplies. The search for alternatives is all the more urgent, but some of the solutions investigated hark back to fossil fuels that we can't afford to burn.

  9. Alternative energies. Updates on progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, German (ed.) [CIRCE - Centre of Research for Energy Resources and Consumption, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    Presents fundamental and applied research of alternative energies. Address key pillars in the alternative energy field, such as: biomass energy, hydrogen energy, solar energy, wind energy, hydroelectric power, geothermal energy and their environmental implications, with the most updated progress. Includes the life cycle assessment and thermoeconomic analysis as tools for evaluating and optimising environmental and cost subjects. This book presents nine chapters based on fundamental and applied research of alternative energies. At the present time, the challenge is that technology has to come up with solutions that can provide environmentally friendly energy supply options that are able to cover the current world energy demand. Experts around the world are working on these issues for providing new solutions that will break the existing technological barriers. This book aims to address key pillars in the alternative energy field, such as: biomass energy, hydrogen energy, solar energy, wind energy, hydroelectric power, geothermal energy and their environmental implications, with the most updated progress for each pillar. It also includes the life cycle assessment (LCA) and thermoeconomic analysis (TA) as tools for evaluating and optimising environmental and cost subjects. Chapters are organized into fundamental research, applied research and future trends; and written for engineers, academic researches and scientists.

  10. "Partial Vision" in Alternative Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ron

    1997-01-01

    A comparison of the philosophies and pedagogies of Waldorf and Montessori schools points out that no single educational perspective can encompass all possibilities of human growth. Educators should attend to the "seed qualities" of alternative educational philosophies rather than their dogmas. A caring relationship between teachers and students is…

  11. International education: a third alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairholm, D J

    1986-01-01

    Education is the key to the delivery of medical care in the developing world. The traditional methods of educating specialists from developing countries have serious drawbacks. A third alternative is that educators from the developed countries participate locally in the education and practice of neurosurgery. The author reports his experience of living and working in Taiwan.

  12. Alternative Fuels for Military Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    biofuels via microalgae to succeed, Nexant expects that significant genetic breakthroughs will be needed, and high volume fuel production will need...18 This product is part of the RAND Corporation monograph series. RAND monographs present major research findings that address the challenges...potential investors in alternative fuel technologies and production facilities. This research was sponsored by the Defense Logistics Agency Energy, and

  13. Not Just Another Alternative School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulson, Kalervo N.; Webb, P. Taylor

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we problematize the establishment of an Africentric Alternative School in Toronto, Canada. We argue that policy, and race and racializations cannot be understood outside of, or immune to, neoliberalism. We contend that policy is a form of racial biopolitics, and race is now produced through neoliberal markets, in conjunction with…

  14. Alternative Fuel for Marine Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    The U.S. Maritime Administration (MARAD) is participating in the U.S. Navy's ongoing efforts to test alternative fuels for marine use by demonstrating their applicability on commercial vessels. In support of this effort, the Navy provided neat hydrot...

  15. Alternative instruments for the CAP?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvis, H.J.; Rijswick, van C.W.J.; Bont, de C.J.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    With parallel negotiations taking place on enlargement of the EU and a new WTO agreement, EU's Common Agricultural Policy is facing further reforms. This report addresses the issue of whether any alternatives can be found for the instruments of this policy, and looks at decoupled payments, a net

  16. AREVA group overview; Presentation du groupe AREVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-08

    This document presents the Group Areva, a world nuclear industry leader, from a financial holding company to an industrial group, operating in two businesses: the nuclear energy and the components. The structure and the market of the group are discussed, as the financial assets. (A.L.B.)

  17. Homotropic cooperativity of monomeric cytochrome P450 3A4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baas, Bradley J.; Denisov, Ilia G.; Sligar, Stephen G. (UIUC)

    2010-11-16

    Mechanistic studies of mammalian cytochrome P450s are often obscured by the phase heterogeneity of solubilized preparations of membrane enzymes. The various protein-protein aggregation states of microsomes, detergent solubilized cytochrome or a family of aqueous multimeric complexes can effect measured substrate binding events as well as subsequent steps in the reaction cycle. In addition, these P450 monooxygenases are normally found in a membrane environment and the bilayer composition and dynamics can also effect these catalytic steps. Here, we describe the structural and functional characterization of a homogeneous monomeric population of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP 3A4) in a soluble nanoscale membrane bilayer, or Nanodisc [Nano Lett. 2 (2002) 853]. Cytochrome P450 3A4:Nanodisc assemblies were formed and purified to yield a 1:1 ratio of CYP 3A4 to Nanodisc. Solution small angle X-ray scattering was used to structurally characterize this monomeric CYP 3A4 in the membrane bilayer. The purified CYP 3A4:Nanodiscs showed a heretofore undescribed high level of homotropic cooperativity in the binding of testosterone. Soluble CYP 3A4:Nanodisc retains its known function and shows prototypic hydroxylation of testosterone when driven by hydrogen peroxide. This represents the first functional characterization of a true monomeric preparation of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase in a phospholipid bilayer and elucidates new properties of the monomeric form.

  18. Significance of the S100A4 protein in psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibert, John R; Skov, Lone; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2010-01-01

    the expression and significance of S100A4 in psoriasis. We found significant upregulation of S100A4 in the dermis of psoriatic skin compared with normal skin. This pattern of S100A4 expression differs considerably from that of other S100 proteins, S100A7 and S100A8/9, with predominant expression in the epidermis...... of psoriasis. Furthermore, we revealed a massive release of the biologically active forms of S100A4 from psoriatic skin. Interestingly, we found stabilization (increase) of p53 in the basal layer of epidermis in close proximity to cells expressing S100A4. To examine the possible implication of S100A4...... in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, we analyzed the effect of S100A4 blocking antibodies in a human psoriasis xenograft SCID mouse model and observed a significant reduction of the epidermal thickness and impairment in cell proliferation and dermal vascularization. In conclusion, we showed strong upregulation...

  19. Assessment of alternative disposal concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autio, J.; Saanio, T.; Tolppanen, P.; Raiko, H.; Vieno, T.; Salo, J.P.

    1996-12-01

    Four alternative repository designs for the disposal of spent nuclear in the Finnish crystalline bedrock were assessed in the study. The alternatives were: (1) the basic KBS-3 design in which copper canisters are emplaced in vertical deposition holes bored in the floors of horizontal tunnels, (2) the KBS-3-2C design with two canisters in a deposition hole, (3) Short Horizontal Holes (SHH) in the side walls of the tunnels, and (4) the Medium Long Holes (MLH) concept in which approximately 25 canisters are emplaced in a horizontal deposition hole about 200 metres in length bored between central and side tunnels. In all the alternatives considered, the thickness of the layer of compacted bentonite between copper canister and bedrock is 35 cm. Two different copper canister designs were also assessed. Technical feasibility and flexibility, post-closure safety and repository cost were assessed for each of the alternative canister and repository designs. On the basis of this assessment it is recommended that further development and studies should focus on the vacuum- or inert gas-filled cast insert type copper canister and the basic KBS-3 type repository design with a single canister in a vertical deposition hole. The KBS-3 design is robust and flexible and provides excellent post-closure safety. The transfer, emplacement and sealing operations are technically uncomplicated. The alternative options assessed do not offer any significant benefits in safety or cost over the basic design, but they are technically more complex and also in some respects more vulnerable to malfunction during the emplacement of canisters and buffer, as well as common mode failures. (60 refs.)

  20. S100A4, a link between metastasis and inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambartsumian, N.; Grigorian, M.

    2016-01-01

    and especially for its metastatic dissemination. The S100A4 protein belongs to the S100 superfamily of small Ca2+-binding proteins. Well established function of S100A4 is associated with induction and promotion of tumour metastasis. However, this protein is also involved in the pathogenesis of major human non-communicable...... diseases (NCD), such as autoimmune diseases, fibrosis, and other disorders. Therefore, we suggest that S100A4 is a common pro-inflammatory factor involved in the pathogenesis of diverse NCD including cancer....

  1. Divorcing the puzzles: When group identities foster in-group cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seewald, Daniel; Hechler, Stefanie; Kessler, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We argue that general social psychological mechanisms (e.g., common group identity) can account for prosocial behavior and cooperative norms without the need for punishing Big Gods. Moreover, prosocial religions often do not prevent conflict within their religious groups. Hence, we doubt whether Big Gods and prosocial religions are more effective than alternative identities in enhancing high-level cooperation.

  2. Alternating Copolymers and Alternative Device Geometries for Organic Photovoltaics

    OpenAIRE

    Inganäs, Olle; Zhang, Fengling; Andersson, Mats R.

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency of conversion of light to electrical energy with the help of conjugated polymers and molecules is rapidly improving. The optical absorption properties of these materials can be designed, and implemented via molecular engineering. Full coverage of the solar spectrum is thus feasible. Narrow absorption spectra allow construction of tandem solar cells. The poor transport properties of these materials require thin devices, which limits optical absorption. Alternative device geometr...

  3. Surface technologies 2006-Alternative energies and policy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Surfaces are the immediate contact between anything in our world. Literally, every industry utilizes coatings and surface modifications in order to create surfaces tailored to specific needs, protect underlying substrates, or modify their behavior. Surface and coating technologies are essential to a large variety of different industrial sectors, including transportation, manufacturing, food and biomedical engineering, energy, resources, and materials science and technology. The present paper explains the limitations for alternative energy technologies, with a focus on fuel cell technology development and the alternative energy sector, based on the outcomes of presentations and facilitated discussion groups during a Canadian national workshop series. Options for technological improvements of alternative energy systems are presented in combination with national and international policy choices, which could positively influence research and development in the alternative energy sector

  4. Extremely discrepant mutation spectrum of SLC26A4 between Chinese patients with isolated Mondini deformity and enlarged vestibular aqueduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xiaofei

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutations in SLC26A4 cause Pendred syndrome (hearing loss with goiter or DFNB4 (non-syndromic hearing loss with inner ear malformation, such as enlarged vestibular aqueduct or Mondini deformity. The relationship between mutations in SLC26A4 and Mondini deformity without enlarged vestibular aqueduct has not been studied in any Chinese deaf population. The purpose of this study was to assess whether mutations in the SLC26A4 gene cause Mondini deformity without an enlarged vestibular aqueduct (isolated Mondini deformity in a Chinese population. Methods In total, 144 patients with sensorineural hearing loss were included and subjected to high-resolution temporal bone CT. Among them, 28 patients with isolated Mondini dysplasia (MD group, 50 patients with enlarged vestibular aqueduct with Mondini dysplasia (EVA with MD group, 50 patients with enlarged vestibular aqueduct without Mondini dysplasia (EVA group, and 16 patients with other types of inner ear malformations (IEM group were identified. The coding exons of SLC26A4 were analyzed in all subjects. Results DNA sequence analysis of SLC26A4 was performed in all 144 patients. In the different groups, the detection rate of the SLC26A4 mutation differed. In the isolated MD group, only one single allelic mutation in SLC26A4 was found in one patient (1/28, 3.6%. In the EVA with MD group, biallelic and monoallelic SLC26A4 mutations were identified in 46 patients (46/50, 92.0% and three patients (3/50, 6.0%, respectively. Also, in the EVA group, biallelic and monoallelic SLC26A4 mutations were identified in 46 patients (46/50, 92.0% and three patients (3/50, 6.0%, respectively. These percentages were identical to those in the EVA plus MD group. Only two patients carried monoallelic mutations of the SLC26A4 gene in the IEM group (2/16, 12.5%. There were significant differences in the frequency of SLC26A4 mutation among the groups (P SLC26A4 mutation in the isolated MD group was

  5. The neutrino mass matrix and (selected) variants of A4

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A4 is particularly well suited to describe three family mixing, and allows to explain the near tri-bimaximal mixing observed. .... A4 family symmetry [26,27] in which no right-handed neutrinos are introduced. Instead, the small neutrino .... The two different assignments of table 2 can lead to either. (mν) =.. a x 0 x 0 b. 0 b y.

  6. Significance of the S100A4 protein in psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibert, John R; Skov, Lone; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2010-01-01

    the expression and significance of S100A4 in psoriasis. We found significant upregulation of S100A4 in the dermis of psoriatic skin compared with normal skin. This pattern of S100A4 expression differs considerably from that of other S100 proteins, S100A7 and S100A8/9, with predominant expression in the epidermis...... in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, we analyzed the effect of S100A4 blocking antibodies in a human psoriasis xenograft SCID mouse model and observed a significant reduction of the epidermal thickness and impairment in cell proliferation and dermal vascularization. In conclusion, we showed strong upregulation......The S100A4 protein is reported as a pivotal player in the tumor microenvironment with a metastasis-promoting function. Moreover, the upregulation of S100A4 is found in other non-malignant human disorders as cardiac and pulmonary systems and rheumatoid arthritis. In this study, we investigated...

  7. Introduction to Sporadic Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis J. Boya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This is an introduction to finite simple groups, in particular sporadic groups, intended for physicists. After a short review of group theory, we enumerate the 1+1+16=18 families of finite simple groups, as an introduction to the sporadic groups. These are described next, in three levels of increasing complexity, plus the six isolated ''pariah'' groups. The (old five Mathieu groups make up the first, smallest order level. The seven groups related to the Leech lattice, including the three Conway groups, constitute the second level. The third and highest level contains the Monster group M, plus seven other related groups. Next a brief mention is made of the remaining six pariah groups, thus completing the 5+7+8+6=26 sporadic groups. The review ends up with a brief discussion of a few of physical applications of finite groups in physics, including a couple of recent examples which use sporadic groups.

  8. Session A4 Rangelands as dynamic systems Desertification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Finally, an alternative futures analysis of a range of plausible land use options for parts of Namibia will be evaluated in terms of this country's National Programme to Combat Desertification. The session will be concluded by a half hour panel discussion in which general issues concerned with the desertification debate in ...

  9. Session A4 Rangelands as dynamic systems — Desertification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Finally, an alternative futures analysis of a range of plausible land use options for parts of Namibia will be evaluated in terms of this country's National Programme to Combat Desertification. The session will be concluded by a half hour panel discussion in which general issues concerned with the desertification debate in ...

  10. Alternative Splicing in Plant Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengming Yang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing (AS occurs widely in plants and can provide the main source of transcriptome and proteome diversity in an organism. AS functions in a range of physiological processes, including plant disease resistance, but its biological roles and functional mechanisms remain poorly understood. Many plant disease resistance (R genes undergo AS, and several R genes require alternatively spliced transcripts to produce R proteins that can specifically recognize pathogen invasion. In the finely-tuned process of R protein activation, the truncated isoforms generated by AS may participate in plant disease resistance either by suppressing the negative regulation of initiation of immunity, or by directly engaging in effector-triggered signaling. Although emerging research has shown the functional significance of AS in plant biotic stress responses, many aspects of this topic remain to be understood. Several interesting issues surrounding the AS of R genes, especially regarding its functional roles and regulation, will require innovative techniques and additional research to unravel.

  11. Alternative Affinity Ligands for Immunoglobulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruljec, Nika; Bratkovič, Tomaž

    2017-08-16

    The demand for recombinant therapeutic antibodies and Fc-fusion proteins is expected to increase in the years to come. Hence, extensive efforts are concentrated on improving the downstream processing. In particular, the development of better-affinity chromatography matrices, supporting robust time- and cost-effective antibody purification, is warranted. With the advances in molecular design and high-throughput screening approaches from chemical and biological combinatorial libraries, novel affinity ligands representing alternatives to bacterial immunoglobulin (Ig)-binding proteins have entered the scene. Here, we review the design, development, and properties of diverse classes of alternative antibody-binding ligands, ranging from engineered versions of Ig-binding proteins, to artificial binding proteins, peptides, aptamers, and synthetic small-molecular-weight compounds. We also provide examples of applications for the novel affinity matrices in chromatography and beyond.

  12. Alternative Energy for Defense Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    Power Generation and Alternative Energy Branch US Army RDECOM CERDEC CP&ID Power Division Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD...all programs of record U f f ll b d d t f f l i– se o u y - ur ene cos o ue n lifecycle cost analyses – Accelerate rapid acquisition of...actuated Cooling, & Co- generation Base Operations • Waste abatement • Improved Mobility • Reduced Signature Red ced Logistics• u CERDEC Renewable

  13. An alternative dimensional reduction prescription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelstein, J.D.; Giambiagi, J.J.; Nunez, C.; Schaposnik, F.A.

    1995-08-01

    We propose an alternative dimensional reduction prescription which in respect with Green functions corresponds to drop the extra spatial coordinate. From this, we construct the dimensionally reduced Lagrangians both for scalars and fermions, discussing bosonization and supersymmetry in the particular 2-dimensional case. We argue that our proposal is in some situations more physical in the sense that it maintains the form of the interactions between particles thus preserving the dynamics corresponding to the higher dimensional space. (author). 12 refs

  14. A Technique: Generating Alternative Thoughts

    OpenAIRE

    Serkan AKKOYUNLU; M. Hakan TÜRKÇAPAR

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: One of the basic techniques of cognitive therapy is examination of automatic thoughts and reducing the belief in them. By employing this, we can overcome the cognitive bias apparent in mental disorders. Despite this view, according to another cognitive perspective in a given situation, there are distinct cognitive representations competing for retrieval from memory just like positive and negative schemas. In this sense generating or strengthening alternative explanations or bala...

  15. Transient stability of superconducting alternators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuyama, M.; Kirtley, J.L. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A simulation study is performed for the purpose of determining the transient stability characteristics of superconducting alternators. This simulation is compared with an equal area criterion method. It is found that superconducting machines have good transient stability characteristics, that field forcing is not particularly helpful nor necessary. It is also found that the equal area criterion is useful for computing critical clearing times, if voltage behind subtransient reactance is held constant. (U.S.)

  16. Alternatives to the atomic state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, J.

    1979-01-01

    The booklet gives in many original articles a general view at the opinions in the total alternative movement. For example, it describes the points of view of the Ecology Movement and compiles the arguments against nuclear power plants. It does not intend to give uniform ideological guiding lines for the practical work but is rather meant as a contribution to improve the communication and connection among the initiatives. (HSCH) [de

  17. Alternate-fuel reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, K. Jr.; Ehst, D.A.; Gohar, Y.; Jung, J.; Mattas, R.F.; Turner, L.R.

    1983-02-01

    A number of studies related to improvements and/or greater understanding of alternate-fueled reactors is presented. These studies cover the areas of non-Maxwellian distributions, materials and lifetime analysis, a 3 He-breeding blanket, tritium-rich startup effects, high field magnet support, and reactor operation spanning the range from full D-T operation to operation with no tritium breeding

  18. Alternate concepts for magnetic fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.B.

    Concepts for magnetic confinement are reviewed for desirability as fusion reactors. Physics and technology advantages, uncertainties, and problems are discussed. Alternate fuel cycles, including D-D, D-He 3 , and p-Li 6 , are considered for possible advantages over D-T. Concepts currently under investigation which offer potential improvement over tokamaks include tandem mirrors. Elmo Bumpy Torus, compact tori encompassing reversed field mirrors, reversed field theta pinches and spheromak, stellarators, multipoles, and reversed field Z pinches

  19. Wire chambers: Trends and alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regler, Meinhard

    1992-01-01

    The subtitle of this year's Vienna Wire Chamber Conference - 'Recent Trends and Alternative Techniques' - signalled that it covered a wide range of science and technology. While an opening Vienna talk by wire chamber pioneer Georges Charpak many years ago began 'Les funerailles des chambres a fils (the burial of wire chambers)', the contrary feeling this year was that wire chambers are very much alive!

  20. Epigenetic adaptation of the placental serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4 to gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Blazevic

    Full Text Available We tested the hypothesis that gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM alters the DNA methylation pattern of the fetal serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4, and examined the functional relevance of DNA methylation for regulation of the SLC6A4 expression in the human placenta. The study included 50 mother-infant pairs. Eighteen mothers were diagnosed with GDM and 32 had normal glucose tolerance (NGT. All neonates were of normal birth weight and born at term by planned Cesarean section. DNA and RNA were isolated from samples of tissue collected from the fetal side of the placenta immediately after delivery. DNA methylation was quantified at 7 CpG sites within the SLC6A4 distal promoter region using PCR amplification of bisulfite treated DNA and subsequent DNA sequencing. SLC6A4 mRNA levels were measured by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR. Functional SLC6A4 polymorphisms (5HTTLPR, STin2, rs25531 were genotyped using standard PCR-based procedures. Average DNA methylation across the 7 analyzed loci was decreased in the GDM as compared to the NGT group (by 27.1%, p = 0.037 and negatively correlated, before and after adjustment for potential confounder/s, with maternal plasma glucose levels at the 24th to 28th week of gestation (p0.05. The results suggest that DNA methylation of the fetal SLC6A4 gene is sensitive to the maternal metabolic state in pregnancy. They also indicate a predominant role of epigenetic over genetic mechanisms in the regulation of SLC6A4 expression in the human placenta. Longitudinal studies in larger cohorts are needed to verify these results and determine to which degree placental SLC6A4 changes may contribute to long-term outcomes of infants exposed to GDM.

  1. Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Hudgins, C. H.; Plant, J. V.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E. L.; Ziemba, L. D.; Howard, R.; Corporan, E.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; hide

    2011-01-01

    The rising cost of oil coupled with the need to reduce pollution and dependence on foreign suppliers has spurred great interest and activity in developing alternative aviation fuels. Although a variety of fuels have been produced that have similar properties to standard Jet A, detailed studies are required to ascertain the exact impacts of the fuels on engine operation and exhaust composition. In response to this need, NASA acquired and burned a variety of alternative aviation fuel mixtures in the Dryden Flight Research Center DC-8 to assess changes in the aircraft s CFM-56 engine performance and emission parameters relative to operation with standard JP-8. This Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment, or AAFEX, was conducted at NASA Dryden s Aircraft Operations Facility (DAOF) in Palmdale, California, from January 19 to February 3, 2009 and specifically sought to establish fuel matrix effects on: 1) engine and exhaust gas temperatures and compressor speeds; 2) engine and auxiliary power unit (APU) gas phase and particle emissions and characteristics; and 3) volatile aerosol formation in aging exhaust plumes

  2. Intronic Alus influence alternative splicing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galit Lev-Maor

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Examination of the human transcriptome reveals higher levels of RNA editing than in any other organism tested to date. This is indicative of extensive double-stranded RNA (dsRNA formation within the human transcriptome. Most of the editing sites are located in the primate-specific retrotransposed element called Alu. A large fraction of Alus are found in intronic sequences, implying extensive Alu-Alu dsRNA formation in mRNA precursors. Yet, the effect of these intronic Alus on splicing of the flanking exons is largely unknown. Here, we show that more Alus flank alternatively spliced exons than constitutively spliced ones; this is especially notable for those exons that have changed their mode of splicing from constitutive to alternative during human evolution. This implies that Alu insertions may change the mode of splicing of the flanking exons. Indeed, we demonstrate experimentally that two Alu elements that were inserted into an intron in opposite orientation undergo base-pairing, as evident by RNA editing, and affect the splicing patterns of a downstream exon, shifting it from constitutive to alternative. Our results indicate the importance of intronic Alus in influencing the splicing of flanking exons, further emphasizing the role of Alus in shaping of the human transcriptome.

  3. Experience with Group Supervision

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Weiqin

    2006-01-01

    Supervision can take a few different forms. For example, it can be one-to-one supervision and it can also be group supervision. Group supervision is an important process within the scientific community. Many research groups use this form to supervise doctoral- and master students in groups. Some efforts have been made to study this process. For example, Samara (2002) studied the group supervision process in group writing. However, group supervision has not been studied thorough...

  4. Discussion groups on the Internet: journaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, J E

    1995-09-01

    Interactive communication on the Internet, as illustrated by the e-mail-based breast cancer discussion group, provides an alternative to the telephone, the fax machine and regular mail, and is a resource for communications research, the potential of which is only beginning to be appreciated. At least some of the messages posted to such discussion groups could be regarded as a form of "journaling". Such messages are eminently suitable for qualitative data analysis.

  5. Indigenous Representation and Alternative Schooling: Prioritising an Epistemology of Relationality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddie, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws on a case study of a small alternative Indigenous school in Queensland, Australia. From the perspective of several of the school's Indigenous Elders, the paper foregrounds the significance of group differentiation at the school on the basis of Indigenous representation. However, it also considers how such…

  6. impacts of alternative farm policies on rural communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Michael Bowker; James W. Richardson

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe an LP/IO model for evaluating the economic impacts of alternative farm policies on rural communities and demonstrate its capabilities by analyzing the impacts of three farm policies on a rural community in Texas. Results indicate that in the noncrop sector, two groups of industries are most affected by farm policy. The first...

  7. The use of complementary and alternative therapies in childhood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A group of 33.7% of the parents was making use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for their children. Of the parents, 76.5% stated that CAM had been instrumental in reducing a tumor, 53.8% said that their child's general condition had improved and 15.4% expressed an increase in morale. Another 41.2% ...

  8. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains the alphabetically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal waste management alternatives. The references are listed for each of the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized-bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting, and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  9. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains the numerically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal solid waste management alternatives. The list references information on the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  10. Nigella seed oil as alternative to avilamycin antibiotic in broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to study the effect of nigella seed oil as an alternative to the antibiotic, avilamycin, on growth, digestibility, muscle fatty acid profile and some physiological parameters in broiler chickens. Fifty four chicks at 15 d of age (average weight, 320 ± 3 g) were divided into a control group and two treatment ...

  11. Propensity Score Analysis: An Alternative Statistical Approach for HRD Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiffer, Greggory L.; Lane, Forrest C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to introduce matching in propensity score analysis (PSA) as an alternative statistical approach for researchers looking to make causal inferences using intact groups. Design/methodology/approach: An illustrative example demonstrated the varying results of analysis of variance, analysis of covariance and PSA on a heuristic…

  12. Group Work: How to Use Groups Effectively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Alison

    2011-01-01

    Many students cringe and groan when told that they will need to work in a group. However, group work has been found to be good for students and good for teachers. Employers want college graduates to have developed teamwork skills. Additionally, students who participate in collaborative learning get better grades, are more satisfied with their…

  13. Alternating copolymers and alternative device geometries for organic photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inganäs, Olle; Zhang, Fengling; Andersson, Mats R

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency of conversion of light to electrical energy with the help of conjugated polymers and molecules is rapidly improving. The optical absorption properties of these materials can be designed, and implemented via molecular engineering. Full coverage of the solar spectrum is thus feasible. Narrow absorption spectra allow construction of tandem solar cells. The poor transport properties of these materials require thin devices, which limits optical absorption. Alternative device geometries for these flexible materials compensate for the optical absorption by light trapping, and allow tandem cells.

  14. FMDP reactor alternative summary report. Volume 1 - existing LWR alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, S.R.; Bevard, B.B.

    1996-01-01

    Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials [primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] are becoming surplus to national defense needs in both the United States and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety, and health (ES ampersand H) consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. This document summarizes the results of analysis concerned with existing light water reactor plutonium disposition alternatives

  15. Free Boolean Topological Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ol’ga Sipacheva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Known and new results on free Boolean topological groups are collected. An account of the properties that these groups share with free or free Abelian topological groups and properties specific to free Boolean groups is given. Special emphasis is placed on the application of set-theoretic methods to the study of Boolean topological groups.

  16. Thyroid Disease and Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alternative Medicine in Thyroid Disease Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Thyroid Disease (CAM) WHAT IS COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE (CAM)? Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is defined ...

  17. Evaluation of alternate magnetic fusion concepts, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-05-01

    The objective of this exercise was to evaluate all of the alternate concepts supported by DMFE with regard to: (1) confidence in the physics assumptions; (2) confidence in the development of the requisite technologies; and (3) the desirability of its pure fusion reactor configuration. A primary concern in developing the evaluation technique described in this section was the need to obtain a uniform, critical evaluation. Motivated by this concern, it was decided to have all of the concepts evaluated on the same basis or criteria and to have all concepts evaluated by the same group of experts. The evaluation criteria and procedures which were developed for this purpose are described. The concepts evaluated were the EBT, RFP, TORMAC, field reversing ion rings, linear theta pinch, laser heated solenoid, e-beam heated solenoid, multiple mirrors, fast linear reactor, LINUS, and SURMAC

  18. Caribbean alternative energy programme project proposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-03-01

    This is the third report to follow the Project Group Meeting on ALTERNATIVE ENERGY RESOURCES, Barbados, September, 1977. It consists of summaries of projects proposals identified at the Meeting. The first two reports have been previously circulated. The first CSC(77)AER-1 covers the background, proceedings and recommendations resulting from the meeting as well as containing a brief outline of the project proposals. The country papers and technical papers that were presented at the meeting or served as background material, form the second report, CSC(77)AER-2. Copies of the first two reports can be obtained on request to the Commonwealth Science Council. Projects with potential for making significant progress in the short term have been marked with an asterisk

  19. Olfactory bulb as an alternative in neurotransplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Руслан Романович Новиков

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the ethical and legal aspects of transplantation of embryonic neural tissue, structure of the rat olfactory bulb. It is given substantiation for its use as a possible alternative version of the embryonic neural tissue at damage in the cerebral hemispheres in the experiment.Materials and methods. Detailed description of the fault model of the cerebral hemispheres of the brain of rats, olfactory bulb biopsy procedure, cultivation of olfactory bulb suspension and fetal neural tissue, comparison of the functional aspects of transplantation of the olfactory bulb and the embryonic neural tissue.Results. The obtained data are similar to structure of olfactory bulb and fetal tissues during culturing. Recovery in the motor areas varies by the time factor and less intense in the group of the olfactory bulb and the group without tissue transplantation.Conclusions. Comparative analysis of the effectiveness of transplantation of embryonic neural tissue and olfactory bulb in the injured brain allows us to speak about the positive results of these groups to the difference in the duration of the recovery process

  20. Patient Perspectives on EMS Alternate Destination Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munjal, Kevin G; Shastry, Siri; Loo, George T; Reid, Daniel; Grudzen, Corita; Shah, Manish N; Chapin, Hugh H; First, Brandon; Sirirungruang, Sasilada; Alpert, Erin; Chason, Kevin; Richardson, Lynne D

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown that a large number of ambulance transports to emergency departments (ED) could have been safely treated in an alternative environment, prompting interest in the development of more patient-centered models for prehospital care. We examined patient attitudes, perspectives, and agreement/comfort with alternate destinations and other proposed innovations in Emergency Medical Services (EMS) care delivery and determined whether demographic, socioeconomic, acuity, and EMS utilization history factors impact levels of agreement. We conducted a cross-sectional study on a convenience sample of patients and caregivers presenting to an urban academic ED between July 2012 and May 2013. Respondents were surveyed on levels of agreement with 13 statements corresponding to various aspects of a proposed patient-centered emergency response system including increased EMS access to healthcare records, shared decision making with the patient and/or primary care physician, transport to alternative destinations, and relative importance of EMS assessment versus transportation. Information on demographic and socioeconomic factors, level of acuity, and EMS utilization history were also determined via survey and chart review. Responses were analyzed descriptively and compared across patient characteristics using chi-square and regression analyses. A total of 621 patients were enrolled. The percentage of patients who agreed or strongly agreed with each of the 13 statements ranged from 48.2 to 93.8%. About 86% agreed with increased EMS access to healthcare records; approximately 72% agreed with coordinating disposition decisions with a primary physician; and about 58% supported transport to alternative destinations for low acuity conditions. No association was found between levels of agreement and the patient's level of acuity or EMS utilization history. Only Black or Hispanic race showed isolated associations with lower rates of agreement with some aspects of an innovative

  1. [Alternative medicine: really an alternative to academic medicine?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happle, R

    2000-06-01

    Numerous courses on alternative medicine are regularly advertised in Deutsches Arzteblatt, the organ of the German Medical Association. The present German legislation likewise supports this form of medicine, and this explains why Iscador, an extract of the mistletoe, is found in the Rote Liste, a directory of commercially available medical drugs, under the heading "cytostatic and antimetastatic drugs" although such beneficial effect is unproven. To give another example, a German health insurance fund was sentenced to pay for acupuncture as a treatment for hepatic failure. This judgement is characteristic of the present German judicial system and represents a victory of "oracling irrationalism" (Popper). The astonishing popularity of alternative medicine can be explained by a revival of romanticism. An intellectually fair opposite position has been delineated by Karl Popper in the form of critical rationalism. It is important to realize, however, that our decision to adhere to rational thinking is made in the innermost depth of our heart but not on the basis of rational arguing. Rather, the decision in favor of reason has a moral dimension.

  2. Analysis of the Reliability of the "Alternator- Alternator Belt" System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Mavrin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Before starting and also during the exploitation of va1ioussystems, it is vety imp011ant to know how the system and itsparts will behave during operation regarding breakdowns, i.e.failures. It is possible to predict the service behaviour of a systemby determining the functions of reliability, as well as frequencyand intensity of failures.The paper considers the theoretical basics of the functionsof reliability, frequency and intensity of failures for the twomain approaches. One includes 6 equal intetvals and the other13 unequal intetvals for the concrete case taken from practice.The reliability of the "alternator- alternator belt" system installedin the buses, has been analysed, according to the empiricaldata on failures.The empitical data on failures provide empirical functionsof reliability and frequency and intensity of failures, that arepresented in tables and graphically. The first analysis perfO!med by dividing the mean time between failures into 6 equaltime intervals has given the forms of empirical functions of fa ilurefrequency and intensity that approximately cotTespond totypical functions. By dividing the failure phase into 13 unequalintetvals with two failures in each interval, these functions indicateexplicit transitions from early failure inte1val into the randomfailure interval, i.e. into the ageing intetval. Functions thusobtained are more accurate and represent a better solution forthe given case.In order to estimate reliability of these systems with greateraccuracy, a greater number of failures needs to be analysed.

  3. Profinite graphs and groups

    CERN Document Server

    Ribes, Luis

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a detailed introduction to graph theoretic methods in profinite groups and applications to abstract groups. It is the first to provide a comprehensive treatment of the subject. The author begins by carefully developing relevant notions in topology, profinite groups and homology, including free products of profinite groups, cohomological methods in profinite groups, and fixed points of automorphisms of free pro-p groups. The final part of the book is dedicated to applications of the profinite theory to abstract groups, with sections on finitely generated subgroups of free groups, separability conditions in free and amalgamated products, and algorithms in free groups and finite monoids. Profinite Graphs and Groups will appeal to students and researchers interested in profinite groups, geometric group theory, graphs and connections with the theory of formal languages. A complete reference on the subject, the book includes historical and bibliographical notes as well as a discussion of open quest...

  4. [Alternative methods to animal experimentation. Scientific and ethical problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolphe, M

    1995-06-01

    The alternative methods include all the technologies able to replace animal experimentation. This denomination has been much debated and several researchers prefer the term of complementary methods. Alternative methods consist mainly of methods based on organ and cell culture but also includes cell organelles. These methods have been introduced gradually over the years particularly in toxicology but also in biology, physiology, pathology and pharmacology. The reasons for this development are from technological and ethical sources. This last point was due to the consciousness of industrial countries on the animal suffering which is at the origin of groups for animal welfare, able to influence european governments. The results of the development of the alternative methods are an increase in fundamental and applied research under the influence of various organisations such as in England: FRAME (Fund for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experimentals), in USA: John Hopkins Center and in ECC: ECVAM (European Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods). This last Center is particularly devoted to validation which are defined as "the process whereby the reliability and relevance of a procedure are established for a particular purpose". This involves several stages. Some validations procedures are now in progress mainly in the aim of evaluating potential alternative methods to the Draize eye irritation test. Alternative methods are able to decrease the use of animal experiments and consequently improve animal ethics although they could not replace totally animal experiments. However they are complementary and very useful for the screening of drugs and mechanistic areas.

  5. Alternative animal model for studies of total skin thickness burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Ana Laura Martins de; Parisi, Julia Risso; Brassolatti, Patrícia; Parizotto, Nivaldo Antonio

    2017-10-01

    To present an alternative experimental model of third degree burn of easy reproducibility. Eighteen male Wister rats were randomly divided into three groups, 6 of which were allocated to each group. A soldering iron coupled to an aluminum plate was used to produce burn, at a temperature of 150ºC, with different exposure times per group. Group 5 (G5) animals were burned at 150°C with exposure time of 5 seconds; Group 10 (G10) the animals were burned at 150°C with exposure time of 10 seconds and group 15 (G15) the animals were burned at 150°C with exposure time of 15 seconds. Histopathological analyzes showed that all three groups had similar morphological characteristics, with total thickness involvement. The technique is effective to reproduce a third degree burn and suggests the temperature of 150ºC with 5 seconds of exposure in order to minimize the risks to the animals.

  6. Alternative energy and environmental concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The New Brunswick Market Design Committee will address environmental concerns within the context of the new energy policy and market rules for the newly restructured electric power industry. The new rules that come with power restructuring will in some ways facilitate environmental protection but they can also complicate it. With open access markets, it will be possible to coordinate evolving energy frameworks with current environmental objectives. Restructuring provides an opportunity to create incentives and guidelines to operate in an environmentally sustainable manner, as suggested in the New Brunswick Energy Policy, White Paper which outlines green pricing, the development of a provincial Climate Change Action Plan, and promotion of alternative energy. The Market Design Committee examined the environmental concerns listed within the White Paper that pertain to the generation and transmission of electricity. These include the integration of energy and environmental policy. Other issues addressed in this report were trans-boundary and global air emissions, the development of a provincial climate change action plan, and a federal-provincial climate change framework agreement. New Brunswick will encourage the development of pilot studies that demonstrate the benefits of renewable and alternative technologies and that help promote the market to manufacture, sell and maintain renewable and alternative technologies in small-scale on-site power generation. This report also discussed the 4 key air pollutants for which specific treatment has been defined, including sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, mercury and carbon dioxide. Recommendations for reducing these emissions include the use of renewable energy sources, the use of lower carbon fuels, increased efficiency of power transmission/generation/distribution systems, reducing power demand by the industrial sector, and promoting energy efficient building codes. 34 refs., 1 tab

  7. Investigation of SLC6A4 gene expression in autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Funda Şener

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Autism is defined as a complex neurodevelopmental disorder. Genetics plays a major role in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD. The role of the serotonin in the development of autism has been widely investigated. SLC6A4 gene (SERT or 5-HT has an important role reuptaking of serotonin. Because of this, our study examined the expression level of SLC6A4 gene in autism patients. Methods: Thirty-four patients (26 male, 8 female who diagnosed as autism firstly according to DSM-V criteria in the Department of child psychiatry, Erciyes University Medical Faculty and healthy 23 controls (16 male, 7 female were enrolled in this study. Total RNA was isolated from peripheral blood samples using TRIzol. Quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR was performed to detect SLC6A4 gene expression. Results: SLC6A4 gene expression was found statistically significant and low in autism group compared with controls (p=0,027. Conclusion: The low gene expression in the patient group implied that there is an abnormality of serotonin reuptake. According to our results, we suggest that much more studies may be planned with the expression and methylation profile of this gene combined with gene polymorphisms especially affecting the expression in larger sample sizes. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (2: 165-169

  8. Bayesian Alternation During Tactile Augmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caspar Mathias Goeke

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A large number of studies suggest that the integration of multisensory signals by humans is well described by Bayesian principles. However, there are very few reports about cue combination between a native and an augmented sense. In particular, we asked the question whether adult participants are able to integrate an augmented sensory cue with existing native sensory information. Hence for the purpose of this study we build a tactile augmentation device. Consequently, we compared different hypotheses of how untrained adult participants combine information from a native and an augmented sense. In a two-interval forced choice (2 IFC task, while subjects were blindfolded and seated on a rotating platform, our sensory augmentation device translated information on whole body yaw rotation to tactile stimulation. Three conditions were realized: tactile stimulation only (augmented condition, rotation only (native condition, and both augmented and native information (bimodal condition. Participants had to choose one out of two consecutive rotations with higher angular rotation. For the analysis, we fitted the participants’ responses with a probit model and calculated the just notable difference (JND. Then we compared several models for predicting bimodal from unimodal responses. An objective Bayesian alternation model yielded a better prediction (χred2 = 1.67 than the Bayesian integration model (χred2= 4.34. Slightly higher accuracy showed a non-Bayesian winner takes all model (χred2= 1.64, which either used only native or only augmented values per subject for prediction. However the performance of the Bayesian alternation model could be substantially improved (χred2= 1.09 utilizing subjective weights obtained by a questionnaire. As a result, the subjective Bayesian alternation model predicted bimodal performance most accurately among all tested models. These results suggest that information from augmented and existing sensory modalities in

  9. Machine translation project alternatives analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajis, Catherine J.; Bedford, Denise A. D.

    1993-01-01

    The Machine Translation Project consists of several components, two of which, the Project Plan and the Requirements Analysis, have already been delivered. The Project Plan details the overall rationale, objectives and time-table for the project as a whole. The Requirements Analysis compares a number of available machine translation systems, their capabilities, possible configurations, and costs. The Alternatives Analysis has resulted in a number of conclusions and recommendations to the NASA STI program concerning the acquisition of specific MT systems and related hardware and software.

  10. Risk, Resilience, and Alternative Futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garsten, Christina; Sörbom, Adrienne

    of its work around the production of The Global Risks Report. The paper discusses the The Global Risks Report and the models of alternative futures outlined in the report, as examples of organizational scenario-building. The report draws on expertise available within the different communities...... that the scenarios articulate a particular form of 'anticipatory knowledge', geared to contribute to the shaping of political priorities and agendas. The scenarios aim to shape perceptions of what constitute 'global problems', and how they might best be addressed and governed. Hence, they contribute...... to the anticipatory governance of WEF, i.e. governance geared to integrate imaginaries of the future into regulatory processes....

  11. Alternating current for the West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    In the framework of the reactor EPR construction in the Manche, the authors wonder on the pertinence of this energy choice for the economy and the environment of the West France. They show that there is an alternative to this choice. In a first part a state of the situation concerning the electricity supply and demand in the region is detailed. Then from the local potential of renewable electric power production and the electricity conservation, they propose many concrete actions. (A.L.B.)

  12. Erythrocytes in alternating electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morariu, V.V.; Chifu, A.; Simplaceanu, T.; Frangopol, P.T.

    1983-02-01

    The elastic and inelastic deformation of erythrocytes induced by alternating fields and the suggestion that moderate field intensities (1.2 kV/cm) when continuously applied can cause lysis by a different mechanism compared to the action of short intense field pulses is presented. The different experimental conditions can be used to approach various properties of the membrane such as those related to the dielectric polarization of the membrane or to the interfacial polarization, leading to the inelastic deformation of the cells. (authors)

  13. The difference between alternative averages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Vaupel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Demographers have long been interested in how compositional change, e.g., change in age structure, affects population averages. OBJECTIVE We want to deepen understanding of how compositional change affects population averages. RESULTS The difference between two averages of a variable, calculated using alternative weighting functions, equals the covariance between the variable and the ratio of the weighting functions, divided by the average of the ratio. We compare weighted and unweighted averages and also provide examples of use of the relationship in analyses of fertility and mortality. COMMENTS Other uses of covariances in formal demography are worth exploring.

  14. MR pelvimetry - a practical alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, A.R.; English, P.T.; Cameron, H.M.; Wilsdon, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    Pelvimetry remains a useful technique as part of the assessment of the term breech pregnancy where vaginal delivery is planned. MR pelvimetry is accurate, well tolerated and shows soft-tissue structures as well as bone. It avoids the potentially carcinogenic effects of ionising radiation and is thought to be completely safe for mother and fetus. A technique of MR pelvimetry is described which uses gradient-echo sequences. This quick, practical method makes minimal in roads into valuable scanning time, and may therefore be considered a potentially cost-effective alternative to conventional pelvimetry. (orig.)

  15. Group purchasing: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetrich, J G

    1987-07-01

    The various types and operational methods of purchasing groups are described, and evaluation of groups is discussed. Since group purchasing is increasing in popularity as a method of controlling drug costs, community and hospital pharmacy managers may need to evaluate various groups to determine the appropriateness of their services. Groups are categorized as independent, system based, or alliance or association based. Instead of "purchasing," some groups develop contracts for hospitals, which then purchase directly from the vendor. Aside from this basic difference between groups that purchase and groups that contract, comparisons among groups are difficult because of the wide variation in sizes and services. Competition developing from diversification among groups has led to "super groups," formed from local and regional groups. In evaluating groups, advantages and disadvantages germane to accomplishing the member's objectives must be considered. To ensure a group's success, members must be committed and support the group's philosophies; hospital pharmacists must help to establish a strong formulary system. To select vendors, groups should develop formal qualification and selection criteria and should not base a decision solely on price. The method of solicitation (bidding or negotiating), as well as the role of the prime vendor, should be studied. Legal implications of group purchasing, especially in the areas of administrative fees and drug diversion, must also be considered. The most advantageous group for each organization will include members with common missions and will be able to implement strategies for future success.

  16. A Novel SLC27A4 Splice Acceptor Site Mutation in Great Danes with Ichthyosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Julia; Wöhlke, Anne; Mischke, Reinhard; Hoffmann, Annalena; Hewicker-Trautwein, Marion; Küch, Eva-Maria; Naim, Hassan Y; Distl, Ottmar

    2015-01-01

    Ichthyoses are a group of various different types of hereditary disorders affecting skin cornification. They are characterized by hyperkeratoses of different severity levels and are associated with a dry and scaling skin. Genome-wide association analysis of nine affected and 13 unaffected Great Danes revealed a genome-wide significant peak on chromosome 9 at 57-58 Mb in the region of SLC27A4. Sequence analysis of genomic DNA of SLC27A4 revealed the non-synonymous SNV SLC27A4:g.8684G>A in perfect association with ichthyosis-affection in Great Danes. The mutant transcript of SLC27A4 showed an in-frame loss of 54 base pairs in exon 8 probably induced by a new splice acceptor site motif created by the mutated A- allele of the SNV. Genotyping 413 controls from 35 different breeds of dogs and seven wolves revealed that this mutation could not be found in other populations except in Great Danes. Affected dogs revealed high amounts of mutant transcript but only low levels of the wild type transcript. Targeted analyses of SLC27A4 protein from skin tissues of three affected and two unaffected Great Danes indicated a markedly reduced or not detectable wild type and truncated protein levels in affected dogs but a high expression of wild type SLC27A4 protein in unaffected controls. Our data provide evidence of a new splice acceptor site creating SNV that results in a reduction or loss of intact SLC27A4 protein and probably explains the severe skin phenotype in Great Danes. Genetic testing will allow selective breeding to prevent ichthyosis-affected puppies in the future.

  17. A Novel SLC27A4 Splice Acceptor Site Mutation in Great Danes with Ichthyosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Metzger

    Full Text Available Ichthyoses are a group of various different types of hereditary disorders affecting skin cornification. They are characterized by hyperkeratoses of different severity levels and are associated with a dry and scaling skin. Genome-wide association analysis of nine affected and 13 unaffected Great Danes revealed a genome-wide significant peak on chromosome 9 at 57-58 Mb in the region of SLC27A4. Sequence analysis of genomic DNA of SLC27A4 revealed the non-synonymous SNV SLC27A4:g.8684G>A in perfect association with ichthyosis-affection in Great Danes. The mutant transcript of SLC27A4 showed an in-frame loss of 54 base pairs in exon 8 probably induced by a new splice acceptor site motif created by the mutated A- allele of the SNV. Genotyping 413 controls from 35 different breeds of dogs and seven wolves revealed that this mutation could not be found in other populations except in Great Danes. Affected dogs revealed high amounts of mutant transcript but only low levels of the wild type transcript. Targeted analyses of SLC27A4 protein from skin tissues of three affected and two unaffected Great Danes indicated a markedly reduced or not detectable wild type and truncated protein levels in affected dogs but a high expression of wild type SLC27A4 protein in unaffected controls. Our data provide evidence of a new splice acceptor site creating SNV that results in a reduction or loss of intact SLC27A4 protein and probably explains the severe skin phenotype in Great Danes. Genetic testing will allow selective breeding to prevent ichthyosis-affected puppies in the future.

  18. Ordered groups and infinite permutation groups

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    The subjects of ordered groups and of infinite permutation groups have long en­ joyed a symbiotic relationship. Although the two subjects come from very different sources, they have in certain ways come together, and each has derived considerable benefit from the other. My own personal contact with this interaction began in 1961. I had done Ph. D. work on sequence convergence in totally ordered groups under the direction of Paul Conrad. In the process, I had encountered "pseudo-convergent" sequences in an ordered group G, which are like Cauchy sequences, except that the differences be­ tween terms of large index approach not 0 but a convex subgroup G of G. If G is normal, then such sequences are conveniently described as Cauchy sequences in the quotient ordered group GIG. If G is not normal, of course GIG has no group structure, though it is still a totally ordered set. The best that can be said is that the elements of G permute GIG in an order-preserving fashion. In independent investigations around that t...

  19. [Alternative and complementary medicine from the primary care physician's viewpoint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soós, Sándor Árpád; Eőry, Ajándék; Eőry, Ajándok; Harsányi, László; Kalabay, László

    2015-07-12

    The patients initiate the use of complementary and alternative medicine and this often remains hidden from their primary care physician. To explore general practitioners' knowledge and attitude towards complementary and alternative medicine, and study the need and appropriate forms of education, as well as ask their opinion on integration of alternative medicine into mainstream medicine. A voluntary anonymous questionnaire was used on two conferences for general practitioners organized by the Family Medicine Department of Semmelweis University. Complementary and alternative medicine was defined by the definition of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and certified modalities were all listed. 194 general practitioners answered the questionnaire (39.8% response rate). 14% of the responders had licence in at least one of the complementary and alternative therapies, 45% used complementary and alternative therapy in their family in case of illness. It was the opinion of the majority (91.8%) that it was necessary to be familiar with every method used by their patients, however, 82.5% claimed not to have enough knowledge in complementary medicine. Graduate and postgraduate education in the field was thought to be necessary by 86% of the responders; increased odds for commitment in personal education was found among female general practitioners, less than 20 years professional experience and personal experience of alternative medicine. These data suggest that general practitioners would like to know more about complementary and alternative medicine modalities used by their patients. They consider education of medical professionals necessary and a special group is willing to undergo further education in the field.

  20. Determining mutations in G6PC and SLC37A4 genes in a sample of Brazilian patients with glycogen storage disease types Ia and Ib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Paschoalete Carlin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycogen storage disease (GSD comprises a group of autosomal recessive disorders characterized by deficiency of the enzymes that regulate the synthesis or degradation of glycogen. Types Ia and Ib are the most prevalent; while the former is caused by deficiency of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase, the latter is associated with impaired glucose-6-phosphate transporter, where the catalytic unit of G6Pase is located. Over 85 mutations have been reported since the cloning of G6PC and SLC37A4 genes. In this study, twelve unrelated patients with clinical symptoms suggestive of GSDIa and Ib were investigated by using genetic sequencing of G6PC and SLC37A4 genes, being three confirmed as having GSD Ia, and two with GSD Ib. In seven of these patients no mutations were detected in any of the genes. Five changes were detected in G6PC, including three known point mutations (p.G68R, p.R83C and p.Q347X and two neutral mutations (c.432G > A and c.1176T > C. Four changes were found in SLC37A4: a known point mutation (p.G149E, a novel frameshift insertion (c.1338_1339insT, and two neutral mutations (c.1287G > A and c.1076-28C > T. The frequency of mutations in our population was similar to that observed in the literature, in which the mutation p.R83C is also the most frequent one. Analysis of both genes should be considered in the investigation of this condition. An alternative explanation to the negative results in this molecular study is the possibility of a misdiagnosis. Even with a careful evaluation based on laboratory and clinical findings, overlap with other types of GSD is possible, and further molecular studies should be indicated.

  1. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia: A 4-year experience in a single ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: This study aimed to evaluate congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) patients in our department during a 4-year period. Patients and Methods: A retrospective study of 10 cases of CDH patients managed in the Neonatology and Pediatric Surgery Units of Goztepe Teaching Hospital from 2000 to 2004.

  2. Outcome of a 4-step treatment algorithm for depressed inpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birkenhäger, T.K.; Broek, W.W. van den; Moleman, P.; Bruijn, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy and the feasibility of a 4-step treatment algorithm for inpatients with major depressive disorder. Method: Depressed inpatients, meeting DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder, were enrolled in the algorithm that consisted of

  3. Blood transfusion due to haemonchosis induced anaemia in a 4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 4-year-old Kano brown doe weighing 20kg from a flock of 5 does was presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital Ahmadu Bello University Zaria with complaints of unthriftness, emaciation inappetence, weakness and pasty diarrhea of two weeks duration. Thorough physical examination revealed pale mucous ...

  4. 42 CFR 2a.4 - Contents of application; in general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... identify research subjects in any civil, criminal, administrative, legislative, or other proceedings... PROTECTION OF IDENTITY-RESEARCH SUBJECTS § 2a.4 Contents of application; in general. In addition to any other... confidentiality for a research project shall contain: (a) The name and address of the individual primarily...

  5. A Logarithmic Detection System Suitable for a 4π Array

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westfall, G.D.; Yurkon, J.E.; Plicht, J. van der; Koenig, Z.M.; Jacak, B.V.; Fox, R.; Crawley, G.M.; Maier, M.R.; Hasselquist, B.E.; Tickle, R.S.; Horn, D.

    1985-01-01

    A low pressure multiwire proportional counter, a Bragg curve counter, and an array of CaF2/plastic scintillator telescopes have been developed in a geometry suitable for close packing into a 4π detector designed to study nucleus-nucleus reactions at 100-200 MeV/nucleon. The multiwire counter is

  6. 17 CFR 240.16a-4 - Derivative securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Derivative securities. 240.16a....16a-4 Derivative securities. (a) For purposes of section 16 of the Act, both derivative securities and... securities, except that the acquisition or disposition of any derivative security shall be separately...

  7. 17 CFR 270.32a-4 - Independent audit committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Independent audit committees... (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.32a-4 Independent audit committees. A... the fund's accounting and auditing processes (“audit committee”); (b) The company's board of directors...

  8. Rare Presentation of Adrenocortical Carcinoma in a 4-Month-Old Boy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Sonali; Waikar, Apoorva R.; Singh, Prabhsimranjot; Guarini, Ludovico; Jacobson-Dickman, Elka; Motaghedi, Roja; Kazachkova, Irina

    2017-01-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy and even rarer in infancy. Most of these tumors in pediatric age group are hormonally active and predominantly present with virilization. Cortisol hypersecretion presenting as Cushing syndrome is extremely rare and seen in older age groups. We report a 4-month-old infant who presented with linear growth arrest and excessive weight gain in early infancy, consequently diagnosed with ACC. On long-term follow-up for 7 years, he remained metastasis free following surgical resection and was not treated with chemotherapy. PMID:29147440

  9. Alternate approaches to nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, A.T.

    1985-01-01

    For the US nuclear power industry to expand, a greatly increased portion of the public must come to share the industry's confidence in reactor safety. Major obstacles to establishing this confidence are frequent incidents with potential safety implications and a lack of incontrovertible proof that the risk of a major accident is very low. The most important step toward overcoming these obstacles would be for each utility to operate, maintain, and evaluate its reactors according to far higher standards. With improvements in reliability and safety margins, existing plants would be a stimulus for building new ones rather than an impediment. If changes to the operation of existing plants and improvements to the design of future ones were inadequate, the only hope for a revival of the nuclear industry would be an alternative reactor so obviously safe that risk would no longer be an issue. Three possible concepts are the modular high-temperature gas reactor, the process inherent ultimate safety reactor, and the liquid-metal fast reactor. All three have inherent safety features that should make a meltdown essentially impossible. They cannot know just how great the advantage of these alternate reactors would be, but the benefits of developing one or more of the concepts appear great

  10. Alternate Double Single Track Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraga Contreras, P.; Grande Andrade, Z.; Castillo Ron, E.

    2016-07-01

    The paper discusses the advantages and shortcomings of alternate double single track (ADST) lines with respect to double track lines for high speed lines. ADST lines consists of sequences of double and single track segments optimally selected in order to reduce the construction and maintenance costs of railway lines and to optimize the timetables used to satisfy a given demand. The single tracks are selected to coincide with expensive segments (tunnels and viaducts) and the double tracks are chosen to coincide with flat areas and only where they are necessary. At the same time, departure times are adjusted for trains to cross at the cheap double track segments. This alternative can be used for new lines and also for existing conventional lines where some new tracks are to be constructed to reduce travel time (increase speed). The ADST proposal is illustrated with some examples of both types (new lines and where conventional lines exist), including the Palencia-Santander, the Santiago-Valparaíso-Viña del Mar and the Dublin-Belfast lines, where very important reductions (90 %) are obtained, especially where a railway infrastructure already exist. (Author)

  11. Alternatives for nuclear fuel disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez S, J. R.; Badillo A, V.; Palacios H, J.; Celis del Angel, L.

    2010-10-01

    The spent fuel is one of the most important issues in the nuclear industry, currently spent fuel management is been cause of great amount of research, investments in the construction of repositories or constructing the necessary facilities to reprocess the fuel, and later to recycle the plutonium recovered in thermal reactors. What is the best solution? or, What is the best technology for a specific solution? Many countries have deferred the decision on selecting an option, while other works actively constructing repositories and others implementing the reprocessing facilities to recycle the plutonium obtained from nuclear spent fuel. In Mexico the nuclear power is limited to two reactors BWR type and medium size. So the nuclear spent fuel discharged has been accommodated at reactor's spent fuel pools. Originally these pools have enough capacity to accommodate spent fuel for the 40 years of designed plant operation. However, currently is under process an extended power up rate to 20% of their original power and also there are plans to extend operational life for 20 more years. Under these conditions there will not be enough room for spent fuel in the pools. So this work describes some different alternatives that have been studied in Mexico to define which will be the best alternative to follow. (Author)

  12. Antibodies: an alternative for antibiotics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghman, L R; Abi-Ghanem, D; Waghela, S D; Ricke, S C

    2005-04-01

    In 1967, the success of vaccination programs, combined with the seemingly unstoppable triumph of antibiotics, prompted the US Surgeon General to declare that "it was time to close the books on infectious diseases." We now know that the prediction was overly optimistic and that the fight against infectious diseases is here to stay. During the last 20 yr, infectious diseases have indeed made a staggering comeback for a variety of reasons, including resistance against existing antibiotics. As a consequence, several alternatives to antibiotics are currently being considered or reconsidered. Passive immunization (i.e., the administration of more or less pathogen-specific antibodies to the patient) prior to or after exposure to the disease-causing agent is one of those alternative strategies that was almost entirely abandoned with the introduction of chemical antibiotics but that is now gaining interest again. This review will discuss the early successes and limitations of passive immunization, formerly referred to as "serum therapy," the current use of antibody administration for prophylaxis or treatment of infectious diseases in agriculture, and, finally, recent developments in the field of antibody engineering and "molecular farming" of antibodies in various expression systems. Especially the potential of producing therapeutic antibodies in crops that are routine dietary components of farm animals, such as corn and soy beans, seems to hold promise for future application in the fight against infectious diseases.

  13. Removing 3,5-Dichlorophenol from Wastewater by Alternative Adsorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobetičová Hana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to evaluate an efficiency of 3,5 - dichlorophenol removal from wastewater by using alternative adsorbents. Chlorophenols are organic compounds consisting of a benzene ring, OH groups and also atoms of chlorine. Chlorophenols may have a huge isomere variety that means there are differences in their chemical and physical properties. Due to their toxicity it is necessary to remove them from waste water and in this paper an alternative way of such process is described.

  14. Task Group on Strengthening the DoD Enterprise Governance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    .... The Task Group was asked to examine the various governance models for overlaps or redundancies and to consider alternative approaches that would better facilitate accomplishment of the Department's goals...

  15. Citizens' action group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andritzky, W.

    1978-01-01

    For the first empirical study of citizens' action groups 331 such groups were consulted. Important information was collected on the following aspects of these groups: their self-image, areas and forms of activities, objectives and their extent, how long the group has existed, successes and failures and their forms of organisation. (orig.) [de

  16. When Groups Go Wrong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopler, Janice H.; Galinsky, Maeda J.

    1981-01-01

    Studied social workers' perceptions of group dimensions that had negative effects on members. Found that group leaders viewed group composition as a major source of harmful interaction while members and observers saw group norms as a more frequent cause of negative effects. (Author/JAC)

  17. Group Psychotherapy in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Rainer; Strauss, Bernhard

    2015-10-01

    This article gives an overview of the development of group psychotherapies in Germany originating from a psychodynamic tradition. The German health system provides access to inpatient and outpatient psychotherapy for all of its citizens. Whereas groups are common in inpatient settings, the provision of outpatient group treatment still could be improved, as it is the case for the general training of group psychotherapists. Group research in Germany largely reflects clinical practice, with more studies coming from the inpatient field. It is stated that the general image of group treatment seems to be largely positive, which could provide a basis for political initiatives to improve the dissemination of group therapy in this country.

  18. Handbook of group actions

    CERN Document Server

    Papadopoulos, Athanase; Yau, Shing-Tung

    2015-01-01

    Groups and group actions are probably the most central objects in mathematics. Comprising volumes 31 and 32 of the ALM series (with further volumes forthcoming), the Handbook of Group Actions presents survey articles on the topic of group actions and how they appear in several mathematical contexts. The general subject matter is organized under the following sections: geometry, mapping class groups, knot groups, topology, representation theory, deformation theory, and discrete groups. The various articles deal with both classical material and modern developments. They are written by specialists in their respective subject areas, and addressed to graduate students who want to learn the theory, as well as to specialists as a reference.

  19. Interpretive Listening: An Alternative to Empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, John

    1983-01-01

    Outlines an alternative interpretive approach to listening which is grounded in the hermeneutic phenomenologies of Heidegger, Gadamer, and Ricoeur. Explains four features of this alternative: openness, linguisticality, play, and the fusion of horizons. Discusses conceptual and pedagogical implications. (PD)

  20. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines: Advanced Search. Journal Home > African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines: Advanced Search. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  1. Alternative Fuel News, Vol. 3 No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-23

    This special issue of Alternative Fuel News highlights the Fifth National Clean Cities Conference held in Louisville, Kentucky. The momentum for the program is stronger than ever and the coalitions are working to propel the alternative fuel industry forward.

  2. Alternative Fuel News, Volume 4, Number 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ficker, C.

    2000-11-14

    This issue of Alternative Fuel News focuses on transit buses and refuse haulers. Many transit agencies and waste management companies are investigating alternatives to traditional diesel buses and refuse haulers.

  3. Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Patients Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is any medical and ... are based on scientific evidence from research studies. Complementary medicine refers to treatments that are used with standard ...

  4. Office of Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C Research. Information. Outreach. The Office of Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine (OCCAM) was established in October 1998 to coordinate ... National Cancer Institute (NCI) in the arena of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). More about us. CAM at the NCI ...

  5. Research notes : alternate method for pothole patching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    Typically, throw and roll pothole patches will likely fail before the pavement is resurfaced or rehabilitated. Alternatively, semi-permanent repairs are time consuming and require more people and added lane closure time. An alternate method is spray ...

  6. EJSCREEN Version 1, EJ Index Alternatives

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map service displays alternative environmental justice (EJ) indexes used in EJSCREEN. The alternative EJ indexes combine each of the 12 environmental indicators...

  7. IBD and Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alternative Medicine (CAM) Go Back Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Email Print + Share Crohn’s disease and ulcerative ... Energy Medicine, and Biologically-Based Practices. Mind-Body Medicine Mind-body medicine is a set of interventions ...

  8. Innovation in business groups

    OpenAIRE

    Sharon Belenzon; Tomer Berkovitz

    2007-01-01

    Using novel data on European firms, this paper investigates the relationship between business groups and innovation. Controlling for various firm characteristics, we find that group affiliates are more innovative than standalones. We examine several hypotheses to explain this finding, focusing on group internal capital markets and knowledge spillovers. We find that group affiliation is particularly important for innovation in industries that rely more on external funding and in groups with mo...

  9. ALTERNATIVES TO INCARCERATION. STUDIES IN DELINQUENCY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EMPEY, LAMAR T.

    THIS EXTENSIVE REPORT DISCUSSES VARIOUS CORRECTIONAL PRACTICES FOR ADULT AND JUVENILE OFFENDERS, AND DESCRIBES POSSIBLE ALTERNATIVES. ALTERNATIVES TO PRETRIAL INCARCERATION OF ADULT OFFENDERS ARE SUPERVISED RELEASE, DAYTIME RELEASE, RELEASE IN THE CUSTODY OF A THIRD PARTY, SUMMONS INSTEAD OF ARREST, AND REVISED BAIL PROCEDURES. ALTERNATIVES TO…

  10. 27 CFR 19.930 - Alternating proprietorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Operations § 19.930 Alternating proprietorship. (a) General. (1) An alcohol fuel plant, or a part thereof, may be operated alternately by proprietors if— (i) The alcohol fuel plant and the proprietors are... an alcohol fuel plant as an alternating proprietor shall file with the appropriate TTB officer: (1...

  11. Technological alternatives for plutonium transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-12-01

    This paper considers alternative transport modes (air, sea, road, rail) for moving (1) plutonium from a reprocessing plant to a store or a fuel fabrication facility, and (2) MOX fuel from the latter to a reactor. These transport modes and differing forms of plutonium are considered in terms of: their proliferation resistance and safeguards; environmental and safety aspects; and economic aspects. It is tentatively proposed that the transport of plutonium could continue by air or sea where long distances are involved and by road or rail over shorter distances; this would be acceptable from the non-proliferation, environmental impact and economic aspects - there may be advantages in protection if plutonium is transported in the form of mixed oxide

  12. Alternative approaches to plasma confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    The paper discusses 20 plasma confinement schemes each representing an alternative to the tokamak fusion reactor. Attention is given to: (1) tokamak-like devices (TORMAC, Topolotron, and the Extrap concept), (2) stellarator-like devices (Torsatron and twisted-coil stellarators), (3) mirror machines (Astron and reversed-field devices, the 2XII B experiment, laser-heated solenoids, the LITE experiment, the Kaktus-Surmac concept), (4) bumpy tori (hot electron bumpy torus, toroidal minimum-B configurations), (5) electrostatically assisted confinement (electrostatically stuffed cusps and mirrors, electrostatically assisted toroidal confinement), (6) the Migma concept, and (7) wall-confined plasmas. The plasma parameters of the devices are presented and the advantages and disadvantages of each are listed.

  13. Nuclear power and its alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendee, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    For nuclear power to contribute significantly to the alleviation of demands for increased electricity by the year 2000, a further obstacle must be overcome, namely the present nuclear phobia of the American public. This phobia can be addressed only through public education leading to a balanced perspective of the benefits and hazards of nuclear power compared with those of alternate sources of energy and to the risks associated with an insufficient supply of energy in a few years. Also to be considered in a public education effort should be the precarious and capricious nature of this country's continued reliance on energy sources imported from politically unstable countries, as well as the risk this importation poses for the nation's economic, social and military security

  14. Alternative Diesel from Waste Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Bezergianni

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The long term ambition of energy security and solidarity, coupled with the environmental concerns of problematic waste accumulation, is addressed via the proposed waste-to-fuel technology. Plastic waste is converted into automotive diesel fuel via a two-step thermochemical process based on pyrolysis and hydrotreatment. Plastic waste was pyrolyzed in a South East Asia plant rendering pyrolysis oil, which mostly consisted of middle-distillate (naphtha and diesel hydrocarbons. The diesel fraction (170–370 °C was fractionated, and its further upgrade was assessed in a hydroprocessing pilot plant at the Centre for Research and Technology Hellas (CERTH in Greece. The final fuel was evaluated with respect to the diesel fuel quality specifications EN 590, which characterized it as a promising alternative diesel pool component with excellent ignition quality characteristics and low back end volatility.

  15. The rural energy alternatives project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffstatter, L.; Panetti, C.; DeWein, M.

    1993-01-01

    A cooperative survey by the New York State Energy Office (SEO) and Office of Rural Affairs (ORA) identified hundreds of residences without utility electric power due to excessive line extension costs. SEO selected several of these residences for feasibility studies which compared site specific options for electricity generation, including existing fossil fuel generator(s), generator/battery sets, photovoltaic (PV) hybrid and micro-hydroelectric systems as well as utility provided electric service. Comprehensive reports included examination of a range of energy conservation measures. Alternatives to present fossil fuel systems were assessed for domestic hot water, refrigeration, and water pumping. Results included electric load data, solar and hydroelectric potential, life cycle cost estimates for electricity, and estimated system sizing information based on energy cost considerations. In addition to providing useful information to individual homeowners, these studies served as the basis for cooperative efforts to install and monitor stand-alone prototype PV hybrid systems

  16. Alternator control for battery charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunstetter, Craig A.; Jaye, John R.; Tallarek, Glen E.; Adams, Joseph B.

    2015-07-14

    In accordance with an aspect of the present disclosure, an electrical system for an automotive vehicle has an electrical generating machine and a battery. A set point voltage, which sets an output voltage of the electrical generating machine, is set by an electronic control unit (ECU). The ECU selects one of a plurality of control modes for controlling the alternator based on an operating state of the vehicle as determined from vehicle operating parameters. The ECU selects a range for the set point voltage based on the selected control mode and then sets the set point voltage within the range based on feedback parameters for that control mode. In an aspect, the control modes include a trickle charge mode and battery charge current is the feedback parameter and the ECU controls the set point voltage within the range to maintain a predetermined battery charge current.

  17. Moral hypocrisy: addressing some alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batson, C Daniel; Thompson, Elizabeth R; Chen, Hubert

    2002-08-01

    Two studies addressed alternative explanations for 3 pieces of evidence supporting the existence of moral hypocrisy. In Study 1, no support was found for the idea that low salience of social standards accounts for falsifying the result of a coin flip to assign oneself a more desirable task. In Study 2, no support was found for the idea that responses of those who honestly win the flip account for the higher ratings of morality of their action by participants who assign themselves the more desirable task after flipping the coin. Also, no support was found for the idea that responses of those who honestly win the flip account for the inability of personal moral responsibility measures to predict moral action. Instead, results of both studies provided additional evidence of moral hypocrisy.

  18. Group Psychotherapy in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ívarsson, Ómar

    2015-10-01

    In this overview of group psychotherapy in Iceland, an attempt will be made to describe how it is practiced today, give some glimpses into its earlier history, and clarify seven issues: (1) the standing of group psychotherapy in Iceland, its previous history, and the theoretical orientation of dynamic group therapy in the country; (2) the role of group therapy in the health care system; (3) how training in group therapy is organized; (4) the relationship between group psychotherapy research and clinical practice; (5) which issues/processes can be identified as unique to therapy groups in Iceland; and (6) how important are group-related issues within the social background of the country; and (7) what group work holds for the future.

  19. Kinematics and Workspace of a 4-DOF Hybrid Palletizing Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Tao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We presented the kinematical analysis of a 4-DOF hybrid palletizing robot. The palletizing robot structure was proposed and the arm model of the robot was presented. The kinematical analysis of the end robotic manipulator was given. As a result, the position, velocity, and acceleration curves as well as the maximum workspace were demonstrated by simulation in Matlab. This study would be useful for the kinematical characteristics of the 4-DOF palletizing robot in space.

  20. S100A4 Protein in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Results of a Single Centre Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Morávková

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of our study was to assess association of serum S100A4 protein with ulcerative colitis (UC and Crohn’s disease (CD. Methods: Study included 118 subjects: 93 patients with CD, 16 with UC and 9 controls. In CD group, 20/93 patients had B1 phenotype, 19/93 B2, 20/93 B3 and 34/93 B2 + B3. L1 involvement was present in 15/93, L2 in 14/93 and L3 in 64/93 patients. Serum S100A4 concentration was investigated in peripheral venous blood samples by means of ELISA. Results: Serum S100A4 was significantly higher in UC (158.6 ± 56.2 ng/mL, p = 0.019 and in CD (154.4 ± 52.1 ng/mL, p = 0.007 compared to controls (104.8 ± 40.5 ng/mL. No difference in S100A4 was revealed between UC and CD, p > 0.05. Serum S100A4 in each CD subgroup (according to behaviour was significantly higher compared to controls, p < 0.05. Serum S100A4 was significantly higher in L2 (144.6 ± 44.2 ng/mL, p = 0.041 and in L3 (163.0 ± 52.8 ng/mL, p = 0.002 compared to controls and in L3 compared to L1 (126.9 ± 47.6 ng/mL, p = 0.017. Conclusion: Association of serum S100A4 protein with UC and CD was confirmed. In CD, disease behaviour did not influence serum concentration of S100A4 protein. In CD, higher levels of serum S100A4 were observed in patients with ileo-colonic and colonic involvement compared to those with isolated small bowel involvement.

  1. Alternative calcination development status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, R.D.

    1997-12-01

    The Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel and (INEEL) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision, dated June 1, 1995, specifies that high-level waste stored in the underground tanks at the ICPP continue to be calcined while other options to treat the waste are studied. Therefore, the High-Level Waste Program has funded a program to develop new flowsheets to increase the liquid waste processing rate. Simultaneously, a radionuclide separation process, as well as other options, are also being developed, which will be compared to the calcination treatment option. Two alternatives emerged as viable candidates; (1) elevated temperature calcination (also referred to as high temperature calcination), and (2) sugar-additive calcination. Both alternatives were determined to be viable through testing performed in a lab-scale calcination mockup. Subsequently, 10-cm Calciner Pilot Plant scoping tests were successfully completed for both flowsheets. The results were compared to the standard 500 C, high-ANN flow sheet (baseline flowsheet). The product and effluent streams were characterized to help elucidate the process chemistry and to investigate potential environmental permitting issues. Several supplementary tests were conducted to gain a better understanding of fine-particles generation, calcine hydration, scrub foaming, feed makeup procedures, sugar/organic elimination, and safety-related issues. Many of the experiments are only considered to be scoping tests, and follow-up experiments will be required to establish a more definitive understanding of the flowsheets. However, the combined results support the general conclusion that flowsheet improvements for the NWCF are technically viable

  2. Alternative Crops and Biofuel Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenkel, Philip [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Holcomb, Rodney B. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)

    2013-03-01

    In order for the biofuel industry to meet the RFS benchmarks for biofuels, new feedstock sources and production systems will have to be identified and evaluated. The Southern Plains has the potential to produce over a billion gallons of biofuels from regionally produced alternative crops, agricultural residues, and animal fats. While information on biofuel conversion processes is available, it is difficult for entrepreneurs, community planners and other interested individuals to determine the feasibility of biofuel processes or to match production alternatives with feed stock availability and community infrastructure. This project facilitates the development of biofuel production from these regionally available feed stocks. Project activities are concentrated in five major areas. The first component focused on demonstrating the supply of biofuel feedstocks. This involves modeling the yield and cost of production of dedicated energy crops at the county level. In 1991 the DOE selected switchgrass as a renewable source to produce transportation fuel after extensive evaluations of many plant species in multiple location (Caddel et al,. 2010). However, data on the yield and cost of production of switchgrass are limited. This deficiency in demonstrating the supply of biofuel feedstocks was addressed by modeling the potential supply and geographic variability of switchgrass yields based on relationship of available switchgrass yields to the yields of other forage crops. This model made it possible to create a database of projected switchgrass yields for five different soil types at the county level. A major advantage of this methodology is that the supply projections can be easily updated as improved varieties of switchgrass are developed and additional yield data becomes available. The modeling techniques are illustrated using the geographic area of Oklahoma. A summary of the regional supply is then provided.

  3. Integrating exposure into chemical alternatives assessment using a qualitative approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greggs, Bill; Arnold, Scott; Burns, T. E.

    2016-01-01

    Most alternatives assessments (AA) published to date are largely hazard-based rankings, and as such may not represent a fully informed consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of possible alternatives. With an assessment goal of identifying an alternative chemical that is more sustainable...... in a qualitative AA comparison. Starting from existing hazard AAs, a series of three chemical-product application scenarios were examined to test the concept, to understand the effort required, and to determine the value of exposure data in AA decision- making. The group has developed a classification approach...... include aspects such as exposure pathways, use pattern, frequency/duration of use, chemical concentration in product, and use volume, accessibility, and disposal.Key learnings, challenges, and opportunities for further work will also be presented. The views expressed in this presentation do...

  4. Alternate nuclear waste forms and interactions in geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boatner, L.A.; Battle, G.C. Jr.

    1981-04-01

    The primary purposes of the conference on Alternate Nuclear Waste Forms and Interactions in Geologic Media were: First, to provide an opportunity for a review of the status of the research on some of the candidate alternative waste forms; second, to provide an opportunity for comparing the characteristics of alternate waste forms to those of glasses; and third, to stimulate increased interactions between those research groups that were engaged in a more basic approach to characterizing waste forms and those who were concerned with more applied aspects such as the processing of these materials. The motivating philosophy behind this third purpose of the conference was based on the idea that by operating from the soundest possible fundamental base for any of the candidate waste forms, hopefully any future unpleasant surprise - such as that alluded to earlier in the case of glass waste forms - could be avoided. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  5. The partially alternating ternary sum in an associative dialgebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremner, Murray R; Sanchez-Ortega, Juana

    2010-01-01

    The alternating ternary sum in an associative algebra, abc - acb - bac + bca + cab - cba, gives rise to the partially alternating ternary sum in an associative dialgebra with products dashv and vdash by making the argument a the center of each term. We use computer algebra to determine the polynomial identities in degree ≤9 satisfied by this new trilinear operation. In degrees 3 and 5, these identities define a new variety of partially alternating ternary algebras. We show that there is a 49-dimensional space of multilinear identities in degree 7, and we find equivalent nonlinear identities. We use the representation theory of the symmetric group to show that there are no new identities in degree 9.

  6. Towards a complete A4 × SU(5) SUSY GUT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkeroth, Fredrik; de Anda, Francisco J.; de Medeiros Varzielas, Ivo; King, Stephen F.

    2015-06-01

    We propose a renormalisable model based on A 4 family symmetry with an SU(5) grand unified theory (GUT) which leads to the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) with a ℤ9 × ℤ6 symmetry provides the fermion mass hierarchy in both the quark and lepton sectors, while ℤ {4/ R } symmetry is broken to ℤ {2/ R }, identified as usual R-parity. Proton decay is highly sup-pressed by these symmetries. The strong CP problem is solved in a similar way to the Nelson-Barr mechanism. We discuss both the A 4 and SU(5) symmetry breaking sectors, including doublet-triplet splitting, Higgs mixing and the origin of the μ term. The model provides an excellent fit (better than one sigma) to all quark and lepton (including neu-trino) masses and mixing with spontaneous CP violation. With the A 4 vacuum alignments, (0, 1, 1) and (1, 3, 1), the model predicts the entire PMNS mixing matrix with no free pa-rameters, up to a relative phase, selected to be 2π/3 from a choice of the nine complex roots of unity, which is identified as the leptogenesis phase. The model predicts a normal neutrino mass hierarchy with leptonic angles θ{13/ ι } ≈ 8.7∘, θ{12/ ι } ≈ 34∘, θ{23/ ι } ≈ 46∘ and an oscillation phase δ ι ≈ - 87∘.

  7. Solution structure of leptospiral LigA4 Big domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei, Song; Zhang, Jiahai; Zhang, Xuecheng; Tu, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenic Leptospiraspecies express immunoglobulin-like proteins which serve as adhesins to bind to the extracellular matrices of host cells. Leptospiral immunoglobulin-like protein A (LigA), a surface exposed protein containing tandem repeats of bacterial immunoglobulin-like (Big) domains, has been proved to be involved in the interaction of pathogenic Leptospira with mammalian host. In this study, the solution structure of the fourth Big domain of LigA (LigA4 Big domain) from Leptospira interrogans was solved by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The structure of LigA4 Big domain displays a similar bacterial immunoglobulin-like fold compared with other Big domains, implying some common structural aspects of Big domain family. On the other hand, it displays some structural characteristics significantly different from classic Ig-like domain. Furthermore, Stains-all assay and NMR chemical shift perturbation revealed the Ca 2+ binding property of LigA4 Big domain. - Highlights: • Determining the solution structure of a bacterial immunoglobulin-like domain from a surface protein of Leptospira. • The solution structure shows some structural characteristics significantly different from the classic Ig-like domains. • A potential Ca 2+ -binding site was identified by strains-all and NMR chemical shift perturbation.

  8. Solution structure of leptospiral LigA4 Big domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei, Song; Zhang, Jiahai [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Zhang, Xuecheng [School of Life Sciences, Anhui University, Hefei, Anhui 230039 (China); Tu, Xiaoming, E-mail: xmtu@ustc.edu.cn [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2015-11-13

    Pathogenic Leptospiraspecies express immunoglobulin-like proteins which serve as adhesins to bind to the extracellular matrices of host cells. Leptospiral immunoglobulin-like protein A (LigA), a surface exposed protein containing tandem repeats of bacterial immunoglobulin-like (Big) domains, has been proved to be involved in the interaction of pathogenic Leptospira with mammalian host. In this study, the solution structure of the fourth Big domain of LigA (LigA4 Big domain) from Leptospira interrogans was solved by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The structure of LigA4 Big domain displays a similar bacterial immunoglobulin-like fold compared with other Big domains, implying some common structural aspects of Big domain family. On the other hand, it displays some structural characteristics significantly different from classic Ig-like domain. Furthermore, Stains-all assay and NMR chemical shift perturbation revealed the Ca{sup 2+} binding property of LigA4 Big domain. - Highlights: • Determining the solution structure of a bacterial immunoglobulin-like domain from a surface protein of Leptospira. • The solution structure shows some structural characteristics significantly different from the classic Ig-like domains. • A potential Ca{sup 2+}-binding site was identified by strains-all and NMR chemical shift perturbation.

  9. Association study of serotonin transporter SLC6A4 gene with Chinese Han irritable bowel syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yuan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a common clinical gastrointestinal dysfunction disorders. 5-sertonon (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT is a very important neurotransmitter, which is involved in gastrointestinal motion and sensation. Solute carrier family 6 member 4 (SLC6A4 gene encode serotonin transporter (SERT which function is to rapidly reuptake the most of 5-HT. Therefore, it is needed to explore the association between SLC6A4 gene polymorphisms and IBS. METHODS: 119 patients and 238 healthy controls were administrated to detect the SLC6A4 gene polymorphisms including 5-HT-transporter-gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR, variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs and three selected tag Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs rs1042173, rs3794808, rs2020936 by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR and TaqMan® SNP Genotyping. RESULTS: There were significant difference for 5-HTTLPR between IBS and control groups (X2 = 106.168, P<0.0001. In control group, genotypes were mainly L/L (58.4%, however, the genotypes in IBS were S/S (37.8%. The significant difference was shown in D-IBS subjects when compared to the controls (X(2 = 50.850, P<0.0001 for 5-HTTLPR. For STin2 VNTR, rs1042173, rs3794808, and rs2020936 polymorphisms, there were no any significant differences between IBS and control groups. There were no statistical significantly haplotypes for 5-HTTLPR, VNTRs and the three SNPs between IBS and controls. CONCLUSION: The S allele in 5-HTTLPR was a susceptible allele with Chinese Han IBS, but other associations of VNTRs, three selected Tag SNPs and positive haplotype with IBS were not found. It is indicated that much research are needed to study the relationship between other polymorphisms in SLC6A4 gene and IBS.

  10. ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF ENERGY - ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF POLLUTION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius-Razvan SURUGIU

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In many countries of the world investments are made for obtaining energy efficiency, pursuing to increase the generation of non-polluting fuels due to the fact that energy is vital for any economy. The increase in non-polluting fuels and in renewable energy generation might lead to diminishing the dependence of countries less endowed with conventional energy resources on oil and natural gas from Russia or from Arab countries. Nevertheless, environmental issues represent serious questions facing the mankind, requiring the identification, prevention, and why not, their total solving.European Union countries depend on imports of energy, especially on oil imports. At the same time, the European Union countries record a high volume of greenhouse gas emissions, substances adding to global warming. The transport sector is the main consumer of fossil fuels and generator of greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, diversifying the energy supply used in the transport sector with less polluting sources is an essential objective of the European Union policy in the transport, energy and environment sector. Road transports’ is the sector recording the highest consumption of energy and the highest volume of greenhouse gas emissions.The use of ecologic fuels in the transport sector is an important factor for achieving the objectives of European policies in the field. It is yet to be seen to what extent alternative energy sources are damaging to the environment, as it is a known fact that even for them is recorded a certain level of negative externalities.

  11. The effects of a 4-week static stretching programme on the individual muscles comprising the hamstrings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihashi, Noriaki; Umegaki, Hiroki; Ikezoe, Tome; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Nishishita, Satoru; Fujita, Kosuke; Umehara, Jun; Nakao, Sayaka; Ibuki, Satoko

    2016-12-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of a 4-week intervention of static stretching (SS) on muscle hardness of the semitendinosus (ST), semimembranosus (SM) and biceps femoris (BF) muscles. Shear elastic modulus was measured by using ultrasound shear wave elastography as the index of muscle hardness. Thirty healthy men (age 22.7 ± 2.2 years) volunteered for this study and were randomly assigned to the SS intervention group (n = 15) or the control group (n = 15). Participants in the SS intervention group received a 4-week stretch intervention for the hamstrings of their dominant leg. Shear elastic moduli of the hamstrings were measured at initial evaluation and after 4 weeks in both groups at a determined angle. In all muscles, the shear elastic modulus decreased significantly after SS intervention. The percentage change in the shear elastic modulus from the value at initial evaluation to after 4 weeks intervention was greatest in the SM. These results suggest that SS intervention has chronic effects on reducing hardness of the hamstring muscle components, especially the SM muscle.

  12. Use of alternative fuels in the Polish cement industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokrzycki, Eugeniusz; Uliasz-Bochenczyk, Alicja [Polish Academy of Sciences, Mineral and Energy Economy Research Inst., Krakow (Poland); Sarna, Mieczyslaw [Lafarge Cement Polska S.A., Malogoszcz (Poland)

    2003-02-01

    Alternative fuels are made up of mixtures of different wastes, such as industrial, municipal and hazardous wastes. These fuels need to have an appropriate chemical energy content which depends on the type of components and their organic content. An industry that is particularly well suited to the employment of alternative fuels is the cement industry. There are a number of factors that promote the use of alternative fuels in cement kilns. Of these factors, the most notable are: the high temperatures developed, the appropriate kiln length, the long period of time the fuel stays inside the kiln and the alkaline environment inside the kiln. There are a number of countries that use their own alternative fuels in cement plants. These fuels have different trade names and they differ in the amounts and the quality of the selected municipal and industrial waste fractions used. The fuels used should fall within the extreme values of parameters such as: minimum heating value, maximum humidity content, and maximum content of heavy and toxic metals. Cement plants in Poland also use alternative fuels. Within the Lafarge Group, the cement plants owned by Lafarge Poland Ltd. have initiated activities directed at promoting the wider use of alternative fuels. There are a number of wastes that can be incinerated as fuel in cement plants. Some that can be mentioned are: selected combustible fractions of municipal wastes, liquid crude-oil derived wastes, car tyres, waste products derived from paint and varnish production, expired medicines from the pharmaceutical industry and others. The experience gained by the cement plants of Lafarge Cement Poland Ltd confirms that such activities are economically and ecologically beneficial. The incineration of alternative fuels in cement plants is a safe method for the utilisation of waste that is ecologically friendly and profitable for the industrial plants and society alike. (Author)

  13. Nilpotent -local finite groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarero, José; Scherer, Jérôme; Viruel, Antonio

    2014-10-01

    We provide characterizations of -nilpotency for fusion systems and -local finite groups that are inspired by known result for finite groups. In particular, we generalize criteria by Atiyah, Brunetti, Frobenius, Quillen, Stammbach and Tate.

  14. Group Decision Process Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, John; Hijikata, Masao

    1997-01-01

    Introducing the notion of Group Decision Process Support Systems (GDPSS) to traditional decision-support theorists.......Introducing the notion of Group Decision Process Support Systems (GDPSS) to traditional decision-support theorists....

  15. UPIN Group File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Group Unique Physician Identifier Number (UPIN) File is the business entity file that contains the group practice UPIN and descriptive information. It does NOT...

  16. Introduction to topological groups

    CERN Document Server

    Husain, Taqdir

    2018-01-01

    Concise treatment covers semitopological groups, locally compact groups, Harr measure, and duality theory and some of its applications. The volume concludes with a chapter that introduces Banach algebras. 1966 edition.

  17. Free paratopological groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sayed Elfard

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Let FP(X be the free paratopological group on a topological space X in the sense of Markov. In this paper, we study the group FP(X on a $P_\\alpha$-space $X$ where $\\alpha$ is an infinite cardinal and then we prove that the group FP(X is an Alexandroff space if X is an Alexandroff space. Moreover, we introduce a~neighborhood base at the identity of the group FP(X when the space X is Alexandroff and then we give some properties of this neighborhood base. As applications of these, we prove that the group FP(X is T_0 if X is T_0, we characterize the spaces X for which the group FP(X is a topological group and then we give a class of spaces $X$ for which the group FP(X has the inductive limit property.

  18. Group B streptococcus - pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000511.htm Group B streptococcus - pregnancy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a type of bacteria that ...

  19. Gestalt Interactional Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Robert L.; Franklin, Richard W.

    1975-01-01

    Gestalt therapy in groups is not limited to individual work in the presence of an audience. Describes several ways to involve gestalt groups interactionally. Interactions described focus on learning by doing and discovering, and are noninterpretive. (Author/EJT)

  20. Informal group discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans Nienstaedt; Dean W. Einspahr; J. Douglas Brodie

    1973-01-01

    Editor's note: The morning's presentations were discussed during the afternoon by three groups, each group discussing one of the morning's three topics. Summaries of the discussions, prepared by the discussion leaders, follow.

  1. Model forest landscape change in the Missouri Ozarks under alternative management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen R. Shifley; Frank R. Thompson; David R. Larsen; William D. Dijak

    2000-01-01

    We used a spatially explicit landscape model, LANDIS, to simulate the effects of five management alternatives on a 3216 ha forest landscape in southeast Missouri, USA. We compared management alternatives among two intensities of even-aged management with clearcutting, uneven-aged management with group selection harvest, a mixture of even- and uneven-aged management,...

  2. Multicultural group work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2014-01-01

    Motivation for the activity I use this strategy for forming groups to ensure diverse/multicultural groups that combine a variety of different strengths and resources based on student's academic, disciplinary, linguistic, national, personal and work backgrounds.......Motivation for the activity I use this strategy for forming groups to ensure diverse/multicultural groups that combine a variety of different strengths and resources based on student's academic, disciplinary, linguistic, national, personal and work backgrounds....

  3. Prioritization of sediment management alternatives using stochastic multicriteria acceptability analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Guerra, Manuel; Canis, Laure; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos; Viguri, Javier R; Linkov, Igor

    2010-09-15

    Decision-making for sediment management is a complex task that requires the consideration of temporal and spatial impacts of several remedial alternatives as well as the associated economic, social and political impact. Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) is becoming increasingly recognized as an important environmental management tool that can be used to support the selection of suitable remediation alternatives and prioritization of management units in space and time. This paper proposes an MCDA framework for prioritizing sediment management alternatives. This framework involves identifying of a set of feasible options, as well as defining and evaluating criteria which integrate relevant technical, economic, social and environmental aspects of remedies. The methodology allows an explicit consideration of uncertainty in criteria scores and weights by assigning probability distributions and analyzing subsequent Monte-Carlo simulations. The consideration of different stakeholder simulated values is used to assess the robustness of alternative rankings and to guide the selection of remediation options. An application of this methodology to a case study in the Bay of Santander, Spain, is presented. An assessment is conducted for the case of unknown preferences as well as for hypothetical preferences profiles for four types of stakeholders: Idealist, Politician, Environmentalist and Balanced. The results are used to visualize stakeholder positions and potential disagreements, allowing for the identification of a group of least preferred alternatives for each stakeholder. Stakeholder involvement has the potential to ease the remedy selection process during all stages of the decision-making process and to eventually remedy implementation. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Prioritization of sediment management alternatives using stochastic multicriteria acceptability analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Guerra, Manuel [Department of Chemical Engineering and Inorganic Chemistry, ETSIIT, University of Cantabria, Avda. de los Castros s/n 39005, Santander (Spain); Canis, Laure [U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, 696 Virginia Rd, Concord, MA 01742 (United States); Voulvoulis, Nikolaos [Centre for Environmental Policy, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Viguri, Javier R. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Inorganic Chemistry, ETSIIT, University of Cantabria, Avda. de los Castros s/n 39005, Santander (Spain); Linkov, Igor, E-mail: Igor.Linkov@usace.army.mil [U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, 696 Virginia Rd, Concord, MA 01742 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Decision-making for sediment management is a complex task that requires the consideration of temporal and spatial impacts of several remedial alternatives as well as the associated economic, social and political impact. Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) is becoming increasingly recognized as an important environmental management tool that can be used to support the selection of suitable remediation alternatives and prioritization of management units in space and time. This paper proposes an MCDA framework for prioritizing sediment management alternatives. This framework involves identifying of a set of feasible options, as well as defining and evaluating criteria which integrate relevant technical, economic, social and environmental aspects of remedies. The methodology allows an explicit consideration of uncertainty in criteria scores and weights by assigning probability distributions and analyzing subsequent Monte-Carlo simulations. The consideration of different stakeholder simulated values is used to assess the robustness of alternative rankings and to guide the selection of remediation options. An application of this methodology to a case study in the Bay of Santander, Spain, is presented. An assessment is conducted for the case of unknown preferences as well as for hypothetical preferences profiles for four types of stakeholders: Idealist, Politician, Environmentalist and Balanced. The results are used to visualize stakeholder positions and potential disagreements, allowing for the identification of a group of least preferred alternatives for each stakeholder. Stakeholder involvement has the potential to ease the remedy selection process during all stages of the decision-making process and to eventually remedy implementation.

  5. AREVA group overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document presents the Group Areva, a world nuclear industry leader, from a financial holding company to an industrial group, operating in two businesses: the nuclear energy and the components. The structure and the market of the group are discussed, as the financial assets. (A.L.B.)

  6. Quantum isometry groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jyotishman Bhowmick

    2015-11-07

    Nov 7, 2015 ... NONcommutative spaces. 2. Banica and Bichon defined quantum symmetry groups for finite metric spaces, finite graphs, etc. 3. Lots of examples computed leading to discovery of completely new kinds of quantum groups. Jyotishman Bhowmick (Indian Statistical Institute). Quantum isometry groups. 07.11.

  7. Higher arithmetic Chow groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil, J. I. Burgos; Feliu, Elisenda

    2012-01-01

    We give a new construction of higher arithmetic Chow groups for quasi-projective arithmetic varieties over a field. Our definition agrees with the higher arithmetic Chow groups defined by Goncharov for projective arithmetic varieties over a field. These groups are the analogue, in the Arakelov co...

  8. Asymmetry within social groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barker, Jessie; Loope, Kevin J.; Reeve, H. Kern

    2016-01-01

    Social animals vary in their ability to compete with group members over shared resources and also vary in their cooperative efforts to produce these resources. Competition among groups can promote within-group cooperation, but many existing models of intergroup cooperation do not explicitly account...

  9. Tectaria group: Arthropteris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooteboom, H.P.; Leonardía, A.A.P.

    2012-01-01

    Holttum, R.E., Tectaria group. Flora Malesiana, Ser. II, 2 (1991) 1–132 defined this group without the genus Arthropteris. Later molecular studies indicated that this genus belongs to Tectariaceae, the Tectaria group of Holttum. The genus contains two species in Malesia. Illustration is by one

  10. Change through Group Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllan, Les; Friedman, Amy; Spears, Evans

    Perhaps the most well known treatment modalities in the field of prevention and treatment of addiction are groups. Group settings serve to bring individuals with addictions together at one time in one place to work on relevant issues together. Groups may serve as a safe environment for learning new social and relationship skills, gaining…

  11. Comparison of Paeoniflorin and Albiflorin on Human CYP3A4 and CYP2D6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Na Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall- is a plant medicine and a functional food ingredient with wide application for more than 2000 years. It can be coadministrated with many other drugs, composed of traditional Chinese medicine compound such as shaoyao-gancao decoction. In order to explore the efficacy and safety of peony, effects of paeoniflorin and albiflorin (the principal components of peony on cytochrome P450 (CYP 3A4 and CYP2D6 were analyzed in human hepatoma HepG2 cells and evaluated from the level of recombinant CYP enzymes in vitro. The findings indicated that albiflorin possessed stronger regulation on the mRNA expression of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 than paeoniflorin. For the protein level of CYP3A4, albiflorin showed significant induction or inhibition with the concentration increasing from 10−7 M to 10−5 M, but no remarkable variation was observed in paeoniflorin-treated group. Enzyme activity assay implied that both paeoniflorin and albiflorin could regulate CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 with varying degrees. The results showed that albiflorin should be given more attention because it may play a vital role on the overall efficacy of peony. The whole behavior of both paeoniflorin and albiflorin should be focused on ensuring the rationality and effectiveness of clinical application.

  12. Ironmaking Process Alternative Screening Study, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockwood Greene, . .

    2005-01-06

    Iron in the United States is largely produced from iron ore mined in the United States or imported from Canada or South America. The iron ore is typically smelted in Blast Furnaces that use primarily iron ore, iron concentrate pellets metallurgical coke, limestone and lime as the raw materials. Under current operating scenarios, the iron produced from these Blast Furnaces is relatively inexpensive as compared to current alternative iron sources, e.g. direct iron reduction, imported pig iron, etc. The primary problem the Blast Furnace Ironmaking approach is that many of these Blast furnaces are relatively small, as compared to the newer, larger Blast Furnaces; thus are relatively costly and inefficient to operate. An additional problem is also that supplies of high-grade metallurgical grade coke are becoming increasingly in short supply and costs are also increasing. In part this is due to the short supply and costs of high-grade metallurgical coals, but also this is due to the increasing necessity for environmental controls for coke production. After year 2003 new regulations for coke product environmental requirement will likely be promulgated. It is likely that this also will either increase the cost of high-quality coke production or will reduce the available domestic U.S. supply. Therefore, iron production in the United States utilizing the current, predominant Blast Furnace process will be more costly and would likely be curtailed due to a coke shortage. Therefore, there is a significant need to develop or extend the economic viability of Alternate Ironmaking Processes to at least partially replace current and declining blast furnace iron sources and to provide incentives for new capacity expansion. The primary conclusions of this comparative Study of Alternative Ironmaking Process scenarios are: (1) The processes with the best combined economics (CAPEX and OPEX impacts in the I.R.R. calculation) can be grouped into those Fine Ore based processes with no scrap

  13. SLC26A4 gene copy number variations in Chinese patients with non-syndromic enlarged vestibular aqueduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Jiandong

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many patients with enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA have either only one allelic mutant of the SLC26A4 gene or lack any detectable mutation. In this study, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA was used to screen for copy number variations (CNVs of SLC26A4 and to reveal the pathogenic mechanisms of non-syndromic EVA (NSEVA. Methods Between January 2003 and March 2010, 923 Chinese patients (481 males, 442 females with NSEVA were recruited. Among these, 68 patients (7.4% were found to carry only one mutant allele of SLC26A4 and 39 patients (4.2% lacked any detectable mutation in SLC26A4; these 107 patients without double mutant alleles were assigned to the patient group. Possible copy number variations in SLC26A4 were detected by SALSA MLPA. Results Using GeneMapper, no significant difference was observed between the groups, as compared with the standard probe provided in the assay. The results of the capillary electrophoresis showed no significant difference between the patients and controls. Conclusion Our results suggest that CNVs and the exon deletion in SLC26A4 are not important factors in NSEVA. However, it would be premature to conclude that CNVs have no role in EVA. Genome-wide studies to explore CNVs within non-coding regions of the SLC26A4 gene and neighboring regions are warranted, to elucidate their roles in NSEVA etiology.

  14. Group Psychotherapy in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Lars Bo; Thygesen, Bente; Aagaard, Søren

    2015-10-01

    This is a short article on the history and training standards in the Institute of Group Analysis in Copenhagen (IGA-CPH). We describe theoretical orientations and influences in the long-term training program and new initiatives, like courses in mentalization-based group treatment and a dynamic short-term group therapy course, as well as research in group psychotherapy in Denmark. Some group analytic initiatives in relation to social issues and social welfare are presented, as well as initiatives concerning the school system and unemployment.

  15. Group theory I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Milewski, Emil G

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Group Theory I includes sets and mapping, groupoids and semi-groups, groups, isomorphisms and homomorphisms, cyclic groups, the Sylow theorems, and finite p-groups.

  16. Effects of differential rates of alternative reinforcement on resurgence of human behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brooke M; Smith, Gregory S; Shahan, Timothy A; Madden, Gregory J; Twohig, Michael P

    2017-01-01

    Despite the success of exposure-based psychotherapies in anxiety treatment, relapse remains problematic. Resurgence, the return of previously eliminated behavior following the elimination of an alternative source of reinforcement, is a promising model of operant relapse. Nonhuman resurgence research has shown that higher rates of alternative reinforcement result in faster, more comprehensive suppression of target behavior, but also in greater resurgence when alternative reinforcement is eliminated. This study investigated rich and lean rates of alternative reinforcement on response suppression and resurgence in typically developing humans. In Phase 1, three groups (Rich, n = 18; Lean, n = 18; Control, n = 10) acquired the target response. In Phase 2, target responding was extinguished and alternative reinforcement delivered on RI 1 s, RI 3 s, and extinction schedules, respectively. Resurgence was assessed during Phase 3 under extinction conditions for all groups. Target responding was suppressed most thoroughly in Rich and partially in Lean. Target responding resurged in the Rich and Lean groups, but not in the Control group. Between groups, resurgence was more pronounced in the Rich group than the Lean and Control groups. Clinical implications of these findings, including care on the part of clinicians when identifying alternative sources of reinforcement, are discussed. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  17. 'DIAMANT': A 4 π light charged particle detector array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheurer, J.N.; Aleonard, M.M.; Barreau, G.; Bourgine, F.; Chemin, J.F.; Doan, T.P.; Sellam, D.

    1993-01-01

    4π γ-spectrometers allow precise determination of weak transitions. A 4π light charged particle detector array of 54 detectors called DIAMANT is described as applied for triggering γ-spectrometers. The multidetector system allows channel selection, increases the sensitivity of the spectrometer, and can give additional information on the exit channel and the path leading to the final nucleus studied by its γ emission. The characteristics and first measured performance of the DIAMANT multidetector array are presented. (R.P.) 2 refs

  18. Alternative testing methodologies for ecotoxicity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Walker, C.; Kaiser, K.; Klein, W.; Lagadic, L.; Peakall, D.; Sheffield, S.; Soldán, Tomáš; Yasuno, M.

    1998-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 2 (1998), s. 441-451 ISSN 0091-6765. [Meeting of the scientific group on methodologies for the safety evaluation of chemicals (SGOMSEC) /13./. Ispra, 26.01.1997-31.01.1997] Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection Impact factor: 2.268, year: 1998

  19. Alternative Education Spaces in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Chloe

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the architecture of the Red de Innovacion y Aprendizaje (RIA), or Learning and Innovation Network, which is a group of education centres that provide access to computers, the Internet and quality education to low-income communities in Mexico. The RIA began in May 2009 when ten pilot centres were opened in four municipalities…

  20. Hawaiian Tourism: Costs, Benefits, Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, John S.

    1975-01-01

    Hawaiian tourism has greatly increased in the past ten years. With this increase, the island has been economically developed to attract and accommodate tourists. Now, citizen groups are becoming aware of the environmental costs of this business and are asking for a tourist reduction to save their natural resources. (MA)

  1. Learning the Functional Groups: Keys to Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Shannon; Hildreth, David P.

    2001-10-01

    Teaching functional groups to high school and college chemistry students is often accomplished by having students memorize the functional groups from a table. Using this approach, students typically forget what they have memorized shortly after the examination and fail to transfer the memorized material to other topics in chemistry such as nomenclature, VSEPR theory, and chemical reactions. This method is frustrating for both the teacher and the students. To facilitate the learning of functional groups and to avoid a strictly memorization approach, we developed a classification key based on discernible characteristics that students can identify and consequently key out. This key can be used by the teacher in a variety of ways: as an introduction, a review, or a homework assignment. The functional group classification key is well received by students and provides an engaging alternative for teachers to use when introducing functional groups to their classes.

  2. Modeling the Effects of Harvest Alternatives on Mitigating Oak Decline in a Central Hardwood Forest Landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen J Wang

    Full Text Available Oak decline is a process induced by complex interactions of predisposing factors, inciting factors, and contributing factors operating at tree, stand, and landscape scales. It has greatly altered species composition and stand structure in affected areas. Thinning, clearcutting, and group selection are widely adopted harvest alternatives for reducing forest vulnerability to oak decline by removing susceptible species and declining trees. However, the long-term, landscape-scale effects of these different harvest alternatives are not well studied because of the limited availability of experimental data. In this study, we applied a forest landscape model in combination with field studies to evaluate the effects of the three harvest alternatives on mitigating oak decline in a Central Hardwood Forest landscape. Results showed that the potential oak decline in high risk sites decreased strongly in the next five decades irrespective of harvest alternatives. This is because oak decline is a natural process and forest succession (e.g., high tree mortality resulting from intense competition would eventually lead to the decrease in oak decline in this area. However, forest harvesting did play a role in mitigating oak decline and the effectiveness varied among the three harvest alternatives. The group selection and clearcutting alternatives were most effective in mitigating oak decline in the short and medium terms, respectively. The long-term effects of the three harvest alternatives on mitigating oak decline became less discernible as the role of succession increased. The thinning alternative had the highest biomass retention over time, followed by the group selection and clearcutting alternatives. The group selection alternative that balanced treatment effects and retaining biomass was the most viable alternative for managing oak decline. Insights from this study may be useful in developing effective and informed forest harvesting plans for managing oak

  3. Lectures on Chevalley groups

    CERN Document Server

    Steinberg, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Robert Steinberg's Lectures on Chevalley Groups were delivered and written during the author's sabbatical visit to Yale University in the 1967-1968 academic year. The work presents the status of the theory of Chevalley groups as it was in the mid-1960s. Much of this material was instrumental in many areas of mathematics, in particular in the theory of algebraic groups and in the subsequent classification of finite groups. This posthumous edition incorporates additions and corrections prepared by the author during his retirement, including a new introductory chapter. A bibliography and editorial notes have also been added. This is a great unsurpassed introduction to the subject of Chevalley groups that influenced generations of mathematicians. I would recommend it to anybody whose interests include group theory. -Efim Zelmanov, University of California, San Diego Robert Steinberg's lectures on Chevalley groups were given at Yale University in 1967. The notes for the lectures contain a wonderful exposition of ...

  4. E-groups training

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2012-01-01

    There will be an e-groups training course on 16 March 2012 which will cover the main e-groups functionalities i.e.: creating and managing e-groups, difference between static and dynamic e-groups, configuring posting restrictions and archives, examples of where e-groups can be used in daily work. Even if you have already worked with e-groups, this may be a good opportunity to learn about the best practices and security related recommendations when using e-groups. You can find more details as well as enrolment form for the training (it’s free) here. The number of places is limited, so enrolling early is recommended.   Technical Training Tel. 72844

  5. Alternative Water Processor Test Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Karen D.; Mitchell, Julie L.; Adam, Niklas M.; Barta, Daniel; Meyer, Caitlin E.; Pensinger, Stuart; Vega, Leticia M.; Callahan, Michael R.; Flynn, Michael; Wheeler, Ray; hide

    2013-01-01

    The Next Generation Life Support Project is developing an Alternative Water Processor (AWP) as a candidate water recovery system for long duration exploration missions. The AWP consists of biological water processor (BWP) integrated with a forward osmosis secondary treatment system (FOST). The basis of the BWP is a membrane aerated biological reactor (MABR), developed in concert with Texas Tech University. Bacteria located within the MABR metabolize organic material in wastewater, converting approximately 90% of the total organic carbon to carbon dioxide. In addition, bacteria convert a portion of the ammonia-nitrogen present in the wastewater to nitrogen gas, through a combination of nitrification and denitrification. The effluent from the BWP system is low in organic contaminants, but high in total dissolved solids. The FOST system, integrated downstream of the BWP, removes dissolved solids through a combination of concentration-driven forward osmosis and pressure driven reverse osmosis. The integrated system is expected to produce water with a total organic carbon less than 50 mg/l and dissolved solids that meet potable water requirements for spaceflight. This paper describes the test definition, the design of the BWP and FOST subsystems, and plans for integrated testing.

  6. Alternative Water Processor Test Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Karen D.; Mitchell, Julie; Vega, Leticia; Adam, Niklas; Flynn, Michael; Wjee (er. Rau); Lunn, Griffin; Jackson, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The Next Generation Life Support Project is developing an Alternative Water Processor (AWP) as a candidate water recovery system for long duration exploration missions. The AWP consists of biological water processor (BWP) integrated with a forward osmosis secondary treatment system (FOST). The basis of the BWP is a membrane aerated biological reactor (MABR), developed in concert with Texas Tech University. Bacteria located within the MABR metabolize organic material in wastewater, converting approximately 90% of the total organic carbon to carbon dioxide. In addition, bacteria convert a portion of the ammonia-nitrogen present in the wastewater to nitrogen gas, through a combination of nitrogen and denitrification. The effluent from the BWP system is low in organic contaminants, but high in total dissolved solids. The FOST system, integrated downstream of the BWP, removes dissolved solids through a combination of concentration-driven forward osmosis and pressure driven reverse osmosis. The integrated system is expected to produce water with a total organic carbon less than 50 mg/l and dissolved solids that meet potable water requirements for spaceflight. This paper describes the test definition, the design of the BWP and FOST subsystems, and plans for integrated testing.

  7. Alternative Modernities for Colonial Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sunyoung Park. The Proletarian Wave: Literature and Leftist Culture in Colonial Korea, 1910–1945. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2015. 348 pp. $50 (cloth. Vladimir Tikhonov. Modern Korea and Its Others: Perceptions of the Neighbouring Countries and Korean Modernity. London: Routledge, 2016. 218 pp. $160 (cloth. It has become a global scholarly undertaking: how to rethink modernity so as to decouple it from Westernization (Chakrabarty 2000. Strategies have included foregrounding the plurality of history to disrupt linear progress; positing non-Western centers of modernity in, say, Moscow or Shanghai; and tracing anticolonial circuits connecting Asia to Africa to Latin America. The two recent books under review here add colonial-era Korea to such far-reaching discussions by situating the country across national boundaries. Interestingly, one connecting thread here is the alternative world system provided by the interwar, Soviet-oriented Left. The result is an unsettling of binaries that subsequently became entrenched during the Cold War: for example, north-south, socialist-nationalist, and, for literature, realist-modernist. But more broadly, pervading both books is the sense that history could have turned out differently—that revisiting northeast Asia’s porous borders in the early twentieth century reveals the Korean peninsula’s lost, internationalist potential...

  8. Alternative Energy for Higher Education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Cherney, PhD

    2012-02-22

    This project provides educational opportunities creating both a teaching facility and center for public outreach. The facility is the largest solar array in Nebraska. It was designed to allow students to experience a variety of technologies and provide the public with opportunities for exposure to the implementation of an alternative energy installation designed for an urban setting. The project integrates products from 5 panel manufacturers (including monocrystalline, polycrystalline and thin film technologies) mounted on both fixed and tracking structures. The facility uses both micro and high power inverters. The majority of the system was constructed to serve as an outdoor classroom where panels can be monitored, tested, removed and replaced by students. As an educational facility it primarily serves students in the Creighton University and Metropolitan Community College, but it also provides broader educational opportunities. The project includes a real-time dashboard and a historical database of the output of individual inverters and the corresponding meteorological data for researcher and student use. This allows the evaluation of both panel types and the feasibility of installation types in a region of the country subject to significant temperature, wind and precipitation variation.

  9. British Columbia : an alternative design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostergaard, P.

    2003-01-01

    This PowerPoint presentation outlined the British Columbia Ministry of Energy and Mines' approach to the electricity market. A brief overview of the electric system in the province was provided, examining capacity (primarily hydro based) and the utility sector with its public ownership. In British Columbia, 80 per cent of the electricity is generated by British Columbia Hydro (BC Hydro). The rates are based on cost of service. British Columbia's market is western North America. A comparison of monthly bills for several large cities, both Canadian and American, was displayed. The market reviews conducted in 1995, 1998, and 2002 were reviewed and the major recommendations discussed. The author identified the opportunities in the province, discussing natural gas and coal for electricity production, resource potential, demand, and private sector capacity. The challenges facing the province are: cost effective development of resources to meet energy demand; aging infrastructure, high reliability requirements and economic growth; evolving electricity market structure in the United States; and, monopoly. The transmission system was reviewed with reference to trade with the Pacific Northwest, flexibility and storage. The energy plan objectives for the future were presented, including low rates and public ownership, secure and reliable supply, more private sector opportunities, and environmental responsibility. The alternative market structure includes regulated market characteristics, access to trade, and customer focus. figs

  10. Telomere elongation chooses TERRA ALTernatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Rajika; Azzalin, Claus M

    2015-01-01

    Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) mechanisms allow telomerase-negative immortal cells to buffer replicative telomere shortening. ALT is naturally active in a number of human cancers and might be selected upon telomerase inactivation. ALT is thought to operate through homologous recombination (HR) occurring between telomeric repeats from independent chromosome ends. Indeed, suppression of a number of HR factors impairs ALT cell proliferation. Yet, how HR is initiated at ALT telomeres remains elusive. Mounting evidence suggests that the long noncoding telomeric RNA TERRA renders ALT telomeres recombinogenic by forming RNA:DNA hybrids with the telomeric C-rich strand. TERRA and telomeric hybrids act in concert with a number of other factors, including the RNA endoribonuclease RNaseH1 and the single stranded DNA binding protein RPA. The functional interaction network built upon these different players seems indispensable for ALT telomere maintenance, and digging into the molecular details of this previously unappreciated network might open the way to novel avenues for cancer treatments.

  11. Tao et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2015) 12(1):52-56 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cadewumi

    Tao et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2015) 12(1):52-56 .... After treated with CCl4 for 4 hrr, low dose group, middle dose group and high dose group were feed with different concentration of cassava leaf flavonoid extracts. .... Weights of cassava leaf flavonoid extracts feeding mice were slightly heavier(p ...

  12. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This report presents the first compilation by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of information on alternatives to gasoline and diesel fuel. The purpose of the report is: (1) to provide background information on alternative transportation fuels and replacement fuels compared with gasoline and diesel fuel, and (2) to furnish preliminary estimates of alternative transportation fuels and alternative fueled vehicles as required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), Title V, Section 503, ``Replacement Fuel Demand Estimates and Supply Information.`` Specifically, Section 503 requires the EIA to report annually on: (1) the number and type of alternative fueled vehicles in existence the previous year and expected to be in use the following year, (2) the geographic distribution of these vehicles, (3) the amounts and types of replacement fuels consumed, and (4) the greenhouse gas emissions likely to result from replacement fuel use. Alternative fueled vehicles are defined in this report as motorized vehicles licensed for on-road use, which may consume alternative transportation fuels. (Alternative fueled vehicles may use either an alternative transportation fuel or a replacement fuel.) The intended audience for the first section of this report includes the Secretary of Energy, the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the automobile manufacturing industry, the transportation fuel manufacturing and distribution industries, and the general public. The second section is designed primarily for persons desiring a more technical explanation of and background for the issues surrounding alternative transportation fuels.

  13. Alternatives to animal experimentation in basic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Franz P; Hartung, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    methods, even if published in the scientific literature, are little standardised and reproducible. The suggestion is put forward that publicly accessible databases should make available more detailed descriptions of methodologies. Due to limitations in space, many scientific journals cannot publish detailed methodological descriptions. However, nowadays a supplementary central deposit of methods could easily be linked to the respective article. In numerous cases though, there is simply a lack of will to change procedures to methods without animal tests or to pose questions differently in order to avoid the use of animals or to reduce their number or, at least, to reduce stress. In other cases, researchers are simply not aware of the limitations of the animal experiment as such. A thorough review of the validity of critical animal experiments should be carried out and made available publicly. For example, many animal experiments are dramatically "under-powered", i.e. carried out with groups that are too small to allow conclusions to be drawn from the outcome. This stands in marked contrast to in vitro experiments where replicate experiments usually represent no major problem. Since in vitro models are generally more prone to artefacts due to the numerous variables, e.g. of cell culture, the key requirement for their application is their validation and quality control. Guided by the experience from validation studies for alternative methods in toxicology, concepts of a Good Cell Culture Practice (GCCP) are currently being developed which aim to define minimum quality standards for in vitro techniques. This initiative aiming to increase quality must be complemented by a concept to systematically assess the relevance of the tests in order to finally achieve an evidence-based biomedical research. A change in this direction is only possible if those public funds, which were previously assigned predominantly to alternatives to the animal tests required by law, are now channelled

  14. Usefulness of the preoperative administration of tegafur suppositories as alternative adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with resectable stage II or III colorectal cancer: a KODK4 multicenter randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabayashi, Koji; Hasegawa, Hirotoshi; Watanabe, Masahiko; Ohishi, Takashi; Hisa, Akio; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and conferred protection against recurrence of preoperatively administered tegafur suppositories following the intravenous and oral administration of fluoropyrimidine in a multicenter randomized control trial. Patients with clinical T3/4 colorectal cancer were randomly assigned to receive the preoperative administration of tegafur suppositories (group A) or no preoperative treatment (group B). The primary end points were disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). The mean follow-up periods were 80.9 ± 31.0 months in group A and 64.5 ± 28.8 months in group B. The 5-year DFS rates were 89.3% in group A and 70.3% in group B (p = 0.045), whereas the 5-year OS rates were 91.4% in group A and 73.2% in group B (p = 0.051). Furthermore, a significant difference in the cumulative distant metastatic rate was observed (group A, 7.4% vs. group B, 23.4%; p = 0.03). However, no significant difference in the cumulative local recurrence rate was seen (group A, 4.6% vs. group B, 8.2%; p = 0.68). Despite a relatively small sample size, preoperative tegafur suppositories might protect recurrences and improve survival rates, mainly by preventing distant metastasis. These findings suggest the utility of tegafur suppositories as an alternative neoadjuvant treatment in modern chemotherapy for colorectal cancer. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Group Decisions in Value Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiono Utomo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This research deals with a technique to expedite group decision making during the selection of technical solutions for value management process. Selection of a solution from a set of alternatives is facilitated by evaluating using multicriteria decision making techniques. During the process, every possible solution is rated on criteria of function and cost. Function deals more with quality than with quantity, and cost can be calculated based on the theoretical time value of money. Decision-making techniques based on satisfying games are applied to determine the relative function and cost of solutions and hence their relative value. The functions were determined by function analysis system technique. Analytical hierarchy process was applied to decision making and life-cycle cost analysis were used to calculate cost. Cooperative decision making was shown to consist of identifying agreement options, analyzing, and forming coalitions. The objective was attained using the satisfying game model as a basis for two main preferences. The model will improve the value of decision regarding design. It further emphasizes the importance of performance evaluation in the design process and value analysis. The result of the implementation, when applied to the selection of a building wall system, demonstrates a process of selecting the most valuable technical solution as the best-fit option for all decision makers. This work is relevant to group decision making and negotiation, as it aims to provide a framework to support negotiation in design activity.

  16. Lipoxin A4 Preconditioning and Postconditioning Protect Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qifeng Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the pre- and postconditioning effects of lipoxin A4 (LXA4 on myocardial damage caused by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury. Seventy-two rats were divided into 6 groups: sham groups (C1 and C2, I/R groups (I/R1 and I/R2, and I/R plus LXA4 preconditioning and postconditioning groups (LX1 and LX2. The serum levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, and cardiac troponin I (cTnI were measured. The content and the activity of Na+-K+-ATPase as well as the superoxide dismutase (SOD, and malondialdehyde (MDA levels were determined. Along with the examination of myocardium ultrastructure and ventricular arrhythmia scores (VAS, connexin 43 (Cx43 expression were also detected. Lower levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, cTnI, MDA content, and VAS and higher levels of IL-10, SOD activity, Na+-K+-ATPase content and activity, and Cx43 expression appeared in LX groups than I/R groups. Besides, H&E staining, TEM examination as well as analysis of gene, and protein confirmed that LXA4 preconditioning was more effective than postconditioning in preventing arrhythmogenesis via the upregulation of Cx43. That is, LXA4 postconditioning had better protective effect on Na+-K+-ATPase and myocardial ultrastructure.

  17. RAGE mediates S100A4-induced cell motility via MAPK/ERK and hypoxia signaling and is a prognostic biomarker for human colorectal cancer metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlmann, Mathias; Okhrimenko, Anna; Marcinkowski, Patrick; Osterland, Marc; Herrmann, Pia; Smith, Janice; Heizmann, Claus W.; Schlag, Peter M.; Stein, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    Survival of colorectal cancer patients is strongly dependent on development of distant metastases. S100A4 is a prognostic biomarker and inducer for colorectal cancer metastasis. Besides exerting intracellular functions, S100A4 is secreted extracellularly. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is one of its interaction partners. The impact of the S100A4-RAGE interaction for cell motility and metastasis formation in colorectal cancer has not been elucidated so far. Here we demonstrate the RAGE-dependent increase in migratory and invasive capabilities of colorectal cancer cells via binding to extracellular S100A4. We show the direct interaction of S100A4 and RAGE, leading to hyperactivated MAPK/ERK and hypoxia signaling. The S100A4-RAGE axis increased cell migration (PRAGE and RAGE-specific antibodies. In colorectal cancer patients, not distantly metastasized at surgery, high RAGE expression in primary tumors correlated with metachronous metastasis, reduced overall (P=0.022) and metastasis-free survival (P=0.021). In summary, interaction of S100A4-RAGE mediates S100A4-induced colorectal cancer cell motility. RAGE by itself represents a biomarker for prognosis of colorectal cancer. Thus, therapeutic approaches targeting RAGE or intervening in S100A4-RAGE-dependent signaling early in tumor progression might represent alternative strategies restricting S100A4-induced colorectal cancer metastasis. PMID:24952599

  18. Ash Properties of Alternative Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capablo, Joaquin; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Pedersen, Kim Hougaard

    2009-01-01

    analysis into three main groups depending upon their ash content of silica, alkali metal, and calcium and magnesium. To further detail the biomass classification, the relative molar ratio of Cl, S, and P to alkali were included. The study has led to knowledge on biomass fuel ash composition influence...... on ash transformation, ash deposit flux, and deposit chlorine content when biomass fuels are applied for suspension combustion....

  19. Geometric group theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bestvina, Mladen; Vogtmann, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Geometric group theory refers to the study of discrete groups using tools from topology, geometry, dynamics and analysis. The field is evolving very rapidly and the present volume provides an introduction to and overview of various topics which have played critical roles in this evolution. The book contains lecture notes from courses given at the Park City Math Institute on Geometric Group Theory. The institute consists of a set of intensive short courses offered by leaders in the field, designed to introduce students to exciting, current research in mathematics. These lectures do not duplicate standard courses available elsewhere. The courses begin at an introductory level suitable for graduate students and lead up to currently active topics of research. The articles in this volume include introductions to CAT(0) cube complexes and groups, to modern small cancellation theory, to isometry groups of general CAT(0) spaces, and a discussion of nilpotent genus in the context of mapping class groups and CAT(0) gro...

  20. Blood groups systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranadhir Mitra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available International Society of Blood Transfusion has recently recognized 33 blood group systems. Apart from ABO and Rhesus system, many other types of antigens have been noticed on the red cell membranes. Blood grouping and cross-matching is one of the few important tests that the anaesthesiologist orders during perioperative period. Hence, a proper understanding of the blood group system, their clinical significance, typing and cross-matching tests, and current perspective are of paramount importance to prevent transfusion-related complications. Nonetheless, the knowledge on blood group system is necessary to approach blood group-linked diseases which are still at the stage of research. This review addresses all these aspects of the blood groups system.

  1. N-Heterocyclic Carbene Capture by Cytochrome P450 3A4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Gareth K.; Ritchie, Caroline M.; Shock, Lisa S.; Lyons, Charles E.

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) is the dominant P450 enzyme involved in human drug metabolism, and its inhibition may result in adverse interactions or, conversely, favorably reduce the systemic elimination rates of poorly bioavailable drugs. Herein we describe a spectroscopic investigation of the interaction of CYP3A4 with N-methylritonavir, an analog of ritonavir, widely used as a pharmacoenhancer. In contrast to ritonavir, the binding affinity of N-methylritonavir for CYP3A4 is pH-dependent. At pH UV-visible spectroscopy binding studies with molecular fragments narrows the source of this pH dependence to its N-methylthiazolium fragment. The C2 proton of this group is acidic, and variable-pH resonance Raman spectroscopy tentatively assigns it a pKa of 7.4. Hence, this fragment of N-methylritonavir is expected to be readily deprotonated under physiologic conditions to yield a thiazol-2-ylidene, which is an N-heterocyclic carbene that has high-affinity for and is presumed to be subsequently captured by the heme iron. This mechanism is supported by time-dependent density functional theory with an active site model that accurately reproduces distinguishing features of the experimental UV-visible spectra of N-methylritonavir bound to CYP3A4. Finally, density functional theory calculations support that this novel interaction is as strong as the tightest-binding azaheterocycles found in P450 inhibitors and could offer new avenues for inhibitor development. PMID:27126611

  2. CLASSIFICATION OF CRIMINAL GROUPS

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Romanova

    2013-01-01

    New types of criminal groups are emerging in modern society.  These types have their special criminal subculture. The research objective is to develop new parameters of classification of modern criminal groups, create a new typology of criminal groups and identify some features of their subculture. Research methodology is based on the system approach that includes using the method of analysis of documentary sources (materials of a criminal case), method of conversations with themembers of the...

  3. Presentations of groups

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, D L

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this book is to provide an introduction to combinatorial group theory. Any reader who has completed first courses in linear algebra, group theory and ring theory will find this book accessible. The emphasis is on computational techniques but rigorous proofs of all theorems are supplied. This new edition has been revised throughout, including new exercises and an additional chapter on proving that certain groups are infinite.

  4. What's your group worth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, M R

    1986-01-01

    With the advent of acquisitions and mergers of healthcare organizations, it has become necessary for medical group practices to know what they are worth. The traditional balance sheet valuation ignores what is perhaps the most important consideration of all: a group's earning potential. Discussed in this article are the many facets of the complex valuation process, including both tangible and intangible assets, and the author provides a method for adequately determining a range of values for a medical group.

  5. The maximal acceleration group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, H.E.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of the maximal proper acceleration relative to the vacuum, a line element and differential geometry of eight-dimensional phase space are constructed. The maximal acceleration group is defined as the mathematical transformation group under which the eight dimensional line element is invariant. In the classical limit of vanishing Planck's constant, the maximal acceleration group and geometry reduce to those of general relativity

  6. Display Sharing: An Alternative Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    The current Johnson Space Center (JSC) Mission Control Center (MCC) Video Transport System (VTS) provides flight controllers and management the ability to meld raw video from various sources with telemetry to improve situational awareness. However, maintaining a separate infrastructure for video delivery and integration of video content with data adds significant complexity and cost to the system. When considering alternative architectures for a VTS, the current system's ability to share specific computer displays in their entirety to other locations, such as large projector systems, flight control rooms, and back supporting rooms throughout the facilities and centers must be incorporated into any new architecture. Internet Protocol (IP)-based systems also support video delivery and integration. IP-based systems generally have an advantage in terms of cost and maintainability. Although IP-based systems are versatile, the task of sharing a computer display from one workstation to another can be time consuming for an end-user and inconvenient to administer at a system level. The objective of this paper is to present a prototype display sharing enterprise solution. Display sharing is a system which delivers image sharing across the LAN while simultaneously managing bandwidth, supporting encryption, enabling recovery and resynchronization following a loss of signal, and, minimizing latency. Additional critical elements will include image scaling support, multi -sharing, ease of initial integration and configuration, integration with desktop window managers, collaboration tools, host and recipient controls. This goal of this paper is to summarize the various elements of an IP-based display sharing system that can be used in today's control center environment.

  7. Preservice Elementary Teachers’ Alternative Conceptions of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isil Koc

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the extent to which preservice elementary teachers held alternative conceptions in fundemental elementary science concepts. Eighty-six preservice elementary teachers participated in this study. Twelve preservice elementary teachers participated in follow-up interviews. Data were collected through the use of Alternative Conceptions in Science Instrument (Schoon, & Boone, 1998, a participant information form, and utilization of interviews. The results indicated that the majority of preservice elementary teachers (67.4% held a number of alternative conceptions with mostly in the physical science. Various sources of alternative conceptions emerged during the interviews. Findings from the study also confirmed that science courses completed do not seem to have influenced participants’ alternative conceptions. Overall, the results of the study suggest that more consideration be given to identifying and modifying of the alternative conceptions of science so that teachers could better help their own students arriving at more accurate conceptions.

  8. Study Groups in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1998 European Study Groups have been held in Denmark, and Danish companies from LEGO and NOVO to very small high-tech firms have participated. I briefly describe the history, the organisation and the format of the Danish Study Groups, and highlight a few problem solutions.......Since 1998 European Study Groups have been held in Denmark, and Danish companies from LEGO and NOVO to very small high-tech firms have participated. I briefly describe the history, the organisation and the format of the Danish Study Groups, and highlight a few problem solutions....

  9. Explosive Technology Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Explosive Technology Group (ETG) provides diverse technical expertise and an agile, integrated approach to solve complex challenges for all classes of energetic...

  10. The normal holonomy group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmos, C.

    1990-05-01

    The restricted holonomy group of a Riemannian manifold is a compact Lie group and its representation on the tangent space is a product of irreducible representations and a trivial one. Each one of the non-trivial factors is either an orthogonal representation of a connected compact Lie group which acts transitively on the unit sphere or it is the isotropy representation of a single Riemannian symmetric space of rank ≥ 2. We prove that, all these properties are also true for the representation on the normal space of the restricted normal holonomy group of any submanifold of a space of constant curvature. 4 refs

  11. Lie groups for pedestrians

    CERN Document Server

    Lipkin, Harry J

    2002-01-01

    According to the author of this concise, high-level study, physicists often shy away from group theory, perhaps because they are unsure which parts of the subject belong to the physicist and which belong to the mathematician. However, it is possible for physicists to understand and use many techniques which have a group theoretical basis without necessarily understanding all of group theory. This book is designed to familiarize physicists with those techniques. Specifically, the author aims to show how the well-known methods of angular momentum algebra can be extended to treat other Lie group

  12. Environmental groups in politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, P.; Goyder, J.

    1983-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction; (Part I) the environmental movement (environmental groups and the attentive public; the episodic development of the environmental movement; the underlying values of environmentalism; the roots of environmental concern; the social limits to growth; elite manipulation of values); the organisation of environmental groups; environmental groups in national politics; environmental groups in local politics; (Part II) the Henley Society; Friends of the Earth; the National Trust; the Royal Society for Nature Conservation; the European Environmental Bureau. (U.K.)

  13. NRC inspection alternatives. A study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conver, S.K.; Legasey, E.E.; LeDoux, J.C.; Rehfuss, C.

    1977-04-01

    IE's efforts in pursuing various resident inspection concepts are consistent with the stated interests of the new Administration in improving federal oversight of the nuclear industry. Four alternative resident inspection concepts are described and evaluated vis-a-vis the current program. The concept of full-time onsite inspectors as a preferred alternative is discussed. The tasks necessary to implement this preferred alternative are described

  14. Environmental tradeoffs between CFCs and alternative refrigerants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, G.J.; Manwell, S.P.

    1992-01-01

    In 1987, an international group of scientists and government officials established the Montreal Protocol, an agreement to control the use and release of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and to schedule a timeline for eliminating their production. This agreement is a historic step in the ongoing process of building consensus regarding environmental impacts of CFCs. This paper reports on the Montreal Protocol and provisions of the 1990 Clean Air Act which specify schedules for phasing out CFC production. For either schedule, all CFCs are to be eliminated from production by the year 2000. In addition, the hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) are likely to face similar restrictions, but probably not for another 25 years. An aggressive tax on CFCs accompanies the phase-out schedule. This tax applies to existing supplier floorstock as well as new production. The results of taxes and regulations are that CFCs users must pay a premium price and may face availability problems. The users of CFC-based air conditioning and refrigeration equipment will have to consider their options and, eventually, will have to install alternative refrigerants or systems

  15. Indigofera suffruticosa: An Alternative Anticancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeymesson Raphael Cardoso Vieira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Indigofera suffruticosa Mill (Fabeceae occurs in the Northeast countryside and has intensive popular use in the treatment of infectious, inflammatory and other processes. The main aim of the present work was to investigate the cytotoxic and antitumor effects of aqueous extracts of leaves of I. suffruticosa obtained by infusion and maceration as well as to evaluate the toxicological properties. Aqueous extracts did not exhibit cytotoxicity against HEp-2 (human epidermoid cancer cell cell lines by MTT method. From the aqueous extract by infusion, the toxicological assay showed low order of toxicity. The antitumor effect of aqueous extracts by infusion (64.53% and maceration (62.62% against sarcoma 180 in mice at a dose of 50 mg kg−1 (intraperitoneally, based on low order of toxicity was comparable to the control group, which showed 100% development. Considering the low order of toxicity and that it is highly effective in inhibiting growth of solid tumors, the aqueous extracts of leaves of I. suffruticosa may be used as an alternative anticancer agent.

  16. Organising evidence for environmental management decisions: a '4S' hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicks, Lynn V; Walsh, Jessica C; Sutherland, William J

    2014-11-01

    Making decisions informed by the best-available science is an objective for many organisations managing the environment or natural resources. Yet, available science is still not widely used in environmental policy and practice. We describe a '4S' hierarchy for organising relevant science to inform decisions. This hierarchy has already revolutionised clinical practice. It is beginning to emerge for environmental management, although all four levels need substantial development before environmental decision-makers can reliably and efficiently find the evidence they need. We expose common bypass routes that currently lead to poor or biased representation of scientific knowledge. We argue that the least developed level of the hierarchy is that closest to decision-makers, placing synthesised scientific knowledge into environmental decision support systems. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Trajectory grouping structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maike Buchin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The collective motion of a set of moving entities like people, birds, or other animals, is characterized by groups arising, merging, splitting, and ending. Given the trajectories of these entities, we define and model a structure that captures all of such changes using the Reeb graph, a concept from topology. The trajectory grouping structure has three natural parameters that allow more global views of the data in group size, group duration, and entity inter-distance. We prove complexity bounds on the maximum number of maximal groups that can be present, and give algorithms to compute the grouping structure efficiently. We also study how the trajectory grouping structure can be made robust, that is, how brief interruptions of groups can be disregarded in the global structure, adding a notion of persistence to the structure. Furthermore, we showcase the results of experiments using data generated by the NetLogo flocking model and from the Starkey project. The Starkey data describe the movement of elk, deer, and cattle. Although there is no ground truth for the grouping structure in this data, the experiments show that the trajectory grouping structure is plausible and has the desired effects when changing the essential parameters. Our research provides the first complete study of trajectory group evolvement, including combinatorial,algorithmic, and experimental results.

  18. Complementary and Alternative Therapies in ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedlack, Richard S.; Joyce, Nanette; Carter, Gregory T.; Pagononi, Sabrina; Karam, Chafic

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Given the severity of their illness and lack of effective disease modifying agents, it is not surprising that most patients with ALS consider trying complementary and alternative therapies. Some of the most commonly considered alternative therapies include special diets, nutritional supplements, cannabis, acupuncture, chelation and energy healing. This chapter reviews these in detail. We also describe 3 models by which physicians may frame discussions about alternative therapies: paternalism, autonomy and shared decision making. Finally, we review a program called ALSUntangled which using shared shared decision making to review alternative therapies for ALS. PMID:26515629

  19. Non-Gasoline Alternative Fueling Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Through a nationwide network of local coalitions, Clean Citiesprovides project assistance to help stakeholders in the public and private sectors deploy alternative...

  20. Alternative fuels and power systems: an introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, P. [Monash Univ., Caulfield Campus, Dep. of Mechanical Engineering, Caulfiled East (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Alternatives to the petroleum-fueled combustion engine have only prospered when concerns about oil availability were high. No single alternative has recommended itself as an obvious solution for all countries, since different countries may not only rank the problems differently, but vary in resources on which to base alternatives. Further, both resources and environmental priorities may change over time, as for example, air pollution has replaced oil availability as the major problem. It is thus clear from a global viewpoint, a wide range of alternatives will need to be investigated, some for immediate or near future application, others as long-term possibilities. (author) refs.

  1. Alternative Fuel News, Vol. 2, No. 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NREL

    1999-05-20

    What's in store for alternative Fuels and advanced technology vehicles in the new millennium? The Clean Cities Coalitions now operate more than 240,000 alternative fuel vehicles in both public and private sectors and have access to more than 4,000 alternative refueling stations. DOE recently announced the selection of 15 proposals that will receive just under $1.7 million in financial assistance to help expand DOE's information dissemination and public outreach efforts for alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies.

  2. Alternatives - talk about energy differently. Radioactive waste a societal issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    ''Alternatives'' is an information magazine proposed by the Areva Group, a world nuclear energy leader. It is devoted to the public information on topics of the Group activities. This issue deals with the fusion technology, the strengths and weaknesses of interconnected networks, the undersea tidal power farms, the danish paradox which has the highest levels of CO 2 emissions despite the use of wind energy, the international community renewed commitment to renewable energy, the hydrogen, the low speed wind turbines and the future miniature fuel cells. A special interest is given to the radioactive wastes management. (A.L.B.)

  3. Combinatorial Group Theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 11. Combinatorial Group Theory Group Theory via Generators and Relations. B Sury. General Article Volume 1 Issue 11 November 1996 pp 42-50. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  4. Beam dynamics group summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peggs, S.

    This paper summarizes the activities of the beam dynamics working group of the LHC Collective Effects Workshop that was held in Montreux in 1994. It reviews the presentations that were made to the group, the discussions that ensued, and the consensuses that evolved.

  5. Quantum isometry groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jyotishman Bhowmick

    2015-11-07

    Nov 7, 2015 ... Lots of examples computed leading to discovery of completely new kinds of quantum groups. Jyotishman Bhowmick (Indian Statistical Institute). Quantum ... on a noncommutative Riemannian manifold ( given by a spectral data ). Jyotishman Bhowmick (Indian Statistical Institute). Quantum isometry groups.

  6. Democratic Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Erik K.; Tate, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    For a century, democratic values have called for abandoning coercive approaches and teaching children and youth to be responsible citizens. The authors explore strategies for creating respectful environments and positive group cultures with challenging youth. They offer suggestions to adult group facilitators to support youth in developing…

  7. Group Work. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Karen

    2010-01-01

    According to Johnson and Johnson, group work helps increase student retention and satisfaction, develops strong oral communication and social skills, as well as higher self-esteem (University of Minnesota, n.d.). Group work, when planned and implemented deliberately and thoughtfully helps students develop cognitive and leadership skills as well as…

  8. Supervision and group dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren; Jensen, Lars Peter

    2004-01-01

     An important aspect of the problem based and project organized study at Aalborg University is the supervision of the project groups. At the basic education (first year) it is stated in the curriculum that part of the supervisors' job is to deal with group dynamics. This is due to the experience...

  9. Analyzing Individual Decision Making Versus Group Decision Making for Alternative Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    35 SDVF Single Dimensional Value Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 ENAER Empresa Nacional de Aeronautica...trainees. These values also branch out to the sub-tier values. In order to familiarize individuals with the terms and expressions, these cri- teria...make it look more understandable for someone who is not familiar with those terms. ”Stability” is placed under ”Flying Quality”. 37 Apparently, when all

  10. Using Simulation to Support Novice Teachers' Classroom Management Skills: Comparing Traditional and Alternative Certification Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankowski, Jennifer; Walker, Joan T.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing from research on situated cognition and the development of expertise and simulations in professional education, we designed two simulation tasks that provided novice teachers with repeated opportunities to deliberately practice managing a classroom under no-fault conditions. The simulations immersed novices in two perennial classroom…

  11. Plant species coalition groups of Zion National Park: An individualistic, floristic alternative to vegetation classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey E. Ott; Stewart C. Sanderson; E. Durant McArthur

    2015-01-01

    Vegetation surveys at Zion National Park (Zion), Utah, have contributed to our understanding of plant community patterns and their relationship to environmental factors. Previous authors used vegetation plot data to characterize vegetation types at Zion following conventional procedures that emphasize spatial discreteness and dominant species. We developed and applied...

  12. 77 FR 17457 - Work Group on Alternative Test Methods for Commercial Measuring Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... and standards (e.g., neck-type volumetric field standards and associated test procedures) widely used by weights and measures officials and service companies to test commercial measuring devices as well... associated meetings is intended to bring together government officials and representatives of business...

  13. Head Start's Impact Is Contingent on Alternative Type of Care in Comparison Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Fuhua; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Waldfogel, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Using data ("n" = 3,790 with 2,119 in the 3-year-old cohort and 1,671 in the 4-year-old cohort) from 353 Head Start centers in the Head Start Impact Study, the only large-scale randomized experiment in Head Start history, this article examined the impact of Head Start on children's cognitive and parent-reported social-behavioral outcomes…

  14. 77 FR 9882 - Arsenic Small Systems Compliance and Alternative Affordability Criteria Working Group; public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... affordability criteria that give extra weight to small, rural, and lower income communities. This meeting will... held via the Internet using a Webcast and teleconference. Registrants will receive an Internet access... affordability criteria that give extra weight to small, rural, and lower income communities. Based upon input...

  15. Cohesion in group therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlingame, Gary M; McClendon, Debra Theobald; Alonso, Jennifer

    2011-03-01

    Cohesion is the most popular of several relationship constructs in the clinical and empirical group therapy literature. This article reviews the most frequently cited definitions and studied measures of group cohesion. We briefly introduce a new measure, the Group Questionnaire, which elucidates group relationships by suggesting two latent factors of cohesion-relationship quality (positive bond, positive work, and negative relationship) and structure factors (member-leader and member-member). To further understand the literature, we conducted a meta-analysis examining the relationship between cohesion and treatment outcome in 40 studies. Results indicate cohesion that the weighted aggregate correlation was statistically significant with outcome r = .25, k (40), N (3,323), z = 6.54 (p cohesion outcome correlation (age, theoretical orientation, length, and size of group, as well as interventions intended to enhance cohesion). Consideration of measures and practices to improve treatment outcome are highlighted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Natural analogue working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Come, B.; Chapman, N.

    1986-01-01

    A Natural Analogue Working Group was established by the Commission of the European Communities in 1985. The purpose of this group is to bring together modellers with earth scientists and others, so that maximum benefit can be obtained from natural analogue studies with a view to safe geological disposal of radioactive waste. The first meeting of this group was held in Brussels from November 5 to 7, 1985. The discussions mainly concerned the identification of the modellers' needs and of the earth scientists' capacity to provide for them. Following the debates, a written statement was produced by the Group; this document forms the core of the present Report. Notes and outlines of many of the presentations made are grouped in four appendixes. The valuable contribution of all those involved in the meeting is gratefully acknowledged

  17. Ordered groups and topology

    CERN Document Server

    Clay, Adam

    2016-01-01

    This book deals with the connections between topology and ordered groups. It begins with a self-contained introduction to orderable groups and from there explores the interactions between orderability and objects in low-dimensional topology, such as knot theory, braid groups, and 3-manifolds, as well as groups of homeomorphisms and other topological structures. The book also addresses recent applications of orderability in the studies of codimension-one foliations and Heegaard-Floer homology. The use of topological methods in proving algebraic results is another feature of the book. The book was written to serve both as a textbook for graduate students, containing many exercises, and as a reference for researchers in topology, algebra, and dynamical systems. A basic background in group theory and topology is the only prerequisite for the reader.

  18. Mirena as an alternative to hysterectomy in cases of Dub

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, S.; Malik, A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Dysfunctional uterine bleeding is the leading cause of hysterectomy due to conventional treatment failure. Levonorgestrel releasing intra uterine device (Mirena) is found to solve this issue by better control of bleeding and thus reducing hysterectomy rate. Objective: To measure the efficacy of Mirena as compared to OCP's in control of DUB and to deter-mine that it is an alternative to hysterectomy. Study Design: It was an interventional (experimental) type of study. Setting: Department of Obstetrics and gynecology Unit 11 Lady Willingdon Hospital, Lahore. Duration with Dates: In a total of 60 patients presenting with DUB in out patient department from 7th April 2004 to 31st December 2005. Subjects and Methods: In a total of 60 patients selected were randomly allocated to Group A and B to receive Mirena and OCP's respectively. Both groups were followed at 6 months and 1 year of treatment. Main outcome measures were patient satisfaction with current treatment and their decision to continue or opt for hysterectomy. 80.7% women receiving Mirena were satisfied with their treatment, while only 30% in the OCP's group (p-value < 0.05) at the end of study. 7.69% was the discontinuation rate of treatment in Mirena group while it was 50% in the control group (p-value < 0.05). Conclusion: Mirena is a better option in the treatment of DUB and it can prove to be an alternative to hysterectomy, while we want a more conservative type of treatment. (author)

  19. Group prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, Sara E; Carter, Ebony B

    2017-06-01

    Patients participating in group prenatal care gather together with women of similar gestational ages and 2 providers who cofacilitate an educational session after a brief medical assessment. The model was first described in the 1990s by a midwife for low-risk patients and is now practiced by midwives and physicians for both low-risk patients and some high-risk patients, such as those with diabetes. The majority of literature on group prenatal care uses CenteringPregnancy, the most popular model. The first randomized controlled trial of CenteringPregnancy showed that it reduced the risk of preterm birth in low-risk women. However, recent meta-analyses have shown similar rates of preterm birth, low birthweight, and neonatal intensive care unit admission between women participating in group prenatal care and individual prenatal care. There may be subgroups, such as African Americans, who benefit from this type of prenatal care with significantly lower rates of preterm birth. Group prenatal care seems to result in increased patient satisfaction and knowledge and use of postpartum family planning as well as improved weight gain parameters. The literature is inconclusive regarding breast-feeding, stress, depression, and positive health behaviors, although it is theorized that group prenatal care positively affects these outcomes. It is unclear whether group prenatal care results in cost savings, although it may in large-volume practices if each group consists of approximately 8-10 women. Group prenatal care requires a significant paradigm shift. It can be difficult to implement and sustain. More randomized trials are needed to ascertain the true benefits of the model, best practices for implementation, and subgroups who may benefit most from this innovative way to provide prenatal care. In short, group prenatal care is an innovative and promising model with comparable pregnancy outcomes to individual prenatal care in the general population and improved outcomes in some

  20. Oxidase uncoupling in heme monooxygenases: Human cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 in Nanodiscs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinkova, Yelena V.; Denisov, Ilia G.; McLean, Mark A. [Departments of Biochemistry and Chemistry, University of Illinois, 505 South Goodwin Avenue (United States); Sligar, Stephen G., E-mail: s-sligar@illinois.edu [Departments of Biochemistry and Chemistry, University of Illinois, 505 South Goodwin Avenue (United States)

    2013-01-25

    Highlights: ► Substantial reducing equivalents are lost in human P450 CYP3A4 via an oxidase channel. ► Substrate binding has a pronounced effect on uncoupling in cytochrome P450. ► Anionic phospholipids improve the overall coupling in CYP3A4 Nanodiscs. -- Abstract: The normal reaction mechanism of cytochrome P450 operates by utilizing two reducing equivalents to reduce atmospheric dioxygen, producing one molecule of water and an oxygenated product in an overall stoichiometry of 2 electrons:1 dioxygen:1 product. However, three alternate unproductive pathways exist where the intermediate iron–oxygen states in the catalytic cycle can yield reduced oxygen products without substrate metabolism. The first involves release of superoxide from the oxygenated intermediate while the second occurs after input of the second reducing equivalent. Superoxide rapidly dismutates and hence both processes produce hydrogen peroxide that can be cytotoxic to the organism. In both cases, the formation of hydrogen peroxide involves the same overall stoichiometry as oxygenases catalysis. The key step in the catalytic cycle of cytochrome P450 involves scission of the oxygen–oxygen bond of atmospheric dioxygen to produce a higher valent iron-oxo state termed “Compound I”. This intermediate initiates a radical reaction in the oxygenase pathway but also can uptake two additional reducing equivalents from reduced pyridine nucleotide (NADPH) and the flavoprotein reductase to produce a second molecule of water. This non-productive decay of Compound I thus yields an overall oxygen to NADPH ratio of 1:2 and does not produce hydrocarbon oxidation. This water uncoupling reaction provides one of a limited means to study the reactivity of the critical Compound I intermediate in P450 catalysis. We measured simultaneously the rates of NADPH and oxygen consumption as a function of substrate concentration during the steady-state hydroxylation of testosterone catalyzed by human P450 CYP3A4