WorldWideScience

Sample records for alternating group a4

  1. An Alternative to Ability Grouping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Carol Ann

    2006-01-01

    Ability grouping is a common approach to dealing with student variance in learning. In general, findings suggest that such an approach to dealing with student differences is disadvantageous to students who struggle in school and advantageous to advanced learners. The concept of differentiation suggests that there is another alternative to…

  2. What Next? Promoting Alternatives to Ability Grouping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelock, Anne; Hawley, Willis D.

    1993-01-01

    Suggests ways to eliminate ability grouping in the schools, and explores new alternatives to improve schooling for all students. Specific guidelines are given for the development of academically and racially heterogeneous schooling. The elimination of grouping practices that deny equal access to education is a goal worth pursuing. (SLD)

  3. Complex group algebras of the double covers of the symmetric and alternating group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bessenrodt, Christine; Nguyen, Hung Ngoc; Olsson, Jørn Børling

    2015-01-01

    We prove that the double covers of the alternating and symmetric groups are determined by their complex group algebras......We prove that the double covers of the alternating and symmetric groups are determined by their complex group algebras...

  4. USD Catalysis Group for Alternative Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoefelmeyer, James D.; Koodali, Ranjit; Sereda, Grigoriy; Engebretson, Dan; Fong, Hao; Puszynski, Jan; Shende, Rajesh; Ahrenkiel, Phil

    2012-03-13

    The South Dakota Catalysis Group (SDCG) is a collaborative project with mission to develop advanced catalysts for energy conversion with two primary goals: (1) develop photocatalytic systems in which polyfunctionalized TiO2 are the basis for hydrogen/oxygen synthesis from water and sunlight (solar fuels group), (2) develop new materials for hydrogen utilization in fuel cells (fuel cell group). In tandem, these technologies complete a closed chemical cycle with zero emissions.

  5. Alternating groups as a quotient of

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Qaiser Mushtaq

    2018-03-19

    Mar 19, 2018 ... Department of Mathematics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur,. Bahawalpur ... Introduction. An extensive part of the existing knowledge of combinatorial group theory is about the ... An important class of discrete subgroups.

  6. Supporting Alternative Strategies for Learning Chemical Applications of Group Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southam, Daniel C.; Lewis, Jennifer E.

    2013-01-01

    A group theory course for chemists was taught entirely with process oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) to facilitate alternative strategies for learning. Students completed a test of one aspect of visuospatial aptitude to determine their individual approaches to solving spatial tasks, and were sorted into groups for analysis on the basis of…

  7. Job sharing as an employment alternative in group medical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanek, E P; Vanek, J A

    2001-01-01

    Although physicians discuss quality-of-life and employment issues with their patients, they often fail to consider flexible scheduling and reduced employment options to lessen their own job stress. We examined one of these options by surveying two community-based, private practice groups with a combined 13-year experience with job sharing. We found that a majority of respondents rated job sharing as successful, and most wanted it to continue. Job sharers derived considerable personal benefit from the arrangement and had significantly more positive attitudes toward work than full-time physicians. Job sharing appeared to have little impact on practice parameters. Dependability, flexibility and willingness to cooperate were the most important attributes in choosing a job-sharing partner. Job sharing is an employment alternative worth exploring to retain physicians in medical group practice.

  8. Alternating chain with Hubbard-type interactions: renormalization group analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzatu, F. D.; Jackeli, G.

    1998-01-01

    A large amount of work has been devoted to the study of alternating chains for a better understanding of the high-T c superconductivity mechanism. The same phenomenon renewed the interest in the Hubbard model and in its one-dimensional extensions. In this work we investigate, using the Renormalization Group (RG) method, the effect of the Hubbard-type interactions on the ground-state properties of a chain with alternating on-site atomic energies. The one-particle Hamiltonian in the tight binding approximation corresponding to an alternating chain with two nonequivalent sites per unit cell can be diagonalized by a canonical transformation; one gets a two band model. The Hubbard-type interactions give rise to both intra- and inter-band couplings; however, if the gap between the two bands is sufficiently large and the system is more than half-filled, as for the CuO 3 chain occurring in high-T c superconductors, the last ones can be neglected in describing the low energy physics. We restrict our considerations to the Hubbard-type interactions (upper band) in the particular case of alternating on-site energies and equal hopping amplitudes. The standard RG analysis (second order) is done in terms of the g-constants describing the elementary processes of forward, backward and Umklapp scatterings: their expressions are obtained by evaluating the Hubbard-type interactions (upper band) at the Fermi points. Using the scaling to the exact soluble models Tomonaga-Luttinger and Luther-Emery, we can predict the low energy physics of our system. The ground-state phase diagrams in terms of the model parameters and at arbitrary band filling are determined, where four types of instabilities have been considered: Charge Density Waves (CDW), Spin Density Waves (SDW), Singlet Superconductivity (SS) and Triplet Superconductivity (TS). The 3/4-filled case in terms of some renormalized Hubbard constants is presented. The relevance of our analysis to the case of the undistorted 3/4-filled Cu

  9. [Group counselling for the second trimester ultrasound: can group counselling be an alternative for individual counselling?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lau, Hinke; Depmann, Martine; Laeven, Yvo J M; Stoutenbeek, Philip H; Pistorius, Lou R; van Beek, Erik; Schuitemaker, Nico W E

    2013-01-01

    To compare group counselling to individual counselling with respect to the second trimester ultrasound. A prospective cohort study at two hospitals. At one hospital, 100 pregnant women were counselled on the risks and benefits of the second trimester ultrasound in groups of up to 15 patients. Shortly before the ultrasound they were asked to fill out a questionnaire. Results were compared to 100 women who were counselled individually at another hospital. The primary outcome was the level of informed choice whether or not to undergo the ultrasound, defined as sufficient knowledge and a value-consistent decision. The secondary outcome measures were level of understanding of the second trimester ultrasound and the degree of satisfaction with the counselling. The resulting level of informed choice was 87.0% after group counselling compared to 79.4% after individual counselling (p = 0.47). The mean knowledge score was 8.8 for the women who attended group counselling; women who were individually counselled had a mean score of 7.4 (p counselling was 7.0 for group counselling and 6.2 for individual counselling (p group counselling was associated with higher post-counselling knowledge and satisfaction scores. Group counselling should therefore be considered as an alternative counselling method.

  10. Independence of irrelevant alternatives and revealed group preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, P.P.; Peters, H.J.M.; Ichiishi, A.N.; Neyman, A.; Tauman, Y.

    1990-01-01

    It is shown that a Pareto optimal and continuous single-valued choice function defined on the compact convex subsets of the positive orthant of the plane maximizes a real-valued function if and only if it satisfies the independence of irrelevant alternatives condition. Further, this real-valued

  11. Design alternatives for process group membership and multicast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birman, Kenneth P.; Cooper, Robert; Gleeson, Barry

    1991-01-01

    Process groups are a natural tool for distributed programming, and are increasingly important in distributed computing environments. However, there is little agreement on the most appropriate semantics for process group membership and group communication. These issues are of special importance in the Isis system, a toolkit for distributed programming. Isis supports several styles of process group, and a collection of group communication protocols spanning a range of atomicity and ordering properties. This flexibility makes Isis adaptable to a variety of applications, but is also a source of complexity that limits performance. This paper reports on a new architecture that arose from an effort to simplify Isis process group semantics. Our findings include a refined notion of how the clients of a group should be treated, what the properties of a multicast primitive should be when systems contain large numbers of overlapping groups, and a new construct called the casuality domain. As an illustration, we apply the architecture to the problem of converting processes into fault-tolerant process groups in a manner that is 'transparent' to other processes in the system.

  12. The effect of complementary and alternative medicines on CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of three different substrates : 7-benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethyl-coumarin, midazolam and docetaxel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooiman, Kim D; Maas-Bakker, Roel F; Hendrikx, Jeroen J M A; Bank, Paul C D; Rosing, Hilde; Beijnen, Jos H; Schellens, Jan H M; Meijerman, Irma

    OBJECTIVE: Concomitant use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and anticancer drugs can affect the pharmacokinetics of anticancer drugs by inhibiting the metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) (EC 1.14.13.157). Several in vitro studies determined whether CAM can inhibit CYP3A4,

  13. 77 FR 17457 - Work Group on Alternative Test Methods for Commercial Measuring Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Institute of Standards and Technology Work Group on Alternative... Work Group (WG) to examine alternative methods for testing the accuracy of commercial measuring devices... participates to promote uniformity among the states in laws, regulations, methods, and testing equipment that...

  14. USD Catalysis Group for Alternative Energy - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoefelmeyer, James

    2014-10-03

    I. Project Summary Catalytic processes are a major technological underpinning of modern society, and are essential to the energy sector in the processing of chemical fuels from natural resources, fine chemicals synthesis, and energy conversion. Advances in catalyst technology are enormously valuable since these lead to reduced chemical waste, reduced energy loss, and reduced costs. New energy technologies, which are critical to future economic growth, are also heavily reliant on catalysts, including fuel cells and photo-electrochemical cells. Currently, the state of South Dakota is underdeveloped in terms of research infrastructure related to catalysis. If South Dakota intends to participate in significant economic growth opportunities that result from advances in catalyst technology, then this area of research needs to be made a high priority for investment. To this end, a focused research effort is proposed in which investigators from The University of South Dakota (USD) and The South Dakota School of Mines and Technology (SDSMT) will contribute to form the South Dakota Catalysis Group (SDCG). The multidisciplinary team of the (SDCG) include: (USD) Dan Engebretson, James Hoefelmeyer, Ranjit Koodali, and Grigoriy Sereda; (SDSMT) Phil Scott Ahrenkiel, Hao Fong, Jan Puszynski, Rajesh Shende, and Jacek Swiatkiewicz. The group is well suited to engage in a collaborative project due to the resources available within the existing programs. Activities within the SDCG will be monitored through an external committee consisting of three distinguished professors in chemistry. The committee will provide expert advice and recommendations to the SDCG. Advisory meetings in which committee members interact with South Dakota investigators will be accompanied by individual oral and poster presentations in a materials and catalysis symposium. The symposium will attract prominent scientists, and will enhance the visibility of research in the state of South Dakota. The SDCG requests

  15. The effect of misapplied religious practices in some alternative religious groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan P. Pretorius

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The positive impact that religion generally has on human beings has been suggested by different studies. However, it cannot be assumed that religion always contributes to the well-being of believers. Religious systems can be misused, resulting in people being spiritually and even physically hurt and harmed. This study investigates certain aspects of some alternative religious group in order to determine the impact it has on the well-being of the members of these groups. It was found that people are drawn to these groups because of the challenges they present, the display of true love amongst members and the ‘message’ of an authoritative charismatic leader that resonates with them and convinces them to become part. As time pass, members were challenged with questionable aspects that appear in the activities and teaching of these groups. Obtaining clarity on these concerns was strongly discouraged by the culture and other members of the group, resulting in members suppressing doubts and emotions. Adherence to the tenets of the group then occurred as a result of peer pressure and out of fear instead of true conviction. The study concludes that most of the respondents in the study reported that their experience in these groups did not contribute to their well-being, and emotionally, they struggled to adapt to society and other religious groups after leaving the group.

  16. "First among Others? Cohen's ""d"" vs. Alternative Standardized Mean Group Difference Measures"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorel Cahan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Standardized effect size measures typically employed in behavioral and social sciences research in the multi-group case (e.g., 2, f2 evaluate between-group variability in terms of either total or within-group variability, such as variance or standard deviation -' that is, measures of dispersion about the mean. In contrast, the definition of Cohen's d, the effect size measure typically computed in the two-group case, is incongruent due to a conceptual difference between the numerator -' which measures between-group variability by the intuitive and straightforward raw difference between the two group means -' and the denominator - which measures within-group variability in terms of the difference between all observations and the group mean (i.e., the pooled within-groups standard deviation, SW. Two congruent alternatives to d, in which the root square or absolute mean difference between all observation pairs is substituted for SW as the variability measure in the denominator of d, are suggested and their conceptual and statistical advantages and disadvantages are discussed.

  17. Support groups for children in alternate care: a largely untapped therapeutic resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, D; Storer, S

    1995-01-01

    Children in alternate care often have adjustment problems that manifest in various aspects of their lives. Individual therapy is often assumed to be the desired intervention, but resources seldom permit one-to-one therapy for these disturbances. The authors argue that groupwork should be considered as a possible treatment of choice. Not only is it likely to be more economical than individual therapy, it has the inherent advantage of telling children in care that they are not alone, and that other children have similar experiences and feelings. It also allows them to develop their own support network. Such groups appear to have been underutilized in work with children in out-of-home care. This article describes such a group and its outcome. Various techniques were developed to achieve specified aims. The techniques appeared to be successful. Further work on such groups and more specific evaluation is called for.

  18. Fingerprints as an Alternative Method to Determine ABO and Rh Blood Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Sonam; Deuja, Sajana; Alam, Munna; Karmacharya, Poonam; Mondal, Monami

    2017-01-01

    Blood grouping is conventionally done with invasive method by taking blood samples. The objective of this study is to determine blood group with uninvasive procedure by taking fingerprints of the participants and know the associations between their fingerprints and blood groups. Seven hundred participants of both genders with no any age limitation from Manipal Teaching Hospital and Manipal College of Medical Sciences were randomly selected. The blood grouping was done by cross reacting blood sample with the antibodies. The fingerprints were taken with the help of stamp pad imprinting the finger ridges over A4 size white papers. The loop, whorl and arch patterns were studied. O+ve blood group 224 (32%) was most prevalent among 700 participants. The loop pattern was highly distributed 3708 (53%) in all blood groups except in A-ve blood group with highest distribution of whorl 20 (40%). The mean comparisons of specific fingerprint in total and also in individual fingers with different ABO and ABO-Rh blood groups showed no any statistical association with P>0.05. However, the loop distribution in individual finger was highest in right middle finger (M) of B-ve blood group 5 (10%). The whorl distribution in individual finger was highest in right index (I), left thumb (T) and left ring (R) fingers of AB+ve blood group 20 (5.5% each). Similarly, the arch distribution was highest in right index fingers of A-ve blood group 3 (6%). The mean comparison of different fingerprints with ABO and Rh blood groups showed no significant statistical association concluding fingerprints cannot be used for blood grouping.

  19. 77 FR 63872 - Alternative Management Resources, Inc., Doepker Group, Inc., D.B.A. Time Staffing, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... Resources, Inc., Doepker Group, Inc., D.B.A. Time Staffing, Inc., Personnel Management Group, Inc...., Doepker Group, Inc., D.B.A. Time Staffing, Inc., Personnel Management Group, Inc., Select Staffing, and... follows: ''All workers of Alternative Management Resources, Inc., Doepker Group, Inc., D.B.A. Time...

  20. Report on the CSC project group meeting on alternative energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-11-01

    Under its coordinated R and D programme the Commonwealth Science Council in cooperation with the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Consumer Affairs, Barbados, organized a meeting to identify suitable projects for inter-country collaboration. Specifically the meeting had three aims: 1. Review present state of activities in alternative energy resources and assess small scale energy needs in the region. 2. Identify specific projects for inter-country collaboration. 3. Draft joint project proposals for such collaboration. A small group of experts (Annex VII) from Britain, Canada, USA and CSC secretariat staff made detailed plans for the Barbados meeting. With a view to assessing real energy needs locally, the Group recommended that a study be undertaken in Barbados prior to the meeting. A report on such a study was presented at the meeting. Member countries were also invited to prepare country papers. In addition, following the planning Group's recommendation, several technical papers were prepared. These covered subjects ranging from conceptual aspects to clarify objectives, assumptions and criteria to a review of all alternative energy technologies

  1. Comparison of alternative weight recalibration methods for diagnosis-related groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogowski, Jeannette Roskamp; Byrne, Daniel J.

    1990-01-01

    In this article, alternative methodologies for recalibration of the diagnosis-related group (DRG) weights are examined. Based on 1984 data, cost and charge-based weights are less congruent than those calculated with 1981 data. Previous studies using 1981 data demonstrated that cost- and charge-based weights were not very different. Charge weights result in higher payments to surgical DRGs and lower payments to medical DRGs, relative to cost weights. At the provider level, charge weights result in higher payments to large urban hospitals and teaching hospitals, relative to cost weights. PMID:10113568

  2. To Make Good Decision: A Group DSS for Multiple Criteria Alternative Rank and Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Shu Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Decision making is a recursive process and usually involves multiple decision criteria. However, such multiple criteria decision making may have a problem in which partial decision criteria may conflict with each other. An information technology, such as the decision support system (DSS and group DSS (GDSS, emerges to assist decision maker for decision-making process. Both the DSS and GDSS should integrate with a symmetrical approach to assist decision maker to take all decision criteria into consideration simultaneously. This study proposes a GDSS architecture named hybrid decision-making support model (HDMSM and integrated four decision approaches (Delphi, DEMATEL, ANP, and MDS to help decision maker to rank and select appropriate alternatives. The HDMSM consists of five steps, namely, criteria identification, criteria correlation calculation, criteria evaluation, critical criteria selection, and alternative rank and comparison. Finally, to validate the proposed feasibility of the proposed model, this study also conducts a case study to find out the important indexes of corporate social responsibility (CSR from multiple perspectives. As the case study demonstrates the proposed HDMSM enables a group of decision makers to implement the MCDM effectively and help them to analyze the relation and degree of mutual influence among different evaluation factors.

  3. The Alternative Peer Group: A Developmentally Appropriate Recovery Support Model for Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Angela; Collier, Crystal

    2016-01-01

    Recovery as the goal for substance use disorder treatment has been a key component of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's mission for the past decade. Consistent with their mission, there is a call for research and development of recovery-oriented systems of care to support affected individuals through all stages of the recovery process. Evidence is emerging to support recovery practice and research for adults, but recovery-oriented models for adolescents are scant. The Alternative Peer Group (APG) is a comprehensive adolescent recovery support model that integrates recovering peers and prosocial activities into evidence-based clinical practice. Employing APG participants' own words, this article will describe the essential elements and three theoretical frameworks underlying the APG model to illustrate how the APG serves as a developmentally appropriate recovery support service for adolescents with substance use disorder.

  4. Head Start’s Impact is Contingent on Alternative Type of Care in Comparison Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Waldfogel, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Using data (n = 3,790 with 2,119 in the 3-year-old cohort and 1,671 in the 4-year-old cohort) from 353 Head Start centers in the Head Start Impact Study, the only large-scale randomized experiment in Head Start history, this paper examined the impact of Head Start on children’s cognitive and parent-reported social-behavioral outcomes through first grade contingent on the child care arrangements used by children who were randomly assigned to the control group (i.e., parental care, relative/non-relative care, another Head Start program, or other center-based care). A principal score matching approach was adopted to identify children assigned to Head Start who were similar to children in the control group with a specific care arrangement. Overall, the results showed that the effects of Head Start varied substantially contingent on the alternative child care arrangements. Compared to children in parental care and relative/non-relative care, Head Start participants generally had better cognitive and parent-reported behavioral development, with some benefits of Head Start persisting through first grade; in contrast, few differences were found between Head Start and other center-based care. The results have implications regarding the children for whom Head Start is most beneficial as well as how well Head Start compares to other center-based programs. PMID:25329552

  5. Perception of the environmental impacts of current and alternative modes of pig production by stakeholder groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Jean; van der Werf, Hayo M G

    2003-08-01

    The current industrial pig production model is in crisis, due to its association with environmental pollution, doubtful product quality and lack of animal well-being. In Bretagne (France), a region of intensive pig production, a survey of seven stakeholder groups concerned with pig production was conducted, as part of a research programme dedicated to the assessment of the environmental impact of different modes of pig production. A very large majority of pig producers (93%) and their suppliers (100%) considers pig farms as an asset for the region, whereas a majority of scientists (58%), activists (78%) and consumers (54%) sees it as a handicap. Differences among stakeholder groups are minor with respect to the perceived importance of environmental and social issues. Stakeholders agree on the relative level of responsibility of pig farms with respect to specific problems. For all groups unpleasant odours and water quality come first with respect to responsibility, for most groups soil quality comes second, followed by product safety and air quality. For a future improved mode of pig production, 76% of pig producers and their suppliers prefer to adapt the current model, for all other groups the majority prefers an alternative model. While pig producers and their suppliers prefer a slurry-based housing system, all other groups prefer a straw-based system. Pig producers see the slurry-based system as technically superior and associate the straw-based system with poor working conditions, whereas consumers associate the slurry-based system in the first place with poor water quality and associate the straw-based system with less pollution. These results will be of use in the research programme on the environmental impact of modes of pig production, as they indicate the environmental impacts to be considered and their relative importance. The results will also help in deciding which options should be assessed. It is concluded that the poor image of the current pig

  6. Reducing legal fees in medical group practices. The role of health care alternative dispute resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, D M

    1995-01-01

    Conflict is a growth industry, particularly in an increasingly complex health care system. Litigation is the most common, and most costly, method of settling health care disputes. Highly adversarial, the process of litigation often generates as much, if not more, hostility than the original dispute. In addition, satisfaction with the outcome is very low. The challenge that has arisen is to manage the conflicts so that the underlying needs and interests of all the parties can best be met. Often the techniques and processes of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) can be successfully used in resolving these sorts of conflicts quickly, cheaply and with greater satisfaction for all parties. Various applications of ADR are currently being used or tested in a variety of health care disputes in the United States and Canada. Tremendous success has been achieved in mediating medical malpractice claims, medical staff disputes, economic credentialing conflicts, insurer relations issues and denial of coverage disputes. Professional relations and departmental staff disputes, partnership and employee conflicts, and organizational disputes within clinics, HMOs and large group practices have all been found particularly amenable to ADR. These are all situations in which everyone benefits from quick, non-hostile resolutions and on-going relationships can continue.

  7. Wellness-Based Group Counseling with Elementary Students in Disciplinary Alternative Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perepiczka, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    Students in Disciplinary Alternative Education Programs (DAEPs) have a variety of behavior problems. School counselors in DAEPs have the opportunity to address emotional, academic, social, and behavioral concerns of these students. Counselors may use the strengths-based wellness paradigm as an alternative method of addressing students' holistic…

  8. Racial Differences in CYP3A4 Genotype and Survival Among Men Treated on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 9202: A Phase III Randomized Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roach, Mack; Silvio, Michelle de; Rebbick, Timothy; Grignon, David; Rotman, Marvin; Wolkov, Harvey; Fisher, Barbara; Hanks, Gerald; Shipley, William U.; Pollack, Alan; Sandler, Howard; Watkins-Bruner, Deborah Ph.D.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Inherited genotypes may explain the inferior outcomes of African American (AA) men with prostate cancer. To understand how variation in CYP3A4 correlated with outcomes, a retrospective examination of the CYP3A4*1B genotype was performed on men treated with Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 92-02. Methods and Materials: From 1,514 cases, we evaluated 56 (28.4%) of 197 AA and 54 (4.3%) of 1,274 European American (EA) patients. All patients received goserelin and flutamide for 2 months before and during RT (STAD-RT) ± 24 months of goserelin (long-term androgen deprivation plus radiation [LTAD-RT]). Events studied included overall survival and biochemical progression using American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology consensus guidelines. Results: There were no differences in outcome in patients in with or without CYP3A4 data. There was an association between race and CYP3A4 polymorphisms with 75% of EAs having the Wild Type compared to only 25% of AA men (p <0.0001). There was no association between CYP3A4 classification or race and survival or progression. Conclusions: The samples analyzed support previously reported observations about the distribution of CYP3A4*1B genotype by race, but race was not associated with poorer outcome. However, patient numbers were limited, and selection bias cannot be completely ruled out

  9. Comparing Treatment and Control Groups on Multiple Outcomes: Robust Procedures for Testing a Directional Alternative Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lix, Lisa M.; Deering, Kathleen N.; Fouladi, Rachel T.; Manivong, Phongsack

    2009-01-01

    This study considers the problem of testing the difference between treatment and control groups on m [greater than or equal to] 2 measures when it is assumed a priori that the treatment group will perform better than the control group on all measures. Two procedures are investigated that do not rest on the assumptions of covariance homogeneity or…

  10. First among Others? Cohen's "d" vs. Alternative Standardized Mean Group Difference Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahan, Sorel; Gamliel, Eyal

    2011-01-01

    Standardized effect size measures typically employed in behavioral and social sciences research in the multi-group case (e.g., [eta][superscript 2], f[superscript 2]) evaluate between-group variability in terms of either total or within-group variability, such as variance or standard deviation--that is, measures of dispersion about the mean. In…

  11. Evaluation of final waste forms and recommendations for baseline alternatives to group and glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleier, A.

    1997-09-01

    An assessment of final waste forms was made as part of the Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement/Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (FFCA/DDT&E) Program because supplemental waste-form technologies are needed for the hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes of concern to the Department of Energy and the problematic wastes on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The principal objective was to identify a primary waste-form candidate as an alternative to grout (cement) and glass. The effort principally comprised a literature search, the goal of which was to establish a knowledge base regarding four areas: (1) the waste-form technologies based on grout and glass, (2) candidate alternatives, (3) the wastes that need to be immobilized, and (4) the technical and regulatory constraints on the waste-from technologies. This report serves, in part, to meet this goal. Six families of materials emerged as relevant; inorganic, organic, vitrified, devitrified, ceramic, and metallic matrices. Multiple members of each family were assessed, emphasizing the materials-oriented factors and accounting for the fact that the two most prevalent types of wastes for the FFCA/DDT&E Program are aqueous liquids and inorganic sludges and solids. Presently, no individual matrix is sufficiently developed to permit its immediate implementation as a baseline alternative. Three thermoplastic materials, sulfur-polymer cement (inorganic), bitumen (organic), and polyethylene (organic), are the most technologically developed candidates. Each warrants further study, emphasizing the engineering and economic factors, but each also has limitations that regulate it to a status of short-term alternative. The crystallinity and flexible processing of sulfur provide sulfur-polymer cement with the highest potential for short-term success via encapsulation. Long-term immobilization demands chemical stabilization, which the thermoplastic matrices do not offer. Among the properties of the remaining

  12. A 4-year study on the effectiveness of alternate grazing of cattle and sheep in the control of bovine parasitic gastro-enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairden, K; Armour, J; Duncan, J L

    1995-11-01

    In many farming enterprises, animal management systems which could provide a practical and effective alternative to chemotherapy for the control of bovine helminthosis would be readily accepted. One system which has been proposed and shown to be effective in the short or medium term involves grazing different host species on a rotational basis. The study described here examined the effect of alternating cattle and sheep annually over an extended period of 4 years. Up to the second grazing season the system appeared to be successful, with a marked reduction in the cattle worm burdens. However, by the end of the study period the parasite burdens in calves grazed on the alternated pasture were equal to, or greater than, those of set-stocked control animals. It was thus clear that the alternate grazing strategy had failed. Data obtained from other parameters measured, i.e. faecal egg counts, pasture larval numbers and plasma pepsinogen levels, confirmed this observation.

  13. Solid polymer electrolytes based on alternating copolymers of vinyl ethers with methoxy oligo(ethyleneoxy)ethyl groups and vinylene carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Takahito; Fujita, Katsuhito; Inoue, Kentaro; Iwama, Hiroki; Kondoh, Kensaku; Uno, Takahiro; Kubo, Masataka

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Synthesis of alternating copolymers of vinyl ethers and vinylene carbonate. • Preparation of polymer electrolytes based on the alternating copolymers with LiTFSI. • Structure-property relationship for alternating copolymers-based electrolytes. • Interfacial stability between polymer electrolytes with lithium metal electrode. - Abstract: Alternating copolymers (poly(1a-g-alt-VC)) of vinyl ethers with various methoxy oligo(ethyleneoxy)ethyl groups and vinylene carbonate (VC) were prepared, and the thermal and electrochemical properties of their polymer electrolytes with LiTFSI and interfacial stability between the polymer electrolyte and Li metal electrode were investigated. T g 's increased linearly with salt contents, and decreased with an increase in the chain length of methoxy oligo(ethyleneoxy)ethyl groups in the vinyl ethers at constant salt concentration. The slopes of T g vs. [Li]/[O] were identical, independent of the polymer structure. The ionic conductivities of the polymer electrolytes increased with increasing the side-chain ethyleneoxy (EO) unit length of the vinyl ether unit in the alternating copolymers, and also their temperature dependences became relatively smaller in the polymer electrolytes having longer EO units in the vinyl ethers. The highest ionic conductivity, 1.2 × 10 −4 S/cm at 30 °C, was obtained in the alternating copolymer with a side-chain EO unit length of 23.5 in the vinyl ether unit. Ion transport coupled with the segmental motion of the polymer is dominant in these polymer electrolytes. Interfacial resistance increased gradually with contact time, indicative of the formation of passivation films on the Li metal electrode. These polymer electrolytes are thermally stable and have large electrochemical windows of use

  14. Spontaneous emergence, imitation and spread of alternative foraging techniques among groups of vervet monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica van de Waal

    Full Text Available Animal social learning has become a subject of broad interest, but demonstrations of bodily imitation in animals remain rare. Based on Voelkl and Huber's study of imitation by marmosets, we tested four groups of semi-captive vervet monkeys presented with food in modified film canisters ("aethipops'. One individual was trained to take the tops off canisters in each group and demonstrated five openings to them. In three groups these models used their mouth to remove the lid, but in one of the groups the model also spontaneously pulled ropes on a canister to open it. In the last group the model preferred to remove the lid with her hands. Following these spontaneous differentiations of foraging techniques in the models, we observed the techniques used by the other group members to open the canisters. We found that mouth opening was the most common technique overall, but the rope and hands methods were used significantly more in groups they were demonstrated in than in groups where they were not. Our results show bodily matching that is conventionally described as imitation. We discuss the relevance of these findings to discoveries about mirror neurons, and implications of the identity of the model for social transmission.

  15. Sibling Group Play Therapy: An Effective Alternative with an Elective Mute Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Karen; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Presents the case study of an elective mute child. Describes the effects of sibling play therapy and lists implications for school counselors who might use group or sibling play therapy in their developmental guidance programs. (ABB)

  16. E-cigarettes, a safer alternative for teenagers? A UK focus group study of teenagers' views

    OpenAIRE

    Hilton, Shona; Weishaar, Heide; Sweeting, Helen; Trevisan, Filippo; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vital

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Concerns exist that e-cigarettes may be a gateway to traditional cigarettes and/or (re)normalise teenage smoking. This qualitative study explores how teenagers in the UK currently perceive e-cigarettes and how and why they do or do not use them.\\ud \\ud Design: 16 focus groups were conducted across the UK between November 2014 and February 2015, with 83 teenagers aged 14–17. All discussions were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, imported into NVivo 10 and thematically analys...

  17. Conjectures on the normal covering number of finite symmetric and alternating groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Bubboloni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Let gamma(Sn be the minimum number of proper subgroups Hi, i = 1,...,ell, of the symmetric group Sn such that each element in Sn lies in some conjugate of one of the Hi. In this paper we conjecture that gamma(Sn =(n/2(1-1/p_1 (1-1/p_2 + 2, where p1, p2 are the two smallest primes in the factorization of n and n is neither a prime power nor a product of two primes. Support for the conjecture is given by a previous result for the case where n has at most two distinct prime divisors. We give further evidence by confirming the conjecture for certain integers of the form n = 15q, for an infinite set of primes q, and by reporting on a Magma computation. We make a similar conjecture for gamma(An, when n is even, and provide a similar amount of evidence.

  18. E-cigarettes, a safer alternative for teenagers? A UK focus group study of teenagers' views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Shona; Weishaar, Heide; Sweeting, Helen; Trevisan, Filippo; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal

    2016-11-16

    Concerns exist that e-cigarettes may be a gateway to traditional cigarettes and/or (re)normalise teenage smoking. This qualitative study explores how teenagers in the UK currently perceive e-cigarettes and how and why they do or do not use them. 16 focus groups were conducted across the UK between November 2014 and February 2015, with 83 teenagers aged 14-17. All discussions were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, imported into NVivo 10 and thematically analysed. Teenagers generally agreed that e-cigarettes are useful products for smokers, including teenage smokers, to quit or reduce traditional cigarette use. Concerns were expressed about lack of information on their precise ingredients and any unknown risks for users and bystanders. However, teenagers typically viewed e-cigarettes as substantially less harmful than traditional cigarettes. They perceived e-cigarettes as attractive, with products described as 'fun' and having 'great flavourings'. Seeing websites or social media featuring e-cigarettes, especially YouTube 'vaping tricks', prompted some experimentation and imitation. E-cigarettes were used in a variety of situations, including at parties or when they could not smoke traditional cigarettes. A very few participants suggested covert use was a possibility and that e-cigarettes might help maintain a fledgling nicotine habit. Teenagers support the use of e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids for established adult smokers. However, they engage with these products differently from adults, with the novel hypothesis that covert use could potentially reinforce traditional cigarette smoking requiring further investigation. Policy responses should more clearly meet the needs of young people, as well as helping established adult smokers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. The alternative site selection procedure as covered in the report by the Repository Site Selection Procedures Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, M.

    2005-01-01

    The 2002 Act on the Regulated Termination of the Use of Nuclear Power for Industrial Electricity Generation declared Germany's opting out of the peaceful uses of nuclear power. The problem of the permanent management of radioactive residues is becoming more and more important also in the light of that political decision. At the present time, there are no repositories offering the waste management capacities required. Such facilities need to be created. At the present stage, eligible repository sites are the Konrad mine, a former iron ore mine near Salzgitter, and the Gorleben salt dome. While the fate of the Konrad mine as a repository for waste generating negligible amounts of heat continues to be uncertain, despite a plan approval decision of June 2002, the Gorleben repository is still in the planning phase, at present in a dormant state, so to speak. The federal government expressed doubt about the suitability of the Gorleben site. Against this backdrop, the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, and Nuclear Safety in February 1999 established AkEnd, the Working Group on Repository Site Selection Procedures. The Group was charged with developing, based on sound scientific criteria, a transparent site selection procedure in order to facilitate the search for repository sites. The Working Group presented its final report in December 2002 after approximately four years of work. The Group's proposals about alternative site selection procedures are explained in detail and, above all, reviewed critically. (orig.)

  20. Multi-stage ranking of emergency technology alternatives for water source pollution accidents using a fuzzy group decision making tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jianhua; Meng, Xianlin; You, Hong

    2016-06-05

    Due to the increasing number of unexpected water source pollution events, selection of the most appropriate disposal technology for a specific pollution scenario is of crucial importance to the security of urban water supplies. However, the formulation of the optimum option is considerably difficult owing to the substantial uncertainty of such accidents. In this research, a multi-stage technical screening and evaluation tool is proposed to determine the optimal technique scheme, considering the areas of pollutant elimination both in drinking water sources and water treatment plants. In stage 1, a CBR-based group decision tool was developed to screen available technologies for different scenarios. Then, the threat degree caused by the pollution was estimated in stage 2 using a threat evaluation system and was partitioned into four levels. For each threat level, a corresponding set of technique evaluation criteria weights was obtained using Group-G1. To identify the optimization alternatives corresponding to the different threat levels, an extension of TOPSIS, a multi-criteria interval-valued trapezoidal fuzzy decision making technique containing the four arrays of criteria weights, to a group decision environment was investigated in stage 3. The effectiveness of the developed tool was elaborated by two actual thallium-contaminated scenarios associated with different threat levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The role of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM in Germany – A focus group study of GPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemann Thomas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a marked increase in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM in recent years worldwide. In Germany, apart from 'Heilpraktiker' (= state-licensed, non-medical CAM practitioners, some general practitioners (GPs provide CAM in their practices. This paper aims to explore the attitudes of GPs about the role of CAM in Germany, in relation to the healthcare system, quality of care, medical education and research. Furthermore, experiences of GPs integrating CAM in their daily practice were explored. Methods Using a qualitative methodological approach 3 focus groups with a convenience sample of 17 GPs were conducted. The discussions were transcribed verbatim and analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results The majority of the participating GPs had integrated one or more CAM therapies into their every-day practice. Four key themes were identified based on the topics covered in the focus groups: the role of CAM within the German healthcare system, quality of care, education and research. Within the theme 'role of CAM within the healthcare system' there were five categories: integration of CAM, CAM in the Statutory Health Insurance, modernisation of the Statutory Health Insurance Act, individual healthcare services and 'Heilpraktiker'. Regarding quality of care there were two broad groups of GPs: those who thought patients would benefit from standardizing CAM and those who feared that quality control would interfere with the individual approach of CAM. The main issues identified relating to research and education were the need for the development of alternative research strategies and the low quality of existing CAM education respectively. Conclusion The majority of the participating GPs considered CAM as a reasonable complementary approach within primary care. The study increased our understanding of GPs attitudes about the role of CAM within the German healthcare system and the use of

  2. The procedure of alternative site selection within the report of the study group on the radioactive waste final repository selection process (AKEnd)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, M.

    2005-01-01

    The paper discusses the results of the report of the study group on the radioactive waste final repository selection process with respect to the alternative site selection procedure. Key points of the report are the long-term safety, the alternativity of sites and the concept of one repository. The critique on this report is focussed on the topics site selection and licensing procedures, civil participation, the factor time and the question of cost

  3. Pharmacodynamic effects of steady-state fingolimod on antibody response in healthy volunteers: a 4-week, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multiple-dose study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, Craig; Meiser, Karin; David, Olivier J; Schmouder, Robert

    2012-12-01

    Fingolimod, a first-in-class oral sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor (S1PR) modulator, is approved in many countries for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, at a once-daily 0.5-mg dose. A reduction in peripheral lymphocyte count is an expected consequence of the fingolimod mechanism of S1PR modulation. The authors investigated if this pharmacodynamic effect impacts humoral and cellular immunogenicity. In this double-blind, parallel-group, 4-week study, 72 healthy volunteers were randomized to steady state, fingolimod 0.5 mg, 1.25 mg, or to placebo. The authors compared T-cell dependent and independent responses to the neoantigens, keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), and pneumococcal polysaccharides vaccine (PPV-23), respectively, and additionally recall antigen response (tetanus toxoid [TT]) and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to KLH, TT, and Candida albicans. Fingolimod caused mild to moderate decreases in anti-KLH and anti-PPV-23 IgG and IgM levels versus placebo. Responder rates were identical between placebo and 0.5-mg groups for anti-KLH IgG (both > 90%) and comparable for anti-PPV-23 IgG (55% and 41%, respectively). Fingolimod did not affect anti-TT immunogenicity, and DTH response did not differ between placebo and fingolimod 0.5-mg groups. Expectedly, lymphocyte count reduced substantially in the fingolimod groups versus placebo but reversed by study end. Fingolimod was well tolerated, and the observed safety profile was consistent with previous reports.

  4. Alternating treatment with didanosine and zidovudine versus either drug alone for the treatment of advanced HIV infection. The Alter Study. Nordic HIV Therapy Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerstoft, J; Melander, H; Bruun, J N

    1997-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of an alternating regime with zidovudine and didanosine versus treatment with either drug alone were investigated in a randomized, open, controlled trial, 552 patients with advanced HIV infection, 47% of whom had received prior treatment with zidovudine, were enrolled...... distributed between the 3 treatment groups. In the subgroup of patients with a CD4 count

  5. Study and realization of static excitation of a synchronous motor-alternator group of 2700 kV A, 5500 V, 1500 rpm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustier, Marcel

    1978-01-01

    The herein reported work addressed the improvement of voltage regulation of synchronous groups (motor-alternator) which supply the electron linear accelerator (ALS) of the Saclay nuclear research centre. The design of this new regulation system is based on the experimental study of alternators. The author discusses the theoretical elements of the adjustment of a synchronous machine based on harmonic analysis, and reports the comprehensive calculation of a PID (proportional-integral-derivative) controller. After some generalities on semiconductors (power thyristors and transistors), the author reports the study of excitation currents for the group, and of the machine transmittance. He reports the determination of excitation amplifiers and transformers, the study of voltage regulation of the alternator, of the motor reactive power control, and of excitation transformers (the transformer for the motor and the transformer for the alternator). He finally reports and discusses results of tests and measurements when using either a thyristor-based or a transistor-based excitation for the controller [fr

  6. Use of Alternative Medications for Menopause-Related Symptoms in Three Major Ethnic Groups of Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohn Mar, Saw; Malhi, Fatehpal; Syed Rahim, Syed Hamid; Chua, Chin Tong; Sidhu, Sarjeet Singh; Sandheep, Sugathan

    2015-11-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the use of alternative medications to alleviate menopause-related symptoms among Malay, Chinese, and Indian women of Ipoh city. The prevalence, types, effectiveness, and associated factors were determined. The prevalence of alternative medication use was 41.4%. Evening primrose oil (EPO) was the most popular medication used (18.1%), followed by soy-based products (12.3%), green tea (6.8%), and gingko (5.8%). The medication was reported to be highly effective by 58.3% of soya bean diet users and 41.1% of EPO users. Significant variables associated with the use were Chinese or Indian ethnicity (P < .001), age between 50 and 54 years (P < .01), lower self-health rating (P < .05), education level of diploma or professional degree (P < .05), employment as professionals or entrepreneurs (P < .05), and the use of hormone replacement therapy (P < .05). Regression analysis showed that Chinese and Indians had significantly higher odds for the use than Malays (Chinese: odds ratio [OR] = 4.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.392-7.837; Indians: OR = 3.248, 95% CI = 1.586-6.654). © 2015 APJPH.

  7. Female Leadership in Public Religious Space : An Alternative Group of Women in Tablighi Jamaat in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Begum, Momotaj

    2016-01-01

    The worldwide trend of emerging women-led religious reformist movements create the opportunity for Muslim women to emerge as religious leaders, the positions that have historically been held by men. This study has focused on a women’s group, named the Group of Four Companions (GFC), working for renewal of faith among the Muslim women in a community in Bangladesh. The group claims a wing of Tablighi Jamaat (TJ)―an Islamic missionary movement originated in the 1920s, the largest Islamic piety m...

  8. The opinion of Turkish cardiologists on current malpractice system and an alternative patient compensation system proposal: PCS study group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olcay, Ayhan; Emren, Sadık Volkan; Babür Güler, Gamze; Güler, Ekrem; Ertunç, Vedat; Berilgen, Rida; Aslan, Abdullah; Şimşek, Ersin Çağrı; Gölcük, Şükriye Ebru; Yalın, Kıvanç

    2017-10-01

    Cardiologists participate in the diagnosis and interventional treatment of numerous high-risk patients. The goal of this study was to investigate how the current malpractice system in Turkey influences cardiologists' diagnostic and interventional behavior and to obtain their opinions about an alternative patient compensation system. The present cross-sectional study assessed the practice of defensive medicine among cardiologists who are actively working in various types of workplace within the Turkish healthcare system. A 24-item questionnaire was distributed to cardiology residents, specialists, and academics in Turkey in print format, by electronic mail, or via cell phone message. A total of 253 cardiologists responded to the survey. Among them, 29 (11.6%) had been sued for malpractice claims in the past. Of the cardiologists who had been sued, 2 (6.9%) had been ordered to pay financial compensation, and 1 (3.4%) was given a sentence of imprisonment due to negligence. In all, 132 (52.8%) of the surveyed cardiologists reported that they had changed their practices due to fear of litigation, and 232 (92.8%) reported that they would prefer the new proposed patient compensation system to the current malpractice system. Among the cardiologists surveyed, 78.8% indicated that malpractice fear had affected their decision-making with regard to requesting computed tomography angiography or thallium scintigraphy, 71.6% for coronary angiography, 20% for stent implantation, and 83.2% for avoiding treating high-risk patients. The results of this survey demonstrated that cardiologists may request unnecessary tests and perform unneeded interventions due to the fear of malpractice litigation fear. Many also avoid high-risk patients and interventions. The majority indicated that they would prefer the proposed alternative patient compensation system to the current malpractice system.

  9. Critical appraisal of arguments for the delayed-start design proposed as alternative to the parallel-group randomized clinical trial design in the field of rare disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spineli, Loukia M; Jenz, Eva; Großhennig, Anika; Koch, Armin

    2017-08-17

    A number of papers have proposed or evaluated the delayed-start design as an alternative to the standard two-arm parallel group randomized clinical trial (RCT) design in the field of rare disease. However the discussion is felt to lack a sufficient degree of consideration devoted to the true virtues of the delayed start design and the implications either in terms of required sample-size, overall information, or interpretation of the estimate in the context of small populations. To evaluate whether there are real advantages of the delayed-start design particularly in terms of overall efficacy and sample size requirements as a proposed alternative to the standard parallel group RCT in the field of rare disease. We used a real-life example to compare the delayed-start design with the standard RCT in terms of sample size requirements. Then, based on three scenarios regarding the development of the treatment effect over time, the advantages, limitations and potential costs of the delayed-start design are discussed. We clarify that delayed-start design is not suitable for drugs that establish an immediate treatment effect, but for drugs with effects developing over time, instead. In addition, the sample size will always increase as an implication for a reduced time on placebo resulting in a decreased treatment effect. A number of papers have repeated well-known arguments to justify the delayed-start design as appropriate alternative to the standard parallel group RCT in the field of rare disease and do not discuss the specific needs of research methodology in this field. The main point is that a limited time on placebo will result in an underestimated treatment effect and, in consequence, in larger sample size requirements compared to those expected under a standard parallel-group design. This also impacts on benefit-risk assessment.

  10. Examining the Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Identity Scale Among Members of an Alternative Sexuality Special Interest Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Robert J; Golom, Frank D; Gemberling, Tess M; Trost, Kristen; Lewis, Robin; Wright, Susan

    2018-05-01

    The present study contributes to a growing body of literature developing psychometrically and theoretically grounded measures of sexual orientation minority identity. We tested psychometric properties and construct validity of a 27-item measure, the Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Identity Scale (LGBIS). The sample consisted of 475 adult (178 male, 237 female, 16 male-to-female, 14 female-to-male, and 30 gender queer persons) members of a special interest group, the National Coalition for Sexual Freedom. Participants completed a health needs questionnaire. Prominent findings included (1) confirmatory factor-analytic, internal consistency, and inter-correlation patterns support two LGBIS factor structures; (2) men, compared primarily to women, reported elevated scores on Acceptance Concerns, Concealment Motivation, Difficulty Process, and Negative Identity; (3) queer-identifying persons tended to report low Concealment Motivation, and high Identity Affirmation and Identity Centrality scores; (4) experimenting/fluid-identifying individuals tended toward higher Identity Uncertainty and Negative Identity, and lower Identity Centrality scores; (5) LGB community involvement was negatively associated with Concealment Motivation, Identity Uncertainty, and Negative Identity, and positively associated with Identity Superiority, Identity Affirmation, and Identity Centrality scores; and (6) Acceptance Concerns, Identity Uncertainty, and Internalized Homonegativity displayed significant positive associations with such mental health symptoms as general anxiety and posttraumatic stress. The LGBIS represents a useful approach to evaluating sexual orientation minority identity. Implications for identity theory, research, and practice are provided.

  11. Attitudes and perceptions of three groups of family farmers in Brazil on problems they perceive in raising broilers and alternative feeding strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Almeida, Gustavo Fonseca; Horsted, Klaus; Figueiredo, E. A.

    2015-01-01

    With the purpose to identify alternatives to the use of oil seed crops and cereals in broiler feeding, we interviewed 21 family farmers raising broilers in alternative systems located in three relevant sites for the poultry industry in Brazil. Two groups in the south (Parana and Rio Grande do Sul......) were organized in cooperatives raising slow-growing broilers in free-range systems. The third group was linked to a broiler company in the state of Sao Paulo producing antibiotic-free (AF) broilers in intensive systems. Individual assessments were performed through surveys with semi......-structured questions. Nutrient supply was heavily dependent on maize and soy. Free-range broilers were normally raised with access to outdoor areas in permanent paddocks with very little vegetation available. In the three sites, the finishing period of broilers was the production stage with higher feed supplementation....... In addition, farmers producing AF broilers highlighted subclinical coccidiosis as of high economic importance. Production of slow-growing broilers in free-range systems would benefit from local resources for the finishing period. Novel feeding strategies for broilers are suggested based on the farmers’ report...

  12. Estimating Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness With the Test-Negative Design Using Alternative Control Groups: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shuo; Cowling, Benjamin J; Kelly, Heath; Sullivan, Sheena G

    2018-02-01

    One important assumption in case-control studies is that control selection should be independent of exposure. Nevertheless, it has been hypothesized that virus interference might lead to a correlation between receipt of influenza vaccination and increased risk of infection with other respiratory viruses. We investigated whether such a phenomenon might affect a study design commonly used to estimate influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE). We searched publications in MEDLINE, PubMed, and Web of Science. We identified 12 studies using the test-negative design (2011-2017) that reported VE estimates separately derived by 3 alternative control groups: 1) all patients testing negative for influenza (FLU), VEFLU-; 2) patients who tested positive for other/another respiratory virus (ORV), VEORV+; and 3) patients who tested negative for all viruses in the panel (PAN), VEPAN-. These included VE estimates from 7 countries for all age groups from 2003/2004 to 2013/2014. We observed no difference in vaccination coverage between the ORV-positive and PAN-negative control groups. A total of 63 VEFLU- estimates, 62 VEORV+ estimates, and 33 VEPAN- estimates were extracted. Pooled estimates of the difference in VE (ΔVE) were very similar between groups. In meta-regression, no association was found between the selection of control group and VE estimates. In conclusion, we did not find any differences in VE estimates based on the choice of control group. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Project on Alternative Systems Study - PASS. Comparison of technology of KBS-3, MLH, VLH and VDH concepts by using an expert group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, Lars; Sandstedt, H.

    1992-09-01

    This report constitutes a technical comparison and ranking of four repository concepts for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel, that have been studied by SKB: KBS-3, Medium Long Holes (MLH), Very Long Holes (VLH) and Very Deep Holes (VDH). The technical comparison is part of the project 'Project on Alternative Systems Study, PASS', which was initiated by SKB. With the objective of presenting a ranking of the four concepts. Besides this comparison of Technology the ranking is separately made for Long-term Performance and Safety, and Costs before the merging into one verdict. The ranking regarding Technology was carried out in accordance with the method Analytical Hierarchy Process, AHP, and by the aid of expert judgement in the form of a group consisting of six experts. The AHP method implies that the criteria for comparison are ordered in a hierarchy and that the ranking is carried out by pairwise comparison of the criteria. In the evaluation process a measure of the relative importance of each criterion is obtained. The result of the expert judgement exercise was that each expert individually ranked the four concepts in the following order with the top ranked alternative first: KBS-3, MLH, VLH and VDH. The common opinion among the experts was that the top ranking of KBS-3 is significant and the the major criteria used in the study could change substantially without changing the top ranking of KBS-3

  14. Views and Preferences for Nicotine Products as an Alternative to Smoking: A Focus Group Study of People Living with Mental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Meurk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Background: People living with mental disorders experience a disproportionately higher burden of tobacco-related disease than the general population. Long-term substitution with less harmful nicotine products could reduce the tobacco-related harm among this population. This study investigated the views and preferences of people with mental health disorders about different nicotine products and their use as long-term substitutes for cigarettes. Methods: Semi-structured focus group discussion followed by a brief questionnaire. The discussion transcripts were analysed for content and themes and quantitative data summarised with descriptive statistics. Results: Twenty-nine participants took part in four focus groups. Vaping devices were the most acceptable nicotine products discussed; however preferences for nicotine products were individual and varied along aesthetic, pragmatic, sensory and symbolic dimensions. The concept of tobacco harm reduction was unfamiliar to participants, however they generally agreed with the logic of replacing cigarettes with less harmful nicotine products. Barriers to activating tobacco harm reduction included the symbolism of smoking and quitting; the importance placed on health; the consumer appeal of alternatives; and cost implications. Discussion and Conclusions: Engaging this population in tobacco harm reduction options will require communication that challenges black and white thinking (a conceptual framework in which smoking cigarettes or quitting all nicotine are the only legitimate options as in practice this serves to support the continuance of smoking. Consumers should be encouraged to trial a range of nicotine products to find the most acceptable alternative to smoking that reduces health harms. Providing incentives to switch to nicotine products could help overcome barriers to using less harmful nicotine products among mental health consumers.

  15. Diagnosis-related group (DRG)-based case-mix funding system, a promising alternative for fee for service payment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Cuirong; Wang, Chao; Shen, Chengwu; Wang, Qian

    2018-05-13

    Fee for services (FFS) is the prevailing method of payment in most Chinese public hospitals. Under this retrospective payment system, medical care providers are paid based on medical services and tend to over-treat to maximize their income, thereby contributing to rising medical costs and uncontrollable health expenditures to a large extent. Payment reform needs to be promptly implemented to move to a prospective payment plan. The diagnosis-related group (DRG)-based case-mix payment system, with its superior efficiency and containment of costs, has garnered increased attention and it represents a promising alternative. This article briefly describes the DRG-based case-mix payment system, it comparatively analyzes differences between FFS and case-mix funding systems, and it describes the implementation of DRGs in China. China's social and economic conditions differ across regions, so establishment of a national payment standard will take time and involve difficulties. No single method of provider payment is perfect. Measures to monitor and minimize the negative ethical implications and unintended effects of a DRG-based case-mix payment system are essential to ensuring the lasting social benefits of payment reform in Chinese public hospitals.

  16. Designing augmentative and alternative communication applications: the results of focus groups with speech-language pathologists and parents of children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boster, Jamie B; McCarthy, John W

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain insight from speech-language pathologists (SLPs) and parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) regarding appealing features of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) applications. Two separate 1-hour focus groups were conducted with 8 SLPs and 5 parents of children with ASD to identify appealing design features of AAC Apps, their benefits and potential concerns. Participants were shown novel interface designs for communication mode, play mode and incentive systems. Participants responded to poll questions and provided benefits and drawbacks of the features as part of structured discussion. SLPs and parents identified a range of appealing features in communication mode (customization, animation and colour-coding) as well as in play mode (games and videos). SLPs preferred interfaces that supported motor planning and instruction while parents preferred those features such as character assistants that would appeal to their child. Overall SLPs and parents agreed on features for future AAC Apps. SLPs and parents have valuable input in regards to future AAC app design informed by their experiences with children with ASD. Both groups are key stakeholders in the design process and should be included in future design and research endeavors. Implications for Rehabilitation AAC applications for the iPad are often designed based on previous devices without consideration of new features. Ensuring the design of new interfaces are appealing and beneficial for children with ASD can potentially further support their communication. This study demonstrates how key stakeholders in AAC including speech language pathologists and parents can provide information to support the development of future AAC interface designs. Key stakeholders may be an untapped resource in the development of future AAC interfaces for children with ASD.

  17. Analysis of operational, institutional and international limitations for alternative fuel vehicles and technologies: Means/methods for implementing changes. [Public fleet groups--information needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    This project focused upon the development of an approach to assist public fleet managers in evaluating the characteristics and availability of alternative fuels (AF's) and alternative fuel vehicles (AFV's) that will serve as possible replacements for vehicles currently serving the needs of various public entities. Also of concern were the institutional/international limitations for alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. The City of Detroit and other public agencies in the Detroit area were the particular focus for the activities. As the development and initial stages of use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles proceeds, there will be an increasing need to provide information and guidance to decision-makers regarding differences in requirements and features of these fuels and vehicles. There wig be true differences in requirements for servicing, managing, and regulating. There will also be misunderstanding and misperception. There have been volumes of data collected on AFV'S, and as technology is improved, new data is constantly added. There are not, however, condensed and effective sources of information for public vehicle fleet managers on vehicle and equipment sources, characteristics, performance, costs, and environmental benefits. While theoretical modeling of public fleet requirements has been done, there do not seem to be readily available practical''. There is a need to provide the best possible information and means to minimize the problems for introducing the effective use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles.

  18. The procedure of alternative site selection within the report of the study group on the radioactive waste final repository selection process (AKEnd); Das Verfahren der alternativen Standortsuche im Bericht des Arbeitskreises Auswahlverfahren Endlagerstandorte (AKEnd)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenner, M. [Jena Univ. (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The paper discusses the results of the report of the study group on the radioactive waste final repository selection process with respect to the alternative site selection procedure. Key points of the report are the long-term safety, the alternativity of sites and the concept of one repository. The critique on this report is focussed on the topics site selection and licensing procedures, civil participation, the factor time and the question of cost.

  19. Alternative security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weston, B.H.

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters: The Military and Alternative Security: New Missions for Stable Conventional Security; Technology and Alternative Security: A Cherished Myth Expires; Law and Alternative Security: Toward a Just World Peace; Politics and Alternative Security: Toward a More Democratic, Therefore More Peaceful, World; Economics and Alternative Security: Toward a Peacekeeping International Economy; Psychology and Alternative Security: Needs, Perceptions, and Misperceptions; Religion and Alternative Security: A Prophetic Vision; and Toward Post-Nuclear Global Security: An Overview

  20. Who Are the Students Who May Qualify for an Alternate Assessment Based on Modified Academic Achievement Standards (AA-MAS)?: Focus Group Results. Synthesis Report 79

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Sandra; Ebben, Barbara; Kubinski, Eva; Sim, Grant; Liu, Kristin; Lazarus, Sheryl; Thurlow, Martha; Christian, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Beginning in 2007, federal regulations to two major education laws gave state departments of education the option to develop an alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS) for some students with disabilities. The regulations stated that the AA-MAS was intended for students who were being instructed in the grade-level…

  1. Alternative additives; Alternative additiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-08-15

    In this project a number of industrial and agricultural waste products have been characterised and evaluated in terms of alkali-getter performance. The intended use is for biomass-fired power stations aiming at reducing corrosion or slagging related problems. The following products have been obtained, characterised and evaluated: 1) Brewery draff 2) Danish de-gassed manure 3) Paper sludge 4) Moulding sand 5) Spent bleaching earth 6) Anorthosite 7) Sand 8) Clay-sludge. Most of the above alternative additive candidates are deemed unsuitable due to insufficient chemical effect and/or expensive requirements for pre-treatment (such as drying and transportation). 3 products were selected for full-scale testing: de-gassed manure, spent bleaching earth and clay slugde. The full scale tests were undertaken at the biomass-fired power stations in Koege, Slagelse and Ensted. Spent bleaching earth (SBE) and clay sludge were the only tested additive candidates that had a proven ability to react with KCl, to thereby reduce Cl-concentrations in deposits, and reduce the deposit flux to superheater tubes. Their performance was shown to nearly as good as commercial additives. De-gassed manure, however, did not evaluate positively due to inhibiting effects of Ca in the manure. Furthermore, de-gassed manure has a high concentration of heavy metals, which imposes a financial burden with regard to proper disposal of the ash by-products. Clay-sludge is a wet clay slurring, and drying and transportation of this product entails substantial costs. Spent bleaching does not require much pre-treatment and is therefore the most promising alternative additive. On the other hand, bleaching earth contains residual plant oil which means that a range of legislation relating to waste combustion comes into play. Not least a waste combustion fee of 330 DKK/tonne. For all alternative (and commercial) additives disposal costs of the increase ash by-products represents a significant cost. This is

  2. Is mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy a safe alternative to extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy in pediatric age group in borderline stones? a randomized prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farouk, Ahmed; Tawfick, Ahmed; Shoeb, Mohamed; Mahmoud, Mahmoud A; Mostafa, Diaa Eldin; Hasan, Mohamed; Abdalla, Hany M

    2018-02-15

    The extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) remains the most common first line of treatment for renal stones in the pediatric population. The purpose of this study is to evaluate and compare the outcomes of the ESWL and mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy (mini-PCNL). A total of 108 patients younger than 12 years of age with 1-2 cm single renal stone (pelvic or calyceal) were randomized into two groups, each containing 54 patients. Patients in group A were subjected to mini-PCNL using 16.5 Fr percutaneous sheath while those in group B underwent ESWL using Dornier Compact Sigma. The stone-free rate (SFR) after first session was 88.9% (48 cases) and 55.6% (30 cases) for groups A and B, respectively. The difference is highly statistically significant P = 0.006. Two patients (3.7%) in group A needed 2nd session of PCNL, while 18 patients (33.3%)in group B needed a 2nd session, of theses 18 patients six patients needed a 3rd session of ESWL. After the third session of ESWL and second look PCNL the stone-free rates were 92.59% (50 cases) and 88.89% (48 cases) for groups A and B, respectively, (P = 0.639), which is statistically insignificant. The mean hospital stay and fluoroscopy exposure were significantly longer in the mini-PCNL group. The complication rate in groups A and group B were (22.2%) and (14.8%), respectively, which is statistically insignificant (P = 0.484). According to Clavien grade of complications mini-PCNL is a safe procedure, and after three session of ESWL, mini-PCNL has a similar stone-free rate with a lower retreatment rate. However, the mini-PCNL has more radiation exposure, and requires a longer hospital stay.

  3. A quantum mechanical alternative to the Arrhenius equation in the interpretation of proton spin-lattice relaxation data for the methyl groups in solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernatowicz, Piotr; Shkurenko, Aleksander; Osior, Agnieszka; Kamieński, Bohdan; Szymański, Sławomir

    2015-11-21

    The theory of nuclear spin-lattice relaxation in methyl groups in solids has been a recurring problem in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The current view is that, except for extreme cases of low torsional barriers where special quantum effects are at stake, the relaxation behaviour of the nuclear spins in methyl groups is controlled by thermally activated classical jumps of the methyl group between its three orientations. The temperature effects on the relaxation rates can be modelled by Arrhenius behaviour of the correlation time of the jump process. The entire variety of relaxation effects in protonated methyl groups have recently been given a consistent quantum mechanical explanation not invoking the jump model regardless of the temperature range. It exploits the damped quantum rotation (DQR) theory originally developed to describe NMR line shape effects for hindered methyl groups. In the DQR model, the incoherent dynamics of the methyl group include two quantum rate (i.e., coherence-damping) processes. For proton relaxation only one of these processes is relevant. In this paper, temperature-dependent proton spin-lattice relaxation data for the methyl groups in polycrystalline methyltriphenyl silane and methyltriphenyl germanium, both deuterated in aromatic positions, are reported and interpreted in terms of the DQR model. A comparison with the conventional approach exploiting the phenomenological Arrhenius equation is made. The present observations provide further indications that incoherent motions of molecular moieties in the condensed phase can retain quantum character over much broader temperature range than is commonly thought.

  4. Quantum mechanical alternative to Arrhenius equation in the interpretation of proton spin-lattice relaxation data for the methyl groups in solids

    KAUST Repository

    Bernatowicz, Piotr

    2015-10-01

    Theory of nuclear spin-lattice relaxation in methyl groups in solids has been a recurring problem in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The current view is that, except for extreme cases of low torsional barriers where special quantum effects are at stake, the relaxation behaviour of the nuclear spins in methyl groups is controlled by thermally activated classical jumps of the methyl group between its three orientations. The temperature effects on the relaxation rates can be modelled by Arrhenius behaviour of the correlation time of the jump process. The entire variety of relaxation effects in protonated methyl groups has recently been given a consistently quantum mechanical explanation not invoking the jump model regardless of the temperature range. It exploits the damped quantum rotation (DQR) theory originally developed to describe NMR line shape effects for hindered methyl groups. In the DQR model, the incoherent dynamics of the methyl group include two quantum rate, i.e., coherence-damping processes. For proton relaxation only one of these processes is relevant. In this paper, temperature-dependent proton spin-lattice relaxation data for the methyl groups in polycrystalline methyltriphenyl silane and methyltriphenyl germanium, both deuterated in aromatic positions, are reported and interpreted in terms of the DQR model. A comparison with the conventional approach exploiting the phenomenological Arrhenius equation is made. The present observations provide further indications that incoherent motions of molecular moieties in condensed phase can retain quantum character over much broad temperature range than is commonly thought.

  5. The Integration of Family and Group Therapy as an Alternative to Juvenile Incarceration: A Quasi-Experimental Evaluation Using Parenting with Love and Limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Eli A; Sterrett, Emma M; Kiaer, Lynn

    2017-06-01

    The current study employed a quasi-experimental design using both intent-to-treat and protocol adherence analysis of 155 moderate- to high-risk juvenile offenders to evaluate the effectiveness of Parenting with Love and Limits® (PLL), an integrative group and family therapy approach. Youth completing PLL had significantly lower rates of recidivism than the comparison group. Parents also reported statistically significant improvements in youth behavior. Lengths of service were also significantly shorter for the treatment sample than the matched comparison group by an average of 4 months. This study contributes to the literature by suggesting that intensive community-based combined family and group treatment is effective in curbing recidivism among high-risk juveniles. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  6. Quantum mechanical alternative to Arrhenius equation in the interpretation of proton spin-lattice relaxation data for the methyl groups in solids

    KAUST Repository

    Bernatowicz, Piotr; Shkurenko, Aleksander; Osior, Agnieszka; Kamieński, Bohdan; Szymański, Sławomir

    2015-01-01

    Theory of nuclear spin-lattice relaxation in methyl groups in solids has been a recurring problem in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The current view is that, except for extreme cases of low torsional barriers where special quantum

  7. Alternative Remedies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home › Aging & Health A to Z › Alternative Remedies Font ... medical treatment prescribed by their healthcare provider. Using this type of alternative therapy along with traditional treatments is ...

  8. Alternative Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative fuels include gaseous fuels such as hydrogen, natural gas, and propane; alcohols such as ethanol, methanol, and butanol; vegetable and waste-derived oils; and electricity. Overview of alternative fuels is here.

  9. Alternating Hemiplegia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the symptoms of the disorder. View Full Definition Treatment Drug therapy including verapamil may help to reduce the ... the more serious form of alternating hemiplegia × ... Definition Alternating hemiplegia is a rare neurological disorder that ...

  10. Alternative loop rings

    CERN Document Server

    Goodaire, EG; Polcino Milies, C

    1996-01-01

    For the past ten years, alternative loop rings have intrigued mathematicians from a wide cross-section of modern algebra. As a consequence, the theory of alternative loop rings has grown tremendously. One of the main developments is the complete characterization of loops which have an alternative but not associative, loop ring. Furthermore, there is a very close relationship between the algebraic structures of loop rings and of group rings over 2-groups. Another major topic of research is the study of the unit loop of the integral loop ring. Here the interaction between loop rings and group ri

  11. The procedure of alternative site selection within the report of the study group on the radioactive waste final repository selection process (AKEnd)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nies, A.

    2005-01-01

    The study group on the selection procedures of radioactive waste final repository sites has presented the report in December 2002. The author dicusses the consequences of this report with respect to the site selection focussing on two topics: the serach for the best possible site and the prevention of prejudices

  12. Attributions of the "causes" of group performance as an alternative explanation of the relationship between organizational citizenship behavior and organizational performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachrach, D G; Bendoly, E; Podsakoff, P M

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the possibility that feedback regarding team performance may influence team members' reports of organizational citizenship behaviors. Ninety-five teams of business students (N = 412) participated in a labor-scheduling simulation over a local area network. Teams were provided with false negative, false positive, or neutral feedback regarding their performance. Results support the hypothesis that the perception of 2 forms of organizational citizenship behavior (helping behavior and civic virtue) in work groups may, in part. be a function of the nature of the performance feedback that group members receive. However, negative feedback appears to play a more critical role than positive feedback in this attributional process. Possible reasons for these findings, as well as their implications, are discussed.

  13. Tribimaximal neutrino mixing from A4 replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carone, Christopher D.; Lebed, Richard F.

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by dimensional deconstruction, we propose a model of tribimaximal neutrino mixing based on A 4 xA 4 symmetry. In this model, the two triplet symmetry-breaking fields of conventional A 4 models are taken to transform under different A 4 group factors, but are not distinguished by any other quantum numbers. An additional bi-triplet flavor field breaks A 4 xA 4 to its diagonal subgroup. If the bi-triplet transforms under an additional Z 3 symmetry, we show that one can construct a general, renormalizable superpotential that yields the desired pattern of symmetry breaking. We identify the features that this model has in common with a deconstructed 5D theory in which A 4 is a subgroup of a continuous gauged flavor symmetry in the bulk.

  14. Rapidly alternating combination of cisplatin-based chemotherapy and hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy in split course for Stage IIIA and Stage IIIB non-small cell lung cancer: results of a Phase I-II study by the GOTHA group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberto, P.; Mermillod, B. [Hopital Cantonal Geneve, Geneva (Switzerland); Mirimanoff, R.O.; Leyvraz, S.; Nagy-Mignotte, H.; Bolla, M.; Wellmann, D.; Moro, D.; Brambilla, E. [Hopital Cantonal Universitaire, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1995-08-01

    The prognosis of stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) can be improved by a combination of radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy (CT). In this study, the GOTHA group evaluated the feasibility, tolerance, tumour response, pattern of failure and effect on survival of a combination alternating accelerated hyperfractionated (AH) RT and CT in patients with tumour stage III NSCLC. Toxic effects were leucopenia, nausea and vomiting, mucositis, diarrhoea, alopecia and peripheral neuropathy. Alternating CT and AHRT, as used in this study, were well tolerated and allowed full dose delivery within less than 12 weeks. Initial response was not predictive of survival. The survival curve is encouraging and the 5 year survival is superior to the 5% generally observed with conventionally fractionated radiotherapy. (author).

  15. Alternative methods in the St-Lawrence : challenges and decision making process according to the Quebec region working group on marine spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenon, S.; Boule, M.

    2003-01-01

    Petroleum products are transported through the St-Lawrence River where there are several sensitive shoreline areas. A full array of currently available response methods is needed in order to provide adequate protection to the ecosystems. In the past, the use of dispersants and in-situ burning was traditionally prevented due to a lack of scientific knowledge and misconception regarding their merits as a spill response method. A working group was formed with representatives from the provincial and federal governments, as well as industry in Quebec, to address the scientific issues relating to spill response in the St-Lawrence. Tools to streamline the decision making process for dispersant use and in-situ burning were developed by the working group over the last two years. The tools include evaluation procedures to recommend, when appropriate, the use of dispersant and in-situ burning. The challenges associated with dispersant use in the St-Lawrence were discussed along with decision making procedures and their rationale. 5 refs

  16. EphA4 defines a class of excitatory locomotor-related interneurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butt, S. J B; Lundfald, Line; Kiehn, Ole

    2005-01-01

    of these interneurons provide direct excitation to ipsilateral motor neurons as determined by spike-triggered averaging of the local ventral root DC trace. Our findings substantiate the role of EphA4-positive interneurons as significant components of the ipsilateral locomotor network and describe a group of putative...... of the role of these cells in the network. One such marker is the EphA4 axon guidance receptor. EphA4-null mice display an abnormal rabbit-like hopping gait that is thought to be the result of synchronization of the normally alternating, bilateral locomotor network via aberrant crossed connections....... In this study, we have performed whole-cell patch clamp on EphA4-positive interneurons in the flexor region (L2) of the locomotor network. We provide evidence that although EphA4 positive interneurons are not entirely a homogeneous population, most of them fire in a rhythmic manner. Moreover, a subset...

  17. Alternative wastewatersystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyck-Madsen, Søren; Hoffmann, Birgitte; Gabriel, Søren

    1999-01-01

    The report:-  Communicates experiences from Swedish buildings from the establishment and running of alternative wastewater systems. Communicates pictures of alternative buildings and wastewater systems in Sweden. Gives a short evaluation of the performance and the sustainability of the systems....

  18. [The knowledge of students and teachers of selected groups about the OTC drugs containing codeine and pseudoephedrine--an alternative to "legal highs"?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwińska-Mossoń, Mariola; Marcinkiewicz, Marcin; Marciniak, Katarzyna; Milnerowicz, Halina

    2015-01-01

    Currently the youth to intoxication increasingly used drugs generally available over the counter (OTC, Over-The-Counter drug) containing psychotropic substances. The knowledge on the subject among parents and teachers is inadequate. The aim of the study is to assess the knowledge of students and teachers about OTC drugs containing codeine or pseudoephedrine and their consequences on the use and popularity of these drugs. The study was conducted from December 2014 to March 2015 of 93 respondents. In conducting the study used research tool in the form of an anonymous questionnaire consisting of 21 questions for the students and teachers of 16 questions, the questions relate knowledge of the studied group persons on the OTC drugs containing codeine or pseudoephedrine and the effects of their use. Among the students participating in the study, the majority of respondents are aware that using drugs containing codeine or pseudoephedrine can be addicted to them. Higher knowledge on this subject have demonstrated high school students, but less teachers. Most of the respondents had knowledge about the health effects that result from an overdose of these drugs. Among the students most frequently reported sources of knowledge about OTC drugs containing codeine or pseudoephedrine were friends and the Internet. The general knowledge of high school students and teachers on the effects of OTC medications containing codeine or pseudoephedrine is not sufficient. There is a need to conduct preventive and educational action aimed at increasing knowledge among youth and adults on the health effects of these drugs.

  19. The Scl1 protein of M6-type group A Streptococcus binds the human complement regulatory protein, factor H, and inhibits the alternative pathway of complement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caswell, Clayton C; Han, Runlin; Hovis, Kelley M; Ciborowski, Pawel; Keene, Douglas R; Marconi, Richard T; Lukomski, Slawomir

    2008-02-01

    Non-specific activation of the complement system is regulated by the plasma glycoprotein factor H (FH). Bacteria can avoid complement-mediated opsonization and phagocytosis through acquiring FH to the cell surface. Here, we characterize an interaction between the streptococcal collagen-like protein Scl1.6 of M6-type group A Streptococcus (GAS) and FH. Using affinity chromatography with immobilized recombinant Scl1.6 protein, we co-eluted human plasma proteins with molecular weight of 155 kDa, 43 kDa and 38 kDa. Mass spectrometry identified the 155 kDa band as FH and two other bands as isoforms of the FH-related protein-1. The identities of all three bands were confirmed by Western immunoblotting with specific antibodies. Structure-function relation studies determined that the globular domain of the Scl1.6 variant specifically binds FH while fused to collagenous tails of various lengths. This binding is not restricted to Scl1.6 as the phylogenetically linked Scl1.55 variant also binds FH. Functional analyses demonstrated the cofactor activity of the rScl1.6-bound FH for factor I-mediated cleavage of C3b. Finally, purified FH bound to the Scl1.6 protein present in the cell wall material obtained from M6-type GAS. In conclusion, we have identified a functional interaction between Scl1 and plasma FH, which may contribute to GAS evasion of complement-mediated opsonization and phagocytosis.

  20. Alternative Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, M.; Duckers, L.; Lockett, P.; Loughridge, B.; Peatfield, T.; White, P.

    1984-01-01

    The Coventry (Lanchester) Polytechnic Wave Energy Group has been involved in the United Kingdom wave energy research programme since its inception in 1975. Whilst the work of the group is mainly concerned with wave energy, and currently is directed towards the design of a wave energy device tailored to the needs of isolated/island communities, it has some involvement with other aspects of the alternatives. This conference, dealing with alternative energy systems and their electrical integration and utilisation was engendered by the general interest which the Polytechnic group members have in the alternatives and their use. The scope for electrical integration and utilisation is very broad. Energy for family groups may be provided in a relatively unsophisticated way which is acceptable to them. Small population centres, for example island communities relying upon diesel equipment, can reap the benefits of the alternatives through their ability to accept novel integration schemes and a flexible approach to the use of the energy available. Consumers already enjoying the benefits of a 'firm' electricity grid supply can use energy from a variety of alternative systems, via the grid, without having to modify their energy consumption habits. In addition to the domestic and industrial applications and coastal possibilities, specialist applications in isolated environments have also emerged. The Proceedings detail practical, technical and economic aspects of the alternatives and their electrical integration and utilisation.

  1. How alternative are alternative fuels?

    OpenAIRE

    Soffritti, Tiziana; Danielis, Romeo

    1998-01-01

    Could alternative fuel vehicles contribute to a substantial reduction of air pollution? Is there a market for alternative fuel vehicles? Could a market be created via a pollution tax? The article answers these questions on the basis of the available estimates.

  2. Alternative detox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, E

    2012-01-01

    The concept that alternative therapies can eliminate toxins and toxicants from the body, i.e. 'alternative detox' (AD) is popular. Selected textbooks and articles on the subject of AD. The principles of AD make no sense from a scientific perspective and there is no clinical evidence to support them. The promotion of AD treatments provides income for some entrepreneurs but has the potential to cause harm to patients and consumers. In alternative medicine, simplistic but incorrect concepts such as AD abound. AREAS TIMELY FOR RESEARCH: All therapeutic claims should be scientifically tested before being advertised-and AD cannot be an exception.

  3. The alternative site selection procedure as covered in the report by the Repository Site Selection Procedures Working Group; Das Verfahren der alternativen Standortsuche im Bericht des Arbeitskreises Auswahlverfahren Endlagerstandorte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenner, M. [Jena Univ. (Germany). Juristische Fakultaet

    2005-01-01

    The 2002 Act on the Regulated Termination of the Use of Nuclear Power for Industrial Electricity Generation declared Germany's opting out of the peaceful uses of nuclear power. The problem of the permanent management of radioactive residues is becoming more and more important also in the light of that political decision. At the present time, there are no repositories offering the waste management capacities required. Such facilities need to be created. At the present stage, eligible repository sites are the Konrad mine, a former iron ore mine near Salzgitter, and the Gorleben salt dome. While the fate of the Konrad mine as a repository for waste generating negligible amounts of heat continues to be uncertain, despite a plan approval decision of June 2002, the Gorleben repository is still in the planning phase, at present in a dormant state, so to speak. The federal government expressed doubt about the suitability of the Gorleben site. Against this backdrop, the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, and Nuclear Safety in February 1999 established AkEnd, the Working Group on Repository Site Selection Procedures. The Group was charged with developing, based on sound scientific criteria, a transparent site selection procedure in order to facilitate the search for repository sites. The Working Group presented its final report in December 2002 after approximately four years of work. The Group's proposals about alternative site selection procedures are explained in detail and, above all, reviewed critically. (orig.)

  4. Cosmic alternatives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Ruth

    2009-04-01

    "Cosmologists are often in error but never in doubt." This pithy characterization by the Soviet physicist Lev Landau sums up the raison d'être of Facts and Speculations in Cosmology. Authors Jayant Narlikar and Geoffrey Burbidge are proponents of a "steady state" theory of cosmology, and they argue that the cosmological community has become fixated on a "Big Bang" dogma, suppressing alternative viewpoints. This book very much does what it says on the tin: it sets out what is known in cosmology, and puts forward the authors' point of view on an alternative to the Big Bang.

  5. Growing Alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Petersen, Mai Corlin

    2014-01-01

    From 2014, Anhui Province will pilot a reform of the residential land market in China, thus integrating rural Anhui in the national housing market. In contrast, artist and activist Ou Ning has proposed the Bishan time money currency, intending to establish an alternative economic circuit in Bishan...

  6. Alternative Veier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Tove Elisabeth; Salamonsen, Anita

    reflektioner omkring patienters brug af og erfaringer med alternativ behandling. Patientorganisationer, organisatoner for alternative behandlere og organisationer for læger og medicinstuderende har læst bogens patienthistorier og deres perspektiver lægges frem. Til slut i bogen diskuteres betydningen af de...

  7. Alternative drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, M E; Chenoweth, J; Albertson, T E

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of drug abuse with alternative agents is increasing. The term "alternative drugs of abuse" is a catch-all term for abused chemicals that do not fit into one of the classic categories of drugs of abuse. The most common age group abusing these agents range from 17 to 25 years old and are often associated with group settings. Due to their diverse pharmacological nature, legislative efforts to classify these chemicals as a schedule I drug have lagged behind the development of new alternative agents. The potential reason for abuse of these agents is their hallucinogenic, dissociative, stimulant, anti-muscarinic, or sedative properties. Some of these drugs are easily obtainable such as Datura stramonium (Jimson Weed) or Lophophora williamsii (Peyote) because they are natural plants indigenous to certain regions. The diverse pharmacology and clinical effects of these agents are so broad that they do not produce a universal constellation of signs and symptoms. Detailed physical exams are essential for identifying clues leading one to suspect an alternative drug of abuse. Testing for the presence of these agents is often limited, and even when available, the results do not return in a timely fashion. Intoxications from these agents pose unique challenges for health care providers. Physician knowledge of the physiological effects of these alternative agents and the local patterns of drug of abuse are important for the accurate diagnosis and optimal care of poisoned patients. This review summarizes the current knowledge of alternative drugs of abuse and highlights their clinical presentations.

  8. Energy alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweet, C.

    1987-01-01

    The designated successor to fossil fuels is nuclear fission/fusion and that turns out to be problematic. Alternative Energy Systems have great potential but political forces seem to be hampering their development and introduction. The technologies are flexible in their use and scale of operation. The learning curve will not be short but neither will it be as long and as costly as nuclear power. It is time that this is recognised and some serious rethinking takes place in what presently passes for energy policies both in the industrialised countries and in the Third World. Alternative energy systems are defined and some of them which are relevant to the United Kingdom are discussed. (author)

  9. Alternative detente

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soper, K.; Ryle, M.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of the Chernobyl accident on the disarmament and anti-nuclear movements is discussed. The accident directed attention towards the areas in common rather than the areas of disagreement. It also demonstrated the environmental impact of radioactivity, strengthening the ecological case of the anti-nuclear movement. The issues are discussed for the Western and Eastern bloc countries and the relationship between the two. Sections focus on the Eco-protest, Green politics and economics and on the politics of minority protest and the Green alternative. (U.K.)

  10. Alternative crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreasen, L.M.; Boon, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    Surplus cereal production in the EEC and decreasing product prices, mainly for cereals, has prompted considerable interest for new earnings in arable farming. The objective was to examine whether suggested new crops (fibre, oil, medicinal and alternative grains crops) could be considered as real alternatives. Whether a specific crop can compete economically with cereals and whether there is a market demand for the crop is analyzed. The described possibilities will result in ca. 50,000 hectares of new crops. It is expected that they would not immediately provide increased earnings, but in the long run expected price developments are more positive than for cereals. The area for new crops will not solve the current surplus cereal problem as the area used for new crops is only 3% of that used for cereals. Preconditions for many new crops is further research activities and development work as well as the establishment of processing units and organizational initiatives. Presumably, it is stated, there will then be a basis for a profitable production of new crops for some farmers. (AB) (47 refs.)

  11. Energy alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    English. A special committe of the Canadian House of Commons was established on 23 May 1980 to investigate the use of alternative energy sources such as 'gasohol', liquified coal, solar energy, methanol, wind and tidal power, biomass, and propane. In its final report, the committee envisions an energy system for Canada based on hydrogen and electricity, using solar and geothermal energy for low-grade heat. The committe was not able to say which method of generating electricty would dominate in the next century, although it recommends that fossil fuels should not be used. The fission process is not specifically discussed, but the outlook for fusion was investigated, and continued governmental support of fusion research is recommended. The report proposes some improvements in governmental energy organizations and programs

  12. Alternative Immune Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Cadavid Gutierrez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The immune system in animals is a complex network of molecules, cells and tissues that coordinately maintain the physiological and genetic integrity of the organism. Traditionally, two classes of immunity have been considered, the innate immunity and the adaptive immunity. The former is ancestral, with limited variability and low discrimination. The latter is highly variable, specific and limited to jawed vertebrates. Adaptive immunity is based on antigen receptors that rearrange somatically to generate a nearly unlimited diversity of molecules. Likely, this mechanism of somatic recombination arose as a consequence of a horizontal transfer of transposons and transposases from bacterial genomes in the ancestor of jawed vertebrates. The recent discovery in jawless vertebrates and invertebrates of alternative adaptive immune mechanisms, suggests during evolution different animal groups have found alternative solutions to the problem of immune recognition.

  13. Proposed alternatives for international plutonium storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Montmollin, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    The IAEA Director General convened an Expert Group in December 1978, to study proposals for implementing some form of IPS. The Group labored for three years, developing details of a single proposed concept. In early 1982 a group of developing countries proposed a different and less-restrictive scheme, which was labeled Alternative B. In response, three other countries proposed a scheme more restrictive than the original Alternative A. The Expert Group forwarded all three alternatives to the Board of Governors, without recommendation, in its final report. In this paper the features that distinguish each of the alternatives are described

  14. Performance evaluation of the Bio-Rad Laboratories GS HIV Combo Ag/Ab EIA, a 4th generation HIV assay for the simultaneous detection of HIV p24 antigen and antibodies to HIV-1 (groups M and O) and HIV-2 in human serum or plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentsen, Christopher; McLaughlin, Lisa; Mitchell, Elizabeth; Ferrera, Carol; Liska, Sally; Myers, Robert; Peel, Sheila; Swenson, Paul; Gadelle, Stephane; Shriver, M Kathleen

    2011-12-01

    A multi-center study was conducted to evaluate the Bio-Rad GS HIV Combo Ag/Ab EIA, a 4th generation HIV-1/HIV-2 assay for the simultaneous detection of HIV p24 antigen and antibodies to HIV-1 (groups M and O) and HIV-2 in human serum or plasma in adult and pediatric populations. The objectives of the study were to assess assay performance for the detection of acute HIV infections; sensitivity in known HIV positive samples; percent agreement with HIV status; specificity in low and high risk individuals of unknown HIV status; and to compare assay performance to a 3rd generation HIV assay. The evaluation included testing 9150 samples at four U.S. clinical trial sites, using three kit lots. Unlinked samples were from routine testing, repositories or purchased from vendors. GS HIV Combo Ag/Ab EIA detection in samples from individuals in two separate populations with acute HIV infection was 95.2% (20/21) and 86.4% (38/44). Sensitivity was 100% (1603/1603) in known antibody positive [HIV-1 Groups M and O, and HIV-2] samples. HIV p24 antigen detection was 100% (53/53) in HIV-1 culture supernatants. HIV-1 seroconversion panel detection improved by a range of 0-20 days compared to a 3rd generation HIV test. Specificity was 99.9% (5989/5996) in low risk, 99.9% (959/960) in high risk and 100% (100/100) in pediatric populations. The GS HIV Combo Ag/Ab EIA significantly reduced the diagnostic window when compared to the 3rd generation screening assay, enabling earlier diagnosis of HIV infection. The performance parameters of the Bio-Rad GS HIV Combo Ag/Ab EIA are well suited for use in HIV diagnostic settings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Alternative Fuel Guidelines for Alternative Transportation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    The Volpe Center documented the increased use of alternative fuels on vehicles owned and operated by federal land management agencies. For each alternative fuel type, the Volpe Center documented the availability of vehicles, fueling mechanisms and pr...

  16. Bell's inequality without alternative settings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabello, Adan

    2003-01-01

    A suitable generalized measurement described by a 4-element positive operator-valued measure (POVM) on each particle of a two-qubit system in the singlet state is, from the point of view of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen's (EPR's) criterion of elements of reality, equivalent to a random selection between two alternative projective measurements. It is shown that an EPR-experiment with a fixed POVM on each particle provides a violation of Bell's inequality without requiring local observers to choose between the alternatives. This approach could be useful for designing a loophole-free test of Bell's inequality

  17. Geometric group theory

    CERN Document Server

    Druţu, Cornelia

    2018-01-01

    The key idea in geometric group theory is to study infinite groups by endowing them with a metric and treating them as geometric spaces. This applies to many groups naturally appearing in topology, geometry, and algebra, such as fundamental groups of manifolds, groups of matrices with integer coefficients, etc. The primary focus of this book is to cover the foundations of geometric group theory, including coarse topology, ultralimits and asymptotic cones, hyperbolic groups, isoperimetric inequalities, growth of groups, amenability, Kazhdan's Property (T) and the Haagerup property, as well as their characterizations in terms of group actions on median spaces and spaces with walls. The book contains proofs of several fundamental results of geometric group theory, such as Gromov's theorem on groups of polynomial growth, Tits's alternative, Stallings's theorem on ends of groups, Dunwoody's accessibility theorem, the Mostow Rigidity Theorem, and quasiisometric rigidity theorems of Tukia and Schwartz. This is the f...

  18. Descrição das noções conceituais sobre os grupos alimentares por professores de 1ª a 4ª série: a necessidade de atualização dos conceitos A description of the conceptual notions about food groups by 1st to 4th grade teachers: the necessity to review the concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Martins Fernandez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Com base na realização de entrevistas individuais com professores de 1ª a 4ª séries em uma amostra de escolas públicas e privadas no Distrito Federal, procurou-se apontar a atualização da classificação dos grupos alimentares segundo exemplos e funções, além da execução de atividades de nutrição e fontes de informação consultadas pelos educadores. Os resultados mostraram associação do consumo dos alimentos energéticos e energéticos extras com uma alimentação inadequada, ao passo que os alimentos construtores e reguladores são identificados como prioritários na alimentação diária. Os livros didáticos destacaram-se como a principal fonte de informação e, em menor destaque, os manuais técnicos de alimentação e profissionais de saúde. Conclui-se que as ações educativas em nutrição precisam ser subsidiadas por professores bem formados e atualizados, além da revisão dos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais (PCNs na perspectiva de um ensino interdisciplinar e intersetorial em alimentação na escola.Individual interviews were carried out with teachers of 1st to 4th grades in a sample of public and private schools in the Federal District, and point out the need to update food classification groups according to examples and function, alongside nutrition activities and the sources of information consulted by educators. Results showed the association of consumption of energetic and extra energetic food with inappropriate food intake, while certain foods are identified as prioritized in a daily food intake. School books were highlighted as the main information source and on a smaller scale technical handbooks on dietary habits and those for health professionals. It is concluded that educative actions in nutrition need to be scrutinised by educated and updated teachers, alongside the revision of the Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais (PCNs (National Curriculum Parameters from the perspective of interdisciplinary and

  19. Alternate superior Julia sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Anju; Rani, Mamta

    2015-01-01

    Alternate Julia sets have been studied in Picard iterative procedures. The purpose of this paper is to study the quadratic and cubic maps using superior iterates to obtain Julia sets with different alternate structures. Analytically, graphically and computationally it has been shown that alternate superior Julia sets can be connected, disconnected and totally disconnected, and also fattier than the corresponding alternate Julia sets. A few examples have been studied by applying different type of alternate structures

  20. 22 CFR 9a.4 - Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Classification. 9a.4 Section 9a.4 Foreign... ENERGY PROGRAMS; RELATED MATERIAL § 9a.4 Classification. (a) Section 1 of E.O. 11932, August 4, 1976.... If the officer determines that the information or material warrants classification, he shall assign...

  1. Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Complementary and Alternative Medicine KidsHealth / For Teens / Complementary and Alternative Medicine What's ... a replacement. How Is CAM Different From Conventional Medicine? Conventional medicine is based on scientific knowledge of ...

  2. Alternative way of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, C.

    1980-01-01

    The volume describes the reasons why more and more people seek alternative ways of life, the theoretical background and what alternative life means in practice as well as the sociological significance and history of the alternative movement. It also contains statements of persons who have 'got out' and advice on energy-saving. (HSCH) [de

  3. Novel mutations of CYP3A4 in Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, K P; Lin, Y Y; Cheng, C L; Lai, M L; Lin, M S; Siest, J P; Huang, J D

    2001-03-01

    groups and its effect on the metabolic activity of CYP3A4 remain to be further evaluated.

  4. Contingent and Alternative Work Arrangements, Defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polivka, Anne E.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the definitions of contingent workers and alternative work arrangements used by the Bureau of Labor Statistics to analyze data, and presents aggregate estimates of the number of workers in each group. Discusses the overlap between contingent workers and workers in alternative arrangements. (Author/JOW)

  5. Depleted uranium management alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.

    1994-08-01

    This report evaluates two management alternatives for Department of Energy depleted uranium: continued storage as uranium hexafluoride, and conversion to uranium metal and fabrication to shielding for spent nuclear fuel containers. The results will be used to compare the costs with other alternatives, such as disposal. Cost estimates for the continued storage alternative are based on a life-cycle of 27 years through the year 2020. Cost estimates for the recycle alternative are based on existing conversion process costs and Capital costs for fabricating the containers. Additionally, the recycle alternative accounts for costs associated with intermediate product resale and secondary waste disposal for materials generated during the conversion process.

  6. Depleted uranium management alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.

    1994-08-01

    This report evaluates two management alternatives for Department of Energy depleted uranium: continued storage as uranium hexafluoride, and conversion to uranium metal and fabrication to shielding for spent nuclear fuel containers. The results will be used to compare the costs with other alternatives, such as disposal. Cost estimates for the continued storage alternative are based on a life-cycle of 27 years through the year 2020. Cost estimates for the recycle alternative are based on existing conversion process costs and Capital costs for fabricating the containers. Additionally, the recycle alternative accounts for costs associated with intermediate product resale and secondary waste disposal for materials generated during the conversion process

  7. Prioritising alternatives for maintenance of water distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-06-26

    Jun 26, 2012 ... This study aimed to support a group decision-making process in the maintenance ... program to prioritise alternatives, simultaneously taking into account .... compensatory method that requires inter-criterion information.

  8. Alternative Auditing Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandt, Alicen J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-15

    This presentation for the 2017 Energy Exchange in Tampa, Florida, offers information about advanced auditing technologies and techniques including alternative auditing approaches and considerations and caveats.

  9. Brandmodstandsbidrag for alternative isoleringsmaterialer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2001-01-01

    Resume af rapport om alternative isoleringsmaterialers brandmodstandsbidrag, udarbejdet af Dansk Brandteknisk Institut under Energistyrelsens udviklingsprogram "Miljø- og arbejdsmiljøvenlig isolering"......Resume af rapport om alternative isoleringsmaterialers brandmodstandsbidrag, udarbejdet af Dansk Brandteknisk Institut under Energistyrelsens udviklingsprogram "Miljø- og arbejdsmiljøvenlig isolering"...

  10. Anvendelse af alternative isoleringsmaterialer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2003-01-01

    Resume af By og Byg Anvisning 207 om anvendelse af alternative isoleringsmaterialer, udarbejdet af Statens Byggeforskningsinstitut under udviklingsprogrammet "Miljø- og arbejdsmiljøvenlig isolering"......Resume af By og Byg Anvisning 207 om anvendelse af alternative isoleringsmaterialer, udarbejdet af Statens Byggeforskningsinstitut under udviklingsprogrammet "Miljø- og arbejdsmiljøvenlig isolering"...

  11. Acquisition of Voicing Alternations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhoff, Annemarie

    "Morpho-phonological alternations are central to phonological theory, but little is known about how they are acquired. Acquiring alternations amounts to dealing with variation in a morpheme’s shape depending on its morphological context. It is generally assumed that children start with an initial

  12. Alternative health insurance schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Hansen, Bodil O.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we present a simple model of health insurance with asymmetric information, where we compare two alternative ways of organizing the insurance market. Either as a competitive insurance market, where some risks remain uninsured, or as a compulsory scheme, where however, the level...... competitive insurance; this situation turns out to be at least as good as either of the alternatives...

  13. Group X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, Susannah

    2007-08-16

    This project is currently under contract for research through the Department of Homeland Security until 2011. The group I was responsible for studying has to remain confidential so as not to affect the current project. All dates, reference links and authors, and other distinguishing characteristics of the original group have been removed from this report. All references to the name of this group or the individual splinter groups has been changed to 'Group X'. I have been collecting texts from a variety of sources intended for the use of recruiting and radicalizing members for Group X splinter groups for the purpose of researching the motivation and intent of leaders of those groups and their influence over the likelihood of group radicalization. This work included visiting many Group X websites to find information on splinter group leaders and finding their statements to new and old members. This proved difficult because the splinter groups of Group X are united in beliefs, but differ in public opinion. They are eager to tear each other down, prove their superiority, and yet remain anonymous. After a few weeks of intense searching, a list of eight recruiting texts and eight radicalizing texts from a variety of Group X leaders were compiled.

  14. VistA 4 Product Roadmap

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VistA 4 Product Roadmap outlines how the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), under the direction of the VistA Evolution Program, will build upon the previous...

  15. Group Flow and Group Genius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Keith Sawyer views the spontaneous collaboration of group creativity and improvisation actions as "group flow," which organizations can use to function at optimum levels. Sawyer establishes ideal conditions for group flow: group goals, close listening, complete concentration, being in control, blending egos, equal participation, knowing…

  16. Advancing Alternative Analysis: Integration of Decision Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Timothy F; Zaunbrecher, Virginia M; Batteate, Christina M; Blake, Ann; Carroll, William F; Corbett, Charles J; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Lempert, Robert J; Linkov, Igor; McFadden, Roger; Moran, Kelly D; Olivetti, Elsa; Ostrom, Nancy K; Romero, Michelle; Schoenung, Julie M; Seager, Thomas P; Sinsheimer, Peter; Thayer, Kristina A

    2017-06-13

    Decision analysis-a systematic approach to solving complex problems-offers tools and frameworks to support decision making that are increasingly being applied to environmental challenges. Alternatives analysis is a method used in regulation and product design to identify, compare, and evaluate the safety and viability of potential substitutes for hazardous chemicals. We assessed whether decision science may assist the alternatives analysis decision maker in comparing alternatives across a range of metrics. A workshop was convened that included representatives from government, academia, business, and civil society and included experts in toxicology, decision science, alternatives assessment, engineering, and law and policy. Participants were divided into two groups and were prompted with targeted questions. Throughout the workshop, the groups periodically came together in plenary sessions to reflect on other groups' findings. We concluded that the further incorporation of decision science into alternatives analysis would advance the ability of companies and regulators to select alternatives to harmful ingredients and would also advance the science of decision analysis. We advance four recommendations: a ) engaging the systematic development and evaluation of decision approaches and tools; b ) using case studies to advance the integration of decision analysis into alternatives analysis; c ) supporting transdisciplinary research; and d ) supporting education and outreach efforts. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP483.

  17. Sports Group: An Alternative Treatment Modality for Emotionally Disturbed Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, J. Emmett; And Others

    1978-01-01

    A therapeutic program of sports activities was instituted for selected adolescents in an out-patient psychiatric clinic. Adolescents who could not benefit maximally from individual psychotherapy and who had problems with self-esteem, body image, and peer relationships were expected to benefit. Results are presented through case illustrations.…

  18. Permutation groups

    CERN Document Server

    Passman, Donald S

    2012-01-01

    This volume by a prominent authority on permutation groups consists of lecture notes that provide a self-contained account of distinct classification theorems. A ready source of frequently quoted but usually inaccessible theorems, it is ideally suited for professional group theorists as well as students with a solid background in modern algebra.The three-part treatment begins with an introductory chapter and advances to an economical development of the tools of basic group theory, including group extensions, transfer theorems, and group representations and characters. The final chapter feature

  19. HL-LHC alternatives

    CERN Document Server

    Tomás, R; White, S

    2014-01-01

    The HL-LHC parameters assume unexplored regimes for hadron colliders in various aspects of accelerator beam dynamics and technology. This paper reviews three alternatives that could potentially improve the LHC performance: (i) the alternative filling scheme 8b+4e, (ii) the use of a 200 MHz RF system in the LHC and (iii) the use of proton cooling methods to reduce the beam emittance (at top energy and at injection). The alternatives are assessed in terms of feasibility, pros and cons, risks versus benefits and the impact on beam availability.

  20. Alternative gravity theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francaviglia, M.

    1990-01-01

    Although general relativity is a well-established discipline the theory deserves efforts aimed at producing alternative or more general frameworks for investigating the classical properties of gravity. These are either devoted to producing alternative viewpoints or interpretations of standard general relativity, or at constructing, discussing and proposing experimental tests for alternative descriptions of the dynamics of the gravitational field and its interaction (or unification) with external matter fields. Classical alternative theories of gravitation can roughly classified as follows; theories based on a still 4-dimensional picture, under the assumption that the dynamics of the gravitational field is more complicated than Einstein's and theories based on higher-dimensional pictures. This leads to supergravity and strings which are not included here. Theories based on higher-dimensional pictures on the assumption that space-time is replaced by a higher-dimensional manifold. Papers on these classifications are reviewed. (author)

  1. Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... therapies are often lacking; therefore, the safety and effectiveness of many CAM therapies are uncertain. The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) is sponsoring research designed to fill this ...

  2. Alternative Menopause Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... menopausal symptoms. These include estrogen—still the most effective treatment for many menopausal symptoms—non-estrogen prescription drugs, and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). What is CAM? CAM refers to practices ...

  3. Seal design alternatives study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Sambeek, L.L.; Luo, D.D.; Lin, M.S.; Ostrowski, W.; Oyenuga, D.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results from a study of various sealing alternatives for the WIPP sealing system. Overall, the sealing system has the purpose of reducing to the extent possible the potential for fluids (either gas or liquid) from entering or leaving the repository. The sealing system is divided into three subsystems: drift and panel seals within the repository horizon, shaft seals in each of the four shafts, and borehole seals. Alternatives to the baseline configuration for the WIPP seal system design included evaluating different geometries and schedules for seal component installations and the use of different materials for seal components. Order-of-magnitude costs for the various alternatives were prepared as part of the study. Firm recommendations are not presented, but the advantages and disadvantages of the alternatives are discussed. Technical information deficiencies are identified and studies are outlined which can provide required information

  4. Bone Graft Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spine Treatment Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND A SPECIALIST Treatments Bone Graft Alternatives Patient Education Committee Patient Education Committee ... procedure such as spinal fusion. What Types of Bone Grafts are There? Bone grafts that are transplanted ...

  5. Alternative Assessment Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenthal, Barbara

    1988-01-01

    Maintaining the precision necessary for administering norm referenced tests can be a problem for the special education teacher who is trained to assist the student. Criterion-referenced tests, observations, and interviews are presented as effective alternative assessment techniques. (JDD)

  6. Evaluation of Expenditure Alternates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehlein, Gary W.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Illustrates a system of calculating dollar expenditures over periods of time in terms of present value. The system enables planners, school boards, and administrators to compare expenditure alternatives as a decisionmaking factor. (Author)

  7. Group devaluation and group identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leach, C.W.; Rodriguez Mosquera, P.M.; Vliek, M.L.W.; Hirt, E.

    2010-01-01

    In three studies, we showed that increased in-group identification after (perceived or actual) group devaluation is an assertion of a (preexisting) positive social identity that counters the negative social identity implied in societal devaluation. Two studies with real-world groups used order

  8. Lie groups and algebraic groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We give an exposition of certain topics in Lie groups and algebraic groups. This is not a complete ... of a polynomial equation is equivalent to the solva- bility of the equation ..... to a subgroup of the group of roots of unity in k (in particular, it is a ...

  9. Alternative fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penn, W.J.

    1979-05-01

    Uranium resource utilization and economic considerations provide incentives to study alternative fuel cycles as future options to the PHWR natural uranium cycle. Preliminary studies to define the most favourable alternatives and their possible introduction dates are discussed. The important and uncertain components which influence option selection are reviewed, including nuclear capacity growth, uranium availability and demand, economic potential, and required technological developments. Finally, a summary of Ontario Hydro's program to further assess cycle selection and define development needs is given. (auth)

  10. The alternative library

    OpenAIRE

    Collinson, Timothy; Williams, A.

    2004-01-01

    Much time and effort has been devoted to designing and developing library Web sites that are easy to navigate by both new students and experienced researchers. In a review of the Southampton Institute Library it was decided that in addition to updating the existing homepage an alternative would be offered. Drawing on theory relating to user interface design, learning styles and creative thinking, an Alternative Library navigation system was added to the more traditional library homepage. The ...

  11. Alternative Aviation Fuels: Overview of Challenges, Opportunities, and Next Steps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-03-28

    The Alternative Aviation Fuels: Overview of Challenges, Opportunities, and Next Steps report, published by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) provides an overview of the current state of alternative aviation fuels, based upon findings from recent peer-reviewed studies, scientific working groups, and BETO stakeholder input provided during the Alternative Aviation Fuel Workshop.

  12. Alternative energy companies : a financier's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aitken, J.

    2002-01-01

    The Canadian energy technology sector can be divided into 2 categories: (1) alternative energy generators which include small hydro, wind, biomass, solar energy and fuel cells, and (2) energy technology services. This presentation focused on publicly traded entities and how financing alternatives are limited to project finance, and venture capital. This situation may change as the long term winners emerge and various segments are recognized as not requiring special regulatory and price incentives. Case studies were presented of financing renewable energy projects and the commitment of the Royal Bank of Canada's (RBC) Financial Group to provide financing for alternative energy projects that impact the transportation sector. 15 figs

  13. 7 CFR 15a.4 - Assurance required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 15a.4 Assurance required. (a) General. Every application for Federal financial assistance for any education program or activity shall as condition of its approval... Federal financial assistance to a transferee which operates any education program or activity, and the...

  14. Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kristy J.; Brickman, Peggy; Brame, Cynthia J.

    2018-01-01

    Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics faculty are increasingly incorporating both formal and informal group work in their courses. Implementing group work can be improved by an understanding of the extensive body of educational research studies on this topic. This essay describes an online, evidence-based teaching guide published by…

  15. Reflection groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggermont, G.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, PISA organised proactive meetings of reflection groups on involvement in decision making, expert culture and ethical aspects of radiation protection.All reflection group meetings address particular targeted audiences while the output publication in book form is put forward

  16. Alternative fuels for vehicles; Alternative drivmidler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-02-15

    Up until 2020 and onwards the analysis indicates that especially electricity, biogas and natural gas as propellants is economically attractive compared to conventional gasoline and diesel while other fuels have the same or higher costs for petrol and diesel. Especially biogas and electricity will also offer significant reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions, but also hydrogen, methanol, DME and to a lesser extent the second generation bioethanol and most of the other alternative fuels reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Use of the traditional food-based first generation biofuels involves, at best, only modest climate benefits if land use changes are counted, and at worst, significant negative climate effects. Natural gas as a propellant involves a moderate climate gain, but may play a role for building infrastructure and market for gaseous fuels in large fleets, thereby contributing to the phasing in of biogas for transport. The electric-based automotive fuels are the most effective due to a high efficiency of the engine and an increasing proportion of wind energy in the electricity supply. The methanol track also has a relatively high efficiency. Among the others, the track based on diesel engines (biodiesel) is more effective than the track based on gasoline/Otto engines (gas and ethanol) as a result of the diesel engine's better efficiency. For the heavy vehicles all the selected alternative fuels to varying degrees reduce emissions of CO{sub 2}, particularly DME based on wood. The only exception to this is - as for passenger cars - the propellant synthetic diesel based on coal. (LN).

  17. on some properties of the alternating sylvester series and alternating

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    . (iii) above is known in literature as the alternating Sylvester series while (iv) is known as the alternating Engel expansion (Kalpazidou and Ganatsiou (1991)). We are interested in studying the properties of these alternating series. Theorem 2: ...

  18. Alternative energy in Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, H.B.; Bhandari, K.P.

    2011-05-15

    Renewable energy Technology (RET) becomes the mainstream option for rural Nepal to access modern source of energy. It focuses on the trend of RET applications consisting of biogas technology, solar thermal, micro and Pico hydropower, biomass technology bio fuel technology, wind power technology etc. The RET's which provide both electricity based as well as non electricity based services, have been shown to most immediately meet the needs of a cleaner indoor environment, better quality lightning for education and income generating, activities, alternative cooking fuels and agro processing as well as rural industries. Improved cooking stoves and much more beneficial than other technologies. Wind energy utilization is still not popular. Solar thermal to generate thermal energy to cook, warm and dry, biogas for lighting and cooking services. Micro hydropower for electric as well as mechanical use and solar PV mainly for domestic lighting may become choice. The most important Renewable Energy Technology (RET's) in Nepal are related to Pico hydropower and micro-hydropower, biomass energy (biogas, briquettes, gasifies, improved cooking stoves, bio-fuels etc.) solar photovoltaic energy, solar PV water pumping, solar thermal energy (solar heater, solar dryers, solar cookers etc.) and wind energy (such as wind generators, wind mills etc.). One renowned Non-governmental organization has been established in the Jhapa and Mornag Bhutanese refugee camp. Two families from all the seven camps in Nepal received one solar cooker, one hay box and two cooking posts to each family. Under this programme, a total of 6,850 solar cookers, 12600 hay boxes and 25,200 cooking pots have been distributed 2009. The number of beneficiaries from this program has reached 85,000. Before the distribution of the cookers and the utensils, the instruction and orientation training for the maintenance and repair and operation method was improved. The refugees were divided in 315 groups of 40

  19. A4 see-saw models and form dominance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, M-C; King, Stephen F.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the idea of Form Dominance in the (type I) see-saw mechanism, according to which a particular right-handed neutrino mass eigenstate is associated with a particular physical neutrino mass eigenstate, leading to a form diagonalizable effective neutrino mass matrix. Form Dominance, which allows an arbitrary neutrino mass spectrum, may be regarded as a generalization of Constrained Sequential Dominance which only allows strongly hierarchical neutrino masses. We consider alternative implementations of the see-saw mechanism in minimal A 4 see-saw models and show that such models satisfy Form Dominance, leading to neutrino mass sum rules which predict closely spaced neutrino masses with a normal or inverted neutrino mass ordering. To avoid the partial cancellations inherent in such models we propose Natural Form Dominance, in which a different flavon is associated with each physical neutrino mass eigenstate.

  20. Group theory

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, W R

    2010-01-01

    Here is a clear, well-organized coverage of the most standard theorems, including isomorphism theorems, transformations and subgroups, direct sums, abelian groups, and more. This undergraduate-level text features more than 500 exercises.

  1. Group Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article Karen Adams demonstrates how to incorporate group grammar techniques into a classroom activity. In the activity, students practice using the target grammar to do something they naturally enjoy: learning about each other.

  2. Computer group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, H.; Black, I.; Heusler, A.; Hoeptner, G.; Krafft, F.; Lang, R.; Moellenkamp, R.; Mueller, W.; Mueller, W.F.; Schati, C.; Schmidt, A.; Schwind, D.; Weber, G.

    1983-01-01

    The computer groups has been reorganized to take charge for the general purpose computers DEC10 and VAX and the computer network (Dataswitch, DECnet, IBM - connections to GSI and IPP, preparation for Datex-P). (orig.)

  3. Group learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pimentel, Ricardo; Noguira, Eloy Eros da Silva; Elkjær, Bente

    The article presents a study that aims at the apprehension of the group learning in a top management team composed by teachers in a Brazilian Waldorf school whose management is collective. After deciding to extend the school, they had problems recruiting teachers who were already trained based...... on the Steiner´s ideas, which created practical problems for conducting management activities. The research seeks to understand how that group of teachers collectively manage the school, facing the lack of resources, a significant heterogeneity in the relationships, and the conflicts and contradictions......, and they are interrelated to the group learning as the construction, maintenance and reconstruction of the intelligibility of practices. From this perspective, it can be said that learning is a practice and not an exceptional phenomenon. Building, maintaining and rebuilding the intelligibility is the group learning...

  4. Group technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rome, C.P.

    1976-01-01

    Group Technology has been conceptually applied to the manufacture of batch-lots of 554 machined electromechanical parts which now require 79 different types of metal-removal tools. The products have been grouped into 7 distinct families which require from 8 to 22 machines in each machine-cell. Throughput time can be significantly reduced and savings can be realized from tooling, direct-labor, and indirect-labor costs

  5. Catalysis for alternative energy generation

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Summarizes recent problems in using catalysts in alternative energy generation and proposes novel solutions  Reconsiders the role of catalysis in alternative energy generation  Contributors include catalysis and alternative energy experts from across the globe

  6. Abelian groups

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, László

    2015-01-01

    Written by one of the subject’s foremost experts, this book focuses on the central developments and modern methods of the advanced theory of abelian groups, while remaining accessible, as an introduction and reference, to the non-specialist. It provides a coherent source for results scattered throughout the research literature with lots of new proofs. The presentation highlights major trends that have radically changed the modern character of the subject, in particular, the use of homological methods in the structure theory of various classes of abelian groups, and the use of advanced set-theoretical methods in the study of undecidability problems. The treatment of the latter trend includes Shelah’s seminal work on the undecidability in ZFC of Whitehead’s Problem; while the treatment of the former trend includes an extensive (but non-exhaustive) study of p-groups, torsion-free groups, mixed groups, and important classes of groups arising from ring theory. To prepare the reader to tackle these topics, th...

  7. The effect of misapplied religious practices in some alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of misapplied religious practices in some alternative religious groups. ... religion generally has on human beings has been suggested by different studies. ... emotions. Adherence to the tenets of the group then occurred as a result of ...

  8. Alternative pricing methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    With the increased interest in competitive market forces and growing recognition of the deficiencies in current practices, FERC and others are exploring alternatives to embedded cost pricing. A number of these alternatives are discussed in this chapter. Marketplace pricing, discussed briefly here, is the subject of the next chapter. Obviously, the pricing formula may combine several of these methodologies. One utility of which the authors are aware is seeking a price equal to the sum of embedded costs, opportunity costs, line losses, value of service, FERC's percentage adder formula and a contract service charge

  9. [Alternative nutrition and glutathione levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Simoncic, R; Béderová, A; Brtková, A; Magálová, T; Barteková, S

    1999-08-30

    Low protein quality and quantity is reported to be a possible risk of alternative nutrition. Pulses contain 18-41% of methionine in relation to reference protein, moreover, its content in cereals is by one half lower. Therefore vegetarians and vegans may have an insufficient intake of sulphur-containing amino acids that may subsequently affect glutathione values (precursors of its synthesis). In groups of adults on an alternative diet--lactoovovegetarians (n = 47) and vegans (n = 44) aged 19-62 years with average duration on a vegetarian or vegan diet of 7.6 and 4.9 years, respectively, glutathione levels (GSH) were measured in erythrocytes (spectrophotometrically), as well as the activity of GSH-dependent enzymes. As nutritional control (n = 42) served an average sample of omnivores selected from a group of 489 examined, apparently healthy subjects of the same age range living in the same region. One to low protein intake (56% of RDA) exclusively of plant origin significantly lower levels of total proteins were observed in vegans with a 16% frequency of hypoproteinaemia (vs 0% in omnivores). In comparison to omnivores a significantly lower glutathione level was found (4.28 +/- 0.12 vs 4.84 +/- 0.14 mumol/g Hb, P vegan diet also in adult age.

  10. Group dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scandiffio, A L

    1990-12-01

    Group dynamics play a significant role within any organization, culture, or unit. The important thing to remember with any of these structures is that they are made up of people--people with different ideas, motivations, background, and sometimes different agendas. Most groups, formal or informal, look for a leader in an effort to maintain cohesiveness of the unit. At times, that cultural bond must be developed; once developed, it must be nurtured. There are also times that one of the group no longer finds the culture comfortable and begins to act out behaviorally. It is these times that become trying for the leader as she or he attempts to remain objective when that which was once in the building phase of group cohesiveness starts to fall apart. At all times, the manager must continue to view the employee creating the disturbance as an integral part of the group. It is at this time that it is beneficial to perceive the employee exhibiting problem behaviors as a special employee, as one who needs the benefit of your experience and skills, as one who is still part of the group. It is also during this time that the manager should focus upon her or his own views in the area of power, communication, and the corporate culture of the unit that one has established before attempting to understand another's point of view. Once we understand our own motivation and accept ourselves, it is then that we may move on to offer assistance to another. Once we understand our insecurities recognizing staff dysfunction as a symptom of system dysfunction will not be so threatening to the concept of the manager that we perceive ourselves to be. It takes a secure person to admit that she or he favors staff before deciding to do something to change things. The important thing to know is that it can be done. The favored staff can find a new way of relating to others, the special employee can find new modes of behavior (and even find self-esteem in the process), the group can find new ways

  11. End Group Modification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahnsen, Rasmus O; Sandberg-Schaal, Anne; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Increased incidence of infections with multidrug-resistant bacterial strains warrants an intensive search for novel potential antimicrobial agents. Here, an antimicrobial peptide analogue with a cationic/hydrophobic alternating design displaying only moderate activity against Gram-positive pathog......Increased incidence of infections with multidrug-resistant bacterial strains warrants an intensive search for novel potential antimicrobial agents. Here, an antimicrobial peptide analogue with a cationic/hydrophobic alternating design displaying only moderate activity against Gram......, the most favorable hydrophobic activity-inducing moieties were found to be cyclohexylacetyl and pentafluorophenylacetyl groups, while the presence of a short PEG-like chain had no significant effect on activity. Introduction of cationic moieties conferred no effect or merely a moderate activity...

  12. Functional and evolutionary analysis of alternatively spliced genes is consistent with an early eukaryotic origin of alternative splicing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny David

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alternative splicing has been reported in various eukaryotic groups including plants, apicomplexans, diatoms, amoebae, animals and fungi. However, whether widespread alternative splicing has evolved independently in the different eukaryotic groups or was inherited from their last common ancestor, and may therefore predate multicellularity, is still unknown. To better understand the origin and evolution of alternative splicing and its usage in diverse organisms, we studied alternative splicing in 12 eukaryotic species, comparing rates of alternative splicing across genes of different functional classes, cellular locations, intron/exon structures and evolutionary origins. Results For each species, we find that genes from most functional categories are alternatively spliced. Ancient genes (shared between animals, fungi and plants show high levels of alternative splicing. Genes with products expressed in the nucleus or plasma membrane are generally more alternatively spliced while those expressed in extracellular location show less alternative splicing. We find a clear correspondence between incidence of alternative splicing and intron number per gene both within and between genomes. In general, we find several similarities in patterns of alternative splicing across these diverse eukaryotes. Conclusion Along with previous studies indicating intron-rich genes with weak intron boundary consensus and complex spliceosomes in ancestral organisms, our results suggest that at least a simple form of alternative splicing may already have been present in the unicellular ancestor of plants, fungi and animals. A role for alternative splicing in the evolution of multicellularity then would largely have arisen by co-opting the preexisting process.

  13. Coxeter groups A4, B4 and D4 for two-qubit systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2008). [40] M Koca, R Koç and M Al-Barwani, J. Math. Phys. 44, 3123 (2003). [41] A Kossakowski and M Ohya, Infin. Dimens. Anal. Quantum. Probab. Relat. Top. 10, 411. (2007). [42] M Koca, R Koç and M Al-Barwani, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen.

  14. Jubilite: A 4-,8-connected Cubic Structural Pattern in Space Group Pm3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A. Castro

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In the course of investigating structural modifications of the 3-,4-connected net known as the Pt3O4 structure-type (waserite, a novel 4-,8-connected structure-type was discovered. This lattice is generated by replacing the 3-connected trigonal planar vertices of the Pt3O4 structure-type with 4-connected tetrahedral vertices, to achieve a structure which possesses a generic empirical formula of JK6L8. In such a topological modification, the four 3-fold axes of the parent cubic, Pm3n, Pt3O4 structure-type are retained. Thus the 4-connected tetrahedral vertices are oriented so as to preserve cubic symmetry in the resulting Pm3, JK6L8 (jubilite lattice. The unit cell contains a single 8-connected cubecentered vertex, six 4-connected distorted square planar vertices and eight 4-connected distorted tetrahedral vertices. It is a Wellsean structure with a Wells point symbol given by (4166484(42826(43838 and a Schläfli symbol of (53/4, 4.2667. This latter index reveals a decrease in the lattice’s polygonality and concomitant increase in the connectivity through the transformation from waserite to jubilite. The topology of the parent waserite lattice (Pt3O4 corresponds to that of the Catalan structures with the Wells point symbol (843(834, which has the Schläfli symbol (8, 3.4285. Finally, it can be seen that a sequence of structure-types starting with waserite (Pt3O4 and moving to jubilite (JK6L8 and finally to fluorite (CaF2 represents a continuous crystallographic structural transformation in which the symmetry and topology undergo concomitant changes from one structure-type (waserite to the other structure-types. The topology of the fluorite lattice, represented by the Wells point symbol (424(462, and the Schläfli symbol (4, 51/3, indicates a discontinuous topological transformation from the intermediate jubilite lattice; like the discontinuous topological transformation from Pt3O4 to JK6L8; in which the polygonality is again reduced, in this step from 53/4 to 4, and the connectivity is concomitantly increased, from 4.2667 to 51/3, during the continuous structural transformation. The l index, a topological measure of the form of a structure-type in terms of the ratio of the weighted average polygonality to the weighted average connectivity in the unit cell, decreases in the sequence from Pt3O4 (2.3333 to jubilite (1.3476 to fluorite (0.7500. This indicates the discontinuous, though monotonic, appearance of more closed networks upon increasing the connectivity and concomitantly decreasing the polygonality in the structural sequence. Interestingly, the ratios of the form indexes of the adjacent members in this series: lwaserite/ljubilite and ljubilite/lfluorite, are approximately equal to each other.

  15. Flued head replacement alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smetters, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses flued head replacement options. Section 2 discusses complete flued head replacement with a design that eliminates the inaccessible welds. Section 3 discusses alternate flued head support designs that can drastically reduce flued head installation costs. Section 4 describes partial flued head replacement designs. Finally, Section 5 discusses flued head analysis methods. (orig./GL)

  16. Alternative inerting agents

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Final Project Report ALTERNATIVE INERTING AGENTS Author/s: J J L DU PLESSIS Research Agency: OSIR MINING TECHNOLOGY Project No: Date: 3 2 7 2 COL 443 APRIL 1999 N’ ) ( G~6~ I Title: 9 / The results show...

  17. Alternate energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens-Guille, P.D.

    1975-01-01

    The author highlights the interesting points made by the speeches during the conference on Energy and its Future in Southern Africa. He also draws attention to potential alternate energy sources such as power from tides, ocean waves, ocean temperature differences and geothermal power

  18. Phrasal alternation in Kerinci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ernanda, N.

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation is a descriptive study of a linguistic phenomenon known as phrasal alternation, focusing on the Pondok Tinggi (PT) dialect of Kerinci, spoken in Indonesia. In essence, almost every Kerinci word displays two forms, labeled absolute and oblique. These forms differ in the shape of

  19. Alternative Energy Busing

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFee, Scott

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, school districts have converted portions of their bus fleets to cleaner-burning, sometimes cheaper, alternative fossil fuels, such as compressed natural gas or propane. Others have adopted biodiesel, which combines regular diesel with fuel derived from organic sources, usually vegetable oils or animal fats. The number of biodiesel…

  20. Energy conversion alternatives study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shure, L. T.

    1979-01-01

    Comparison of coal based energy systems is given. Study identifies and compares various advanced energy conversion systems using coal or coal derived fuels for baselaoad electric power generation. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS) reports provede government, industry, and general public with technically consistent basis for comparison of system's options of interest for fossilfired electric-utility application.

  1. Alternatives in solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schueler, D. G.

    1978-01-01

    Although solar energy has the potential of providing a significant source of clean and renewable energy for a variety of applications, it is expected to penetrate the nation's energy economy very slowly. The alternative solar energy technologies which employ direct collection and conversion of solar radiation as briefly described.

  2. Alternative Work Schedules: Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of the College and University Personnel Association, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The term "alternative work schedules" encompasses any variation of the requirement that all permanent employees in an organization or one shift of employees adhere to the same five-day, seven-to-eight-hour schedule. This article defines staggered hours, flexible working hours (flexitour and gliding time), compressed work week, the task system, and…

  3. Alternatives to Traditional Notation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaare, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Provides a introduction and overview to alternative music notation systems. Describes guitar tablature, accordion tablature, klavarskribo (a keyboard notational system developed by Cornelius Pot, a Dutch engineer), and the digital piano roll. Briefly discusses the history of notation reform and current efforts. Includes examples from scores. (MJP)

  4. Compensated pulsed alternator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weldon, W.F.; Driga, M.D.; Woodson, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to an electromechanical energy converter with inertial energy storage. The device, a single phase, two or multi-pole alternator with stationary field coils, and a rotating armature is provided. The rotor itself may be of laminated steel for slower pulses or for faster pulses should be nonmagnetic and electrically nonconductive in order to allow rapid penetration of the field as the armature coil rotates. The armature coil comprises a plurality of power generating conductors mounted on the rotor. The alternator may also include a stationary or counterrotating compensating coil to increase the output voltage thereof and to reduce the internal impedance of the alternator at the moment of peak output. As the machine voltage rises sinusoidally, an external trigger switch is adapted to be closed at the appropriate time to create the desired output current from said alternator to an external load circuit, and as the output current passes through zero a self-commutating effect is provided to allow the switch to disconnect the generator from the external circuit

  5. TWTF design alternates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayers, A.L. Sr.

    1982-03-01

    The Transuranic Waste Treatment Facility (TWTF) will process transuranic (TRU) waste in retrievable storage at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The costs for a TWTF concept using a slagging pyrolysis incinerator were excessive. Alternate concepts using a slow speed shredder, a rotary kiln incinerator, and concrete immobilization should result in significant cost reductions. These will be included in future TWTF considerations

  6. Alternatives to Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children Today, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Notes that our capacity to diffuse conflict rests in our ability to recognize and verbalize feelings, develop empathy, and think of alternatives to violence. Explores the influence of role models and culture on violence and how the media can use violent images effectively in helping us confront a culture of violence. (HTH)

  7. Publishing: Alternatives and Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penchansky, Mimi; And Others

    The Library Association of the City University of New York presents an annotated bibliography on the subject of small and alternative publishing. In the first section directories, indexes, catalogs, and reviews are briefly described. Book distributors for small publishers are listed next. The major portion of the bibliography is a listing of books…

  8. The Alternative to Occupy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Emil; Hansen, Allan Dreyer

    2017-01-01

    the institutionalization of radical politics (as carried out by The Alternative) entails a move from universality towards particularity. This move, however, comes with the risk of cutting-off supporters who no longer feel represented by the project. We refer to this problem as ‘the problem of particularization...

  9. Group representations

    CERN Document Server

    Karpilovsky, G

    1994-01-01

    This third volume can be roughly divided into two parts. The first part is devoted to the investigation of various properties of projective characters. Special attention is drawn to spin representations and their character tables and to various correspondences for projective characters. Among other topics, projective Schur index and projective representations of abelian groups are covered. The last topic is investigated by introducing a symplectic geometry on finite abelian groups. The second part is devoted to Clifford theory for graded algebras and its application to the corresponding theory

  10. Lego Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Pedersen, Torben; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2010-01-01

    The last years’ rather adventurous journey from 2004 to 2009 had taught the fifth-largest toy-maker in the world - the LEGO Group - the importance of managing the global supply chain effectively. In order to survive the largest internal financial crisis in its roughly 70 years of existence......, the management had, among many initiatives, decided to offshore and outsource a major chunk of its production to Flextronics. In this pursuit of rapid cost-cutting sourcing advantages, the LEGO Group planned to license out as much as 80 per cent of its production besides closing down major parts...

  11. Association of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 polymorphisms with Iranian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elham Badavi

    2015-04-20

    Apr 20, 2015 ... cancer, CYP3A5 (P-value = 0.561) and CYP3A4 allele distribution. У 2015 The Authors. ... other hand, causes alternative splicing and blocks protein pro- ... Homozygote individuals for A/A genotype present only one peak.

  12. Economic analysis of alternative LLW disposal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foutes, C.E.

    1987-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has evaluated the costs and benefits of alternative disposal technologies as part of its program to develop generally applicable environmental standards for the land disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). Costs, population health effects and Critical Population Group (CPG) exposures resulting from alternative waste treatment and disposal methods were developed and input into the analysis. The cost-effectiveness analysis took into account a number of waste streams, hydrogeologic and climatic region settings, and waste treatment and disposal methods. Total costs of each level of a standard included costs for packaging, processing, transportation, and burial of waste. Benefits are defined in terms of reductions in the general population health risk (expected fatal cancers and genetic effects) evaluated over 10,000 years. A cost-effectiveness ratio, was calculated for each alternative standard. This paper describes the alternatives considered and preliminary results of the cost-effectiveness analysis

  13. Informal groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. van den Berg; P. van Houwelingen; J. de Hart

    2011-01-01

    Original title: Informele groepen Going out running with a group of friends, rather than joining an official sports club. Individuals who decide to take action themselves rather than giving money to good causes. Maintaining contact with others not as a member of an association, but through an

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center : Biodiesel to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel on

  15. Advancing Alternative Analysis: Integration of Decision Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malloy, Timothy F; Zaunbrecher, Virginia M; Batteate, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Decision analysis-a systematic approach to solving complex problems-offers tools and frameworks to support decision making that are increasingly being applied to environmental challenges. Alternatives analysis is a method used in regulation and product design to identify, compare, and evaluate......, and civil society and included experts in toxicology, decision science, alternatives assessment, engineering, and law and policy. Participants were divided into two groups and prompted with targeted questions. Throughout the workshop, the groups periodically came together in plenary sessions to reflect......) engaging the systematic development and evaluation of decision approaches and tools; (2) using case studies to advance the integration of decision analysis into alternatives analysis; (3) supporting transdisciplinary research; and (4) supporting education and outreach efforts....

  16. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    The CMS Communications Group, established at the start of 2010, has been busy in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure There are now 55 CMS Centres worldwide that are well used by physicists working on remote CMS shifts, Computing operations, data quality monitoring, data analysis and outreach. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, is the centre of the CMS offline and computing operations, hosting dedicated analysis efforts such as during the CMS Heavy Ion lead-lead running. With a majority of CMS sub-detectors now operating in a “shifterless” mode, many monitoring operations are now routinely performed from there, rather than in the main Control Room at P5. The CMS Communications Group, CERN IT and the EVO team are providing excellent videoconferencing support for the rapidly-increasing number of CMS meetings. In parallel, CERN IT and ...

  17. Group therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Full text: In his review 'Genesis of Unified Gauge Theories' at the symposium in Honour of Abdus Salam (June, page 23), Tom Kibble of Imperial College, London, looked back to the physics events around Salam from 1959-67. He described how, in the early 1960s, people were pushing to enlarge the symmetry of strong interactions beyond the SU(2) of isospin and incorporate the additional strangeness quantum number. Kibble wrote - 'Salam had students working on every conceivable symmetry group. One of these was Yuval Ne'eman, who had the good fortune and/or prescience to work on SU(3). From that work, and of course from the independent work of Murray Gell- Mann, stemmed the Eightfold Way, with its triumphant vindication in the discovery of the omega-minus in 1964.' Yuval Ne'eman writes - 'I was the Defence Attaché at the Israeli Embassy in London and was admitted by Salam as a part-time graduate student when I arrived in 1958. I started research after resigning from the Embassy in May 1960. Salam suggested a problem: provide vector mesons with mass - the problem which was eventually solved by Higgs, Guralnik, Kibble,.... (as described by Kibble in his article). I explained to Salam that I had become interested in symmetry. Nobody at Imperial College at the time, other than Salam himself, was doing anything in groups, and attention further afield was focused on the rotation - SO(N) - groups. Reacting to my own half-baked schemes, Salam told me to forget about the rotation groups he taught us, and study group theory in depth, directing me to Eugene Dynkin's classification of Lie subalgebras, about which he had heard from Morton Hamermesh. I found Dynkin incomprehensible without first learning about Lie algebras from Henri Cartan's thesis, which luckily had been reproduced by Dynkin in his 1946 thesis, using his diagram method. From a copy of a translation of Dynkin's thesis which I found in the British Museum Library, I

  18. Alternative propulsion for automobiles

    CERN Document Server

    Stan, Cornel

    2017-01-01

    The book presents – based on the most recent research and development results worldwide - the perspectives of new propulsion concepts such as electric cars with batteries and fuel cells, and furthermore plug in hybrids with conventional and alternative fuels. The propulsion concepts are evaluated based on specific power, torque characteristic, acceleration behaviour, specific fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. The alternative fuels are discussed in terms of availability, production, technical complexity of the storage on board, costs, safety and infrastructure. The book presents summarized data about vehicles with electric and hybrid propulsion. The propulsion of future cars will be marked by diversity – from compact electric city cars and range extender vehicles for suburban and rural areas up to hybrid or plug in SUV´s, Pick up´s and luxury class automobiles.

  19. Alternative international currencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozhentsova Vladimirovna Elena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern international monetary system has a number of flaws and therefore needs cardinal change. Hence, economists from all over the world are suggesting alternative international currencies that would make the international monetary system more efficient. However, it is essential when approaching the creation of a new international currency to analyze and take into account the experience of all the past international currencies. Therefore this paper begins with an exploration of the drawbacks of each of the past and present international currencies. Drawing on this analysis a justification will be made for the necessity of introducing a new international currency, pointing to the requirements it should meet. Further on, this paper proposes an alternative theoretically possible variant of the international currency, with a fixed value relative to a commodity basket. An abstract example is used to demonstrate its composition and circulation mechanism.

  20. Radioactive waste management alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranowski, F.P.

    1976-01-01

    The information in the US ERDA ''Technical Alternatives Document'' is summarized. The first two points show that waste treatment, interim storage and transportation technologies for all wastes are currently available. Third, an assessment of integrated waste management systems is needed. One such assessment will be provided in our expanded waste management environmental statement currently planned for release in about one year. Fourth, geologies expected to be suitable for final geologic storage are known. Fifth, repository system assessment methods, that is a means to determine and assess the acceptability of a terminal storage facility for nonretrievable storage, must and will be prepared. Sixth, alternatives to geologic storage are not now available. Seventh, waste quantities and characteristics are sensitive to technologies and fuel-cycle modes, and therefore an assessment of these technologies and modes is important. Eighth, and most important, it is felt that the LWR fuel cycle can be closed with current technologies

  1. [Alternatives to animal testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Isabelle

    2009-11-01

    The use of alternative methods to animal testing are an integral part of the 3Rs concept (refine, reduce, replace) defined by Russel & Burch in 1959. These approaches include in silico methods (databases and computer models), in vitro physicochemical analysis, biological methods using bacteria or isolated cells, reconstructed enzyme systems, and reconstructed tissues. Emerging "omic" methods used in integrated approaches further help to reduce animal use, while stem cells offer promising approaches to toxicologic and pathophysiologic studies, along with organotypic cultures and bio-artificial organs. Only a few alternative methods can so far be used in stand-alone tests as substitutes for animal testing. The best way to use these methods is to integrate them in tiered testing strategies (ITS), in which animals are only used as a last resort.

  2. Alternative nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.E.

    1979-01-01

    This diffuse subject involves value judgments that are political as well as technical, and is best understood in that context. The four questions raised here, however, are mostly from the technical viewpoints: (1) what are alternative nuclear fuel cycles; (2) what generalizations are possible about their characteristics; (3) what are the major practical considerations; and (4) what is the present situation and what can be said about the outlook for the future

  3. Alternative REST Splicing Underappreciated

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Guo-Lin; Miller, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    As a major orchestrator of the cellular epigenome, the repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor (REST) can either repress or activate thousands of genes depending on cellular context, suggesting a highly context-dependent REST function tuned by environmental cues. While REST shows cell-type non-selective active transcription, an N-terminal REST4 isoform caused by alternative splicing - inclusion of an extra exon (N3c) which introduces a pre-mature stop codon - has been implicated in...

  4. The renewable alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses renewable energy sources as an alternative to a fossil fuel based economy. The topics discussed in the chapter include the historic aspects and current status of use of renewable energy, status of the renewable energy industry, market barriers to renewable energy, research and development and commercialization of renewable energy, the environmental and social costs associated with renewable energy, valuing future costs and benefits of energy use, and the potential market of renewable energy

  5. Metamaterials critique and alternatives

    CERN Document Server

    Munk, Ben A

    2009-01-01

    A Convincing and Controversial Alternative Explanation of Metamaterials with a Negative Index of Refraction In a book that will generate both support and controversy, one of the world's foremost authorities on periodic structures addresses several of the current fashions in antenna design-most specifically, the popular subject of double negative metamaterials. Professor Munk provides a comprehensive theoretical electromagnetic investigation of the issues and concludes that many of the phenomena claimed by researchers may be impossible. While denying the existence of negative refractio

  6. ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Irina IONESCU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Alternative dispute resolution (ADR includes dispute resolution processes and techniques that act as a means for disagreeing parties to come to an agreement short of litigation. It is a collective term for the ways that parties can settle disputes, with (or without the help of a third party. Despite historic resistance to ADR by many popular parties and their advocates, ADR has gained widespread acceptance among both the general public and the legal profession in recent years. In fact, some courts now require some parties to resort to ADR of some type, before permitting the parties' cases to be tried. The rising popularity of ADR can be explained by the increasing caseload of traditional courts, the perception that ADR imposes fewer costs than litigation, a preference for confidentiality, and the desire of some parties to have greater control over the selection of the individual or individuals who will decide their dispute. Directive 2013/11/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council on alternative dispute resolution for consumer disputes and amending Regulation (EC No 2006/2004 and Directive 2009/22/EC (hereinafter „Directive 2013/11/EU” aims to ensure a high level of consumer protection and the proper functioning of the internal market by ensuring that complaints against traders can be submitted by consumers on a voluntary basis, to entities of alternative disputes which are independent, impartial, transparent, effective, simple,quick and fair. Directive 2013/11/EU establishes harmonized quality requirements for entities applying alternative dispute resolution procedure (hereinafter "ADR entity" to provide the same protection and the same rights of consumers in all Member States. Besides this, the present study is trying to present broadly how are all this trasposed in the romanian legislation.

  7. Alternative Energy Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Michaelides, Efstathios E (Stathis)

    2012-01-01

    Alternative Energy Sources is designed to give the reader, a clear view of the role each form of alternative energy may play in supplying the energy needs of the human society in the near and intermediate future (20-50 years).   The two first chapters on energy demand and supply and environmental effects, set the tone as to why the widespread use of alternative energy is essential for the future of human society. The third chapter exposes the reader to the laws of energy conversion processes, as well as the limitations of converting one energy form to another. The sections on exergy give a succinct, quantitative background on the capability/potential of each energy source to produce power on a global scale. The fourth, fifth and sixth chapters are expositions of fission and fusion nuclear energy. The following five chapters (seventh to eleventh) include detailed descriptions of the most common renewable energy sources – wind, solar, geothermal, biomass, hydroelectric – and some of the less common sources...

  8. Alternative energy review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    A review is presented of electricity generation technologies which are considered to be alternatives to more conventional technologies. The review is limited to those technologies which have application in Ontario, and provides descriptions, technical and economic assessments, environmental information, and forecasts of potential use of solar energy, wind energy, fuel cells, biomass energy, peat, and municipal solid wastes. Of these technologies, only municipal solid waste combustion is economically viable under current conditions, but government policies prohibit the implementation of new facilities. Certain photovoltaic and wind energy technologies are being found viable for remote sites unconnected to the power grid. Wood waste combustion is viable in the forest products industry. The total potential contribution of these six alternative technologies to Ontario's energy production is forecast at under 190 MW to a range of 685-1,465 MW by the year 2005, according to three different scenarios. The technologies showing the greatest future promise are fuel cells, photovoltaics, and biomass. Except for municipal waste combustion, cost continues to be a significant barrier to utility-scale application of alternative generation technologies in Ontario. However, private individuals and corporations (non-utility generators) may adopt some of these technologies in the absence of access to the power grid, in cogeneration applications, or for demonstration purposes. 120 refs., 79 figs., 93 tabs

  9. State alternative route designations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a ''state routing agency,'' defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective

  10. Alternatives for Revitalizing Student Services Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, William L.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews alternatives for revitalizing the programs and management of community college student services. As program development models, considers Miami-Dade Community College's computer-based instructional management system; entrepreneurial fee-based services; and divestment of situational or special-interest services to student groups. In…

  11. Literacy, Numeracy and Alternative Dispute Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, J. Joy; Wilson, Janice M.

    2005-01-01

    The formal court system in Australia has long been criticised for its adversarial nature. As a result, there has been an increase in the use of alternative dispute resolution processes such as mediation. These are promoted as a means of increasing access to justice by disadvantaged groups and as an inexpensive way of solving legal or quasi-legal…

  12. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2010-01-01

    The CMS Communications Group, established at the start of 2010, has been strengthening the activities in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure The Communications Group has invested a lot of effort to support the operations needs of CMS. Hence, the CMS Centres where physicists work on remote CMS shifts, Data Quality Monitoring, and Data Analysis are running very smoothly. There are now 55 CMS Centres worldwide, up from just 16 at the start of CMS data-taking. The latest to join are Imperial College London, the University of Iowa, and the Università di Napoli. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, which is now full repaired after the major flooding at the beginning of the year, has been at the centre of CMS offline and computing operations, most recently hosting a large fraction of the CMS Heavy Ion community during the lead-lead run. A number of sub-detector shifts can now take pla...

  13. Group play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, Michael; Brolund, Thea

    2008-01-01

    Role-playing games (RPGs) are a well-known game form, existing in a number of formats, including tabletop, live action, and various digital forms. Despite their popularity, empirical studies of these games are relatively rare. In particular there have been few examinations of the effects of the v......Role-playing games (RPGs) are a well-known game form, existing in a number of formats, including tabletop, live action, and various digital forms. Despite their popularity, empirical studies of these games are relatively rare. In particular there have been few examinations of the effects...... of the various formats used by RPGs on the gaming experience. This article presents the results of an empirical study, examining how multi-player tabletop RPGs are affected as they are ported to the digital medium. Issues examined include the use of disposition assessments to predict play experience, the effect...... of group dynamics, the influence of the fictional game characters and the comparative play experience between the two formats. The results indicate that group dynamics and the relationship between the players and their digital characters, are integral to the quality of the gaming experience in multiplayer...

  14. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    The CMS Communications Group has been busy in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure The 55 CMS Centres worldwide are well used by physicists working on remote CMS shifts, Computing operations, data quality monitoring, data analysis and outreach. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, is the centre of the CMS Offline and Computing operations, and a number of subdetector shifts can now take place there, rather than in the main Control Room at P5. A new CMS meeting room has been equipped for videoconferencing in building 42, next to building 40. Our building 28 meeting room and the facilities at P5 will be refurbished soon and plans are underway to steadily upgrade the ageing equipment in all 15 CMS meeting rooms at CERN. The CMS evaluation of the Vidyo tool indicates that it is not yet ready to be considered as a potential replacement for EVO. The Communications Group provides the CMS-TV (web) cha...

  15. Alternatives to nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrado, E.N.

    1981-01-01

    This article discusses several possibilities as alternatives to nuclear energy and their relevance to the Philippine case. The major present and future fuel alternatives to petroleum and nuclear energy are coal, geothermal heat, solar energy and hydrogen, the first two of which are being used. Different conversion technologies are also discussed for large scale electricity production namely solar thermal electric conversion (STC), photovoltaic electric power system (PEPS) and ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). Major environmental considerations affect the choice of energy sources and technologies. We have the problem of long term accumulation of radioactive waste in the case of nuclear energy; in geothermal and fossil-fuels carbon dioxide uranium and accumulation may cause disastrous consequences. With regard to Philippine option, the greatest considerations in selecting alternative energy options would be resources availability - both energy and financial and technology status. For the country's energy plan, coal and geothermal energy are expected to play a significant role. The country's coal resources are 1.4 billion metric tons. For geothermal energy, 25 volcanic centers were identified and has a potential equivalent to 2.5 x 10 6 million barrels of oil. Solar energy if harnessed, being in the sunbelt, averaging some 2000 hours a year could be an energy source. The present dilemma of the policy maker is whether national resources are better spent on large scale urban-based energy projects or whether those should be focused on small scale, rural oriented installations which produced benefits to the more numerous and poorer members of the population. (RTD)

  16. Energy and power alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messerle, H.K.

    1992-01-01

    Taking into consideration the need for a safe energy supply, rising demand for energy worldwide and limited oil reserves, alternative energy resources for bulk power are discussed. They are nuclear fuel, fluidized bed combustion of coal, coal gasification with combined cycle process, coal-oil mixture combustion and MHD power generation process. It is pointed out that the major environmental impact of fossil fuels is in accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and air pollution due to sulphur emission. (M.G.B.)

  17. Alternate fusion fuels workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-06-01

    The workshop was organized to focus on a specific confinement scheme: the tokamak. The workshop was divided into two parts: systems and physics. The topics discussed in the systems session were narrowly focused on systems and engineering considerations in the tokamak geometry. The workshop participants reviewed the status of system studies, trade-offs between d-t and d-d based reactors and engineering problems associated with the design of a high-temperature, high-field reactor utilizing advanced fuels. In the physics session issues were discussed dealing with high-beta stability, synchrotron losses and transport in alternate fuel systems. The agenda for the workshop is attached

  18. Alternate fuels; Combustibles alternos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Paredes R, Hernando; Ambriz G, Juan Jose [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana. Iztapalapa (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    In the definition and description of alternate fuels we must center ourselves in those technological alternatives that allow to obtain compounds that differ from the traditional ones, in their forms to be obtained. In this article it is tried to give an overview of alternate fuels to the conventional derivatives of petroleum and that allow to have a clear idea on the tendencies of modern investigation and the technological developments that can be implemented in the short term. It is not pretended to include all the tendencies and developments of the present world, but those that can hit in a relatively short term, in accordance with agreed with the average life of conventional fuels. Nevertheless, most of the conversion principles are applicable to the spectrum of carbonaceous or cellulosic materials which are in nature, are cultivated or wastes of organic origin. Thus one will approach them in a successive way, the physical, chemical and biological conversions that can take place in a production process of an alternate fuel or the same direct use of the fuel such as burning the sweepings derived from the forests. [Spanish] En la definicion y descripcion de combustibles alternos nos debemos centrar en aquellas alternativas tecnologicas que permitan obtener compuestos que difieren de los tradicionales, al menos en sus formas de ser obtenidos. En este articulo se pretende dar un panorama de los combustibles alternos a los convencionales derivados del petroleo y que permita tener una idea clara sobre las tendencias de la investigacion moderna y los desarrollos tecnologicos que puedan ser implementados en el corto plazo. No se pretende abarcar todas las tendencias y desarrollos del mundo actual, sino aquellas que pueden impactar en un plazo relativamente corto, acordes con la vida media de los combustibles convencionales. Sin embargo, la mayor parte de los principios de conversion son aplicables al espectro de materiales carbonaceos o celulosicos los cuales se

  19. Alternatives to Seesaw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, Hitoshi

    2004-01-01

    The seesaw mechanism is attractive not only because it 'explains' small neutrino mass, but also because of its packaging with the SUSY-GUT, leptogenesis, Dark Matter, and electroweak symmetry breaking. However, this package has the flavor, CP, and gravitino problems. I discuss two alternatives to the seesaw mechanism. In one of them, the anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking solves these problems, while predicts naturally light Dirac neutrinos. In the other, the light Majorana neutrinos arise from supersymmetry breaking with right-handed neutrinos below TeV, and the Dark Matter and collider phenomenology are significantly different.

  20. Alternatives to OPEC oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.

    1981-01-01

    This paper starts from the assumption that, for various reasons, the supply of OPEC oil required to meet a rising world energy demand will continue to be limited. Its purpose is to present a synoptic look at the various sources of energy which are alternatives to OPEC oil, with an economic commentary on the prospects for each source. A wide variety of projects are going forward for the development of non-OPEC oil, gas, coal, and nuclear power, as well as renewable energy resources. Special attention is devoted to questions of energy pricing, investment costs, and sources of finance. (author)

  1. Alternative energy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, K.F.

    1983-01-01

    It is accepted that coal will continue to play the major role in the supply of energy to the country for the remainder of the century. In this paper, however, emphasis has been directed to those options which could supplement coal in an economic and technically sound manner. The general conclusion is that certain forms of solar energy hold the most promise and it is in this direction that research, development and implementation programmes should be directed. Tidal energy, fusion energy, geothermal energy, hydrogen energy and fuel cells are also discussed as alternative energy options

  2. Niobium technological alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinatti, D.G.; Dainesi, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    The process-product matrix of Niobium is presented, through which the technological alternatives for Niobium are identified. It is shown that the three axes of Niobium application, steels, superalloys and metallic Niobium have a tendency to be economical by equivalent. The critical points where technological development of Niobium is needed are analyzed and results are presented on the following products: Nb 2 O 5 by volatilization, metalic Niobium, Niobium powder, bars and sheets, NbTi alloy, corrosion resistent Niobium alloys and superconductor cable and wires. (Author) [pt

  3. Alternative energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, P.

    1978-01-01

    It is suggested that the development of alternative energy sources has made them more attractive than nuclear power, due to their characteristics, such as small scale and short lead times, moderate costs and minimal environmental impact. The objectives of energy policy are discussed in relation to forecasts of energy demand. Tables show (a) projected useful energy demands UK; (b) patterns of end-use of energy; (c) costs of heating fuels; (d) net present value of gas purchases; (e) useful-energy by end-use analysis; and (f) primary fuel summary 2025. The contributions of hydro, nuclear, waves, solar, oil, gas and coal are estimated to 2025. (U.K.)

  4. Dounreay: an alternative development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, K.

    1990-01-01

    With the Government decision to phase out the Fast Reactor at Dounreay there is a need to find alternative employment in the area. Traditionally Caithness is an area of farming, fishing and tourism which could be damaged if Dounreay were to be made a nuclear waste repository. The suggestion is that Dounreay should become a centre for research, development and subsequent manufacture of renewable energy sources and devices to harness renewable energy. The Scottish coastline has potential for wind and wave power developments and this could lead to a whole industry in the future. (UK)

  5. Alternate cover materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-09-01

    As an effort to enhance compliance with the proposed US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater standards, several special studies are being performed by the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) to identify and evaluate various design features that may reduce groundwater-related releases from tailings piles. The objective of this special study is to assess the suitability of using alternate cover materials (other than geomembranes) as infiltration barriers in Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project piles to minimize leachate generation. The materials evaluated in this study include various types of asphalts, concretes, and a sodium bentonite clay/polypropylene liner system

  6. Group Work with Abusive Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Lois; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Social work students conclude from an experience that parents can consider alternative means of disciplining children when they participate in a parent group that is comfortable and when attendance is promoted by provision of tangible services. Parents achieved increased sense of self-worth and learned appropriate ways of expressing anger. (Author)

  7. Alternative Therapies for PKU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Spécola MD

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenylalanine (PHE-restricted diet has improved in quality and diversity over time and has proven to be effective in all patients. Nevertheless, this treatment imposes a heavy social and economic burden to patient and family and impacts quality of life. Sustained adherence to PHE restriction is difficult to maintain. Moreover, even patients with phenylketonuria (PKU with normal intelligence quotient (IQ have lower IQ than matched individuals without PKU and can have deficits in multiple other aspects of neuropsychological function, including cognitive and executive function, working memory. They can also have behavior problems, depression, and low self-esteem. In recent years, alternative treatments for PKU have been developed and their use has been indicated for some patients who are candidates for options besides traditional treatment. Sapropterindihydrochloride, large neutral amino acids, and glycomacropeptide are alternative treatment options in use for selected patients. The aim of this article is to review the current knowledge of these new approaches to PKU treatment.

  8. Ignition experiment - alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knobloch, A.F.

    1979-10-01

    This report comprises three short papers on cost estimates, integral burn time and alternative versions of Tokamak ignition experiments. These papers were discussed at the ZEPHYR workshop with participants from IPP Garching, MIT Cambridge and PPPL Princeton (Garching July 30 - August 2 1979) (Chapters A, B, C). It is shown, that starting from a practical parameter independent minimum integral burn time of Tokamak ignition experiments (some 10 3 s) by adding a shield for protection of the magnet insulation (permitted neutron dose 10 9 rad) an integral burn time of some 10 4 s can be achieved for only about 30% more outlay. For a substantially longer integral burn time the outlay approaches rather quickly that for a Tokamak reactor. Some examples for alternatives to ZEPHYR are being given, including some with low or no compression. In a further chapter D some early results of evaluating an ignition experiment on the basis of the energy confinement scaling put forward by Coppi and Mazzucato are presented. As opposed to the case of the Alcator scaling used in chapters A through C the minimum integral burn time of Tokamak ignition experiments here depends on the plasma current. Provided neutral injectors up to about 160 keV are available compression boosting is not required with this scaling. The results presented have been obtained neglecting the effects of the toroidal field ripple. (orig.) 891 HT/orig. 892 RKD [de

  9. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2010-01-01

    The recently established CMS Communications Group, led by Lucas Taylor, has been busy in all three of its main are areas of responsibility: Communications Infrastructure, Information Systems, and Outreach and Education Communications Infrastructure The damage caused by the flooding of the CMS Centre@CERN on 21st December has been completely repaired and all systems are back in operation. Major repairs were made to the roofs, ceilings and one third of the floor had to be completely replaced. Throughout these works, the CMS Centre was kept operating and even hosted a major press event for first 7 TeV collisions, as described below. Incremental work behind the scenes is steadily improving the quality of the CMS communications infrastructure, particularly Webcasting, video conferencing, and meeting rooms at CERN. CERN/IT is also deploying a pilot service of a new videoconference tool called Vidyo, to assess whether it might provide an enhanced service at a lower cost, compared to the EVO tool currently in w...

  10. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Communications Infrastructure The 55 CMS Centres worldwide are well used by physicists working on remote CMS shifts, Computing operations, data quality monitoring, data analysis and outreach. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin is particularly busy at the moment, hosting about 50 physicists taking part in the heavy-ion data-taking and analysis. Three new CMS meeting room will be equipped for videoconferencing in early 2012: 40/5B-08, 42/R-031, and 28/S-029. The CMS-TV service showing LHC Page 1, CMS Page 1, etc. (http://cmsdoc.cern.ch/cmscc/projector/index.jsp) is now also available for mobile devices: http://cern.ch/mcmstv. Figure 12: Screenshots of CMS-TV for mobile devices Information Systems CMS has a new web site: (http://cern.ch/cms) using a modern web Content Management System to ensure content and links are managed and updated easily and coherently. It covers all CMS sub-projects and groups, replacing the iCMS internal pages. It also incorporates the existing CMS public web site (http:/...

  11. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2012-01-01

      Outreach and Education We are fortunate that our research has captured the public imagination, even though this inevitably puts us under the global media spotlight, as we saw with the Higgs seminar at CERN in December, which had 110,000 distinct webcast viewers. The media interest was huge with 71 media organisations registering to come to CERN to cover the Higgs seminar, which was followed by a press briefing with the DG and Spokespersons. This event resulted in about 2,000 generally positive stories in the global media. For this seminar, the CMS Communications Group prepared up-to-date news and public material, including links to the CMS results, animations and event displays [http://cern.ch/go/Ch8thttp://cern.ch/go/Ch8t]. There were 44,000 page-views on the CMS public website, with the Higgs news article being by far the most popular item. CMS event displays from iSpy are fast becoming the iconic media images, featuring on numerous major news outlets (BBC, CNN, MSN...) as well as in the sci...

  12. Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A A Listen En Español Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines It is best to get vitamins and minerals ... this section Medication Other Treatments Herbs, Supplements, and Alternative Medicines Types of Dietary Supplements Side Effects and Drug ...

  13. Group percolation in interdependent networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zexun; Zhou, Dong; Hu, Yanqing

    2018-03-01

    In many real network systems, nodes usually cooperate with each other and form groups to enhance their robustness to risks. This motivates us to study an alternative type of percolation, group percolation, in interdependent networks under attack. In this model, nodes belonging to the same group survive or fail together. We develop a theoretical framework for this group percolation and find that the formation of groups can improve the resilience of interdependent networks significantly. However, the percolation transition is always of first order, regardless of the distribution of group sizes. As an application, we map the interdependent networks with intersimilarity structures, which have attracted much attention recently, onto the group percolation and confirm the nonexistence of continuous phase transitions.

  14. As Definições Alternativas de Grupo Estratégico e o Valor Explicativo das Diferenças em ResultadosAlternative Definitions of the Strategic Group and Explaining Value of Differences in ResultsLas Definiciones Alternativas de Grupo Estratégico y su Valor Explicativo de las Diferencias en Resultados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TABOADA, Lorenzo Revuelto

    2010-03-01

    refutes the significance of belonging to a specific strategic group in order to explain performance differences. Hence, in this work we have tried to review previous literature to provide a reasonable explanation to unevenness found in the empirical findings. This aim obliges us, firstly, to review previous literature taking into account alternative definitions of strategic group proposed by studies rooted in different theoretical traditions, strategic positioning approach, resource-based theory and cognitive psychology. Secondly, we have posed some propositions about the performance differences explaining power of alternative strategic group definitions rooted in these different theories. To contrast these propositions we have carried out an empirical work in the electric lighting equipment producers industry, using different measures of profitability, growth and productivity and their risk adjusted associated measures. First we have conducted ANOVA and post hoc analysis, to assess performance differences, using separately the different strategic group structures identified by cluster analysis. We have also conducted a two-factor ANOVA analysis, using input market positioning and output market positioning as independent variables. Our results show that the explaining power of strategic group structures of the industry is scarce, but the results are quite better when we take into account both, input market positioning and output market positioning. This is consistent with the hypothesis that a particular bundle of resources and capabilities fits better with a particular product-market strategy than with others.RESUMENLa relación grupos estratégicos-resultados ha sido analizada de forma recurrente durante más de tres décadas. Sin embargo, hasta el momento, la evidencia empírica proporcionada ha resultado escasa y conflictiva. El presente trabajo trata de ofrecer una explicación razonable a las inconsistencias observadas en los resultados obtenidos. Para ello, hemos

  15. ALTERNATIVE FUELS FOR DIESEL ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Caban

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development and genesis of the use of alternative fuels in internal combustion ignition engines. Based on the analysis of the literature, this article shows various alternative fuels used in Poland and all over the world. Furthermore, this article describes the research directions for alternative fuels use in road transport powered by diesel engines.

  16. Comparing solar energy alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, J R

    1984-01-01

    The paper outlines a computational procedure for comparing the merits of alternative processes to convert solar radiation to heat, electrical power, or chemical energy. The procedure uses the ratio of equipment investment to useful work as an index. Comparisons with conversion counterparts based on conventional fuels are also facilitated by examining this index. The procedure is illustrated by comparisons of (1) photovoltaic converters of differing efficiencies; (2) photovoltaic converters with and without focusing concentrators; (3) photovoltaic conversion plus electrolysis vs photocatalysis for the production of hydrogen; (4) photovoltaic conversion plus plasma arcs vs photocatalysis for nitrogen fixation. Estimates for conventionally-fuelled processes are included for comparison. The reasons why solar-based concepts fare poorly in such comparisons are traced to the low energy density of solar radiation and its low stream time factor resulting from the limited number of daylight hours available and clouds obscuring the sun.

  17. Comparing solar energy alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, J R

    1984-01-01

    This paper outlines a computational procedure for comparing the merits of alternative processes to convert solar radiation to heat, electrical power, or chemical energy. The procedure uses the ratio of equipment investment to useful work as an index. Comparisons with conversion counterparts based on conventional fuels are also facilitated by examining this index. The procedure is illustrated by comparisons of (1) photovoltaic converters of differing efficiencies; (2) photovoltaic converters with and without focusing concentrators; (3) photovoltaic conversion plus electrolysis vs photocatalysis for the production of hydrogen; (4) photovoltaic conversion plus plasma arcs vs photocatalysis for nitrogen fixation. Estimates for conventionally-fuelled processes are included for comparison. The reasons why solar-based concepts fare poorly in such comparisons are traced to the low energy density of solar radiation and its low stream time factor resulting from the limited number of daylight hours available and clouds obscuring the sun. 11 references.

  18. Alternative to BGO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.F.

    1982-01-01

    For some applications, the scintillating crystal RaF 2 may be preferable to BGO. When coupled to a liquid TMAE photocathode and wire chamber, RaF 2 offers the possibility of an order of magnitude better timing resolution, ease of operating in strong magnetic fields, greater flexibility of design, and more information. For BGO its main advantage is its radiation length and its disadvantages are cost, timing, and difficulty of use in a magnetic field. The main advantages of RaF 2 are its timing, the ease of working in a magnetic field with a wire chamber, the flexibility of design, and greater information out. Its disadvantages are cost and its radiation length. Although BaF 2 has its own shortcomings, coupled to a LPC it has some unique strengths that make it a viable alternative to BGO in some applications of calorimetry in high energy physics

  19. Alternatives to neoliberalism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warring, Niels; Ahrenkiel, Annegrethe; Nielsen, Birger Steen

    This paper will discuss the consequences of neoliberal governance in Danish day care centres, the social educators’ response, and the possible development of alternatives based on collective participation of social educators and union representatives. We will show how important and unnoticed...... professional competencies come under pressure, and how collective interest representation is challenged. We will discuss how concepts of “gestural knowledge”, “coherence” and “rhythm” open for a new understanding of professional competence. And we will conclude that the social educators and their unions have...... the possibility to contribute to the development of a new welfare paradigm. The paper is based on material from two research projects (Ahrenkiel et al. 2009, 2011) involving social educators and union representatives in day care institutions. We have observed everyday work activities in day care centres...

  20. Alternate laser fusion drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleasance, L.D.

    1979-11-01

    One objective of research on inertial confinement fusion is the development of a power generating system based on this concept. Realization of this goal will depend on the availability of a suitable laser or other system to drive the power plant. The primary laser systems used for laser fusion research, Nd 3+ : Glass and CO 2 , have characteristics which may preclude their use for this application. Glass lasers are presently perceived to be incapable of sufficiently high average power operation and the CO 2 laser may be limited by and issues associated with target coupling. These general perceptions have encouraged a search for alternatives to the present systems. The search for new lasers has been directed generally towards shorter wavelengths; most of the new lasers discovered in the past few years have been in the visible and ultraviolet region of the spectrum. Virtually all of them have been advocated as the most promising candidate for a fusion driver at one time or another

  1. The alternative energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitzley, H.

    1989-02-01

    The alternative energy future can be achieved only by making energy conservation programmes successful, and by fully committing to the utilization of soft energy sources. This is the perspective drawn by the author who in this book investigates the fundamentals of an ecologically and socially sound energy policy for the future. Looking at California, USA, where completely near concepts have been put to work in the energy sector since the mid-seventies, the author shows how it can be done, by rewarding energy conserving activities, using available energy sources more efficiently, developing the means for renewable energy exploitation wherever appropriate. A turn in energy policy is feasible also in West Germany, both in technical and political terms. Starting from the experience gained in the USA, the author presents an outline of options and potentials of a new energy strategy for the Federal Republic of Germany. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Urban Transportation Planning Short Course: Evaluation of Alternative Transportation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Highway Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This urban transportation pamphlet delves into the roles of policy groups and technical staffs in evaluating alternative transportation plans, evaluation criteria, systems to evaluate, and evaluation procedures. The introduction admits the importance of subjective, but informed, judgment as an effective tool in weighing alternative transportation…

  3. Ordering alternatives in MCDM problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Baets, B.

    1994-01-01

    A new approach to the study of a set of alternatives in a multi-criteria decision making problem is presented. Alternatives are described by means of fuzzy sets in the set of criteria, expressing the degrees to which they fulfill the different criteria. The concept of a fuzzy inclusion is introduced and is discussed from an axiomatic point of view. To each implication operator corresponds a fuzzy inclusion. The fuzzy inclusion corresponding to the Goedel operator is used to measure the degree to which the scores of one alternative are contained in the scores of another one. Repeating this for all couples of alternatives yields a fuzzy quasi-order relation in a set of alternatives. The cuts of this fuzzy relation are then classical quasi-order relations: they express orderings of the alternatives, allowing alternatives to be indifferent or incomparable, corresponding to different degrees of confidence

  4. Visual reconciliation of alternative similarity spaces in climate modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    J Poco; A Dasgupta; Y Wei; William Hargrove; C.R. Schwalm; D.N. Huntzinger; R Cook; E Bertini; C.T. Silva

    2015-01-01

    Visual data analysis often requires grouping of data objects based on their similarity. In many application domains researchers use algorithms and techniques like clustering and multidimensional scaling to extract groupings from data. While extracting these groups using a single similarity criteria is relatively straightforward, comparing alternative criteria poses...

  5. The Effect of Alternative Assessment on the Attitudes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kofimereku

    service female teachers to alternate forms of assessment. Both groups were first year ... Ghana show a low achievement in mathematics and females' achievement is lower than that of males ..... by their more able peers. Students' reflections in ...

  6. The nuclear power alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blix, H.

    1989-04-01

    The Director General of the IAEA stressed the need for energy policies and other measures which would help to slow and eventually halt the present build-up of carbon dioxide, methane and other so-called greenhouse gases, which are held to cause global warming. He urged that nuclear power and various other sources of energy, none of which contribute to global warming, should not be seen as alternatives, but should all be used to counteract the greenhouse effect. He pointed out that the commercially used renewable energies, apart from hydropower, currently represent only 0.3% of the world's energy consumption and, by contrast, the 5% of the world's energy consumption coming from nuclear power is not insignificant. Dr. Blix noted that opposition for nuclear power stems from fear of accidents and concern about the nuclear wastes. But no generation of electricity, whether by coal, hydro, gas or nuclear power, is without some risk. He emphasized that safety can never be a static concept, and that many new measures are being taken by governments and by the IAEA to further strengthen the safety of nuclear power

  7. Lightweight superconducting alternators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keim, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    One of the most efficient and most lightweight means of converting high-temperature heat energy to electricity is a turboalternator set. Turboalternators are potentially important components of burst-mode power systems, either chemical or nuclear powered. Also, they are probable key components in future electric propulsion systems. Existing examples of multimegawatt turbomachines have been optimized for a variety of aerospace uses, ranging from aircraft propulsion to rocket engine fuel pump drives. There is no corresponding history of multimegawatt alternators built to aerospace standards of mass, performance, and reliability. This paper discusses one of the few such development efforts presently in progress, and gives an indication of possible future potential. In large power ratings, superconducting generators offer substantial power density, specific weight, and efficiency advantages over competing technologies. A program at GE has led to the construction of a lightweight high-voltage 20-MW generator with a superconducting field winding. The first part of this paper describes the design of the generator. The second projects the capabilities of the generator to other ratings

  8. Alternative energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiter, J P [N. V. Kema te Arnhem, NL

    1975-01-01

    A review of alternative energy sources is presented. Solar energy may be used by collecting the heat for direct use or by converting it to electricity. Flat-plate and concentrating collectors are described. Wind energy is an indirect form of solar energy, and has been used for many years in the Netherlands. Calculations of the efficiency of windmills, and of the useful available wind energy along the Netherlands' coastline, are provided. The conversion of organic waste to useable energy is described, including techniques of pyrolysis, combustion, and biological conversion. Tidal energy and ocean-thermal-gradient power plants are briefly described. Geothermal energy is a particularly attractive resource. The average temperature gradient is about 30/sup 0/C/km, ranging from 10/sup 0/C/km in South Africa to 150/sup 0/C/km in Italy. In the Netherlands it ranges from 20-50/sup 0/C/km. The various types of geothermal systems (steam, water, geopressured) are reviewed, and presently operating geothermal power plants are described. A comparison is made of the costs of various energy sources, and 27 references are provided.

  9. Alternative cover design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-11-01

    The special study on Alternative Cover Designs is one of several studies initiated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in response to the proposed US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater standards. The objective of this study is to investigate the possibility of minimizing the infiltration of precipitation through stabilized tailings piles by altering the standard design of covers currently used on the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Prior. to the issuance of the proposed standards, UMTRA Project piles had common design elements to meet the required criteria, the most important of which were for radon diffusion, long-term stability, erosion protection, and groundwater protection. The standard pile covers consisted of three distinct layers. From top to bottom they were: rock for erosion protection; a sand bedding layer; and the radon barrier, usually consisting of a clayey sand material, which also functioned to limit infiltration into the tailings. The piles generally had topslopes from 2 to 4 percent and sideslopes of 20 percent

  10. Saved by Iridium? An Alternative to GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    know this. The enemy presents itself at any time, at any place, in many shapes and forms, often for no apparent reason. As Ecclesiastes 9:18 states...These physical architectures correspond to ground operations in scenarios ranging from complete air superiority to completely denied airspace.”86 A...not interfere with today’s GPS architectures .88 The second developed alternative from Dr. Asher’s group is the Rapidly Deployable Satellite

  11. Entrepreneurship and development - an alternative perspective

    OpenAIRE

    McCullagh, Ciaran

    1984-01-01

    Abstract: This paper offers an alternative to the more orthodox psychological approach to the study of entrepreneurship. It suggests that an adequate theory of entrepreneurship must consider a country's political and economic history and especially the way in which this history has structured the opportunities for economic gain open to social groups in the society. It further suggests that due to the different historical experience of underdeveloped countries, and especially international mon...

  12. EVALUATING THE IMPACT OF POLICY OPTIONS ON AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPES: AN ALTERNATIVE-FUTURES APPROACH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative-futures analysis was used to analyze different scenarios of future growth patterns and attendant resource allocations on the agricultural system of Oregon's Willamette River Basin. A stakeholder group formulated three policy alternatives: a continuation of current tr...

  13. Principles of alternative gerontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilinski, Tomasz; Bylak, Aneta; Zadrag-Tecza, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Surveys of taxonomic groups of animals have shown that contrary to the opinion of most gerontologists aging is not a genuine trait. The process of aging is not universal and its mechanisms have not been widely conserved among species. All life forms are subject to extrinsic and intrinsic destructive forces. Destructive effects of stochastic events are visible only when allowed by the specific life program of an organism. Effective life programs of immortality and high longevity eliminate the impact of unavoidable damage. Organisms that are capable of agametic reproduction are biologically immortal. Mortality of an organism is clearly associated with terminal specialisation in sexual reproduction. The longevity phenotype that is not accompanied by symptoms of senescence has been observed in those groups of animals that continue to increase their body size after reaching sexual maturity. This is the result of enormous regeneration abilities of both of the above-mentioned groups. Senescence is observed when: (i) an organism by principle switches off the expression of existing growth and regeneration programs, as in the case of imago formation in insect development; (ii) particular programs of growth and regeneration of progenitors are irreversibly lost, either partially or in their entirety, in mammals and birds. “We can't solve problems by using the same kind of thinking we used when we created them.” (Ascribed to Albert Einstein) PMID:27017907

  14. Medical group mergers: strategies for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Will

    2014-01-01

    As consolidation sweeps over the healthcare industry, many medical groups are considering mergers with other groups as an alternative to employment. While mergers are challenging and fraught with risk, an organized approach to the merger process can dramatically increase the odds for success. Merging groups need to consider the benefits they seek from a merger, identify the obstacles that must be overcome to merge, and develop alternatives to overcome those obstacles. This article addresses the benefits to be gained and issues to be addressed, and provides a tested roadmap that has resulted in many successful medical group mergers.

  15. Enhanced Design Alternative IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, N.E.

    1999-01-01

    This report evaluates Enhanced Design Alternative (EDA) IV as part of the second phase of the License Application Design Selection (LADS) effort. The EDA IV concept was compared to the VA reference design using criteria from the Design Input Request for LADS Phase II EDA Evaluations (CRWMS M and O 1999b) and (CRWMS M and O 1999f). Briefly, the EDA IV concept arranges the waste packages close together in an emplacement configuration known as line load. Continuous pre-closure ventilation keeps the waste packages from exceeding their 350 C cladding and 200 C (4.3.6) drift wall temperature limits. This EDA concept keeps relatively high, uniform emplacement drift temperatures (post-closure) to drive water away from the repository and thus dry out the pillars between emplacement drifts. The waste package is shielded to permit human access to emplacement drifts and includes an integral filler inside the package to reduce the amount of water that can contact the waste form. Closure of the repository is desired 50 years after first waste is emplaced. Both backfill and drip shields will be emplaced at closure to improve post-closure performance. The EDA IV concept includes more defense-in-depth layers than the VA reference design because of its backfill, drip shield, waste package shielding, and integral filler features. These features contribute to the low dose-rate to the public achieved during the first 10,000 years of repository life as shown in Figure 3. Investigation of the EDA IV concept has led to the following general conclusions: (1) The total life cycle cost for EDA IV is about $21.7 billion which equates to a $11.3 billion net present value (both figures rounded up). (2) The incidence of design basis events for EDA IV is similar to the VA reference design. (3) The emplacement of the waste packages in drifts will be similar to the VA reference design. However, heavier equipment may be required because the shielded waste package will be heavier. (4) The heavier

  16. Prospects for alternative Fusion Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glancy, J.

    1986-01-01

    The author has worked on three different magnetic confinement concepts for alternate fusion fueled reactors: tokamaks; tanden mirrors, and reversed field pinches. The focus of this article is on prospects for alternate fusion fuels as the author sees them relative to the other choices: increased numbers of coal plants, fission reactors, renewables, and D-T fusion. Discussion is limited on the consideration of alternate fusion fuels to the catalyzed deuterium-deuterium fuel cycle. Reasons for seeking an alternate energy source are cost, a more secure fuel supply, environmental impact and safety. The technical risks associated with development of fusion are examined briefly

  17. Alternative fuelds in urban fleets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, T.

    1994-12-31

    In this presentation the author addresses four main objectives. They are to: discuss programs that are driving the introduction of alternative fuels into fleet operations in urban areas around the country; define alternative fuels; quantify the present use and future projections on alternative fuel vehicles (AVFs) in the Chicago metropolitan statistical area; and discuss benefits of increased use of alternative fuels in urban areas. Factors which touch on these points include: present domestic dependence on petroleum for autos, with usage exceeding production; the large populations in urban areas which do not meet Clean Air Standards; recent legislative initiatives which give guidance and aid in the adoption of such strategies.

  18. Alternative fuelds in urban fleets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay, T.

    1994-01-01

    In this presentation the author addresses four main objectives. They are to: discuss programs that are driving the introduction of alternative fuels into fleet operations in urban areas around the country; define alternative fuels; quantify the present use and future projections on alternative fuel vehicles (AVFs) in the Chicago metropolitan statistical area; and discuss benefits of increased use of alternative fuels in urban areas. Factors which touch on these points include: present domestic dependence on petroleum for autos, with usage exceeding production; the large populations in urban areas which do not meet Clean Air Standards; recent legislative initiatives which give guidance and aid in the adoption of such strategies

  19. Alternative RNA splicing and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sali; Cheng, Chonghui

    2015-01-01

    Alternative splicing of pre-messenger RNA (mRNA) is a fundamental mechanism by which a gene can give rise to multiple distinct mRNA transcripts, yielding protein isoforms with different, even opposing, functions. With the recognition that alternative splicing occurs in nearly all human genes, its relationship with cancer-associated pathways has emerged as a rapidly growing field. In this review, we summarize recent findings that have implicated the critical role of alternative splicing in cancer and discuss current understandings of the mechanisms underlying dysregulated alternative splicing in cancer cells. PMID:23765697

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Indiana Transportation Data for Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    (nameplate, MW) 1,430 Source: BioFuels Atlas from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Case Studies Video Alternative Fuels Save Money in Indy April 1, 2012 More Case Studies Videos Text Version More Indiana Videos on YouTube Video thumbnail for Indiana Beverage Company Invests in Alternative Fuels Indiana Beverage

  1. Deviance and dissent in groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetten, Jolanda; Hornsey, Matthew J

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, group research has focused more on the motivations that make people conform than on the motivations and conditions underpinning deviance and dissent. This has led to a literature that focuses on the value that groups place on uniformity and paints a relatively dark picture of dissent and deviance: as reflections of a lack of group loyalty, as signs of disengagement, or as delinquent behavior. An alternative point of view, which has gained momentum in recent years, focuses on deviance and dissent as normal and healthy aspects of group life. In this review, we focus on the motivations that group members have to deviate and dissent, and the functional as well as the dysfunctional effects of deviance and dissent. In doing so we aim for a balanced and complete account of deviance and dissent, highlighting when such behaviors will be encouraged as well as when they will be punished.

  2. Normetex Pump Alternatives Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Elliot A.

    2013-01-01

    A mainstay pump for tritium systems, the Normetex scroll pump, is currently unavailable because the Normetex company went out of business. This pump was an all-metal scroll pump that served tritium processing facilities very well. Current tritium system operators are evaluating replacement pumps for the Normetex pump and for general used in tritium service. An all-metal equivalent alternative to the Normetex pump has not yet been identified. 1. The ideal replacement tritium pump would be hermetically sealed and contain no polymer components or oils. Polymers and oils degrade over time when they contact ionizing radiation. 2. Halogenated polymers (containing fluorine, chlorine, or both) and oils are commonly found in pumps. These materials have many properties that surpass those of hydrocarbon-based polymers and oils, including thermal stability (higher operating temperature) and better chemical resistance. Unfortunately, they are less resistant to degradation from ionizing radiation than hydrocarbon-based materials (in general). 3. Polymers and oils can form gaseous, condensable (HF, TF), liquid, and solid species when exposed to ionizing radiation. For example, halogenated polymers form HF and HCl, which are extremely corrosive upon reaction with water. If a pump containing polymers or oils must be used in a tritium system, the system must be designed to be able to process the unwanted by-products. Design features to mitigate degradation products include filters and chemical or physical traps (eg. cold traps, oil traps). 4. Polymer components can work in tritium systems, but must be replaced regularly. Polymer components performance should be monitored or be regularly tested, and regular replacement of components should be viewed as an expected normal event. A radioactive waste stream must be established to dispose of used polymer components and oil with an approved disposal plan developed based on the facility location and its regulators. Polymers have varying

  3. PZT-5A4/PA and PZT-5A4/PDMS piezoelectric composite bimorphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu, I; Hendrix, M M R M; De With, G

    2014-01-01

    Disc type reinforced piezoelectric composite bimorphs with series connection were designed and the performance was investigated. The composite bimorphs (PZT/PA and PZT/PDMS (40/60 vol%)) were successfully fabricated by a compression molding and solution casting technique. The charge developed at an applied force of 150 N is 18150 pC (PZT/PA) and 2310 pC (PZT/PDMS), respectively. Electric force microscopy (EFM) is used to study the structural characterization and piezoelectric properties of the materials realized. A clear inverse piezoelectric effect was observed when the bimorphs were subjected to an electric field stepped up through 2, 6 and 10 V, indicating the net polarization direction of the different ferroelectric domains. The as-developed bimorphs have the basic structure of a sensor and actuator, and, since they do not use any bonding agent for bonding, they can provide a valuable alternative to the present bimorphs where bonding processes are required for their realization that can limit their application at high temperature. (paper)

  4. Economic analysis of alternative LLW disposal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foutes, C.E.; Queenan, C.J. III

    1987-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has evaluated the costs and benefits of alternative disposal technologies as part of its program to develop generally applicable environmental standards for the land disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). Costs, population health effects and Critical Population Group (CPG) exposures resulting from alternative waste treatment and disposal methods were evaluated both in absolute terms and also relative to a base case (current practice). Incremental costs of the standard included costs for packaging, processing, transportation, and burial of waste. Benefits are defined in terms of reductions in the general population health risk (expected fatal cancers and genetic effects) evaluated over 10,000 years. A cost-effectiveness ratio, defined as the incremental cost per avoided health effect, was calculated for each alternative standard. The cost-effectiveness analysis took into account a number of waste streams, hydrogeologic and climatic region settings, and waste treatment and disposal methods. This paper describes the alternatives considered and preliminary results of the cost-effectiveness analysis. 15 references, 7 figures, 3 tables

  5. Genetic analysis of drug metabolizing phase-I enzymes CYP3A4 in Tibetan populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lijun; Chang, Yu; Du, Shuli; Shi, Xugang; Yang, Hua; Kang, Longli; Jin, Tianbo; Yuan, Dongya; He, Yongjun

    2017-06-01

    The enzymatic activity of CYP3A4 results in broad interindividual variability in response to certain pharmacotherapies. The present study aimed to screen Tibetan volunteers for CYP3A4 genetic polymorphisms. Previous research has focussed on Han Chinese patients, while little is known about the genetic variation of CYP3A4 in the Tibetan populations. Here, we adopted DNA sequencing to investigate the promoter, exons and surrounding introns, and 3'-untranslated region of the CYP3A4 gene in 96 unrelated healthy Tibetan individuals.We identified 20 different CYP3A4 polymorphisms in the Tibetan population, including two novel variants (21824 A>G and 15580 G>C). In addition, we also determined the allele frequencies of CYP3A4*1A and CYP3A4*1H were 82.29% and 28.13%, respectively. CYP3A4*1P and *1G were relatively rare with frequencies of only 1.04% and 0.52%, respectively. Our results provide information on CYP3A4 polymorphisms in Tibetan individuals which may help to optimize pharmacotherapy effectiveness by providing personalized medicine to this ethnic group.

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windstars; 14) and the use of alternative fuel vehicles at the Olympics. Alternative Fuels In Trucking, Vol and their economic and environmental benefits. This report is designed to share the experiences and National Academy of Engineering suggested that 'DOE might have its greatest impact by leading the private

  7. Catching lightning for alternative energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helman, D.S. [California State University, Long Beach, 1250 Bellflower Blvd., Long Beach, CA 90840 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    The article reviews the current literature related to lightning and makes a case for using lightning as an alternative source of energy. Objections to using lightning as an alternative source of energy are listed. Current literature is reviewed and articles are suggested as useful for building a tower, or using rockets or lasers to target a strike, or for quantifying a lightning strike. (author)

  8. Difficulties of Alternatively Certified Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonfeld, Irvin Sam; Feinman, Samantha J.

    2012-01-01

    This daily diary study followed, over a 2-week period, 252 beginning New York City public school teachers. Seventy percent were alternatively certified (New York City Teaching Fellows) and the rest, traditionally certified teachers. Alternatively certified teachers were more likely to experience stressors such as violent incidents and classroom…

  9. [Alternative approaches in thyroid surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, E; Wächter, S; Bartsch, D K

    2017-08-01

    In thyroid surgery multiple different cervical minimally invasive (partly endoscopically assisted) and extracervical endoscopic (partly robot-assisted) approaches have been developed in the last 20 years. The aim of all these alternative approaches to the thyroid gland is optimization of the cosmetic result. The indications for the use of alternative and conventional approaches are principally the same. Important requirements for the use of alternative methods are nevertheless a broad experience in conventional thyroid operations of the thyroid and adequate patient selection under consideration of the size of the thyroid and the underlying pathology. Contraindications for the use of alternative approaches are a large size of the thyroid gland including local symptoms, advanced carcinomas, reoperations and previous radiations of the anterior neck. The current article gives an overview of the clinically implemented alternative approaches for thyroid surgery. Of those the majority must still be considered as experimental. The alternative approaches to the thyroid gland can be divided in cervical minimally invasive, extracervical endosopic (robot-assisted) and transoral operations (natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery, NOTES). Since conventional thyroid operations are standardized procedures with low complication rates, alternative approaches to the thyroid gland are considered critically in Germany. The request for a perfect cosmetic result should not overweigh patients' safety. Only a few alternative approaches (e. g. MIVAT, RAT) can yet be considered as a safe addition in experienced hands in highly selected patients.

  10. Marital Alternatives and Marital Disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udry, J. Richard

    1981-01-01

    Explores the usefulness of "marital alternatives" as a dimension in explaining marital stability, using longitudinal data from a panel of married, White, urban couples from 16 urban areas. Results indicated the dimension of marital alternatives appeared to be a better predictor of marital disruption than marital satisfaction. (Author/RC)

  11. Alternative Genres of IS Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avital, Michel; Mathiassen, Lars; Crowston, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    The potential value of alternative genres in IS research is the core question that drives this panel discussion. The term “Alternative Genres” refers to unconventional forms of thinking, doing, and communicating scholarship and practice. It relates to innovation with respect to epistemological pe...

  12. Alternative Fuels in Cement Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Boberg

    The substitution of alternative for fossil fuels in cement production has increased significantly in the last decade. Of these new alternative fuels, solid state fuels presently account for the largest part, and in particular, meat and bone meal, plastics and tyre derived fuels (TDF) accounted...... for the most significant alternative fuel energy contributors in the German cement industry. Solid alternative fuels are typically high in volatile content and they may differ significantly in physical and chemical properties compared to traditional solid fossil fuels. From the process point of view......, considering a modern kiln system for cement production, the use of alternative fuels mainly influences 1) kiln process stability (may accelerate build up of blockages preventing gas and/or solids flow), 2) cement clinker quality, 3) emissions, and 4) decreased production capacity. Kiln process stability...

  13. Verb aspect, alternations and quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetla Koeva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Verb aspect, alternations and quantification In this paper we are briefly discuss the nature of Bulgarian verb aspect and argue that the verb aspect pairs are different lexical units with different (although related meaning, different argument structure (reflecting categories, explicitness and referential status of arguments and different sets of semantic and syntactic alternations. The verb prefixes resulting in perfective verbs derivation in some cases can be interpreted as lexical quantifiers as well. Thus the Bulgarian verb aspect is related (in different way both with the potential for the generation of alternations and with the prefixal lexical quantification. It is shown that the scope of the lexical quantification by means of verbal prefixes is the quantified verb phrase and the scope remains constant in all derived alternations. The paper concerns the basic issues of these complex problems, while the detailed description of the conditions satisfying particular alternation or particular lexical quantification are subject of a more detailed study.

  14. Systematic screening for CYP3A4 genetic polymorphisms in a Han Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guo-Xin; Dai, Da-Peng; Wang, Hao; Huang, Xiang-Xin; Zhou, Xiao-Yang; Cai, Jie; Chen, Hao; Cai, Jian-Ping

    2017-03-01

    To systematically investigate the genetic polymorphisms of the CYP3A4 gene in a Han Chinese population. The promoter and exons of CYP3A4 gene in 1114 unrelated, healthy Han Chinese subjects were amplified and genotyped by direct sequencing. In total, five previously reported alleles (*1G, *4, *5, *18B and *23) were detected, of which one allele (*23) was reported for the first time in Han Chinese population. Additionally, seven novel exonic variants were also identified and designated as new alleles CYP3A4*28-*34. This study provides the most comprehensive data of CYP3A4 polymorphisms in Han Chinese population and detects the largest number of novel CYP3A4 alleles in one ethnic group.

  15. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-9 - Plan aggregation and restructuring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... optional rules in § 1.401(a)(4)-2(c)(2)(iv) (imputation of permitted disparity) and (v) (grouping of rates... actuarial increases after normal retirement age under § 1.401(a)(4)-3(f)(3)) may not be used in testing a DB... contribution plan)(in percent) HCE A (age 55) 3.93 3.82 HCE B (age 50) 2.61 5.74 C (age 60) 5.91 .51 D (age 45...

  16. 8 CFR 274a.4 - Good faith defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Good faith defense. 274a.4 Section 274a.4... ALIENS Employer Requirements § 274a.4 Good faith defense. An employer or a recruiter or referrer for a fee for employment who shows good faith compliance with the employment verification requirements of...

  17. Alternative reconstruction after pancreaticoduodenectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooperman Avram M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pancreaticoduodenectomy is the procedure of choice for tumors of the head of the pancreas and periampulla. Despite advances in surgical technique and postoperative care, the procedure continues to carry a high morbidity rate. One of the most common morbidities is delayed gastric emptying with rates of 15%–40%. Following two prolonged cases of delayed gastric emptying, we altered our reconstruction to avoid this complication altogether. Subsequently, our patients underwent a classic pancreaticoduodenectomy with an undivided Roux-en-Y technique for reconstruction. Methods We reviewed the charts of our last 13 Whipple procedures evaluating them for complications, specifically delayed gastric emptying. We compared the outcomes of those patients to a control group of 15 patients who underwent the Whipple procedure with standard reconstruction. Results No instances of delayed gastric emptying occurred in patients who underwent an undivided Roux-en-Y technique for reconstruction. There was 1 wound infection (8%, 1 instance of pneumonia (8%, and 1 instance of bleeding from the gastrojejunal staple line (8%. There was no operative mortality. Conclusion Use of the undivided Roux-en-Y technique for reconstruction following the Whipple procedure may decrease the incidence of delayed gastric emptying. In addition, it has the added benefit of eliminating bile reflux gastritis. Future randomized control trials are recommended to further evaluate the efficacy of the procedure.

  18. Moderation of Peer Assessment in Group Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushell, Graeme

    2006-01-01

    It is shown here that a grade distribution scheme commonly used to moderate peer assessments where self assessment is excluded is based on a false premise and will give an erroneous ranking in the situation where the best performer in a student group ranks the second best performer much higher than the other group members. An alternative to…

  19. Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Decision Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shedrow, C.B.

    1999-01-01

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) made a FY98 commitment to the Department of Energy (DOE) to recommend a technology for the disposal of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The two technologies being considered, direct co-disposal and melt and dilute, had been previously selected from a group of eleven potential SNF management technologies by the Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team chartered by the DOE''s Office of Spent Fuel Management. To meet this commitment, WSRC organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and ultimately provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE on a preferred SNF alternative management technology

  20. Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Decision Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shedrow, C.B.

    1999-11-29

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) made a FY98 commitment to the Department of Energy (DOE) to recommend a technology for the disposal of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The two technologies being considered, direct co-disposal and melt and dilute, had been previously selected from a group of eleven potential SNF management technologies by the Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team chartered by the DOE''s Office of Spent Fuel Management. To meet this commitment, WSRC organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and ultimately provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE on a preferred SNF alternative management technology.

  1. Research requirements for alternative reactor development strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to estimate and compare resource requirements and other fuel cycle quantities for alternative reactor deployment strategies. The paper examines from global and national perspectives the interaction of various fuel cycle alternatives described in the previous U.S. submissions to Working Groups 4, 5, 8 and Subgroup 1A/2A. Nuclear energy forecasts of Subgroup 1A/2A are used in the calculation of uranium demand for each strategy. These uranium demands are then compared to U.S. estimates of annual uranium producibility. Annual rather than cumulative producibility was selected because it does not assume preplanned stockpiling, and is therefore more conservative. The strategies attempt to span a range of nuclear power mixes which could evolve if appropriate commercial and governmental climates develop

  2. An Alternative Hypothesis for Special Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eckardt H.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available An alternative theory being analogous to Einstein’s special theory of relativity is pre- sented. While Einstein based his theory on the relativity principle of motion and con- stancy of the velocity of light, this theory assumes an absolute frame of reference and a general length contraction. Both concepts are taken from general relativity and applied to an asymptotically flat space. This results in a transformation group being differ- ent from the Lorentz transformation and a Eucledian addition theorem of velocitites. The results are in accordance with experiments and long known discrepancies between special relativity and experimental findings are resolved as well as paradoxa being in- troduced by Einstein’s original theory. Physical facts being unintelligible before can be interpreted in the light of the alternative theory.

  3. Finite flavour groups of fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimus, Walter; Ludl, Patrick Otto

    2012-01-01

    We present an overview of the theory of finite groups, with regard to their application as flavour symmetries in particle physics. In a general part, we discuss useful theorems concerning group structure, conjugacy classes, representations and character tables. In a specialized part, we attempt to give a fairly comprehensive review of finite subgroups of SO(3) and SU(3), in which we apply and illustrate the general theory. Moreover, we also provide a concise description of the symmetric and alternating groups and comment on the relationship between finite subgroups of U(3) and finite subgroups of SU(3). Although in this review we give a detailed description of a wide range of finite groups, the main focus is on the methods which allow the exploration of their different aspects. (topical review)

  4. Pheromone based alternative route planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangbing Feng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we propose an improved alternative route calculation based on alternative figures, which is suitable for practical environments. The improvement is based on the fact that the main traffic route is the road network skeleton in a city. Our approach using nodes may generate a higher possibility of overlapping. We employ a bidirectional Dijkstra algorithm to search the route. To measure the quality of an Alternative Figures (AG, three quotas are proposed. The experiment results indicate that the improved algorithm proposed in this paper is more effective than others.

  5. Alternative trading systems in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Mosionek-Schweda

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The first Polish alternative trading system – called NewConnect – was opened on 30 August 2007. It has the status of an organized market, but it is operated by the Warsaw Stock Exchange outside the regulated market. Two years later, on 30 September 2009, the WSE launched another market – Catalyst – which consists of four segments including: two regular markets and two alternative trading platforms. The present paper aims to describe fundamental rules of the Polish alternative trading platforms as well as to depict a short overview of their trading indicators and basic statistics.

  6. The effect of alternative assessment on the attitudes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the effect of exposing one of two groups of preservice female teachers to alternate forms of assessment. Both groups were first year students in a teacher training college and received 8 weeks of normal instruction in mathematics content and traditional assessment by the same teacher. The students ...

  7. Extremely discrepant mutation spectrum of SLC26A4 between Chinese patients with isolated Mondini deformity and enlarged vestibular aqueduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shasha; Han, Dongyi; Yuan, Yongyi; Wang, Guojian; Kang, Dongyang; Zhang, Xin; Yan, Xiaofei; Meng, Xiaoxiao; Dong, Min; Dai, Pu

    2011-09-30

    Mutations in SLC26A4 cause Pendred syndrome (hearing loss with goiter) or DFNB4 (non-syndromic hearing loss with inner ear malformation, such as enlarged vestibular aqueduct or Mondini deformity). The relationship between mutations in SLC26A4 and Mondini deformity without enlarged vestibular aqueduct has not been studied in any Chinese deaf population. The purpose of this study was to assess whether mutations in the SLC26A4 gene cause Mondini deformity without an enlarged vestibular aqueduct (isolated Mondini deformity) in a Chinese population. In total, 144 patients with sensorineural hearing loss were included and subjected to high-resolution temporal bone CT. Among them, 28 patients with isolated Mondini dysplasia (MD group), 50 patients with enlarged vestibular aqueduct with Mondini dysplasia (EVA with MD group), 50 patients with enlarged vestibular aqueduct without Mondini dysplasia (EVA group), and 16 patients with other types of inner ear malformations (IEM group) were identified. The coding exons of SLC26A4 were analyzed in all subjects. DNA sequence analysis of SLC26A4 was performed in all 144 patients. In the different groups, the detection rate of the SLC26A4 mutation differed. In the isolated MD group, only one single allelic mutation in SLC26A4 was found in one patient (1/28, 3.6%). In the EVA with MD group, biallelic and monoallelic SLC26A4 mutations were identified in 46 patients (46/50, 92.0%) and three patients (3/50, 6.0%), respectively. Also, in the EVA group, biallelic and monoallelic SLC26A4 mutations were identified in 46 patients (46/50, 92.0%) and three patients (3/50, 6.0%), respectively. These percentages were identical to those in the EVA plus MD group. Only two patients carried monoallelic mutations of the SLC26A4 gene in the IEM group (2/16, 12.5%). There were significant differences in the frequency of SLC26A4 mutation among the groups (P0.5). Although mutations in the SLC26A4 gene were frequently found in Chinese EVA patients with and

  8. Alternative Perspectives on Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Jeannie; Orasanu, J.; Connors, Mary M. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The goal of the commercial air transport system is to provide air transportation to the flying public at an acceptable cost with minimal risk. in an ideal situation these three goals would support each other. In fact, it is sometimes the case that the goals conflict: getting passengers to their destinations on time may conflict with fixing a minor mechanical malfunction that may or may not impact safety; flying a route that will avoid turbulence, thereby providing passengers with a more comfortable ride, may consume more fuel; managing traffic density may mean aircraft are delayed or must use an approach that will result in a long taxi to their gates, costing time and fuel. Various players in the system--pilots, dispatchers, controllers, as well as managers in the airline carriers and traffic management system--make decisions every day that involve trade-offs of benefits and costs. The prospect of revisions in the air traffic management system, with shifts in responsibilities from controllers to users, including airline operations center personnel and pilots, means that individuals may be performing either new jobs or old jobs under new guidance. It will be essential to know how the various players (a) perceive the risks and benefits associated with the decisions they will make under the old and new control structures, and (b) how much risk they are willing to accept in making decisions. Risk is here defined as the probability and magnitude of negative events (after Slovic, 1987). Of primary interest are risks associated with traffic, weather, and operational factors such as schedule, fuel consumption, and passenger service. Previous research has documented differences between groups in perceptions of risks associated with both everyday and aviation related situations. Risk perception varies as a function of familiarity with the situation, degree to which one is potentially affected by the risk, the level of control one has over the situation, and one's level of

  9. Which finite simple groups are unit groups?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Christopher James; Occhipinti, Tommy

    2014-01-01

    We prove that if G is a finite simple group which is the unit group of a ring, then G is isomorphic to either (a) a cyclic group of order 2; (b) a cyclic group of prime order 2^k −1 for some k; or (c) a projective special linear group PSLn(F2) for some n ≥ 3. Moreover, these groups do all occur a...

  10. Disturbance maintains alternative biome states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Vinícius de L; Hirota, Marina; Oliveira, Rafael S; Pausas, Juli G

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms controlling the distribution of biomes remains a challenge. Although tropical biome distribution has traditionally been explained by climate and soil, contrasting vegetation types often occur as mosaics with sharp boundaries under very similar environmental conditions. While evidence suggests that these biomes are alternative states, empirical broad-scale support to this hypothesis is still lacking. Using community-level field data and a novel resource-niche overlap approach, we show that, for a wide range of environmental conditions, fire feedbacks maintain savannas and forests as alternative biome states in both the Neotropics and the Afrotropics. In addition, wooded grasslands and savannas occurred as alternative grassy states in the Afrotropics, depending on the relative importance of fire and herbivory feedbacks. These results are consistent with landscape scale evidence and suggest that disturbance is a general factor driving and maintaining alternative biome states and vegetation mosaics in the tropics. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  11. Alternative food safety intervention technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative nonthermal and thermal food safety interventions are gaining acceptance by the food processing industry and consumers. These technologies include high pressure processing, ultraviolet and pulsed light, ionizing radiation, pulsed and radiofrequency electric fields, cold atmospheric plasm...

  12. Alternative Hamiltonian representation for gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosas-RodrIguez, R [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apdo. Postal J-48, 72570, Puebla, Pue. (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    By using a Hamiltonian formalism for fields wider than the canonical one, we write the Einstein vacuum field equations in terms of alternative variables. This variables emerge from the Ashtekar's formalism for gravity.

  13. Alternative Hamiltonian representation for gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosas-RodrIguez, R

    2007-01-01

    By using a Hamiltonian formalism for fields wider than the canonical one, we write the Einstein vacuum field equations in terms of alternative variables. This variables emerge from the Ashtekar's formalism for gravity

  14. Alternative energies updates on progress

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Germán

    2013-01-01

    This book examines the key pillars of alternative energy, including biomass, hydrogen, solar and geothermal. It features life cycle assessment and thermoeconomic analysis as tools for evaluating and optimising environmental and cost subjects.

  15. Alternatives for radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, J.W.

    1975-10-01

    The safety aspects of waste management alternatives are emphasized. The options for waste management, their safety characteristics, and the methods that might be used to evaluate the options and their safety are outlined

  16. Alternative Medicine and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spirituality Affect Your Family's Health? Talking to Your Child's Doctor Medications: Using Them Safely Talking to the Pharmacist Complementary and Alternative Medicine View more About Us Contact Us Partners Editorial ...

  17. Commercial aviation alternative fuels initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    This presentation looks at alternative fuels to enhance environmental stability, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, air quality benefits (e.g., SOx and PM), fuel supply stability, and fuel price stability.

  18. An alternative plutonium disposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueppers, C.

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides a feasibility study on vitrification of plutonium with high active waste concentrate, and fabrication of MOX fuel rods for direct final disposal. These are potential alternatives to the direct use of MOX fuel in a reactor. (author)

  19. The neurogenetics of alternative splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Celine K; Black, Douglas L; Zheng, Sika

    2016-05-01

    Alternative precursor-mRNA splicing is a key mechanism for regulating gene expression in mammals and is controlled by specialized RNA-binding proteins. The misregulation of splicing is implicated in multiple neurological disorders. We describe recent mouse genetic studies of alternative splicing that reveal its critical role in both neuronal development and the function of mature neurons. We discuss the challenges in understanding the extensive genetic programmes controlled by proteins that regulate splicing, both during development and in the adult brain.

  20. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed

  1. 75 FR 12769 - National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Announcement of Workshop on Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... Complementary and Alternative Medicine Announcement of Workshop on Control/Comparison Groups for Trials of Non... Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) was established in 1998 with the mission of exploring... Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, National Institutes of Health. [FR Doc. 2010-5767...

  2. 26 CFR 1.25A-4 - Lifetime Learning Credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Lifetime Learning Credit. 1.25A-4 Section 1.25A-4... Rates During A Taxable Year § 1.25A-4 Lifetime Learning Credit. (a) Amount of the credit—(1) Taxable years beginning before January 1, 2003. Subject to the phaseout of the education tax credit described in...

  3. Alternative Energy Lessons in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Julie

    2010-05-01

    In Scotland the new science curriculum for pupils aged 12 to 15 shall include the following outcomes: "Using my knowledge and understanding, I can express an informed view on a national or global environmental issue;" "I have participated in constructing a model to harness a renewable source of energy and can investigate how to optimise the output;" and "I can discuss why it is important to me and to the future of the world that alternatives to fossil fuels are developed." There will be an emphasis on creating lessons that will nurture responsible citizens, improve pupil engagement and allow students to develop their team working skills. To help teachers plan lessons to address this, the Scottish Schools Equipment Research Centre and Edinburgh University made teaching materials on four renewable energy resources. This poster describes how their suggested activities on solar cells, wind turbines, hydroelectric power stations and wave power were used in science lessons with twelve year old students. After an initial class discussion based on issues related to climate change and diminishing fossil fuel supplies, a workshop activity was carried out in three stages. The students were issued with a fact sheet about one of four imaginary islands (Skisdale, Cloudy Island, Surfsville and Sun City) and they were asked to work in teams to choose the most suitable method of generating electricity for their island. Issues such as costs, where it will be sited and environmental implications were considered. They were then asked to conduct practical activities by constructing and testing models for these forms of renewable energy. To conclude, they presented their proposal to the rest of the class with reasoned explanations. The kits used in the lessons can be purchased from Anderson Scientific (sales@andersonscientific.co.uk). The solar cells were simply connected to a voltmeter. The wind and hydroelectric groups used the same basic equipment. This was made using a small water

  4. Categorical Alternatives: An Educational Criticism Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J. EVANS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the writing of this paper, the design of which is based on Elliot Eisners Educational Criticism model, both linguistic and non-linguistic description were used to encourage the interpretation and evaluation of a specific and unique alternative educational setting. Five years ago, Ellens Learning Annex, a multi-age, one-room school house, was just next door to the researcher, while her son was struggling at the public school a mile away. A day spent observing Ellen and her students yielded data from which three general themes emerged: Heterogeneous age-grouping, place-based education, and sensory integration in a teaching and learning environment.

  5. Evaluation of jojoba oil as a low-energy fat. 1. A 4-week feeding study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschuren, P M

    1989-01-01

    The nutritional properties of jojoba oil (JO) were examined in a 4-wk feeding study of rats fed a diet with JO at dose levels of 2.2, 4.5 and 9%, supplemented with a conventional fat up to 18%. General health, survival and food intake were not adversely affected. Body-weight gains showed a dose-related decline, which amounted to 20% of the body weight in the high-dose group of both sexes. Clinical chemistry revealed significantly increased levels of various enzymes that were indicative of cell damage. Haematology showed a dose-related increase in white blood cells. On necropsy an apparent distension of the small intestine was found. Histopathological evaluation revealed marked intestinal changes characterized by massive vacuolization and lipid deposition in the enterocytes, accompanied by distension of the villi and an increased cell turnover of small intestinal cells. Faeces production and faeces lipid content were increased with increasing JO levels. The recovery of JO in the faeces also increased in a dose-related manner and was found to be correlated with the intestinal histopathological changes. The significant adverse clinical and histopathological effects observed in this study imply that JO cannot be considered as a promising alternative dietary fat with a low digestibility.

  6. Group Cohesion in Experiential Growth Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Sam; Vasserman-Stokes, Elaina; Vannatta, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the effect of web-based journaling on changes in group cohesion within experiential growth groups. Master's students were divided into 2 groups. Both used a web-based platform to journal after each session; however, only 1 of the groups was able to read each other's journals. Quantitative data collected before and…

  7. Introducing linear functions: an alternative statistical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Caroline; Herbert, Sandra

    2015-12-01

    The introduction of linear functions is the turning point where many students decide if mathematics is useful or not. This means the role of parameters and variables in linear functions could be considered to be `threshold concepts'. There is recognition that linear functions can be taught in context through the exploration of linear modelling examples, but this has its limitations. Currently, statistical data is easily attainable, and graphics or computer algebra system (CAS) calculators are common in many classrooms. The use of this technology provides ease of access to different representations of linear functions as well as the ability to fit a least-squares line for real-life data. This means these calculators could support a possible alternative approach to the introduction of linear functions. This study compares the results of an end-of-topic test for two classes of Australian middle secondary students at a regional school to determine if such an alternative approach is feasible. In this study, test questions were grouped by concept and subjected to concept by concept analysis of the means of test results of the two classes. This analysis revealed that the students following the alternative approach demonstrated greater competence with non-standard questions.

  8. Enhanced Access Design Alternative I Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eble, G.B.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to evaluate Enhanced Design Alternative (EDA) 1, the low temperature repository design concept (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This technical document will provide supporting information for Site Recommendation (SR) and License Application (LA). Preparation of this evaluation will be in accordance with the technical document preparation plan (TDPP), (CRWMS M and O 1999b). EDA 1, one of five EDAs, was evolved from evaluation of a series of design features and alternatives developed during the first phase of the License Application Design Selection (LADS) process. Low, medium, and high temperature concepts were developed from the design features and alternatives prepared during Phase 1 of the LADS effort (CRWMS M and O 1999a). EDA 1 will first be evaluated against a single Screening Criterion, outlined in CRWMS M and O 1999a, which addresses post-closure performance of the repository. The performance of the repository is defined quantitatively as the peak radiological dose rate to an average individual of a critical group at a distance of 20 km from the repository site within 10,000 years. To satisfy this criterion the peak dose rate must not exceed the anticipated regulatory level of 25 mrem/yr within 10,000 years. If the EDA meets the screening criterion, the EDA will be further evaluated against the LADS Phase 2 Evaluation Criteria contained in CRWMS M and O 1999a

  9. Enhanced Design Alternative I: Low Temperature Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacNeil, K.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to evaluate Enhanced Design Alternative (EDA) 1, the low temperature repository design concept (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This technical document will provide supporting information for Site Recommendation (SR) and License Application (LA). Preparation of this evaluation will be in accordance with the technical document preparation plan (TDPP), (CRWMS M and O 1999b). EDA 1, one of five EDAs, was evolved from evaluation of a series of design features and alternatives developed during the first phase of the License Application Design Selection (LADS) process. Low, medium, and high temperature concepts were developed from the design features and alternatives prepared during Phase 1 of the LADS effort (CRWMS M and O 1999a). EDA 1 will first be evaluated against a single Screening Criterion, outlined in CRWMS M and O 1999a, which addresses post-closure performance of the repository. The performance of the repository is defined quantitatively as the peak radiological dose rate to an average individual of a critical group at a distance of 20 km from the repository site within 10,000 years. To satisfy this criterion the peak dose rate must not exceed the anticipated regulatory level of 25 mrem/yr within 10,000 years. If the EDA meets the screening criterion, the EDA will be further evaluated against the LADS Phase 2 Evaluation Criteria contained in CRWMS M and O 1999a

  10. Group Work Publication-1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimpfer, David G.

    1992-01-01

    Lists 21 new publications in group work, of which 9 are reviewed. Those discussed include publications on group counseling and psychotherapy, structured groups, support groups, psychodrama, and social group work. (Author/NB)

  11. Quantum isometry groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jyotishman Bhowmick

    2015-11-07

    Nov 7, 2015 ... Classical. Quantum. Background. Compact Hausdorff space. Unital C∗ algebra. Gelfand-Naimark. Compact Group. Compact Quantum Group. Woronowicz. Group Action. Coaction. Woronowicz. Riemannian manifold. Spectral triple. Connes. Isometry group. Quantum Isometry Group. To be discussed.

  12. Loss of EphA4 impairs short-term spatial recognition memory performance and locomotor habituation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willi, R; Winter, C; Wieske, F; Kempf, A; Yee, B K; Schwab, M E; Singer, P

    2012-11-01

    EphA4 receptor (EphA4) tyrosine kinase is an important regulator of central nervous system development and synaptic plasticity in the mature brain, but its relevance to the control of normal behavior remains largely unexplored. This study is the first attempt to obtain a behavioral profile of constitutive homozygous and heterozygous EphA4 knockout mice. A deficit in locomotor habituation in the open field, impairment in spatial recognition in the Y-maze and reduced probability of spatial spontaneous alternation in the T-maze were identified in homozygous EphA4(-/-) mice, while heterozygo us EphA4(+/-) mice appeared normal on these tests in comparison with wild-type (WT) controls. The multiple phenotypes observed in EphA4(-/-) mice might stem from an underlying deficit in habituation learning, reflecting an elementary form of nonassociative learning that is in contrast to Pavlovian associative learning, which appeared unaffected by EphA4 disruption. A deficit in motor coordination on the accelerating rotarod was also demonstrated only in EphA4(-/-) mice--a finding in keeping with the presence of abnormal gait in EphA4(-/-) mice--although they were able to improve performance over training. There was no evidence for substantial changes in major neurochemical markers in various brain regions rich in EphA4 as shown by post-mortem analysis. This excludes the possibility of major neurochemical compensation in the brain of EphA4(-/-) mice. In summary, we have demonstrated for the first time the behavioral significance of EphA4 disruption, supporting further investigation of EphA4 as a possible target for behavioral interventions where habituation deficits are prominent. © 2012 The Authors. Genes, Brain and Behavior © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  13. Exonal deletion of SLC24A4 causes hypomaturation amelogenesis imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymen, F; Lee, K-E; Tran Le, C G; Yildirim, M; Gencay, K; Lee, Z H; Kim, J-W

    2014-04-01

    Amelogenesis imperfecta is a heterogeneous group of genetic conditions affecting enamel formation. Recently, mutations in solute carrier family 24 member 4 (SLC24A4) have been identified to cause autosomal recessive hypomaturation amelogenesis imperfecta. We recruited a consanguineous family with hypomaturation amelogenesis imperfecta with generalized brown discoloration. Sequencing of the candidate genes identified a 10-kb deletion, including exons 15, 16, and most of the last exon of the SLC24A4 gene. Interestingly, this deletion was caused by homologous recombination between two 354-bp-long homologous sequences located in intron 14 and the 3' UTR. This is the first report of exonal deletion in SLC24A4 providing confirmatory evidence that the function of SLC24A4 in calcium transport has a crucial role in the maturation stage of amelogenesis.

  14. Plant-based milk alternatives an emerging segment of functional beverages: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Sethi, Swati; Tyagi, S. K.; Anurag, Rahul K.

    2016-01-01

    Plant-based or non-dairy milk alternative is the fast growing segment in newer food product development category of functional and specialty beverage across the globe. Nowadays, cow milk allergy, lactose intolerance, calorie concern and prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, more preference to vegan diets has influenced consumers towards choosing cow milk alternatives. Plant-based milk alternatives are a rising trend, which can serve as an inexpensive alternate to poor economic group of developi...

  15. 26 CFR 48.4161(a)-4 - Use considered sale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....4161(a)-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Sporting Goods § 48.4161(a)-4 Use considered sale. For provisions relating to the tax on use of taxable articles by the manufacturer, producer, or...

  16. 22 CFR 3a.4 - Procedure for requesting approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... is also required by law for the applicant's acceptance of civil employment from a foreign government... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedure for requesting approval. 3a.4 Section 3a.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL ACCEPTANCE OF EMPLOYMENT FROM FOREIGN GOVERNMENTS...

  17. Characterization of the genetic variation present in CYP3A4 in three South African populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britt Ingrid Drögemöller

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available TThe CYP3A4 enzyme is the most abundant human cytochrome P450 and is regarded as the most important enzyme involved in drug metabolism. Inter-individual and inter-population variability in gene expression and enzyme activity are thought to be influenced, in part, by genetic variation. Although Southern African individuals have been shown to exhibit the highest levels of genetic diversity, they have been under-represented in pharmacogenetic research to date. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify genetic variation within CYP3A4 in three South African population groups comprising of 29 Khoisan, 65 Xhosa and 65 Mixed Ancestry individuals. To identify known and novel CYP3A4 variants, 15 individuals were randomly selected from each of the population groups for bi-directional Sanger sequencing of approximately 600 bp of the 5’-upstream region and all thirteen exons including flanking intronic regions. Genetic variants detected were genotyped in the rest of the cohort. In total, 24 SNPs were detected, including CYP3A4*12, CYP3A4*15, and the reportedly functional CYP3A4*1B promoter polymorphism, as well as two novel non-synonymous variants. These putatively functional variants, p.R162W and p.Q200H, were present in two of the three populations and all three populations, respectively, and in silico analysis predicted that the former would damage the protein product. Furthermore, the three populations were shown to exhibit distinct genetic profiles. These results confirm that South African populations show unique patterns of variation in the genes encoding xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. This research suggests that population-specific genetic profiles for CYP3A4 and other drug metabolizing genes would be essential to make full use of pharmacogenetics in Southern Africa. Further investigation is needed to determine if the identified genetic variants influence CYP3A4 metabolism phenotype in these populations.

  18. Characterization of the genetic variation present in CYP3A4 in three South African populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drögemöller, Britt; Plummer, Marieth; Korkie, Lundi; Agenbag, Gloudi; Dunaiski, Anke; Niehaus, Dana; Koen, Liezl; Gebhardt, Stefan; Schneider, Nicol; Olckers, Antonel; Wright, Galen; Warnich, Louise

    2013-01-01

    The CYP3A4 enzyme is the most abundant human cytochrome P450 (CYP) and is regarded as the most important enzyme involved in drug metabolism. Inter-individual and inter-population variability in gene expression and enzyme activity are thought to be influenced, in part, by genetic variation. Although Southern African individuals have been shown to exhibit the highest levels of genetic diversity, they have been under-represented in pharmacogenetic research to date. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify genetic variation within CYP3A4 in three South African population groups comprising of 29 Khoisan, 65 Xhosa and 65 Mixed Ancestry (MA) individuals. To identify known and novel CYP3A4 variants, 15 individuals were randomly selected from each of the population groups for bi-directional Sanger sequencing of ~600 bp of the 5'-upstream region and all thirteen exons including flanking intronic regions. Genetic variants detected were genotyped in the rest of the cohort. In total, 24 SNPs were detected, including CYP3A4(*)12, CYP3A4(*)15, and the reportedly functional CYP3A4(*)1B promoter polymorphism, as well as two novel non-synonymous variants. These putatively functional variants, p.R162W and p.Q200H, were present in two of the three populations and all three populations, respectively, and in silico analysis predicted that the former would damage the protein product. Furthermore, the three populations were shown to exhibit distinct genetic profiles. These results confirm that South African populations show unique patterns of variation in the genes encoding xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. This research suggests that population-specific genetic profiles for CYP3A4 and other drug metabolizing genes would be essential to make full use of pharmacogenetics in Southern Africa. Further investigation is needed to determine if the identified genetic variants influence CYP3A4 metabolism phenotype in these populations.

  19. ALTERNATIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUMBERTO ESCALANTE H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia, el procesamiento agroindustrial de fique genera aproximadamente 20 800 kg de residuos/ha sembrada que corresponden a. jugo y bagazo. Estos residuos son descartados al ambiente generando problemas de contaminación. El bagazo de fique tiene un valor calorífico de 3 297.91 kcal/kg, altas concentraciones de celulosa, hemicelulosa y una relación C/N favorable para tratar este residuo mediante conversión anaerobia. Sin embargo, la presencia de lignina en el bagazo hace que se requiera un consorcio microbiano específico para llevar a cabo la degradación. En este trabajo se estudio la producción de biogás a partir del bagazo de fique, empleando como inóculo una mezcla de líquido ruminal y lodo estiércol de cerdo. Se alcanzó una producción de metano de 0.35 m3CH4/kg Sólidos Volátiles (SV adicionados durante quince días de digestión, equivalente a 1.38 kWh/kg SV adicionado, indicando que el bagazo de fique es un residuo atractivo para ser usado como fuente de energía renovable.

  20. Group typicality, group loyalty and cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Meagan M

    2014-09-01

    Over the course of childhood, children's thinking about social groups changes in a variety of ways. Developmental Subjective Group Dynamics (DSGD) theory emphasizes children's understanding of the importance of conforming to group norms. Abrams et al.'s study, which uses DSGD theory as a framework, demonstrates the social cognitive skills underlying young elementary school children's thinking about group norms. Future research on children's thinking about groups and group norms should explore additional elements of this topic, including aspects of typicality beyond loyalty. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Advances in alternative cementitious binders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juenger, M.C.G.; Winnefeld, F.; Provis, J.L.; Ideker, J.H.

    2011-01-01

    There is a burgeoning interest in the development, characterization, and implementation of alternatives to Portland cement as a binder in concrete. The construction materials industry is under increasing pressure to reduce the energy used in production of Portland cement clinker and the associated greenhouse gas emissions. Further, Portland cement is not the ideal binder for all construction applications, as it suffers from durability problems in particularly aggressive environments. Several alternative binders have been available for almost as long as Portland cement, yet have not been extensively used, and new ones are being developed. In this paper, four promising binders available as alternatives to Portland cement are discussed, namely calcium aluminate cement, calcium sulfoaluminate cement, alkali-activated binders, and supersulfated cements. The history of the binders, their compositions and reaction mechanisms, benefits and drawbacks, unanswered questions, and primary challenges are described.

  2. DESIGN OF ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popa Stefania

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available By energy sources we understand technologies and materials used to obtain various forms of energy necessary for the development of society. These sources must be in adequate quantities and be conveniently exploited in terms of technical, economic and sustainable perspective. Alternative energy uses the inherent power of natural sources like wind, tides, the sun. Alternative energy is a term used for some energy sources and energy storage technologies. Generally it indicates energies that are nontraditional and have low impact to the environment. The alternative energy term is used in contrast with the term fossil fuel according to some sources, while other sources use it with the meaning of renewable energy purposes.

  3. [Alternative treatment methods in ENT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friese, K H

    1997-08-01

    In this review, the most important complementary und alternative therapies are discussed, focusing particularly on their use in otorhinolaryngology. These therapies include balneology, Kneipp therapy, microbiological therapy, fasting, excretion therapy, different oxygen therapies, hydro-colon therapy, urine therapy, own-blood therapy, Bach therapy, orthomolecular therapy, order therapy, environmental medicine, phytotherapy, homeopathy, complex homeopathy, anthroposophy, neural therapy, electroaccupuncture according to Voll and similar therapies, nasal reflex therapy, reflex-zone massage, manual therapy, massage, lymph drainage, aroma therapy, thermotherapy, bioresonance, kinesiology, hopi candles, and dietetics. Some of these methods and regimens can be recommended, but others should be rejected. In universities, these methods are only represented to a minor extend, but are more accepted by otorhinolaryngologists in practice. This paper provides a guide to which alternative therapies are sensible and possible in otorhinolaryngology. The aim is to stimulate interest in these methods. It is necessary to discuss these alternative methods reasonably and credibly with patients.

  4. Revisiting the solar hydrogen alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomkiewicz, M. [Brooklyn College of CUNY, NY (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Research aimed at the development of technology to advance the solar-hydrogen alternative is per definition mission oriented. The priority that society puts on such research rise and fall with the priorities that we associate with the mission. The mission that we associate with the hydrogen economy is to provide a technological option for an indefinitely sustainable energy and material economies in which society is in equilibrium with its environment. In this paper we try to examine some global aspects of the hydrogen alternative and recommend formulation of a {open_quotes}rational{close_quotes} tax and regulatory system that is based on efforts needed to restore the ecological balance. Such a system, once entered into the price structure of the alternative energy schemes, will be used as a standard to compare energy systems that in turn will serve as a base for prioritization of publicly supported research and development.

  5. [Alternative medicine: faith or science?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletscher, A

    1990-04-21

    For the success of both alternative and scientific (conventional) medicine, factors such as the psychological influence of the doctor, loving care, human affection, the patient's belief in the treatment, the suggestive power of attractive (even unproven) theories, dogmas and chance events (e.g. spontaneous remissions) etc. play a major role. Some practices of alternative medicine have a particularly strong appeal to the non-rational side of the human being. Conventional medicine includes a component which is based on scientific and statistical methods. The possibility that in alternative medicine principles and effects exist which are not (yet) known to scientific medicine, but which match up to scientific criteria, cannot be excluded. However, up to now this has not been convincingly proven. The difficulties which arise in the elucidation of this problem are discussed in the light of examples from the literature and some experiments of our own.

  6. Alternatives to the Dirac equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girvin, S.M.; Brownstein, K.R.

    1975-01-01

    Recent work by Biedenharn, Han, and van Dam (BHvD) has questioned the uniqueness of the Dirac equation. BHvD have obtained a two-component equation as an alternate to the Dirac equation. Although they later show their alternative to be unitarily equivalent to the Dirac equation, certain physical differences were claimed. BHvD attribute the existence of this alternate equation to the fact that their factorizing matrices were position-dependent. To investigate this, we factor the Klein-Gordon equation in spherical coordinates allowing the factorizing matrices to depend arbitrarily upon theta and phi. It is shown that despite this additional freedom, and without involving any relativistic covariance, the conventional four-component Dirac equation is the only possibility

  7. Experiences in mainstreaming alternative energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabraal, A.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses efforts by the Asia Alternative Energy Unit (ASTAE) of the World Bank in supporting alternative energy source projects in Asia. Energy growth rates have been as high as 18% per year, with power capacity doubling each decade in the 1960`s, 70`s and 80`s. Much of this has come from fossil fuel projects coupled with major hydroelectric projects. One consequence is developing air pollution loads originating in Asia. ASTAE has been supporting pilot programs in applying alternative energy sources. The goal has been to mainstream renewable energy sources in World Bank operations, by working with managers from different countries to: include renewable energy in country assistance strategies and sectorial development plans; provide assistance to renewable energy initiatives; expand initiatives to new countries, sectors and technologies.

  8. FMDP reactor alternative summary report: Volume 4, Evolutionary LWR alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials [primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] have become surplus to national defense needs both in the United States and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety, and health (ES ampersand H) consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. The purpose of this report is to provide schedule, cost, and technical information that will be used to support the Record of Process (ROD). Following the screening process, DOE/MD via its national laboratories initiated a more detailed analysis activity to further evaluate each of the ten plutonium disposition alternatives that survived the screening process. Three ''Alternative Teams,'' chartered by DOE and comprised of technical experts from across the DOE national laboratory complex, conducted these analyses. One team was chartered for each of the major disposition classes (borehole, immobilization, and reactors). During the last year and a half, the Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP) Reactor Alternative Team (RxAT) has conducted extensive analyses of the cost, schedule, technical maturity, S ampersand S, and other characteristics of reactor-based plutonium disposition. The results of the RxAT's analyses of the existing LWR, CANDU, and partially complete LWR alternatives are documented in Volumes 1-3 of this report. This document (Volume 4) summarizes the results of these analyses for the ELWR-based plutonium disposition option

  9. FMDP reactor alternative summary report: Volume 4, Evolutionary LWR alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials [primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] have become surplus to national defense needs both in the United States and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. The purpose of this report is to provide schedule, cost, and technical information that will be used to support the Record of Process (ROD). Following the screening process, DOE/MD via its national laboratories initiated a more detailed analysis activity to further evaluate each of the ten plutonium disposition alternatives that survived the screening process. Three ``Alternative Teams,`` chartered by DOE and comprised of technical experts from across the DOE national laboratory complex, conducted these analyses. One team was chartered for each of the major disposition classes (borehole, immobilization, and reactors). During the last year and a half, the Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP) Reactor Alternative Team (RxAT) has conducted extensive analyses of the cost, schedule, technical maturity, S&S, and other characteristics of reactor-based plutonium disposition. The results of the RxAT`s analyses of the existing LWR, CANDU, and partially complete LWR alternatives are documented in Volumes 1-3 of this report. This document (Volume 4) summarizes the results of these analyses for the ELWR-based plutonium disposition option.

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vermont Transportation Data for Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    alternative fuels Fuel Public Private Biodiesel (B20 and above) 3 0 Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) 1 2 Electric Recycled Cooking Oil Powers Biodiesel Vehicles in Vermont Recycled Cooking Oil Powers Biodiesel Vehicles in sold per GGE Biodiesel (B20) $2.79/gallon $2.54/GGE $2.84/gallon $2.58/GGE Biodiesel (B99-B100) $2.47

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Transportation Data for Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    /2018 Biodiesel and Green Diesel Definitions updated 4/9/2018 Data Download Fueling Stations 706 stations in Virginia with alternative fuels Fuel Public Private Biodiesel (B20 and above) 1 9 Compressed unit sold per GGE per unit sold per GGE Biodiesel (B20) $2.47/gallon $2.25/GGE $2.84/gallon $2.58/GGE

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Missouri Transportation Data for Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    stations in Missouri with alternative fuels Fuel Public Private Biodiesel (B20 and above) 1 2 Compressed Students Get Hands-On Training With Biodiesel Missouri High School Students Get Hands-On Training With Biodiesel Feb. 5, 2016 https://youtube.com/embed/p4pVRgoWyZw Video thumbnail for AT&T Fleet Reaches

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maine Transportation Data for Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel-Blended Diesel Documentation Requirement Data Download Fueling Stations 149 stations in Maine with alternative fuels Fuel Public Private Biodiesel (B20 and above) 2 1 Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) 0 2 Electric ://www.youtube.com/embed/jHftlruFR40 Video thumbnail for Maine's Only Biodiesel Manufacturer Powers Fleets in the

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center: James Madison University Teaches Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative Fuels Sept. 16, 2017 Photo of a truck Phoenix Utility Fleet Drives Smarter with Biodiesel Aug. 26 Cooking Oil Powers Biodiesel Vehicles in Rhode Island July 14, 2017 Photo of a truck Idaho Transports Mail Home Runs on Biodiesel in North Carolina June 9, 2017 Photo of a bus New Hampshire Cleans up with

  15. Alternative transportation fuels: Financing issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squadron, W.F.; Ward, C.O.; Brown, M.H.

    1992-06-01

    A multitude of alternative fuels could reduce air pollution and the impact of oil price shocks. Only a few of these fuels are readily available and inexpensive enough to merit serious consideration over the coming five years. In New York City, safety regulations narrow the field still further by eliminating propane. As a result, this study focuses on the three alternative fuels readily available in New York City: compressed natural gas, methanol, and electricity. Each has significant environmental benefits and each has different cost characteristics. With the Clean Air Act and the National Energy Strategy highlighting the country's need to improve urban air quality and move away from dependence on imported fuels, fleets may soon have little choice but to convert to altemative fuels. Given the potential for large infrastructure and vehicle costs, these fleets may have difficulty finding the capital to make that conversion. Ultimately, then, it will be the involvement of the private sector that will determine the success of alternative fuels. Whether it be utilities, fuel distributors or suppliers, private financing partners or others, it is critical that altemative fuels programs be structured and planned to attract their involvement. This report examines financing methods that do not involve government subsidies. It also explores financing methods that are specific to alternative fuels. Bond issues and other mechanisms that are used for conventional vehicles are not touched upon in this report. This report explores ways to spread the high cost of alternative fuels among a number of parties within the private sector. The emphasis is on structuring partnerships that suit methanol, electric, or natural gas vehicle fleets. Through these partnerships, alternative fuels may ultimately compete effectively against conventional vehicle fuels

  16. Alternative Cancer Treatments: 10 Options to Consider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative cancer treatments: 10 options to consider Alternative cancer treatments can't cure your cancer, but they may provide some ... that may help them, including complementary and alternative cancer treatments. If cancer makes you feel as if you ...

  17. Alternative Fuel News, Vol. 6, No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-03-01

    Quarterly magazine with articles on Alternate Fuel Vehicles (AFVs) in India, alternative fuels for emergency preparedness, and testing of propane vehicles by UPS. Also an interview of author Jeremy Rifkin on how alternative fuels provide pathways to hydrogen.

  18. Necessary alternatives: patients’ views of asthma treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Kopnina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Helen Kopnina1, Joke Haafkens21Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Labor Studies, University of Amsterdam; 2Department of General Practice, Academic Medical Centre of the University of Amsterdam, The NetherlandsAbstract: This article is based on semistructured interviews and focus groups conducted with 27 asthma patients in The Netherlands who chose complementary and alternative medicine (CAM for treatment of their condition. All subjects were contacted through an online forum for asthma patients hosted by the Dutch Asthma Foundation. Nineteen subjects (12 women and seven men between the ages of 29 and 65 years participated in the interviews, held between June 2009 and January 2010. All of the participating subjects had experience with conventional medications, including anti-inflammatory corticosteroids and bronchodilators. For the focus group meeting, held in February 2010, the sample included seven subjects (four women and three men between the ages of 31 and 46 years, none of whom had ever used conventional medication and all of whom were using CAM. All subjects in the sample had been diagnosed with asthma by their physician or lung specialist. The study examined the causes of patient noncompliance with the prescribed medical regime. It is argued that evidence-based rationality on the part of subjects is an overlooked dimension of their experience of asthma. This study demonstrates the role that the patients’ social network, including medical practitioners, friends, and family, and other asthmatics, plays in the process of decision-making and choices about treating asthma. It also demonstrates the role of patients’ information-searching strategies. The author concludes that patient noncompliance with commonly prescribed medication and selection of alternative medical treatment is less a matter of denial of their diagnosis or the severity of their illness, but more a matter of choice informed by evidence-based rationality.Keywords: asthma

  19. A remedial alternative prioritization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, S.A.; Travis, C.C.

    1987-01-01

    This study develops and tests a technique for evaluating and prioritizing alternative remedial actions for hazardous waste sites. The method is based on criteria involving risk, benefit and cost, and identifies the most cost-effective solution to a given remedial problem. Four sites on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) property in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, were used in a case study to develop and test the method. Results of the case study indicate that even if the cap providing in situ containment must be replaced every 10 years, it is a superior alternative to total excavation of the waste sites

  20. GLOBAL TRENDS OF ALTERNATIVE INVESTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan LUCHIAN

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available An alternative investment is an investment product other than the traditional investments of stocks, bonds, cash, or property. The term is a relatively loose one and includes tangible assets such as art, wine, antiques, coins, or stamps and some financial assets such as commodities, hedge funds, venture capital,and others. At the moment it was created a global industry opportunities for making investments in nontraditional form. The aim of this paper consists in demonstrating the possibilities of these investments. For this have been studied related main international markets, a fter then deducted world dominant trends. This article is concerned to present some details of alternative investments global market.

  1. Multipebble Simulations for Alternating Automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Lorenzo; Mayr, Richard

    We study generalized simulation relations for alternating Büchi automata (ABA), as well as alternating finite automata. Having multiple pebbles allows the Duplicator to "hedge her bets" and delay decisions in the simulation game, thus yielding a coarser simulation relation. We define (k 1,k 2)-simulations, with k 1/k 2 pebbles on the left/right, respectively. This generalizes previous work on ordinary simulation (i.e., (1,1)-simulation) for nondeterministic Büchi automata (NBA)[4] in and ABA in [5], and (1,k)-simulation for NBA in [3].

  2. Alternative general-aircraft engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomazic, W. A.

    1976-01-01

    The most promising alternative engine (or engines) for application to general aircraft in the post-1985 time period was defined, and the level of technology was cited to the point where confident development of a new engine can begin early in the 1980's. Low emissions, multifuel capability, and fuel economy were emphasized. Six alternative propulsion concepts were considered to be viable candidates for future general-aircraft application: the advanced spark-ignition piston, rotary combustion, two- and four-stroke diesel, Stirling, and gas turbine engines.

  3. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed. (ATT)

  4. Special Issue: Aviation Alternative Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of aviation alternative fuels has increased significantly in recent years in an effort to reduce the environment and climate impact by aviation industry. Special requirements have to be met for qualifying as a suitable aviation fuel. The fuel has to be high in energy content per unit of mass and volume, thermally stable and avoiding freezing at low temperatures. There are also many other special requirements on viscosity, ignition properties and compatibility with the typical aviation materials. There are quite a few contending alternative fuels which can be derived from coal, natural gas and biomass.[...

  5. Alternative Medicine on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muret, Marc

    2000-01-01

    If you go to a bookstore to look for information on a particular health problem you will have a choice between the "medicine" corner with scientific manuals for professionals and the "health" corner with all kinds of books about acupuncture, ayurveda, natural healing, homeopathy, nutrition, massage, and so on! How is it on the Net? Even a short tour will bring you a lot of "medical" information, but when you look for alternative approaches in the "health" corner you will be rather disappointed. Interesting sites are rare and the amount of information very sparse. In many cases the lists of therapists are seriously incomplete; professional therapists with long experience do not appear in them. Recommendations for alternative treatments are superficial and encourage the user to buy some specialties or some book. Many sites are inflated by just quoting other sites so that, in the end, the basic information is rather poor. As we know, "health" information is becoming increasingly important since patients want to take more responsibility for themselves. They look for alternative methods. Doctors too, as 46% of Swiss doctors use alternative methods in one way or another (Médecine et Hygiène, 1996). That is why we should not leave this part of the Internet in the hands of unqualified people. To some doctors, alternative medicine may seem a chaotic maelstrom of superstition and odd techniques. That is not so. Nearly every alternative therapy has a long tradition with its own rules and principles. All reliable therapists have undergone years of training and expect the same from their colleagues. Why should this search for quality not be present online? What is needed? Good quality information. The identity of the author must be clear (education, tradition, professional experience, training). As many schools claim to be "the only one", the user should be informed about the differences and conflicts between all the approaches. Ethical behavior must be encouraged: respect

  6. Alternative algebraic approaches in quantum chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezey, Paul G.

    2015-01-01

    Various algebraic approaches of quantum chemistry all follow a common principle: the fundamental properties and interrelations providing the most essential features of a quantum chemical representation of a molecule or a chemical process, such as a reaction, can always be described by algebraic methods. Whereas such algebraic methods often provide precise, even numerical answers, nevertheless their main role is to give a framework that can be elaborated and converted into computational methods by involving alternative mathematical techniques, subject to the constraints and directions provided by algebra. In general, algebra describes sets of interrelations, often phrased in terms of algebraic operations, without much concern with the actual entities exhibiting these interrelations. However, in many instances, the very realizations of two, seemingly unrelated algebraic structures by actual quantum chemical entities or properties play additional roles, and unexpected connections between different algebraic structures are often giving new insight. Here we shall be concerned with two alternative algebraic structures: the fundamental group of reaction mechanisms, based on the energy-dependent topology of potential energy surfaces, and the interrelations among point symmetry groups for various distorted nuclear arrangements of molecules. These two, distinct algebraic structures provide interesting interrelations, which can be exploited in actual studies of molecular conformational and reaction processes. Two relevant theorems will be discussed

  7. Alternative algebraic approaches in quantum chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mezey, Paul G., E-mail: paul.mezey@gmail.com [Canada Research Chair in Scientific Modeling and Simulation, Department of Chemistry and Department of Physics and Physical Oceanography, Memorial University of Newfoundland, 283 Prince Philip Drive, St. John' s, NL A1B 3X7 (Canada)

    2015-01-22

    Various algebraic approaches of quantum chemistry all follow a common principle: the fundamental properties and interrelations providing the most essential features of a quantum chemical representation of a molecule or a chemical process, such as a reaction, can always be described by algebraic methods. Whereas such algebraic methods often provide precise, even numerical answers, nevertheless their main role is to give a framework that can be elaborated and converted into computational methods by involving alternative mathematical techniques, subject to the constraints and directions provided by algebra. In general, algebra describes sets of interrelations, often phrased in terms of algebraic operations, without much concern with the actual entities exhibiting these interrelations. However, in many instances, the very realizations of two, seemingly unrelated algebraic structures by actual quantum chemical entities or properties play additional roles, and unexpected connections between different algebraic structures are often giving new insight. Here we shall be concerned with two alternative algebraic structures: the fundamental group of reaction mechanisms, based on the energy-dependent topology of potential energy surfaces, and the interrelations among point symmetry groups for various distorted nuclear arrangements of molecules. These two, distinct algebraic structures provide interesting interrelations, which can be exploited in actual studies of molecular conformational and reaction processes. Two relevant theorems will be discussed.

  8. Alternating multivariate trigonometric functions and corresponding Fourier transforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimyk, A U; Patera, J

    2008-01-01

    We define and study multivariate sine and cosine functions, symmetric with respect to the alternating group A n , which is a subgroup of the permutation (symmetric) group S n . These functions are eigenfunctions of the Laplace operator. They determine Fourier-type transforms. There exist three types of such transforms: expansions into corresponding sine-Fourier and cosine-Fourier series, integral sine-Fourier and cosine-Fourier transforms, and multivariate finite sine and cosine transforms. In all these transforms, alternating multivariate sine and cosine functions are used as a kernel

  9. AREVA group overview; Presentation du groupe AREVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-08

    This document presents the Group Areva, a world nuclear industry leader, from a financial holding company to an industrial group, operating in two businesses: the nuclear energy and the components. The structure and the market of the group are discussed, as the financial assets. (A.L.B.)

  10. Overgroups of root groups in classical groups

    CERN Document Server

    Aschbacher, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The author extends results of McLaughlin and Kantor on overgroups of long root subgroups and long root elements in finite classical groups. In particular he determines the maximal subgroups of this form. He also determines the maximal overgroups of short root subgroups in finite classical groups and the maximal overgroups in finite orthogonal groups of c-root subgroups.

  11. Interagency mechanical operations group numerical systems group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This report consists of the minutes of the May 20-21, 1971 meeting of the Interagency Mechanical Operations Group (IMOG) Numerical Systems Group. This group looks at issues related to numerical control in the machining industry. Items discussed related to the use of CAD and CAM, EIA standards, data links, and numerical control.

  12. Significance of the S100A4 protein in psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibert, John R; Skov, Lone; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2010-01-01

    the expression and significance of S100A4 in psoriasis. We found significant upregulation of S100A4 in the dermis of psoriatic skin compared with normal skin. This pattern of S100A4 expression differs considerably from that of other S100 proteins, S100A7 and S100A8/9, with predominant expression in the epidermis...... of psoriasis. Furthermore, we revealed a massive release of the biologically active forms of S100A4 from psoriatic skin. Interestingly, we found stabilization (increase) of p53 in the basal layer of epidermis in close proximity to cells expressing S100A4. To examine the possible implication of S100A4...... in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, we analyzed the effect of S100A4 blocking antibodies in a human psoriasis xenograft SCID mouse model and observed a significant reduction of the epidermal thickness and impairment in cell proliferation and dermal vascularization. In conclusion, we showed strong upregulation...

  13. 77 FR 31756 - Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternative Rating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ...-AC46 Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternative Rating... regulations authorizing the use of alternative methods of determining energy efficiency or energy consumption... alternative methods of determining energy efficiency or energy consumption of various consumer products and...

  14. "Partial Vision" in Alternative Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ron

    1997-01-01

    A comparison of the philosophies and pedagogies of Waldorf and Montessori schools points out that no single educational perspective can encompass all possibilities of human growth. Educators should attend to the "seed qualities" of alternative educational philosophies rather than their dogmas. A caring relationship between teachers and students is…

  15. DESIGN ALTERNATIVES ON THE LAMINATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökay Nemli

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Wood based panel manufacturers use increasing volumes of laminates. Laminates are resistant to the water, humidity, scratch, abrasion, burning and chemicals. These products consist of printed decor papers that have been saturated with thermosetting resin. In this study, laminate types, composition form and design alternatives were investigated.

  16. A Technique: Generating Alternative Thoughts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan AKKOYUNLU

    2013-04-01

    Conclusion: Generating alternative explanations and balanced thoughts are the end point and important part of therapy work on automatic thoughts. When applied properly and rehearsed as homework between sessions, these methods may lead to improvement in many mental disorders. [JCBPR 2013; 2(1.000: 53-59

  17. Wire chambers: Trends and alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regler, Meinhard

    1992-05-15

    The subtitle of this year's Vienna Wire Chamber Conference - 'Recent Trends and Alternative Techniques' - signalled that it covered a wide range of science and technology. While an opening Vienna talk by wire chamber pioneer Georges Charpak many years ago began 'Les funerailles des chambres a fils (the burial of wire chambers)', the contrary feeling this year was that wire chambers are very much alive!.

  18. Alternative instruments for the CAP?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvis, H.J.; Rijswick, van C.W.J.; Bont, de C.J.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    With parallel negotiations taking place on enlargement of the EU and a new WTO agreement, EU's Common Agricultural Policy is facing further reforms. This report addresses the issue of whether any alternatives can be found for the instruments of this policy, and looks at decoupled payments, a net

  19. Alternative energies. Updates on progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, German (ed.) [CIRCE - Centre of Research for Energy Resources and Consumption, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    Presents fundamental and applied research of alternative energies. Address key pillars in the alternative energy field, such as: biomass energy, hydrogen energy, solar energy, wind energy, hydroelectric power, geothermal energy and their environmental implications, with the most updated progress. Includes the life cycle assessment and thermoeconomic analysis as tools for evaluating and optimising environmental and cost subjects. This book presents nine chapters based on fundamental and applied research of alternative energies. At the present time, the challenge is that technology has to come up with solutions that can provide environmentally friendly energy supply options that are able to cover the current world energy demand. Experts around the world are working on these issues for providing new solutions that will break the existing technological barriers. This book aims to address key pillars in the alternative energy field, such as: biomass energy, hydrogen energy, solar energy, wind energy, hydroelectric power, geothermal energy and their environmental implications, with the most updated progress for each pillar. It also includes the life cycle assessment (LCA) and thermoeconomic analysis (TA) as tools for evaluating and optimising environmental and cost subjects. Chapters are organized into fundamental research, applied research and future trends; and written for engineers, academic researches and scientists.

  20. Evaluating Alternatives to Exclusive "He."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd-Mancillas, William R.

    A study was conducted to determine the effects on reading comprehension of the use of the exclusive pronoun "he" and more or less contrived alternatives. Subjects, 358 students enrolled in an introduction to human communication at a large northeastern university, read three different forms of the same essay. One essay form exclusively used "he,"…

  1. Alternatives to allogeneic platelet transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desborough, Michael J R; Smethurst, Peter A; Estcourt, Lise J; Stanworth, Simon J

    2016-11-01

    Allogeneic platelet transfusions are widely used for the prevention and treatment of bleeding in thrombocytopenia. Recent evidence suggests platelet transfusions have limited efficacy and are associated with uncertain immunomodulatory risks and concerns about viral or bacterial transmission. Alternatives to transfusion are a well-recognised tenet of Patient Blood Management, but there has been less focus on different strategies to reduce bleeding risk by comparison to platelet transfusion. Direct alternatives to platelet transfusion include agents to stimulate endogenous platelet production (thrombopoietin mimetics), optimising platelet adhesion to endothelium by treating anaemia or increasing von Willebrand factor levels (desmopressin), increasing formation of cross-linked fibrinogen (activated recombinant factor VII, fibrinogen concentrate or recombinant factor XIII), decreasing fibrinolysis (tranexamic acid or epsilon aminocaproic acid) or using artificial or modified platelets (cryopreserved platelets, lyophilised platelets, haemostatic particles, liposomes, engineered nanoparticles or infusible platelet membranes). The evidence base to support the use of these alternatives is variable, but an area of active research. Much of the current randomised controlled trial focus is on evaluation of the use of thrombopoietin mimetics and anti-fibrinolytics. It is also recognised that one alternative strategy to platelet transfusion is choosing not to transfuse at all. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Alternative energy sources: ECC report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renwick, Lord; Stoddart, Lord; Lauderdale, Earl of

    1988-01-01

    The European Communities Committee Report on Alternative Energy Resources was debated. Six alternative energy sources were first described - wind power, biomass, geothermal energy, solar energy, wave and tidal power. Combined heat and power was also mentioned. General questions concerning alternative energy sources were then considered. In particular, their potential contribution to the energy demand was assessed. The evidence presented to the committee suggested that they would only make a small contribution in the near future and could not be considered as a substitute for coal and nuclear power. However, by the year 2030 it would be possible for 18% of the national electricity demand to be met by alternative energy sources. The economic and environmental issues were assessed briefly and the report's conclusions were summarized. An independent review of wave power was called for in view of conflicting evidence presented to the committee. The debate which followed lasted three hours and is reported verbatim. Other issues raised included energy conservation, public attitudes to energy, the environment, government and private funding of research and development of nuclear power, including fusion. (U.K.)

  3. Not Just Another Alternative School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulson, Kalervo N.; Webb, P. Taylor

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we problematize the establishment of an Africentric Alternative School in Toronto, Canada. We argue that policy, and race and racializations cannot be understood outside of, or immune to, neoliberalism. We contend that policy is a form of racial biopolitics, and race is now produced through neoliberal markets, in conjunction with…

  4. Europe 2020: an alternative proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stagnaro, Carlo

    2008-01-01

    In order to achieve its greenhouse gas emissions reduction targets, the European Union is pursuing a strengthening of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme. However, serious doubts hold as far as this instrument's effectiveness and efficiency are concerned. It is urgent to consider alternative solutions, such as an EU-wide carbon tax [it

  5. Alternate Theory Formation by Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, R. Keith

    Video tapes of student teachers micro-teaching in a high school biology class were analyzed. Attention was focussed on students' interpretations of data and the teacher's responses to these interpretations. Examples are given of student explanations which teachers find unsatisfactory but which are valid alternatives based on the data available to…

  6. Alternative materials for sustainable transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    A shortage of asphalt and polymers is creating opportunities for engineers to utilize alternative pavement materials. Three types of bio oil, untreated bio oil (UTB), treated bio oil (TB) and polymer-modified bio oil (PMB) were studied in this resear...

  7. Alternative Fuel for Marine Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    The U.S. Maritime Administration (MARAD) is participating in the U.S. Navy's ongoing efforts to test alternative fuels for marine use by demonstrating their applicability on commercial vessels. In support of this effort, the Navy provided neat hydrot...

  8. Praktiske erfaringer med alternative isoleringsmaterialer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn; Hansen, Klavs Feilberg

    Borup Seniorby er et demonstrationsbyggeri hvori der både er anvendt alternative isoleringsmaterialer og mineraluld. Denne rapport introducerer byggeriet og redegør for byggeprocessen samt håndteringen af de valgte isoleringsprodukter. Ni forskellige produkter, enten i form af løsfyld eller...

  9. Language Alternation in University Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, T. A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the alternate use of Arabic and English in the context of a university classroom, where a policy to use the former language in place of the latter was being implemented. Analysis of a sample of recorded university lectures of English and Arabic medium classes in sciences and humanities reveals that teachers use code switching,…

  10. Evaluation of alternatives in EIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikonen, A. [Posiva Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2000-07-01

    According to the Finnish law, a 'Decision in Principle' is required for the final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel. The decision is made by the government and it needs to be approved by the Parliament. Before the decision can be made an EIA report must be produced for the facility. Alternatives in the management of spent fuel were already described in EIA programme which was drafted in the scoping stage. In the programme arguments for the so-called 'base alternative' were presented. However, a more extensive evaluation of the alternatives was required by the contact authority based on the first hearing. This presentation shows how alternatives were evaluated in assessment phase and how people reacted to them during the second hearing. The presentation is based on the general summary of EIA report and the statements given on the report. In Finland the environmental impact assessment procedure has been finished and the Decision in Principle is expected to be taken in the near future. (author)

  11. Looking for alternative energy sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Michael

    2012-02-21

    With unrest in oil-exporting countries, backlashes against biofuels and photovoltaics, and a nuclear incident in Japan, the year 2011 rattled confidence in future energy supplies. The search for alternatives is all the more urgent, but some of the solutions investigated hark back to fossil fuels that we can't afford to burn.

  12. A two-matrix alternative

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rohn, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 26, 15 December (2013), s. 836-841 ISSN 1537-9582 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : two-matrix alternative * solution * algorithm Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.514, year: 2013 http://www.math.technion.ac.il/iic/ ela / ela -articles/articles/vol26_pp836-841.pdf

  13. Biotherapeutics as alternatives to antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing pressure to limit antibiotic use in agriculture is heightening the need for alternative methods to reduce the adverse effects of clinical and subclinical disease on livestock performance that are currently managed by in-feed antibiotic usage. Immunomodulators have long been sought as such...

  14. Theory of Lie groups

    CERN Document Server

    Chevalley, Claude

    2018-01-01

    The standard text on the subject for many years, this introductory treatment covers classical linear groups, topological groups, manifolds, analytic groups, differential calculus of Cartan, and compact Lie groups and their representations. 1946 edition.

  15. Extremely discrepant mutation spectrum of SLC26A4 between Chinese patients with isolated Mondini deformity and enlarged vestibular aqueduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xiaofei

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutations in SLC26A4 cause Pendred syndrome (hearing loss with goiter or DFNB4 (non-syndromic hearing loss with inner ear malformation, such as enlarged vestibular aqueduct or Mondini deformity. The relationship between mutations in SLC26A4 and Mondini deformity without enlarged vestibular aqueduct has not been studied in any Chinese deaf population. The purpose of this study was to assess whether mutations in the SLC26A4 gene cause Mondini deformity without an enlarged vestibular aqueduct (isolated Mondini deformity in a Chinese population. Methods In total, 144 patients with sensorineural hearing loss were included and subjected to high-resolution temporal bone CT. Among them, 28 patients with isolated Mondini dysplasia (MD group, 50 patients with enlarged vestibular aqueduct with Mondini dysplasia (EVA with MD group, 50 patients with enlarged vestibular aqueduct without Mondini dysplasia (EVA group, and 16 patients with other types of inner ear malformations (IEM group were identified. The coding exons of SLC26A4 were analyzed in all subjects. Results DNA sequence analysis of SLC26A4 was performed in all 144 patients. In the different groups, the detection rate of the SLC26A4 mutation differed. In the isolated MD group, only one single allelic mutation in SLC26A4 was found in one patient (1/28, 3.6%. In the EVA with MD group, biallelic and monoallelic SLC26A4 mutations were identified in 46 patients (46/50, 92.0% and three patients (3/50, 6.0%, respectively. Also, in the EVA group, biallelic and monoallelic SLC26A4 mutations were identified in 46 patients (46/50, 92.0% and three patients (3/50, 6.0%, respectively. These percentages were identical to those in the EVA plus MD group. Only two patients carried monoallelic mutations of the SLC26A4 gene in the IEM group (2/16, 12.5%. There were significant differences in the frequency of SLC26A4 mutation among the groups (P SLC26A4 mutation in the isolated MD group was

  16. Are patients who use alternative medicine dissatisfied with orthodox medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, W J; Spykerboer, J E; Thong, Y H

    1985-05-13

    Approximately 45% of asthmatic families and 47% of non-asthmatic families had consulted an alternative-medicine practitioner at some time. The most popular form of alternative medicine was chiropractic (21.1% and 26.4%, respectively), followed by homoeopathy/naturopathy (18.8% and 12.7%, respectively), acupuncture (9.4% and 10.9%, respectively), and herbal medicine (4.7% and 6.4%, respectively), while the remainder (20.3% and 11.8% respectively) was distributed among iridology, osteopathy, hypnosis, faith healing and megavitamin therapy. More families were satisfied with orthodox medicine (87.1% and 93.6%, respectively) than with alternative medicine (84.2% and 75.1%, respectively). Crosstabulation analysis of pooled data both from asthma and from non-asthma groups showed that 76.4% were satisfied both with orthodox and with alternative medicine, and 16.4% were satisfied with orthodox, but not with alternative, medicine. In contrast, only 2.7% were dissatisfied with orthodox medicine and satisfied with alternative medicine (chi2 = 9.33; P less than 0.01). These findings do not support the view that patients who use alternative medicine are those who are disgruntled with orthodox medicine.

  17. Assessment of alternative disposal concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Autio, J.; Saanio, T.; Tolppanen, P. [Saanio and Riekkola Consulting Engineers, Helsinki (Finland); Raiko, H.; Vieno, T. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Salo, J.P. [Posiva Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    Four alternative repository designs for the disposal of spent nuclear in the Finnish crystalline bedrock were assessed in the study. The alternatives were: (1) the basic KBS-3 design in which copper canisters are emplaced in vertical deposition holes bored in the floors of horizontal tunnels, (2) the KBS-3-2C design with two canisters in a deposition hole, (3) Short Horizontal Holes (SHH) in the side walls of the tunnels, and (4) the Medium Long Holes (MLH) concept in which approximately 25 canisters are emplaced in a horizontal deposition hole about 200 metres in length bored between central and side tunnels. In all the alternatives considered, the thickness of the layer of compacted bentonite between copper canister and bedrock is 35 cm. Two different copper canister designs were also assessed. Technical feasibility and flexibility, post-closure safety and repository cost were assessed for each of the alternative canister and repository designs. On the basis of this assessment it is recommended that further development and studies should focus on the vacuum- or inert gas-filled cast insert type copper canister and the basic KBS-3 type repository design with a single canister in a vertical deposition hole. The KBS-3 design is robust and flexible and provides excellent post-closure safety. The transfer, emplacement and sealing operations are technically uncomplicated. The alternative options assessed do not offer any significant benefits in safety or cost over the basic design, but they are technically more complex and also in some respects more vulnerable to malfunction during the emplacement of canisters and buffer, as well as common mode failures. (60 refs.).

  18. Assessment of alternative disposal concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autio, J.; Saanio, T.; Tolppanen, P.; Raiko, H.; Vieno, T.; Salo, J.P.

    1996-12-01

    Four alternative repository designs for the disposal of spent nuclear in the Finnish crystalline bedrock were assessed in the study. The alternatives were: (1) the basic KBS-3 design in which copper canisters are emplaced in vertical deposition holes bored in the floors of horizontal tunnels, (2) the KBS-3-2C design with two canisters in a deposition hole, (3) Short Horizontal Holes (SHH) in the side walls of the tunnels, and (4) the Medium Long Holes (MLH) concept in which approximately 25 canisters are emplaced in a horizontal deposition hole about 200 metres in length bored between central and side tunnels. In all the alternatives considered, the thickness of the layer of compacted bentonite between copper canister and bedrock is 35 cm. Two different copper canister designs were also assessed. Technical feasibility and flexibility, post-closure safety and repository cost were assessed for each of the alternative canister and repository designs. On the basis of this assessment it is recommended that further development and studies should focus on the vacuum- or inert gas-filled cast insert type copper canister and the basic KBS-3 type repository design with a single canister in a vertical deposition hole. The KBS-3 design is robust and flexible and provides excellent post-closure safety. The transfer, emplacement and sealing operations are technically uncomplicated. The alternative options assessed do not offer any significant benefits in safety or cost over the basic design, but they are technically more complex and also in some respects more vulnerable to malfunction during the emplacement of canisters and buffer, as well as common mode failures. (60 refs.)

  19. Triaxiality and alternating M1 strengths in f-p-g shell nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabor, S L; Johnson, T D; Holcombe, J W; Womble, P C; Doring, J; Nazarewicz, W [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1992-08-01

    The appearance of alternating patterns in B(M1) strengths in f-p-g shell nuclei is surveyed. The M1 alternations in a sequence of N= 41 isotones, in conjunction with particle-rotor model calculations, is shown to provide information about changing {gamma} deformation. In addition to other odd-A nuclei, several odd-odd nuclei are shown to exhibit alternating B(M1) values and signature inversion. alternations have also been reported in a 4 quasiparticle band in {sup 86}Zr, where they have been interpreted in terms of the interacting boson model. (author). 15 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  20. Alternating Copolymers and Alternative Device Geometries for Organic Photovoltaics

    OpenAIRE

    Inganäs, Olle; Zhang, Fengling; Andersson, Mats R.

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency of conversion of light to electrical energy with the help of conjugated polymers and molecules is rapidly improving. The optical absorption properties of these materials can be designed, and implemented via molecular engineering. Full coverage of the solar spectrum is thus feasible. Narrow absorption spectra allow construction of tandem solar cells. The poor transport properties of these materials require thin devices, which limits optical absorption. Alternative device geometr...

  1. Introduction to Sporadic Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis J. Boya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This is an introduction to finite simple groups, in particular sporadic groups, intended for physicists. After a short review of group theory, we enumerate the 1+1+16=18 families of finite simple groups, as an introduction to the sporadic groups. These are described next, in three levels of increasing complexity, plus the six isolated ''pariah'' groups. The (old five Mathieu groups make up the first, smallest order level. The seven groups related to the Leech lattice, including the three Conway groups, constitute the second level. The third and highest level contains the Monster group M, plus seven other related groups. Next a brief mention is made of the remaining six pariah groups, thus completing the 5+7+8+6=26 sporadic groups. The review ends up with a brief discussion of a few of physical applications of finite groups in physics, including a couple of recent examples which use sporadic groups.

  2. Epigenetic adaptation of the placental serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4 to gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Blazevic

    Full Text Available We tested the hypothesis that gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM alters the DNA methylation pattern of the fetal serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4, and examined the functional relevance of DNA methylation for regulation of the SLC6A4 expression in the human placenta. The study included 50 mother-infant pairs. Eighteen mothers were diagnosed with GDM and 32 had normal glucose tolerance (NGT. All neonates were of normal birth weight and born at term by planned Cesarean section. DNA and RNA were isolated from samples of tissue collected from the fetal side of the placenta immediately after delivery. DNA methylation was quantified at 7 CpG sites within the SLC6A4 distal promoter region using PCR amplification of bisulfite treated DNA and subsequent DNA sequencing. SLC6A4 mRNA levels were measured by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR. Functional SLC6A4 polymorphisms (5HTTLPR, STin2, rs25531 were genotyped using standard PCR-based procedures. Average DNA methylation across the 7 analyzed loci was decreased in the GDM as compared to the NGT group (by 27.1%, p = 0.037 and negatively correlated, before and after adjustment for potential confounder/s, with maternal plasma glucose levels at the 24th to 28th week of gestation (p0.05. The results suggest that DNA methylation of the fetal SLC6A4 gene is sensitive to the maternal metabolic state in pregnancy. They also indicate a predominant role of epigenetic over genetic mechanisms in the regulation of SLC6A4 expression in the human placenta. Longitudinal studies in larger cohorts are needed to verify these results and determine to which degree placental SLC6A4 changes may contribute to long-term outcomes of infants exposed to GDM.

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Equipment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Equipment Options to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Equipment Options on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Equipment Options on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Equipment Options on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural Gas Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center : Natural Gas Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural Gas Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center : Natural Gas to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas on

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benefits to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Benefits on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Benefits on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Benefits on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas

  7. Adapting Evaluations of Alternative Payment Models to a Changing Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grannemann, Thomas W; Brown, Randall S

    2018-04-01

    To identify the most robust methods for evaluating alternative payment models (APMs) in the emerging health care delivery system environment. We assess the impact of widespread testing of alternative payment models on the ability to find credible comparison groups. We consider the applicability of factorial research designs for assessing the effects of these models. The widespread adoption of alternative payment models could effectively eliminate the possibility of comparing APM results with a "pure" control or comparison group unaffected by other interventions. In this new environment, factorial experiments have distinct advantages over the single-model experimental or quasi-experimental designs that have been the mainstay of recent tests of Medicare payment and delivery models. The best prospects for producing definitive evidence of the effects of payment incentives for APMs include fractional factorial experiments that systematically vary requirements and payment provisions within a payment model. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  8. Discussion groups on the Internet: journaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, J E

    1995-09-01

    Interactive communication on the Internet, as illustrated by the e-mail-based breast cancer discussion group, provides an alternative to the telephone, the fax machine and regular mail, and is a resource for communications research, the potential of which is only beginning to be appreciated. At least some of the messages posted to such discussion groups could be regarded as a form of "journaling". Such messages are eminently suitable for qualitative data analysis.

  9. Alternatives to shallow land burial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuck, P.H.; Wacks, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    The paper discusses disposal alternatives that suggest there is a great diversity of man-made and natural spaces that should be considered as alternative sites for LLW disposal. Dry caverns outside of karst regions with integrated subsurface drainage might be given further consideration. The excavation of new space in tectonically and chemically stable rock formations also shows considerable promise. The principal problems in using either existing or new space involve hydrology, rock mechanics, chemical stability of the wall-rock minerals, and socio-political interactions. The chemical, physical and radiological properties of the wastes will also enter into the evaluation. All seven of these aspects will have to be examined in detail before a solution to the problem of minimizing radionuclide transport into the biosphere can be outlined

  10. An alternative dimensional reduction prescription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelstein, J.D.; Giambiagi, J.J.; Nunez, C.; Schaposnik, F.A.

    1995-08-01

    We propose an alternative dimensional reduction prescription which in respect with Green functions corresponds to drop the extra spatial coordinate. From this, we construct the dimensionally reduced Lagrangians both for scalars and fermions, discussing bosonization and supersymmetry in the particular 2-dimensional case. We argue that our proposal is in some situations more physical in the sense that it maintains the form of the interactions between particles thus preserving the dynamics corresponding to the higher dimensional space. (author). 12 refs

  11. Implications of alternative fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The United States is re-examining alternative fuel cycles and nuclear power strategies, and doubtful attempts are being made to justify the economics of the 'throw-away' fuel cycle. At an international forum on 'An acceptable nuclear energy future for the world' at Fort Lauderdale, Karl Cohen of General Electric and a leading authority on this topic put the implications into perspective. Extracts from his address are presented

  12. Wire chambers: Trends and alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regler, Meinhard

    1992-01-01

    The subtitle of this year's Vienna Wire Chamber Conference - 'Recent Trends and Alternative Techniques' - signalled that it covered a wide range of science and technology. While an opening Vienna talk by wire chamber pioneer Georges Charpak many years ago began 'Les funerailles des chambres a fils (the burial of wire chambers)', the contrary feeling this year was that wire chambers are very much alive!

  13. Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Kurt R.

    2016-01-01

    Corrosion is an extensive problem that affects the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and European Space Agency (ESA). The deleterious effects of corrosion result in steep costs, asset downtime affecting mission readiness, and safety risks to personnel. It is vital to reduce corrosion costs and risks in a sustainable manner. The primary objective of this effort is to qualify citric acid as an environmentally-preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys.

  14. Alternative right ventricular pacing sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łuciuk, Dariusz; Łuciuk, Marek; Gajek, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    The main adverse effect of chronic stimulation is stimulation-induced heart failure in case of ventricular contraction dyssynchrony. Because of this fact, new techniques of stimulation should be considered to optimize electrotherapy. One of these methods is pacing from alternative right ventricular sites. The purpose of this article is to review currently accumulated data about alternative sites of cardiac pacing. Medline and PubMed bases were used to search English and Polish reports published recently. Recent studies report a deleterious effect of long term apical pacing. It is suggested that permanent apical stimulation, by omitting physiological conduction pattern with His-Purkinie network, may lead to electrical and mechanical dyssynchrony of heart muscle contraction. In the long term this pathological situation can lead to severe heart failure and death. Because of this, scientists began to search for some alternative sites of cardiac pacing to reduce the deleterious effect of stimulation. Based on current accumulated data, it is suggested that the right ventricular outflow tract, right ventricular septum, direct His-bundle or biventricular pacing are better alternatives due to more physiological electrical impulse propagation within the heart and the reduction of the dyssynchrony effect. These methods should preserve a better left ventricular function and prevent the development of heart failure in permanent paced patients. As there is still not enough, long-term, randomized, prospective, cross-over and multicenter studies, further research is required to validate the benefits of using this kind of therapy. The article should pay attention to new sites of cardiac stimulation as a better and safer method of treatment.

  15. Alternatives to the atomic state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, J.

    1979-01-01

    The booklet gives in many original articles a general view at the opinions in the total alternative movement. For example, it describes the points of view of the Ecology Movement and compiles the arguments against nuclear power plants. It does not intend to give uniform ideological guiding lines for the practical work but is rather meant as a contribution to improve the communication and connection among the initiatives. (HSCH) [de

  16. Alternative Medicine on the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Muret, Marc

    2000-01-01

    If you go to a bookstore to look for information on a particular health problem you will have a choice between the "medicine" corner with scientific manuals for professionals and the "health" corner with all kinds of books about acupuncture, ayurveda, natural healing, homeopathy, nutrition, massage, and so on! How is it on the Net? Even a short tour will bring you a lot of "medical" information, but when you look for alternative approaches in the "health" corner you will be rather disappointe...

  17. Group Work: How to Use Groups Effectively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Alison

    2011-01-01

    Many students cringe and groan when told that they will need to work in a group. However, group work has been found to be good for students and good for teachers. Employers want college graduates to have developed teamwork skills. Additionally, students who participate in collaborative learning get better grades, are more satisfied with their…

  18. Alternative bufferlayers for CIGS solarcells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beleanu, A.; Gruhn, T.; Blum, C.G.F.; Balke, B.; Felser, C. [Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg - University, Mainz (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Cadmium sulfide is a highly efficient buffer layer material in Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se2)[CIGS] solar devices, but for environmental reasons and possible gains in efficiency there is a great interest in replacing CdS by a cadmium-free alternative buffer layer. Using standard density functional theory (DFT) methods possible candidates like LiZnP and LiCuS have been proposed as alternative buffer layers. The experimental verification of the DFT results was quite challenging due to the fact that LiCuS was an unknow and completely new material. In a first step, we tried to synthesize LiCuS through solid state reactions in a corund crucible. After optimizing the parameters and successfully synthesizing the material its properties were investigated. In a second step, huge amounts of LiCuS and LiZnP were synthesized and pressed using Spark Plasma Sintering as 3 inch targets. LiCuS and LiZnP films were grown by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering from these target and their properties as an alternative buffer layer in CIGS solar cells were investigated. The 1:1:1 stoichiometry of the films was delivered from in-situ XPS measurements. Absorption measurements show a band gap of {approx}2.0 eV which is in good agreement with the theoretical estimates.

  19. ALTERNATIVE FUNDING THECNIQUES. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Mihaela ILIESCU

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper isto highlight the dynamics, diversity and especially the availability of an alternative financial market, developed outside of the traditional banking system, on online trading platforms, a market that can constitute an efficient solution, at the expense of entities open to fast funding, wide raging, with limited guaranties and minimum procedural and legislative formalities. For this purpose, we shall analyze briefly the main alternative financing methods, both empirically and qualitatively, in terms of similarities and differences between the two of them, inclusively of the amount that can be employed in this process through different methods. The current paper aims to be a practical guide meant to support those facing difficulties in obtaining financing for start-ups, implementing or/and developing business and entrepreneurship initiatives, and also a guide for those who want to be informed regarding the latest funding techniques. Another aspect to be considered is the legal framework in which this process takes place, because the regulation for these levers remains constantly behind the development process of new methods. The classic financiers should also consider reviewing the lending policy as the amounts attracted and accessed through these alternative methods increase exponentially from one year to the other, the volume of sums involved surpassing each time the forecasts, making thus possible the transformations of these paradigms from the financial sector into preponderant financial funding’s.

  20. Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Hudgins, C. H.; Plant, J. V.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E. L.; Ziemba, L. D.; Howard, R.; Corporan, E.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; hide

    2011-01-01

    The rising cost of oil coupled with the need to reduce pollution and dependence on foreign suppliers has spurred great interest and activity in developing alternative aviation fuels. Although a variety of fuels have been produced that have similar properties to standard Jet A, detailed studies are required to ascertain the exact impacts of the fuels on engine operation and exhaust composition. In response to this need, NASA acquired and burned a variety of alternative aviation fuel mixtures in the Dryden Flight Research Center DC-8 to assess changes in the aircraft s CFM-56 engine performance and emission parameters relative to operation with standard JP-8. This Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment, or AAFEX, was conducted at NASA Dryden s Aircraft Operations Facility (DAOF) in Palmdale, California, from January 19 to February 3, 2009 and specifically sought to establish fuel matrix effects on: 1) engine and exhaust gas temperatures and compressor speeds; 2) engine and auxiliary power unit (APU) gas phase and particle emissions and characteristics; and 3) volatile aerosol formation in aging exhaust plumes

  1. Interactions between CYP3A4 and Dietary Polyphenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loai Basheer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The human cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s catalyze oxidative reactions of a broad spectrum of substrates and play a critical role in the metabolism of xenobiotics, such as drugs and dietary compounds. CYP3A4 is known to be the main enzyme involved in the metabolism of drugs and most other xenobiotics. Dietary compounds, of which polyphenolics are the most studied, have been shown to interact with CYP3A4 and alter its expression and activity. Traditionally, the liver was considered the prime site of CYP3A-mediated first-pass metabolic extraction, but in vitro and in vivo studies now suggest that the small intestine can be of equal or even greater importance for the metabolism of polyphenolics and drugs. Recent studies have pointed to the role of gut microbiota in the metabolic fate of polyphenolics in human, suggesting their involvement in the complex interactions between dietary polyphenols and CYP3A4. Last but not least, all the above suggests that coadministration of drugs and foods that are rich in polyphenols is expected to stimulate undesirable clinical consequences. This review focuses on interactions between dietary polyphenols and CYP3A4 as they relate to structural considerations, food-drug interactions, and potential negative consequences of interactions between CYP3A4 and polyphenols.

  2. Nigella seed oil as alternative to avilamycin antibiotic in broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to study the effect of nigella seed oil as an alternative to the antibiotic, avilamycin, on growth, digestibility, muscle fatty acid profile and some physiological parameters in broiler chickens. Fifty four chicks at 15 d of age (average weight, 320 ± 3 g) were divided into a control group and two treatment ...

  3. Propensity Score Analysis: An Alternative Statistical Approach for HRD Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiffer, Greggory L.; Lane, Forrest C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to introduce matching in propensity score analysis (PSA) as an alternative statistical approach for researchers looking to make causal inferences using intact groups. Design/methodology/approach: An illustrative example demonstrated the varying results of analysis of variance, analysis of covariance and PSA on a heuristic…

  4. Alternative Administrative Certification: Socializing Factors Influencing Program Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickmore, Dana L.; Bickmore, Steven T.; Raines, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This study used an organizational socialization lens to examine factors influencing participants' decision to pursue the principalship and choice to engage in an alternate administration certification program. Through an analysis of participant focus groups and interviews, factors emerged from the codes that were compared with dimensions of…

  5. Workers in Alternative Employment Arrangements: A Second Look.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohany, Sharon R.

    1998-01-01

    Both the proportion and characteristics of workers in four alternative employment arrangements in February 1997 were little different from two years earlier. The groups--temporary-help-agency workers, contract company workers, workers who are on call, and independent contractors--continue to be highly diverse. (Author/JOW)

  6. impacts of alternative farm policies on rural communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Michael Bowker; James W. Richardson

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe an LP/IO model for evaluating the economic impacts of alternative farm policies on rural communities and demonstrate its capabilities by analyzing the impacts of three farm policies on a rural community in Texas. Results indicate that in the noncrop sector, two groups of industries are most affected by farm policy. The first...

  7. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains the alphabetically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal waste management alternatives. The references are listed for each of the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized-bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting, and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  8. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains the numerically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal solid waste management alternatives. The list references information on the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  9. Free Boolean Topological Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ol’ga Sipacheva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Known and new results on free Boolean topological groups are collected. An account of the properties that these groups share with free or free Abelian topological groups and properties specific to free Boolean groups is given. Special emphasis is placed on the application of set-theoretic methods to the study of Boolean topological groups.

  10. Small Group Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Joseph E.

    1978-01-01

    Summarizes research on small group processes by giving a comprehensive account of the types of variables primarily studied in the laboratory. These include group structure, group composition, group size, and group relations. Considers effects of power, leadership, conformity to social norms, and role relationships. (Author/AV)

  11. Alternating copolymers and alternative device geometries for organic photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inganäs, Olle; Zhang, Fengling; Andersson, Mats R

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency of conversion of light to electrical energy with the help of conjugated polymers and molecules is rapidly improving. The optical absorption properties of these materials can be designed, and implemented via molecular engineering. Full coverage of the solar spectrum is thus feasible. Narrow absorption spectra allow construction of tandem solar cells. The poor transport properties of these materials require thin devices, which limits optical absorption. Alternative device geometries for these flexible materials compensate for the optical absorption by light trapping, and allow tandem cells.

  12. FMDP reactor alternative summary report. Volume 1 - existing LWR alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, S.R.; Bevard, B.B.

    1996-01-01

    Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials [primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] are becoming surplus to national defense needs in both the United States and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety, and health (ES ampersand H) consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. This document summarizes the results of analysis concerned with existing light water reactor plutonium disposition alternatives

  13. FMDP reactor alternative summary report. Volume 1 - existing LWR alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, S.R.; Bevard, B.B. [and others

    1996-10-07

    Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials [primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] are becoming surplus to national defense needs in both the United States and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. This document summarizes the results of analysis concerned with existing light water reactor plutonium disposition alternatives.

  14. Profinite graphs and groups

    CERN Document Server

    Ribes, Luis

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a detailed introduction to graph theoretic methods in profinite groups and applications to abstract groups. It is the first to provide a comprehensive treatment of the subject. The author begins by carefully developing relevant notions in topology, profinite groups and homology, including free products of profinite groups, cohomological methods in profinite groups, and fixed points of automorphisms of free pro-p groups. The final part of the book is dedicated to applications of the profinite theory to abstract groups, with sections on finitely generated subgroups of free groups, separability conditions in free and amalgamated products, and algorithms in free groups and finite monoids. Profinite Graphs and Groups will appeal to students and researchers interested in profinite groups, geometric group theory, graphs and connections with the theory of formal languages. A complete reference on the subject, the book includes historical and bibliographical notes as well as a discussion of open quest...

  15. S100A4, a link between metastasis and inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambartsumian, N.; Grigorian, M.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is acknowledged to be a hallmark of neoplasia—both in cancer initiation and metastasis progression. Here we summarise data suggesting that S100A4 is а trigger of the cascade events that establish an inflammatory milieu and provide a potent flame for primary tumour growth......-communicable diseases (NCD), such as autoimmune diseases, fibrosis, and other disorders. Therefore, we suggest that S100A4 is a common pro-inflammatory factor involved in the pathogenesis of diverse NCD including cancer....

  16. Thyroid Disease and Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alternative Medicine in Thyroid Disease Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Thyroid Disease (CAM) WHAT IS COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE (CAM)? Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is defined ...

  17. Olfactory bulb as an alternative in neurotransplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Руслан Романович Новиков

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the ethical and legal aspects of transplantation of embryonic neural tissue, structure of the rat olfactory bulb. It is given substantiation for its use as a possible alternative version of the embryonic neural tissue at damage in the cerebral hemispheres in the experiment.Materials and methods. Detailed description of the fault model of the cerebral hemispheres of the brain of rats, olfactory bulb biopsy procedure, cultivation of olfactory bulb suspension and fetal neural tissue, comparison of the functional aspects of transplantation of the olfactory bulb and the embryonic neural tissue.Results. The obtained data are similar to structure of olfactory bulb and fetal tissues during culturing. Recovery in the motor areas varies by the time factor and less intense in the group of the olfactory bulb and the group without tissue transplantation.Conclusions. Comparative analysis of the effectiveness of transplantation of embryonic neural tissue and olfactory bulb in the injured brain allows us to speak about the positive results of these groups to the difference in the duration of the recovery process

  18. Alternative indicators for measuring hospital productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serway, G D; Strum, D W; Haug, W F

    1987-08-01

    This article explores the premise that the appropriateness and usefulness of typical hospital productivity measures have been affected by three changes in delivery: Organizational restructuring and other definition and data source changes that make full-time equivalent employee (FTE) measurements ambiguous. Transition to prospective payment (diagnosis-related groups). Increase in capitation (prepaid, at risk) programs. The effects of these changes on productivity management indicate the need for alternative productivity indicators. Several productivity measures that complement these changes in internal operations and the external hospital business environment are presented. These are based on an analysis of four hospitals within a multihospital system, and an illustration and interpretation of an array of measures, based on ten months of actual data, is provided. In conclusion, the recommendation is made for hospital management to collect an expanded set of productivity measures and review them in light of changing expense and revenue management schemes inherent in new payment modes.

  19. Caribbean alternative energy programme project proposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-03-01

    This is the third report to follow the Project Group Meeting on ALTERNATIVE ENERGY RESOURCES, Barbados, September, 1977. It consists of summaries of projects proposals identified at the Meeting. The first two reports have been previously circulated. The first CSC(77)AER-1 covers the background, proceedings and recommendations resulting from the meeting as well as containing a brief outline of the project proposals. The country papers and technical papers that were presented at the meeting or served as background material, form the second report, CSC(77)AER-2. Copies of the first two reports can be obtained on request to the Commonwealth Science Council. Projects with potential for making significant progress in the short term have been marked with an asterisk

  20. Evaluation of alternate magnetic fusion concepts, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-05-01

    The objective of this exercise was to evaluate all of the alternate concepts supported by DMFE with regard to: (1) confidence in the physics assumptions; (2) confidence in the development of the requisite technologies; and (3) the desirability of its pure fusion reactor configuration. A primary concern in developing the evaluation technique described in this section was the need to obtain a uniform, critical evaluation. Motivated by this concern, it was decided to have all of the concepts evaluated on the same basis or criteria and to have all concepts evaluated by the same group of experts. The evaluation criteria and procedures which were developed for this purpose are described. The concepts evaluated were the EBT, RFP, TORMAC, field reversing ion rings, linear theta pinch, laser heated solenoid, e-beam heated solenoid, multiple mirrors, fast linear reactor, LINUS, and SURMAC

  1. Investigation of SLC6A4 gene expression in autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Funda Şener

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Autism is defined as a complex neurodevelopmental disorder. Genetics plays a major role in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD. The role of the serotonin in the development of autism has been widely investigated. SLC6A4 gene (SERT or 5-HT has an important role reuptaking of serotonin. Because of this, our study examined the expression level of SLC6A4 gene in autism patients. Methods: Thirty-four patients (26 male, 8 female who diagnosed as autism firstly according to DSM-V criteria in the Department of child psychiatry, Erciyes University Medical Faculty and healthy 23 controls (16 male, 7 female were enrolled in this study. Total RNA was isolated from peripheral blood samples using TRIzol. Quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR was performed to detect SLC6A4 gene expression. Results: SLC6A4 gene expression was found statistically significant and low in autism group compared with controls (p=0,027. Conclusion: The low gene expression in the patient group implied that there is an abnormality of serotonin reuptake. According to our results, we suggest that much more studies may be planned with the expression and methylation profile of this gene combined with gene polymorphisms especially affecting the expression in larger sample sizes. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (2: 165-169

  2. Group purchasing: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetrich, J G

    1987-07-01

    The various types and operational methods of purchasing groups are described, and evaluation of groups is discussed. Since group purchasing is increasing in popularity as a method of controlling drug costs, community and hospital pharmacy managers may need to evaluate various groups to determine the appropriateness of their services. Groups are categorized as independent, system based, or alliance or association based. Instead of "purchasing," some groups develop contracts for hospitals, which then purchase directly from the vendor. Aside from this basic difference between groups that purchase and groups that contract, comparisons among groups are difficult because of the wide variation in sizes and services. Competition developing from diversification among groups has led to "super groups," formed from local and regional groups. In evaluating groups, advantages and disadvantages germane to accomplishing the member's objectives must be considered. To ensure a group's success, members must be committed and support the group's philosophies; hospital pharmacists must help to establish a strong formulary system. To select vendors, groups should develop formal qualification and selection criteria and should not base a decision solely on price. The method of solicitation (bidding or negotiating), as well as the role of the prime vendor, should be studied. Legal implications of group purchasing, especially in the areas of administrative fees and drug diversion, must also be considered. The most advantageous group for each organization will include members with common missions and will be able to implement strategies for future success.

  3. [Toxic effect of trichloroethylene on liver cells with CYP3A4 gene defect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, R Y; Liu, S

    2016-06-20

    To investigate the toxic effect of trichloroethylene on liver cells with CYP3A4 gene defect. The normal human liver cells (L02 cells) and liver cells with CYP3A4 gene defect were exposed to trichloroethylene at different doses (0.0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6, 3.2, and 6.4 mmol/L). CCK8 assay and RT-qPCR were used to measure cell viability and changes in the expression of apoptosis genes and oncogenes. After being exposed to trichloroethylene at doses of 1.6, 3.2, and 6.4 mmol/L, the liver cells with CYP3A4 gene defect showed significantly higher cell viability than L02 cells (0.91±0.06/0.89±0.05/0.85±0.07 vs 0.80±0.04/0.73±0.06/0.67±0.07, Ptrichloroethylene groups showed significant increases in the expression of the apoptosis genes caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 (PTrichloroethylene exposure has a less effect on the expression of apoptosis genes and oncogenes in liver cells with CYP3A4 gene defect than in normal human liver cells, suggesting that CYP3A4 gene defect reduces the inductive effect of trichloroethylene on apoptosis genes and oncogenes.

  4. [Alternative medicine: really an alternative to academic medicine?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happle, R

    2000-06-01

    Numerous courses on alternative medicine are regularly advertised in Deutsches Arzteblatt, the organ of the German Medical Association. The present German legislation likewise supports this form of medicine, and this explains why Iscador, an extract of the mistletoe, is found in the Rote Liste, a directory of commercially available medical drugs, under the heading "cytostatic and antimetastatic drugs" although such beneficial effect is unproven. To give another example, a German health insurance fund was sentenced to pay for acupuncture as a treatment for hepatic failure. This judgement is characteristic of the present German judicial system and represents a victory of "oracling irrationalism" (Popper). The astonishing popularity of alternative medicine can be explained by a revival of romanticism. An intellectually fair opposite position has been delineated by Karl Popper in the form of critical rationalism. It is important to realize, however, that our decision to adhere to rational thinking is made in the innermost depth of our heart but not on the basis of rational arguing. Rather, the decision in favor of reason has a moral dimension.

  5. Analysis of the Reliability of the "Alternator- Alternator Belt" System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Mavrin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Before starting and also during the exploitation of va1ioussystems, it is vety imp011ant to know how the system and itsparts will behave during operation regarding breakdowns, i.e.failures. It is possible to predict the service behaviour of a systemby determining the functions of reliability, as well as frequencyand intensity of failures.The paper considers the theoretical basics of the functionsof reliability, frequency and intensity of failures for the twomain approaches. One includes 6 equal intetvals and the other13 unequal intetvals for the concrete case taken from practice.The reliability of the "alternator- alternator belt" system installedin the buses, has been analysed, according to the empiricaldata on failures.The empitical data on failures provide empirical functionsof reliability and frequency and intensity of failures, that arepresented in tables and graphically. The first analysis perfO!med by dividing the mean time between failures into 6 equaltime intervals has given the forms of empirical functions of fa ilurefrequency and intensity that approximately cotTespond totypical functions. By dividing the failure phase into 13 unequalintetvals with two failures in each interval, these functions indicateexplicit transitions from early failure inte1val into the randomfailure interval, i.e. into the ageing intetval. Functions thusobtained are more accurate and represent a better solution forthe given case.In order to estimate reliability of these systems with greateraccuracy, a greater number of failures needs to be analysed.

  6. Determining mutations in G6PC and SLC37A4 genes in a sample of Brazilian patients with glycogen storage disease types Ia and Ib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Paschoalete Carlin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycogen storage disease (GSD comprises a group of autosomal recessive disorders characterized by deficiency of the enzymes that regulate the synthesis or degradation of glycogen. Types Ia and Ib are the most prevalent; while the former is caused by deficiency of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase, the latter is associated with impaired glucose-6-phosphate transporter, where the catalytic unit of G6Pase is located. Over 85 mutations have been reported since the cloning of G6PC and SLC37A4 genes. In this study, twelve unrelated patients with clinical symptoms suggestive of GSDIa and Ib were investigated by using genetic sequencing of G6PC and SLC37A4 genes, being three confirmed as having GSD Ia, and two with GSD Ib. In seven of these patients no mutations were detected in any of the genes. Five changes were detected in G6PC, including three known point mutations (p.G68R, p.R83C and p.Q347X and two neutral mutations (c.432G > A and c.1176T > C. Four changes were found in SLC37A4: a known point mutation (p.G149E, a novel frameshift insertion (c.1338_1339insT, and two neutral mutations (c.1287G > A and c.1076-28C > T. The frequency of mutations in our population was similar to that observed in the literature, in which the mutation p.R83C is also the most frequent one. Analysis of both genes should be considered in the investigation of this condition. An alternative explanation to the negative results in this molecular study is the possibility of a misdiagnosis. Even with a careful evaluation based on laboratory and clinical findings, overlap with other types of GSD is possible, and further molecular studies should be indicated.

  7. Ordered groups and infinite permutation groups

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    The subjects of ordered groups and of infinite permutation groups have long en­ joyed a symbiotic relationship. Although the two subjects come from very different sources, they have in certain ways come together, and each has derived considerable benefit from the other. My own personal contact with this interaction began in 1961. I had done Ph. D. work on sequence convergence in totally ordered groups under the direction of Paul Conrad. In the process, I had encountered "pseudo-convergent" sequences in an ordered group G, which are like Cauchy sequences, except that the differences be­ tween terms of large index approach not 0 but a convex subgroup G of G. If G is normal, then such sequences are conveniently described as Cauchy sequences in the quotient ordered group GIG. If G is not normal, of course GIG has no group structure, though it is still a totally ordered set. The best that can be said is that the elements of G permute GIG in an order-preserving fashion. In independent investigations around that t...

  8. 17 CFR 240.16a-4 - Derivative securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Derivative securities. 240.16a....16a-4 Derivative securities. (a) For purposes of section 16 of the Act, both derivative securities and... securities, except that the acquisition or disposition of any derivative security shall be separately...

  9. 12 CFR 708a.4 - Disclosures and communications to members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... average pay higher rates than banks. 3. POTENTIAL PROFITS BY OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS. Conversion to a... UNIONS CONVERSION OF INSURED CREDIT UNIONS TO MUTUAL SAVINGS BANKS § 708a.4 Disclosures and communications to members. (a) After the board of directors has complied with § 708a.3 and approves a conversion...

  10. Synthesis and biological evaluation of vinylogous combretastatin A-4 derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaffy, Julia; Pontikis, Renée; Florent, Jean-Claude; Monneret, Claude

    2005-07-21

    Stereospecific syntheses of the Z-E and E-Z vinylogues of combretastatin A-4, and two B-ring related analogues, were achieved through a Suzuki-Miyaura coupling. As compared to CA4, the derivative with a phenyl moiety has shown increased potency in its ability to inhibit tubulin polymerisation.

  11. A 4 Tesla/1 meter superferric MRI magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, W.M.; Huson, F.R.; Mackay, W.W.; Rocha, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    Superferric technology was first applied to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) magnets by the Texas Accelerator Center (TAC) in 1986 with the design and construction of a 4 Tesla/30 cm magnet. In an evolutionary step, this technology is now being applied to the development of a whole body 4 Tesla/1 meter superconducting magnet. The design of such a magnetis presented in this paper

  12. A Logarithmic Detection System Suitable for a 4π Array

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westfall, G.D.; Yurkon, J.E.; Plicht, J. van der; Koenig, Z.M.; Jacak, B.V.; Fox, R.; Crawley, G.M.; Maier, M.R.; Hasselquist, B.E.; Tickle, R.S.; Horn, D.

    1985-01-01

    A low pressure multiwire proportional counter, a Bragg curve counter, and an array of CaF2/plastic scintillator telescopes have been developed in a geometry suitable for close packing into a 4π detector designed to study nucleus-nucleus reactions at 100-200 MeV/nucleon. The multiwire counter is

  13. 32 CFR 168a.4 - Policy and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to pursue graduate degrees in science, engineering, or other fields of study that are designated, in... DEFENSE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING GRADUATE FELLOWSHIPS § 168a.4 Policy and procedures. (a) Sponsoring... nationwide competition in which all appropriate actions have been taken to encourage applications from...

  14. Myositis Ossificans in a 4-year-old Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HW Boon

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Sprengel’s shoulder and myositis ossificans (MO are rarely seen concomitantly. This report is about a rare case in a 4 year-old girl who presented with right shoulder deformity and pain associated with right proximal arm swelling.

  15. Blood transfusion due to haemonchosis induced anaemia in a 4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 4-year-old Kano brown doe weighing 20kg from a flock of 5 does was presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital Ahmadu Bello University Zaria with complaints of unthriftness, emaciation inappetence, weakness and pasty diarrhea of two weeks duration. Thorough physical examination revealed pale mucous ...

  16. 42 CFR 2a.4 - Contents of application; in general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... identify research subjects in any civil, criminal, administrative, legislative, or other proceedings... PROTECTION OF IDENTITY-RESEARCH SUBJECTS § 2a.4 Contents of application; in general. In addition to any other... confidentiality for a research project shall contain: (a) The name and address of the individual primarily...

  17. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia: A 4-year experience in a single ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: This study aimed to evaluate congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) patients in our department during a 4-year period. Patients and Methods: A retrospective study of 10 cases of CDH patients managed in the Neonatology and Pediatric Surgery Units of Goztepe Teaching Hospital from 2000 to 2004.

  18. A4 family symmetry and quark-lepton unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Stephen F.; Malinsky, Michal

    2007-01-01

    We present a model of quark and lepton masses and mixings based on A 4 family symmetry, a discrete subgroup of an SO(3) flavour symmetry, together with Pati-Salam unification. It accommodates tri-bimaximal neutrino mixing via constrained sequential dominance with a particularly simple vacuum alignment mechanism emerging through the effective D-term contributions to the scalar potential

  19. Outcome of a 4-step treatment algorithm for depressed inpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birkenhäger, T.K.; Broek, W.W. van den; Moleman, P.; Bruijn, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy and the feasibility of a 4-step treatment algorithm for inpatients with major depressive disorder. Method: Depressed inpatients, meeting DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder, were enrolled in the algorithm that consisted of

  20. 32 CFR 352a.4 - Responsibilities and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) ORGANIZATIONAL CHARTERS DEFENSE FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING SERVICE (DFAS) § 352a.4 Responsibilities and functions. (a) The Director, Defense Finance and Accounting Service (DFAS), is the principal DoD executive for finance and accounting requirements, systems, and functions identified in DoD Directive 5118.3, 1 and...

  1. Alternative energy and environmental concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The New Brunswick Market Design Committee will address environmental concerns within the context of the new energy policy and market rules for the newly restructured electric power industry. The new rules that come with power restructuring will in some ways facilitate environmental protection but they can also complicate it. With open access markets, it will be possible to coordinate evolving energy frameworks with current environmental objectives. Restructuring provides an opportunity to create incentives and guidelines to operate in an environmentally sustainable manner, as suggested in the New Brunswick Energy Policy, White Paper which outlines green pricing, the development of a provincial Climate Change Action Plan, and promotion of alternative energy. The Market Design Committee examined the environmental concerns listed within the White Paper that pertain to the generation and transmission of electricity. These include the integration of energy and environmental policy. Other issues addressed in this report were trans-boundary and global air emissions, the development of a provincial climate change action plan, and a federal-provincial climate change framework agreement. New Brunswick will encourage the development of pilot studies that demonstrate the benefits of renewable and alternative technologies and that help promote the market to manufacture, sell and maintain renewable and alternative technologies in small-scale on-site power generation. This report also discussed the 4 key air pollutants for which specific treatment has been defined, including sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, mercury and carbon dioxide. Recommendations for reducing these emissions include the use of renewable energy sources, the use of lower carbon fuels, increased efficiency of power transmission/generation/distribution systems, reducing power demand by the industrial sector, and promoting energy efficient building codes. 34 refs., 1 tab

  2. Alternatives to quintessence model building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avelino, P.P.; Beca, L.M.G.; Pinto, P.; Carvalho, J.P.M. de; Martins, C.J.A.P.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the issue of toy model building for the dark energy component of the universe. Specifically, we consider two generic toy models recently proposed as alternatives to quintessence models, respectively known as Cardassian expansion and the Chaplygin gas. We show that the former is entirely equivalent to a class of quintessence models. We determine the observational constraints on the latter, coming from recent supernovae results and from the shape of the matter power spectrum. As expected, these restrict the model to a behavior that closely matches that of a standard cosmological constant Λ

  3. The Development of Nonstructural Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-05-01

    particular appeal and benefits for those concerned with environmental issues. However, on reflection it is clear that, almost by definition, easily...peculiar to nonstructural alternatives (that is, the social costs are borne primaqrilv by th,, )ent ficiaries) makes them appealing from the national...Costs Of prId-nt ! loo41p l jotve iopment lie basically in the costs of elevated 111’Z ’’l’i. Pie 1land reqat reti c,- snob dovelIopmeot is loss

  4. Alternative dipole magnets for ISABELLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C.; Althaus, R.; Caspi, S.; Gilbert, W.; Hassenzahl, W. V.; Meuser, R.; Rechen, J.; Warren, R.

    1982-05-01

    A dipole magnet, intended as a possible alternative for the ISABELLE main ring magnet, was designed. Three layers of FNAL Doubler/Saver conductor were used. Two 1.3-m-long models were built and tested, both with and without an iron core, and in both helium I and helium II. The training behavior, cyclic energy loss, point of quench initiation, and quench velocity were determined. A central field of 6.5 tesla was obtained in He I (4.4 K), and 7.6 tesla in He II (1.8K).

  5. Erythrocytes in alternating electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morariu, V.V.; Chifu, A.; Simplaceanu, T.; Frangopol, P.T.

    1983-02-01

    The elastic and inelastic deformation of erythrocytes induced by alternating fields and the suggestion that moderate field intensities (1.2 kV/cm) when continuously applied can cause lysis by a different mechanism compared to the action of short intense field pulses is presented. The different experimental conditions can be used to approach various properties of the membrane such as those related to the dielectric polarization of the membrane or to the interfacial polarization, leading to the inelastic deformation of the cells. (authors)

  6. Alternating current for the West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    In the framework of the reactor EPR construction in the Manche, the authors wonder on the pertinence of this energy choice for the economy and the environment of the West France. They show that there is an alternative to this choice. In a first part a state of the situation concerning the electricity supply and demand in the region is detailed. Then from the local potential of renewable electric power production and the electricity conservation, they propose many concrete actions. (A.L.B.)

  7. The difference between alternative averages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Vaupel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Demographers have long been interested in how compositional change, e.g., change in age structure, affects population averages. OBJECTIVE We want to deepen understanding of how compositional change affects population averages. RESULTS The difference between two averages of a variable, calculated using alternative weighting functions, equals the covariance between the variable and the ratio of the weighting functions, divided by the average of the ratio. We compare weighted and unweighted averages and also provide examples of use of the relationship in analyses of fertility and mortality. COMMENTS Other uses of covariances in formal demography are worth exploring.

  8. Bayesian Alternation During Tactile Augmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caspar Mathias Goeke

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A large number of studies suggest that the integration of multisensory signals by humans is well described by Bayesian principles. However, there are very few reports about cue combination between a native and an augmented sense. In particular, we asked the question whether adult participants are able to integrate an augmented sensory cue with existing native sensory information. Hence for the purpose of this study we build a tactile augmentation device. Consequently, we compared different hypotheses of how untrained adult participants combine information from a native and an augmented sense. In a two-interval forced choice (2 IFC task, while subjects were blindfolded and seated on a rotating platform, our sensory augmentation device translated information on whole body yaw rotation to tactile stimulation. Three conditions were realized: tactile stimulation only (augmented condition, rotation only (native condition, and both augmented and native information (bimodal condition. Participants had to choose one out of two consecutive rotations with higher angular rotation. For the analysis, we fitted the participants’ responses with a probit model and calculated the just notable difference (JND. Then we compared several models for predicting bimodal from unimodal responses. An objective Bayesian alternation model yielded a better prediction (χred2 = 1.67 than the Bayesian integration model (χred2= 4.34. Slightly higher accuracy showed a non-Bayesian winner takes all model (χred2= 1.64, which either used only native or only augmented values per subject for prediction. However the performance of the Bayesian alternation model could be substantially improved (χred2= 1.09 utilizing subjective weights obtained by a questionnaire. As a result, the subjective Bayesian alternation model predicted bimodal performance most accurately among all tested models. These results suggest that information from augmented and existing sensory modalities in

  9. MR pelvimetry - a practical alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, A.R.; English, P.T.; Cameron, H.M.; Wilsdon, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    Pelvimetry remains a useful technique as part of the assessment of the term breech pregnancy where vaginal delivery is planned. MR pelvimetry is accurate, well tolerated and shows soft-tissue structures as well as bone. It avoids the potentially carcinogenic effects of ionising radiation and is thought to be completely safe for mother and fetus. A technique of MR pelvimetry is described which uses gradient-echo sequences. This quick, practical method makes minimal in roads into valuable scanning time, and may therefore be considered a potentially cost-effective alternative to conventional pelvimetry. (orig.)

  10. [Alternative and complementary medicine from the primary care physician's viewpoint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soós, Sándor Árpád; Eőry, Ajándék; Eőry, Ajándok; Harsányi, László; Kalabay, László

    2015-07-12

    The patients initiate the use of complementary and alternative medicine and this often remains hidden from their primary care physician. To explore general practitioners' knowledge and attitude towards complementary and alternative medicine, and study the need and appropriate forms of education, as well as ask their opinion on integration of alternative medicine into mainstream medicine. A voluntary anonymous questionnaire was used on two conferences for general practitioners organized by the Family Medicine Department of Semmelweis University. Complementary and alternative medicine was defined by the definition of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and certified modalities were all listed. 194 general practitioners answered the questionnaire (39.8% response rate). 14% of the responders had licence in at least one of the complementary and alternative therapies, 45% used complementary and alternative therapy in their family in case of illness. It was the opinion of the majority (91.8%) that it was necessary to be familiar with every method used by their patients, however, 82.5% claimed not to have enough knowledge in complementary medicine. Graduate and postgraduate education in the field was thought to be necessary by 86% of the responders; increased odds for commitment in personal education was found among female general practitioners, less than 20 years professional experience and personal experience of alternative medicine. These data suggest that general practitioners would like to know more about complementary and alternative medicine modalities used by their patients. They consider education of medical professionals necessary and a special group is willing to undergo further education in the field.

  11. Frequency of ABO and Rhesus blood groups among blood donors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the frequency of. ABO and Rhesus blood groups amongst blood donors in Lagos, Nigeria and ... geographical information that can advance the fields of blood transfusion, organ transplantation ..... alternative medicine in the management of ...

  12. ALIGNMENTS OF GROUP GALAXIES WITH NEIGHBORING GROUPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yougang; Chen Xuelei; Park, Changbom; Yang Xiaohu; Choi, Yun-Young

    2009-01-01

    Using a sample of galaxy groups found in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 4, we measure the following four types of alignment signals: (1) the alignment between the distributions of the satellites of each group relative to the direction of the nearest neighbor group (NNG); (2) the alignment between the major axis direction of the central galaxy of the host group (HG) and the direction of the NNG; (3) the alignment between the major axes of the central galaxies of the HG and the NNG; and (4) the alignment between the major axes of the satellites of the HG and the direction of the NNG. We find strong signal of alignment between the satellite distribution and the orientation of central galaxy relative to the direction of the NNG, even when the NNG is located beyond 3r vir of the host group. The major axis of the central galaxy of the HG is aligned with the direction of the NNG. The alignment signals are more prominent for groups that are more massive and with early-type central galaxies. We also find that there is a preference for the two major axes of the central galaxies of the HG and NNG to be parallel for the system with both early central galaxies, however, not for the systems with both late-type central galaxies. For the orientation of satellite galaxies, we do not find any significant alignment signals relative to the direction of the NNG. From these four types of alignment measurements, we conclude that the large-scale environment traced by the nearby group affects primarily the shape of the host dark matter halo, and hence also affects the distribution of satellite galaxies and the orientation of central galaxies. In addition, the NNG directly affects the distribution of the satellite galaxies by inducing asymmetric alignment signals, and the NNG at very small separation may also contribute a second-order impact on the orientation of the central galaxy in the HG.

  13. Citizens' action group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andritzky, W.

    1978-01-01

    For the first empirical study of citizens' action groups 331 such groups were consulted. Important information was collected on the following aspects of these groups: their self-image, areas and forms of activities, objectives and their extent, how long the group has existed, successes and failures and their forms of organisation. (orig.) [de

  14. Removing 3,5-Dichlorophenol from Wastewater by Alternative Adsorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobetičová Hana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to evaluate an efficiency of 3,5 - dichlorophenol removal from wastewater by using alternative adsorbents. Chlorophenols are organic compounds consisting of a benzene ring, OH groups and also atoms of chlorine. Chlorophenols may have a huge isomere variety that means there are differences in their chemical and physical properties. Due to their toxicity it is necessary to remove them from waste water and in this paper an alternative way of such process is described.

  15. Dopaminergic and serotonergic modulation of persistent behaviour in the reinforced spatial alternation model of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontis, Dimitris; Boulougouris, Vasileios; Papakosta, Vasiliki Maria; Kalogerakou, Stamatina; Papadopoulos, Socrates; Poulopoulou, Cornelia; Papadimitriou, George N; Tsaltas, Eleftheria

    2008-11-01

    We have proposed rewarded T-maze alternation as a model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): the serotonin agonist m-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) increments persistence therein, while chronic pretreatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI fluoxetine) but not benzodiazepine or desipramine abolishes mCPP effects. However, we noted that acute SSRI administration also causes transient persistence increase, counteracted by mCPP pretreatment. This study (a) further explores the cross-tolerance between fluoxetine and mCPP and (b) extends the model by investigating its sensitivity to dopaminergic manipulations (D2, 3 agonism--quinpirole). In both experiments, baseline and drug testing were carried out under daily T-maze alternation training. Exp. 1: Matched group (n = 8) pairs of rats received one of the following 20-day pretreatments (daily intraperitoneal administration): (1) saline, (2) low-dose fluoxetine (2.5 mg/kg), (3) low-dose mCPP (0.5 mg/kg) or (4) combined fluoxetine + mCPP. One group per pretreatment then received a 4-day challenge with high-dose fluoxetine (10 mg/kg), the other with high-dose mCPP (2.5 mg/kg). Exp. 2: One group (n = 12) of rats received 20-day treatment with saline, another with quinpirole (0.5 mg/kg). Exp. 1: Saline and low-dose mCPP- or fluoxetine-pretreated animals showed significant persistence increases under both challenges, while combined low-dose fluoxetine + mCPP pretreatment afforded full protection from either challenge. Exp. 2: Quinpirole significantly increased directional persistence after 13 administration days. These results establish the sensitivity of the rewarded alternation OCD model to D2, 3 receptor activation, thereby extending its profile of pharmacological isomorphism with OCD. Furthermore, they suggest a common mechanism of action of an SSRI and a serotonin agonist in the control of directional persistence.

  16. Communication in Organizational Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Monica RADU

    2007-01-01

    Organizational group can be defined as some persons between who exist interactive connections (functional, communication, affective, normative type). Classification of these groups can reflect the dimension, type of relationship or type of rules included. Organizational groups and their influence over the individual efficiency and the efficiency of the entire group are interconnected. Spontaneous roles in these groups sustain the structure of the relationship, and the personality of each indi...

  17. Alternate Energy for National Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Bhakta

    2010-02-01

    Recent price fluctuations at the gas pump have brought our attention to the phenomenal increase of global energy consumption in recent years. It is now evident that we have almost reached a peak in global oil production. Several projections indicate that total world consumption of oil will rise by nearly 60 per cent between 1999 and 2020. In 1999 consumption was equivalent to 86 million barrels of oil per day, which has reached a peak of production extracted from most known oil reserves. These projections, if accurate, will present an unprecedented crisis to the global economy and industry. As an example, in the US, nearly 40 per cent of energy usage is provided by petroleum, of which nearly a third is used in transportation. The US Department of Defense (DOD) is the single largest buyer of fuel, amounting to, on the average, 13 million gallons per day. Additionally, these fuels have to meet different requirements that prevent use of ethanol additives and biodiesel. An aggressive search for alternate energy sources, both renewable and nonrenewable, is vital. The presentation will review national and DOD perspectives on the exploration of alternate energy with a focus on energy derivable from the ocean. )

  18. Alternate approaches to nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, A.T.

    1985-01-01

    For the US nuclear power industry to expand, a greatly increased portion of the public must come to share the industry's confidence in reactor safety. Major obstacles to establishing this confidence are frequent incidents with potential safety implications and a lack of incontrovertible proof that the risk of a major accident is very low. The most important step toward overcoming these obstacles would be for each utility to operate, maintain, and evaluate its reactors according to far higher standards. With improvements in reliability and safety margins, existing plants would be a stimulus for building new ones rather than an impediment. If changes to the operation of existing plants and improvements to the design of future ones were inadequate, the only hope for a revival of the nuclear industry would be an alternative reactor so obviously safe that risk would no longer be an issue. Three possible concepts are the modular high-temperature gas reactor, the process inherent ultimate safety reactor, and the liquid-metal fast reactor. All three have inherent safety features that should make a meltdown essentially impossible. They cannot know just how great the advantage of these alternate reactors would be, but the benefits of developing one or more of the concepts appear great

  19. Alternative fuels: a Brazilian outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, J.R.; Serra, G.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper focuses on studies and information related to the use of alternative fuels in Brazil. The first part of this paper deals with the economics of different biomass technologies. The analysis consists of a careful costing of all operations involved. The study deals with wood, sugar cane and cassava, since these crops are exploited for commercial purposes in Brazil. Corn, although a useful raw material for producing ethanol in the United States, is not used for this purpose in Brazil. The second part deals with the industrial technologies used to convert biomass into energy. We consider several forms of energy derived from biomass and evaluate the economics of the processes. When opportune, we compare costs with those of the North American market. Market analysis and displacement of conventional energy are the subject of the third part of the paper. While the cost of each product is evaluated in most cases; in others the current market price is used. Finally, we raise the issues of institutional problems and planning and offer some conclusions on the future of biomass as an alternative energy source. The technological discussion in this paper is based on the Brazilian experience in producing ethanol and other fuels from biomass. It is possible to extrapolate the Brazilian experience to other developing countries. The observations made in this chapter are based on the conditions prevalent in the Brazilian south-central agricultural region, specifically the state of Sao Paulo. (author). 91 refs., 16 figs., 11 tabs

  20. Alternate Double Single Track Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraga Contreras, P.; Grande Andrade, Z.; Castillo Ron, E.

    2016-07-01

    The paper discusses the advantages and shortcomings of alternate double single track (ADST) lines with respect to double track lines for high speed lines. ADST lines consists of sequences of double and single track segments optimally selected in order to reduce the construction and maintenance costs of railway lines and to optimize the timetables used to satisfy a given demand. The single tracks are selected to coincide with expensive segments (tunnels and viaducts) and the double tracks are chosen to coincide with flat areas and only where they are necessary. At the same time, departure times are adjusted for trains to cross at the cheap double track segments. This alternative can be used for new lines and also for existing conventional lines where some new tracks are to be constructed to reduce travel time (increase speed). The ADST proposal is illustrated with some examples of both types (new lines and where conventional lines exist), including the Palencia-Santander, the Santiago-Valparaíso-Viña del Mar and the Dublin-Belfast lines, where very important reductions (90 %) are obtained, especially where a railway infrastructure already exist. (Author)

  1. Alternatives for nuclear fuel disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez S, J. R.; Badillo A, V.; Palacios H, J.; Celis del Angel, L.

    2010-10-01

    The spent fuel is one of the most important issues in the nuclear industry, currently spent fuel management is been cause of great amount of research, investments in the construction of repositories or constructing the necessary facilities to reprocess the fuel, and later to recycle the plutonium recovered in thermal reactors. What is the best solution? or, What is the best technology for a specific solution? Many countries have deferred the decision on selecting an option, while other works actively constructing repositories and others implementing the reprocessing facilities to recycle the plutonium obtained from nuclear spent fuel. In Mexico the nuclear power is limited to two reactors BWR type and medium size. So the nuclear spent fuel discharged has been accommodated at reactor's spent fuel pools. Originally these pools have enough capacity to accommodate spent fuel for the 40 years of designed plant operation. However, currently is under process an extended power up rate to 20% of their original power and also there are plans to extend operational life for 20 more years. Under these conditions there will not be enough room for spent fuel in the pools. So this work describes some different alternatives that have been studied in Mexico to define which will be the best alternative to follow. (Author)

  2. Leukemia Support Groups: How Are They Doing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss

    1997-10-01

    BACKGROUND: Support groups help their participants to cope with the emotional and practical impact of their illnesses. METHODS: The effectiveness of the Leukemia Society of America support groups in enhancing the quality of life for their participants is reviewed. The groundwork, purpose, and structure of such groups, as well as alternate sources of support, are presented. Evaluation and future directions for oncology groupwork are discussed. RESULTS: Support groups complement the therapies provided by clinical practitioners and scientists by addressing the additional needs of cancer patients over the course of illness and survival. CONCLUSIONS: New concepts and methods that address the needs of specific age-groups and incorporate the newly generated data on cancer treatments will further enhance the benefits provided by support groups.

  3. [Social crisis, spontaneous groups and group order].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, Lucila; Kordon, Diana

    2002-12-01

    Argentina has gone through very difficult times during the last years and, in particularly, new kinds of social practices have emerged in order to cope with the crisis. This situation demands and urges a new type of reflection upon the double role of groups, as tools to transform reality and as a way to elaborate those processes regarding subjectivity. In this paper we analyse some topics regarding the groupal field (considering spontaneous groups as well as groupal devices that allow to elaborate the crisis). We consider social bond to be the condition of possibility for the existence of the psyche and of time continuity, and that it also makes possible personal and social elaboration of trauma, crisis and social catastrophe. We develop some aspects of an specific device (the reflection group), which we have already depicted in another moment, showing it's usefulness to cope with social crisis and to promote the subjective elaboration of crisis.

  4. Aspirin-triggered lipoxin A4 and lipoxin A4 up-regulate transcriptional corepressor NAB1 in human neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, F H; Devchand, P R; Wada, K; Serhan, C N

    2001-12-01

    Aspirin-triggered 15-epi-lipoxin A4 (ATL) is an endogenous lipid mediator that mimics the actions of native lipoxin A4, a putative "stop signal" involved in regulating resolution of inflammation. A metabolically more stable analog of ATL, 15-epi-16-(para-fluoro)-phenoxy-lipoxin A4 analog (ATLa), inhibits neutrophil recruitment in vitro and in vivo and displays potent anti-inflammatory actions. ATLa binds with high affinity to the lipoxin A4 receptor, a G protein-coupled receptor on the surface of leukocytes. In this study, we used freshly isolated human neutrophils to examine ATLa's potential for initiating rapid nuclear responses. Using differential display reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, we identified a subset of genes that was selectively up-regulated upon short exposure of polymorphonuclear leukocytes to ATLa but not to the chemoattractant leukotriene B4 or vehicle alone. We further investigated ATLa regulation of one of the genes, NAB1, a transcriptional corepressor identified previously as a glucocorticoid-responsive gene in hamster smooth muscle cells. Treatment of human neutrophils with pertussis toxin blocked ATLa up-regulation of NAB1. In addition, ATLa stimulated NAB1 gene expression in murine lung vascular smooth muscle in vivo. These findings provide evidence for rapid transcriptional induction of a cassette of genes via an ATLa-stimulated G protein-coupled receptor pathway that is potentially protective and overlaps with the anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid regulatory circuit.

  5. Advanced Technology and Alternative Fuel Vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuttle, J.

    2001-01-01

    This fact sheet provides a basic overview of today's alternative fuel choices--including biofuels, biodiesel, electricity, and hydrogen--alternative fuel vehicles, and advanced vehicle technology, such as hybrid electric vehicles, fuel cells and advanced drive trains

  6. Alternative Fuel News, Volume 4, Number 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ficker, C.

    2000-11-14

    This issue of Alternative Fuel News focuses on transit buses and refuse haulers. Many transit agencies and waste management companies are investigating alternatives to traditional diesel buses and refuse haulers.

  7. Alternative Fuel News, Vol. 3 No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-23

    This special issue of Alternative Fuel News highlights the Fifth National Clean Cities Conference held in Louisville, Kentucky. The momentum for the program is stronger than ever and the coalitions are working to propel the alternative fuel industry forward.

  8. EJSCREEN Version 1, EJ Index Alternatives

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map service displays alternative environmental justice (EJ) indexes used in EJSCREEN. The alternative EJ indexes combine each of the 12 environmental indicators...

  9. Office of Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C Research. Information. Outreach. The Office of Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine (OCCAM) was established in October 1998 to coordinate ... National Cancer Institute (NCI) in the arena of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). More about us. CAM at the NCI ...

  10. Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    This action proposes to allow for an additional alternative test method for olefins in gasoline, ASTM D6550-05. The allowance of this additional alternative test method will provide more flexibility to the regulated industry.

  11. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines: Advanced Search. Journal Home > African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines: Advanced Search. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  12. Kinematics and Workspace of a 4-DOF Hybrid Palletizing Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Tao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We presented the kinematical analysis of a 4-DOF hybrid palletizing robot. The palletizing robot structure was proposed and the arm model of the robot was presented. The kinematical analysis of the end robotic manipulator was given. As a result, the position, velocity, and acceleration curves as well as the maximum workspace were demonstrated by simulation in Matlab. This study would be useful for the kinematical characteristics of the 4-DOF palletizing robot in space.

  13. Solution structure of leptospiral LigA4 Big domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei, Song; Zhang, Jiahai [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Zhang, Xuecheng [School of Life Sciences, Anhui University, Hefei, Anhui 230039 (China); Tu, Xiaoming, E-mail: xmtu@ustc.edu.cn [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2015-11-13

    Pathogenic Leptospiraspecies express immunoglobulin-like proteins which serve as adhesins to bind to the extracellular matrices of host cells. Leptospiral immunoglobulin-like protein A (LigA), a surface exposed protein containing tandem repeats of bacterial immunoglobulin-like (Big) domains, has been proved to be involved in the interaction of pathogenic Leptospira with mammalian host. In this study, the solution structure of the fourth Big domain of LigA (LigA4 Big domain) from Leptospira interrogans was solved by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The structure of LigA4 Big domain displays a similar bacterial immunoglobulin-like fold compared with other Big domains, implying some common structural aspects of Big domain family. On the other hand, it displays some structural characteristics significantly different from classic Ig-like domain. Furthermore, Stains-all assay and NMR chemical shift perturbation revealed the Ca{sup 2+} binding property of LigA4 Big domain. - Highlights: • Determining the solution structure of a bacterial immunoglobulin-like domain from a surface protein of Leptospira. • The solution structure shows some structural characteristics significantly different from the classic Ig-like domains. • A potential Ca{sup 2+}-binding site was identified by strains-all and NMR chemical shift perturbation.

  14. Solution structure of leptospiral LigA4 Big domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei, Song; Zhang, Jiahai; Zhang, Xuecheng; Tu, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenic Leptospiraspecies express immunoglobulin-like proteins which serve as adhesins to bind to the extracellular matrices of host cells. Leptospiral immunoglobulin-like protein A (LigA), a surface exposed protein containing tandem repeats of bacterial immunoglobulin-like (Big) domains, has been proved to be involved in the interaction of pathogenic Leptospira with mammalian host. In this study, the solution structure of the fourth Big domain of LigA (LigA4 Big domain) from Leptospira interrogans was solved by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The structure of LigA4 Big domain displays a similar bacterial immunoglobulin-like fold compared with other Big domains, implying some common structural aspects of Big domain family. On the other hand, it displays some structural characteristics significantly different from classic Ig-like domain. Furthermore, Stains-all assay and NMR chemical shift perturbation revealed the Ca"2"+ binding property of LigA4 Big domain. - Highlights: • Determining the solution structure of a bacterial immunoglobulin-like domain from a surface protein of Leptospira. • The solution structure shows some structural characteristics significantly different from the classic Ig-like domains. • A potential Ca"2"+-binding site was identified by strains-all and NMR chemical shift perturbation.

  15. Association study of serotonin transporter SLC6A4 gene with Chinese Han irritable bowel syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yuan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a common clinical gastrointestinal dysfunction disorders. 5-sertonon (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT is a very important neurotransmitter, which is involved in gastrointestinal motion and sensation. Solute carrier family 6 member 4 (SLC6A4 gene encode serotonin transporter (SERT which function is to rapidly reuptake the most of 5-HT. Therefore, it is needed to explore the association between SLC6A4 gene polymorphisms and IBS. METHODS: 119 patients and 238 healthy controls were administrated to detect the SLC6A4 gene polymorphisms including 5-HT-transporter-gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR, variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs and three selected tag Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs rs1042173, rs3794808, rs2020936 by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR and TaqMan® SNP Genotyping. RESULTS: There were significant difference for 5-HTTLPR between IBS and control groups (X2 = 106.168, P<0.0001. In control group, genotypes were mainly L/L (58.4%, however, the genotypes in IBS were S/S (37.8%. The significant difference was shown in D-IBS subjects when compared to the controls (X(2 = 50.850, P<0.0001 for 5-HTTLPR. For STin2 VNTR, rs1042173, rs3794808, and rs2020936 polymorphisms, there were no any significant differences between IBS and control groups. There were no statistical significantly haplotypes for 5-HTTLPR, VNTRs and the three SNPs between IBS and controls. CONCLUSION: The S allele in 5-HTTLPR was a susceptible allele with Chinese Han IBS, but other associations of VNTRs, three selected Tag SNPs and positive haplotype with IBS were not found. It is indicated that much research are needed to study the relationship between other polymorphisms in SLC6A4 gene and IBS.

  16. Lawsonia inermis - an alternative treatment for hyperthyroidism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumrutdal, E; Karateke, F; Daglioglu, K; Gulkaya, M; Colak, O; Koksal, F

    2014-01-01

    The goal of our study was to determine the effects of Lawsonia inermis (L. inermis) in mice, in which hyperthyroidism had been caused by thyroid stimulant hormone (TSH). The first phase of the study aimed to detect the effects of L. inermis on the amount of ionized hydrogen (pH) in cells. For this aim, the effect of L. inermis on pH levels in the liver tissues of mice, in whom Escherichia coli (E. coli) had caused peritonitis, was examined. In the second phase of the study, the effect of L. inermis on the serum T4 levels in the 24th and 48th hour in mice, whose thyroid cells showed an increased activity by TSH was measured. In the first phase, in mice, in whom E.coli had caused peritonitis, the pH in the liver tissue of the group that had been given L. inermis was found to be significantly alkaline (phyperthyroidism, it was noted that serum total T4 levels were significantly lower than in the group that had been given L. inermis in the 48th hour (phyperthyroidism. These results suggest that L. inermis can be used as an alternative treatment for the Graves' disease (Tab. 2, Fig. 1, Ref. 34).

  17. Comparison of spent nuclear fuel management alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beebe, C.L.; Caldwell, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports the process an results of a trade study of spent nuclear fuel (SNF)management alternatives. The purpose of the trade study was to provide: (1) a summary of various SNF management alternatives, (2) an objective comparison of the various alternatives to facilitate the decision making process, and (3) documentation of trade study rational and the basis for decisions

  18. 20 CFR 404.230 - Guaranteed alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guaranteed alternative. 404.230 Section 404... INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Guaranteed Alternative for People Reaching Age 62 After 1978 But Before 1984 § 404.230 Guaranteed alternative. (a) General. If you reach age 62 after 1978...

  19. 77 FR 59346 - Payday-Alternative Loans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 701 RIN 3133-AE08 Payday-Alternative Loans AGENCY...: The NCUA Board (Board) is currently reviewing its regulation governing payday-alternative loans (PAL... to offer PAL loans, previously referred to as short- term, small amount loans, as an alternative to...

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    , and transport. Maps & Data U.S. Biodiesel Production, Exports, and Consumption U.S. Biodiesel Benefits to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Benefits on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Benefits on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data

  1. The effects of a 4-week static stretching programme on the individual muscles comprising the hamstrings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihashi, Noriaki; Umegaki, Hiroki; Ikezoe, Tome; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Nishishita, Satoru; Fujita, Kosuke; Umehara, Jun; Nakao, Sayaka; Ibuki, Satoko

    2016-12-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of a 4-week intervention of static stretching (SS) on muscle hardness of the semitendinosus (ST), semimembranosus (SM) and biceps femoris (BF) muscles. Shear elastic modulus was measured by using ultrasound shear wave elastography as the index of muscle hardness. Thirty healthy men (age 22.7 ± 2.2 years) volunteered for this study and were randomly assigned to the SS intervention group (n = 15) or the control group (n = 15). Participants in the SS intervention group received a 4-week stretch intervention for the hamstrings of their dominant leg. Shear elastic moduli of the hamstrings were measured at initial evaluation and after 4 weeks in both groups at a determined angle. In all muscles, the shear elastic modulus decreased significantly after SS intervention. The percentage change in the shear elastic modulus from the value at initial evaluation to after 4 weeks intervention was greatest in the SM. These results suggest that SS intervention has chronic effects on reducing hardness of the hamstring muscle components, especially the SM muscle.

  2. Alternate nuclear waste forms and interactions in geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boatner, L.A.; Battle, G.C. Jr.

    1981-04-01

    The primary purposes of the conference on Alternate Nuclear Waste Forms and Interactions in Geologic Media were: First, to provide an opportunity for a review of the status of the research on some of the candidate alternative waste forms; second, to provide an opportunity for comparing the characteristics of alternate waste forms to those of glasses; and third, to stimulate increased interactions between those research groups that were engaged in a more basic approach to characterizing waste forms and those who were concerned with more applied aspects such as the processing of these materials. The motivating philosophy behind this third purpose of the conference was based on the idea that by operating from the soundest possible fundamental base for any of the candidate waste forms, hopefully any future unpleasant surprise - such as that alluded to earlier in the case of glass waste forms - could be avoided. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  3. The partially alternating ternary sum in an associative dialgebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremner, Murray R; Sanchez-Ortega, Juana

    2010-01-01

    The alternating ternary sum in an associative algebra, abc - acb - bac + bca + cab - cba, gives rise to the partially alternating ternary sum in an associative dialgebra with products dashv and vdash by making the argument a the center of each term. We use computer algebra to determine the polynomial identities in degree ≤9 satisfied by this new trilinear operation. In degrees 3 and 5, these identities define a new variety of partially alternating ternary algebras. We show that there is a 49-dimensional space of multilinear identities in degree 7, and we find equivalent nonlinear identities. We use the representation theory of the symmetric group to show that there are no new identities in degree 9.

  4. Nuclear power and its alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendee, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    For nuclear power to contribute significantly to the alleviation of demands for increased electricity by the year 2000, a further obstacle must be overcome, namely the present nuclear phobia of the American public. This phobia can be addressed only through public education leading to a balanced perspective of the benefits and hazards of nuclear power compared with those of alternate sources of energy and to the risks associated with an insufficient supply of energy in a few years. Also to be considered in a public education effort should be the precarious and capricious nature of this country's continued reliance on energy sources imported from politically unstable countries, as well as the risk this importation poses for the nation's economic, social and military security

  5. Alternative Design of Boat Fenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banke, Lars

    1996-01-01

    for the installation of the fender and perhaps for removing it if new oil-risers are to be initialled. The use of crane boats is expensive and weather-dependent.With these effect sin mind, a study of the energy absorption in the fender system, i.e. the fender itself and the frame, is needed for further development......On offshore platforms the purpose of fenders is to protect the oil-risers against minor accidental collisions with supply vessels. Normally, the fender is designed by use of thin-walled tubes. However, the tube itself is not capable of resisting the impact load of the boat. Therefore, alternative...... designs are searched for the fender.Today, an often used improvement of the fender is to fill it with grout or concrete. However, this improvement is not optimal since the fillings increase the weight of the fender beyond the crane capacity of the platform. Thus, crane boats are needed...

  6. Alternative cask maintenance facility concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attaway, C.R.; Pope, R.B.; Wiliamson, A.C.; Medley, L.G.; Shappert, L.B.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the results of three trade-off studies of alternative concepts for performing cask maintenance for Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System casks are presented. An earlier study resulted in a recommendation that a submerged pool concept for cask internal component removal be used in the design of a Cask Maintenance Facility. The first trade-off study resulted in confirming the previous recommendation that a submerged pool concept be used rather than an isolation cell; the basis for this continued recommendation is discussed. The second study provides an evaluation of the previously proposed facility for the capability of handling an increased quantity of OCRWM casks. The third study provides a preliminary concept for adding the capability to repaint the exterior cylindrical portions of casks

  7. Technological alternatives for plutonium transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-12-01

    This paper considers alternative transport modes (air, sea, road, rail) for moving (1) plutonium from a reprocessing plant to a store or a fuel fabrication facility, and (2) MOX fuel from the latter to a reactor. These transport modes and differing forms of plutonium are considered in terms of: their proliferation resistance and safeguards; environmental and safety aspects; and economic aspects. It is tentatively proposed that the transport of plutonium could continue by air or sea where long distances are involved and by road or rail over shorter distances; this would be acceptable from the non-proliferation, environmental impact and economic aspects - there may be advantages in protection if plutonium is transported in the form of mixed oxide

  8. Towards an alternative evolution model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Waesberghe, H

    1982-01-01

    Lamarck and Darwin agreed on the inconstancy of species and on the exclusive gradualism of evolution (nature does not jump). Darwinism, revived as neo-Darwinism, was almost generally accepted from about 1930 till 1960. In the sixties the evolutionary importance of selection has been called in question by the neutralists. The traditional conception of the gene is disarranged by recent molecular-biological findings. Owing to the increasing confusion about the concept of genotype, this concept is reconsidered. The idea of the genotype as a cluster of genes is replaced by a cybernetical interpretation of the genotype. As nature does jump, exclusive gradualism is dismissed. Saltatory evolution is a natural phenomenon, provided by a sudden collapse of the thresholds which resist against evolution. The fossil record and the taxonomic system call for a macromutational interpretation. As Lamarck and Darwin overlooked the resistance of evolutionary thresholds, an alternative evolution model is needed, the first to be constructed on a palaeontological and taxonomic basis.

  9. Alternator control for battery charging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunstetter, Craig A.; Jaye, John R.; Tallarek, Glen E.; Adams, Joseph B.

    2015-07-14

    In accordance with an aspect of the present disclosure, an electrical system for an automotive vehicle has an electrical generating machine and a battery. A set point voltage, which sets an output voltage of the electrical generating machine, is set by an electronic control unit (ECU). The ECU selects one of a plurality of control modes for controlling the alternator based on an operating state of the vehicle as determined from vehicle operating parameters. The ECU selects a range for the set point voltage based on the selected control mode and then sets the set point voltage within the range based on feedback parameters for that control mode. In an aspect, the control modes include a trickle charge mode and battery charge current is the feedback parameter and the ECU controls the set point voltage within the range to maintain a predetermined battery charge current.

  10. [Alternatives to allogenous blood transfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernea, Daniela; Vlădoianu, Alice; Stoica, Maria; Novac, M; Berteanu, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Blood transfusion is usually meant to lower morbidity and mortality rates. Allogenous blood transfusion implies certain risks that can be avoided by autologous blood transfusions techniques including: preoperatory autologous blood donation, acute normovolemic hemodilution, intraoperatory and postoperatory blood salvage. Preoperatory blood donation and acute normovolemic hemodilution are used for planned interventions with an estimated blood loss higher than 20% of blood volume. These methods imply Erythropoietin and iron treatment. Intraoperatory and postoperatory blood salvage is performed by personnel trained in blood donation, handling and storage. Autologous blood transfusions are used for certain surgical procedures that commonly require transfusions: orthopedic surgery, radical prostatectomy, cardiovascular surgery, organ transplantation. An alternative to allogenous blood transfusion is the use of artificial oxygen transporters: human or animal hemoglobin solutions or pefluorocarbonate solutions. These solutions do not require cross reactions, do not carry diseases and are generally well tolerated and easily stored in the operating room, ambulance and other transport means. They have however a slight degree of toxicity.

  11. Alternative Diesel from Waste Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Bezergianni

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The long term ambition of energy security and solidarity, coupled with the environmental concerns of problematic waste accumulation, is addressed via the proposed waste-to-fuel technology. Plastic waste is converted into automotive diesel fuel via a two-step thermochemical process based on pyrolysis and hydrotreatment. Plastic waste was pyrolyzed in a South East Asia plant rendering pyrolysis oil, which mostly consisted of middle-distillate (naphtha and diesel hydrocarbons. The diesel fraction (170–370 °C was fractionated, and its further upgrade was assessed in a hydroprocessing pilot plant at the Centre for Research and Technology Hellas (CERTH in Greece. The final fuel was evaluated with respect to the diesel fuel quality specifications EN 590, which characterized it as a promising alternative diesel pool component with excellent ignition quality characteristics and low back end volatility.

  12. The rural energy alternatives project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffstatter, L.; Panetti, C.; DeWein, M.

    1993-01-01

    A cooperative survey by the New York State Energy Office (SEO) and Office of Rural Affairs (ORA) identified hundreds of residences without utility electric power due to excessive line extension costs. SEO selected several of these residences for feasibility studies which compared site specific options for electricity generation, including existing fossil fuel generator(s), generator/battery sets, photovoltaic (PV) hybrid and micro-hydroelectric systems as well as utility provided electric service. Comprehensive reports included examination of a range of energy conservation measures. Alternatives to present fossil fuel systems were assessed for domestic hot water, refrigeration, and water pumping. Results included electric load data, solar and hydroelectric potential, life cycle cost estimates for electricity, and estimated system sizing information based on energy cost considerations. In addition to providing useful information to individual homeowners, these studies served as the basis for cooperative efforts to install and monitor stand-alone prototype PV hybrid systems

  13. Nuclear energy: a sensible alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, K.O.; Spinrad, B.I.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents information on energy futures; energy demand, energy supplies; exclusive paths and difficult choices--hard, soft, and moderate energy paths; an energy-deficient society; energy shortages; economics of light-water reactors; fast breeder reactor economics; international cooperation in the nuclear field; nuclear recycling; alternative fuels, fuel cycles, and reactors; the nuclear weapons proliferation issue; paths to a world with more reliable nuclear safeguards; the homemade bomb issue; LWR risk assessment; accident analysis and risk assessment; the waste disposal risk; radon problems; risks in our society; health effects of low-level radiation; routine releases of radioactivity from the nuclear industry; low-level radioactivity and infant mortality; the myth of plutonium toxicity; myths about high-level radioactive waste; the aging reactor myth; the police state myth; insurance and nuclear power--the Price-Anderson Act; and solar and nuclear power as partners

  14. Alternative pathways to antimatter containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rejcek, J.M.; Browder, M.K.; Fry, J.L.; Koymen, A.; Weiss, A.H.

    2003-01-01

    Antimatter containment is a gateway technology for future advancements in many areas. Immediate applications in propulsion, medicine, and instrumentation have already been envisioned and many others are yet to be considered. Key to this technological advance is identifying one or more pathways to achieve safe reliable containment of antimatter in sufficient quantities to be useful on an engineering and industrial scale. The goal of this paper is to review current approaches and discuss possible alternative pathways to antimatter containment. Specifically, this paper will address the possibility of designing a solid-state containment system that will safely hold antimatter in quantities dense enough to be of any engineering utility. A discussion of the current research, the needed engineering requirements, and a survey of current research is presented

  15. Alternative Crops and Biofuel Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenkel, Philip [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Holcomb, Rodney B. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)

    2013-03-01

    In order for the biofuel industry to meet the RFS benchmarks for biofuels, new feedstock sources and production systems will have to be identified and evaluated. The Southern Plains has the potential to produce over a billion gallons of biofuels from regionally produced alternative crops, agricultural residues, and animal fats. While information on biofuel conversion processes is available, it is difficult for entrepreneurs, community planners and other interested individuals to determine the feasibility of biofuel processes or to match production alternatives with feed stock availability and community infrastructure. This project facilitates the development of biofuel production from these regionally available feed stocks. Project activities are concentrated in five major areas. The first component focused on demonstrating the supply of biofuel feedstocks. This involves modeling the yield and cost of production of dedicated energy crops at the county level. In 1991 the DOE selected switchgrass as a renewable source to produce transportation fuel after extensive evaluations of many plant species in multiple location (Caddel et al,. 2010). However, data on the yield and cost of production of switchgrass are limited. This deficiency in demonstrating the supply of biofuel feedstocks was addressed by modeling the potential supply and geographic variability of switchgrass yields based on relationship of available switchgrass yields to the yields of other forage crops. This model made it possible to create a database of projected switchgrass yields for five different soil types at the county level. A major advantage of this methodology is that the supply projections can be easily updated as improved varieties of switchgrass are developed and additional yield data becomes available. The modeling techniques are illustrated using the geographic area of Oklahoma. A summary of the regional supply is then provided.

  16. Alternative calcination development status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, R.D.

    1997-12-01

    The Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel and (INEEL) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision, dated June 1, 1995, specifies that high-level waste stored in the underground tanks at the ICPP continue to be calcined while other options to treat the waste are studied. Therefore, the High-Level Waste Program has funded a program to develop new flowsheets to increase the liquid waste processing rate. Simultaneously, a radionuclide separation process, as well as other options, are also being developed, which will be compared to the calcination treatment option. Two alternatives emerged as viable candidates; (1) elevated temperature calcination (also referred to as high temperature calcination), and (2) sugar-additive calcination. Both alternatives were determined to be viable through testing performed in a lab-scale calcination mockup. Subsequently, 10-cm Calciner Pilot Plant scoping tests were successfully completed for both flowsheets. The results were compared to the standard 500 C, high-ANN flow sheet (baseline flowsheet). The product and effluent streams were characterized to help elucidate the process chemistry and to investigate potential environmental permitting issues. Several supplementary tests were conducted to gain a better understanding of fine-particles generation, calcine hydration, scrub foaming, feed makeup procedures, sugar/organic elimination, and safety-related issues. Many of the experiments are only considered to be scoping tests, and follow-up experiments will be required to establish a more definitive understanding of the flowsheets. However, the combined results support the general conclusion that flowsheet improvements for the NWCF are technically viable

  17. Introduction to topological groups

    CERN Document Server

    Husain, Taqdir

    2018-01-01

    Concise treatment covers semitopological groups, locally compact groups, Harr measure, and duality theory and some of its applications. The volume concludes with a chapter that introduces Banach algebras. 1966 edition.

  18. MSUD Family Support Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Treatment Of MSUD The MSUD Family Support Group has provided funds to Buck Institute for its ... of the membership of the MSUD Family Support Group, research for improved treatments and potential cure was ...

  19. Nilpotent -local finite groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarero, José; Scherer, Jérôme; Viruel, Antonio

    2014-10-01

    We provide characterizations of -nilpotency for fusion systems and -local finite groups that are inspired by known result for finite groups. In particular, we generalize criteria by Atiyah, Brunetti, Frobenius, Quillen, Stammbach and Tate.

  20. UPIN Group File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Group Unique Physician Identifier Number (UPIN) File is the business entity file that contains the group practice UPIN and descriptive information. It does NOT...

  1. Group Decision Process Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, John; Hijikata, Masao

    1997-01-01

    Introducing the notion of Group Decision Process Support Systems (GDPSS) to traditional decision-support theorists.......Introducing the notion of Group Decision Process Support Systems (GDPSS) to traditional decision-support theorists....

  2. Gestalt Interactional Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Robert L.; Franklin, Richard W.

    1975-01-01

    Gestalt therapy in groups is not limited to individual work in the presence of an audience. Describes several ways to involve gestalt groups interactionally. Interactions described focus on learning by doing and discovering, and are noninterpretive. (Author/EJT)

  3. Group B streptococcus - pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000511.htm Group B streptococcus - pregnancy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a type of bacteria that some ...

  4. Multicultural group work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2014-01-01

    Motivation for the activity I use this strategy for forming groups to ensure diverse/multicultural groups that combine a variety of different strengths and resources based on student's academic, disciplinary, linguistic, national, personal and work backgrounds.......Motivation for the activity I use this strategy for forming groups to ensure diverse/multicultural groups that combine a variety of different strengths and resources based on student's academic, disciplinary, linguistic, national, personal and work backgrounds....

  5. Alternative treatment of symptomatic pancreatic fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltberger, Georg; Schmelzle, Moritz; Tautenhahn, Hans-Michael; Krenzien, Felix; Atanasov, Georgi; Hau, Hans-Michael; Moche, Michael; Jonas, Sven

    2015-06-01

    The management of symptomatic pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy is complex and associated with increased morbidity and mortality. We here report continuous irrigation and drainage of the pancreatic remnant to be a feasible and safe alternative to total pancreatectomy. Between 2005 and 2011, patients were analyzed, in which pancreaticojejunal anastomosis was disconnected because of grade C fistula, and catheters for continuous irrigation and drainage were placed close to the pancreatic remnant. Clinical data were monitored and quality of life was evaluated. A total of 13 of 202 patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy required reoperation due to symptomatic pancreatic fistula. Ninety-day mortality of these patients was 15.3%. Median length of stay on the intensive care unit and total length of stay was 18 d (range 3-45) and 46 d (range 33-96), respectively. Patients with early reoperation (<10 d) had significantly decreased length of stay on the intensive care unit and operation time (P < 0.05). Global health status after a median time of 22 mo (range 6-66) was nearly identical, when compared with that of a healthy control group. Mean follow-up was 44.4 mo (±27.2). Four patients (36.6 %) died during the follow-up period; two patients from tumor recurrence, one patient from pneumonia, and one patient for unknown reasons. Treatment of pancreatic fistula by continuous irrigation and drainage of the preserved pancreatic remnant is a simple and feasible alternative to total pancreatectomy. This technique maintains a sufficient endocrine function and is associated with low mortality and reasonable quality of life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Testing an alternate informed consent process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Bernice C; Dodendorf, Diane; Lane, Judy; LaFramboise, Louise; Pozehl, Bunny; Duncan, Kathleen; Knodel, Kendra

    2009-01-01

    One of the main problems in conducting clinical trials is low participation rate due to potential participants' misunderstanding of the rationale for the clinical trial or perceptions of loss of control over treatment decisions. The objective of this study was to test an alternate informed consent process in cardiac rehabilitation participants that involved the use of a multimedia flip chart to describe a future randomized clinical trial and then asked, hypothetically, if they would participate in the future trial. An attractive and inviting visual presentation of the study was created in the form of a 23-page flip chart that included 24 color photographs displaying information about the purpose of the study, similarities and differences between the two treatment groups, and the data collection process. We tested the flip chart in 35 cardiac rehabilitation participants. Participants were asked if they would participate in this future study on two occasions: immediately after the description of the flip chart and 24 hours later, after reading through the informed consent document. Participants were also asked their perceptions of the flip chart and consent process. Of the 35 participants surveyed, 19 (54%) indicated that they would participate in the future study. No participant changed his or her decision 24 hours later after reading the full consent form. The participation rate improved 145% over that of an earlier feasibility study where the recruitment rate was 22%. Most participants stated that the flip chart was helpful and informative and that the photographs were effective in communicating the purpose of the study. Participation rates could be enhanced in future clinical trials by using a visual presentation to explain and describe the study as part of the informed consent process. More research is needed to test alternate methods of obtaining informed consent.

  7. The Areva Group; Le groupe Areva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-08-01

    This document provides information on the Areva Group, a world nuclear industry leader, offering solutions for nuclear power generation, electricity transmission and distribution and interconnect systems to the telecommunications, computer and automotive markets. It presents successively the front end division including the group business lines involved in producing nuclear fuel for electric power generation (uranium mining, concentration, conversion and enrichment and nuclear fuel fabrication); the reactors and services division which designs and builds PWR, BWR and research reactors; the back end division which encompasses the management of the fuel that has been used in nuclear power plants; the transmission and distribution division which provides products, systems and services to the medium and high voltage energy markets; the connectors division which designs and manufactures electrical, electronic and optical connectors, flexible micro circuitry and interconnection systems. Areva is implemented in Europe, north and south america, africa and asia-pacific. (A.L.B.)

  8. Groups, combinatorics and geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, A A; Saxl, J

    2003-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, the theory of groups in particular simplegroups, finite and algebraic has influenced a number of diverseareas of mathematics. Such areas include topics where groups have beentraditionally applied, such as algebraic combinatorics, finitegeometries, Galois theory and permutation groups, as well as severalmore recent developments.

  9. Working Group 7 Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaitsev S.; Berg J.

    2012-06-10

    The primary subject of working group 7 at the 2012 Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop was muon accelerators for a muon collider or neutrino factory. Additionally, this working group included topics that did not fit well into other working groups. Two subjects were discussed by more than one speaker: lattices to create a perfectly integrable nonlinear lattice, and a Penning trap to create antihydrogen.

  10. AREVA group overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document presents the Group Areva, a world nuclear industry leader, from a financial holding company to an industrial group, operating in two businesses: the nuclear energy and the components. The structure and the market of the group are discussed, as the financial assets. (A.L.B.)

  11. A Primer on Alternative Investments: Free Lunches, Magic, and the Four Ps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Jay A.

    1998-01-01

    A discussion of alternative investments for colleges and universities looks at the kinds of investments that comprise this group, rationales for making such investments, the advantages of diversification, risk issues, and ways to reduce risk, including careful selection of managers. Several strategies for getting started in alternative investments…

  12. An Alternative View of Some FIA Sample Design and Analysis Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul C. Van Deusen

    2005-01-01

    Sample design and analysis decisions are the result of compromises and inputs from many sources. The end result would likely change if different individuals or groups were involved in the planning process. Discussed here are some alternatives to the procedures that are currently being used for the annual inventory. The purpose is to indicate that alternatives exist and...

  13. Categorization of Alternative Conceptions in Electricity and Magnetism: The Case of Ethiopian Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dega, Bekele Gashe; Kriek, Jeanne; Mogese, Temesgen Fereja

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to categorize 35 Ethiopian undergraduate physics students' alternative conceptions in the concepts of electric potential and energy. A descriptive qualitative research design was used to categorize the students' alternative conceptions. Four independently homogeneous ability focus groups were formed to elicit the…

  14. PXR-dependent induction of human CYP3A4 gene expression by organochlorine pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coumoul, Xavier; Diry, Monique; Barouki, Robert

    2002-11-15

    OCP are xenobiotics which display various toxic effects on animal and human health. One of their effects is to bind and activate estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha). We have previously studied the down-regulation of induced CYP1A1 (cytochrome P450) expression by this class of molecules in mammary carcinoma cells and shown the importance of ERalpha in this process. However, an alternative mechanism was suggested by those experiments in hepatoma cells. In this study, we have performed Northern blot and transient transfection assays in various cell lines and shown that OCP activate human pregnane X receptor (PXR) and subsequent CYP3A4 mRNA expression. This effect is mediated by the distal xenobiotic responsive element modulator of the promoter. The induction of CYP3A4 by OCP was dose-dependent within the 1-10 microM range. The data suggest that chronic exposure to OCP could alter a major metabolite pathway in human liver and putatively modify the pharmacokinetics of drugs and pollutants.

  15. SLC26A4 gene copy number variations in Chinese patients with non-syndromic enlarged vestibular aqueduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Jiandong

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many patients with enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA have either only one allelic mutant of the SLC26A4 gene or lack any detectable mutation. In this study, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA was used to screen for copy number variations (CNVs of SLC26A4 and to reveal the pathogenic mechanisms of non-syndromic EVA (NSEVA. Methods Between January 2003 and March 2010, 923 Chinese patients (481 males, 442 females with NSEVA were recruited. Among these, 68 patients (7.4% were found to carry only one mutant allele of SLC26A4 and 39 patients (4.2% lacked any detectable mutation in SLC26A4; these 107 patients without double mutant alleles were assigned to the patient group. Possible copy number variations in SLC26A4 were detected by SALSA MLPA. Results Using GeneMapper, no significant difference was observed between the groups, as compared with the standard probe provided in the assay. The results of the capillary electrophoresis showed no significant difference between the patients and controls. Conclusion Our results suggest that CNVs and the exon deletion in SLC26A4 are not important factors in NSEVA. However, it would be premature to conclude that CNVs have no role in EVA. Genome-wide studies to explore CNVs within non-coding regions of the SLC26A4 gene and neighboring regions are warranted, to elucidate their roles in NSEVA etiology.

  16. ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF ENERGY - ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF POLLUTION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius-Razvan SURUGIU

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In many countries of the world investments are made for obtaining energy efficiency, pursuing to increase the generation of non-polluting fuels due to the fact that energy is vital for any economy. The increase in non-polluting fuels and in renewable energy generation might lead to diminishing the dependence of countries less endowed with conventional energy resources on oil and natural gas from Russia or from Arab countries. Nevertheless, environmental issues represent serious questions facing the mankind, requiring the identification, prevention, and why not, their total solving.European Union countries depend on imports of energy, especially on oil imports. At the same time, the European Union countries record a high volume of greenhouse gas emissions, substances adding to global warming. The transport sector is the main consumer of fossil fuels and generator of greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, diversifying the energy supply used in the transport sector with less polluting sources is an essential objective of the European Union policy in the transport, energy and environment sector. Road transports’ is the sector recording the highest consumption of energy and the highest volume of greenhouse gas emissions.The use of ecologic fuels in the transport sector is an important factor for achieving the objectives of European policies in the field. It is yet to be seen to what extent alternative energy sources are damaging to the environment, as it is a known fact that even for them is recorded a certain level of negative externalities.

  17. Prioritization of sediment management alternatives using stochastic multicriteria acceptability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez-Guerra, Manuel; Canis, Laure; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos; Viguri, Javier R.; Linkov, Igor

    2010-01-01

    Decision-making for sediment management is a complex task that requires the consideration of temporal and spatial impacts of several remedial alternatives as well as the associated economic, social and political impact. Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) is becoming increasingly recognized as an important environmental management tool that can be used to support the selection of suitable remediation alternatives and prioritization of management units in space and time. This paper proposes an MCDA framework for prioritizing sediment management alternatives. This framework involves identifying of a set of feasible options, as well as defining and evaluating criteria which integrate relevant technical, economic, social and environmental aspects of remedies. The methodology allows an explicit consideration of uncertainty in criteria scores and weights by assigning probability distributions and analyzing subsequent Monte-Carlo simulations. The consideration of different stakeholder simulated values is used to assess the robustness of alternative rankings and to guide the selection of remediation options. An application of this methodology to a case study in the Bay of Santander, Spain, is presented. An assessment is conducted for the case of unknown preferences as well as for hypothetical preferences profiles for four types of stakeholders: Idealist, Politician, Environmentalist and Balanced. The results are used to visualize stakeholder positions and potential disagreements, allowing for the identification of a group of least preferred alternatives for each stakeholder. Stakeholder involvement has the potential to ease the remedy selection process during all stages of the decision-making process and to eventually remedy implementation.

  18. Group Psychotherapy in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Lars Bo; Thygesen, Bente; Aagaard, Søren

    2015-10-01

    This is a short article on the history and training standards in the Institute of Group Analysis in Copenhagen (IGA-CPH). We describe theoretical orientations and influences in the long-term training program and new initiatives, like courses in mentalization-based group treatment and a dynamic short-term group therapy course, as well as research in group psychotherapy in Denmark. Some group analytic initiatives in relation to social issues and social welfare are presented, as well as initiatives concerning the school system and unemployment.

  19. Group theory I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Milewski, Emil G

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Group Theory I includes sets and mapping, groupoids and semi-groups, groups, isomorphisms and homomorphisms, cyclic groups, the Sylow theorems, and finite p-groups.

  20. Heavy ion inelastic scattering with a 4π gamma detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, E.E.

    1989-01-01

    Heavy-ion inelastic scattering with a new technique that uses a 4π γ-ray detector in coincidence with charged particle detectors is applied to 24 Mg(200 MeV) + 208 Pb scattering. In addition to differential cross sections, a complete particle-γ angular correlation is obtained for decay of the 2 1 + (1.37 MeV) state of 24 Mg. The data are analyzed in coupled-channels. The correlation data proves to be especially sensitive to the static quadrupole moment. 14 refs., 9 figs