WorldWideScience

Sample records for alternating group a4

  1. Part 1 of a 4-part series Facial Cosmetics: Trends and Alternatives: Data from the American Contact Alternatives Group

    OpenAIRE

    Scheman, Andrew; Jacob, Sharon; Katta, Rajani; Nedorost, Susan; Warshaw, Erin; Zirwas, Matt; Cha, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To provide updated data on usage of ingredients that are common potential contact allergens in several categories of facial cosmetics. To identify useful alternative products with few or no common contact allergens. Design: In November 2009, the full ingredient lists of 5,416 skin, hair, and cosmetic products marketed by the CVS pharmacy chain were copied from CVS.com into Microsoft Word format for analysis. Computer searches were made in Microsoft Word using search/replace and sor...

  2. Balanced Tripartite Entanglement, the Alternating Group A4 and the Lie Algebra $sl(3,C) \\oplus u(1)$

    CERN Document Server

    Planat, Michel; Saniga, Metod

    2009-01-01

    We discuss three important classes of three-qubit entangled states and their encoding into quantum gates, finite groups and Lie algebras. States of the GHZ and W-type correspond to pure tripartite and bipartite entanglement, respectively. We introduce another generic class B of three-qubit states, that have balanced entanglement over two and three parties. We show how to realize the largest cristallographic group $W(E_8)$ in terms of three-qubit gates (with real entries) encoding states of type GHZ or W [M. Planat, {\\it Clifford group dipoles and the enactment of Weyl/Coxeter group $W(E_8)$ by entangling gates}, Preprint 0904.3691 (quant-ph)]. Then, we describe a peculiar "condensation" of $W(E_8)$ into the four-letter alternating group $A_4$, obtained from a chain of maximal subgroups. Group $A_4$ is realized from two B-type generators and found to correspond to the Lie algebra $sl(3,\\mathbb{C})\\oplus u(1)$. Possible applications of our findings to particle physics and the structure of genetic code are also ...

  3. Alternating Quotients of Fuchsian Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Everitt, Brent

    1999-01-01

    It is shown that any finitely generated non-elementary Fuchsian group has among its homomorphic images all but finitely many of the alternating groups. This settles in the affirmative a conjecture of Graham Higman.

  4. On the Representation Theory of Alternating Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christine Bessenrodt

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we survey the classification of the irreducible linear and projective representations of the symmetric and alternating groups, and we present some new results on constituents in Kronecker products of complex linear and spin characters.

  5. Complex group algebras of the double covers of the symmetric and alternating group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bessenrodt, Christine; Nguyen, Hung Ngoc; Olsson, Jørn Børling;

    2015-01-01

    We prove that the double covers of the alternating and symmetric groups are determined by their complex group algebras......We prove that the double covers of the alternating and symmetric groups are determined by their complex group algebras...

  6. USD Catalysis Group for Alternative Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoefelmeyer, James D.; Koodali, Ranjit; Sereda, Grigoriy; Engebretson, Dan; Fong, Hao; Puszynski, Jan; Shende, Rajesh; Ahrenkiel, Phil

    2012-03-13

    The South Dakota Catalysis Group (SDCG) is a collaborative project with mission to develop advanced catalysts for energy conversion with two primary goals: (1) develop photocatalytic systems in which polyfunctionalized TiO2 are the basis for hydrogen/oxygen synthesis from water and sunlight (solar fuels group), (2) develop new materials for hydrogen utilization in fuel cells (fuel cell group). In tandem, these technologies complete a closed chemical cycle with zero emissions.

  7. Alternative Approaches to Group IV Thermoelectric Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snedaker, Matthew Loren

    In the pursuit of energy efficiency, there is a demand for systems capable of recovering waste heat. A temperature gradient across a thermoelectric material results in the thermal diffusion of charge carriers from the hot side to the cold side, giving rise to a voltage that can be used to convert waste heat to electricity. Silicon germanium (SiGe) alloys are the standard materials used for thermoelectric generators at high temperatures. We report an alternative method for preparing p-type Si1- xGex alloys from a boron-doped silica-germania nanocomposite. This is the first demonstration of the thermoelectric properties of SiGe-based thermoelectrics prepared at temperatures below the alloy's melting point through a magnesiothermic reduction of the (SiO 2)1-x(GeO2) x. We observe a thermoelectric power factor that is competitive with the literature record for the conventionally prepared SiGe. The large grain size in our hot pressed SiGe limits the thermoelectric figure of merit to 0.5 at 800°C for an optimally doped p-type Si80Ge 20 alloy. A phosphorus-doped oxide can yield n-type Si1- xGex; however, the current processing method introduces a background boron content that compensates ~10% of the donor impurities and limits the thermoelectric power factor. Spark plasma sintering of the nano-Si1-xGe x yields a heterogeneous alloy with thermal conductivity lower than that of the hot pressed homogeneous alloy due to a reduction in the average crystallite size. Magnesiothermic reduction in the presence of molten salts allows some control over crystallite growth and the extent of Si-Ge alloying.

  8. QUASI-PERMUTATION REPRESENTATIONS OF ALTERNATING AND SYMMETRIC GROUPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The quantities c(G), q(G) and p(G) for finite groups were defined by H.Behravesh. In this article, these quantities for the alternating group An and the symmetric group Sn are calculated. It is shown thatc(G) = q(G) = p(G) = n,when G = An or Sn.

  9. Supporting Alternative Strategies for Learning Chemical Applications of Group Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southam, Daniel C.; Lewis, Jennifer E.

    2013-01-01

    A group theory course for chemists was taught entirely with process oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) to facilitate alternative strategies for learning. Students completed a test of one aspect of visuospatial aptitude to determine their individual approaches to solving spatial tasks, and were sorted into groups for analysis on the basis of…

  10. The prime graph conjecture for integral group rings of some alternatings groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Salim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the classical Zassenhaus Conjecture (ZC for integral group rings of alternating groups A9 and A10. Even the question (ZC remains open as no counterexample is known up to date, it been confirmed for special types of groups such as nilpotent groups by Roggenkamp, Scot and Weiss. However, a new method based on the partial augmentation of torsion units been established by Luthar and Passi to confirm the (ZC for A5. Later a weaker version of (ZC was proposed in 2007, we call it the Prime Graph Conjecture (PGC about the Gruenberg-Kegel (prime graph of the group of all normalized units of the integral group ring of a finite group. Recently, the (PGC has a positive answer for solvable groups, Frobenius groups and several simple groups. Here, as a consequence of our results, we confirm the (PGC for integral group rings of alternating groups An for all n<11.

  11. Piloting a Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT) Infused Skills Group in a Disciplinary Alternative Education Program (DAEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricard, Richard J.; Lerma, Eunice; Heard, Courtney C. C.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the impact of a 4-week skills group intervention based on the principles of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) with a sample of adolescents attending a Disciplinary Alternative Education Program. This article provides a session-by-session overview of activities adapted from DBT-specified training modules of mindfulness,…

  12. A CLASS OF ALTERNATING GROUP METHOD OF BURGERS' EQUATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文洽

    2004-01-01

    Some new Saul' yev type asymmetric difference schemes for Burgers' equation is given, by the use of the schemes, a kind of alternating group four points method for solving nonlinear Burgers' equation is constructed here. The basic idea of the method is that the grid points on the same time level is divided into a number of groups, the difference equations of each group can be solved independently, hence the method with intrinsic parallelism can be used directly on parallel computer. The method is unconditionally stable by analysis of linearization procedure. The numerical experiments show that the method has good stability and accuracy.

  13. The group administered interactive questionnaire: An alternative to individual interviews

    CERN Document Server

    Yerushalmi, Edit; Mamudi, William; Singh, Chandralekha; Lin, Shih-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Individual interviews are often considered to be the gold standard for researchers to understand how people think about phenomena. However, conducting and analyzing interviews is very time consuming. This paper presents the Group Administered Interactive Questionnaire (GAIQ) as an alternative to individual interviews and discusses the pros and cons of each data collection method. Use of GAIQ will be discussed in the context of a study that seeks to understand teaching assistants' reasons for the design of problem solutions for introductory physics.

  14. Coxeter groups $A_{4}$, $B_{4}$ and $D_{4}$ for two-qubit systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ramazan Koç; M Yakup Haciibrahimoğlu; Mehmet Koca

    2013-08-01

    The Coxeter–Weyl groups $W(A_{4})$, $W(B_{4})$ and $W(D_{4})$ have proven very useful for two-qubit systems in quantum information theory. A simple technique is employed to construct the unitary matrix representations of the groups, based on quaternionic transformation of the usual reflection matrices. The von Neumann entropy of each reduced density matrix is calculated. It is shown that these unitary matrix representations are naturally related to various universal quantum gates and they lead to entangled states. Canonical decomposition of generators in terms of fundamental gate representations is given to construct the quantum circuits.

  15. On the metric hypercomplex group alternative-elastic algebras for n mod 8 = 0

    OpenAIRE

    Andreev, K. V.

    2012-01-01

    In this article the hypercomplex orthogonal (homogenous) algebra definition is made. It is shown that 1. the hypercomplex orthogonal algebra is the metric hypercomplex group alternative-elastic algebra for n mod 8 = 0 (the non-alternative and non-normalized, but the weakly alternative and weakly normalized for n>8; the alternative and normalized for the oktonion algebra); 2. the hypercomplex orthogonal algebra is generated by a symmetric (0,2)-spinor; 3. the hypercomplex orthogonal homogeneou...

  16. An Alternative to Free Entropy for Free Group Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michal DOSTAL; Don HADWIN

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we defiue a very simple invariant η(V→) for a k-tuple V→ of unitaries in a finitefactor von Neumann algebra, and we show how this invariant can replace free entropy in many of theimportant applications. We also introduce a notion of metric free entropy and some related concepts.We include proofs, using η, of the theorems of Liming Ge and of D. Voiculescu, respectively, on theprimeness of and on the absence of Cartan subalgebras in the noncommutative free group factors.

  17. The effect of complementary and alternative medicines on CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of three different substrates : 7-benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethyl-coumarin, midazolam and docetaxel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooiman, Kim D; Maas-Bakker, Roel F; Hendrikx, Jeroen J M A; Bank, Paul C D; Rosing, Hilde; Beijnen, Jos H; Schellens, Jan H M; Meijerman, Irma

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Concomitant use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and anticancer drugs can affect the pharmacokinetics of anticancer drugs by inhibiting the metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) (EC 1.14.13.157). Several in vitro studies determined whether CAM can inhibit CYP3A4,

  18. USD Catalysis Group for Alternative Energy - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoefelmeyer, James

    2014-10-03

    I. Project Summary Catalytic processes are a major technological underpinning of modern society, and are essential to the energy sector in the processing of chemical fuels from natural resources, fine chemicals synthesis, and energy conversion. Advances in catalyst technology are enormously valuable since these lead to reduced chemical waste, reduced energy loss, and reduced costs. New energy technologies, which are critical to future economic growth, are also heavily reliant on catalysts, including fuel cells and photo-electrochemical cells. Currently, the state of South Dakota is underdeveloped in terms of research infrastructure related to catalysis. If South Dakota intends to participate in significant economic growth opportunities that result from advances in catalyst technology, then this area of research needs to be made a high priority for investment. To this end, a focused research effort is proposed in which investigators from The University of South Dakota (USD) and The South Dakota School of Mines and Technology (SDSMT) will contribute to form the South Dakota Catalysis Group (SDCG). The multidisciplinary team of the (SDCG) include: (USD) Dan Engebretson, James Hoefelmeyer, Ranjit Koodali, and Grigoriy Sereda; (SDSMT) Phil Scott Ahrenkiel, Hao Fong, Jan Puszynski, Rajesh Shende, and Jacek Swiatkiewicz. The group is well suited to engage in a collaborative project due to the resources available within the existing programs. Activities within the SDCG will be monitored through an external committee consisting of three distinguished professors in chemistry. The committee will provide expert advice and recommendations to the SDCG. Advisory meetings in which committee members interact with South Dakota investigators will be accompanied by individual oral and poster presentations in a materials and catalysis symposium. The symposium will attract prominent scientists, and will enhance the visibility of research in the state of South Dakota. The SDCG requests

  19. Electrochemical and UV-Vis/ESR spectroelectrochemical properties of thienylenevinylenes substituted by a 4-cyanostyryl group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czichy, M., E-mail: Malgorzata.Czichy@polsl.p [Department of Physical Chemistry and Technology of Polymers, Silesian University of Technology, 9 ks. M. Strzody Str., 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Stolarczyk, A. [Department of Physical Chemistry and Technology of Polymers, Silesian University of Technology, 9 ks. M. Strzody Str., 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Wagner, P. [Intelligent Polymer Research Institute and ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, University of Wollongong, Northfields Avenue, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Domagala, W. [Department of Physical Chemistry and Technology of Polymers, Silesian University of Technology, 9 ks. M. Strzody Str., 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Lapkowski, M. [Department of Physical Chemistry and Technology of Polymers, Silesian University of Technology, 9 ks. M. Strzody Str., 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Centre of Polymer and Carbon Materials, Polish Academy of Sciences, 34 M. Sklodowska-Curie Str., 41-819 Zabrze (Poland); Officer, D.L. [Intelligent Polymer Research Institute and ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, University of Wollongong, Northfields Avenue, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia)

    2011-04-30

    Highlights: {yields} Electropolymerisation of the cyanostyryl substituted thienylenevinylene derivative affords a polymer having an optical band gap of ca. 1.8 eV, supplemented by soluble oligomers. {yields} Vinyl bonds of the thienylenevinylene derivative were found unstable upon electrooxidation of the molecule to a radical cation. {yields} Two groups of spins of the radical cation of the thienylenevinylene derivative have been identified. - Abstract: The {pi}-electron delocalisation in conjugated thienylenevinylenes bearing arylethenyl chromophores, makes those materials interesting candidates for electro-optic applications. In this study, we report the results of electrochemical and UV-Vis/ESR spectroelectrochemical studies of a pair of thienylenevinylenes substituted by the 4-cyanostyryl group, bearing either a hydrogen, or methyl group terminated {alpha} carbons at the peripheral thiophene rings. The reactivity of various functional segments of investigated molecules was assessed by comparing the reactivity of the protected and unprotected counterparts and the behaviour of their electrooxidation products. For the capped derivative, two irreversible anodic redox processes giving electrochemically inactive products were observed, while the uncapped molecule yields electroactive materials already upon its first oxidation step.

  20. 77 FR 17457 - Work Group on Alternative Test Methods for Commercial Measuring Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Institute of Standards and Technology Work Group on Alternative Test Methods for Commercial...: The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is forming a Work Group (WG) to...

  1. Characterization of Alternating Groups by Orders of Normalizers of Sylow Subgroups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianxing Bi

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we prove that a finite group G is isomorphic to the alternating group An if and only if the normalizers of their p-Sylow subgroups have the same order for every prime p. Moreover, if n ≥ 4 with n ≠ 8,10 and r is the greatest prime not exceeding n, then a finite group G is isomorphic to An if and only if |G| = |An| and the normalizers of their r-Sylow subgroups have the same order.

  2. Alternative Structures and Methods in Teacher Education. Report of a Technical Working Group (Kathmandu, Nepal, October 21-30, 1975).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippines Univ., Quezon City. Asian Inst. for Teacher Educators.

    The technical working group meeting on alternative structures and methods in teacher education met to: 1) examine case studies prepared on alternative structures and methods in teacher education and other relevant materials; 2) prepare models of alternative structures and methods in teacher training; and 3) make suggestions on field-testing of…

  3. Female alternative reproductive behaviors: the effect of female group size on mate assessment and copying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Bernard J; Flaxman, Samuel M; Alonzo, Suzanne H

    2008-08-01

    Extensive theoretical and empirical research has focused on male alternative reproductive tactics. In comparison, female alternative tactics have attracted little attention, and further theoretical and empirical research are needed. Using a game theoretical model, we examine female choice alternatives (1) by considering assessment errors in a novel and more realistic manner than done previously, and (2) for the first time, by highlighting the formation of groups of females as an important consequence of copying behavior. We consider two alternatives: direct assessment of male quality by females and female copying of the choice of other females. Assessment and copying are predicted to coexist under a wide variety of circumstances and copying is favored when females make assessment errors, when high-quality males are either common or very rare, and when female fitness declines with the number of other females choosing the same male. We also find that the frequency of copying at equilibrium is predicted to decrease when the presence of other females mating with the same male has a positive effect on female fitness (e.g. through increased male parental effort, decreased predation risk or cooperation among females). Female alternative choice tactics also influence the potential for sexual selection. In our model, when the frequency of copying females is low, the potential for sexual selection can be higher than in the absence of female copying. However, contrary to previous theory, we find that as copying females become more common than assessing females, the potential for sexual selection will be low as more females copy the mate choice of other copiers without assessment. PMID:18511084

  4. Report on the CSC project group meeting on alternative energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under its coordinated R and D programme the Commonwealth Science Council in cooperation with the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Consumer Affairs, Barbados, organized a meeting to identify suitable projects for inter-country collaboration. Specifically the meeting had three aims: 1. Review present state of activities in alternative energy resources and assess small scale energy needs in the region. 2. Identify specific projects for inter-country collaboration. 3. Draft joint project proposals for such collaboration. A small group of experts (Annex VII) from Britain, Canada, USA and CSC secretariat staff made detailed plans for the Barbados meeting. With a view to assessing real energy needs locally, the Group recommended that a study be undertaken in Barbados prior to the meeting. A report on such a study was presented at the meeting. Member countries were also invited to prepare country papers. In addition, following the planning Group's recommendation, several technical papers were prepared. These covered subjects ranging from conceptual aspects to clarify objectives, assumptions and criteria to a review of all alternative energy technologies

  5. An alternative functional renormalization group approach to the single impurity Anderson model

    OpenAIRE

    Kinza, Michael; Ortloff, Jutta; Bauer, Johannes; Honerkamp, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    We present an alternative functional renormalization group (fRG) approach to the single-impurity Anderson model at finite temperatures. Starting with the exact self-energy and interaction vertex of a small system ('core') containing a correlated site, we switch on the hybridization with a non-interacting bath in the fRG-flow and calculate spectra of the correlated site. Different truncations of the RG-flow-equations and choices of the core are compared and discussed. Furthermore we calculate ...

  6. To Make Good Decision: A Group DSS for Multiple Criteria Alternative Rank and Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Shu Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Decision making is a recursive process and usually involves multiple decision criteria. However, such multiple criteria decision making may have a problem in which partial decision criteria may conflict with each other. An information technology, such as the decision support system (DSS and group DSS (GDSS, emerges to assist decision maker for decision-making process. Both the DSS and GDSS should integrate with a symmetrical approach to assist decision maker to take all decision criteria into consideration simultaneously. This study proposes a GDSS architecture named hybrid decision-making support model (HDMSM and integrated four decision approaches (Delphi, DEMATEL, ANP, and MDS to help decision maker to rank and select appropriate alternatives. The HDMSM consists of five steps, namely, criteria identification, criteria correlation calculation, criteria evaluation, critical criteria selection, and alternative rank and comparison. Finally, to validate the proposed feasibility of the proposed model, this study also conducts a case study to find out the important indexes of corporate social responsibility (CSR from multiple perspectives. As the case study demonstrates the proposed HDMSM enables a group of decision makers to implement the MCDM effectively and help them to analyze the relation and degree of mutual influence among different evaluation factors.

  7. Reworking therapeutic landscapes: the spatiality of an 'alternative' self-help group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Jennifer

    2009-12-01

    Since Gesler first introduced the concept in 1992, the language of 'therapeutic landscapes' has attained a core position in the toolkit of health/place studies. Whilst many authors using the term acknowledge that therapeutic landscapes are often also spaces of contestation, few if any have extended this to incorporate a serious critique of therapy itself. In this article, I use the case study of an 'alternative' psychiatric survivor (self-help) group in the north of England to attempt just this. Based on a ten month period of ethnography, I engage with the spaces - meeting places and venues - occupied by the group, focusing on the dilapidated and reputedly dangerous city park where the group hosts its most regular meetings. Three qualities of these spaces were found to be particularly embraced by the group: spaces of agency and appropriation; a space in the world; and a non-technical relation with space. The article uses these three themes to explore how the unconventional spaces of the group are not mere products of marginality but a serious aspect of mobilising the dissident and 'anti-psychiatric' recovery sought by its members. Through attending to what the survivors' found helpful in the park, a more sensitive rendition of 'anti-psychiatry' as it relates to the group is developed. The therapeutic landscapes framework as put forward by Gesler retains currency in highlighting the importance of place to the processes and identity of the group. However, it is also suggested that the 'dissident topophilias' of the survivors express a critique of current therapeutic landscapes thinking, challenging the supposition that it is the planned, the pleasant and the professional that provide the best backdrops for recovery.

  8. Argus II retinal prosthesis implantation with scleral flap and autogenous temporalis fascia as alternative patch graft material: a 4-year follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matet, Alexandre; Amar, Nawel; Mohand-Said, Saddek; Sahel, José-Alain; Barale, Pierre-Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The Argus II retinal prosthesis is composed of an epiretinal electrode array positioned over the macula and connected to an extrascleral electronics case via a silicone cable, running through a sclerotomy. During implantation, the manufacturer recommends to cover the sclerotomy site with a patch of processed human pericardium to prevent postoperative hypotony and conjunctival erosion by the underlying electronics case. Due to biomedical regulations prohibiting the use of this material in France, we developed an alternative technique combining a scleral flap protecting the sclerotomy and an autogenous graft of superior temporalis fascia overlying the electronics case. Methods The purpose of this study is to describe the 4-year outcomes of this modified procedure in three subjects who underwent Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System implantation. Clinical data consisting of intraocular pressure measurements and tolerance in terms of conjunctival erosion or inflammation were retrospectively assessed over a 4-year postoperative follow-up. Results None of the three patients implanted with the modified technique developed ocular hypotony over 4 years. A normal, transient conjunctival inflammation occurred during the first postoperative month but conjunctival erosion was not observed in any of the three patients over 4 years. Four years after implantation, the autogenous temporalis fascia graft remained well tolerated and the retinal prosthesis was functional in all three patients. Conclusion The combination of an autograft of superficial temporalis fascia and a scleral flap efficiently prevented leakage through the sclerotomy site, ocular hypotony, and conjunctival erosion by the extrascleral electronics case. This modified technique is suitable for the implantation of existing and forthcoming retinal prostheses. Superficial temporalis fascia may also be used as alternative to commercial tectonic tissues for scleral wound repair in clinical settings where they

  9. On the Stabilizer of the Automorphism Group of a 4-valent Vertex-transitive Graph with Odd-prime-power Order

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-quan Feng; Jin Ho Kwak; Ming-yao Xu

    2003-01-01

    Let X be a 4-valent connected vertex-transitive graph with odd-prime-power order pk (k ≥ 1)and let A be the full automorphism group of X. In this paper, we prove that the stabilizer Av of a vertex v in A is a 2-group ifp ≠ 5, or a {2,3}-group ifp = 5. Furthermore, ifp = 5 |Av| is not divisible by 32. As a result, we show that any 4-valent connected vertex-transitive graph with odd-prime-power order pk (k ≥ 1)is at most 1-arc-transitive for p ≠ 5 and 2-arc-transitive for p = 5.

  10. Fabrication of alternating multilayers of a diacetylene group containing amphiphilic ligand and acid, using the Langmuir-Blodgett technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werkman, PJ; Wieringa, RH; Schouten, AJ

    1997-01-01

    The structure of alternating multilayers of two diacetylene group containing amphiphiles (an acid (A) and a pyridine ligand (B)), built up from a 5 mM CdBr2 subphase, is examined. SAXR measurements revealed that these multilayers have a regular layer structure with a bilayer spacing of 55.2 Angstrom

  11. Argus II retinal prosthesis implantation with scleral flap and autogenous temporalis fascia as alternative patch graft material: a 4-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matet A

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Alexandre Matet,1,2 Nawel Amar,1,2 Saddek Mohand-Said,1–4 José-Alain Sahel,1–7 Pierre-Olivier Barale1,2 1INSERM and DHOS, CHNO des Quinze-Vingts, 2Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 6, Institut de la Vision, 3INSERM, 4CNRS, Paris, France; 5Institute of Ophthalmology, University College London, London, UK; 6Fondation Ophtalmologique Adolphe de Rothschild, 7Académie des Sciences, Institut de France, Paris, France Introduction: The Argus II retinal prosthesis is composed of an epiretinal electrode array positioned over the macula and connected to an extrascleral electronics case via a silicone cable, running through a sclerotomy. During implantation, the manufacturer recommends to cover the sclerotomy site with a patch of processed human pericardium to prevent postoperative hypotony and conjunctival erosion by the underlying electronics case. Due to biomedical regulations prohibiting the use of this material in France, we developed an alternative technique combining a scleral flap protecting the sclerotomy and an autogenous graft of superior temporalis fascia overlying the electronics case. Methods: The purpose of this study is to describe the 4-year outcomes of this modified procedure in three subjects who underwent Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System implantation. Clinical data consisting of intraocular pressure measurements and tolerance in terms of conjunctival erosion or inflammation were retrospectively assessed over a 4-year postoperative follow-up. Results: None of the three patients implanted with the modified technique developed ocular hypotony over 4 years. A normal, transient conjunctival inflammation occurred during the first postoperative month but conjunctival erosion was not observed in any of the three patients over 4 years. Four years after implantation, the autogenous temporalis fascia graft remained well tolerated and the retinal prosthesis was functional in all three patients. Conclusion: The combination of an

  12. Racial Differences in CYP3A4 Genotype and Survival Among Men Treated on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 9202: A Phase III Randomized Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Inherited genotypes may explain the inferior outcomes of African American (AA) men with prostate cancer. To understand how variation in CYP3A4 correlated with outcomes, a retrospective examination of the CYP3A4*1B genotype was performed on men treated with Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 92-02. Methods and Materials: From 1,514 cases, we evaluated 56 (28.4%) of 197 AA and 54 (4.3%) of 1,274 European American (EA) patients. All patients received goserelin and flutamide for 2 months before and during RT (STAD-RT) ± 24 months of goserelin (long-term androgen deprivation plus radiation [LTAD-RT]). Events studied included overall survival and biochemical progression using American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology consensus guidelines. Results: There were no differences in outcome in patients in with or without CYP3A4 data. There was an association between race and CYP3A4 polymorphisms with 75% of EAs having the Wild Type compared to only 25% of AA men (p <0.0001). There was no association between CYP3A4 classification or race and survival or progression. Conclusions: The samples analyzed support previously reported observations about the distribution of CYP3A4*1B genotype by race, but race was not associated with poorer outcome. However, patient numbers were limited, and selection bias cannot be completely ruled out

  13. The role of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in Germany - a focus group study of GPs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joos, S.; Musselmann, B.; Miksch, A.; Rosemann, T.J.; Szecsenyi, J.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There has been a marked increase in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in recent years worldwide. In Germany, apart from 'Heilpraktiker' (= state-licensed, non-medical CAM practitioners), some general practitioners (GPs) provide CAM in their practices. This paper aim

  14. The Group Setting: A Viable Mental Health Alternative for the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger-Vartabedian, Laurel C.

    Group settings offer the elderly a unique outlet for interpersonal communication and can alleviate social isolation and aloneness. Group cohesiveness and instillation of hope are two curative factors in the group setting. Persons working with the elderly must be aware of their special problems and also be sensitive to their own age bias. Group…

  15. Base de Gröbner de l'idéal galoisien du groupe alterné

    OpenAIRE

    Valibouze, Annick

    2011-01-01

    nombre de pages : 11 International audience This article proposes an efficient and simple algebraic method of computation of a Gröbner basis generating the alternating galoisian ideal of a univariate separable polynomial. We named this method “the descent of the Vandermonde determinants”. Cet article propose une méthode algébrique efficace et simple pour obtenir une base de Gröbner engendrant l'idéal galoisien des relations alternées d'un polynôme univarié séparable de groupe de Galo...

  16. Evaluation of final waste forms and recommendations for baseline alternatives to group and glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleier, A.

    1997-09-01

    An assessment of final waste forms was made as part of the Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement/Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (FFCA/DDT&E) Program because supplemental waste-form technologies are needed for the hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes of concern to the Department of Energy and the problematic wastes on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The principal objective was to identify a primary waste-form candidate as an alternative to grout (cement) and glass. The effort principally comprised a literature search, the goal of which was to establish a knowledge base regarding four areas: (1) the waste-form technologies based on grout and glass, (2) candidate alternatives, (3) the wastes that need to be immobilized, and (4) the technical and regulatory constraints on the waste-from technologies. This report serves, in part, to meet this goal. Six families of materials emerged as relevant; inorganic, organic, vitrified, devitrified, ceramic, and metallic matrices. Multiple members of each family were assessed, emphasizing the materials-oriented factors and accounting for the fact that the two most prevalent types of wastes for the FFCA/DDT&E Program are aqueous liquids and inorganic sludges and solids. Presently, no individual matrix is sufficiently developed to permit its immediate implementation as a baseline alternative. Three thermoplastic materials, sulfur-polymer cement (inorganic), bitumen (organic), and polyethylene (organic), are the most technologically developed candidates. Each warrants further study, emphasizing the engineering and economic factors, but each also has limitations that regulate it to a status of short-term alternative. The crystallinity and flexible processing of sulfur provide sulfur-polymer cement with the highest potential for short-term success via encapsulation. Long-term immobilization demands chemical stabilization, which the thermoplastic matrices do not offer. Among the properties of the remaining

  17. Spontaneous emergence, imitation and spread of alternative foraging techniques among groups of vervet monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica van de Waal

    Full Text Available Animal social learning has become a subject of broad interest, but demonstrations of bodily imitation in animals remain rare. Based on Voelkl and Huber's study of imitation by marmosets, we tested four groups of semi-captive vervet monkeys presented with food in modified film canisters ("aethipops'. One individual was trained to take the tops off canisters in each group and demonstrated five openings to them. In three groups these models used their mouth to remove the lid, but in one of the groups the model also spontaneously pulled ropes on a canister to open it. In the last group the model preferred to remove the lid with her hands. Following these spontaneous differentiations of foraging techniques in the models, we observed the techniques used by the other group members to open the canisters. We found that mouth opening was the most common technique overall, but the rope and hands methods were used significantly more in groups they were demonstrated in than in groups where they were not. Our results show bodily matching that is conventionally described as imitation. We discuss the relevance of these findings to discoveries about mirror neurons, and implications of the identity of the model for social transmission.

  18. Evaluation of Ketoconazole and Its Alternative Clinical CYP3A4/5 Inhibitors as Inhibitors of Drug Transporters: The In Vitro Effects of Ketoconazole, Ritonavir, Clarithromycin, and Itraconazole on 13 Clinically-Relevant Drug Transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, Lydia M M; Isringhausen, Caleb D; Ogilvie, Brian W; Buckley, David B

    2016-03-01

    Ketoconazole is a potent CYP3A4/5 inhibitor and, until recently, recommended by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency as a strong CYP3A4/5 inhibitor in clinical drug-drug interaction (DDI) studies. Ketoconazole sporadically causes liver injury or adrenal insufficiency. Because of this, the FDA and European Medicines Agency recommended suspension of ketoconazole use in DDI studies in 2013. The FDA specifically recommended use of clarithromycin or itraconazole as alternative strong CYP3A4/5 inhibitors in clinical DDI studies, but many investigators have also used ritonavir as an alternative. Although the effects of these clinical CYP3A4/5 inhibitors on other CYPs are largely established, reports on the effects on the broad range of drug transporter activities are sparse. In this study, the inhibitory effects of ketoconazole, clarithromycin, ritonavir, and itraconazole (and its CYP3A4-inhibitory metabolites, hydroxy-, keto-, and N-desalkyl itraconazole) toward 13 drug transporters (OATP1B1, OATP1B3, OAT1, OAT3, OCT1, OCT2, MATE1, MATE2-K, P-gp, BCRP, MRP2, MRP3, and BSEP) were systematically assessed in transporter-expressing HEK-293 cell lines or membrane vesicles. In vitro findings were translated into clinical context with the basic static model approaches outlined by the FDA in its 2012 draft guidance on DDIs. The results indicate that, like ketoconazole, the alternative clinical CYP3A4/5 inhibitors ritonavir, clarithromycin, and itraconazole each have unique transporter inhibition profiles. None of the alternatives to ketoconazole provided a clean inhibition profile toward the 13 drug transporters evaluated. The results provide guidance for the selection of clinical CYP3A4/5 inhibitors when transporters are potentially involved in a victim drug's pharmacokinetics. PMID:26668209

  19. Upper Bounds for the Number of Number Fields with Alternating Galois Group

    CERN Document Server

    Larson, Eric

    2011-01-01

    We study the number $N(n, A_n, X)$ of number fields of degree $n$ whose Galois closure has Galois group $A_n$ and whose discriminant is bounded by $X$. By a conjecture of Malle, we expect that $N(n, A_n, X) \\sim C_n X^{1/2} (\\log X)^{b_n}$, for constants $b_n$ and $C_n$. For $5 84393$, there are better bounds due to Ellenberg and Venkatesh.) We show, using the important work of Pila on counting integral points on curves, that $N(n, A_n, X) \\ll X^{\\frac{n^2 - 2}{4(n - 1)}+\\epsilon}$, thereby improving the best previous exponent by approximately 1/4 for $5 < n < 84394$.

  20. Single Alternating Group Explicit (SAGE) Method for Electrochemical Finite Difference Digital Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG,Zhao-Xiang(邓兆祥); LIN,Xiang-Qin(林祥钦); TONG,Zhong-Hua(童中华)

    2002-01-01

    The four different schemes of Group Explicit Method (GEM): GER, GEL, SAGE and DAGE have been claimed to be unstable when employed for electrochemical digital simulations with large model diffusion coefficient DM@ However, in this investigation, in spite of the conditional stability of GER and GEL, the SAGE scheme, which is a combination of GEL and GER, was found to be unconditionally stable when used for simulations of electrochemical reaction-diffusions and had a performance comparable with or even better than the Fast Quasi Explicit Finite Difference Method (FQEFD) in srme aspects. Corresponding differential equations of SAGE scheme for digital simulations of various electrochemical mechanisms with both uniform and exponentially expanded space units were established. The effectiveness of the SAGE method was further demonstrated by the simulations of an EC and a catalytic mechanism with very large homogoneous rate constants.

  1. The STEPPS Group Treatment Program as an alternative in helping people with borderline personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerica Radež

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Borderline personality disorder is a complex mental disorder which has severe impact on the quality of an individual's life. Although it is the most common type of personality disorder in the population of people with mental disorders, it has so far proven to be rather resistant to pharmacological treatments. This may suggest that effective psychotherapeutic methods need to be developed to help people with this diagnosis. There have been several attempts to develop successful therapeutic interventions for borderline personality disorder. Most of them were developed either from cognitive-behavioural or from psychoanalytic paradigm. More recent studies have focused on developing a more holistic approach. One such approach is the STEPPS program. This programme combines elements from cognitive-behavioural and systemic approaches. STEPPS is a 20-week, manually based group treatment for patients with borderline personality disorder. In comparison with other established approaches, the STEPPS program does not interfere with patient's other ongoing treatments. In this article we present the basics of the STEPPS program. We also provide a review of studies, investigating the effectiveness of the program. We also discuss advantages and disadvantages of the program and suggest some topics for further research.

  2. Introduction and summary of the 13th meeting of the Scientific Group on Methodologies for the Safety Evaluation of Chemicals (SGOMSEC): alternative testing methodologies.

    OpenAIRE

    Stokes, W S; Marafante, E

    1998-01-01

    A workshop on alternative toxicological testing methodologies was convened by the Scientific Group on Methodologies for the Safety Evaluation of Chemicals (SGOMSEC) 26-31 January 1997 in Ispra, Italy, at the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods. The purpose of the workshop was to assess the current status of alternative testing methodologies available to evaluate adverse human health and environmental effects of chemicals. Another objective of the workshop was to identify...

  3. Multi-stage ranking of emergency technology alternatives for water source pollution accidents using a fuzzy group decision making tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jianhua; Meng, Xianlin; You, Hong

    2016-06-01

    Due to the increasing number of unexpected water source pollution events, selection of the most appropriate disposal technology for a specific pollution scenario is of crucial importance to the security of urban water supplies. However, the formulation of the optimum option is considerably difficult owing to the substantial uncertainty of such accidents. In this research, a multi-stage technical screening and evaluation tool is proposed to determine the optimal technique scheme, considering the areas of pollutant elimination both in drinking water sources and water treatment plants. In stage 1, a CBR-based group decision tool was developed to screen available technologies for different scenarios. Then, the threat degree caused by the pollution was estimated in stage 2 using a threat evaluation system and was partitioned into four levels. For each threat level, a corresponding set of technique evaluation criteria weights was obtained using Group-G1. To identify the optimization alternatives corresponding to the different threat levels, an extension of TOPSIS, a multi-criteria interval-valued trapezoidal fuzzy decision making technique containing the four arrays of criteria weights, to a group decision environment was investigated in stage 3. The effectiveness of the developed tool was elaborated by two actual thallium-contaminated scenarios associated with different threat levels. PMID:26897576

  4. Multi-stage ranking of emergency technology alternatives for water source pollution accidents using a fuzzy group decision making tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jianhua; Meng, Xianlin; You, Hong

    2016-06-01

    Due to the increasing number of unexpected water source pollution events, selection of the most appropriate disposal technology for a specific pollution scenario is of crucial importance to the security of urban water supplies. However, the formulation of the optimum option is considerably difficult owing to the substantial uncertainty of such accidents. In this research, a multi-stage technical screening and evaluation tool is proposed to determine the optimal technique scheme, considering the areas of pollutant elimination both in drinking water sources and water treatment plants. In stage 1, a CBR-based group decision tool was developed to screen available technologies for different scenarios. Then, the threat degree caused by the pollution was estimated in stage 2 using a threat evaluation system and was partitioned into four levels. For each threat level, a corresponding set of technique evaluation criteria weights was obtained using Group-G1. To identify the optimization alternatives corresponding to the different threat levels, an extension of TOPSIS, a multi-criteria interval-valued trapezoidal fuzzy decision making technique containing the four arrays of criteria weights, to a group decision environment was investigated in stage 3. The effectiveness of the developed tool was elaborated by two actual thallium-contaminated scenarios associated with different threat levels.

  5. Catalog of 162 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a 4.7-kb region of the HLA-DP loci in southern Chinese ethnic groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaoyiLiu; ZehuanLiu; BinLin; YuanyuanLiu; ZhuoxunChen; WeicongHe; DongZhong; AnlongXu

    2005-01-01

    HLA class-Ⅱ proteins are cell-surface molecules that present antigens to T cells, and their expressional regulation is crucial to the immune reaction.Sequence variation at the regulatory region can directly affect the gene expression level. We cloned and sequenced a 4.7-kb region containing the regulatory region, exonl, and partial intronl of both HLA-DPA1 and DPB1 genes in 25 variable sequences from southern Chinese ethnic groups and got a high-density map of162 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): seven in 5′-flanking regions, four in 5′-untranslated regions, and four in the coding regions. By comparing these data with SNPs in dbSNP database in the NCBI, 145 SNPs(89.5%) were novel. In addition, eight genetic variations of insertion-deletion polymorphisms (INDELs) were discovered within the 4.7-kb region. These high-resolution maps can be used as resources of markers for association studies of complex diseases, assessment of individuals' predisposition to diseases, and tailoring oftherapies, as well as research markers for population genetics and evolution.

  6. The role of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM in Germany – A focus group study of GPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemann Thomas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a marked increase in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM in recent years worldwide. In Germany, apart from 'Heilpraktiker' (= state-licensed, non-medical CAM practitioners, some general practitioners (GPs provide CAM in their practices. This paper aims to explore the attitudes of GPs about the role of CAM in Germany, in relation to the healthcare system, quality of care, medical education and research. Furthermore, experiences of GPs integrating CAM in their daily practice were explored. Methods Using a qualitative methodological approach 3 focus groups with a convenience sample of 17 GPs were conducted. The discussions were transcribed verbatim and analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results The majority of the participating GPs had integrated one or more CAM therapies into their every-day practice. Four key themes were identified based on the topics covered in the focus groups: the role of CAM within the German healthcare system, quality of care, education and research. Within the theme 'role of CAM within the healthcare system' there were five categories: integration of CAM, CAM in the Statutory Health Insurance, modernisation of the Statutory Health Insurance Act, individual healthcare services and 'Heilpraktiker'. Regarding quality of care there were two broad groups of GPs: those who thought patients would benefit from standardizing CAM and those who feared that quality control would interfere with the individual approach of CAM. The main issues identified relating to research and education were the need for the development of alternative research strategies and the low quality of existing CAM education respectively. Conclusion The majority of the participating GPs considered CAM as a reasonable complementary approach within primary care. The study increased our understanding of GPs attitudes about the role of CAM within the German healthcare system and the use of

  7. Attitudes and perceptions of three groups of family farmers in Brazil on problems they perceive in raising broilers and alternative feeding strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Almeida, Gustavo Fonseca; Horsted, Klaus; Figueiredo, E. A.;

    2015-01-01

    With the purpose to identify alternatives to the use of oil seed crops and cereals in broiler feeding, we interviewed 21 family farmers raising broilers in alternative systems located in three relevant sites for the poultry industry in Brazil. Two groups in the south (Parana and Rio Grande do Sul......) were organized in cooperatives raising slow-growing broilers in free-range systems. The third group was linked to a broiler company in the state of Sao Paulo producing antibiotic-free (AF) broilers in intensive systems. Individual assessments were performed through surveys with semi...

  8. 77 FR 63872 - Alternative Management Resources, Inc., Doepker Group, Inc., D.B.A. Time Staffing, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    .... Time Staffing, Inc., Personnel Management Group, Inc., Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance... Cooper Tire & Rubber, Findlay, Ohio, had their wages reported through a separate unemployment insurance... unemployment insurance (UI) wages are reported through Employer Solutions Staffing Group, LLC, Select...

  9. Use of Alternative Medications for Menopause-Related Symptoms in Three Major Ethnic Groups of Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohn Mar, Saw; Malhi, Fatehpal; Syed Rahim, Syed Hamid; Chua, Chin Tong; Sidhu, Sarjeet Singh; Sandheep, Sugathan

    2015-11-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the use of alternative medications to alleviate menopause-related symptoms among Malay, Chinese, and Indian women of Ipoh city. The prevalence, types, effectiveness, and associated factors were determined. The prevalence of alternative medication use was 41.4%. Evening primrose oil (EPO) was the most popular medication used (18.1%), followed by soy-based products (12.3%), green tea (6.8%), and gingko (5.8%). The medication was reported to be highly effective by 58.3% of soya bean diet users and 41.1% of EPO users. Significant variables associated with the use were Chinese or Indian ethnicity (P entrepreneurs (P Indians had significantly higher odds for the use than Malays (Chinese: odds ratio [OR] = 4.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.392-7.837; Indians: OR = 3.248, 95% CI = 1.586-6.654). PMID:25972428

  10. Prognostic value of semi-quantitative bacteruria counts in the diagnosis of group B streptococcus urinary tract infection: a 4-year retrospective study in adult patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Chee K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Semi-quantitative bacteruria counts (s-QBC are important in the diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI due to most uropathogens. The prognostic value of s-QBC for diagnosis of UTI due to group B streptococcus (GBS is unknown. In this study, we assessed the value of s-QBC for differentiating acute GBS UTI from asymptomatic bacteruria (ABU, independent of other potential prognostic indicators. Methods Medical record review and urinalysis (UA values for 1593 patients who had urinary GBS isolated (103 to ≥105 CFU/ml during a four-year period were analyzed using binary logistic regression to determine the predictive values of s-QBC, age, and gender for infection category (acute UTI, ABU based on the clinical diagnosis. Results s-QBC alone had a strong predictive value for infection category but only for ABU. Multivariate logistic regression showed similar predictive power of s-QBC for infection category using age as a co-predictor, which was also independently associated with infection category. Typical s-QBC cut-off values that are commonly used in diagnostic settings had no significant power in predicting infection category. Among other UA measures, proteinuria and hematuria were significantly associated with acute infection. Conclusions Together, these data show that s-QBC is not useful in the differential diagnosis of GBS UTI. Among the patients in this study, age was an equally effective prognostic indicator compared to s-QBC for identifying high- and low-risk patients for acute GBS UTI. Collectively, these findings indicate that age-based associations may be equally as useful as s-QBC for predicting infection category in the setting of adult patients with GBS-positive urine cultures.

  11. A focus Group Study of Medical Students’ Views of an Integrated Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM Curriculum: Students Teaching Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Désirée Lie, M.D

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Student views of new curricula can shape training outcomes. This qualitative study elicited student opinions of CAM instruction to examine and distill best strategies.Methods: 49 second, third and fourth year students participated in focus groups using a predefined question route. Interviews were audio taped and transcribed.Results: Students successfully differentiated CAM curricula from other academic content and were supportive of a longitudinal integrated approach. They had positive disposition toward CAM use for themselves but this did not necessarily translate into patient recommendations. They agreed that goals of the CAM curriculum should center on awareness of patient use and evidence and information relevant to clinical practice. They advocated a case-based, hands-on, experiential strategy vs lectures. Students proposed greater institutional commitment to strengthen curricular effectiveness. The majority did not intend to practice CAM modalities but valued skills to assess them. Patient-centeredness was recognized. As training progressed, students exhibited a growing tendency to evaluate CAM efficacy, and therefore value, exclusively according to evidence.Conclusions: In-depth student input allowed examination of the effectiveness of a CAM curriculum,permitting improvement and assessment of program effectiveness.

  12. The influence of expert opinions on the selection of wastewater treatment alternatives: a group decision-making approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalbar, Pradip P; Karmakar, Subhankar; Asolekar, Shyam R

    2013-10-15

    The application of multiple-attribute decision-making (MADM) to real life decision problems suggests that avoiding the loss of information through scenario-based approaches and including expert opinions in the decision-making process are two major challenges that require more research efforts. Recently, a wastewater treatment technology selection effort has been made with a 'scenario-based' method of MADM. This paper focuses on a novel approach to incorporate expert opinions into the scenario-based decision-making process, as expert opinions play a major role in the selection of treatment technologies. The sets of criteria and the indicators that are used consist of both qualitative and quantitative criteria. The group decision-making (GDM) approach that is implemented for aggregating expert opinions is based on an analytical hierarchy process (AHP), which is the most widely used MADM method. The pairwise comparison matrices (PCMs) for qualitative criteria are formed based on expert opinions, whereas, a novel approach is proposed for generating PCMs for quantitative criteria. It has been determined that the experts largely prefer natural treatment systems because they are more sustainable in any scenario. However, PCMs based on expert opinions suggest that advanced technologies such as the sequencing batch reactor (SBR) can also be appropriate for a given decision scenario. The proposed GDM approach is a rationalized process that will be more appropriate in realistic scenarios where multiple stakeholders with local and regional societal priorities are involved in the selection of treatment technology. PMID:23872214

  13. The influence of expert opinions on the selection of wastewater treatment alternatives: a group decision-making approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalbar, Pradip P; Karmakar, Subhankar; Asolekar, Shyam R

    2013-10-15

    The application of multiple-attribute decision-making (MADM) to real life decision problems suggests that avoiding the loss of information through scenario-based approaches and including expert opinions in the decision-making process are two major challenges that require more research efforts. Recently, a wastewater treatment technology selection effort has been made with a 'scenario-based' method of MADM. This paper focuses on a novel approach to incorporate expert opinions into the scenario-based decision-making process, as expert opinions play a major role in the selection of treatment technologies. The sets of criteria and the indicators that are used consist of both qualitative and quantitative criteria. The group decision-making (GDM) approach that is implemented for aggregating expert opinions is based on an analytical hierarchy process (AHP), which is the most widely used MADM method. The pairwise comparison matrices (PCMs) for qualitative criteria are formed based on expert opinions, whereas, a novel approach is proposed for generating PCMs for quantitative criteria. It has been determined that the experts largely prefer natural treatment systems because they are more sustainable in any scenario. However, PCMs based on expert opinions suggest that advanced technologies such as the sequencing batch reactor (SBR) can also be appropriate for a given decision scenario. The proposed GDM approach is a rationalized process that will be more appropriate in realistic scenarios where multiple stakeholders with local and regional societal priorities are involved in the selection of treatment technology.

  14. A new Hg(2+) -selective fluorescent sensor based on a 1,3-alternate thiacalix[4]arene anchored with four 8-quinolinoloxy groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, L; Ganga, V B; Thirumalai, R; Sreeja, T; Reddy, M L P; Varma, R Luxmi

    2007-08-01

    A new thiacalix [4]arene derivative in a 1,3-alternate conformation bearing four quinolinoloxy groups through propyl chains has been synthesized, and its metal ion-binding and fluorescence-sensing properties were investigated in both THF and 10% H2O-THF systems. The designed ligand exhibited pronounced Hg2+ -selective on-off type fluoroionophoric properties among the representative transition and heavy metal ions including Cu2+. The detection limit for Hg2+ was found to be 2.0 x 10(-6) M in the mixed H2O-THF system. Detailed spectral studies including 1H NMR and MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy reveal the unusual formation of a tetramercury complex with the ligand, in which the four propyl arms containing the quinolinoloxy groups adopt a "tetrapodand" conformation enclosing one Hg2+ ion each in the four cavities thus formed. PMID:17608414

  15. Project on Alternative Systems Study - PASS. Comparison of technology of KBS-3, MLH, VLH and VDH concepts by using an expert group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report constitutes a technical comparison and ranking of four repository concepts for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel, that have been studied by SKB: KBS-3, Medium Long Holes (MLH), Very Long Holes (VLH) and Very Deep Holes (VDH). The technical comparison is part of the project 'Project on Alternative Systems Study, PASS', which was initiated by SKB. With the objective of presenting a ranking of the four concepts. Besides this comparison of Technology the ranking is separately made for Long-term Performance and Safety, and Costs before the merging into one verdict. The ranking regarding Technology was carried out in accordance with the method Analytical Hierarchy Process, AHP, and by the aid of expert judgement in the form of a group consisting of six experts. The AHP method implies that the criteria for comparison are ordered in a hierarchy and that the ranking is carried out by pairwise comparison of the criteria. In the evaluation process a measure of the relative importance of each criterion is obtained. The result of the expert judgement exercise was that each expert individually ranked the four concepts in the following order with the top ranked alternative first: KBS-3, MLH, VLH and VDH. The common opinion among the experts was that the top ranking of KBS-3 is significant and the the major criteria used in the study could change substantially without changing the top ranking of KBS-3

  16. Alternative security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains the following chapters: The Military and Alternative Security: New Missions for Stable Conventional Security; Technology and Alternative Security: A Cherished Myth Expires; Law and Alternative Security: Toward a Just World Peace; Politics and Alternative Security: Toward a More Democratic, Therefore More Peaceful, World; Economics and Alternative Security: Toward a Peacekeeping International Economy; Psychology and Alternative Security: Needs, Perceptions, and Misperceptions; Religion and Alternative Security: A Prophetic Vision; and Toward Post-Nuclear Global Security: An Overview

  17. Alternating treatment with didanosine and zidovudine versus either drug alone for the treatment of advanced HIV infection. The Alter Study. Nordic HIV Therapy Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerstoft, J; Melander, H; Bruun, J N;

    1997-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of an alternating regime with zidovudine and didanosine versus treatment with either drug alone were investigated in a randomized, open, controlled trial, 552 patients with advanced HIV infection, 47% of whom had received prior treatment with zidovudine, were enrolled...

  18. Alternative energies; Energies alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonal, J.; Rossetti, P

    2007-07-01

    The earth took millions years to made the petroleum, the gas the coal and the uranium. Only a few centuries will be needed to exhaust these fossil fuels and some years to reach expensive prices. Will the wold continue on this way of energy compulsive consumption? The renewable energies and some citizen attitudes are sufficient to break this spiral. This book proposes to discuss these alternative energies. It shows that this attitude must be supported by the government. It takes stock on the more recent information concerning the renewable energies. it develops three main points: the electricity storage, the housing and the transports. (A.L.B.)

  19. Alternative additives; Alternative additiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-08-15

    In this project a number of industrial and agricultural waste products have been characterised and evaluated in terms of alkali-getter performance. The intended use is for biomass-fired power stations aiming at reducing corrosion or slagging related problems. The following products have been obtained, characterised and evaluated: 1) Brewery draff 2) Danish de-gassed manure 3) Paper sludge 4) Moulding sand 5) Spent bleaching earth 6) Anorthosite 7) Sand 8) Clay-sludge. Most of the above alternative additive candidates are deemed unsuitable due to insufficient chemical effect and/or expensive requirements for pre-treatment (such as drying and transportation). 3 products were selected for full-scale testing: de-gassed manure, spent bleaching earth and clay slugde. The full scale tests were undertaken at the biomass-fired power stations in Koege, Slagelse and Ensted. Spent bleaching earth (SBE) and clay sludge were the only tested additive candidates that had a proven ability to react with KCl, to thereby reduce Cl-concentrations in deposits, and reduce the deposit flux to superheater tubes. Their performance was shown to nearly as good as commercial additives. De-gassed manure, however, did not evaluate positively due to inhibiting effects of Ca in the manure. Furthermore, de-gassed manure has a high concentration of heavy metals, which imposes a financial burden with regard to proper disposal of the ash by-products. Clay-sludge is a wet clay slurring, and drying and transportation of this product entails substantial costs. Spent bleaching does not require much pre-treatment and is therefore the most promising alternative additive. On the other hand, bleaching earth contains residual plant oil which means that a range of legislation relating to waste combustion comes into play. Not least a waste combustion fee of 330 DKK/tonne. For all alternative (and commercial) additives disposal costs of the increase ash by-products represents a significant cost. This is

  20. Is treatment in groups a useful alternative for psychiatry in low-income countries? An evaluation of a psychiatric outpatient unit in Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldera, T; Kullgren, G; Penayo, U; Jacobsson, L

    1995-11-01

    Centro de Atención Psicosocial in León, Nicaragua is a psychiatric outpatient unit that has developed a group-oriented model of working, in which 80% of all visits are in groups: first-admission groups, insight-oriented group psychotherapy, psycho-educative, family groups and relatives groups. The aim of the present study was to analyze patient characteristics and make a preliminary study of improvement, compliance and patient satisfaction in a 1-year perspective. One hundred consecutive visits were assessed, 44 of them first admissions. They were assessed according to all axes of DSM-III-R plus the Structural Clinical Interview for DSM-III Disorders. A 1-year follow up was conducted on 39 of 41 selected patients within the major diagnostic groups. One of 4 patients had a psychotic disorder where schizophrenia dominated. Among nonpsychotics major depression, anxiety and adjustment disorders were most frequent. Personality disorders were common (80%) among nonpsychotic patients, paranoid, obsessive-compulsive, passive-aggressive and masochistic personality disorders dominating. The illiteracy rate was 10%, but 50% had high school or university background. Severity of mental disorders and functional level did not differ between educational levels. There was a strong male dominance in all diagnostic, socioeconomic and educational level strata and few old patients. Improvement in functional level was clinically and statistically significant in all groups, and more than two thirds were very satisfied with the group treatment offered.

  1. Quantum mechanical alternative to Arrhenius equation in the interpretation of proton spin-lattice relaxation data for the methyl groups in solids

    KAUST Repository

    Bernatowicz, Piotr

    2015-10-01

    Theory of nuclear spin-lattice relaxation in methyl groups in solids has been a recurring problem in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The current view is that, except for extreme cases of low torsional barriers where special quantum effects are at stake, the relaxation behaviour of the nuclear spins in methyl groups is controlled by thermally activated classical jumps of the methyl group between its three orientations. The temperature effects on the relaxation rates can be modelled by Arrhenius behaviour of the correlation time of the jump process. The entire variety of relaxation effects in protonated methyl groups has recently been given a consistently quantum mechanical explanation not invoking the jump model regardless of the temperature range. It exploits the damped quantum rotation (DQR) theory originally developed to describe NMR line shape effects for hindered methyl groups. In the DQR model, the incoherent dynamics of the methyl group include two quantum rate, i.e., coherence-damping processes. For proton relaxation only one of these processes is relevant. In this paper, temperature-dependent proton spin-lattice relaxation data for the methyl groups in polycrystalline methyltriphenyl silane and methyltriphenyl germanium, both deuterated in aromatic positions, are reported and interpreted in terms of the DQR model. A comparison with the conventional approach exploiting the phenomenological Arrhenius equation is made. The present observations provide further indications that incoherent motions of molecular moieties in condensed phase can retain quantum character over much broad temperature range than is commonly thought.

  2. A quantum mechanical alternative to the Arrhenius equation in the interpretation of proton spin-lattice relaxation data for the methyl groups in solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernatowicz, Piotr; Shkurenko, Aleksander; Osior, Agnieszka; Kamieński, Bohdan; Szymański, Sławomir

    2015-11-21

    The theory of nuclear spin-lattice relaxation in methyl groups in solids has been a recurring problem in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The current view is that, except for extreme cases of low torsional barriers where special quantum effects are at stake, the relaxation behaviour of the nuclear spins in methyl groups is controlled by thermally activated classical jumps of the methyl group between its three orientations. The temperature effects on the relaxation rates can be modelled by Arrhenius behaviour of the correlation time of the jump process. The entire variety of relaxation effects in protonated methyl groups have recently been given a consistent quantum mechanical explanation not invoking the jump model regardless of the temperature range. It exploits the damped quantum rotation (DQR) theory originally developed to describe NMR line shape effects for hindered methyl groups. In the DQR model, the incoherent dynamics of the methyl group include two quantum rate (i.e., coherence-damping) processes. For proton relaxation only one of these processes is relevant. In this paper, temperature-dependent proton spin-lattice relaxation data for the methyl groups in polycrystalline methyltriphenyl silane and methyltriphenyl germanium, both deuterated in aromatic positions, are reported and interpreted in terms of the DQR model. A comparison with the conventional approach exploiting the phenomenological Arrhenius equation is made. The present observations provide further indications that incoherent motions of molecular moieties in the condensed phase can retain quantum character over much broader temperature range than is commonly thought. PMID:26451661

  3. Alternative loop rings

    CERN Document Server

    Goodaire, EG; Polcino Milies, C

    1996-01-01

    For the past ten years, alternative loop rings have intrigued mathematicians from a wide cross-section of modern algebra. As a consequence, the theory of alternative loop rings has grown tremendously. One of the main developments is the complete characterization of loops which have an alternative but not associative, loop ring. Furthermore, there is a very close relationship between the algebraic structures of loop rings and of group rings over 2-groups. Another major topic of research is the study of the unit loop of the integral loop ring. Here the interaction between loop rings and group ri

  4. Arthropathic group A streptococcal cell walls require specific antibody for activation of human complement by both the classical and alternative pathways.

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenberg, R A; Schwab, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    The induction of acute arthritis in rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of group A streptococcal cell wall is associated with the activation of complement. We have therefore investigated the interaction of arthropathic peptidoglycan-polysaccharide complex of streptococcal cell walls and human complement. The incubation of cell wall in normal human serum results in the formation of complexes of cell wall and the C3 and C4 components of complement. Using agammaglobulinemic serum, we have...

  5. Rapidly alternating combination of cisplatin-based chemotherapy and hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy in split course for Stage IIIA and Stage IIIB non-small cell lung cancer: results of a Phase I-II study by the GOTHA group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberto, P.; Mermillod, B. [Hopital Cantonal Geneve, Geneva (Switzerland); Mirimanoff, R.O.; Leyvraz, S.; Nagy-Mignotte, H.; Bolla, M.; Wellmann, D.; Moro, D.; Brambilla, E. [Hopital Cantonal Universitaire, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1995-08-01

    The prognosis of stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) can be improved by a combination of radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy (CT). In this study, the GOTHA group evaluated the feasibility, tolerance, tumour response, pattern of failure and effect on survival of a combination alternating accelerated hyperfractionated (AH) RT and CT in patients with tumour stage III NSCLC. Toxic effects were leucopenia, nausea and vomiting, mucositis, diarrhoea, alopecia and peripheral neuropathy. Alternating CT and AHRT, as used in this study, were well tolerated and allowed full dose delivery within less than 12 weeks. Initial response was not predictive of survival. The survival curve is encouraging and the 5 year survival is superior to the 5% generally observed with conventionally fractionated radiotherapy. (author).

  6. Combretastatin A4 phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Catharine M L; Price, Pat

    2004-03-01

    Combretastatin A4 phosphate (CA4P) is a water-soluble prodrug of combretastatin A4 (CA4). The vascular targeting agent CA4 is a microtubule depolymerizing agent. The mechanism of action of the drug is thought to involve the binding of CA4 to tubulin leading to cytoskeletal and then morphological changes in endothelial cells. These changes increase vascular permeability and disrupt tumor blood flow. In experimental tumors, anti-vascular effects are seen within minutes of drug administration and rapidly lead to extensive ischemic necrosis in areas that are often resistant to conventional anti-cancer treatments. Following single-dose administration a viable tumor rim typically remains from which tumor regrowth occurs. When given in combination with therapies targeted at the proliferating viable rim, enhanced tumor responses are seen and in some cases cures. Results from the first clinical trials have shown that CA4P monotherapy is safe and reduces tumor blood flow. There has been some promising demonstration of efficacy. CA4P in combination with cisplatin is also safe. Functional imaging studies have been used to aid the selection of doses for phase II trials. Both dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and positron emission tomography can measure the anti-vascular effects of CA4P in humans. This review describes the background to the development of CA4P, its proposed mechanism of action, the results from the first clinical trials with CA4P and the role of imaging techniques in its clinical development.

  7. Alternative Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find your chapter: search by state Home > Alzheimer's Disease > Treatments > Alternative Treatments Overview What Is Dementia? What Is Alzheimer's? Younger/Early Onset Facts and Figures Know the 10 Signs Stages Inside the Brain: ...

  8. A Brief Introduction on International "Psychological Manipulation, Cultic Groups, and Other Alternative Movements" Conference%" 精神控制、膜拜(邪教)团体及其他替代运动"国际会议简介

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿耿

    2006-01-01

    @@ 2005年7月14日至16日国际膜拜(邪教)团体研究协会(International Cultic Studies Association,简称ICSA)在西班牙首都马德里召开年会,主题为"精神控制、膜拜(邪教)团体及其他替代运动(Psychological Manipulation,Cultic Groups,and Other Alternative Movements)".出席者200余人,其主流为对邪教有切肤之痛的前成员,研究宗教的学者,心理学、社会学、政治学领域专家,救助前邪教成员的咨询康复机构等.

  9. 组长轮转制在麻醉复苏区护士培养中的作用%Effects of alternated group leading on nurse training in an anesthesia recovery section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓燕; 黄海霞; 朱四海

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to explore the effects of alternated group leading on nurse training in an anesthesia recovery section. Methods There were seven nurses joined the training program. For each month, two of them held the post of group leader as a pair in an alternating pattern. The group leader of morning-shift (A) was in charge of department environment and quality examination as well as other general affairs. The group leader of afternoon-shift (P) was in charge of the preparation and performance for all hospital and nursing department inspections, as well as the quality supervision of night-shift. Results During the 14-month post-rotation of group leader, seven nurses raised 16 pieces of advice, among which 15 were adopted. Department total ranking of all inspections raised from the 37th in 2009 to the 16th in 2010. The percentage of nurse talents increased from 40% to 100%. Conclusion The nurses' sense of administration, responsibility, competition and predictive thinking, as well as the nursing quality of anesthesia recovery section, can be increased by the application of post-alternating regimen.%目的 传统管理模式下护理组长长期固定,缺乏竞争.文中探讨护士轮流担任组长在麻醉监护护士培养中的作用. 方法 2人配对担任组长,每月轮换1次.A班组长负责科室环节质量检查及其他事务的沟通协调,P班组长负责全院、护理部各项检查的准备与落实及护士夜班工作质量的督查. 结果 7名护士在1年轮流担任组长中提出改进工作建议16条,被采纳15条;全院各项检查总排名从2009年的37名提升到2010年的16名;护士学组骨干所占比例从原来的40%提高到100%. 结论 护士轮流担任麻醉监护室组长制度培养了护士的管理意识、责任意识和竞争意识,提高了护士的预见性思维、语言表达和管理能力,大大提升了麻醉监护护理质量.

  10. Cosmic alternatives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Ruth

    2009-04-01

    "Cosmologists are often in error but never in doubt." This pithy characterization by the Soviet physicist Lev Landau sums up the raison d'être of Facts and Speculations in Cosmology. Authors Jayant Narlikar and Geoffrey Burbidge are proponents of a "steady state" theory of cosmology, and they argue that the cosmological community has become fixated on a "Big Bang" dogma, suppressing alternative viewpoints. This book very much does what it says on the tin: it sets out what is known in cosmology, and puts forward the authors' point of view on an alternative to the Big Bang.

  11. Growing Alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Petersen, Mai Corlin

    2014-01-01

    From 2014, Anhui Province will pilot a reform of the residential land market in China, thus integrating rural Anhui in the national housing market. In contrast, artist and activist Ou Ning has proposed the Bishan time money currency, intending to establish an alternative economic circuit in Bishan...

  12. Alternative crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surplus cereal production in the EEC and decreasing product prices, mainly for cereals, has prompted considerable interest for new earnings in arable farming. The objective was to examine whether suggested new crops (fibre, oil, medicinal and alternative grains crops) could be considered as real alternatives. Whether a specific crop can compete economically with cereals and whether there is a market demand for the crop is analyzed. The described possibilities will result in ca. 50,000 hectares of new crops. It is expected that they would not immediately provide increased earnings, but in the long run expected price developments are more positive than for cereals. The area for new crops will not solve the current surplus cereal problem as the area used for new crops is only 3% of that used for cereals. Preconditions for many new crops is further research activities and development work as well as the establishment of processing units and organizational initiatives. Presumably, it is stated, there will then be a basis for a profitable production of new crops for some farmers. (AB) (47 refs.)

  13. Alternative Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planting, A.; De saint Jacob, Y.; Verwijs, H.; Belin, H.; Preesman, L.

    2009-03-15

    In two articles, one interview and one column attention is paid to alternative energies. The article 'A new light on saving energy' discusses the option to save energy by modernising lighting systems in urban areas. The column 'View from Paris' focuses on investment decisions in France with regard to renewable energy and energy savings. The article 'Europe turns a blind eye to big battery' discusses developments in batteries to store energy. The interview concerns fuel cell expert and formerly President of UTC Power Jan van Dokkum. The last article gives a brief overview of the European Energy Research Alliance (EERA) and the challenges this alliance will have to face with regard to climate change and energy security.

  14. Energy alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English. A special committe of the Canadian House of Commons was established on 23 May 1980 to investigate the use of alternative energy sources such as 'gasohol', liquified coal, solar energy, methanol, wind and tidal power, biomass, and propane. In its final report, the committee envisions an energy system for Canada based on hydrogen and electricity, using solar and geothermal energy for low-grade heat. The committe was not able to say which method of generating electricty would dominate in the next century, although it recommends that fossil fuels should not be used. The fission process is not specifically discussed, but the outlook for fusion was investigated, and continued governmental support of fusion research is recommended. The report proposes some improvements in governmental energy organizations and programs

  15. 近距离煤层群下行开采切眼错距确定分析%Analysis on determination of alternate distance for open-off cut in downward mining of close distance coal seam group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈善乐; 王坤; 汪华君; 崔铁军

    2015-01-01

    在近距离煤层群的开采中,工作面巷道位置选择直接影响其支护方式、顶底板管理等生产工作。为了得到下位煤层工作面切眼的合理位置,利用基于三维显式有限差分法的计算工具Flac3D,以矿井近距离煤层9、101、102为工程实例,分析了在近距离煤层群回采时期,下邻近层综采工作面切眼位置与上邻近层预留保护煤柱错距。结果表明,上邻近层回采后,在其因支承压力和拉张作用下的下沉盆地中岩层内,主要发生塑性变形;上覆岩层破坏范围为26m,底板破坏范围为5.6m,采空区左右两侧破坏范围3~5m;下位煤层10603工作面切眼与上位煤层9煤保护煤柱错距应大于5m。%The position of working face roadway directly influences its support way, roof and floor management, and other production work in mining of close distance coal seam group.In order to get the reasonable position of open-off cut in working face of the lower coal seam, the computing tools -Flac3D based on three dimensional explicit fi-nite difference method was applied.Taking the close distance coal seams 9th , 101 th, 102 th as engineering exam-ples, the alternate distance of open-off cut in the fully mechanized working face of lower adjacent coal seam to guard coal pillar in upper adjacent coal seam during the stoping period of close distance coal seam group was ana-lyzed.The results showed that after the stoping of upper adjacent coal seam, the plastic deformation is mainly dis-tributed in rock strata of subsidence basin under the effect of abutment pressure and tensile.The damage range of o-verlying strata is 26 m, the damage range of floor is 5.6m, and that in both sides of goaf is 3-5 m.The alternate distance of open-off cut in the 10603 working face of lower coal seam to guard coal pillar in 9th of upper coal seam should be greater than 5m.

  16. Alternative Splice in Alternative Lice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar-Corona, Jaime M; Castillo-Morales, Atahualpa; Chen, Lu; Olds, Brett P; Clark, John M; Reynolds, Stuart E; Pittendrigh, Barry R; Feil, Edward J; Urrutia, Araxi O

    2015-10-01

    Genomic and transcriptomics analyses have revealed human head and body lice to be almost genetically identical; although con-specific, they nevertheless occupy distinct ecological niches and have differing feeding patterns. Most importantly, while head lice are not known to be vector competent, body lice can transmit three serious bacterial diseases; epidemictyphus, trench fever, and relapsing fever. In order to gain insights into the molecular bases for these differences, we analyzed alternative splicing (AS) using next-generation sequencing data for one strain of head lice and one strain of body lice. We identified a total of 3,598 AS events which were head or body lice specific. Exon skipping AS events were overrepresented among both head and body lice, whereas intron retention events were underrepresented in both. However, both the enrichment of exon skipping and the underrepresentation of intron retention are significantly stronger in body lice compared with head lice. Genes containing body louse-specific AS events were found to be significantly enriched for functions associated with development of the nervous system, salivary gland, trachea, and ovarian follicle cells, as well as regulation of transcription. In contrast, no functional categories were overrepresented among genes with head louse-specific AS events. Together, our results constitute the first evidence for transcript pool differences in head and body lice, providing insights into molecular adaptations that enabled human lice to adapt to clothing, and representing a powerful illustration of the pivotal role AS can play in functional adaptation. PMID:26169943

  17. Looking for an Alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Jack

    1999-01-01

    Argues that high school newspapers might do well to create stronger ties with alternative weeklies. Discusses issues of niche marketing, alternative content, and alternative presentation. Notes that high school papers could learn a lot from alternative newspapers. (SR)

  18. Using Cooperative Learning To Facilitate Alternative Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaith, Ghazi

    2002-01-01

    Discusses alternative assessment in the language classroom, provides examples of seven cooperative assessment activities: correcting individual quizzes and homework, observing students at work, interviews, peer composition, oral presentations, group projects, and group processing. (Author/VWL)

  19. Elements with Square Roots in Finite Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.S. Lucido; M.R. Pournaki

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we study the probability that a randomly chosen element in a finite group has a square root, in particular the simple groups of Lie type of rank 1, the sporadic finite simple groups and the alternating groups.

  20. Bayesian Group Factor Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Virtanen, Seppo; Klami, Arto; Khan, Suleiman A; Kaski, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a factor analysis model that summarizes the dependencies between observed variable groups, instead of dependencies between individual variables as standard factor analysis does. A group may correspond to one view of the same set of objects, one of many data sets tied by co-occurrence, or a set of alternative variables collected from statistics tables to measure one property of interest. We show that by assuming group-wise sparse factors, active in a subset of the sets, the variat...

  1. An Alternative Triangle Area Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shockey, T. L.; Zhang, P.; Brosnan, P.

    2016-01-01

    We explore the mathematics engagement of a group of mathematics coaches, working in k-12 mathematics education. The incenter of a triangle is used to derive an alternative formula for the area of a triangle inspired by Usiskin, Peressini, Marhisotto, and Stanley (2002).

  2. Descrição das noções conceituais sobre os grupos alimentares por professores de 1ª a 4ª série: a necessidade de atualização dos conceitos A description of the conceptual notions about food groups by 1st to 4th grade teachers: the necessity to review the concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Martins Fernandez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Com base na realização de entrevistas individuais com professores de 1ª a 4ª séries em uma amostra de escolas públicas e privadas no Distrito Federal, procurou-se apontar a atualização da classificação dos grupos alimentares segundo exemplos e funções, além da execução de atividades de nutrição e fontes de informação consultadas pelos educadores. Os resultados mostraram associação do consumo dos alimentos energéticos e energéticos extras com uma alimentação inadequada, ao passo que os alimentos construtores e reguladores são identificados como prioritários na alimentação diária. Os livros didáticos destacaram-se como a principal fonte de informação e, em menor destaque, os manuais técnicos de alimentação e profissionais de saúde. Conclui-se que as ações educativas em nutrição precisam ser subsidiadas por professores bem formados e atualizados, além da revisão dos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais (PCNs na perspectiva de um ensino interdisciplinar e intersetorial em alimentação na escola.Individual interviews were carried out with teachers of 1st to 4th grades in a sample of public and private schools in the Federal District, and point out the need to update food classification groups according to examples and function, alongside nutrition activities and the sources of information consulted by educators. Results showed the association of consumption of energetic and extra energetic food with inappropriate food intake, while certain foods are identified as prioritized in a daily food intake. School books were highlighted as the main information source and on a smaller scale technical handbooks on dietary habits and those for health professionals. It is concluded that educative actions in nutrition need to be scrutinised by educated and updated teachers, alongside the revision of the Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais (PCNs (National Curriculum Parameters from the perspective of interdisciplinary and

  3. Teaching Arithmetic Combinations of Multiplication and Division to Students with Learning Disabilities or Mild Intellectual Disability: The Impact of Alternative Fact Grouping and the Role of Cognitive and Learning Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaliotis, Ioannis; Teli, Afroditi

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of two instructional interventions was investigated in the context of teaching Arithmetic Combinations (ACs) of multiplication and division to students with Learning Disabilities (LD) or Mild Intellectual Disability (MID). The intervention for the control group (LD = 20, MID = 10) was based on principles of effective instruction,…

  4. Combretastatin A-4 and Derivatives: Potential Fungicides Targeting Fungal Tubulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhong-lin; Yan, Xiao-jing; Zhao, Lei; Zhou, Jiu-jiu; Pang, Wan; Kai, Zhen-peng; Wu, Fan-hong

    2016-02-01

    Combretastatin A-4, first isolated from the African willow tree Combretum caffrum, is a tubulin polymerization inhibitor in medicine. It was first postulated as a potential fungicide targeting fungal tubulin for plant disease control in this study. Combretastatin A-4 and its derivatives were synthesized and tested against Rhizoctonia solani and Pyricularia oryzae. Several compounds have EC50 values similar to or better than that of isoprothiolane, which is widely used for rice disease control. Structure-activity relationship study indicated the the cis configuration and hydroxyl group in combretastatin A-4 are crucial to the antifungal effect. Molecular modeling indicated the binding sites of combretastatin A-4 and carbendazim on fungal tubulin are totally different. The bioactivity of combretastatin A-4 and its derivatives against carbendazim-resistant strains was demonstrated in this study. The results provide a new approach for fungicide discovery and fungicide resistance management. PMID:26711170

  5. Combretastatin A-4 and Derivatives: Potential Fungicides Targeting Fungal Tubulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhong-lin; Yan, Xiao-jing; Zhao, Lei; Zhou, Jiu-jiu; Pang, Wan; Kai, Zhen-peng; Wu, Fan-hong

    2016-02-01

    Combretastatin A-4, first isolated from the African willow tree Combretum caffrum, is a tubulin polymerization inhibitor in medicine. It was first postulated as a potential fungicide targeting fungal tubulin for plant disease control in this study. Combretastatin A-4 and its derivatives were synthesized and tested against Rhizoctonia solani and Pyricularia oryzae. Several compounds have EC50 values similar to or better than that of isoprothiolane, which is widely used for rice disease control. Structure-activity relationship study indicated the the cis configuration and hydroxyl group in combretastatin A-4 are crucial to the antifungal effect. Molecular modeling indicated the binding sites of combretastatin A-4 and carbendazim on fungal tubulin are totally different. The bioactivity of combretastatin A-4 and its derivatives against carbendazim-resistant strains was demonstrated in this study. The results provide a new approach for fungicide discovery and fungicide resistance management.

  6. Optimized immunohistochemistry in combination with image analysis: a reliable alternative to quantitative ELISA determination of uPA and PAI-1 for routine risk group discrimination in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, D S; Heilenkötter, U; Schumm, W; Behrens, O; Simon, R; Vollmer, E; Goldmann, T

    2013-10-01

    The determination of the invasion markers urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) has further improved the possibilities for individualized therapy of breast cancer. To date, quantitative measurement by ELISA, that needs large amounts of fresh, frozen material, is the only standardized procedure for diagnostic purposes. Therefore, the aim of this study was the establishment of a reliable alternative method based on immunohistochemistry (IHC) and image analysis requiring only small amounts of fixed tumor tissue. Protein expression of uPA and PAI-1 was analyzed in HOPE-fixed tumor samples using tissue microarrays (TMAs) and semiquantitative image analysis. The results of both methods were significantly correlated and risk assessment showed an overall concordance of 78% (83/107; high- and low-risk) and of 94% (74/79) regarding only high-risk patients. The data demonstrate that optimized IHC in combination with image analysis can provide adequate clinical significance compared to ELISA-derived determination of uPA and PAI-1.

  7. Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help a Friend Who Cuts? Complementary and Alternative Medicine KidsHealth > For Teens > Complementary and Alternative Medicine Print ... replacement. continue How Is CAM Different From Conventional Medicine? Conventional medicine is based on scientific knowledge of ...

  8. Alternative medicine - pain relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative medicine refers to treatments that are used instead of conventional (standard) ones. If you use an alternative ... considered complementary therapy. There are many forms of ... Acupuncture involves stimulating certain acupoints on the body ...

  9. 15 CFR 4a.4 - Classification authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification authority. 4a.4 Section 4a.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION, AND PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 4a.4 Classification authority. Authority...

  10. 22 CFR 9a.4 - Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... State shall follow the standards in E.O. 11652 and the provisions of 22 CFR 9.5 through 9.8. ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Classification. 9a.4 Section 9a.4 Foreign... ENERGY PROGRAMS; RELATED MATERIAL § 9a.4 Classification. (a) Section 1 of E.O. 11932, August 4,...

  11. 12 CFR 261a.4 - Fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fees. 261a.4 Section 261a.4 Banks and Banking... TO PERSONAL INFORMATION UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 General Provisions § 261a.4 Fees. (a) Copies of... Availability of Information, § 261.10 of this part. (b) No fee. Documents may be furnished without charge...

  12. 12 CFR 269a.4 - Investigator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investigator. 269a.4 Section 269a.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 269a.4 Investigator. The term investigator means the officer designated by the panel to investigate...

  13. 32 CFR 383a.4 - Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Organization. 383a.4 Section 383a.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) ORGANIZATIONAL CHARTERS DEFENSE COMMISSARY AGENCY (DeCA) § 383a.4 Organization. (a) The DeCA is established as an...

  14. Group X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, Susannah

    2007-08-16

    This project is currently under contract for research through the Department of Homeland Security until 2011. The group I was responsible for studying has to remain confidential so as not to affect the current project. All dates, reference links and authors, and other distinguishing characteristics of the original group have been removed from this report. All references to the name of this group or the individual splinter groups has been changed to 'Group X'. I have been collecting texts from a variety of sources intended for the use of recruiting and radicalizing members for Group X splinter groups for the purpose of researching the motivation and intent of leaders of those groups and their influence over the likelihood of group radicalization. This work included visiting many Group X websites to find information on splinter group leaders and finding their statements to new and old members. This proved difficult because the splinter groups of Group X are united in beliefs, but differ in public opinion. They are eager to tear each other down, prove their superiority, and yet remain anonymous. After a few weeks of intense searching, a list of eight recruiting texts and eight radicalizing texts from a variety of Group X leaders were compiled.

  15. Alternative nuclear technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, E.

    1981-10-01

    The lead times required to develop a select group of nuclear fission reactor types and fuel cycles to the point of readiness for full commercialization are compared. Along with lead times, fuel material requirements and comparative costs of producing electric power were estimated. A conservative approach and consistent criteria for all systems were used in estimates of the steps required and the times involved in developing each technology. The impact of the inevitable exhaustion of the low- or reasonable-cost uranium reserves in the United States on the desirability of completing the breeder reactor program, with its favorable long-term result on fission fuel supplies, is discussed. The long times projected to bring the most advanced alternative converter reactor technologies the heavy water reactor and the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor into commercial deployment when compared to the time projected to bring the breeder reactor into equivalent status suggest that the country's best choice is to develop the breeder. The perceived diversion-proliferation problems with the uranium plutonium fuel cycle have workable solutions that can be developed which will enable the use of those materials at substantially reduced levels of diversion risk.

  16. Hot Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vail, Kathleen

    1996-01-01

    Collaborators sparked by creative ideas and obsessed by a common task may not realize they're part of a "hot group"--a term coined by business professors Harold J. Leavitt and Jean Lipman-Blumen. Spawned by group decision making and employee empowerment, hot groups can flourish in education settings. They're typically small, short lived, and goal…

  17. Abelian Groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishina, A.P.

    1995-10-15

    This fifth survey of reviews on abelian groups comprises papers reviewed in 1985-1992. Just as in the preceding surveys, the issues concerning finite abelian groups, topological groups, ordered groups, group algebras, modules (with rare exceptions), and topics on logic are not considered. The issues on the lattice of subgroups of an abelian group are included in Section 11. In contrast to the fourth survey, this one does not contain Sections 6 (N-high subgroups), 9 (rings with a given additive group), and 10 (valuated groups); since only a few papers treated these topics, the material discussed earlier in Sections 9, and 10 is now included in Section 11 and the material of the former Section 6 will be found in Sections 1, 7, 8, and 11 of this survey. On the other hand, the fifth survey has three new sections devoted to separable groups (a new Sect. 5), Butler groups (a new Sect. 6), and the endormorphism rings and automorphism groups of abelian groups (a new Sect. 9).

  18. Group morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    2000-01-01

    In its original form, mathematical morphology is a theory of binary image transformations which are invariant under the group of Euclidean translations. This paper surveys and extends constructions of morphological operators which are invariant under a more general group TT, such as the motion group

  19. On an Alternative Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Vankov, A

    1998-01-01

    The suggested alternative cosmology is based on the idea of barion symmetric universe, in which our home universe is a representative of multitude of typical matter and antimatter universes. This alternative concept gives a physically reasonable explanation of all major problems of the Standard Cosmological Model. Classification Code MSC: Cosmology 524.8 Key words: standard cosmological model, alternative cosmology, barionic symmetry, typical universe, quasars, cosmic rays.

  20. Polyphase alternating codes

    CERN Document Server

    Markkanen, Markku

    2007-01-01

    This work introduces a method for constructing polyphase alternating codes in which the length of a code transmission cycle can be $p^m$ or $p-1$, where $p$ is a prime number and $m$ is a positive integer. The relevant properties leading to the construction alternating codes and the algorithm for generating alternating codes is described. Examples of all practical and some not that practical polyphase code lengths are given.

  1. Alternative Solar Indices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, L.J.

    1980-07-01

    Possible alternative Solar Indices which could either be a perturbation from the currently defined Solar Index or possible indices based on current technologies for other media markets are discussed. An overview is given of the current project, including the logic that was utilized in defining its current structure and then alternative indices and definitions are presented and finally, recommendations are made for adopting alternative indices.

  2. Complex Alternative Splicing

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jung Woo; Graveley, Brenton R.

    2007-01-01

    Alternative splicing is a powerful means of controlling gene expression and increasing protein diversity. Most genes express a limited number of mRNA isoforms, but there are several examples of genes that use alternative splicing to generate hundreds, thousands, and even tens of thousands of isoforms. Collectively such genes are considered to undergo complex alternative splicing. The best example is the Drosophila Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam) gene, which can generate 38,016 is...

  3. Permutation groups

    CERN Document Server

    Passman, Donald S

    2012-01-01

    This volume by a prominent authority on permutation groups consists of lecture notes that provide a self-contained account of distinct classification theorems. A ready source of frequently quoted but usually inaccessible theorems, it is ideally suited for professional group theorists as well as students with a solid background in modern algebra.The three-part treatment begins with an introductory chapter and advances to an economical development of the tools of basic group theory, including group extensions, transfer theorems, and group representations and characters. The final chapter feature

  4. Galaxy Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, R. Brent

    2015-02-01

    Galaxy groups can be characterized by the radius of decoupling from cosmic expansion, the radius of the caustic of second turnaround, and the velocity dispersion of galaxies within this latter radius. These parameters can be a challenge to measure, especially for small groups with few members. In this study, results are gathered pertaining to particularly well-studied groups over four decades in group mass. Scaling relations anticipated from theory are demonstrated and coefficients of the relationships are specified. There is an update of the relationship between light and mass for groups, confirming that groups with mass of a few times {{10}12}{{M}⊙ } are the most lit up while groups with more and less mass are darker. It is demonstrated that there is an interesting one-to-one correlation between the number of dwarf satellites in a group and the group mass. There is the suggestion that small variations in the slope of the luminosity function in groups are caused by the degree of depletion of intermediate luminosity systems rather than variations in the number per unit mass of dwarfs. Finally, returning to the characteristic radii of groups, the ratio of first to second turnaround depends on the dark matter and dark energy content of the universe and a crude estimate can be made from the current observations of {{Ω}matter}˜ 0.15 in a flat topology, with a 68% probability of being less than 0.44.

  5. Galaxy groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brent Tully, R. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Galaxy groups can be characterized by the radius of decoupling from cosmic expansion, the radius of the caustic of second turnaround, and the velocity dispersion of galaxies within this latter radius. These parameters can be a challenge to measure, especially for small groups with few members. In this study, results are gathered pertaining to particularly well-studied groups over four decades in group mass. Scaling relations anticipated from theory are demonstrated and coefficients of the relationships are specified. There is an update of the relationship between light and mass for groups, confirming that groups with mass of a few times 10{sup 12}M{sub ⊙} are the most lit up while groups with more and less mass are darker. It is demonstrated that there is an interesting one-to-one correlation between the number of dwarf satellites in a group and the group mass. There is the suggestion that small variations in the slope of the luminosity function in groups are caused by the degree of depletion of intermediate luminosity systems rather than variations in the number per unit mass of dwarfs. Finally, returning to the characteristic radii of groups, the ratio of first to second turnaround depends on the dark matter and dark energy content of the universe and a crude estimate can be made from the current observations of Ω{sub matter}∼0.15 in a flat topology, with a 68% probability of being less than 0.44.

  6. Galaxy Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Tully, R Brent

    2014-01-01

    Galaxy groups can be characterized by the radius of decoupling from cosmic expansion, the radius of the caustic of second turnaround, and the velocity dispersion of galaxies within this latter radius. These parameters can be a challenge to measure, especially for small groups with few members. In this study, results are gathered pertaining to particularly well studied groups over four decades in group mass. Scaling relations anticipated from theory are demonstrated and coefficients of the relationships are specified. There is an update of the relationship between light and mass for groups, confirming that groups with mass of a few times 10^12 Msun are the most lit up while groups with more and less mass are darker. It is demonstrated that there is an interesting one-to-one correlation between the number of dwarf satellites in a group and the group mass. There is the suggestion that small variations in the slope of the luminosity function in groups are caused by the degree of depletion of intermediate luminosi...

  7. Alternative Devices for Taking Insulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... KB). Alternate Language URL Alternative Devices for Taking Insulin Page Content On this page: What alternative devices ... the skin. [ Top ] What alternative devices for taking insulin are available? Insulin pens provide a convenient, easy- ...

  8. Alternative health insurance schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Hansen, Bodil O.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we present a simple model of health insurance with asymmetric information, where we compare two alternative ways of organizing the insurance market. Either as a competitive insurance market, where some risks remain uninsured, or as a compulsory scheme, where however, the level...... competitive insurance; this situation turns out to be at least as good as either of the alternatives...

  9. Joint efficient ordering method for group multiobjective programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Yuda; HU Didi

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the concepts of individual efficient pair and group efficient pair for each alternative in group multiobjective programming, and corresponding to these concepts defines the concepts of individual joint efficient preference and group joint efficient preference, respectively. Based on the fundamental properties of the mapping from individual joint efficient preference to group joint efficient preference and group efficient number of alternative, a method of ordering alternatives for group multiobjective programming problems is given.

  10. Group Intervention in Pediatric Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaForme Fiss, Alyssa

    2012-01-01

    Group intervention in pediatric physical and occupational therapy is an alternative to individual intervention allowing the therapist to meet the needs of multiple children at one time. Survey research indicates that approximately 40% to 60% of pediatric physical and occupational therapists use group intervention at least occasionally in practice,…

  11. Homogenous finitary symmetric groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto‎. ‎H‎. Kegel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We characterize strictly diagonal type of embeddings of finitary symmetric groups in terms of cardinality and the characteristic. Namely, we prove the following. Let kappa be an infinite cardinal. If G=underseti=1stackrelinftybigcupG i , where G i =FSym(kappan i , (H=underseti=1stackrelinftybigcupH i , where H i =Alt(kappan i , is a group of strictly diagonal type and xi=(p 1 ,p 2 ,ldots is an infinite sequence of primes, then G is isomorphic to the homogenous finitary symmetric group FSym(kappa(xi (H is isomorphic to the homogenous alternating group Alt(kappa(xi , where n 0 =1,n i =p 1 p 2 ldotsp i .

  12. Hydra groups

    CERN Document Server

    Dison, Will

    2010-01-01

    We give examples of CAT(0), biautomatic, free-by-cyclic, one-relator groups which have finite-rank free subgroups of huge (Ackermannian) distortion. This leads to elementary examples of groups whose Dehn functions are similarly extravagant. This behaviour originates in manifestations of Hercules-versus-the-hydra battles in string-rewriting.

  13. VistA 4 Product Roadmap

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VistA 4 Product Roadmap outlines how the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), under the direction of the VistA Evolution Program, will build upon the previous...

  14. HL-LHC alternatives

    CERN Document Server

    Tomás, R; White, S

    2014-01-01

    The HL-LHC parameters assume unexplored regimes for hadron colliders in various aspects of accelerator beam dynamics and technology. This paper reviews three alternatives that could potentially improve the LHC performance: (i) the alternative filling scheme 8b+4e, (ii) the use of a 200 MHz RF system in the LHC and (iii) the use of proton cooling methods to reduce the beam emittance (at top energy and at injection). The alternatives are assessed in terms of feasibility, pros and cons, risks versus benefits and the impact on beam availability.

  15. Seal design alternatives study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results from a study of various sealing alternatives for the WIPP sealing system. Overall, the sealing system has the purpose of reducing to the extent possible the potential for fluids (either gas or liquid) from entering or leaving the repository. The sealing system is divided into three subsystems: drift and panel seals within the repository horizon, shaft seals in each of the four shafts, and borehole seals. Alternatives to the baseline configuration for the WIPP seal system design included evaluating different geometries and schedules for seal component installations and the use of different materials for seal components. Order-of-magnitude costs for the various alternatives were prepared as part of the study. Firm recommendations are not presented, but the advantages and disadvantages of the alternatives are discussed. Technical information deficiencies are identified and studies are outlined which can provide required information

  16. Evaluation of Expenditure Alternates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehlein, Gary W.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Illustrates a system of calculating dollar expenditures over periods of time in terms of present value. The system enables planners, school boards, and administrators to compare expenditure alternatives as a decisionmaking factor. (Author)

  17. Alternatives to Nursing Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this website may not be available. Alternatives to nursing homes Before you make any decisions about long ... live and what help you may need. A nursing home may not be your only choice. Discharge ...

  18. Alternative disinfectant water treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative disinfestant water treatments are disinfestants not as commonly used by the horticultural industry. Chlorine products that produce hypochlorous acid are the main disinfestants used for treating irrigation water. Chlorine dioxide will be the primary disinfestant discussed as an alternativ...

  19. Vaginal dryness alternative treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a day. Soybeans contain plant-based substances called isoflavones. These substances have an effect on the body ... soy for vasomotor symptoms: the Herbal Alternatives for Menopause (HALT) Study. Menopause . 2008;15(1):51-58. ...

  20. An alternative currency

    OpenAIRE

    Frendo, Mario; Duca, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Malta- a tiny island, a minute social reality, a precursory canovaccio of European unification- has a unique asset it ought to be prouder of: culture. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/an-alternative-currency/

  1. Alternative fuel information sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This short document contains a list of more than 200 US sources of information (Name, address, phone number, and sometimes contact) related to the use of alternative fuels in automobiles and trucks. Electric-powered cars are also included.

  2. Seal design alternatives study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Sambeek, L.L. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (US); Luo, D.D.; Lin, M.S.; Ostrowski, W.; Oyenuga, D. [Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, Inc., San Francisco, CA (US)

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results from a study of various sealing alternatives for the WIPP sealing system. Overall, the sealing system has the purpose of reducing to the extent possible the potential for fluids (either gas or liquid) from entering or leaving the repository. The sealing system is divided into three subsystems: drift and panel seals within the repository horizon, shaft seals in each of the four shafts, and borehole seals. Alternatives to the baseline configuration for the WIPP seal system design included evaluating different geometries and schedules for seal component installations and the use of different materials for seal components. Order-of-magnitude costs for the various alternatives were prepared as part of the study. Firm recommendations are not presented, but the advantages and disadvantages of the alternatives are discussed. Technical information deficiencies are identified and studies are outlined which can provide required information.

  3. Group Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article Karen Adams demonstrates how to incorporate group grammar techniques into a classroom activity. In the activity, students practice using the target grammar to do something they naturally enjoy: learning about each other.

  4. Alternative fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium resource utilization and economic considerations provide incentives to study alternative fuel cycles as future options to the PHWR natural uranium cycle. Preliminary studies to define the most favourable alternatives and their possible introduction dates are discussed. The important and uncertain components which influence option selection are reviewed, including nuclear capacity growth, uranium availability and demand, economic potential, and required technological developments. Finally, a summary of Ontario Hydro's program to further assess cycle selection and define development needs is given. (auth)

  5. MUYANG GROUP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ With its headquarters in the historic city of Yangzhou,Jiangsu Muyang Group Co.,Ltd has since its founding in 1967 grown into a well-known group corporation whose activities cover research&development.project design,manufacturing,installation and services in a multitude of industries including feed machinery and engineering,storage engineering,grain machinery and engineering,environmental protection,conveying equipment and automatic control systems.

  6. Abelian groups

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, László

    2015-01-01

    Written by one of the subject’s foremost experts, this book focuses on the central developments and modern methods of the advanced theory of abelian groups, while remaining accessible, as an introduction and reference, to the non-specialist. It provides a coherent source for results scattered throughout the research literature with lots of new proofs. The presentation highlights major trends that have radically changed the modern character of the subject, in particular, the use of homological methods in the structure theory of various classes of abelian groups, and the use of advanced set-theoretical methods in the study of undecidability problems. The treatment of the latter trend includes Shelah’s seminal work on the undecidability in ZFC of Whitehead’s Problem; while the treatment of the former trend includes an extensive (but non-exhaustive) study of p-groups, torsion-free groups, mixed groups, and important classes of groups arising from ring theory. To prepare the reader to tackle these topics, th...

  7. Alternative energy in Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, H.B.; Bhandari, K.P.

    2011-05-15

    Renewable energy Technology (RET) becomes the mainstream option for rural Nepal to access modern source of energy. It focuses on the trend of RET applications consisting of biogas technology, solar thermal, micro and Pico hydropower, biomass technology bio fuel technology, wind power technology etc. The RET's which provide both electricity based as well as non electricity based services, have been shown to most immediately meet the needs of a cleaner indoor environment, better quality lightning for education and income generating, activities, alternative cooking fuels and agro processing as well as rural industries. Improved cooking stoves and much more beneficial than other technologies. Wind energy utilization is still not popular. Solar thermal to generate thermal energy to cook, warm and dry, biogas for lighting and cooking services. Micro hydropower for electric as well as mechanical use and solar PV mainly for domestic lighting may become choice. The most important Renewable Energy Technology (RET's) in Nepal are related to Pico hydropower and micro-hydropower, biomass energy (biogas, briquettes, gasifies, improved cooking stoves, bio-fuels etc.) solar photovoltaic energy, solar PV water pumping, solar thermal energy (solar heater, solar dryers, solar cookers etc.) and wind energy (such as wind generators, wind mills etc.). One renowned Non-governmental organization has been established in the Jhapa and Mornag Bhutanese refugee camp. Two families from all the seven camps in Nepal received one solar cooker, one hay box and two cooking posts to each family. Under this programme, a total of 6,850 solar cookers, 12600 hay boxes and 25,200 cooking pots have been distributed 2009. The number of beneficiaries from this program has reached 85,000. Before the distribution of the cookers and the utensils, the instruction and orientation training for the maintenance and repair and operation method was improved. The refugees were divided in 315 groups of 40

  8. Group dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scandiffio, A L

    1990-12-01

    Group dynamics play a significant role within any organization, culture, or unit. The important thing to remember with any of these structures is that they are made up of people--people with different ideas, motivations, background, and sometimes different agendas. Most groups, formal or informal, look for a leader in an effort to maintain cohesiveness of the unit. At times, that cultural bond must be developed; once developed, it must be nurtured. There are also times that one of the group no longer finds the culture comfortable and begins to act out behaviorally. It is these times that become trying for the leader as she or he attempts to remain objective when that which was once in the building phase of group cohesiveness starts to fall apart. At all times, the manager must continue to view the employee creating the disturbance as an integral part of the group. It is at this time that it is beneficial to perceive the employee exhibiting problem behaviors as a special employee, as one who needs the benefit of your experience and skills, as one who is still part of the group. It is also during this time that the manager should focus upon her or his own views in the area of power, communication, and the corporate culture of the unit that one has established before attempting to understand another's point of view. Once we understand our own motivation and accept ourselves, it is then that we may move on to offer assistance to another. Once we understand our insecurities recognizing staff dysfunction as a symptom of system dysfunction will not be so threatening to the concept of the manager that we perceive ourselves to be. It takes a secure person to admit that she or he favors staff before deciding to do something to change things. The important thing to know is that it can be done. The favored staff can find a new way of relating to others, the special employee can find new modes of behavior (and even find self-esteem in the process), the group can find new ways

  9. Group dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scandiffio, A L

    1990-12-01

    Group dynamics play a significant role within any organization, culture, or unit. The important thing to remember with any of these structures is that they are made up of people--people with different ideas, motivations, background, and sometimes different agendas. Most groups, formal or informal, look for a leader in an effort to maintain cohesiveness of the unit. At times, that cultural bond must be developed; once developed, it must be nurtured. There are also times that one of the group no longer finds the culture comfortable and begins to act out behaviorally. It is these times that become trying for the leader as she or he attempts to remain objective when that which was once in the building phase of group cohesiveness starts to fall apart. At all times, the manager must continue to view the employee creating the disturbance as an integral part of the group. It is at this time that it is beneficial to perceive the employee exhibiting problem behaviors as a special employee, as one who needs the benefit of your experience and skills, as one who is still part of the group. It is also during this time that the manager should focus upon her or his own views in the area of power, communication, and the corporate culture of the unit that one has established before attempting to understand another's point of view. Once we understand our own motivation and accept ourselves, it is then that we may move on to offer assistance to another. Once we understand our insecurities recognizing staff dysfunction as a symptom of system dysfunction will not be so threatening to the concept of the manager that we perceive ourselves to be. It takes a secure person to admit that she or he favors staff before deciding to do something to change things. The important thing to know is that it can be done. The favored staff can find a new way of relating to others, the special employee can find new modes of behavior (and even find self-esteem in the process), the group can find new ways

  10. Alternative fuels for vehicles; Alternative drivmidler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-02-15

    Up until 2020 and onwards the analysis indicates that especially electricity, biogas and natural gas as propellants is economically attractive compared to conventional gasoline and diesel while other fuels have the same or higher costs for petrol and diesel. Especially biogas and electricity will also offer significant reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions, but also hydrogen, methanol, DME and to a lesser extent the second generation bioethanol and most of the other alternative fuels reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Use of the traditional food-based first generation biofuels involves, at best, only modest climate benefits if land use changes are counted, and at worst, significant negative climate effects. Natural gas as a propellant involves a moderate climate gain, but may play a role for building infrastructure and market for gaseous fuels in large fleets, thereby contributing to the phasing in of biogas for transport. The electric-based automotive fuels are the most effective due to a high efficiency of the engine and an increasing proportion of wind energy in the electricity supply. The methanol track also has a relatively high efficiency. Among the others, the track based on diesel engines (biodiesel) is more effective than the track based on gasoline/Otto engines (gas and ethanol) as a result of the diesel engine's better efficiency. For the heavy vehicles all the selected alternative fuels to varying degrees reduce emissions of CO{sub 2}, particularly DME based on wood. The only exception to this is - as for passenger cars - the propellant synthetic diesel based on coal. (LN).

  11. Group Anonymity

    CERN Document Server

    Chertov, Oleg; 10.1007/978-3-642-14058-7_61

    2010-01-01

    In recent years the amount of digital data in the world has risen immensely. But, the more information exists, the greater is the possibility of its unwanted disclosure. Thus, the data privacy protection has become a pressing problem of the present time. The task of individual privacy-preserving is being thoroughly studied nowadays. At the same time, the problem of statistical disclosure control for collective (or group) data is still open. In this paper we propose an effective and relatively simple (wavelet-based) way to provide group anonymity in collective data. We also provide a real-life example to illustrate the method.

  12. Lego Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Pedersen, Torben; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2010-01-01

    The last years’ rather adventurous journey from 2004 to 2009 had taught the fifth-largest toy-maker in the world - the LEGO Group - the importance of managing the global supply chain effectively. In order to survive the largest internal financial crisis in its roughly 70 years of existence......, the management had, among many initiatives, decided to offshore and outsource a major chunk of its production to Flextronics. In this pursuit of rapid cost-cutting sourcing advantages, the LEGO Group planned to license out as much as 80 per cent of its production besides closing down major parts...

  13. Group Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Susan

    1992-01-01

    Research suggests that cooperative learning works best when students are first taught group-processing skills, such as leadership, decision making, communication, trust building, and conflict management. Inadequate teacher training and boring assignments can torpedo cooperative learning efforts. Administrators should reassure teachers with…

  14. Tectaria group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holttum, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    Polypodiaceae subfam. Dryopteridoideae section A, auct.: C. Chr. in Verdoorn, Man. Pteridol. (1938) 543, p.p. Aspidiaceae tribe Aspidieae auct.: Ching, Sunyatsenia 5 (1940) 250, excl. Lomariopsis and related genera. — Aspidiaceae, group of Ctenitis Copel., Gen. Fil. (1947) 153. Aspidiaceae auct.: Pi

  15. Alternative Green Solvents Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Phillip R.

    2012-01-01

    Necessary for safe and proper functioning of equipment. Mainly halogenated solvents. Tetrachloride, Trichloroethylene (TCE), CFC-113. No longer used due to regulatory/safety concerns. Precision Cleaning at KSC: Small % of total parts. Used for liquid oxygen (LOX) systems. Dual solvent process. Vertrel MCA (decafluoropentane (DFP) and trons-dichloroethylene) HFE-7100. DFP has long term environmental concerns. Project Goals: a) Identify potential replacements. b) 22 wet chemical processes. c) 3 alternative processes. d) Develop test procedures. e) Contamination and cleaning. f) Analysis. g) Use results to recommend alternative processes. Conclusions: a) No alternative matched Vertrel in this study. b) No clear second place solvent. c) Hydrocarbons- easy; Fluorinated greases- difficult. d) Fluorinated component may be needed in replacement solvent. e) Process may need to make up for shortcoming of the solvent. f) Plasma and SCC02 warrant further testing.

  16. Catalysis for alternative energy generation

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Summarizes recent problems in using catalysts in alternative energy generation and proposes novel solutions  Reconsiders the role of catalysis in alternative energy generation  Contributors include catalysis and alternative energy experts from across the globe

  17. Schizophyllum commune has an extensive and functional alternative splicing repertoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrmann, Thies; Pelkmans, Jordi F.; Lugones, Luis G.; Wösten, Han A. B.; Abeel, Thomas; Reinders, Marcel J. T.

    2016-01-01

    Recent genome-wide studies have demonstrated that fungi possess the machinery to alternatively splice pre-mRNA. However, there has not been a systematic categorization of the functional impact of alternative splicing in a fungus. We investigate alternative splicing and its functional consequences in the model mushroom forming fungus Schizophyllum commune. Alternative splicing was demonstrated for 2,285 out of 12,988 expressed genes, resulting in 20% additional transcripts. Intron retentions were the most common alternative splicing events, accounting for 33% of all splicing events, and 43% of the events in coding regions. On the other hand, exon skipping events were rare in coding regions (1%) but enriched in UTRs where they accounted for 57% of the events. Specific functional groups, including transcription factors, contained alternatively spliced genes. Alternatively spliced transcripts were regulated differently throughout development in 19% of the 2,285 alternatively spliced genes. Notably, 69% of alternatively spliced genes have predicted alternative functionality by loss or gain of functional domains, or by acquiring alternative subcellular locations. S. commune exhibits more alternative splicing than any other studied fungus. Taken together, alternative splicing increases the complexity of the S. commune proteome considerably and provides it with a rich repertoire of alternative functionality that is exploited dynamically. PMID:27659065

  18. Domestic energy alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These alternatives include biomass, clean coal, geothermal, hydropower, natural gas, nuclear, solar and photovoltaic, and wind. With the current, volatile situation in the Middle East, this nation's political leaders appear to be left scratching their heads in their attempts to come up with new, sound, energy policies to reduce our dependence on foreign oil. Therefore, the FORTNIGHTLY's editorial staff thought that this might be an opportune time to briefly examine some home-grown and environmentally responsible fuel alternatives to black gold. While some of these electricity-producing technologies are still on the horizon, others are available now

  19. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    The CMS Communications Group, established at the start of 2010, has been busy in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure There are now 55 CMS Centres worldwide that are well used by physicists working on remote CMS shifts, Computing operations, data quality monitoring, data analysis and outreach. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, is the centre of the CMS offline and computing operations, hosting dedicated analysis efforts such as during the CMS Heavy Ion lead-lead running. With a majority of CMS sub-detectors now operating in a “shifterless” mode, many monitoring operations are now routinely performed from there, rather than in the main Control Room at P5. The CMS Communications Group, CERN IT and the EVO team are providing excellent videoconferencing support for the rapidly-increasing number of CMS meetings. In parallel, CERN IT and ...

  20. Group therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In his review 'Genesis of Unified Gauge Theories' at the symposium in Honour of Abdus Salam (June, page 23), Tom Kibble of Imperial College, London, looked back to the physics events around Salam from 1959-67. He described how, in the early 1960s, people were pushing to enlarge the symmetry of strong interactions beyond the SU(2) of isospin and incorporate the additional strangeness quantum number. Kibble wrote - 'Salam had students working on every conceivable symmetry group. One of these was Yuval Ne'eman, who had the good fortune and/or prescience to work on SU(3). From that work, and of course from the independent work of Murray Gell- Mann, stemmed the Eightfold Way, with its triumphant vindication in the discovery of the omega-minus in 1964.' Yuval Ne'eman writes - 'I was the Defence Attaché at the Israeli Embassy in London and was admitted by Salam as a part-time graduate student when I arrived in 1958. I started research after resigning from the Embassy in May 1960. Salam suggested a problem: provide vector mesons with mass - the problem which was eventually solved by Higgs, Guralnik, Kibble,.... (as described by Kibble in his article). I explained to Salam that I had become interested in symmetry. Nobody at Imperial College at the time, other than Salam himself, was doing anything in groups, and attention further afield was focused on the rotation - SO(N) - groups. Reacting to my own half-baked schemes, Salam told me to forget about the rotation groups he taught us, and study group theory in depth, directing me to Eugene Dynkin's classification of Lie subalgebras, about which he had heard from Morton Hamermesh. I found Dynkin incomprehensible without first learning about Lie algebras from Henri Cartan's thesis, which luckily had been reproduced by Dynkin in his 1946 thesis, using his diagram method. From a copy of a translation of Dynkin's thesis which I found in the British Museum Library, I

  1. Local Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, M.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Not long after EDWIN HUBBLE established that galaxies are `island universes' similar to our home galaxy, the MILKY WAY, he realized that a few of these external galaxies are considerably closer to us than any others. In 1936 he first coined the term `Local Group' in his famous book The Realm of the Nebulae to identify our nearest galactic neighbors. More than 60 yr later, the galaxies of the Loca...

  2. Alternative and Integrative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are the healthcare rituals practiced by a given culture (eg, Asian, Indian, African). Homeopathic Medicine: This alternative medicine system is based on the principle that “like cures like.” In other words, the same substance ... American Brain Tumor Association 8550 W. Bryn Mawr Ave. ...

  3. Alternative Energy Busing

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFee, Scott

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, school districts have converted portions of their bus fleets to cleaner-burning, sometimes cheaper, alternative fossil fuels, such as compressed natural gas or propane. Others have adopted biodiesel, which combines regular diesel with fuel derived from organic sources, usually vegetable oils or animal fats. The number of biodiesel…

  4. Compensated pulsed alternator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention relates to an electromechanical energy converter with inertial energy storage. The device, a single phase, two or multi-pole alternator with stationary field coils, and a rotating armature is provided. The rotor itself may be of laminated steel for slower pulses or for faster pulses should be nonmagnetic and electrically nonconductive in order to allow rapid penetration of the field as the armature coil rotates. The armature coil comprises a plurality of power generating conductors mounted on the rotor. The alternator may also include a stationary or counterrotating compensating coil to increase the output voltage thereof and to reduce the internal impedance of the alternator at the moment of peak output. As the machine voltage rises sinusoidally, an external trigger switch is adapted to be closed at the appropriate time to create the desired output current from said alternator to an external load circuit, and as the output current passes through zero a self-commutating effect is provided to allow the switch to disconnect the generator from the external circuit

  5. Alternatives to Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children Today, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Notes that our capacity to diffuse conflict rests in our ability to recognize and verbalize feelings, develop empathy, and think of alternatives to violence. Explores the influence of role models and culture on violence and how the media can use violent images effectively in helping us confront a culture of violence. (HTH)

  6. Alternatives to Traditional Notation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaare, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Provides a introduction and overview to alternative music notation systems. Describes guitar tablature, accordion tablature, klavarskribo (a keyboard notational system developed by Cornelius Pot, a Dutch engineer), and the digital piano roll. Briefly discusses the history of notation reform and current efforts. Includes examples from scores. (MJP)

  7. Energy conversion alternatives study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shure, L. T.

    1979-01-01

    Comparison of coal based energy systems is given. Study identifies and compares various advanced energy conversion systems using coal or coal derived fuels for baselaoad electric power generation. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS) reports provede government, industry, and general public with technically consistent basis for comparison of system's options of interest for fossilfired electric-utility application.

  8. Alternatives in solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schueler, D. G.

    1978-01-01

    Although solar energy has the potential of providing a significant source of clean and renewable energy for a variety of applications, it is expected to penetrate the nation's energy economy very slowly. The alternative solar energy technologies which employ direct collection and conversion of solar radiation as briefly described.

  9. [Alternatives for Reading Teacher Educator Education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmatier, Robert A., Ed.

    1976-01-01

    The "Epistle" is the publication forum of Professors of Reading Teacher Educators, a special-interest group of the International Reading Association. The topic considered in this issue is alternatives or positive approaches for dealing with current concerns in graduate education in reading. In "Speculations on the Management of Retrenchment in…

  10. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2010-01-01

    The CMS Communications Group, established at the start of 2010, has been strengthening the activities in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure The Communications Group has invested a lot of effort to support the operations needs of CMS. Hence, the CMS Centres where physicists work on remote CMS shifts, Data Quality Monitoring, and Data Analysis are running very smoothly. There are now 55 CMS Centres worldwide, up from just 16 at the start of CMS data-taking. The latest to join are Imperial College London, the University of Iowa, and the Università di Napoli. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, which is now full repaired after the major flooding at the beginning of the year, has been at the centre of CMS offline and computing operations, most recently hosting a large fraction of the CMS Heavy Ion community during the lead-lead run. A number of sub-detector shifts can now take pla...

  11. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    The CMS Communications Group has been busy in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure The 55 CMS Centres worldwide are well used by physicists working on remote CMS shifts, Computing operations, data quality monitoring, data analysis and outreach. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, is the centre of the CMS Offline and Computing operations, and a number of subdetector shifts can now take place there, rather than in the main Control Room at P5. A new CMS meeting room has been equipped for videoconferencing in building 42, next to building 40. Our building 28 meeting room and the facilities at P5 will be refurbished soon and plans are underway to steadily upgrade the ageing equipment in all 15 CMS meeting rooms at CERN. The CMS evaluation of the Vidyo tool indicates that it is not yet ready to be considered as a potential replacement for EVO. The Communications Group provides the CMS-TV (web) cha...

  12. Cardiovascular group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomqvist, Gunnar

    1989-01-01

    As a starting point, the group defined a primary goal of maintaining in flight a level of systemic oxygen transport capacity comparable to each individual's preflight upright baseline. The goal of maintaining capacity at preflight levels would seem to be a reasonable objective for several different reasons, including the maintenance of good health in general and the preservation of sufficient cardiovascular reserve capacity to meet operational demands. It is also important not to introduce confounding variables in whatever other physiological studies are being performed. A change in the level of fitness is likely to be a significant confounding variable in the study of many organ systems. The principal component of the in-flight cardiovascular exercise program should be large-muscle activity such as treadmill exercise. It is desirable that at least one session per week be monitored to assure maintenance of proper functional levels and to provide guidance for any adjustments of the exercise prescription. Appropriate measurements include evaluation of the heart-rate/workload or the heart-rate/oxygen-uptake relationship. Respiratory gas analysis is helpful by providing better opportunities to document relative workload levels from analysis of the interrelationships among VO2, VCO2, and ventilation. The committee felt that there is no clear evidence that any particular in-flight exercise regimen is protective against orthostatic hypotension during the early readaptation phase. Some group members suggested that maintenance of the lower body muscle mass and muscle tone may be helpful. There is also evidence that late in-flight interventions to reexpand blood volume to preflight levels are helpful in preventing or minimizing postflight orthostatic hypotension.

  13. Adaptive Alternating Minimization Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Niesen, Urs; Wornell, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    The classical alternating minimization (or projection) algorithm has been successful in the context of solving optimization problems over two variables or equivalently of finding a point in the intersection of two sets. The iterative nature and simplicity of the algorithm has led to its application to many areas such as signal processing, information theory, control, and finance. A general set of sufficient conditions for the convergence and correctness of the algorithm is quite well-known when the underlying problem parameters are fixed. In many practical situations, however, the underlying problem parameters are changing over time, and the use of an adaptive algorithm is more appropriate. In this paper, we study such an adaptive version of the alternating minimization algorithm. As a main result of this paper, we provide a general set of sufficient conditions for the convergence and correctness of the adaptive algorithm. Perhaps surprisingly, these conditions seem to be the minimal ones one would expect in ...

  14. [Alternatives to animal testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Isabelle

    2009-11-01

    The use of alternative methods to animal testing are an integral part of the 3Rs concept (refine, reduce, replace) defined by Russel & Burch in 1959. These approaches include in silico methods (databases and computer models), in vitro physicochemical analysis, biological methods using bacteria or isolated cells, reconstructed enzyme systems, and reconstructed tissues. Emerging "omic" methods used in integrated approaches further help to reduce animal use, while stem cells offer promising approaches to toxicologic and pathophysiologic studies, along with organotypic cultures and bio-artificial organs. Only a few alternative methods can so far be used in stand-alone tests as substitutes for animal testing. The best way to use these methods is to integrate them in tiered testing strategies (ITS), in which animals are only used as a last resort. PMID:20669543

  15. Alternatives to Higgs scalars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss alternatives to the Higgs Scalar doublet Φ of the minimal standard model. In particular we review technicolor (TC) and extended technicolor (ETC), and show that the threat of flavour changing neutral currents (FCNC's) is avoided by walking TC and/or strongly coupled ETC. The phenomenology of minimal TC and the techni-family is discussed. Finally we consider the possibility that the Higgs doublet Φ is a composite bound state of quarks from the third (or fourth) family

  16. Alternatives to ECMO.

    OpenAIRE

    Donn, S M

    1994-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed technological advancements which are unparalleled in neonatology. ECMO has been demonstrated to be a powerful rescue treatment, but has perhaps been overutilised and is not universally available. Alternative treatments have been shown to be both safe and efficacious in the management of infants with respiratory failure. Direct head to head clinical trials will probably be necessary to establish appropriate criteria and indications for use, given the wide diversit...

  17. Alternative approaches in IVF

    OpenAIRE

    Fauser, Bart; Bouchard, P.; Coelingh Bennink, H.J.; Collins, John; Devroey, P.; Evers, Johannes; Van Steirteghem, A

    2002-01-01

    textabstractVarious new developments in clinical and basic science which may impact on IVF in the near or distant future will be discussed in this review. These key areas include the regulation of early follicle development and the extended in-vitro culture of oocytes and embryos. Moreover, alternative compounds and ovarian stimulation protocols will be discussed, along with highlights in the development of the cryopreservation of excess oocytes or embryos. Finally, the health economics of IV...

  18. Metamaterials critique and alternatives

    CERN Document Server

    Munk, Ben A

    2009-01-01

    A Convincing and Controversial Alternative Explanation of Metamaterials with a Negative Index of Refraction In a book that will generate both support and controversy, one of the world's foremost authorities on periodic structures addresses several of the current fashions in antenna design-most specifically, the popular subject of double negative metamaterials. Professor Munk provides a comprehensive theoretical electromagnetic investigation of the issues and concludes that many of the phenomena claimed by researchers may be impossible. While denying the existence of negative refractio

  19. Outlook for alternative transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gushee, D.E. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This presentation provides a brief review of regulatory issues and Federal programs regarding alternative fuel use in automobiles. A number of U.S. DOE initiatives and studies aimed at increasing alternative fuels are outlined, and tax incentives in effect at the state and Federal levels are discussed. Data on alternative fuel consumption and alternative fuel vehicle use are also presented. Despite mandates, tax incentives, and programs, it is concluded alternative fuels will have minimal market penetration. 7 refs., 5 tabs.

  20. Alternative Energy Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Michaelides, Efstathios E (Stathis)

    2012-01-01

    Alternative Energy Sources is designed to give the reader, a clear view of the role each form of alternative energy may play in supplying the energy needs of the human society in the near and intermediate future (20-50 years).   The two first chapters on energy demand and supply and environmental effects, set the tone as to why the widespread use of alternative energy is essential for the future of human society. The third chapter exposes the reader to the laws of energy conversion processes, as well as the limitations of converting one energy form to another. The sections on exergy give a succinct, quantitative background on the capability/potential of each energy source to produce power on a global scale. The fourth, fifth and sixth chapters are expositions of fission and fusion nuclear energy. The following five chapters (seventh to eleventh) include detailed descriptions of the most common renewable energy sources – wind, solar, geothermal, biomass, hydroelectric – and some of the less common sources...

  1. State alternative route designations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a ``state routing agency,`` defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective.

  2. State alternative route designations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a state routing agency,'' defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective.

  3. Alternative Fuels: Research Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chapter 1: Pollutant Emissions and Combustion Characteristics of Biofuels and Biofuel/Diesel Blends in Laminar and Turbulent Gas Jet Flames. R. N. Parthasarathy, S. R. Gollahalli Chapter 2: Sustainable Routes for The Production of Oxygenated High-Energy Density Biofuels from Lignocellulosic Biomass. Juan A. Melero, Jose Iglesias, Gabriel Morales, Marta Paniagua Chapter 3: Optical Investigations of Alternative-Fuel Combustion in an HSDI Diesel Engine. T. Huelser, M. Jakob, G. Gruenefeld, P. Adomeit, S. Pischinger Chapter 4: An Insight into Biodiesel Physico-Chemical Properties and Exhaust Emissions Based on Statistical Elaboration of Experimental Data. Evangelos G. Giakoumis Chapter 5: Biodiesel: A Promising Alternative Energy Resource. A.E. Atabani Chapter 6: Alternative Fuels for Internal Combustion Engines: An Overview of the Current Research. Ahmed A. Taha, Tarek M. Abdel-Salam, Madhu Vellakal Chapter 7: Investigating the Hydrogen-Natural Gas Blends as a Fuel in Internal Combustion Engine. ?lker YILMAZ Chapter 8: Conversion of Bus Diesel Engine into LPG Gaseous Engine; Method and Experiments Validation. M. A. Jemni , G. Kantchev , Z. Driss , R. Saaidia , M. S. Abid Chapter 9: Predicting the Combustion Performance of Different Vegetable Oils-Derived Biodiesel Fuels. Qing Shu, ChangLin Yu Chapter 10: Production of Gasoline, Naphtha, Kerosene, Diesel, and Fuel Oil Range Fuels from Polypropylene and Polystyrene Waste Plastics Mixture by Two-Stage Catalytic Degradation using ZnO. Moinuddin Sarker, Mohammad Mamunor Rashid

  4. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2010-01-01

    The recently established CMS Communications Group, led by Lucas Taylor, has been busy in all three of its main are areas of responsibility: Communications Infrastructure, Information Systems, and Outreach and Education Communications Infrastructure The damage caused by the flooding of the CMS Centre@CERN on 21st December has been completely repaired and all systems are back in operation. Major repairs were made to the roofs, ceilings and one third of the floor had to be completely replaced. Throughout these works, the CMS Centre was kept operating and even hosted a major press event for first 7 TeV collisions, as described below. Incremental work behind the scenes is steadily improving the quality of the CMS communications infrastructure, particularly Webcasting, video conferencing, and meeting rooms at CERN. CERN/IT is also deploying a pilot service of a new videoconference tool called Vidyo, to assess whether it might provide an enhanced service at a lower cost, compared to the EVO tool currently in w...

  5. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Communications Infrastructure The 55 CMS Centres worldwide are well used by physicists working on remote CMS shifts, Computing operations, data quality monitoring, data analysis and outreach. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin is particularly busy at the moment, hosting about 50 physicists taking part in the heavy-ion data-taking and analysis. Three new CMS meeting room will be equipped for videoconferencing in early 2012: 40/5B-08, 42/R-031, and 28/S-029. The CMS-TV service showing LHC Page 1, CMS Page 1, etc. (http://cmsdoc.cern.ch/cmscc/projector/index.jsp) is now also available for mobile devices: http://cern.ch/mcmstv. Figure 12: Screenshots of CMS-TV for mobile devices Information Systems CMS has a new web site: (http://cern.ch/cms) using a modern web Content Management System to ensure content and links are managed and updated easily and coherently. It covers all CMS sub-projects and groups, replacing the iCMS internal pages. It also incorporates the existing CMS public web site (http:/...

  6. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2012-01-01

      Outreach and Education We are fortunate that our research has captured the public imagination, even though this inevitably puts us under the global media spotlight, as we saw with the Higgs seminar at CERN in December, which had 110,000 distinct webcast viewers. The media interest was huge with 71 media organisations registering to come to CERN to cover the Higgs seminar, which was followed by a press briefing with the DG and Spokespersons. This event resulted in about 2,000 generally positive stories in the global media. For this seminar, the CMS Communications Group prepared up-to-date news and public material, including links to the CMS results, animations and event displays [http://cern.ch/go/Ch8thttp://cern.ch/go/Ch8t]. There were 44,000 page-views on the CMS public website, with the Higgs news article being by far the most popular item. CMS event displays from iSpy are fast becoming the iconic media images, featuring on numerous major news outlets (BBC, CNN, MSN...) as well as in the sci...

  7. Alternate fuels; Combustibles alternos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Paredes R, Hernando; Ambriz G, Juan Jose [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana. Iztapalapa (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    In the definition and description of alternate fuels we must center ourselves in those technological alternatives that allow to obtain compounds that differ from the traditional ones, in their forms to be obtained. In this article it is tried to give an overview of alternate fuels to the conventional derivatives of petroleum and that allow to have a clear idea on the tendencies of modern investigation and the technological developments that can be implemented in the short term. It is not pretended to include all the tendencies and developments of the present world, but those that can hit in a relatively short term, in accordance with agreed with the average life of conventional fuels. Nevertheless, most of the conversion principles are applicable to the spectrum of carbonaceous or cellulosic materials which are in nature, are cultivated or wastes of organic origin. Thus one will approach them in a successive way, the physical, chemical and biological conversions that can take place in a production process of an alternate fuel or the same direct use of the fuel such as burning the sweepings derived from the forests. [Spanish] En la definicion y descripcion de combustibles alternos nos debemos centrar en aquellas alternativas tecnologicas que permitan obtener compuestos que difieren de los tradicionales, al menos en sus formas de ser obtenidos. En este articulo se pretende dar un panorama de los combustibles alternos a los convencionales derivados del petroleo y que permita tener una idea clara sobre las tendencias de la investigacion moderna y los desarrollos tecnologicos que puedan ser implementados en el corto plazo. No se pretende abarcar todas las tendencias y desarrollos del mundo actual, sino aquellas que pueden impactar en un plazo relativamente corto, acordes con la vida media de los combustibles convencionales. Sin embargo, la mayor parte de los principios de conversion son aplicables al espectro de materiales carbonaceos o celulosicos los cuales se

  8. Alternate fusion concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review summarizes the status of alternate fusion concepts and plans for their future. The concepts selected for review are those employing electromagnetic confinement for which there have been reasonable predictions of net energy gain from pure fusion and which have shown significant recent development or are the subjects of ongoing international activity. They include advanced tokamaks, stellarators, the spherical torus, reversed-field pinch and dense z-field pinch devices, field reversed configuration, and spheromaks. In addition, an overall view of the status of each concept with respect to achieving ignition and to reactor designs is presented

  9. Alternate transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zertuche, Tony; Mckinnie, James

    1988-01-01

    Three missions have been identified by NASA for a Space Shuttle-supplementing Alternate Transportation System (ATS) encompassing combinations of booster vehicles, crew modules, and service modules: (1) to achieve manned access to orbit for Space Station crew rotation every 90 days, (2) the lofting of a logistics module resupplying the Space Station every 180 days, and (3) the simultaneous launch of both crews and logistics to the Space Station. A reentry glider is considered, in conjunction with the Space Shuttle's unmanned cargo version and the Apollo manned capsule, as an important ATS element. The Titan IV/NUS is used as a booster.

  10. Polyphase alternating codes

    OpenAIRE

    M. Markkanen; Vierinen, J.; Markkanen, J.

    2007-01-01

    We present a new class of alternating codes. Instead of the customary binary phase codes, the new codes utilize either p or p–1 phases, where p is a prime number. The first class of codes has code length pm, where m is a positive integer, the second class has code length p–1. We give an actual construction algorithm, and explain the principles behind it. We ...

  11. Polyphase alternating codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Markkanen

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a new class of alternating codes. Instead of the customary binary phase codes, the new codes utilize either p or p–1 phases, where p is a prime number. The first class of codes has code length pm, where m is a positive integer, the second class has code length p–1. We give an actual construction algorithm, and explain the principles behind it. We handle a few specific examples in detail. The new codes offer an enlarged collection of code lengths for radar experiments.

  12. Supporting Female Students in Mathematics for Alternative Certification Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Brian R.

    2013-01-01

    This article is a follow-up to the last editor's perspective article about supporting new alternative certification teachers as they teach students from underrepresented groups in mathematics (Evans, 2013). The focus for this article narrows the scope to emphasize support needed for female mathematics students. Alternative certification teachers…

  13. Alternate Gauge Electroweak Model

    CERN Document Server

    Dalton, Bill

    2010-01-01

    We describe an alternate gauge electroweak model that permits neutrinos with mass, and at the same time explains why right-handed neutrinos do not appear in weak interactions. This is a local gauge theory involving a space [V ] of three scalar functions. The standard Lagrangian density for the Yang-Mills field part and Higgs doublet remain invariant. A ma jor change is made in the transformation and corresponding Lagrangian density parts involving the right-handed leptons. A picture involving two types of right-handed leptons emerges. A dichotomy of matter on the [V ] space corresponds to coupled and uncoupled right-handed Leptons. Here, we describe a covariant dipole-mode solution in which the neutral bosons A{\\mu} and Z{\\mu} produce precessions on [V ]. The W {\\pm} {\\mu} bosons provide nutations on [V ], and consequently, provide transitions between the coupled and uncoupled regions. To elucidate the [V ] space matter dichotomy, and to generate the boson masses, we also provide an alternate potential Lagran...

  14. Alternative Medicine and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Complementary and Alternative Medicine KidsHealth > For Parents > Complementary and Alternative Medicine Print ... works. previous continue How CAM Differs From Traditional Medicine CAM is frequently distinguished by its holistic methods, ...

  15. Pea Island Alternatives Development Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this Alternatives Development Report is to outline,in broad scope, the options, tools and alternatives available to the US Fish and Wildlife Service...

  16. Alternative splicing and muscular dystrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Pistoni, Mariaelena; Ghigna, Claudia; Gabellini, Davide

    2010-01-01

    Alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs is a major contributor to proteomic diversity and to the control of gene expression in higher eukaryotic cells. For this reasons, alternative splicing is tightly regulated in different tissues and developmental stages and its disruption can lead to a wide range of human disorders. The aim of this review is to focus on the relevance of alternative splicing for muscle function and muscle disease. We begin by giving a brief overview of alternative splicing, musc...

  17. ALTERNATIVE FUELS FOR DIESEL ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Caban

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development and genesis of the use of alternative fuels in internal combustion ignition engines. Based on the analysis of the literature, this article shows various alternative fuels used in Poland and all over the world. Furthermore, this article describes the research directions for alternative fuels use in road transport powered by diesel engines.

  18. ALTERNATIVE FUELS FOR DIESEL ENGINES

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek Caban; Agata Gniecka; Lukáš Holeša

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the development and genesis of the use of alternative fuels in internal combustion ignition engines. Based on the analysis of the literature, this article shows various alternative fuels used in Poland and all over the world. Furthermore, this article describes the research directions for alternative fuels use in road transport powered by diesel engines.

  19. Alternative tsunami models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, A; Lyatskaya, I [Department of Physics, Alabama A and M University, Normal, AL 35762 (United States)], E-mail: arjun.tan@aamu.edu

    2009-01-15

    The interesting papers by Margaritondo (2005 Eur. J. Phys. 26 401) and by Helene and Yamashita (2006 Eur. J. Phys. 27 855) analysed the great Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004 using a simple one-dimensional canal wave model, which was appropriate for undergraduate students in physics and related fields of discipline. In this paper, two additional, easily understandable models, suitable for the same level of readership, are proposed: one, a two-dimensional model in flat space, and two, the same on a spherical surface. The models are used to study the tsunami produced by the central Kuril earthquake of November 2006. It is shown that the two alternative models, especially the latter one, give better representations of the wave amplitude, especially at far-flung locations. The latter model further demonstrates the enhancing effect on the amplitude due to the curvature of the Earth for far-reaching tsunami propagation.

  20. Alternatives to neoliberalism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warring, Niels; Ahrenkiel, Annegrethe; Nielsen, Birger Steen;

    This paper will discuss the consequences of neoliberal governance in Danish day care centres, the social educators’ response, and the possible development of alternatives based on collective participation of social educators and union representatives. We will show how important and unnoticed...... professional competencies come under pressure, and how collective interest representation is challenged. We will discuss how concepts of “gestural knowledge”, “coherence” and “rhythm” open for a new understanding of professional competence. And we will conclude that the social educators and their unions have...... the possibility to contribute to the development of a new welfare paradigm. The paper is based on material from two research projects (Ahrenkiel et al. 2009, 2011) involving social educators and union representatives in day care institutions. We have observed everyday work activities in day care...

  1. Alternate laser fusion drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One objective of research on inertial confinement fusion is the development of a power generating system based on this concept. Realization of this goal will depend on the availability of a suitable laser or other system to drive the power plant. The primary laser systems used for laser fusion research, Nd3+: Glass and CO2, have characteristics which may preclude their use for this application. Glass lasers are presently perceived to be incapable of sufficiently high average power operation and the CO2 laser may be limited by and issues associated with target coupling. These general perceptions have encouraged a search for alternatives to the present systems. The search for new lasers has been directed generally towards shorter wavelengths; most of the new lasers discovered in the past few years have been in the visible and ultraviolet region of the spectrum. Virtually all of them have been advocated as the most promising candidate for a fusion driver at one time or another

  2. LIU: exploring alternative ideas

    CERN Document Server

    Damerau, H; Garoby, R; Gilardoni, S; Hancock, S; Mikulec, B; Papaphilippou, Y; Rumolo, G; Shaposhnikova, E; Tomas, R

    2014-01-01

    The baseline upgrade scenarios for the injector complex cover the connection of Linac4 to the PSB, the increase of the PSB-PS transfer energy from 1 . 4 GeV to 2 GeV and the major SPS RF upgrade during LS2. The achievable beam characteristics will nonetheless remain below the expectation of the HL-LHC project. Therefore, alternative or additional options like, e.g., special bunch distributions, the use of injection optics optimized for high space charge or extra RF systems will be discussed. The expected beam parameters, possible implementation and impact on beam availability for these more exotic options will be analysed and compared to the LIU baseline plan. Moreover, the potential interest of further batch compression schemes will be evaluated.

  3. An Alternative to Tensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Eric

    2008-10-01

    Some of the most beautiful and complex theories in physics are formulated in the language of tensors. While powerful, these methods are sometimes daunting to the uninitiated. I will introduce the use of Clifford Algebra as a practical alternative to the use of tensors. Many physical quantities can be represented in an indexless form. The boundary between the classical and the quantum worlds becomes a little more transparent. I will review some key concepts, and then talk about some of the things that I am doing with this interesting and powerful tool. Of note to some will be the development of rigid body dynamics for a game engine. Others may be interested in expressing the connection on a spin bundle. My intent is to prove to the audience that there exists an accessible mathematical tool that can be employed to probe the most difficult of topics in physics.

  4. 44 CFR Appendix A(4) to Part 61 - Appendix A(4) to Part 61

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... notice sent to you in conjunction with the community inspection procedure established under 44 CFR 59.30... procedure set forth in National Flood Insurance Program Regulations (44 CFR 59.30). During the several years... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appendix A(4) to Part 61...

  5. Embedding Post-Capitalist Alternatives: The Global Network of Alternative Knowledge Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William K. Carroll

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1970s, transnational alternative policy groups (TAPGs have emerged as a component of global civil society, generating visions and strategies for a "globalization from below" that point toward post-capitalist alternatives. Here, we map the global network ofTAPGs and kindred international groups in order to discern how TAPGs are embedded in a larger formation. In this era of capitalist globalization, do TAPGs, like their hegemonic counterparts, bridge across geographic spaces (e.g. North-South and movement domains to foster the convergence across difference that is taken as a criterial attribute of a counter-hegemonic historical bloc? Our network analysis suggests that TAPGs are well placed to participate in the transformation of the democratic globalization network from a gelatinous and unselfconscious state, into an historical bloc capable of collective action toward an alternative global order. However, there are gaps in the bloc, having to do with the representation and integration of regions and movement domains, and with the salience of post-capitalism as a unifying social vision. Also, our architectonic network analysis does not reveal what the various relations and mediations in which TAPGs are active agents actually mean in concrete practice. There is a need both for closer analysis of the specific kinds of relations that link transnational alternative policy groups to other international actors, including intergovernmental organizations and funding foundations, and for field work that explores the actual practices of these groups, in situ.

  6. An Alternative Hypothesis for Special Relativity

    OpenAIRE

    Eckardt H.

    2009-01-01

    An alternative theory being analogous to Einstein’s special theory of relativity is pre- sented. While Einstein based his theory on the relativity principle of motion and con- stancy of the velocity of light, this theory assumes an absolute frame of reference and a general length contraction. Both concepts are taken from general relativity and applied to an asymptotically flat space. This results in a transformation group being differ- ent from the Lorentz transfo...

  7. Commercially available alternatives to palm oil

    OpenAIRE

    Hinrichsen, Nils

    2016-01-01

    Since several years there has been a demand for food products free of palm oil, noticeable in the Western European market. Alternatives based on liquid oils, fully hydrogenated fats, and exotic fats like shea and sal etc., have been developed by the research groups of several specialty oils and fats suppliers. This article describes the advantages and disadvantages of those products and compares them to similar products based on palm oil. It is also discussed how reasonable the replacement of...

  8. Journey: The Gang Alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellaw, Bonni

    1992-01-01

    An intensive three-day program at the Pines Catholic Camp, followed by weekly support meetings, aim to prevent Dallas teens from turning to gang participation. Program components include personal goal setting, commitment to a code of conduct, and physical activities that promote group unity and positive peer pressure. (SV)

  9. Borrowers’ Participation in Group Borrowing

    OpenAIRE

    Tutlani, Ankur

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Borrowers’ participation in MFI group lending credit market is not insured because of the alternative sources of credit available. The question arises what is the ideal MFI interest rate to ensure borrowers’ participation which at the same time being financially viable for MFI. The paper attempts to answer this question and analyzes the borrowers’ trade-off of borrowing from MFI or from moneylender (ML). Results show that borrowers may find comparative advantage in borrowing individ...

  10. Alternative techniques in root canal debridement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, Ruxandra; Todea, Carmen; Bǎlǎbuc, Cosmin; Nica, Luminita; Armani, Giacomo; Locovei, Cosmin

    2014-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that conventional chemo-mechanical preparation is limited regarding the decontamination of the endodontic space, which is why alternative techniques such as laser radiation have their importance in the modern endodontic treatment. The present study aims to assess the possibility of improving the debridement of the root canals by removing smear layer using Er: YAG laser radiation. We used 18 extracted teeth, which were subjected to the same initial protocol and then divided into 5 study groups: the control group has not been treated with laser; the other 4 groups were exposed to laser radiation using two different geometries peaks of quartz and two energy levels. Scanning electronic microscopy revealed an increased efficiency in the debridement of all interested areas when using PIPS and XPulse tips at proper energy. In the two groups treated with inferior laser energy, the debridement didn't prove to be superior to the conventional treatment.

  11. The bumper module of the Audi A4; Das Stossfaengersystem des Audi A4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haberer, K. [Audi AG, Ingolstadt (Germany)

    2000-11-01

    Special attention was given to the bumper module of the new A4 during the development process. It is notable for its flush integration into the body, with 'zero' clearances and short overhangs. The module includes the bumper supports, the outer covering, the air inlet grille, the fog lights and the horns. Optional extras are an integrated ultrasonic 'Acoustic Parking System' (either front and rear or at the rear only) and a headlamp washer system. Both the bumper support and the deformation elements are made of weight-saving aluminium. The holder for the towing lug has been integrated into the right-hand deformation element and the towing forces are borne centrally by the side member. (orig.) [German] Dem Stossfaengermodul des neuen A4 wurde bei der Entwicklung besondere Aufmerksamkeit gewidmet. Es zeichnet sich durch eine buendige Formintegration in die Karosserie mit sogenannten Nullfugen und durch kurze Karosserieueberstaende aus. (orig.)

  12. The nuclear power alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Director General of the IAEA stressed the need for energy policies and other measures which would help to slow and eventually halt the present build-up of carbon dioxide, methane and other so-called greenhouse gases, which are held to cause global warming. He urged that nuclear power and various other sources of energy, none of which contribute to global warming, should not be seen as alternatives, but should all be used to counteract the greenhouse effect. He pointed out that the commercially used renewable energies, apart from hydropower, currently represent only 0.3% of the world's energy consumption and, by contrast, the 5% of the world's energy consumption coming from nuclear power is not insignificant. Dr. Blix noted that opposition for nuclear power stems from fear of accidents and concern about the nuclear wastes. But no generation of electricity, whether by coal, hydro, gas or nuclear power, is without some risk. He emphasized that safety can never be a static concept, and that many new measures are being taken by governments and by the IAEA to further strengthen the safety of nuclear power

  13. Hospital diversification: evaluating alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, L

    1987-05-01

    The appropriateness of diversification as a growth strategy for hospitals is discussed, and planning for diversification is described. Because new forms of health-care delivery are now in direct competition with hospitals, many hospitals are confronting environmental pressures and preparing for future survival through diversification. To explore the potential risks and benefits of diversification, the hospital must identify opportunities for new business ventures. Diversification can be "related," through an expansion of the primary product line (health care), or "unrelated," into areas not directly associated with health care. The hospital must establish specific criteria for evaluating each diversification alternative, and the two or three most attractive options should be analyzed further through a financial feasibility study. The hospital should also seek legal advice to determine the implications of diversification for maintenance of tax status, antitrust limitations, and applicability of certificate of need. Although diversification may not be appropriate for every institution, hospitals should consider it as a strategy for increasing their revenue base, confronting environmental pressures, and securing future survival. PMID:3300300

  14. Detecting alternative graph clusterings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandala, Supreet; Kumara, Soundar; Yao, Tao

    2012-07-01

    The problem of graph clustering or community detection has enjoyed a lot of attention in complex networks literature. A quality function, modularity, quantifies the strength of clustering and on maximization yields sensible partitions. However, in most real world networks, there are an exponentially large number of near-optimal partitions with some being very different from each other. Therefore, picking an optimal clustering among the alternatives does not provide complete information about network topology. To tackle this problem, we propose a graph perturbation scheme which can be used to identify an ensemble of near-optimal and diverse clusterings. We establish analytical properties of modularity function under the perturbation which ensures diversity. Our approach is algorithm independent and therefore can leverage any of the existing modularity maximizing algorithms. We numerically show that our methodology can systematically identify very different partitions on several existing data sets. The knowledge of diverse partitions sheds more light into the topological organization and helps gain a more complete understanding of the underlying complex network.

  15. Hospital diversification: evaluating alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, L

    1987-05-01

    The appropriateness of diversification as a growth strategy for hospitals is discussed, and planning for diversification is described. Because new forms of health-care delivery are now in direct competition with hospitals, many hospitals are confronting environmental pressures and preparing for future survival through diversification. To explore the potential risks and benefits of diversification, the hospital must identify opportunities for new business ventures. Diversification can be "related," through an expansion of the primary product line (health care), or "unrelated," into areas not directly associated with health care. The hospital must establish specific criteria for evaluating each diversification alternative, and the two or three most attractive options should be analyzed further through a financial feasibility study. The hospital should also seek legal advice to determine the implications of diversification for maintenance of tax status, antitrust limitations, and applicability of certificate of need. Although diversification may not be appropriate for every institution, hospitals should consider it as a strategy for increasing their revenue base, confronting environmental pressures, and securing future survival.

  16. Principles of alternative gerontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilinski, Tomasz; Bylak, Aneta; Zadrag-Tecza, Renata

    2016-04-01

    Surveys of taxonomic groups of animals have shown that contrary to the opinion of most gerontologists aging is not a genuine trait. The process of aging is not universal and its mechanisms have not been widely conserved among species. All life forms are subject to extrinsic and intrinsic destructive forces. Destructive effects of stochastic events are visible only when allowed by the specific life program of an organism. Effective life programs of immortality and high longevity eliminate the impact of unavoidable damage. Organisms that are capable of agametic reproduction are biologically immortal. Mortality of an organism is clearly associated with terminal specialisation in sexual reproduction. The longevity phenotype that is not accompanied by symptoms of senescence has been observed in those groups of animals that continue to increase their body size after reaching sexual maturity. This is the result of enormous regeneration abilities of both of the above-mentioned groups. Senescence is observed when: (i) an organism by principle switches off the expression of existing growth and regeneration programs, as in the case of imago formation in insect development; (ii) particular programs of growth and regeneration of progenitors are irreversibly lost, either partially or in their entirety, in mammals and birds. PMID:27017907

  17. In silico modeling of the molecular structure and binding of leukotriene A4 into leukotriene A4 hydrolase

    CERN Document Server

    Paz, Paula B; Estrada, Mario R; Martinez, Juan C Garro

    2012-01-01

    A combined molecular docking and molecular structure in silico analysis on the substrate and product of leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) was performed. The molecular structures of the substrate leukotriene A4 (LTA4) and product leukotirene B4 (LTB4) were studied through Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d) level of theory in both, gas and condensed phases. The whole LTB4 molecule was divided into three fragments (hydrophobic tail, triene motif, and a polar acidic group) which were subjected to a full conformational study employing the most stable conformations of them to build conformers of the complete molecule and geometry optimize further. LTA4 conformers structures were modeled from the LTB4 minimum energy conformers. Both, protonated and deprotonated species of LTA4 and LTB4, were analyzed according to pKa values founded in the literature. Finally, a binding model of LTA4 with LTA4 hydrolase is proposed according to docking results which show intermolecular interactions tha...

  18. Facebook Groups as LMS: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meishar-Tal, Hagit; Kurtz, Gila; Pieterse, Efrat

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a pilot study in using Facebook as an alternative to a learning management system (LMS). The paper reviews the current research on the use of Facebook in academia and analyzes the differences between a Facebook group and a regular LMS. The paper reports on a precedent-setting attempt to use a Facebook group as a course…

  19. Alternative Genres of IS Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avital, Michel; Mathiassen, Lars; Crowston, Kevin;

    2012-01-01

    perspectives, research methods, semantic framing, literary styles, and media of expression. Overall, the application of alternative genres is considered to be a generative act that provides an opportunity to take a fresh look and to gain deeper understanding of the subject matter. Nonetheless, paradoxically......The potential value of alternative genres in IS research is the core question that drives this panel discussion. The term “Alternative Genres” refers to unconventional forms of thinking, doing, and communicating scholarship and practice. It relates to innovation with respect to epistemological...... the prevailing genres have much inertia, in spite of the inherent boundary spanning nature of alternative genres. Building on their own recent empirical research, the panelists will debate the potential value of alternative genres as unconventional modality of IS scholarship and how alternative genres might...

  20. Alternative Threat Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles B. King III

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the many challenges facing risk analysis practitioners, perhaps the most difficult to overcome is in the field of terrorist threat analysis. When estimating the threat associated with naturally occurring events, historical data provides a great deal of insight into the frequency of those events. Threat associated with accidents applies many operations research tools to gauge future failure-rates (Failure Mode and Effects Analysis being perhaps the most widely known. However, estimating the probability of an individual's or group's attacking a specific (or even a generic target is an element of risk analysis in which art and intuition are applied far more regularly than is science.

  1. Alternative fuelds in urban fleets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, T.

    1994-12-31

    In this presentation the author addresses four main objectives. They are to: discuss programs that are driving the introduction of alternative fuels into fleet operations in urban areas around the country; define alternative fuels; quantify the present use and future projections on alternative fuel vehicles (AVFs) in the Chicago metropolitan statistical area; and discuss benefits of increased use of alternative fuels in urban areas. Factors which touch on these points include: present domestic dependence on petroleum for autos, with usage exceeding production; the large populations in urban areas which do not meet Clean Air Standards; recent legislative initiatives which give guidance and aid in the adoption of such strategies.

  2. Alternative fuelds in urban fleets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this presentation the author addresses four main objectives. They are to: discuss programs that are driving the introduction of alternative fuels into fleet operations in urban areas around the country; define alternative fuels; quantify the present use and future projections on alternative fuel vehicles (AVFs) in the Chicago metropolitan statistical area; and discuss benefits of increased use of alternative fuels in urban areas. Factors which touch on these points include: present domestic dependence on petroleum for autos, with usage exceeding production; the large populations in urban areas which do not meet Clean Air Standards; recent legislative initiatives which give guidance and aid in the adoption of such strategies

  3. Private Housing or Alternative Financing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Nick

    1999-01-01

    Explores the history of privatizing university housing and some current financing options, including use of developer and private foundations. Examples of successful alternative financing methods are highlighted. (GR)

  4. Economic analysis of alternative LLW disposal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has evaluated the costs and benefits of alternative disposal technologies as part of its program to develop generally applicable environmental standards for the land disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). Costs, population health effects and Critical Population Group (CPG) exposures resulting from alternative waste treatment and disposal methods were evaluated both in absolute terms and also relative to a base case (current practice). Incremental costs of the standard included costs for packaging, processing, transportation, and burial of waste. Benefits are defined in terms of reductions in the general population health risk (expected fatal cancers and genetic effects) evaluated over 10,000 years. A cost-effectiveness ratio, defined as the incremental cost per avoided health effect, was calculated for each alternative standard. The cost-effectiveness analysis took into account a number of waste streams, hydrogeologic and climatic region settings, and waste treatment and disposal methods. This paper describes the alternatives considered and preliminary results of the cost-effectiveness analysis. 15 references, 7 figures, 3 tables

  5. Normetex Pump Alternatives Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Elliot A.

    2013-04-25

    A mainstay pump for tritium systems, the Normetex scroll pump, is currently unavailable because the Normetex company went out of business. This pump was an all-metal scroll pump that served tritium processing facilities very well. Current tritium system operators are evaluating replacement pumps for the Normetex pump and for general used in tritium service. An all-metal equivalent alternative to the Normetex pump has not yet been identified. 1. The ideal replacement tritium pump would be hermetically sealed and contain no polymer components or oils. Polymers and oils degrade over time when they contact ionizing radiation. 2. Halogenated polymers (containing fluorine, chlorine, or both) and oils are commonly found in pumps. These materials have many properties that surpass those of hydrocarbon-based polymers and oils, including thermal stability (higher operating temperature) and better chemical resistance. Unfortunately, they are less resistant to degradation from ionizing radiation than hydrocarbon-based materials (in general). 3. Polymers and oils can form gaseous, condensable (HF, TF), liquid, and solid species when exposed to ionizing radiation. For example, halogenated polymers form HF and HCl, which are extremely corrosive upon reaction with water. If a pump containing polymers or oils must be used in a tritium system, the system must be designed to be able to process the unwanted by-products. Design features to mitigate degradation products include filters and chemical or physical traps (eg. cold traps, oil traps). 4. Polymer components can work in tritium systems, but must be replaced regularly. Polymer components performance should be monitored or be regularly tested, and regular replacement of components should be viewed as an expected normal event. A radioactive waste stream must be established to dispose of used polymer components and oil with an approved disposal plan developed based on the facility location and its regulators. Polymers have varying

  6. Integrated Groups and Smooth Distribution Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pedro J. MIANA

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we prove directly that α-times integrated groups define algebra homo-morphisms. We also give a theorem of equivalence between smooth distribution groups and α-times integrated groups.

  7. Alternate laser fusion drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past few years, several laser systems have been considered as possible laser fusion drivers. Recently, there has been an increasing effort to evaluate these systems in terms of a reactor driver application. The specifications for such a system have become firmer and generally more restrictive. Several of the promising candidates such as the group VI laser, the metal vapor excimers and some solid state lasers can be eliminated on the basis of inefficiency. New solid state systems may impact the long range development of a fusion driver. Of the short wavelength gas lasers, the KrF laser used in conjunction with Raman compression and pulse stacking techniques is the most promising approach. Efficiencies approaching 10% may be possible with this system. While technically feasible, these approaches are complex and costly and are unsatisfying in an aethetic sense. A search for new lasers with more compelling features is still needed

  8. Which finite simple groups are unit groups?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Christopher James; Occhipinti, Tommy

    2014-01-01

    We prove that if G is a finite simple group which is the unit group of a ring, then G is isomorphic to either (a) a cyclic group of order 2; (b) a cyclic group of prime order 2^k −1 for some k; or (c) a projective special linear group PSLn(F2) for some n ≥ 3. Moreover, these groups do all occur as...... unit groups. We deduce this classification from a more general result, which holds for groups G with no non-trivial normal 2-subgroup....

  9. A comparative study of CYP3A4 polymorphisms in Mexican Amerindian and Mestizo populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Hernández, Octavio D; Lares-Asseff, Ismael; Sosa-Macias, Martha; Vega, Libia; Albores, Arnulfo; Elizondo, Guillermo

    2008-01-01

    Cytochrome P-450 3A4 (CYP3A4) contributes to the metabolism of approximately half the drugs in clinical use today. The aim of the present study was to determine the frequency of the CYP3A4*1B, *2, *4, *5, and *18 alleles amongst both Tepehuan Amerindians, a native group that has inhabited northern Mexico for thousands of years, and Mestizo Mexicans, and to compare the data with those of other populations. Genotyping experiments revealed that 8.8 and 8.0% of the Mestizo and Tepehuano subjects, respectively, carried the CYP3A4*1B allele. Only one Mestizo subject was heterozygous for the CYP3A4*2 variant, while CYP3A4*4, *5 and *18 allelic variants were not detected in either group. On the other hand, the frequencies of the CYP3A4*1B variant in Mestizos and Tepehuanos were similar to those reported for Caucasians, but different from those observed for African and Asian populations.

  10. Alternatives of menopausal hormone therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Kutlešić Ranko M.; Popović Jasmina; Stefanović Milan; Vukomanović Predrag; Lukić Bojan; Lilić Goran

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. It has been generally accepted that the benefits of menopausal hormone therapy outweigh the risks, but there are still some concerns about the administration of menopausal hormone therapy, which has introduced alternative treatments. Pharmacological Alternatives. Central alpha-2 agonist clonidine is only marginally more effective than placebo, and significantly less effective than estrogen. Antiepileptic drug gabapentin reduces hot flashes; ho...

  11. Orion Project: Alternate Attitude Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Hernandez, A.; Miller, Stephen W.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the study done on alternate attitudes for the Orion project's crew exploration vehicle. The analysis focused on the thermal performance of the vehicle with the alternate attitudes. The pressure vessel heater power, other vehicle heaters and radiator sink temperatures were included in the analysis.

  12. Verb aspect, alternations and quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetla Koeva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Verb aspect, alternations and quantification In this paper we are briefly discuss the nature of Bulgarian verb aspect and argue that the verb aspect pairs are different lexical units with different (although related meaning, different argument structure (reflecting categories, explicitness and referential status of arguments and different sets of semantic and syntactic alternations. The verb prefixes resulting in perfective verbs derivation in some cases can be interpreted as lexical quantifiers as well. Thus the Bulgarian verb aspect is related (in different way both with the potential for the generation of alternations and with the prefixal lexical quantification. It is shown that the scope of the lexical quantification by means of verbal prefixes is the quantified verb phrase and the scope remains constant in all derived alternations. The paper concerns the basic issues of these complex problems, while the detailed description of the conditions satisfying particular alternation or particular lexical quantification are subject of a more detailed study.

  13. Research requirements for alternative reactor development strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to estimate and compare resource requirements and other fuel cycle quantities for alternative reactor deployment strategies. The paper examines from global and national perspectives the interaction of various fuel cycle alternatives described in the previous U.S. submissions to Working Groups 4, 5, 8 and Subgroup 1A/2A. Nuclear energy forecasts of Subgroup 1A/2A are used in the calculation of uranium demand for each strategy. These uranium demands are then compared to U.S. estimates of annual uranium producibility. Annual rather than cumulative producibility was selected because it does not assume preplanned stockpiling, and is therefore more conservative. The strategies attempt to span a range of nuclear power mixes which could evolve if appropriate commercial and governmental climates develop

  14. Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Decision Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shedrow, C.B.

    1999-11-29

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) made a FY98 commitment to the Department of Energy (DOE) to recommend a technology for the disposal of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The two technologies being considered, direct co-disposal and melt and dilute, had been previously selected from a group of eleven potential SNF management technologies by the Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team chartered by the DOE''s Office of Spent Fuel Management. To meet this commitment, WSRC organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and ultimately provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE on a preferred SNF alternative management technology.

  15. An Alternative Hypothesis for Special Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eckardt H.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available An alternative theory being analogous to Einstein’s special theory of relativity is pre- sented. While Einstein based his theory on the relativity principle of motion and con- stancy of the velocity of light, this theory assumes an absolute frame of reference and a general length contraction. Both concepts are taken from general relativity and applied to an asymptotically flat space. This results in a transformation group being differ- ent from the Lorentz transformation and a Eucledian addition theorem of velocitites. The results are in accordance with experiments and long known discrepancies between special relativity and experimental findings are resolved as well as paradoxa being in- troduced by Einstein’s original theory. Physical facts being unintelligible before can be interpreted in the light of the alternative theory.

  16. Group Composition, Group Interaction and Achievement in Cooperative Small Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Noreen M.

    This study investigated interaction and achievement in cooperative small groups in four junior high school mathematics classrooms. Ninety-six students learned a one-week unit on consumer mathematics in mixed-ability or uniform-ability groups. Students in mixed-ability groups scored higher on a problem-solving test than students in uniform-ability…

  17. Group Work Publication-1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimpfer, David G.

    1992-01-01

    Lists 21 new publications in group work, of which 9 are reviewed. Those discussed include publications on group counseling and psychotherapy, structured groups, support groups, psychodrama, and social group work. (Author/NB)

  18. Group dynamic processes in email groups

    OpenAIRE

    Alpay, Esat

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Discussion is given on the relevance of group dynamic processes in promoting decision-making in email discussion groups. General theories on social facilitation and social loafing are considered in the context of email groups, as well as the applicability of psychodynamic and interaction-based models. It is argued that such theories may indeed provide insight into email group interactions, but that...

  19. Group Cohesion in Experiential Growth Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Sam; Vasserman-Stokes, Elaina; Vannatta, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the effect of web-based journaling on changes in group cohesion within experiential growth groups. Master's students were divided into 2 groups. Both used a web-based platform to journal after each session; however, only 1 of the groups was able to read each other's journals. Quantitative data collected before and…

  20. A note on groups in which the centraliser of every element of order 5 is a 5-group

    CERN Document Server

    Astill, Sarah; Waldecker, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The main theorem in this article shows that a group of odd order which admits the alternating group of degree 5 with an element of order 5 acting fixed point freely is nilpotent of class at most two. For all odd primes r, other than 5, we give a class two r-group which admits the alternating group of degree 5 in such a way. This theorem corrects an earlier result which asserts that such class two groups do not exist. The result allows us to state a theorem giving precise information about groups in which the centralizer of every element of order 5 has centralizer a 5-group.

  1. Probability groups as orbits of groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The set of double cosets of a group with respect to a subgroup and the set of orbits of a group with respect to a group of automorphisms have structures which can be studied as multigroups, hypergroups or Pasch geometries. When the subgroup or the group of automorphisms are finite, the multivalued products can be provided with some weightages forming so-called Probability Groups. It is shown in this paper that some abstract probability groups can be realized as orbit spaces of groups. (author)

  2. Quark and lepton mass matrices with A4 family symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Realistic quark masses and mixing angles are obtained applying the successful A4 family symmetry for leptons, motivated by the quark-lepton assignments of SU(5). The A4 symmetry is suitable to give tri-bimaximal neutrino mixing matrix which is consistent with current experimental data. We study new scenario for the quark sector with the A4 symmetry. (author)

  3. 17 CFR 260.7a-4 - Calculation of time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calculation of time. 260.7a-4 Section 260.7a-4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, TRUST INDENTURE ACT OF 1939 Rules Under Section 307 § 260.7a-4 Calculation...

  4. 26 CFR 1.25A-4 - Lifetime Learning Credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Lifetime Learning Credit. 1.25A-4 Section 1.25A-4... Rates During A Taxable Year § 1.25A-4 Lifetime Learning Credit. (a) Amount of the credit—(1) Taxable years beginning before January 1, 2003. Subject to the phaseout of the education tax credit described...

  5. NASA Alternative Aviation Fuel Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Thornhill, K. L., II; Moore, R.; Shook, M.; Winstead, E.; Ziemba, L. D.; Crumeyrolle, S.

    2015-12-01

    We present an overview of research conducted by NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate to evaluate the performance and emissions of "drop-in" alternative jet fuels, highlighting experiment design and results from the Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiments (AAFEX-I & -II) and Alternative Fuel-Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions flight series (ACCESS-I & II). These projects included almost 100 hours of sampling exhaust emissions from the NASA DC-8 aircraft in both ground and airborne operation and at idle to takeoff thrust settings. Tested fuels included Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthetic kerosenes manufactured from coal and natural-gas feedstocks; Hydro-treated Esters and Fatty-Acids (HEFA) fuels made from beef-tallow and camelina-plant oil; and 50:50 blends of these alternative fuels with Jet A. Experiments were also conducted with FT and Jet A fuels doped with tetrahydrothiophene to examine the effects of fuel sulfur on volatile aerosol and contrail formation and microphysical properties. Results indicate that although the absence of aromatic compounds in the alternative fuels caused DC-8 fuel-system leaks, the fuels did not compromise engine performance or combustion efficiency. And whereas the alternative fuels produced only slightly different gas-phase emissions, dramatic reductions in non-volatile particulate matter (nvPM) emissions were observed when burning the pure alternative fuels, particularly at low thrust settings where particle number and mass emissions were an order of magnitude lower than measured from standard jet fuel combustion; 50:50 blends of Jet A and alternative fuels typically reduced nvPM emissions by ~50% across all thrust settings. Alternative fuels with the highest hydrogen content produced the greatest nvPM reductions. For Jet A and fuel blends, nvPM emissions were positively correlated with fuel aromatic and naphthalene content. Fuel sulfur content regulated nucleation mode aerosol number and mass concentrations within aging

  6. Removing 3,5-Dichlorophenol from Wastewater by Alternative Adsorbents

    OpenAIRE

    Kobetičová Hana; Galbičková Blanka; Ševčíková Janka; Soldán Maroš

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to evaluate an efficiency of 3,5 - dichlorophenol removal from wastewater by using alternative adsorbents. Chlorophenols are organic compounds consisting of a benzene ring, OH groups and also atoms of chlorine. Chlorophenols may have a huge isomere variety that means there are differences in their chemical and physical properties. Due to their toxicity it is necessary to remove them from waste water and in this paper an alternative way of such process is de...

  7. Calix[4]arenes in the 1,3-alternate conformation

    OpenAIRE

    Dordea, Crenguta

    2006-01-01

    Calix[4]arenes fixed in the 1,3-alternate conformation offer an interesting platform for the attachment of further functionalities which has been less frequently used than the cone conformer. Several synthetic strategies were developed to attach four amino functions to the narrow rim, to the wide rim and to both rims of the calix[4]arene fixed in the 1,3-alternate conformation. Using different precursor groups (nitrile/phthalimide or nitro/phthalimide) which can be independently converted int...

  8. Group theories: relevance to group safety studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benevento, A L

    1998-01-01

    Promoting safety in the workplace has been attempted in a variety of ways. Increasingly, industries are using groups such as safety teams and quality circles to promote worker safety. Group influences on individual behavior and attitudes have long been studied in the social psychology literature, but the theories have not been commonly found outside the psychology arena. This paper describes the group theories of group polarization, risky shift, social loafing, groupthink and team think and attempts to apply these theories to existing studies that examine work group influences on safety. Interesting parallels were found but only one study examined group influences as their primary focus of research. Since groups are increasingly used for safety promotion, future research on safety that studies group influences with respect to current group theories is recommended. PMID:24441299

  9. The arranged marriage of allopathic and alternative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniccia, M D

    1999-01-01

    The degree to which Americans are seeking and paying for alternative health care has caused some hospitals and medical groups to consider incorporating these services within the umbrella of their traditional care. The challenge is to find a standard of care that is consistent with allopathic traditions, but not so restrictive as to undercut the financial and patient satisfaction motives that prompted the interest in alternative care. By focusing on subjective complaints and chronic conditions, it may be possible to walk a path that leaves traditional medical standards intact while gaining the opportunity to attract the dollars and track the effectiveness of alternative care.

  10. Significance of the S100A4 protein in psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibert, John R; Skov, Lone; Thyssen, Jacob P;

    2010-01-01

    The S100A4 protein is reported as a pivotal player in the tumor microenvironment with a metastasis-promoting function. Moreover, the upregulation of S100A4 is found in other non-malignant human disorders as cardiac and pulmonary systems and rheumatoid arthritis. In this study, we investigated...... of psoriasis. Furthermore, we revealed a massive release of the biologically active forms of S100A4 from psoriatic skin. Interestingly, we found stabilization (increase) of p53 in the basal layer of epidermis in close proximity to cells expressing S100A4. To examine the possible implication of S100A4...

  11. Alternative Perspectives on Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Jeannie; Orasanu, J.; Connors, Mary M. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The goal of the commercial air transport system is to provide air transportation to the flying public at an acceptable cost with minimal risk. in an ideal situation these three goals would support each other. In fact, it is sometimes the case that the goals conflict: getting passengers to their destinations on time may conflict with fixing a minor mechanical malfunction that may or may not impact safety; flying a route that will avoid turbulence, thereby providing passengers with a more comfortable ride, may consume more fuel; managing traffic density may mean aircraft are delayed or must use an approach that will result in a long taxi to their gates, costing time and fuel. Various players in the system--pilots, dispatchers, controllers, as well as managers in the airline carriers and traffic management system--make decisions every day that involve trade-offs of benefits and costs. The prospect of revisions in the air traffic management system, with shifts in responsibilities from controllers to users, including airline operations center personnel and pilots, means that individuals may be performing either new jobs or old jobs under new guidance. It will be essential to know how the various players (a) perceive the risks and benefits associated with the decisions they will make under the old and new control structures, and (b) how much risk they are willing to accept in making decisions. Risk is here defined as the probability and magnitude of negative events (after Slovic, 1987). Of primary interest are risks associated with traffic, weather, and operational factors such as schedule, fuel consumption, and passenger service. Previous research has documented differences between groups in perceptions of risks associated with both everyday and aviation related situations. Risk perception varies as a function of familiarity with the situation, degree to which one is potentially affected by the risk, the level of control one has over the situation, and one's level of

  12. Evaluation of jojoba oil as a low-energy fat. 1. A 4-week feeding study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschuren, P M

    1989-01-01

    The nutritional properties of jojoba oil (JO) were examined in a 4-wk feeding study of rats fed a diet with JO at dose levels of 2.2, 4.5 and 9%, supplemented with a conventional fat up to 18%. General health, survival and food intake were not adversely affected. Body-weight gains showed a dose-related decline, which amounted to 20% of the body weight in the high-dose group of both sexes. Clinical chemistry revealed significantly increased levels of various enzymes that were indicative of cell damage. Haematology showed a dose-related increase in white blood cells. On necropsy an apparent distension of the small intestine was found. Histopathological evaluation revealed marked intestinal changes characterized by massive vacuolization and lipid deposition in the enterocytes, accompanied by distension of the villi and an increased cell turnover of small intestinal cells. Faeces production and faeces lipid content were increased with increasing JO levels. The recovery of JO in the faeces also increased in a dose-related manner and was found to be correlated with the intestinal histopathological changes. The significant adverse clinical and histopathological effects observed in this study imply that JO cannot be considered as a promising alternative dietary fat with a low digestibility.

  13. Three Novel Lantibiotics, Ticins A1, A3, and A4, Have Extremely Stable Properties and Are Promising Food Biopreservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Bingyue; Zheng, Jinshui; Xu, Ziya; Li, Congzhi; Ruan, Lifang; Peng, Donghai; Sun, Ming

    2015-10-01

    Lantibiotics are antimicrobial peptides with potential applications as the next generation of antimicrobials in the food industry and/or the pharmaceutical industry. Nisin has successfully been used as a food preservative for over 40 years, but its major drawback is its limited stability under neutral and alkaline pH conditions. To identify alternatives with better biochemical properties, we screened more than 100 strains of the Bacillus cereus group. Three novel lantibiotics, ticins A1 (4,062.98 Da), A3 (4,048.96 Da), and A4 (4,063.02 Da), which were highly thermostable (121°C for 30 min) and extremely pH tolerant (pH 2.0 to 9.0), were identified in Bacillus thuringiensis BMB3201. They all showed potent antimicrobial activities against all tested Gram-positive bacteria and greater activities than those of nisin A against Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes, two important foodborne pathogens. These three novel lantibiotics, with their extremely stable properties and potent antimicrobial activities, have the potential for use as biopreservatives.

  14. Three Novel Lantibiotics, Ticins A1, A3, and A4, Have Extremely Stable Properties and Are Promising Food Biopreservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Bingyue; Zheng, Jinshui; Xu, Ziya; Li, Congzhi; Ruan, Lifang; Peng, Donghai; Sun, Ming

    2015-10-01

    Lantibiotics are antimicrobial peptides with potential applications as the next generation of antimicrobials in the food industry and/or the pharmaceutical industry. Nisin has successfully been used as a food preservative for over 40 years, but its major drawback is its limited stability under neutral and alkaline pH conditions. To identify alternatives with better biochemical properties, we screened more than 100 strains of the Bacillus cereus group. Three novel lantibiotics, ticins A1 (4,062.98 Da), A3 (4,048.96 Da), and A4 (4,063.02 Da), which were highly thermostable (121°C for 30 min) and extremely pH tolerant (pH 2.0 to 9.0), were identified in Bacillus thuringiensis BMB3201. They all showed potent antimicrobial activities against all tested Gram-positive bacteria and greater activities than those of nisin A against Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes, two important foodborne pathogens. These three novel lantibiotics, with their extremely stable properties and potent antimicrobial activities, have the potential for use as biopreservatives. PMID:26231642

  15. Disturbance maintains alternative biome states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Vinícius de L; Hirota, Marina; Oliveira, Rafael S; Pausas, Juli G

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms controlling the distribution of biomes remains a challenge. Although tropical biome distribution has traditionally been explained by climate and soil, contrasting vegetation types often occur as mosaics with sharp boundaries under very similar environmental conditions. While evidence suggests that these biomes are alternative states, empirical broad-scale support to this hypothesis is still lacking. Using community-level field data and a novel resource-niche overlap approach, we show that, for a wide range of environmental conditions, fire feedbacks maintain savannas and forests as alternative biome states in both the Neotropics and the Afrotropics. In addition, wooded grasslands and savannas occurred as alternative grassy states in the Afrotropics, depending on the relative importance of fire and herbivory feedbacks. These results are consistent with landscape scale evidence and suggest that disturbance is a general factor driving and maintaining alternative biome states and vegetation mosaics in the tropics.

  16. Alternative food safety intervention technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative nonthermal and thermal food safety interventions are gaining acceptance by the food processing industry and consumers. These technologies include high pressure processing, ultraviolet and pulsed light, ionizing radiation, pulsed and radiofrequency electric fields, cold atmospheric plasm...

  17. Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size: A A A Listen En Español Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines It is best to get ... also more likely to use dietary supplements. Using Supplements Safely If you’re one of the many ...

  18. Alternative medicine among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaedeke, R M; Tootelian, D H; Holst, C

    1999-01-01

    The use of "alternative" medicine has become increasingly popular in the United States. Books devoted to alternative medicine, e.g., Spontaneous Healing and 8 Weeks to Optimum Health, have become best sellers. Nevertheless, relatively few research studies have focused on the subject. This study examined the role of alternative medicine among college students. Issues addressed included students' familiarity with, use of, and perceptions regarding unconventional health therapies. The study substantiated a phenomenon health care providers across the country are discovering: a growing number of Americans with interest and financial resources support the development of "mainstream" alternative medicine programs. Results of the study also suggest that well-respected traditional health care organizations would not suffer reputation damage if they were to offer such programs.

  19. An Envoy for Alternative Energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN WEI

    2010-01-01

    @@ The United States stands poised to cash in on China's growing appetite for alternative energy.This message rang loud and clear during a recent visit to China by U.S.Secretary of Commerce Gary Locke.

  20. Alternate Propellant Thermal Rocket Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Alternate Propellant Thermal Rocket (APTR) is a novel concept for propulsion of space exploration or orbit transfer vehicles. APTR propulsion is provided by...

  1. Alternative theories of the firm

    OpenAIRE

    Staněk, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is focusing on alternative theories of the firm and their distinctions to the traditional neoclassical theory of profit maximization. It goes back to perception of the firm in the society and to development of theoretical concepts of the firm, as well as to different points of view of profit or satisfaction principle. You will learn more about the reason which triggered the beginnings of alternative theories of the firm like separation of ownership and control, which was one of th...

  2. Alternative investments: return driving actors

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, K; G. Marcato

    2011-01-01

    In an asset allocation process, correlations are particularly important if one includes 'alternative investments' such as real estate, commodities and hedge funds, which have been proclaimed to provide diversifying benefits within the overall portfolio context. However, by looking at correlations between asset classes alone some diversification benefits may be over or under-stated. More recently, finance literature has focused on alternative asset classes to study their behaviour and to ident...

  3. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed

  4. Autocratic strategies for alternating games

    OpenAIRE

    McAvoy, Alex; Hauert, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Repeated games have a long tradition in behavioral sciences and evolutionary biology. Recently, strategies were discovered that permit an unprecedented level of control over repeated interactions by enabling a player to unilaterally enforce constraints on the payoffs. Here, we extend this theory of autocratic (or zero-determinant) strategies to alternating games, which are often more biologically relevant than synchronous games. More specifically, in a strictly-alternating game with two playe...

  5. The neurogenetics of alternative splicing

    OpenAIRE

    Vuong, CK; Black, DL; S. Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Alternative precursor-mRNA splicing is a key mechanism for regulating gene expression in mammals and is controlled by specialized RNA-binding proteins. The misregulation of splicing is implicated in multiple neurological disorders. We describe recent mouse genetic studies of alternative splicing that reveal its critical role in both neuronal development and the function of mature neurons. We discuss the challenges in understanding the extensive genetic programmes controlled by proteins that r...

  6. Merger acquisition or independence--small group decision--large group impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erins, D C

    1995-01-01

    As this group practice looked to the future, two alternatives were considered--remain independent or merge with another entity. Remaining independent, although desirable, would be extremely difficult, so this group looked for a mutually beneficial affiliation. This case study details the beginning-to-end affiliation process--from seeking potential partners to signing the papers: the keys to success and potential dealbreakers.

  7. Divorcing the puzzles: When group identities foster in-group cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seewald, Daniel; Hechler, Stefanie; Kessler, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We argue that general social psychological mechanisms (e.g., common group identity) can account for prosocial behavior and cooperative norms without the need for punishing Big Gods. Moreover, prosocial religions often do not prevent conflict within their religious groups. Hence, we doubt whether Big Gods and prosocial religions are more effective than alternative identities in enhancing high-level cooperation. PMID:26948741

  8. A Technique: Generating Alternative Thoughts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan AKKOYUNLU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the basic techniques of cognitive therapy is examination of automatic thoughts and reducing the belief in them. By employing this, we can overcome the cognitive bias apparent in mental disorders. Despite this view, according to another cognitive perspective in a given situation, there are distinct cognitive representations competing for retrieval from memory just like positive and negative schemas. In this sense generating or strengthening alternative explanations or balanced thoughts that explain the situation better than negative automatic thoughts is one of the important process goals of cognitive therapy.Objective: Aim of this review is to describe methods used to generate alternative/balanced thoughts that are used in examining automatic thoughts and also a part of automatic thought records. Alternative/balanced thoughts are the summary and end point of automatic thought work. In this text different ways including listing alternative thoughts, using examining the evidence for generating balanced thoughts, decatastrophizing in anxiety and a meta-cognitive method named two explanations are discussed. Different ways to use this technique as a homework assignment is also reviewed. Remarkable aspects of generating alternative explanations and realistic/balanced thoughts are also reviewed and exemplified using therapy transcripts. Conclusion: Generating alternative explanations and balanced thoughts are the end point and important part of therapy work on automatic thoughts. When applied properly and rehearsed as homework between sessions, these methods may lead to improvement in many mental disorders

  9. Introducing linear functions: an alternative statistical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Caroline; Herbert, Sandra

    2015-12-01

    The introduction of linear functions is the turning point where many students decide if mathematics is useful or not. This means the role of parameters and variables in linear functions could be considered to be `threshold concepts'. There is recognition that linear functions can be taught in context through the exploration of linear modelling examples, but this has its limitations. Currently, statistical data is easily attainable, and graphics or computer algebra system (CAS) calculators are common in many classrooms. The use of this technology provides ease of access to different representations of linear functions as well as the ability to fit a least-squares line for real-life data. This means these calculators could support a possible alternative approach to the introduction of linear functions. This study compares the results of an end-of-topic test for two classes of Australian middle secondary students at a regional school to determine if such an alternative approach is feasible. In this study, test questions were grouped by concept and subjected to concept by concept analysis of the means of test results of the two classes. This analysis revealed that the students following the alternative approach demonstrated greater competence with non-standard questions.

  10. Graph Invariants of Finite Groups via a Theorem of Lagarias

    OpenAIRE

    Akman, Fusun

    2006-01-01

    We introduce a new graph invariant of finite groups that provides a complete characterization of the splitting types of unramified prime ideals in normal number field extensions entirely in terms of the Galois group. In particular, each connected component corresponds to a division (Abteilung) of the group. We compute the divisions of the alternating group, and compile a list of characteristics of groups that the invariant reveals. We conjecture that the invariant distinguishes finite groups....

  11. Interagency mechanical operations group numerical systems group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This report consists of the minutes of the May 20-21, 1971 meeting of the Interagency Mechanical Operations Group (IMOG) Numerical Systems Group. This group looks at issues related to numerical control in the machining industry. Items discussed related to the use of CAD and CAM, EIA standards, data links, and numerical control.

  12. Group Dynamic Processes in Email Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpay, Esat

    2005-01-01

    Discussion is given on the relevance of group dynamic processes in promoting decision-making in email discussion groups. General theories on social facilitation and social loafing are considered in the context of email groups, as well as the applicability of psychodynamic and interaction-based models. It is argued that such theories may indeed…

  13. AREVA group overview; Presentation du groupe AREVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-08

    This document presents the Group Areva, a world nuclear industry leader, from a financial holding company to an industrial group, operating in two businesses: the nuclear energy and the components. The structure and the market of the group are discussed, as the financial assets. (A.L.B.)

  14. Suppression of flavor violation in an A4 warped extra dimensional model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kadosh, Avihay; DiDomenico, A; Bini, C; Bloise, C; Bossi, F; Faccini, R; Gauzzi, P; Isidori, G; Lipari, P; Ludovici, L; Silvestrini, L

    2011-01-01

    In an attempt to simultaneously explain the observed masses and mixing patterns of both quarks and leptons, we recently proposed a model (JHEP08(2010)115) based on the non abelian discrete flavor group A(4), implemented in a custodial RS setup with a bulk Higgs. We showed that the standard model fla

  15. Exonal deletion of SLC24A4 causes hypomaturation amelogenesis imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymen, F; Lee, K-E; Tran Le, C G; Yildirim, M; Gencay, K; Lee, Z H; Kim, J-W

    2014-04-01

    Amelogenesis imperfecta is a heterogeneous group of genetic conditions affecting enamel formation. Recently, mutations in solute carrier family 24 member 4 (SLC24A4) have been identified to cause autosomal recessive hypomaturation amelogenesis imperfecta. We recruited a consanguineous family with hypomaturation amelogenesis imperfecta with generalized brown discoloration. Sequencing of the candidate genes identified a 10-kb deletion, including exons 15, 16, and most of the last exon of the SLC24A4 gene. Interestingly, this deletion was caused by homologous recombination between two 354-bp-long homologous sequences located in intron 14 and the 3' UTR. This is the first report of exonal deletion in SLC24A4 providing confirmatory evidence that the function of SLC24A4 in calcium transport has a crucial role in the maturation stage of amelogenesis.

  16. Introduction to Sporadic Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis J. Boya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This is an introduction to finite simple groups, in particular sporadic groups, intended for physicists. After a short review of group theory, we enumerate the 1+1+16=18 families of finite simple groups, as an introduction to the sporadic groups. These are described next, in three levels of increasing complexity, plus the six isolated ''pariah'' groups. The (old five Mathieu groups make up the first, smallest order level. The seven groups related to the Leech lattice, including the three Conway groups, constitute the second level. The third and highest level contains the Monster group M, plus seven other related groups. Next a brief mention is made of the remaining six pariah groups, thus completing the 5+7+8+6=26 sporadic groups. The review ends up with a brief discussion of a few of physical applications of finite groups in physics, including a couple of recent examples which use sporadic groups.

  17. Introduction to Sporadic Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Boya, Luis J

    2011-01-01

    This is an introduction to finite simple groups, in particular sporadic groups, intended for physicists. After a short review of group theory, we enumerate the $1+1+16=18$ families of finite simple groups, as an introduction to the sporadic groups. These are described next, in three levels of increasing complexity, plus the six isolated "pariah" groups. The (old) five Mathieu groups make up the first, smallest order level. The seven groups related to the Leech lattice, including the three Conway groups, constitute the second level. The third and highest level contains the Monster group $\\mathbb M$, plus seven other related groups. Next a brief mention is made of the remaining six pariah groups, thus completing the $5+7+8+6=26$ sporadic groups. The review ends up with a brief discussion of a few of physical applications of finite groups in physics, including a couple of recent examples which use sporadic groups.

  18. Coincidence rotations of the root lattice $A_4$

    CERN Document Server

    Baake, Michael; Heuer, Manuela; Zeiner, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The coincidence site lattices of the root lattice $A_4$ are considered, and the statistics of the corresponding coincidence rotations according to their indices is expressed in terms of a Dirichlet series generating function. This is possible via an embedding of $A_4$ into the icosian ring with its rich arithmetic structure, which recently (arXiv:math.MG/0702448) led to the classification of the similar sublattices of $A_4$.

  19. Demonstration of a 4-Sensor Folded Sangac Sensor Array with Active Phase Biasing Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang-Qi Song; Ming-Ye Yang; Xue-Liang Zhang; Yong-Ming Hu

    2008-01-01

    A 4-sensor folded Sagnae sensor array with an active phase biasing scheme is presented. The overlapping of the signal and noise pulse is avoided through a time division multiplexing scheme and the noise pulses is eliminated almost completely. The scheme can address 16 sensors when the repeat frequency of input pulse is at 68.3 kHz. The alternative phase bias technique is demonstrated, which can provide sensors with stable phase bias. The future benefit of this technique is that the 1/f noise in the circuit can be suppressed.

  20. Alternative algebraic approaches in quantum chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mezey, Paul G., E-mail: paul.mezey@gmail.com [Canada Research Chair in Scientific Modeling and Simulation, Department of Chemistry and Department of Physics and Physical Oceanography, Memorial University of Newfoundland, 283 Prince Philip Drive, St. John' s, NL A1B 3X7 (Canada)

    2015-01-22

    Various algebraic approaches of quantum chemistry all follow a common principle: the fundamental properties and interrelations providing the most essential features of a quantum chemical representation of a molecule or a chemical process, such as a reaction, can always be described by algebraic methods. Whereas such algebraic methods often provide precise, even numerical answers, nevertheless their main role is to give a framework that can be elaborated and converted into computational methods by involving alternative mathematical techniques, subject to the constraints and directions provided by algebra. In general, algebra describes sets of interrelations, often phrased in terms of algebraic operations, without much concern with the actual entities exhibiting these interrelations. However, in many instances, the very realizations of two, seemingly unrelated algebraic structures by actual quantum chemical entities or properties play additional roles, and unexpected connections between different algebraic structures are often giving new insight. Here we shall be concerned with two alternative algebraic structures: the fundamental group of reaction mechanisms, based on the energy-dependent topology of potential energy surfaces, and the interrelations among point symmetry groups for various distorted nuclear arrangements of molecules. These two, distinct algebraic structures provide interesting interrelations, which can be exploited in actual studies of molecular conformational and reaction processes. Two relevant theorems will be discussed.

  1. The body of the Audi A4; Die Karosseriestruktur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dornberg, C. [Audi AG, Ingolstadt (Germany)

    2000-11-01

    On the basis of experience gained from the A4 and A6, the body of the new Audi A4 combines proven structural design features with new and innovative technologies. This article describes in detail the measures that were taken with regard to crash behaviour and vibration levels as well as durability and corrosion protection. (orig.) [German] Auf der Grundlage von Erfahrungen, die mit dem A4 und dem A6 gewonnen wurden, verbindet die Karosserie des neuen Audi A4 bewaehrte Konstruktionsmerkmale mit neuen Technologien. Der folgende Beitrag beschreibt detailliert die Massnahmen, die im Hinblick auf Crashverhalten und Schwingungskomfort sowie Haltbarkeit und Korrosionsschutz getroffen wurden. (orig.)

  2. ALTERNATIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUMBERTO ESCALANTE H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia, el procesamiento agroindustrial de fique genera aproximadamente 20 800 kg de residuos/ha sembrada que corresponden a. jugo y bagazo. Estos residuos son descartados al ambiente generando problemas de contaminación. El bagazo de fique tiene un valor calorífico de 3 297.91 kcal/kg, altas concentraciones de celulosa, hemicelulosa y una relación C/N favorable para tratar este residuo mediante conversión anaerobia. Sin embargo, la presencia de lignina en el bagazo hace que se requiera un consorcio microbiano específico para llevar a cabo la degradación. En este trabajo se estudio la producción de biogás a partir del bagazo de fique, empleando como inóculo una mezcla de líquido ruminal y lodo estiércol de cerdo. Se alcanzó una producción de metano de 0.35 m3CH4/kg Sólidos Volátiles (SV adicionados durante quince días de digestión, equivalente a 1.38 kWh/kg SV adicionado, indicando que el bagazo de fique es un residuo atractivo para ser usado como fuente de energía renovable.

  3. Experiences in mainstreaming alternative energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabraal, A.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses efforts by the Asia Alternative Energy Unit (ASTAE) of the World Bank in supporting alternative energy source projects in Asia. Energy growth rates have been as high as 18% per year, with power capacity doubling each decade in the 1960`s, 70`s and 80`s. Much of this has come from fossil fuel projects coupled with major hydroelectric projects. One consequence is developing air pollution loads originating in Asia. ASTAE has been supporting pilot programs in applying alternative energy sources. The goal has been to mainstream renewable energy sources in World Bank operations, by working with managers from different countries to: include renewable energy in country assistance strategies and sectorial development plans; provide assistance to renewable energy initiatives; expand initiatives to new countries, sectors and technologies.

  4. Revisiting the solar hydrogen alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomkiewicz, M. [Brooklyn College of CUNY, NY (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Research aimed at the development of technology to advance the solar-hydrogen alternative is per definition mission oriented. The priority that society puts on such research rise and fall with the priorities that we associate with the mission. The mission that we associate with the hydrogen economy is to provide a technological option for an indefinitely sustainable energy and material economies in which society is in equilibrium with its environment. In this paper we try to examine some global aspects of the hydrogen alternative and recommend formulation of a {open_quotes}rational{close_quotes} tax and regulatory system that is based on efforts needed to restore the ecological balance. Such a system, once entered into the price structure of the alternative energy schemes, will be used as a standard to compare energy systems that in turn will serve as a base for prioritization of publicly supported research and development.

  5. Nuclear energy: a sensible alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book presents in-depth articles on the main issues affecting the use and usefulness of nuclear energy for peaceful domestic purposes. Topics considered include energy futures (a world study), energy demand-energy supplies, an energy-deficient society, energy shortages, the economics of light water reactors (LWRs), fast breeder reactor economics, international cooperation in the nuclear field, nuclear recycling (costs, savings, safeguards), alternative fuels, alternative fuel cycles, alternative reactors, the nuclear weapons proliferation issue, paths to a world with more reliable nuclear safeguards, the homemade bomb issue, LWR risk assessment, accident analysis and risk assessment, the waste disposal risk, radon problems, health effects of low-level radiation, routine releases of radioactivity, plutonium toxicity, and the Price-Anderson Act

  6. [Alternative treatment methods in ENT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friese, K H

    1997-08-01

    In this review, the most important complementary und alternative therapies are discussed, focusing particularly on their use in otorhinolaryngology. These therapies include balneology, Kneipp therapy, microbiological therapy, fasting, excretion therapy, different oxygen therapies, hydro-colon therapy, urine therapy, own-blood therapy, Bach therapy, orthomolecular therapy, order therapy, environmental medicine, phytotherapy, homeopathy, complex homeopathy, anthroposophy, neural therapy, electroaccupuncture according to Voll and similar therapies, nasal reflex therapy, reflex-zone massage, manual therapy, massage, lymph drainage, aroma therapy, thermotherapy, bioresonance, kinesiology, hopi candles, and dietetics. Some of these methods and regimens can be recommended, but others should be rejected. In universities, these methods are only represented to a minor extend, but are more accepted by otorhinolaryngologists in practice. This paper provides a guide to which alternative therapies are sensible and possible in otorhinolaryngology. The aim is to stimulate interest in these methods. It is necessary to discuss these alternative methods reasonably and credibly with patients. PMID:9378666

  7. FMDP reactor alternative summary report: Volume 4, Evolutionary LWR alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials [primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] have become surplus to national defense needs both in the United States and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. The purpose of this report is to provide schedule, cost, and technical information that will be used to support the Record of Process (ROD). Following the screening process, DOE/MD via its national laboratories initiated a more detailed analysis activity to further evaluate each of the ten plutonium disposition alternatives that survived the screening process. Three ``Alternative Teams,`` chartered by DOE and comprised of technical experts from across the DOE national laboratory complex, conducted these analyses. One team was chartered for each of the major disposition classes (borehole, immobilization, and reactors). During the last year and a half, the Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP) Reactor Alternative Team (RxAT) has conducted extensive analyses of the cost, schedule, technical maturity, S&S, and other characteristics of reactor-based plutonium disposition. The results of the RxAT`s analyses of the existing LWR, CANDU, and partially complete LWR alternatives are documented in Volumes 1-3 of this report. This document (Volume 4) summarizes the results of these analyses for the ELWR-based plutonium disposition option.

  8. FMDP reactor alternative summary report: Volume 4, Evolutionary LWR alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials [primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] have become surplus to national defense needs both in the United States and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety, and health (ES ampersand H) consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. The purpose of this report is to provide schedule, cost, and technical information that will be used to support the Record of Process (ROD). Following the screening process, DOE/MD via its national laboratories initiated a more detailed analysis activity to further evaluate each of the ten plutonium disposition alternatives that survived the screening process. Three ''Alternative Teams,'' chartered by DOE and comprised of technical experts from across the DOE national laboratory complex, conducted these analyses. One team was chartered for each of the major disposition classes (borehole, immobilization, and reactors). During the last year and a half, the Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP) Reactor Alternative Team (RxAT) has conducted extensive analyses of the cost, schedule, technical maturity, S ampersand S, and other characteristics of reactor-based plutonium disposition. The results of the RxAT's analyses of the existing LWR, CANDU, and partially complete LWR alternatives are documented in Volumes 1-3 of this report. This document (Volume 4) summarizes the results of these analyses for the ELWR-based plutonium disposition option

  9. Finite groups in Axiomatic Index Number Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Fattore

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we adopt Group Theory to investigate the symmetry and invariance properties of price index numbers. An alternative treatment is given to the study of the reversibilty axioms, that clarifies their meaning and allows for a conceptual unification of this topic, within the framework of Axiomatic Index Number Theory.

  10. Alternative transportation fuels: Financing issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multitude of alternative fuels could reduce air pollution and the impact of oil price shocks. Only a few of these fuels are readily available and inexpensive enough to merit serious consideration over the coming five years. In New York City, safety regulations narrow the field still further by eliminating propane. As a result, this study focuses on the three alternative fuels readily available in New York City: compressed natural gas, methanol, and electricity. Each has significant environmental benefits and each has different cost characteristics. With the Clean Air Act and the National Energy Strategy highlighting the country's need to improve urban air quality and move away from dependence on imported fuels, fleets may soon have little choice but to convert to altemative fuels. Given the potential for large infrastructure and vehicle costs, these fleets may have difficulty finding the capital to make that conversion. Ultimately, then, it will be the involvement of the private sector that will determine the success of alternative fuels. Whether it be utilities, fuel distributors or suppliers, private financing partners or others, it is critical that altemative fuels programs be structured and planned to attract their involvement. This report examines financing methods that do not involve government subsidies. It also explores financing methods that are specific to alternative fuels. Bond issues and other mechanisms that are used for conventional vehicles are not touched upon in this report. This report explores ways to spread the high cost of alternative fuels among a number of parties within the private sector. The emphasis is on structuring partnerships that suit methanol, electric, or natural gas vehicle fleets. Through these partnerships, alternative fuels may ultimately compete effectively against conventional vehicle fuels

  11. Group adaptation, formal darwinism and contextual analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okasha, S; Paternotte, C

    2012-06-01

    We consider the question: under what circumstances can the concept of adaptation be applied to groups, rather than individuals? Gardner and Grafen (2009, J. Evol. Biol.22: 659-671) develop a novel approach to this question, building on Grafen's 'formal Darwinism' project, which defines adaptation in terms of links between evolutionary dynamics and optimization. They conclude that only clonal groups, and to a lesser extent groups in which reproductive competition is repressed, can be considered as adaptive units. We re-examine the conditions under which the selection-optimization links hold at the group level. We focus on an important distinction between two ways of understanding the links, which have different implications regarding group adaptationism. We show how the formal Darwinism approach can be reconciled with G.C. Williams' famous analysis of group adaptation, and we consider the relationships between group adaptation, the Price equation approach to multi-level selection, and the alternative approach based on contextual analysis.

  12. Organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1a4 (Oatp1a4) is important for secondary bile acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Youcai; Csanaky, Iván L; Selwyn, Felcy Pavithra; Lehman-McKeeman, Lois D; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2013-08-01

    Organic anion transporting polypeptides (human: OATPs; rodent: Oatps) were thought to have important functions in bile acid (BA) transport. Oatp1a1, 1a4, and 1b2 are the three major Oatp1 family members in rodent liver. Our previous studies have characterized the BA homeostasis in Oatp1a1-null and Oatp1b2-null mice. The present study investigated the physiological role of Oatp1a4 in BA homeostasis by using Oatp1a4-null mice. Oatp1a4 expression is female-predominant in livers of mice, and thereby it was expected that female Oatp1a4-null mice will have more prominent changes than males. Interestingly, the present study demonstrated that female Oatp1a4-null mice had no significant alterations in BA concentrations in serum or liver, though they had increased mRNA of hepatic BA efflux transporters (Mrp4 and Ostα/β) and ileal BA transporters (Asbt and Ostα/β). In contrast, male Oatp1a4-null mice showed significantly altered BA homeostasis, including increased concentrations of deoxycholic acid (DCA) in serum, liver and intestinal contents. After feeding a DCA-supplemented diet, male but not female Oatp1a4-null mice had higher concentrations of DCA in serum and livers than their WT controls. This suggested that Oatp1a4 is important for intestinal absorption of secondary BAs in male mice. Furthermore, loss of Oatp1a4 function did not decrease BA accumulation in serum or livers of bile-duct-ligated mice, suggesting that Oatp1a4 is not likely a BA uptake transporter. In summary, the present study for the first time demonstrates that Oatp1a4 does not appear to mediate the hepatic uptake of BAs, but plays an important male-predominant role in secondary BA metabolism in mice.

  13. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed. (ATT)

  14. Black Afrikaans: An alternative use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna P. Maritz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a first look at the nature of the alternative functions of Black Afrikaans. These functions realise when Black Afrikaans is imitated by Afrikaans mother-tongue speakers. The functions of the alternative use of Black Afrikaans centre on: the social nature of the variety, sensitivity as a deciding role-player, identity, humour, inclusivity and exclusivity, language repertoire and similar variety. Furthermore, because of the direct relationship between Black Afrikaans, Pidginised Afrikaans and the imitation of Black Afrikaans, these varieties are compared to establish a starting point description for the imitation of Black Afrikaans, as the variety has not yet been described.

  15. GLOBAL TRENDS OF ALTERNATIVE INVESTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan LUCHIAN

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available An alternative investment is an investment product other than the traditional investments of stocks, bonds, cash, or property. The term is a relatively loose one and includes tangible assets such as art, wine, antiques, coins, or stamps and some financial assets such as commodities, hedge funds, venture capital,and others. At the moment it was created a global industry opportunities for making investments in nontraditional form. The aim of this paper consists in demonstrating the possibilities of these investments. For this have been studied related main international markets, a fter then deducted world dominant trends. This article is concerned to present some details of alternative investments global market.

  16. A generalization of a 4-dimensional Einstein manifold

    OpenAIRE

    Euh, Y.; Park, J. H.; Sekigawa, K.

    2010-01-01

    A weakly Einstein manifold is a generalization of a 4-dimensional Einstein manifold, which is defined as an application of a curvature identity derived from the generalized Gauss-Bonnet formula for a 4-dimensional compact oriented Riemannian manifold. In this paper, we shall give a characterization of a weakly Einstein manifold.

  17. 26 CFR 1.509(a)-4 - Supporting organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Supporting organizations. 1.509(a)-4 Section 1.509(a)-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX... organization is of almost equal importance. An example of acceptable evidence of actual attentiveness is...

  18. 26 CFR 48.4161(a)-4 - Use considered sale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....4161(a)-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Sporting Goods § 48.4161(a)-4 Use considered sale. For provisions relating to the tax on use of taxable articles by the manufacturer, producer,...

  19. Antidepressant Efficacy of Adjunctive Aerobic Activity and Associated Biomarkers in Major Depression: A 4-Week, Randomized, Single-Blind, Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Carvalho Siqueira

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder (MDD is a highly prevalent, heterogeneous and systemic medical condition. Treatment options are limited, and recent studies have suggested that physical exercise can play an important role in the therapeutics of MDD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antidepressant efficacy of adjunctive aerobic activity in association with pharmacotherapy (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor in symptomatic MDD as well as its association with physiological biomarkers.In this randomized, single-blind, add-on, controlled clinical trial, 57 patients (18-55 years of age were followed-up for 28 days. All patients were drug-free, had been diagnosed with symptomatic MDD and received flexible dose of sertraline during the trial. Patients were randomized to either a 4-week program (4x/week of add-on aerobic exercise (exercise group, N = 29 or no activity (control group, N = 28. Depression severity was assessed using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D as the primary outcome. At baseline and endpoint, all patients underwent a comprehensive metabolic/cardiopulmonary exercise testing-including determination of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, VO2 at the second ventilatory threshold (VO2-VT2, and oxygen pulse (O2 pulse.Depression scores significantly decreased in both groups after intervention. Importantly, patients in the aerobic exercise group required lower sertraline dose compared to the control group (sertraline monotherapy. The VO2max and O2 pulse parameters increased over time only in the exercise group and remained unchanged in the control group.The present findings suggest that a 4-week training of aerobic exercise significantly improves functional capacity in patients with MDD and may be associated with antidepressant efficacy. This approach may also decrease the need for higher doses of antidepressants to achieve response. Further studies in unmedicated and treatment-resistant MDD patients are needed in order to

  20. Free Boolean Topological Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ol’ga Sipacheva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Known and new results on free Boolean topological groups are collected. An account of the properties that these groups share with free or free Abelian topological groups and properties specific to free Boolean groups is given. Special emphasis is placed on the application of set-theoretic methods to the study of Boolean topological groups.

  1. Surface technologies 2006 - Alternative energies and policy options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Lars [University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada). Department of Materials Engineering

    2007-12-15

    Surfaces are the immediate contact between anything in our world. Literally, every industry utilizes coatings and surface modifications in order to create surfaces tailored to specific needs, protect underlying substrates, or modify their behavior. Surface and coating technologies are essential to a large variety of different industrial sectors, including transportation, manufacturing, food and biomedical engineering, energy, resources, and materials science and technology. The present paper explains the limitations for alternative energy technologies, with a focus on fuel cell technology development and the alternative energy sector, based on the outcomes of presentations and facilitated discussion groups during a Canadian national workshop series. Options for technological improvements of alternative energy systems are presented in combination with national and international policy choices, which could positively influence research and development in the alternative energy sector. (author)

  2. Integrative Medicine and Complementary and Alternative Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 000 this month to find cures. Loading... Integrative Medicine and Complementary and Alternative Therapies Integrative Medicine and Complementary and Alternative Therapies SHARE: Print Glossary ...

  3. Group Work: How to Use Groups Effectively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Alison

    2011-01-01

    Many students cringe and groan when told that they will need to work in a group. However, group work has been found to be good for students and good for teachers. Employers want college graduates to have developed teamwork skills. Additionally, students who participate in collaborative learning get better grades, are more satisfied with their…

  4. End Group Modification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahnsen, Rasmus O; Sandberg-Schaal, Anne; Frimodt-Møller, Niels;

    2015-01-01

    Increased incidence of infections with multidrug-resistant bacterial strains warrants an intensive search for novel potential antimicrobial agents. Here, an antimicrobial peptide analogue with a cationic/hydrophobic alternating design displaying only moderate activity against Gram-positive pathog...

  5. Nonzero theta(13) for neutrino mixing in the context of A(4) symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Ernest

    2011-01-01

    In the original 2004 paper which first derived tribimaximal mixing in the context of A(4), i.e. the non-Abelian finite symmetry group of the tetrahedron (Plato's fire), as its simplest application, it was also pointed out how theta(13) nonzero may be accommodated. On the strength of the new T2K result that 0.03 (0.04) < sin^2 2 theta(13) < 0.28 (0.34) for delta(CP)=0 and normal (inverted) neutrino mass hierarchy, we perform a more detailed analysis of how this original idea may be realized in the context of A(4).

  6. MSUD Family Support Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Group The MSUD Family Support Group is a non-profit 501 (c)(3) organization for those with MSUD ... Family Support Group is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization with no paid staff. Funds are needed ...

  7. Homomorphisms of quantum groups

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Ralf; Woronowicz, Stanisław Lech

    2010-01-01

    We introduce some equivalent notions of homomorphisms between quantum groups that behave well with respect to duality of quantum groups. Our equivalent definitions are based on bicharacters, coactions, and universal quantum groups, respectively.

  8. Redefining Cohesiveness in Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyton, Joann; Springston, Jeff

    1990-01-01

    Attempted to replicate and extend research on work of Kelly and Duran in assessing relationship of group member perceptions of group interaction to group effectiveness. Concludes perceived similarity may not always align with perceptions of cohesiveness. (Author/ABL)

  9. Alternative instruments for the CAP?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvis, H.J.; Rijswick, van C.W.J.; Bont, de C.J.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    With parallel negotiations taking place on enlargement of the EU and a new WTO agreement, EU's Common Agricultural Policy is facing further reforms. This report addresses the issue of whether any alternatives can be found for the instruments of this policy, and looks at decoupled payments, a net inc

  10. Alternative energies. Updates on progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presents fundamental and applied research of alternative energies. Address key pillars in the alternative energy field, such as: biomass energy, hydrogen energy, solar energy, wind energy, hydroelectric power, geothermal energy and their environmental implications, with the most updated progress. Includes the life cycle assessment and thermoeconomic analysis as tools for evaluating and optimising environmental and cost subjects. This book presents nine chapters based on fundamental and applied research of alternative energies. At the present time, the challenge is that technology has to come up with solutions that can provide environmentally friendly energy supply options that are able to cover the current world energy demand. Experts around the world are working on these issues for providing new solutions that will break the existing technological barriers. This book aims to address key pillars in the alternative energy field, such as: biomass energy, hydrogen energy, solar energy, wind energy, hydroelectric power, geothermal energy and their environmental implications, with the most updated progress for each pillar. It also includes the life cycle assessment (LCA) and thermoeconomic analysis (TA) as tools for evaluating and optimising environmental and cost subjects. Chapters are organized into fundamental research, applied research and future trends; and written for engineers, academic researches and scientists.

  11. Biodiesel properties and alternative feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defined as the long-chain fatty acid monoalkyl esters of vegetable oils, animal fats, or other lipids, biodiesel is an environmentally attractive alternative to conventional petroleum diesel fuel (petrodiesel). Produced by transesterification with a monohydric alcohol, usually methanol, biodiesel h...

  12. Praktiske erfaringer med alternative isoleringsmaterialer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn; Hansen, Klavs Feilberg

    Borup Seniorby er et demonstrationsbyggeri hvori der både er anvendt alternative isoleringsmaterialer og mineraluld. Denne rapport introducerer byggeriet og redegør for byggeprocessen samt håndteringen af de valgte isoleringsprodukter. Ni forskellige produkter, enten i form af løsfyld eller forms...

  13. A Simple Alternative to Grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Glenda

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author investigates whether an alternative grading system (contract grading) would yield the same final grades as traditional grading (letter grading), and whether or not it would be accepted by students. The author states that this study demonstrated that contract grading was widely, and for the most part, enthusiastically…

  14. An Alternative to Process Recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Joan; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Some disadvantages in the use of process recordings as an assessment and teaching tool for evaluating the communication skills of the student in nurse-client interactions are discussed. A more useful alternative process requires actual observation and subsequent participation by the instructor during student-client interviews. (EC)

  15. An Alternative to Thought Suppression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boice, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "Setting free the bears: Escape from thought suppression," by D. M. Wegner (see record 2011-25622-008). While Wegner supposed that we might have to learn to live with bad thoughts, the present author discusses the use of imagination and guided imagery as an alternative to forced thought suppression.

  16. Ash Properties of Alternative Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capablo, Joaquin; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Pedersen, Kim Hougaard;

    2009-01-01

    The ash behavior during suspension firing of 12 alternative solid biofuels, such as pectin waste, mash from a beer brewery, or waste from cigarette production have been studied and compared to wood and straw ash behavior. Laboratory suspension firing tests were performed on an entrained flow...

  17. Alternative energies. Updates on progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, German (ed.) [CIRCE - Centre of Research for Energy Resources and Consumption, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    Presents fundamental and applied research of alternative energies. Address key pillars in the alternative energy field, such as: biomass energy, hydrogen energy, solar energy, wind energy, hydroelectric power, geothermal energy and their environmental implications, with the most updated progress. Includes the life cycle assessment and thermoeconomic analysis as tools for evaluating and optimising environmental and cost subjects. This book presents nine chapters based on fundamental and applied research of alternative energies. At the present time, the challenge is that technology has to come up with solutions that can provide environmentally friendly energy supply options that are able to cover the current world energy demand. Experts around the world are working on these issues for providing new solutions that will break the existing technological barriers. This book aims to address key pillars in the alternative energy field, such as: biomass energy, hydrogen energy, solar energy, wind energy, hydroelectric power, geothermal energy and their environmental implications, with the most updated progress for each pillar. It also includes the life cycle assessment (LCA) and thermoeconomic analysis (TA) as tools for evaluating and optimising environmental and cost subjects. Chapters are organized into fundamental research, applied research and future trends; and written for engineers, academic researches and scientists.

  18. Alternative Design of Boat Fenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banke, Lars

    1996-01-01

    On offshore platforms the purpose of fenders is to protect the oil-risers against minor accidental collisions with supply vessels. Normally, the fender is designed by use of thin-walled tubes. However, the tube itself is not capable of resisting the impact load of the boat. Therefore, alternative...

  19. Corporal Punishment: Facts and Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Pana

    1982-01-01

    Suggests that corporal punishment in the schools be abolished and presents alternatives to physical punishment. Proposes educators and other concerned individuals work together to form student problem committees, adjust classroom environment and improve the curriculum, and exercise their legal rights. (JAC)

  20. Language Ability Groups in Bilingual Children: A Latent Profile Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapantzoglou, Maria; Restrepo, M. Adelaida; Gray, Shelley; Thompson, Marilyn S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Classifying children into two language ability groups, with and without language impairment, may underestimate the number of groups with distinct language ability patterns, or, alternatively, there may be only a single group characterized by a continuum of language performance. The purpose of the current study was to identify the number…

  1. A bipolar consensus approach for group decision making problems

    OpenAIRE

    Bouzarour-Amokrane, Yasmina; Tchangani, Ayeley; Pérès, François

    2015-01-01

    International audience This paper addresses the collaborative group decision making problems considering a consensus processes to achieve a common legitimate solution. The proposed resolution model is based on individual bipolar assessment. Each decision maker evaluates alternatives through selectability and rejectability measures which respectively represent the positive and negative aspects of alternatives considering objectives achievement. The impact of human behavior (influence, indiv...

  2. Significance of the S100A4 protein in psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibert, John R; Skov, Lone; Thyssen, Jacob P;

    2010-01-01

    the expression and significance of S100A4 in psoriasis. We found significant upregulation of S100A4 in the dermis of psoriatic skin compared with normal skin. This pattern of S100A4 expression differs considerably from that of other S100 proteins, S100A7 and S100A8/9, with predominant expression in the epidermis...... of psoriasis. Furthermore, we revealed a massive release of the biologically active forms of S100A4 from psoriatic skin. Interestingly, we found stabilization (increase) of p53 in the basal layer of epidermis in close proximity to cells expressing S100A4. To examine the possible implication of S100A4...... in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, we analyzed the effect of S100A4 blocking antibodies in a human psoriasis xenograft SCID mouse model and observed a significant reduction of the epidermal thickness and impairment in cell proliferation and dermal vascularization. In conclusion, we showed strong upregulation...

  3. Alternatives of menopausal hormone therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutlešić Ranko M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. It has been generally accepted that the benefits of menopausal hormone therapy outweigh the risks, but there are still some concerns about the administration of menopausal hormone therapy, which has introduced alternative treatments. Pharmacological Alternatives. Central alpha-2 agonist clonidine is only marginally more effective than placebo, and significantly less effective than estrogen. Antiepileptic drug gabapentin reduces hot flashes; however, it is less effective than estrogen. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (paroxetine and fluoxetine and selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (venlafaxine reduce vasomotor symptoms and improve depression, anxiety and sleep. Results of studies about dehydroepiandrosterone effects on menopausal symptoms are inconsistent and additional investigations are needed. Non-Pharmacological Alternatives. Stellatum ganglion blockade is a successful treatment for reducing vasomotor symptoms in patients with contraindications for menopausal hormone therapy. Efficacy of acupuncture, homeopathy and reflexology should be proved by adequate studies. Phytoestrogens could reduce vasomotor symptoms but to a lesser extent than conventional menopausal hormone therapy. However, they have not been proved yet to provide cardiovascular protection and prevention of osteoporosis, nor they could be recommended instead of traditional menopausal hormone therapy. There is a concern about their undesirable effects. Adequate diet, unchanging body weight within ideal values and adequate physical activities have beneficial long-term effects, first of all on preservation of bone density. Alternatives for Atrophic Changes of Vaginal Epithelium. Menopausal symptoms resulting from vaginal atrophy could be resolved by use of hydrophilic preparations, lubricants and topical lidocaine cream or 4% lidocaine water solution for dyspareunia. Conclusion. If there are contrain­dications to menopausal hormone therapy or

  4. Indigenous Representation and Alternative Schooling: Prioritising an Epistemology of Relationality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddie, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws on a case study of a small alternative Indigenous school in Queensland, Australia. From the perspective of several of the school's Indigenous Elders, the paper foregrounds the significance of group differentiation at the school on the basis of Indigenous representation. However, it also considers how such…

  5. Propensity Score Analysis: An Alternative Statistical Approach for HRD Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiffer, Greggory L.; Lane, Forrest C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to introduce matching in propensity score analysis (PSA) as an alternative statistical approach for researchers looking to make causal inferences using intact groups. Design/methodology/approach: An illustrative example demonstrated the varying results of analysis of variance, analysis of covariance and PSA on a heuristic…

  6. 76 FR 19829 - Clean Alternative Fuel Vehicle and Engine Conversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ...-AP64 Clean Alternative Fuel Vehicle and Engine Conversions AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... fuel conversion systems may demonstrate compliance with vehicle and engine emissions requirements... Engineering Judgment C. Vehicle/Engine Groupings and Emission Data Vehicle/Engine Selection D. Mixed-Fuel...

  7. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains the alphabetically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal waste management alternatives. The references are listed for each of the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized-bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting, and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  8. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains the numerically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal solid waste management alternatives. The list references information on the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  9. 40 CFR 76.10 - Alternative emission limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... using, for Group 1 boilers, either low NOX burner technology or an alternative technology in accordance...) For a tangentially fired boiler, the owner or operator has either properly installed low NOX burner... than a unit applying cell burner technology), the owner or operator has properly installed low...

  10. Safety of nimesulide, meloxicam and rofecoxib as alternative analgesics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakaya, G; Kalyoncu, A F

    2000-01-01

    Paracetamole and codeine are safe alternative analgesics for analgesic intolerant patients. Recently marketed selective and specific COX2 inhibitors are also considered to be safe for this group of patients. In this survey we wanted to disclose the safety of nimesulide and meloxicam and rofecoxib where they have been marketed recently in Turkey. PMID:11269899

  11. Air density measurement with a falling A4 sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladyshkin, Ivan V.; Oladyshkina, Anastasia A.

    2016-09-01

    We propose a simple experiment on the air density measurement which does not require any special equipment: just an A4 sheet of paper, a stopwatch and a ruler. The discussed method uses the most basic air resistance model.

  12. Ordered groups and infinite permutation groups

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    The subjects of ordered groups and of infinite permutation groups have long en­ joyed a symbiotic relationship. Although the two subjects come from very different sources, they have in certain ways come together, and each has derived considerable benefit from the other. My own personal contact with this interaction began in 1961. I had done Ph. D. work on sequence convergence in totally ordered groups under the direction of Paul Conrad. In the process, I had encountered "pseudo-convergent" sequences in an ordered group G, which are like Cauchy sequences, except that the differences be­ tween terms of large index approach not 0 but a convex subgroup G of G. If G is normal, then such sequences are conveniently described as Cauchy sequences in the quotient ordered group GIG. If G is not normal, of course GIG has no group structure, though it is still a totally ordered set. The best that can be said is that the elements of G permute GIG in an order-preserving fashion. In independent investigations around that t...

  13. $A_4$ and CP symmetry and a model with maximal CP violation

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Cai-Chang; Ding, Gui-Jun

    2016-01-01

    We study a second CP symmetry compatible with the $A_4$ flavor group, which interchanges the representations $\\mathbf{1}'$ and $\\mathbf{1}"$. We analyze the lepton mixing patterns arising from the $A_4$ and CP symmetry broken to residual subgroups $Z_3$ and $Z_2\\times CP$ in the charged lepton and neutrino sectors respectively. One phenomenologically viable mixing pattern is found, and it predicts maximal atmospheric mixing angle as well as maximal Dirac CP phase, trivial Majorana phase and the correlation $\\sin^2\\theta_{12}\\cos^2\\theta_{13}=1/3$. We construct a concrete model based on the $A_4$ and CP symmetry, the above interesting mixing pattern is achieved, the observed charged lepton mass hierarchy is reproduced, and the reactor mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ is of the correct order.

  14. Assertive Training in Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansbury, David L.

    1974-01-01

    This article describes a group approach to helping the nonassertive client. After describing the group composition and goals, he presents a session by session description for conducting the assertive training group. In addition, he presents suggestions based on experiences in leading the group. (Author)

  15. Structure and nucleosome interaction of the yeast NuA4 and Piccolo-NuA4 histone acetyltransferase complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittuluru, Johnathan R; Chaban, Yuriy; Monnet-Saksouk, Julie; Carrozza, Michael J; Sapountzi, Vasileia; Selleck, William; Huang, Jiehuan; Utley, Rhea T; Cramet, Myriam; Allard, Stephane; Cai, Gang; Workman, Jerry L; Fried, Michael G; Tan, Song; Côté, Jacques; Asturias, Francisco J

    2011-10-09

    We have used EM and biochemistry to characterize the structure of NuA4, an essential yeast histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complex conserved throughout eukaryotes, and we have determined the interaction of NuA4 with the nucleosome core particle (NCP). The ATM-related Tra1 subunit, which is shared with the SAGA coactivator complex, forms a large domain joined to a second region that accommodates the catalytic subcomplex Piccolo and other NuA4 subunits. EM analysis of a NuA4-NCP complex shows the NCP bound at the periphery of NuA4. EM characterization of Piccolo and Piccolo-NCP provided further information about subunit organization and confirmed that histone acetylation requires minimal contact with the NCP. A small conserved region at the N terminus of Piccolo subunit enhancer of Polycomb-like 1 (Epl1) is essential for NCP interaction, whereas the subunit yeast homolog of mammalian Ing1 2 (Yng2) apparently positions Piccolo for efficient acetylation of histone H4 or histone H2A tails. Taken together, these results provide an understanding of the NuA4 subunit organization and the NuA4-NCP interactions.

  16. Robust Group Linkage

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Pei; Dong, Xin Luna; Guo, Songtao; Maurino, Andrea; Srivastava, Divesh

    2015-01-01

    We study the problem of group linkage: linking records that refer to entities in the same group. Applications for group linkage include finding businesses in the same chain, finding conference attendees from the same affiliation, finding players from the same team, etc. Group linkage faces challenges not present for traditional record linkage. First, although different members in the same group can share some similar global values of an attribute, they represent different entities so can also...

  17. Potential alternative approaches to xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Lisha; Chen, Fengjiao; Dai, Yifan; Cai, Zhiming; Cooper, David K C

    2015-11-01

    There is an increasing worldwide shortage of organs and cells for transplantation in patients with end-stage organ failure or cellular dysfunction. This shortage could be resolved by the transplantation of organs or cells from pigs into humans. What competing approaches might provide support for the patient with end-stage organ or cell failure? Four main approaches are receiving increasing attention - (i) implantable mechanical devices, although these are currently limited almost entirely to devices aimed at supporting or replacing the heart, (ii) stem cell technology, at present directed mainly to replace absent or failing cells, but which is also fundamental to progress in (iii) tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, in which the ultimate aim is to replace an entire organ. A final novel potential approach is (iv) blastocyst complementation. These potential alternative approaches are briefly reviewed, and comments added on their current status and whether they are now (or will soon become) realistic alternative therapies to xenotransplantation.

  18. Evaluation of alternate magnetic fusion concepts, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this exercise was to evaluate all of the alternate concepts supported by DMFE with regard to: (1) confidence in the physics assumptions; (2) confidence in the development of the requisite technologies; and (3) the desirability of its pure fusion reactor configuration. A primary concern in developing the evaluation technique described in this section was the need to obtain a uniform, critical evaluation. Motivated by this concern, it was decided to have all of the concepts evaluated on the same basis or criteria and to have all concepts evaluated by the same group of experts. The evaluation criteria and procedures which were developed for this purpose are described. The concepts evaluated were the EBT, RFP, TORMAC, field reversing ion rings, linear theta pinch, laser heated solenoid, e-beam heated solenoid, multiple mirrors, fast linear reactor, LINUS, and SURMAC

  19. Alternative indicators for measuring hospital productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serway, G D; Strum, D W; Haug, W F

    1987-08-01

    This article explores the premise that the appropriateness and usefulness of typical hospital productivity measures have been affected by three changes in delivery: Organizational restructuring and other definition and data source changes that make full-time equivalent employee (FTE) measurements ambiguous. Transition to prospective payment (diagnosis-related groups). Increase in capitation (prepaid, at risk) programs. The effects of these changes on productivity management indicate the need for alternative productivity indicators. Several productivity measures that complement these changes in internal operations and the external hospital business environment are presented. These are based on an analysis of four hospitals within a multihospital system, and an illustration and interpretation of an array of measures, based on ten months of actual data, is provided. In conclusion, the recommendation is made for hospital management to collect an expanded set of productivity measures and review them in light of changing expense and revenue management schemes inherent in new payment modes. PMID:10312194

  20. Alternative indicators for measuring hospital productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serway, G D; Strum, D W; Haug, W F

    1987-08-01

    This article explores the premise that the appropriateness and usefulness of typical hospital productivity measures have been affected by three changes in delivery: Organizational restructuring and other definition and data source changes that make full-time equivalent employee (FTE) measurements ambiguous. Transition to prospective payment (diagnosis-related groups). Increase in capitation (prepaid, at risk) programs. The effects of these changes on productivity management indicate the need for alternative productivity indicators. Several productivity measures that complement these changes in internal operations and the external hospital business environment are presented. These are based on an analysis of four hospitals within a multihospital system, and an illustration and interpretation of an array of measures, based on ten months of actual data, is provided. In conclusion, the recommendation is made for hospital management to collect an expanded set of productivity measures and review them in light of changing expense and revenue management schemes inherent in new payment modes.

  1. Alternative Assessment of Glycemic Control

    OpenAIRE

    Greven, W.L.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease associated with development of microvascular and macrovascular complications. Optimal glycemic control, usually measured by HbA1c is the cornerstone for prevention of complications. In this thesis glycemic variability (which resembles actual glucose levels, glucose peaks and nadirs) and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) (a more long-term reflection of hyperglycemia and tissue glycation) are investigated as alternative assessment of glycemic control....

  2. Alternative Structures and Bihamiltonian Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Marmo, G; Simoni, A; Ventriglia, F

    2002-01-01

    In the study of bi-Hamiltonian systems (both classical and quantum) one starts with a given dynamics and looks for all alternative Hamiltonian descriptions it admits.In this paper we start with two compatible Hermitian structures (the quantum analog of two compatible classical Poisson brackets) and look for all the dynamical systems which turn out to be bi-Hamiltonian with respect to them.

  3. Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Kurt R.

    2016-01-01

    Corrosion is an extensive problem that affects the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and European Space Agency (ESA). The deleterious effects of corrosion result in steep costs, asset downtime affecting mission readiness, and safety risks to personnel. It is vital to reduce corrosion costs and risks in a sustainable manner. The primary objective of this effort is to qualify citric acid as an environmentally-preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys.

  4. An alternative dimensional reduction prescription

    CERN Document Server

    Edelstein, J D; Núñez, C; Schaposnik, F A

    1995-01-01

    We propose an alternative dimensional reduction prescription which in respect with Green functions corresponds to drop the extra spatial coordinate. From this, we construct the dimensionally reduced Lagrangians both for scalars and fermions, discussing bosonization and supersymmetry in the particular 2-dimensional case. We argue that our proposal is in some situations more physical, in the sense that it mantains the form of the interactions between particles, thus preserving the dynamics corresponding to the higher dimensional space.

  5. Finding alternatives to swidden agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahman, Syed Ajijur; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Healey, John Robert;

    2016-01-01

    alternative to swidden cultivation, which may potentially help protect local forest. The Gunung Salak valley in West Java, Indonesia is presented as a case study. Based on farmers’ and experts’ assessment, costs and benefits have been estimated, which show that the two investigated agroforestry systems have...... positively to conservation of local forests. Increasing the adoption of agroforestry farming in the study area will require support to overcome capacity constraints....

  6. Telomere elongation chooses TERRA ALTernatives

    OpenAIRE

    Arora, Rajika; Azzalin, Claus M.

    2015-01-01

    Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) mechanisms allow telomerase-negative immortal cells to buffer replicative telomere shortening. ALT is naturally active in a number of human cancers and might be selected upon telomerase inactivation. ALT is thought to operate through homologous recombination (HR) occurring between telomeric repeats from independent chromosome ends. Indeed, suppression of a number of HR factors impairs ALT cell proliferation. Yet, how HR is initiated at ALT telomeres ...

  7. Alternative Medicine on the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Muret, Marc

    2000-01-01

    If you go to a bookstore to look for information on a particular health problem you will have a choice between the "medicine" corner with scientific manuals for professionals and the "health" corner with all kinds of books about acupuncture, ayurveda, natural healing, homeopathy, nutrition, massage, and so on! How is it on the Net? Even a short tour will bring you a lot of "medical" information, but when you look for alternative approaches in the "health" corner you will be rather disappointe...

  8. Beyond LCDM: a viable alternative?

    OpenAIRE

    Gough, Michael Paul

    2016-01-01

    We are encouraged to look beyond LCDM as there are still no satisfactory explanations for either dark energy or dark matter. A data centred phenomenological approach supports an alternative explanation in which dark energy is not a universe-wide constant energy density, but the Holographic Dark Information Energy, HDIE, naturally centred around galaxies. HDIE can explain many of the effects attributed separately to Lambda and CDM. HDIE mimics Lambda with sufficient overall total energy and an...

  9. Towards an Alternative Gravitational Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Nieto, J.A.; Beltrán, L. A.

    2014-01-01

    In 1680 Cassini proposed oval curves as alternative trajectories for the visible planets around the sun. The Cassini ovals were of course overshadow by the Kepler's first law (1609), namely the planets move around the sun describing conic orbits. Here we describe the possibility that the Cassini's idea works at larger or smaller scales. Indeed, we consider the Spiric curves (which are a generalization of the Cassini oval) and present the first steps towards a Spiric gravitational theory. We s...

  10. EASI—enrichment of alternatively spliced isoforms

    OpenAIRE

    Julian P Venables; Burn, John

    2006-01-01

    Alternative splicing produces more than one protein from the majority of genes and the rarer forms can have dominant functions. Instability of alternative transcripts can also hinder the study of regulation of gene expression by alternative splicing. To investigate the true extent of alternative splicing we have developed a simple method of enriching alternatively spliced isoforms (EASI) from PCRs using beads charged with Thermus aquaticus single-stranded DNA-binding protein (T.Aq ssb). This ...

  11. Determining mutations in G6PC and SLC37A4 genes in a sample of Brazilian patients with glycogen storage disease types Ia and Ib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Paschoalete Carlin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycogen storage disease (GSD comprises a group of autosomal recessive disorders characterized by deficiency of the enzymes that regulate the synthesis or degradation of glycogen. Types Ia and Ib are the most prevalent; while the former is caused by deficiency of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase, the latter is associated with impaired glucose-6-phosphate transporter, where the catalytic unit of G6Pase is located. Over 85 mutations have been reported since the cloning of G6PC and SLC37A4 genes. In this study, twelve unrelated patients with clinical symptoms suggestive of GSDIa and Ib were investigated by using genetic sequencing of G6PC and SLC37A4 genes, being three confirmed as having GSD Ia, and two with GSD Ib. In seven of these patients no mutations were detected in any of the genes. Five changes were detected in G6PC, including three known point mutations (p.G68R, p.R83C and p.Q347X and two neutral mutations (c.432G > A and c.1176T > C. Four changes were found in SLC37A4: a known point mutation (p.G149E, a novel frameshift insertion (c.1338_1339insT, and two neutral mutations (c.1287G > A and c.1076-28C > T. The frequency of mutations in our population was similar to that observed in the literature, in which the mutation p.R83C is also the most frequent one. Analysis of both genes should be considered in the investigation of this condition. An alternative explanation to the negative results in this molecular study is the possibility of a misdiagnosis. Even with a careful evaluation based on laboratory and clinical findings, overlap with other types of GSD is possible, and further molecular studies should be indicated.

  12. Intronic Alus influence alternative splicing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galit Lev-Maor

    Full Text Available Examination of the human transcriptome reveals higher levels of RNA editing than in any other organism tested to date. This is indicative of extensive double-stranded RNA (dsRNA formation within the human transcriptome. Most of the editing sites are located in the primate-specific retrotransposed element called Alu. A large fraction of Alus are found in intronic sequences, implying extensive Alu-Alu dsRNA formation in mRNA precursors. Yet, the effect of these intronic Alus on splicing of the flanking exons is largely unknown. Here, we show that more Alus flank alternatively spliced exons than constitutively spliced ones; this is especially notable for those exons that have changed their mode of splicing from constitutive to alternative during human evolution. This implies that Alu insertions may change the mode of splicing of the flanking exons. Indeed, we demonstrate experimentally that two Alu elements that were inserted into an intron in opposite orientation undergo base-pairing, as evident by RNA editing, and affect the splicing patterns of a downstream exon, shifting it from constitutive to alternative. Our results indicate the importance of intronic Alus in influencing the splicing of flanking exons, further emphasizing the role of Alus in shaping of the human transcriptome.

  13. Measurement of the vacuum reactivity coefficient of the RP-0 reactor 7A4 core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimate results of the vacuum reactivity coefficient of the RP-0 reactor 7A4 core through the inverse kinetics and neutronic noise are presented. For this effect, a compensated ionization chamber was used at the position E2 of the core. Experience was carried out at 0,47 W power which was monitored by the same measurement equipment. Aluminum blades were used as vacuum in different configurations within the reactor core. Results were assessed through perturbation theory to an energy group

  14. Groups as Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Kandasamy, W B Vasantha

    2009-01-01

    For the first time we represent every finite group in the form of a graph in this book. The authors choose to call these graphs as identity graph, since the main role in obtaining the graph is played by the identity element of the group. This study is innovative because through this description one can immediately look at the graph and say the number of elements in the group G which are self-inversed. Also study of different properties, like the subgroups of a group, normal subgroups of a group, p-sylow subgroups of a group and conjugate elements of a group are carried out using the identity graph of the group in this book. This book has four chapters. The first chapter is introductory. The second chapter represents groups as graphs. In the third chapter, we have defined similar types of graphs for algebraic structures like commutative semigroups, loops, commutative groupoids and commutative rings. The final chapter poses 52 problems.

  15. Rise of an alternative majority against opinion leaders

    CERN Document Server

    Tucci, K; Cosenza, M G

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the role of opinion leaders or influentials in the collective behavior of a social system. Opinion leaders are characterized by their unidirectional influence on other agents. We employ a model based in Axelrod's dynamics for cultural interaction among social agents that allows for non-interacting states. We find three collective phases in the space of parameters of the system, given by the fraction of opinion leaders and a quantity representing the number of available states: one ordered phase having the state imposed by the leaders; another nontrivial ordered phase consisting of a majority group in a state orthogonal or alternative to that of the opinion leaders, and a disordered phase, where many small groups coexist. We show that the spontaneous rise of an alternative group in the presence of opinion leaders depends on the existence of a minimum number of long-range connections in the underlying network. This phenomenon challenges the common idea that influentials are important to spreading...

  16. FMDP reactor alternative summary report. Volume 1 - existing LWR alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials [primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] are becoming surplus to national defense needs in both the United States and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety, and health (ES ampersand H) consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. This document summarizes the results of analysis concerned with existing light water reactor plutonium disposition alternatives

  17. FMDP reactor alternative summary report. Volume 1 - existing LWR alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, S.R.; Bevard, B.B. [and others

    1996-10-07

    Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials [primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] are becoming surplus to national defense needs in both the United States and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. This document summarizes the results of analysis concerned with existing light water reactor plutonium disposition alternatives.

  18. SLC26A4 targeted to the endolymphatic sac rescues hearing and balance in Slc26a4 mutant mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangming Li

    Full Text Available Mutations of SLC26A4 are a common cause of human hearing loss associated with enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct. SLC26A4 encodes pendrin, an anion exchanger expressed in a variety of epithelial cells in the cochlea, the vestibular labyrinth and the endolymphatic sac. Slc26a4 (Δ/Δ mice are devoid of pendrin and develop a severe enlargement of the membranous labyrinth, fail to acquire hearing and balance, and thereby provide a model for the human phenotype. Here, we generated a transgenic mouse line that expresses human SLC26A4 controlled by the promoter of ATP6V1B1. Crossing this transgene into the Slc26a4 (Δ/Δ line restored protein expression of pendrin in the endolymphatic sac without inducing detectable expression in the cochlea or the vestibular sensory organs. The transgene prevented abnormal enlargement of the membranous labyrinth, restored a normal endocochlear potential, normal pH gradients between endolymph and perilymph in the cochlea, normal otoconia formation in the vestibular labyrinth and normal sensory functions of hearing and balance. Our study demonstrates that restoration of pendrin to the endolymphatic sac is sufficient to restore normal inner ear function. This finding in conjunction with our previous report that pendrin expression is required for embryonic development but not for the maintenance of hearing opens the prospect that a spatially and temporally limited therapy will restore normal hearing in human patients carrying a variety of mutations of SLC26A4.

  19. Higher arithmetic Chow groups

    CERN Document Server

    Gil, J I Burgos

    2009-01-01

    We give a new construction of higher arithmetic Chow groups for quasi-projective arithmetic varieties over a field. Our definition agrees with the higher arithmetic Chow groups defined by Goncharov for projective arithmetic varieties over a field. These groups are the analogue, in the Arakelov context, of the higher algebraic Chow groups defined by Bloch. The degree zero group agrees with the arithmetic Chow groups of Burgos. Our new construction is shown to be a contravariant functor and is endowed with a product structure, which is commutative and associative.

  20. Removing 3,5-Dichlorophenol from Wastewater by Alternative Adsorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobetičová Hana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to evaluate an efficiency of 3,5 - dichlorophenol removal from wastewater by using alternative adsorbents. Chlorophenols are organic compounds consisting of a benzene ring, OH groups and also atoms of chlorine. Chlorophenols may have a huge isomere variety that means there are differences in their chemical and physical properties. Due to their toxicity it is necessary to remove them from waste water and in this paper an alternative way of such process is described.

  1. [Alternative medicine: really an alternative to academic medicine?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happle, R

    2000-06-01

    Numerous courses on alternative medicine are regularly advertised in Deutsches Arzteblatt, the organ of the German Medical Association. The present German legislation likewise supports this form of medicine, and this explains why Iscador, an extract of the mistletoe, is found in the Rote Liste, a directory of commercially available medical drugs, under the heading "cytostatic and antimetastatic drugs" although such beneficial effect is unproven. To give another example, a German health insurance fund was sentenced to pay for acupuncture as a treatment for hepatic failure. This judgement is characteristic of the present German judicial system and represents a victory of "oracling irrationalism" (Popper). The astonishing popularity of alternative medicine can be explained by a revival of romanticism. An intellectually fair opposite position has been delineated by Karl Popper in the form of critical rationalism. It is important to realize, however, that our decision to adhere to rational thinking is made in the innermost depth of our heart but not on the basis of rational arguing. Rather, the decision in favor of reason has a moral dimension. PMID:10907162

  2. Group B streptococcus - pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000511.htm Group B streptococcus - pregnancy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a type of bacteria that ...

  3. Fast Overlapping Group Lasso

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jun

    2010-01-01

    The group Lasso is an extension of the Lasso for feature selection on (predefined) non-overlapping groups of features. The non-overlapping group structure limits its applicability in practice. There have been several recent attempts to study a more general formulation, where groups of features are given, potentially with overlaps between the groups. The resulting optimization is, however, much more challenging to solve due to the group overlaps. In this paper, we consider the efficient optimization of the overlapping group Lasso penalized problem. We reveal several key properties of the proximal operator associated with the overlapping group Lasso, and compute the proximal operator by solving the smooth and convex dual problem, which allows the use of the gradient descent type of algorithms for the optimization. We have performed empirical evaluations using the breast cancer gene expression data set, which consists of 8,141 genes organized into (overlapping) gene sets. Experimental results demonstrate the eff...

  4. Gestalt Interactional Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Robert L.; Franklin, Richard W.

    1975-01-01

    Gestalt therapy in groups is not limited to individual work in the presence of an audience. Describes several ways to involve gestalt groups interactionally. Interactions described focus on learning by doing and discovering, and are noninterpretive. (Author/EJT)

  5. Group Wage Curves

    OpenAIRE

    Bartik, Timothy J.

    2000-01-01

    Using panel data on U.S. MSAs, this paper estimates how a typical MSA's wages of different demographic groups, and prices, are affected by overall MSA unemployment, the distribution of unemployment among different groups, and national prices and wages. MSA unemployment has strong effects on MSA wages and prices, but the distribution of unemployment among different groups has weak effects on wages and prices. Using these estimates, simulations show that targeting high-unemployment groups for u...

  6. Introduction to quantum groups

    OpenAIRE

    Podles, P.; Muller, E.

    1997-01-01

    We give an elementary introduction to the theory of algebraic and topological quantum groups (in the spirit of S. L. Woronowicz). In particular, we recall the basic facts from Hopf (*-) algebra theory, theory of compact (matrix) quantum groups and the theory of their actions on compact quantum spaces. We also provide the most important examples, including the classification of quantum SL(2)-groups, their real forms and quantum spheres. We also consider quantum SL_q(N)-groups and quantum Loren...

  7. Multicultural group work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2014-01-01

    Motivation for the activity I use this strategy for forming groups to ensure diverse/multicultural groups that combine a variety of different strengths and resources based on student's academic, disciplinary, linguistic, national, personal and work backgrounds.......Motivation for the activity I use this strategy for forming groups to ensure diverse/multicultural groups that combine a variety of different strengths and resources based on student's academic, disciplinary, linguistic, national, personal and work backgrounds....

  8. Higher arithmetic Chow groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil, J. I. Burgos; Feliu, Elisenda

    2012-01-01

    We give a new construction of higher arithmetic Chow groups for quasi-projective arithmetic varieties over a field. Our definition agrees with the higher arithmetic Chow groups defined by Goncharov for projective arithmetic varieties over a field. These groups are the analogue, in the Arakelov co...... and is endowed with a product structure, which is commutative and associative....

  9. Topological Symmetry Groups of Graphs in 3-Manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Flapan, Erica

    2011-01-01

    We prove that for every closed, connected, orientable, irreducible 3-manifold, there exists an alternating group A_n which is not the topological symmetry group of any graph embedded in the manifold. We also show that for every finite group G, there is an embedding {\\Gamma} of some graph in a hyperbolic rational homology 3-sphere such that the topological symmetry group of {\\Gamma} is isomorphic to G.

  10. Alternative energy and environmental concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The New Brunswick Market Design Committee will address environmental concerns within the context of the new energy policy and market rules for the newly restructured electric power industry. The new rules that come with power restructuring will in some ways facilitate environmental protection but they can also complicate it. With open access markets, it will be possible to coordinate evolving energy frameworks with current environmental objectives. Restructuring provides an opportunity to create incentives and guidelines to operate in an environmentally sustainable manner, as suggested in the New Brunswick Energy Policy, White Paper which outlines green pricing, the development of a provincial Climate Change Action Plan, and promotion of alternative energy. The Market Design Committee examined the environmental concerns listed within the White Paper that pertain to the generation and transmission of electricity. These include the integration of energy and environmental policy. Other issues addressed in this report were trans-boundary and global air emissions, the development of a provincial climate change action plan, and a federal-provincial climate change framework agreement. New Brunswick will encourage the development of pilot studies that demonstrate the benefits of renewable and alternative technologies and that help promote the market to manufacture, sell and maintain renewable and alternative technologies in small-scale on-site power generation. This report also discussed the 4 key air pollutants for which specific treatment has been defined, including sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, mercury and carbon dioxide. Recommendations for reducing these emissions include the use of renewable energy sources, the use of lower carbon fuels, increased efficiency of power transmission/generation/distribution systems, reducing power demand by the industrial sector, and promoting energy efficient building codes. 34 refs., 1 tab

  11. MR pelvimetry - a practical alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelvimetry remains a useful technique as part of the assessment of the term breech pregnancy where vaginal delivery is planned. MR pelvimetry is accurate, well tolerated and shows soft-tissue structures as well as bone. It avoids the potentially carcinogenic effects of ionising radiation and is thought to be completely safe for mother and fetus. A technique of MR pelvimetry is described which uses gradient-echo sequences. This quick, practical method makes minimal in roads into valuable scanning time, and may therefore be considered a potentially cost-effective alternative to conventional pelvimetry. (orig.)

  12. Alternating current for the West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the reactor EPR construction in the Manche, the authors wonder on the pertinence of this energy choice for the economy and the environment of the West France. They show that there is an alternative to this choice. In a first part a state of the situation concerning the electricity supply and demand in the region is detailed. Then from the local potential of renewable electric power production and the electricity conservation, they propose many concrete actions. (A.L.B.)

  13. Alternative routes of insulin delivery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ranjith K. Krishnankutty; Aju Mathew; Saikiran K. Sedimbi; Shrikumar Suryanarayan; Carani B. Sanjeevi

    2009-01-01

    Parenteral route of insulin administration has been the mode of treatment for all Type 1 diabetics and Type 2 diabetics with complications. Patient compliance has really been a major concern for this route of administration. Several alternative routes of administration are under consideration for effective glycemic control, including oral, inhaled, buccal, nasal, and patch routes. One of the approaches involving inhaled insulin has now reached the market. Several other candidates may reach the market in the near future, the promising one being oral insulin.

  14. The difference between alternative averages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Vaupel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Demographers have long been interested in how compositional change, e.g., change in age structure, affects population averages. OBJECTIVE We want to deepen understanding of how compositional change affects population averages. RESULTS The difference between two averages of a variable, calculated using alternative weighting functions, equals the covariance between the variable and the ratio of the weighting functions, divided by the average of the ratio. We compare weighted and unweighted averages and also provide examples of use of the relationship in analyses of fertility and mortality. COMMENTS Other uses of covariances in formal demography are worth exploring.

  15. Joint Individual-Group Modeling for Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzani, Loris; Zanotto, Matteo; Cristani, Marco; Murino, Vittorio

    2015-04-01

    We present a novel probabilistic framework that jointly models individuals and groups for tracking. Managing groups is challenging, primarily because of their nonlinear dynamics and complex layout which lead to repeated splitting and merging events. The proposed approach assumes a tight relation of mutual support between the modeling of individuals and groups, promoting the idea that groups are better modeled if individuals are considered and vice versa. This concept is translated in a mathematical model using a decentralized particle filtering framework which deals with a joint individual-group state space. The model factorizes the joint space into two dependent subspaces, where individuals and groups share the knowledge of the joint individual-group distribution. The assignment of people to the different groups (and thus group initialization, split and merge) is implemented by two alternative strategies: using classifiers trained beforehand on statistics of group configurations, and through online learning of a Dirichlet process mixture model, assuming that no training data is available before tracking. These strategies lead to two different methods that can be used on top of any person detector (simulated using the ground truth in our experiments). We provide convincing results on two recent challenging tracking benchmarks. PMID:26353291

  16. CHAOTIC GROUP ACTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShiEnhui; ZhouLizhen; ZhouYoucheng

    2003-01-01

    It is proved that there is no chaotic group actions on any topological space with free arc.In this paper the chaotic actions of the group like G×F,where F is a finite group,are studied.In particular,under a suitable assumption ,if F is a cyclic group,then the topological space which admits a chaotic action of Z×F must admit a chatotic homeomorphism.A topological space which admits a chaotic group action but admits no chaotic horneomorphism is constructed.

  17. Group theory I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Milewski, Emil G

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Group Theory I includes sets and mapping, groupoids and semi-groups, groups, isomorphisms and homomorphisms, cyclic groups, the Sylow theorems, and finite p-groups.

  18. Splittings of knot groups

    OpenAIRE

    Friedl, Stefan; Silver, Daniel S.; Williams, Susan G.

    2013-01-01

    Let K be a knot of genus g. If K is fibered, then it is well known that the knot group pi(K) splits only over a free group of rank 2g. We show that if K is not fibered, then pi(K) splits over non-free groups of arbitrarily large rank. Furthermore, if K is not fibered, then pi(K) splits over every free group of rank at least 2g. However, pi(K) cannot split over a group of rank less than 2g. The last statement is proved using the recent results of Agol, Przytycki-Wise and Wise.

  19. Grouped exposed metal heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Coit, William George (Bellaire, TX); Griffin, Peter Terry (Brixham, GB); Hamilton, Paul Taylor (Houston, TX); Hsu, Chia-Fu (Granada Hills, CA); Mason, Stanley Leroy (Allen, TX); Samuel, Allan James (Kular Lumpar, MY); Watkins, Ronnie Wade (Cypress, TX)

    2010-11-09

    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. The system includes two or more groups of elongated heaters. The group includes two or more heaters placed in two or more openings in the formation. The heaters in the group are electrically coupled below the surface of the formation. The openings include at least partially uncased wellbores in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The groups are electrically configured such that current flow through the formation between at least two groups is inhibited. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the formation.

  20. Grouped exposed metal heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Coit, William George (Bellaire, TX); Griffin, Peter Terry (Brixham, GB); Hamilton, Paul Taylor (Houston, TX); Hsu, Chia-Fu (Granada Hills, CA); Mason, Stanley Leroy (Allen, TX); Samuel, Allan James (Kular Lumpar, ML); Watkins, Ronnie Wade (Cypress, TX)

    2012-07-31

    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. The system includes two or more groups of elongated heaters. The group includes two or more heaters placed in two or more openings in the formation. The heaters in the group are electrically coupled below the surface of the formation. The openings include at least partially uncased wellbores in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The groups are electrically configured such that current flow through the formation between at least two groups is inhibited. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the formation.

  1. On -nilpotent abelian groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohammad Mehdi Nasrabadi; Ali Gholamian

    2014-11-01

    Let be a group and $A = \\text{Aut}(G)$ be the group of automorphisms of . Then, the element $[g, ] = g^{-1}(g)$ is an autocommutator of $g \\in G$ and $ \\in A$. Hence, for any natural number the -th autocommutator subgroup of is defined as $K_{m}(G)=\\langle [g,_{1},\\ldots,_{m}]|g\\in G,_{1},\\ldots,_{m}\\in A\\rangle$, where $[g, _{1}, _{2},\\ldots, _{m}] = [[g,_{1},\\ldots,_{m−1}], _{m}]$. In this paper, we introduce the new notion of -nilpotent groups and classify all abelian groups which are -nilpotent groups.

  2. Categorization of Alternative Conceptions in Electricity and Magnetism: the Case of Ethiopian Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dega, Bekele Gashe; Kriek, Jeanne; Mogese, Temesgen Fereja

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to categorize 35 Ethiopian undergraduate physics students' alternative conceptions in the concepts of electric potential and energy. A descriptive qualitative research design was used to categorize the students' alternative conceptions. Four independently homogeneous ability focus groups were formed to elicit the students' conceptual perceptions. A five-stage thematic (categorical) framework analysis—familiarization, identifying a thematic framework, coding, charting, and interpretation—was made to analyze data of the focus group discussions. The categories of alternative conceptions were based on the students' epistemological and ontological descriptions of the concepts investigated. Consequently, the following categories were diagnosed: naive physics, lateral alternative conceptions, ontological alternative conceptions, Ohm's phenomenological primitives, mixed conceptions, and loose ideas. The extensiveness of the alternative conceptions from the epistemological and ontological perspectives was comparable and considerable. The naïve physics and lateral alternative conceptions were more extensive than the others. The alternative conceptions were less frequently and inconsistently revealed within and across the categories. In general, it was concluded that the categories have common characteristics of diversified distribution of alternative conceptions and multiple alternative conceptions of specific concepts within and across the categories. Finally, instructional and theoretical implications are forwarded.

  3. From Geocentric to Heliocentric Model of the Universe, and the Alternative Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Chiu

    2005-01-01

    A recent study (Liu, 2005a, 2005b) revealed a limited number of alternative models of the universe held by young students in Taiwan and in Germany. In line with the previous findings, these alternative models frequently fall into two groups: earth-centred and sun-centred views, which draw a correspondence to the ideas in the European history of…

  4. A Primer on Alternative Investments: Free Lunches, Magic, and the Four Ps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Jay A.

    1998-01-01

    A discussion of alternative investments for colleges and universities looks at the kinds of investments that comprise this group, rationales for making such investments, the advantages of diversification, risk issues, and ways to reduce risk, including careful selection of managers. Several strategies for getting started in alternative investments…

  5. Founding of Anti-Euro party: An “Alternative for Germany”?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Sting (Anna)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWhile the euro finance ministers where gathering in Dublin to discuss saving the common currency, yet another group of self-acclaimed politicians gathered in Berlin. A new party aims to enter German parliament after elections in September: The Alternative for Germany (Alternative für Deu

  6. Toleration, Groups, and Multiculturalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2014-01-01

    to the political and social relationship between the subject and the objects of toleration. Finally, toleration is often argued to be a normative requirement on the basis of the way it affects the object or receiver of toleration, e.g. on the basis of the good of or right to freedom from non-interference which....... The chapter relates the different possible meanings of groups toleration to widespread criticisms of multiculturalism for being excessively 'groupist' (e.g. to essentialise or reify groups), to promote group rights over individual rights, or to deny or ignore the internal heterogeneity of groups...... or the multiple identity affiliations of individuals. The chapter suggests that some of these standard criticisms of multiculturalism for being overly tolerant of minority groups, or being so in a way elevating groups over individuals, are less pressing on some understandings of the meaning of 'group...

  7. E-groups training

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2012-01-01

    There will be an e-groups training course on 16 March 2012 which will cover the main e-groups functionalities i.e.: creating and managing e-groups, difference between static and dynamic e-groups, configuring posting restrictions and archives, examples of where e-groups can be used in daily work. Even if you have already worked with e-groups, this may be a good opportunity to learn about the best practices and security related recommendations when using e-groups. You can find more details as well as enrolment form for the training (it’s free) here. The number of places is limited, so enrolling early is recommended.   Technical Training Tel. 72844

  8. The partially alternating ternary sum in an associative dialgebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bremner, Murray R [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Saskatchewan (Canada); Sanchez-Ortega, Juana, E-mail: bremner@math.usask.c, E-mail: jsanchez@agt.cie.uma.e [Department of Algebra, Geometry and Topology, University of Malaga (Spain)

    2010-11-12

    The alternating ternary sum in an associative algebra, abc - acb - bac + bca + cab - cba, gives rise to the partially alternating ternary sum in an associative dialgebra with products dashv and vdash by making the argument a the center of each term. We use computer algebra to determine the polynomial identities in degree {<=}9 satisfied by this new trilinear operation. In degrees 3 and 5, these identities define a new variety of partially alternating ternary algebras. We show that there is a 49-dimensional space of multilinear identities in degree 7, and we find equivalent nonlinear identities. We use the representation theory of the symmetric group to show that there are no new identities in degree 9.

  9. Bond Alternation, Polarizability and Resonance Detuning in Methine Dyes

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, Seth

    2010-01-01

    Many organic molecules with a high nonlinear polarizability have a "Brooker dye" structure, featuring electron accepting or donating groups separated by an unsaturated (methine or polyene) hydrocarbon bridge. These systems have been the topic of much discussion with regard to their structure-property relationships - particularly relationships linking nonlinear response to bond-length alternation. Here, we show that these relationships can be subsumed within the conceptual framework of a Brooker dye color proposed by Platt [J.R. Platt, J. Chem. Phys. 25 80 (1956)]. The key quantities of Platt's model are the Brooker basicity difference and the isoexcitation energy. These concepts provide a spectroscopic definition of the resonant (cyanine) limit, which is independent of other descriptors commonly used (e.g. bond length alternation). We establish a relation ship between the bond length and the Brooker basicity difference, with which we establish a natural origin for bond length alternation coordinates in asymme...

  10. Alternate nuclear waste forms and interactions in geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary purposes of the conference on Alternate Nuclear Waste Forms and Interactions in Geologic Media were: First, to provide an opportunity for a review of the status of the research on some of the candidate alternative waste forms; second, to provide an opportunity for comparing the characteristics of alternate waste forms to those of glasses; and third, to stimulate increased interactions between those research groups that were engaged in a more basic approach to characterizing waste forms and those who were concerned with more applied aspects such as the processing of these materials. The motivating philosophy behind this third purpose of the conference was based on the idea that by operating from the soundest possible fundamental base for any of the candidate waste forms, hopefully any future unpleasant surprise - such as that alluded to earlier in the case of glass waste forms - could be avoided. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  11. Antibodies: an alternative for antibiotics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghman, L R; Abi-Ghanem, D; Waghela, S D; Ricke, S C

    2005-04-01

    In 1967, the success of vaccination programs, combined with the seemingly unstoppable triumph of antibiotics, prompted the US Surgeon General to declare that "it was time to close the books on infectious diseases." We now know that the prediction was overly optimistic and that the fight against infectious diseases is here to stay. During the last 20 yr, infectious diseases have indeed made a staggering comeback for a variety of reasons, including resistance against existing antibiotics. As a consequence, several alternatives to antibiotics are currently being considered or reconsidered. Passive immunization (i.e., the administration of more or less pathogen-specific antibodies to the patient) prior to or after exposure to the disease-causing agent is one of those alternative strategies that was almost entirely abandoned with the introduction of chemical antibiotics but that is now gaining interest again. This review will discuss the early successes and limitations of passive immunization, formerly referred to as "serum therapy," the current use of antibody administration for prophylaxis or treatment of infectious diseases in agriculture, and, finally, recent developments in the field of antibody engineering and "molecular farming" of antibodies in various expression systems. Especially the potential of producing therapeutic antibodies in crops that are routine dietary components of farm animals, such as corn and soy beans, seems to hold promise for future application in the fight against infectious diseases. PMID:15844826

  12. Alternate fusion concepts as reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent successes of the tokamak concept of controlled fusion have not quenched interest in possible alternatives. This report summarizes a recent study sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute, which tried to quantify which hoped-for advantages persist when a serious attempt is made to design reactor plants around eight specific alternative concepts (Electron Beam-Heated Solenoid, Elmo Bumpy Torus, Fast Liner, Laser-Heated Solenoid, Linear Theta-Pinch, LINUS, Reversed-Field-Pinch, and Shock-Heated Annulus) addressing key technological issues and economic issues for each concept. The study aimed to isolate the cost drivers for the reactor plant and to compare their capital cost per kilowatt of electricity as well as address the impact of technological difficulty. Results of the study indicated that reactor block costs for the eight plants studied represent a substantially larger fraction of total plant costs than the corresponding fraction for light water reactors; bottom line costs of $ /kWe range over a factor of about two with cost drivers being the physical size of the power producing plasma and the relative magnitudes of the circulating power fraction and the nature of the power circulation. Other cost considerations are also enumerated and the author concludes by noting that one value of the engineering study and cost estimate has been to quantify the relation between physics uncertainty and cost uncertainty

  13. Alternatives for nuclear fuel disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez S, J. R.; Badillo A, V.; Palacios H, J.; Celis del Angel, L., E-mail: ramon.ramirez@inin.gob.m [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-10-15

    The spent fuel is one of the most important issues in the nuclear industry, currently spent fuel management is been cause of great amount of research, investments in the construction of repositories or constructing the necessary facilities to reprocess the fuel, and later to recycle the plutonium recovered in thermal reactors. What is the best solution? or, What is the best technology for a specific solution? Many countries have deferred the decision on selecting an option, while other works actively constructing repositories and others implementing the reprocessing facilities to recycle the plutonium obtained from nuclear spent fuel. In Mexico the nuclear power is limited to two reactors BWR type and medium size. So the nuclear spent fuel discharged has been accommodated at reactor's spent fuel pools. Originally these pools have enough capacity to accommodate spent fuel for the 40 years of designed plant operation. However, currently is under process an extended power up rate to 20% of their original power and also there are plans to extend operational life for 20 more years. Under these conditions there will not be enough room for spent fuel in the pools. So this work describes some different alternatives that have been studied in Mexico to define which will be the best alternative to follow. (Author)

  14. Alternative fuels: a Brazilian outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on studies and information related to the use of alternative fuels in Brazil. The first part of this paper deals with the economics of different biomass technologies. The analysis consists of a careful costing of all operations involved. The study deals with wood, sugar cane and cassava, since these crops are exploited for commercial purposes in Brazil. Corn, although a useful raw material for producing ethanol in the United States, is not used for this purpose in Brazil. The second part deals with the industrial technologies used to convert biomass into energy. We consider several forms of energy derived from biomass and evaluate the economics of the processes. When opportune, we compare costs with those of the North American market. Market analysis and displacement of conventional energy are the subject of the third part of the paper. While the cost of each product is evaluated in most cases; in others the current market price is used. Finally, we raise the issues of institutional problems and planning and offer some conclusions on the future of biomass as an alternative energy source. The technological discussion in this paper is based on the Brazilian experience in producing ethanol and other fuels from biomass. It is possible to extrapolate the Brazilian experience to other developing countries. The observations made in this chapter are based on the conditions prevalent in the Brazilian south-central agricultural region, specifically the state of Sao Paulo. (author). 91 refs., 16 figs., 11 tabs

  15. Alternative therapies for postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speroff, Leon

    2005-01-01

    Alternative therapies are being used by postmenopausal women in attempts to treat all of the complaints and medical conditions of the menopause. One-fifth of those who take prescription drugs for these indications also take herbal remedies and/or high-dose vitamins, most often without disclosing the fact to the physician. Although studies of alternative therapies are short-term and rarely focused on safety--let alone efficacy--in the long-term, there are many studies spread over the large number of substances involved. More than 130 studies, including meta-analyses, are reviewed in this article under the headings of phytoestrogens, especially from soy; therapies for hot flushes; and preventives for cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and breast cancer. Special attention is given to the recently recognized daidzein metabolite equol, and for the sake of completeness there are reviews of the unconventional, but not botanical, treatments estriol, transdermal progesterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone. The total picture produced by conscientious review of the studies is bleak overall, but there seems to be good reason to pursue the possibilities inherent in soy protein with phytoestrogens in populations of women who endogenously produce equol.

  16. Alternative Medicine Taking Hold Among Americans: Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159511.html Alternative Medicine Taking Hold Among Americans: Report More than $30 ... chunk of their health care dollars on alternative medicine, such as acupuncture, yoga, chiropractic care and natural ...

  17. IBD and Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alternative Medicine (CAM) Go Back Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Email Print + Share Crohn’s disease and ulcerative ... Energy Medicine, and Biologically-Based Practices. Mind-Body Medicine Mind-body medicine is a set of interventions ...

  18. Office of Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information FAQs about OCCAM Talking about Complementary and Alternative Medicine with Health Care Providers: A Workbook and Tips ... your health care provider(s) about your complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use during and after your cancer care. ...

  19. [Solid phase techniques in blood group serology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthemann, H; Sturmfels, L; Lenhard, V

    1993-06-01

    As alternatives to hemagglutination, solid-phase red blood cell adherence assays are of increasing importance. The adaptation of the new techniques to microplates offers several advantages over hemagglutination. Using microplates the assays may be processed semiautomatically, and the results can be read spectrophotometrically and interpreted by a personal computer. In this paper, different red blood cell adherence assays for AB0 grouping, Rh typing, Rh phenotyping, antibody screening and identification, as well as crossmatching will be described.

  20. What is Grouping during Binocular Rivalry?

    OpenAIRE

    Sjoerd Martin Stuit; Chris ePaffen; Maarten evan der Smagt; Frans eVerstraten

    2011-01-01

    During binocular rivalry, perception alternates between dissimilar images presented dichoptically. Although perception during rivalry is believed to originate from competition at a local level, different rivalry zones are not independent: rival targets that are spaced apart but have similar features tend to be dominant at the same time. We investigated grouping of spatially separated rival targets presented to the same or to different eyes and presented in the same or in different hemifields....

  1. Group Psychotherapy in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannone, Francesca; Giordano, Cecilia; Di Blasi, Maria

    2015-10-01

    This article describes the history and the prevailing orientations of group psychotherapy in Italy (psychoanalytically oriented, psychodrama, CBT groups) and particularly group analysis. Provided free of charge by the Italian health system, group psychotherapy is growing, but its expansion is patchy. The main pathways of Italian training in the different group psychotherapy orientations are also presented. Clinical-theoretical elaboration on self development, psychopathology related to group experiences, and the methodological attention paid to objectives and methods in different clinical groups are issues related to group therapy in Italy. Difficulties in the relationship between research and clinical practice are discussed, as well as the empirical research network that tries to bridge the gap between research and clinical work in group psychotherapy. The economic crisis in Italy has led to massive cuts in health care and to an increasing demand for some forms of psychological treatment. For these reasons, and because of its positive cost-benefit ratio, group psychotherapy is now considered an important tool in the national health care system to expand the clinical response to different forms of psychological distress. PMID:26401793

  2. SLC26A4 gene copy number variations in Chinese patients with non-syndromic enlarged vestibular aqueduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Jiandong

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many patients with enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA have either only one allelic mutant of the SLC26A4 gene or lack any detectable mutation. In this study, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA was used to screen for copy number variations (CNVs of SLC26A4 and to reveal the pathogenic mechanisms of non-syndromic EVA (NSEVA. Methods Between January 2003 and March 2010, 923 Chinese patients (481 males, 442 females with NSEVA were recruited. Among these, 68 patients (7.4% were found to carry only one mutant allele of SLC26A4 and 39 patients (4.2% lacked any detectable mutation in SLC26A4; these 107 patients without double mutant alleles were assigned to the patient group. Possible copy number variations in SLC26A4 were detected by SALSA MLPA. Results Using GeneMapper, no significant difference was observed between the groups, as compared with the standard probe provided in the assay. The results of the capillary electrophoresis showed no significant difference between the patients and controls. Conclusion Our results suggest that CNVs and the exon deletion in SLC26A4 are not important factors in NSEVA. However, it would be premature to conclude that CNVs have no role in EVA. Genome-wide studies to explore CNVs within non-coding regions of the SLC26A4 gene and neighboring regions are warranted, to elucidate their roles in NSEVA etiology.

  3. Towards a critical theory of alternative media.

    OpenAIRE

    SANDOVAL, M.; C. Fuchs

    2010-01-01

    In this contribution, we warn against being too optimistic about the actual democratic effects of notions like "civil media", ”community media” "alternative media", "grassroots media", "participatory media", or "participatory culture". We argue that in contemporary society, which is characterized by structural inequalities, an understanding of alternative media as participatory media is insufficient. As an alternative concept, we suggest the notion of alternative media as critical media. This...

  4. Evolution of alternative splicing after gene duplication

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Zhixi; Wang, Jianmin; Yu, Jun; Huang, Xiaoqiu; Gu, Xun

    2006-01-01

    Alternative splicing and gene duplication are two major sources of proteomic function diversity. Here, we study the evolutionary trend of alternative splicing after gene duplication by analyzing the alternative splicing differences between duplicate genes. We observed that duplicate genes have fewer alternative splice (AS) forms than single-copy genes, and that a negative correlation exists between the mean number of AS forms and the gene family size. Interestingly, we found that the loss of ...

  5. SISTEMAS INMUNES ALTERNATIVOS Alternative Immune Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS F. CADAVID

    evolution different animal groups have found alternative solutions to the problem of immune recognition.

  6. Modeling the Effects of Harvest Alternatives on Mitigating Oak Decline in a Central Hardwood Forest Landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen J Wang

    Full Text Available Oak decline is a process induced by complex interactions of predisposing factors, inciting factors, and contributing factors operating at tree, stand, and landscape scales. It has greatly altered species composition and stand structure in affected areas. Thinning, clearcutting, and group selection are widely adopted harvest alternatives for reducing forest vulnerability to oak decline by removing susceptible species and declining trees. However, the long-term, landscape-scale effects of these different harvest alternatives are not well studied because of the limited availability of experimental data. In this study, we applied a forest landscape model in combination with field studies to evaluate the effects of the three harvest alternatives on mitigating oak decline in a Central Hardwood Forest landscape. Results showed that the potential oak decline in high risk sites decreased strongly in the next five decades irrespective of harvest alternatives. This is because oak decline is a natural process and forest succession (e.g., high tree mortality resulting from intense competition would eventually lead to the decrease in oak decline in this area. However, forest harvesting did play a role in mitigating oak decline and the effectiveness varied among the three harvest alternatives. The group selection and clearcutting alternatives were most effective in mitigating oak decline in the short and medium terms, respectively. The long-term effects of the three harvest alternatives on mitigating oak decline became less discernible as the role of succession increased. The thinning alternative had the highest biomass retention over time, followed by the group selection and clearcutting alternatives. The group selection alternative that balanced treatment effects and retaining biomass was the most viable alternative for managing oak decline. Insights from this study may be useful in developing effective and informed forest harvesting plans for managing oak

  7. Blood groups systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranadhir Mitra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available International Society of Blood Transfusion has recently recognized 33 blood group systems. Apart from ABO and Rhesus system, many other types of antigens have been noticed on the red cell membranes. Blood grouping and cross-matching is one of the few important tests that the anaesthesiologist orders during perioperative period. Hence, a proper understanding of the blood group system, their clinical significance, typing and cross-matching tests, and current perspective are of paramount importance to prevent transfusion-related complications. Nonetheless, the knowledge on blood group system is necessary to approach blood group-linked diseases which are still at the stage of research. This review addresses all these aspects of the blood groups system.

  8. Blood groups systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Ranadhir; Mishra, Nitasha; Rath, Girija Prasad

    2014-09-01

    International Society of Blood Transfusion has recently recognized 33 blood group systems. Apart from ABO and Rhesus system, many other types of antigens have been noticed on the red cell membranes. Blood grouping and cross-matching is one of the few important tests that the anaesthesiologist orders during perioperative period. Hence, a proper understanding of the blood group system, their clinical significance, typing and cross-matching tests, and current perspective are of paramount importance to prevent transfusion-related complications. Nonetheless, the knowledge on blood group system is necessary to approach blood group-linked diseases which are still at the stage of research. This review addresses all these aspects of the blood groups system. PMID:25535412

  9. Stochastic Lie group integrators

    CERN Document Server

    Malham, Simon J A

    2007-01-01

    We present Lie group integrators for nonlinear stochastic differential equations with non-commutative vector fields whose solution evolves on a smooth finite dimensional manifold. Given a Lie group action that generates transport along the manifold, we pull back the stochastic flow on the manifold to the Lie group via the action, and subsequently pull back the flow to the corresponding Lie algebra via the exponential map. We construct an approximation to the stochastic flow in the Lie algebra via closed operations and then push back to the Lie group and then to the manifold, thus ensuring our approximation lies in the manifold. We call such schemes stochastic Munthe-Kaas methods after their deterministic counterparts. We also present stochastic Lie group integration schemes based on Castell--Gaines methods. These involve using an underlying ordinary differential integrator to approximate the flow generated by a truncated stochastic exponential Lie series. They become stochastic Lie group integrator schemes if...

  10. Blood groups systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ranadhir Mitra; Nitasha Mishra; Girija Prasad Rath

    2014-01-01

    International Society of Blood Transfusion has recently recognized 33 blood group systems. Apart from ABO and Rhesus system, many other types of antigens have been noticed on the red cell membranes. Blood grouping and cross-matching is one of the few important tests that the anaesthesiologist orders during perioperative period. Hence, a proper understanding of the blood group system, their clinical significance, typing and cross-matching tests, and current perspective are of paramount importa...

  11. Group therapy for adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Nada Hribar

    2001-01-01

    The group included adolescents from secondary school and some students. The group had weekly sessions or twice on mounth. The adolescents had varied simptoms: depressive, anxiety, psychosomatic disorders, learning difficulties, cunduct problems. All of adolescents were common on many problems in social interactions. The goal of therapeutic work were: to increase assertiveness skills and to reduce the anxious in social situations. The adolescents in group raised a self-esteem and developed som...

  12. Group Problem Solving

    CERN Document Server

    Laughlin, Patrick R

    2011-01-01

    Experimental research by social and cognitive psychologists has established that cooperative groups solve a wide range of problems better than individuals. Cooperative problem solving groups of scientific researchers, auditors, financial analysts, air crash investigators, and forensic art experts are increasingly important in our complex and interdependent society. This comprehensive textbook--the first of its kind in decades--presents important theories and experimental research about group problem solving. The book focuses on tasks that have demonstrably correct solutions within mathematical

  13. Semisimple Metacyclic Group Algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gurmeet K Bakshi; Shalini Gupta; Inder Bir S Passi

    2011-11-01

    Given a group of order $p_1p_2$, where $p_1,p_2$ are primes, and $\\mathbb{F}_q$, a finite field of order coprime to $p_1p_2$, the object of this paper is to compute a complete set of primitive central idempotents of the semisimple group algebra $\\mathbb{F}_q[G]$. As a consequence, we obtain the structure of $\\mathbb{F}_q[G]$ and its group of automorphisms.

  14. Incentives and group identity

    OpenAIRE

    MASELLA, Paolo; Meier, Stephan; Zahn, Philipp

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates in a principal-agent environment whether and how group membership influences the effectiveness of incentives and when incentives can have “hidden costs”, i.e., a detrimental effect. We show experimentally that in all interactions control mechanisms can have hidden costs for reasons specific to group membership. In within-group interactions control has detrimental effects because the agent does not expect to be controlled and reacts negatively when being controlled. In ...

  15. Presentations of groups

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, D L

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this book is to provide an introduction to combinatorial group theory. Any reader who has completed first courses in linear algebra, group theory and ring theory will find this book accessible. The emphasis is on computational techniques but rigorous proofs of all theorems are supplied. This new edition has been revised throughout, including new exercises and an additional chapter on proving that certain groups are infinite.

  16. Comparison of Paeoniflorin and Albiflorin on Human CYP3A4 and CYP2D6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Na Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall- is a plant medicine and a functional food ingredient with wide application for more than 2000 years. It can be coadministrated with many other drugs, composed of traditional Chinese medicine compound such as shaoyao-gancao decoction. In order to explore the efficacy and safety of peony, effects of paeoniflorin and albiflorin (the principal components of peony on cytochrome P450 (CYP 3A4 and CYP2D6 were analyzed in human hepatoma HepG2 cells and evaluated from the level of recombinant CYP enzymes in vitro. The findings indicated that albiflorin possessed stronger regulation on the mRNA expression of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 than paeoniflorin. For the protein level of CYP3A4, albiflorin showed significant induction or inhibition with the concentration increasing from 10−7 M to 10−5 M, but no remarkable variation was observed in paeoniflorin-treated group. Enzyme activity assay implied that both paeoniflorin and albiflorin could regulate CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 with varying degrees. The results showed that albiflorin should be given more attention because it may play a vital role on the overall efficacy of peony. The whole behavior of both paeoniflorin and albiflorin should be focused on ensuring the rationality and effectiveness of clinical application.

  17. Explosive Technology Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Explosive Technology Group (ETG) provides diverse technical expertise and an agile, integrated approach to solve complex challenges for all classes of energetic...

  18. CLASSIFICATION OF CRIMINAL GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Romanova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available New types of criminal groups are emerging in modern society.  These types have their special criminal subculture. The research objective is to develop new parameters of classification of modern criminal groups, create a new typology of criminal groups and identify some features of their subculture. Research methodology is based on the system approach that includes using the method of analysis of documentary sources (materials of a criminal case, method of conversations with themembers of the criminal group, method of testing the members of the criminal group and method of observation. As a result of the conducted research, we have created a new classification of criminal groups. The first type is a lawful group in its form and criminal according to its content (i.e., its target is criminal enrichment. The second type is a criminal organization which is run by so-called "white-collars" that "remain in the shadow". The third type is traditional criminal groups.  The fourth type is the criminal group, which openly demonstrates its criminal activity.

  19. Group size and social conflict in complex societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Sheng-Feng; Akçay, Erol; Rubenstein, Dustin R

    2014-02-01

    Conflicts of interest over resources or reproduction among individuals in a social group have long been considered to result in automatic and universal costs to group living. However, exploring how social conflict varies with group size has produced mixed empirical results. Here we develop a model that generates alternative predictions for how social conflict should vary with group size depending on the type of benefits gained from being in a social group. We show that a positive relationship between social conflict and group size is favored when groups form primarily for the benefits of sociality but not when groups form mainly for accessing group-defended resources. Thus, increased social conflict in animal societies should not be viewed as an automatic cost of larger social groups. Instead, studying the relationship between social conflict and the types of grouping benefits will be crucial for understanding the evolution of complex societies.

  20. Group Work, Interlanguage Talk,and Second Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Michael H.; Porter, Patricia A.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses both the pedagogical arguments and the psycholinguistic rationale for small-group work in the second language classroom. Claims that the negotiation work possible in group actiity makes it an attractive alternative to the teacher-led discussion. Reviews research findings on interlanguage which generally support the claims made for group…

  1. Alternator control for battery charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunstetter, Craig A.; Jaye, John R.; Tallarek, Glen E.; Adams, Joseph B.

    2015-07-14

    In accordance with an aspect of the present disclosure, an electrical system for an automotive vehicle has an electrical generating machine and a battery. A set point voltage, which sets an output voltage of the electrical generating machine, is set by an electronic control unit (ECU). The ECU selects one of a plurality of control modes for controlling the alternator based on an operating state of the vehicle as determined from vehicle operating parameters. The ECU selects a range for the set point voltage based on the selected control mode and then sets the set point voltage within the range based on feedback parameters for that control mode. In an aspect, the control modes include a trickle charge mode and battery charge current is the feedback parameter and the ECU controls the set point voltage within the range to maintain a predetermined battery charge current.

  2. An alternative to Zoe's Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmau, James

    2015-03-01

    Under the criminal law of New South Wales, the destruction of a foetus (other than in the course of a medical procedure) constitutes grievous bodily harm to the pregnant woman. Charges can be laid for offences against the woman, but not against the foetus. Many are dissatisfied with this. The Crimes Amendment (Zoe's Law) Bill 2013 (No 2) (NSW) aimed to change this by providing that a foetus is taken to be a living person for the purposes of certain offences. The Bill was strongly opposed on the basis that according personhood to a foetus in this way will have undesirable consequences that could erode the reproductive rights of women. The public debate over how the criminal law addresses the destruction of a foetus has centred on Zoe's Law. This article proposes an alternative amendment. that aims, to accommodate the concerns of the Bill's supporters and its detractors.

  3. Nuclear power and its alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For nuclear power to contribute significantly to the alleviation of demands for increased electricity by the year 2000, a further obstacle must be overcome, namely the present nuclear phobia of the American public. This phobia can be addressed only through public education leading to a balanced perspective of the benefits and hazards of nuclear power compared with those of alternate sources of energy and to the risks associated with an insufficient supply of energy in a few years. Also to be considered in a public education effort should be the precarious and capricious nature of this country's continued reliance on energy sources imported from politically unstable countries, as well as the risk this importation poses for the nation's economic, social and military security

  4. Nuclear energy: a sensible alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book presents information on energy futures; energy demand, energy supplies; exclusive paths and difficult choices--hard, soft, and moderate energy paths; an energy-deficient society; energy shortages; economics of light-water reactors; fast breeder reactor economics; international cooperation in the nuclear field; nuclear recycling; alternative fuels, fuel cycles, and reactors; the nuclear weapons proliferation issue; paths to a world with more reliable nuclear safeguards; the homemade bomb issue; LWR risk assessment; accident analysis and risk assessment; the waste disposal risk; radon problems; risks in our society; health effects of low-level radiation; routine releases of radioactivity from the nuclear industry; low-level radioactivity and infant mortality; the myth of plutonium toxicity; myths about high-level radioactive waste; the aging reactor myth; the police state myth; insurance and nuclear power--the Price-Anderson Act; and solar and nuclear power as partners

  5. Alternative approaches to plasma confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    The paper discusses 20 plasma confinement schemes each representing an alternative to the tokamak fusion reactor. Attention is given to: (1) tokamak-like devices (TORMAC, Topolotron, and the Extrap concept), (2) stellarator-like devices (Torsatron and twisted-coil stellarators), (3) mirror machines (Astron and reversed-field devices, the 2XII B experiment, laser-heated solenoids, the LITE experiment, the Kaktus-Surmac concept), (4) bumpy tori (hot electron bumpy torus, toroidal minimum-B configurations), (5) electrostatically assisted confinement (electrostatically stuffed cusps and mirrors, electrostatically assisted toroidal confinement), (6) the Migma concept, and (7) wall-confined plasmas. The plasma parameters of the devices are presented and the advantages and disadvantages of each are listed.

  6. ADAPTABLE ALTERNATE REALITY GAMES PLATFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu-Adrian Cotfas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an alternate reality games platform that facilitates the creation of ARG projects with different themes and sizes. The platform is well integrated with the most important social media networks, thus facilitating both the involvement of the public and the creation of a more engaging interaction for the participants. A cloud-based architecture was used in order to allow the platform to easily accommodate projects of various sizes and to provide a good level of scalability. The platform is fully localizable in any language and multiple languages can be used at once to create projects that target users from different countries. An initial project that uses gamification to create an immersive learning environment has been created around the developed platform. The project combines professional and public feedback in order to provide an enhanced learning experience.

  7. Alternative Medicine Review简介

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李霄茜; 周庆辉

    2009-01-01

    @@ Alternative Medicine Review(;ISSN:1089-5159)是由美国Thorne Research公司于1996年出版发行的一本同行评议补充替代医学杂志,旨在为预防保健从业者提供准确、及时并且与临床相关的各类原创文章、摘要及文献综述等.该杂志现已被Index Medicus/Medline、EMBASE、CINAHL、Current Contents/Clinical Medicine及Science Citation Index Expanded等多个数据库收录.最新影响因子为3.111.

  8. Quantifying asymmetry: ratios and alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Erin M; Cabo, Luis L

    2014-08-01

    Traditionally, the study of metric skeletal asymmetry has relied largely on univariate analyses, utilizing ratio transformations when the goal is comparing asymmetries in skeletal elements or populations of dissimilar dimensions. Under this approach, raw asymmetries are divided by a size marker, such as a bilateral average, in an attempt to produce size-free asymmetry indices. Henceforth, this will be referred to as "controlling for size" (see Smith: Curr Anthropol 46 (2005) 249-273). Ratios obtained in this manner often require further transformations to interpret the meaning and sources of asymmetry. This model frequently ignores the fundamental assumption of ratios: the relationship between the variables entered in the ratio must be isometric. Violations of this assumption can obscure existing asymmetries and render spurious results. In this study, we examined the performance of the classic indices in detecting and portraying the asymmetry patterns in four human appendicular bones and explored potential methodological alternatives. Examination of the ratio model revealed that it does not fulfill its intended goals in the bones examined, as the numerator and denominator are independent in all cases. The ratios also introduced strong biases in the comparisons between different elements and variables, generating spurious asymmetry patterns. Multivariate analyses strongly suggest that any transformation to control for overall size or variable range must be conducted before, rather than after, calculating the asymmetries. A combination of exploratory multivariate techniques, such as Principal Components Analysis, and confirmatory linear methods, such as regression and analysis of covariance, appear as a promising and powerful alternative to the use of ratios. PMID:24842694

  9. Alternative calcination development status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel and (INEEL) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision, dated June 1, 1995, specifies that high-level waste stored in the underground tanks at the ICPP continue to be calcined while other options to treat the waste are studied. Therefore, the High-Level Waste Program has funded a program to develop new flowsheets to increase the liquid waste processing rate. Simultaneously, a radionuclide separation process, as well as other options, are also being developed, which will be compared to the calcination treatment option. Two alternatives emerged as viable candidates; (1) elevated temperature calcination (also referred to as high temperature calcination), and (2) sugar-additive calcination. Both alternatives were determined to be viable through testing performed in a lab-scale calcination mockup. Subsequently, 10-cm Calciner Pilot Plant scoping tests were successfully completed for both flowsheets. The results were compared to the standard 500 C, high-ANN flow sheet (baseline flowsheet). The product and effluent streams were characterized to help elucidate the process chemistry and to investigate potential environmental permitting issues. Several supplementary tests were conducted to gain a better understanding of fine-particles generation, calcine hydration, scrub foaming, feed makeup procedures, sugar/organic elimination, and safety-related issues. Many of the experiments are only considered to be scoping tests, and follow-up experiments will be required to establish a more definitive understanding of the flowsheets. However, the combined results support the general conclusion that flowsheet improvements for the NWCF are technically viable

  10. Ironmaking Process Alternative Screening Study, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockwood Greene, . .

    2005-01-06

    Iron in the United States is largely produced from iron ore mined in the United States or imported from Canada or South America. The iron ore is typically smelted in Blast Furnaces that use primarily iron ore, iron concentrate pellets metallurgical coke, limestone and lime as the raw materials. Under current operating scenarios, the iron produced from these Blast Furnaces is relatively inexpensive as compared to current alternative iron sources, e.g. direct iron reduction, imported pig iron, etc. The primary problem the Blast Furnace Ironmaking approach is that many of these Blast furnaces are relatively small, as compared to the newer, larger Blast Furnaces; thus are relatively costly and inefficient to operate. An additional problem is also that supplies of high-grade metallurgical grade coke are becoming increasingly in short supply and costs are also increasing. In part this is due to the short supply and costs of high-grade metallurgical coals, but also this is due to the increasing necessity for environmental controls for coke production. After year 2003 new regulations for coke product environmental requirement will likely be promulgated. It is likely that this also will either increase the cost of high-quality coke production or will reduce the available domestic U.S. supply. Therefore, iron production in the United States utilizing the current, predominant Blast Furnace process will be more costly and would likely be curtailed due to a coke shortage. Therefore, there is a significant need to develop or extend the economic viability of Alternate Ironmaking Processes to at least partially replace current and declining blast furnace iron sources and to provide incentives for new capacity expansion. The primary conclusions of this comparative Study of Alternative Ironmaking Process scenarios are: (1) The processes with the best combined economics (CAPEX and OPEX impacts in the I.R.R. calculation) can be grouped into those Fine Ore based processes with no scrap

  11. Lipoxin A4 Preconditioning and Postconditioning Protect Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qifeng Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the pre- and postconditioning effects of lipoxin A4 (LXA4 on myocardial damage caused by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury. Seventy-two rats were divided into 6 groups: sham groups (C1 and C2, I/R groups (I/R1 and I/R2, and I/R plus LXA4 preconditioning and postconditioning groups (LX1 and LX2. The serum levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, and cardiac troponin I (cTnI were measured. The content and the activity of Na+-K+-ATPase as well as the superoxide dismutase (SOD, and malondialdehyde (MDA levels were determined. Along with the examination of myocardium ultrastructure and ventricular arrhythmia scores (VAS, connexin 43 (Cx43 expression were also detected. Lower levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, cTnI, MDA content, and VAS and higher levels of IL-10, SOD activity, Na+-K+-ATPase content and activity, and Cx43 expression appeared in LX groups than I/R groups. Besides, H&E staining, TEM examination as well as analysis of gene, and protein confirmed that LXA4 preconditioning was more effective than postconditioning in preventing arrhythmogenesis via the upregulation of Cx43. That is, LXA4 postconditioning had better protective effect on Na+-K+-ATPase and myocardial ultrastructure.

  12. Phenomenology of Dark Matter from A4 Flavor Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Boucenna, M S; Morisi, S; Peinado, E; Taoso, M; Valle, J W F

    2011-01-01

    We investigate a model in which Dark Matter is stabilized by means of a Z2 parity that results from the same non-abelian discrete avor symmetry which accounts for the observed pattern of neutrino mixing. In our A4 example the standard model is extended by three extra Higgs doublets and the Z2 parity emerges as a remnant of the spontaneous breaking of A4 after electroweak symmetry breaking. We perform an analysis of the parameter space of the model consistent with electroweak precision tests, collider searches and perturbativity. We determine the regions compatible with the observed relic dark matter density and we present prospects for detection in direct as well as indirect Dark Matter search experiments.

  13. Small Group Dynamics and Extended Gas

    CERN Document Server

    Combes, F

    1999-01-01

    Interactions between galaxies have spectacular effects on gas dynamics, and small galaxy groups are a privileged place to investigate them. In particular, they could test the existence of cold H2 gas as dark matter in the outer parts of galaxies. HI observations have revealed that galaxies in small groups are deficient in atomic gas, like in richer galaxy clusters such as Virgo, although in a lesser extent. Galaxy interactions could be the cause of this deficiency, stripping the gas out of galaxies and enriching the inter-cluster medium (ICM) in hot gas, which in turn strips gas through ram pressure. Alternatively, the gas present at the formation of the group could have been heated to its virial temperature, and be observed now as X-rays. The dynamical processes related to this extended gas in small galaxy groups are reviewed.

  14. Realtime calibration of the A4 electromagnetic lead fluoride calorimeter

    OpenAIRE

    Baunack, S.; Ríos, D. Balaguer; Capozza, L.; Diefenbach, J.; Frascaria, R.; Gläser, B.; Harrach, D. v.; Imai, Y.; Kothe, R.; Kunne, R.; Lee, J.H.; Maas, F. E.; Espí, M. C. Mora; Morlet, M.; Ong, S.

    2011-01-01

    Sufficient energy resolution is the key issue for the calorimetry in particle and nuclear physics. The calorimeter of the A4 parity violation experiment at MAMI is a segmented calorimeter where the energy of an event is determined by summing the signals of neighbouring channels. In this case the precise matching of the individual modules is crucial to obtain a good energy resolution. We have developped a calibration procedure for our total absorbing electromagnetic calorimeter which consists ...

  15. Kinematics and Workspace of a 4-DOF Hybrid Palletizing Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Tao; Fang Chen; Hegen Xiong

    2014-01-01

    We presented the kinematical analysis of a 4-DOF hybrid palletizing robot. The palletizing robot structure was proposed and the arm model of the robot was presented. The kinematical analysis of the end robotic manipulator was given. As a result, the position, velocity, and acceleration curves as well as the maximum workspace were demonstrated by simulation in Matlab. This study would be useful for the kinematical characteristics of the 4-DOF palletizing robot in space.

  16. Towards a complete $A_4 \\times SU(5)$ SUSY GUT

    CERN Document Server

    Björkeroth, Fredrik; Varzielas, Ivo de Medeiros; King, Stephen F

    2015-01-01

    We propose a renormalisable model based on $A_4$ family symmetry with an $SU(5)$ grand unified theory (GUT) which leads to the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) with a two right-handed neutrino seesaw mechanism. Discrete $\\mathbb{Z}_9\\times \\mathbb{Z}_6$ symmetry provides the fermion mass hierarchy in both the quark and lepton sectors, while $\\mathbb{Z}_4^R$ symmetry is broken to $\\mathbb{Z}_2^R$, identified as usual R-parity. Proton decay is highly suppressed by these symmetries. We discuss both the $A_4$ and $SU(5)$ symmetry breaking sectors, including doublet-triplet splitting, Higgs mixing and the origin of the $\\mu$ term. The model provides an excellent fit (better than one sigma) to all quark and lepton (including neutrino) masses and mixing with spontaneous CP violation. With the $A_4$ vacuum alignments, $(0,1,1)$ and $(1,3,1)$, the model predicts the entire PMNS mixing matrix with no free parameters, up to a relative phase, selected to be $2\\pi/3$ from a choice of the nine complex roots of ...

  17. $A_4$ symmetry at colliders and in the universe

    CERN Document Server

    Varzielas, Ivo de Medeiros; Maurer, Vinzenz

    2015-01-01

    Two puzzling facts of our time are the observed patterns in the fermion masses and mixings and the existence of non-baryonic dark matter, which are both often associated with extensions of the Standard Model at higher energy scales. In this paper, we consider a solution to these two problems with the flavour symmetry ${\\mathbb A}_4\\times {\\mathbb Z}_2\\times {\\mathbb Z}_2^\\prime$, in a model which has been shown before to explain large leptonic mixings with a specific texture. The model contains 3 generations of $SU(2)_L$-doublet scalar fields, arranged as an ${\\mathbb A}_4$-triplet, that spontaneously break the electroweak symmetry, and a "dark sector" of ${\\mathbb Z}_2$-odd fields, containing one Majorana neutrino and an ${\\mathbb A}_4$-triplet $SU(2)_L$-doublet scalar field, the lightest of which provides a candidate for dark matter. Concerning the ${\\mathbb Z}_2$-even scalar fields, compared to the Standard Model, we predict additional fields with masses at the electroweak scale. We therefore investigate p...

  18. COMMUNICATION: Alternative splicing and genomic stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Kevin

    2004-06-01

    Alternative splicing allows an organism to make different proteins in different cells at different times, all from the same gene. In a cell that uses alternative splicing, the total length of all the exons is much shorter than in a cell that encodes the same set of proteins without alternative splicing. This economical use of exons makes genes more stable during reproduction and development because a genome with a shorter exon length is more resistant to harmful mutations. Genomic stability may be the reason why higher vertebrates splice alternatively. For a broad class of alternatively spliced genes, a formula is given for the increase in their stability.

  19. Complementary and alternative exercise for fibromyalgia: a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mist SD; Firestone KA; Jones KD

    2013-01-01

    Scott David Mist, Kari Firestone, Kim Dupree Jones Fibromyalgia Research and Treatment Group, School of Nursing, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, USA Abstract: Complementary and alternative medicine includes a number of exercise modalities, such as tai chi, qigong, yoga, and a variety of lesser-known movement therapies. A meta-analysis of the current literature was conducted estimating the effect size of the different modalities, study quality and bias, and adverse events....

  20. Alternatives to peer review: novel approaches for research evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Aliaksandr eBirukou; Joseph Rushton Wakeling; Claudio eBartolini; Fabio eCasati; Maurizio eMarchese; Katsiaryna eMirylenka; Nardine eOsman; Azzurra eRagone; Carles eSierra; Aalam eWassef

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we review several novel approaches for research evaluation. We start with a brief overview of the peer review, its controversies, and metrics for assessing efficiency and overall quality of the peer review. We then discuss five approaches, including reputation-based ones, that come out of the research carried out by the LiquidPub project and research groups collaborated with LiquidPub. Those approaches are alternative or complementary to traditional peer review. We discuss pros ...

  1. Control of Avian Coccidiosis: Future and Present Natural Alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Estela Quiroz-Castañeda; Edgar Dantán-González

    2015-01-01

    Numerous efforts to date have been implemented in the control of avian coccidiosis caused by the Eimeria parasite. Since the appearance of anticoccidial chemical compounds, the search for new alternatives continues. Today, no product is available to cope with the disease; however, the number of products commercially available is constantly increasing. In this review, we focus on natural products and their anticoccidial activity. This group comprises fatty acids, antioxidants, fungal and herba...

  2. Grouping for Inequity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macqueen, Suzanne Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The inequity of streaming as a method of organising classes was established by research conducted in the 1960s and 1970s. While the practice produces small advantages for limited groups of students, it hinders the academic and social advancement of the majority. Although streaming has declined, new forms of achievement grouping have emerged, with…

  3. Kaleidoscopical configurations in groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Protasov

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A subset A of a group G is called a kaleidoscopical configuration if there exists a surjective coloring χ:X→κ such that the restriction χ|gA is a bijection for each g∈G . We give two topological constructions of kaleidoscopical configurations and show that each infinite subset of an Abelian group contains an infinite kaleidoscopical configuration.

  4. Group Work. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Karen

    2010-01-01

    According to Johnson and Johnson, group work helps increase student retention and satisfaction, develops strong oral communication and social skills, as well as higher self-esteem (University of Minnesota, n.d.). Group work, when planned and implemented deliberately and thoughtfully helps students develop cognitive and leadership skills as well as…

  5. Democratic Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Erik K.; Tate, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    For a century, democratic values have called for abandoning coercive approaches and teaching children and youth to be responsible citizens. The authors explore strategies for creating respectful environments and positive group cultures with challenging youth. They offer suggestions to adult group facilitators to support youth in developing…

  6. Fairness and Ability Grouping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strike, Kenneth A.

    1983-01-01

    A recent controversy regarding ability grouping is that it is often perceived as a means whereby racial or class bias can be subtly transformed into mechanisms of discrimination which exhibit the appearance of fairness and objectivity. This article addresses the question of fairness in ability grouping. (CJB)

  7. Small Group Inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Martin M.

    Learning in small groups is a practical way to bring about behavior change. The inquiry learning process is perceived to be the most natural and scientific way of learning. Skills developed include those of problem-solving task analysis, decision-making, value formation and adaptability. The art of small group interaction is developed. Factual…

  8. CHINA INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING GROUP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The China International Publishing Group (CIPG) specializes in international communications. Its operationsencompass reporting, editing, translation, publishing, printing, distribution, and the Internet. It incorporates sevenpublishing companies, five magazines and 19 periodicals, published in over 20 languages. The ChinaInternational Book Trading Corporation, another group facet, distributes all of these to over 180 countries and

  9. Study Groups in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1998 European Study Groups have been held in Denmark, and Danish companies from LEGO and NOVO to very small high-tech firms have participated. I briefly describe the history, the organisation and the format of the Danish Study Groups, and highlight a few problem solutions....

  10. Group I intron ribozymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Group I intron ribozymes constitute one of the main classes of ribozymes and have been a particularly important model in the discovery of key concepts in RNA biology as well as in the development of new methods. Compared to other ribozyme classes, group I intron ribozymes display considerable...

  11. ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF ENERGY - ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF POLLUTION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius-Razvan SURUGIU

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In many countries of the world investments are made for obtaining energy efficiency, pursuing to increase the generation of non-polluting fuels due to the fact that energy is vital for any economy. The increase in non-polluting fuels and in renewable energy generation might lead to diminishing the dependence of countries less endowed with conventional energy resources on oil and natural gas from Russia or from Arab countries. Nevertheless, environmental issues represent serious questions facing the mankind, requiring the identification, prevention, and why not, their total solving.European Union countries depend on imports of energy, especially on oil imports. At the same time, the European Union countries record a high volume of greenhouse gas emissions, substances adding to global warming. The transport sector is the main consumer of fossil fuels and generator of greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, diversifying the energy supply used in the transport sector with less polluting sources is an essential objective of the European Union policy in the transport, energy and environment sector. Road transports’ is the sector recording the highest consumption of energy and the highest volume of greenhouse gas emissions.The use of ecologic fuels in the transport sector is an important factor for achieving the objectives of European policies in the field. It is yet to be seen to what extent alternative energy sources are damaging to the environment, as it is a known fact that even for them is recorded a certain level of negative externalities.

  12. Natural analogue working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Natural Analogue Working Group was established by the Commission of the European Communities in 1985. The purpose of this group is to bring together modellers with earth scientists and others, so that maximum benefit can be obtained from natural analogue studies with a view to safe geological disposal of radioactive waste. The first meeting of this group was held in Brussels from November 5 to 7, 1985. The discussions mainly concerned the identification of the modellers' needs and of the earth scientists' capacity to provide for them. Following the debates, a written statement was produced by the Group; this document forms the core of the present Report. Notes and outlines of many of the presentations made are grouped in four appendixes. The valuable contribution of all those involved in the meeting is gratefully acknowledged

  13. Perceiving persons and groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, D L; Sherman, S J

    1996-04-01

    This article analyzes the similarities and differences in forming impressions of individuals and in developing conceptions of groups. In both cases, the perceiver develops a mental conception of the target (individual or group) on the basis of available information and uses that information to make judgments about that person or group. However, a review of existing evidence reveals differences in the outcomes of impressions formed of individual and group targets, even when those impressions are based on the very same behavioral information. A model is proposed to account for these differences. The model emphasizes the role of differing expectancies of unity and coherence in individual and group targets, which in turn engage different mechanisms for processing information and making judgments. Implications of the model are discussed.

  14. Automorphism groups of Quandles

    CERN Document Server

    Elhamdadi, M; Restrepo, R

    2010-01-01

    We prove that the automorphism group of the dihedral quandle with n elements is isomorphic to the affine group of the integers mod n, and also obtain the inner automorphism group of this quandle. In [9], automorphism groups of quandles (up to isomorphisms) of order less than or equal to 5 were given. With the help of the software Maple, we compute the inner and automorphism groups of all seventy three quandles of order six listed in the appendix of [4]. Since computations of automorphisms of quandles relates to the problem of classification of quandles, we also describe an algorithm implemented in C for computing all quandles (up to isomorphism) of order less than or equal to nine.

  15. Perceiving persons and groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, D L; Sherman, S J

    1996-04-01

    This article analyzes the similarities and differences in forming impressions of individuals and in developing conceptions of groups. In both cases, the perceiver develops a mental conception of the target (individual or group) on the basis of available information and uses that information to make judgments about that person or group. However, a review of existing evidence reveals differences in the outcomes of impressions formed of individual and group targets, even when those impressions are based on the very same behavioral information. A model is proposed to account for these differences. The model emphasizes the role of differing expectancies of unity and coherence in individual and group targets, which in turn engage different mechanisms for processing information and making judgments. Implications of the model are discussed. PMID:8637962

  16. Expression of alternative oxidase in tomato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakefuda, M.; McIntosh, L. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Tomato fruit ripening is characterized by an increase in ethylene biosynthesis, a burst in respiration (i.e. the climacteric), fruit softening and pigmentation. As whole tomatoes ripened from mature green to red, there was an increase in the alternative oxidase capacity. Aging pink tomato slices for 24 and 48 hrs also showed an increase of alternative oxidase and cytochrome oxidase capacities. Monoclonal antibodies prepared to the Sauromatum guttatum alternative oxidase were used to follow the appearance of alternative oxidase in tomato fruits. There is a corresponding increase in a 36kDa protein with an increase in alternative oxidase capacity. Effects of ethylene and norbornadiene on alternative oxidase capacity were also studied. We are using an alternative oxidase cDNA clone from potato to study the expression of mRNA in ripening and wounded tomatoes to determine if the gene is transcriptionally regulated.

  17. Alternative Education Spaces in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Chloe

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the architecture of the Red de Innovacion y Aprendizaje (RIA), or Learning and Innovation Network, which is a group of education centres that provide access to computers, the Internet and quality education to low-income communities in Mexico. The RIA began in May 2009 when ten pilot centres were opened in four municipalities…

  18. Clifford algebra is the natural framework for root systems and Coxeter groups. Group theory: Coxeter, conformal and modular groups

    CERN Document Server

    Dechant, Pierre-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we make the case that Clifford algebra is the natural framework for root systems and reflection groups, as well as related groups such as the conformal and modular groups: The metric that exists on these spaces can always be used to construct the corresponding Clifford algebra. Via the Cartan-Dieudonn\\'e theorem all the transformations of interest can be written as products of reflections and thus via `sandwiching' with Clifford algebra multivectors. These multivector groups can be used to perform concrete calculations in different groups, e.g. the various types of polyhedral groups, and we treat the example of the tetrahedral group $A_3$ in detail. As an aside, this gives a constructive result that induces from every 3D root system a root system in dimension four, which hinges on the facts that the group of spinors provides a double cover of the rotations, the space of 3D spinors has a 4D euclidean inner product, and with respect to this inner product the group of spinors can be shown to be cl...

  19. Alternatives - talk about energy differently. Radioactive waste a societal issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ''Alternatives'' is an information magazine proposed by the Areva Group, a world nuclear energy leader. It is devoted to the public information on topics of the Group activities. This issue deals with the fusion technology, the strengths and weaknesses of interconnected networks, the undersea tidal power farms, the danish paradox which has the highest levels of CO2 emissions despite the use of wind energy, the international community renewed commitment to renewable energy, the hydrogen, the low speed wind turbines and the future miniature fuel cells. A special interest is given to the radioactive wastes management. (A.L.B.)

  20. Large lepton mixing angles from a 4+1-dimensional SU(5) x A(4) domain-wall braneworld model

    CERN Document Server

    Callen, Benjamin D

    2012-01-01

    We propose an extension of the 4+1D SU(5) domain-wall braneworld of Davies, George and Volkas which includes the addition of a discrete A(4) flavor symmetry. We show that lepton mixing and light Majorana neutrino masses can be generated from the additional A(4) physics while at the same time sufficient parameter freedom can be maintained in the charged fermion sector to produce charged fermion masses and quark mixing naturally from the split fermion mechanism. Importantly, we show that the vacuum realignment problem typical of discrete flavor symmetry models of quark and lepton mixing can be solved by separating the appropriate flavons in the extra dimension, leading to exponentially sensitive suppression of the operators responsible for vacuum realignment.

  1. Cyclic Soft Groups and Their Applications on Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacı Aktaş

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In crisp environment the notions of order of group and cyclic group are well known due to many applications. In this paper, we introduce order of the soft groups, power of the soft sets, power of the soft groups, and cyclic soft group on a group. We also investigate the relationship between cyclic soft groups and classical groups.

  2. Critical groups - basic concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential exposure pathways from the land application site to man are presented. It is emphasised that the critical group is not necessary the population group closest to the source. It could be the group impact by the most significant pathways(s). Only by assessing the importance of each of these pathways and then combining them can a proper choice of critical group be made. It would be wrong to select a critical group on the basis that it seems the most probable one, before the pathways have been properly assessed. A calculation in Carter (1983) suggested that for the operating mine site, the annual doses to an Aboriginal person, a service worker and a local housewife, were all about the same and were in the range 0.1 to 0.2 mSv per year. Thus it may be that for the land application area, the critical group turns out to be non-Aboriginal rather than the expected Aboriginal group. 6 refs., 3 figs

  3. Impedance group summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaskiewicz, M.; Dooling, J.; Dyachkov, M.; Fedotov, A.; Gluckstern, R.; Hahn, H.; Huang, H.; Kurennoy, S.; Linnecar, T.; Shaposhnikova, E.; Stupakov, G.; Toyama, T.; Wang, J. G.; Weng, W. T.; Zhang, S. Y.; Zotter, B.

    1999-12-01

    The impedance working group was charged to reply to the following 8 questions relevant to the design of high-intensity proton machines such as the SNS or the FNAL driver. These questions were first discussed one by one in the whole group, then each ne of them assigned to one member to summarize. On the lst morning these contributions were publicly read, re-discussed and re-written where required—hence they are not the opinion of a particular person, but rather the averaged opinion of all members of the working group. (AIP)

  4. Group key management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunigan, T.; Cao, C.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes an architecture and implementation for doing group key management over a data communications network. The architecture describes a protocol for establishing a shared encryption key among an authenticated and authorized collection of network entities. Group access requires one or more authorization certificates. The implementation includes a simple public key and certificate infrastructure. Multicast is used for some of the key management messages. An application programming interface multiplexes key management and user application messages. An implementation using the new IP security protocols is postulated. The architecture is compared with other group key management proposals, and the performance and the limitations of the implementation are described.

  5. Group ring cryptography

    CERN Document Server

    Hurley, Barry

    2011-01-01

    Cryptographic systems are derived using units in group rings. Combinations of types of units in group rings give units not of any particular type. This includes cases of taking powers of units and products of such powers and adds the complexity of the {\\em discrete logarithm} problem to the system. The method enables encryption and (error-correcting) coding to be combined within one system. These group ring cryptographic systems may be combined in a neat way with existing cryptographic systems, such as RSA, and a combination has the combined strength of both systems. Examples are given.

  6. Group therapy for adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Hribar

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The group included adolescents from secondary school and some students. The group had weekly sessions or twice on mounth. The adolescents had varied simptoms: depressive, anxiety, psychosomatic disorders, learning difficulties, cunduct problems. All of adolescents were common on many problems in social interactions. The goal of therapeutic work were: to increase assertiveness skills and to reduce the anxious in social situations. The adolescents in group raised a self-esteem and developed some assertiveness skills: eye contact" and effective communication skills, persistence, refusing and requesting, giving and receiving critism, etc. The methods of work and techniques were based on principles of cognitive-behaviour therapy.

  7. Beyond LCDM: a viable alternative?

    CERN Document Server

    Gough, Michael Paul

    2016-01-01

    We are encouraged to look beyond LCDM as there are still no satisfactory explanations for either dark energy or dark matter. A data centred phenomenological approach supports an alternative explanation in which dark energy is not a universe-wide constant energy density, but the Holographic Dark Information Energy, HDIE, naturally centred around galaxies. HDIE can explain many of the effects attributed separately to Lambda and CDM. HDIE mimics Lambda with sufficient overall total energy and an equation of state parameter, w = -1.03+-0.05 for z 1.35, HDIE was phantom, w = -1.82+-0.08, providing a clear prediction that will enable the model to be verified or falsified. HDIE is shown to fit Planck dark energy wo-wa plots at least as well as Lambda, and to be consistent with other results that suggest dark energy was phantom at earlier times. A new w parameterisation is proposed here, as the usual CPL parameterisation is found to be biased and unsuitable for distinguishing between the HDIE/baryon and LCDM models.

  8. Alternative Water Processor Test Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Karen D.; Mitchell, Julie; Vega, Leticia; Adam, Niklas; Flynn, Michael; Wjee (er. Rau); Lunn, Griffin; Jackson, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The Next Generation Life Support Project is developing an Alternative Water Processor (AWP) as a candidate water recovery system for long duration exploration missions. The AWP consists of biological water processor (BWP) integrated with a forward osmosis secondary treatment system (FOST). The basis of the BWP is a membrane aerated biological reactor (MABR), developed in concert with Texas Tech University. Bacteria located within the MABR metabolize organic material in wastewater, converting approximately 90% of the total organic carbon to carbon dioxide. In addition, bacteria convert a portion of the ammonia-nitrogen present in the wastewater to nitrogen gas, through a combination of nitrogen and denitrification. The effluent from the BWP system is low in organic contaminants, but high in total dissolved solids. The FOST system, integrated downstream of the BWP, removes dissolved solids through a combination of concentration-driven forward osmosis and pressure driven reverse osmosis. The integrated system is expected to produce water with a total organic carbon less than 50 mg/l and dissolved solids that meet potable water requirements for spaceflight. This paper describes the test definition, the design of the BWP and FOST subsystems, and plans for integrated testing.

  9. Alternative Water Processor Test Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Karen D.; Mitchell, Julie L.; Adam, Niklas M.; Barta, Daniel; Meyer, Caitlin E.; Pensinger, Stuart; Vega, Leticia M.; Callahan, Michael R.; Flynn, Michael; Wheeler, Ray; Birmele, Michele; Lunn, Griffin; Jackson, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The Next Generation Life Support Project is developing an Alternative Water Processor (AWP) as a candidate water recovery system for long duration exploration missions. The AWP consists of biological water processor (BWP) integrated with a forward osmosis secondary treatment system (FOST). The basis of the BWP is a membrane aerated biological reactor (MABR), developed in concert with Texas Tech University. Bacteria located within the MABR metabolize organic material in wastewater, converting approximately 90% of the total organic carbon to carbon dioxide. In addition, bacteria convert a portion of the ammonia-nitrogen present in the wastewater to nitrogen gas, through a combination of nitrification and denitrification. The effluent from the BWP system is low in organic contaminants, but high in total dissolved solids. The FOST system, integrated downstream of the BWP, removes dissolved solids through a combination of concentration-driven forward osmosis and pressure driven reverse osmosis. The integrated system is expected to produce water with a total organic carbon less than 50 mg/l and dissolved solids that meet potable water requirements for spaceflight. This paper describes the test definition, the design of the BWP and FOST subsystems, and plans for integrated testing.

  10. Telomere elongation chooses TERRA ALTernatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Rajika; Azzalin, Claus M

    2015-01-01

    Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) mechanisms allow telomerase-negative immortal cells to buffer replicative telomere shortening. ALT is naturally active in a number of human cancers and might be selected upon telomerase inactivation. ALT is thought to operate through homologous recombination (HR) occurring between telomeric repeats from independent chromosome ends. Indeed, suppression of a number of HR factors impairs ALT cell proliferation. Yet, how HR is initiated at ALT telomeres remains elusive. Mounting evidence suggests that the long noncoding telomeric RNA TERRA renders ALT telomeres recombinogenic by forming RNA:DNA hybrids with the telomeric C-rich strand. TERRA and telomeric hybrids act in concert with a number of other factors, including the RNA endoribonuclease RNaseH1 and the single stranded DNA binding protein RPA. The functional interaction network built upon these different players seems indispensable for ALT telomere maintenance, and digging into the molecular details of this previously unappreciated network might open the way to novel avenues for cancer treatments.

  11. Alternative Modernities for Colonial Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sunyoung Park. The Proletarian Wave: Literature and Leftist Culture in Colonial Korea, 1910–1945. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2015. 348 pp. $50 (cloth. Vladimir Tikhonov. Modern Korea and Its Others: Perceptions of the Neighbouring Countries and Korean Modernity. London: Routledge, 2016. 218 pp. $160 (cloth. It has become a global scholarly undertaking: how to rethink modernity so as to decouple it from Westernization (Chakrabarty 2000. Strategies have included foregrounding the plurality of history to disrupt linear progress; positing non-Western centers of modernity in, say, Moscow or Shanghai; and tracing anticolonial circuits connecting Asia to Africa to Latin America. The two recent books under review here add colonial-era Korea to such far-reaching discussions by situating the country across national boundaries. Interestingly, one connecting thread here is the alternative world system provided by the interwar, Soviet-oriented Left. The result is an unsettling of binaries that subsequently became entrenched during the Cold War: for example, north-south, socialist-nationalist, and, for literature, realist-modernist. But more broadly, pervading both books is the sense that history could have turned out differently—that revisiting northeast Asia’s porous borders in the early twentieth century reveals the Korean peninsula’s lost, internationalist potential...

  12. Subjective preferences and alternative costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Barnett II

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is an exploration of the economics of subjectivism and opportunity or alternative costs. Most contemporary economists pay lip service to these concepts, but when push comes to shove, all too often they jettison them. We shall illustrate this lapse from basic economics with a challenge that has been perplexing several modern economists: why do people always walk on staircases, but only sometimes on escalators. Landsburg (2002 misunderstood the reason people only sometimes walk on escalators, whereas they always walk on stairs. Garrison (2009 tackled the same problem, with somewhat different results. Both of them, however, are guilty of a failure to use what is perhaps the most fundamental concept in the economist’s toolkit – opportunity cost, known to an immense number of non-economists by the aphorism ‘There’s no such thing as a free lunch.’ This oversight resulted in his (their failure to explain why people only sometimes walk on escalators, in contradistinction to the fact that they always walk on staircases.

  13. Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Kurt R.

    2015-01-01

    The Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Program at NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida, has the primary objective of modernizing and transforming the launch and range complex at KSC to benefit current and future NASA programs along with other emerging users. Described as the launch support and infrastructure modernization program in the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, the GSDO Program will develop and implement shared infrastructure and process improvements to provide more flexible, affordable, and responsive capabilities to a multi-user community. In support of NASA and the GSDO Program, the objective of this project is to qualify citric acid as an environmentally-preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys. This project is a direct follow-on to United Space Alliance (USA) work at KSC to optimize the parameters for the use of citric acid and verify effectiveness. This project will build off of the USA study to further evaluate citric acids effectiveness and suitability for corrosion protection of a number of stainless steels alloys used by NASA, the Department of Defense (DoD), and the European Space Agency (ESA).

  14. HFIR spent fuel management alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Martin Marietta Energy Systems' Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been unable to ship its spent fuel to Savannah River Site (SRS) for reprocessing since 1985. The HFIR storage pools are expected to fill up in the February 1994 to February 1995 time frame. If a management altemative to existing HFIR pool storage is not identified and implemented before the HFIR pools are full, the HFIR will be forced to shut down. This study investigated several alternatives for managing the HFIR spent fuel, attempting to identify options that could be implemented before the HFIR pools are full. The options investigated were: installing a dedicated dry cask storage facility at ORNL, increasing HFIR pool storage capacity by clearing the HFIR pools of debris and either close-packing or stacking the spent fuel elements, storing the spent fuel at another ORNL pool, storing the spent fuel in one or more hot cells at ORNL, and shipping the spent fuel offsite for reprocessing or storage elsewhere

  15. ALTERNATE PRICING STRATEGIES IN CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Mochtar

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research findings on pricing strategies both in general and in construction are reviewed and explored. First%2C pricing strategy in general%2C mostly in the manufacturing industry%2C is reviewed. It includes the concepts of pricing strategy%2C predatory pricing%2C price wars%2C and price policy development. Second%2C pricing strategy in construction is explored. It includes various pricing models for bid price determination%2C such as the Friedman-Gates models%2C expected utility models%2C risk-pricing model%2C and the crew-day%2C multiple regression%2C and fuzzy-set pricing models. In conclusion%2C pricing strategies in construction are still predominantly based on a cost-based approach. More recent models try to close the gap between the models and the real life conditions of a bidder%5C%27s decision-making process. It appears that there are more problems in cost-based pricing as opposed to market-based pricing. Consequently%2C it is highly recommended that%2C alternative pricing approach such as that are closer to the proposed market-based pricing model need to be explored and developed for use in the construction industry. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Pricing+strategy%2C+cost-based+pricing%2C+market-based+pricing.

  16. Alternative Energy for Higher Education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Cherney, PhD

    2012-02-22

    This project provides educational opportunities creating both a teaching facility and center for public outreach. The facility is the largest solar array in Nebraska. It was designed to allow students to experience a variety of technologies and provide the public with opportunities for exposure to the implementation of an alternative energy installation designed for an urban setting. The project integrates products from 5 panel manufacturers (including monocrystalline, polycrystalline and thin film technologies) mounted on both fixed and tracking structures. The facility uses both micro and high power inverters. The majority of the system was constructed to serve as an outdoor classroom where panels can be monitored, tested, removed and replaced by students. As an educational facility it primarily serves students in the Creighton University and Metropolitan Community College, but it also provides broader educational opportunities. The project includes a real-time dashboard and a historical database of the output of individual inverters and the corresponding meteorological data for researcher and student use. This allows the evaluation of both panel types and the feasibility of installation types in a region of the country subject to significant temperature, wind and precipitation variation.

  17. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This report presents the first compilation by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of information on alternatives to gasoline and diesel fuel. The purpose of the report is: (1) to provide background information on alternative transportation fuels and replacement fuels compared with gasoline and diesel fuel, and (2) to furnish preliminary estimates of alternative transportation fuels and alternative fueled vehicles as required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), Title V, Section 503, ``Replacement Fuel Demand Estimates and Supply Information.`` Specifically, Section 503 requires the EIA to report annually on: (1) the number and type of alternative fueled vehicles in existence the previous year and expected to be in use the following year, (2) the geographic distribution of these vehicles, (3) the amounts and types of replacement fuels consumed, and (4) the greenhouse gas emissions likely to result from replacement fuel use. Alternative fueled vehicles are defined in this report as motorized vehicles licensed for on-road use, which may consume alternative transportation fuels. (Alternative fueled vehicles may use either an alternative transportation fuel or a replacement fuel.) The intended audience for the first section of this report includes the Secretary of Energy, the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the automobile manufacturing industry, the transportation fuel manufacturing and distribution industries, and the general public. The second section is designed primarily for persons desiring a more technical explanation of and background for the issues surrounding alternative transportation fuels.

  18. An A4 x Z4 model for neutrino mixing

    CERN Document Server

    BenTov, Yoni; Zee, A

    2012-01-01

    The A4 x U(1) flavor model of He, Keum, and Volkas is extended to provide a minimal modification to tribimaximal mixing that accommodates a nonzero reactor angle theta13 ~ 0.1. The sequestering problem is circumvented by forbidding superheavy scales and large coupling constants which would otherwise generate sizable RG flows. The model is compatible with (but does not require) a stable or metastable dark matter candidate in the form of a complex scalar field with unit charge under a discrete subgroup Z4 of the U(1) flavor symmetry.

  19. Absence of a growth hormone effect on rat soleus atrophy during a 4-day spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bian; Roy, Roland R.; Navarro, Christine; Edgerton, V. R.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of a 4-day-long spaceflight on the size and the enzyme properties of soleus fibers of rats and the effects of exogenous growth hormone (GH) on the atrophic response of the soleus muscle were investigated in four groups of rats: (1) control, (2) control plus GH treatment, (3) flight, and (4) flight plus GH treatment. Results showed that the fiber size and the type of myosin heavy chain expressed fibers (but not the metabolic properties) of the soleus were affected by four days of weightlessness and that the effects were not ameliorated by the administration of growth hormone.

  20. AN UNUSUAL CLINICAL PRESENTATION OF GROUP A STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTION

    OpenAIRE

    H.V., Prashanth; R.M, Saldanha Dominic; Shenoy, Shalini; Baliga, Shrikala

    2011-01-01

    After two decades of decline of Group A streptococcal infections, the recent years are witnessing a resurgence in the incidence and severity of infections caused by Group A Streptococcus including necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome sometimes with fatal outcomes. We present an unusual case of Group A streptococcal infection in a 4-year-old boy who did not have any predisposing factors for Group A streptococcal infection.

  1. Homogeneous group, research, institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Natascia Vasta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The work outlines the complex connection among empiric research, therapeutic programs and host institution. It is considered the current research state in Italy. Italian research field is analyzed and critic data are outlined: lack of results regarding both the therapeutic processes and the effectiveness of eating disorders group analytic treatment. The work investigates on an eating disorders homogeneous group, led into an eating disorder outpatient service. First we present the methodological steps the research is based on including the strong connection among theory and clinical tools. Secondly clinical tools are described and the results commented. Finally, our results suggest the necessity of validating some more specifical hypothesis: verifying the relationship between clinical improvement (sense of exclusion and painful emotions reduction and specific group therapeutic processes; verifying the relationship between depressive feelings, relapses and transition trough a more differentiated groupal field.Keywords: Homogeneous group; Eating disorders; Institutional field; Therapeutic outcome

  2. Anxiety Disorders: Support Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guidelines Scientific Council Special Interest Groups Child & Adolescent Anxiety SIG Peer Consultation OCD & Related Disorders SIG Peer ... Jobs and Fellowships Journal & Multimedia Announcements Depression and Anxiety Podcasts & Videos Resources Clinical Practice Reviews & Teaching Tools ...

  3. RAS Laboratory Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    The RAS Initiative uses multiple technologies to attack RAS-driven cancers. The resources of the Frederick National Lab allocated to the RAS Hub are organized into seven laboratory groups, each contributing to the collaborative effort.

  4. Groups – Additive Notation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We translate the articles covering group theory already available in the Mizar Mathematical Library from multiplicative into additive notation. We adapt the works of Wojciech A. Trybulec [41, 42, 43] and Artur Korniłowicz [25].

  5. Radiation Protection Group

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Radioactive Waste Section of the Radiation Protection Group wishes to inform you that the Radioactive Waste Treatment Centre will be closed on the afternoon of Tuesday 19 December 2006. Thank-you for your understanding.

  6. Indigofera suffruticosa: An Alternative Anticancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeymesson Raphael Cardoso Vieira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Indigofera suffruticosa Mill (Fabeceae occurs in the Northeast countryside and has intensive popular use in the treatment of infectious, inflammatory and other processes. The main aim of the present work was to investigate the cytotoxic and antitumor effects of aqueous extracts of leaves of I. suffruticosa obtained by infusion and maceration as well as to evaluate the toxicological properties. Aqueous extracts did not exhibit cytotoxicity against HEp-2 (human epidermoid cancer cell cell lines by MTT method. From the aqueous extract by infusion, the toxicological assay showed low order of toxicity. The antitumor effect of aqueous extracts by infusion (64.53% and maceration (62.62% against sarcoma 180 in mice at a dose of 50 mg kg−1 (intraperitoneally, based on low order of toxicity was comparable to the control group, which showed 100% development. Considering the low order of toxicity and that it is highly effective in inhibiting growth of solid tumors, the aqueous extracts of leaves of I. suffruticosa may be used as an alternative anticancer agent.

  7. Environmental tradeoffs between CFCs and alternative refrigerants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1987, an international group of scientists and government officials established the Montreal Protocol, an agreement to control the use and release of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and to schedule a timeline for eliminating their production. This agreement is a historic step in the ongoing process of building consensus regarding environmental impacts of CFCs. This paper reports on the Montreal Protocol and provisions of the 1990 Clean Air Act which specify schedules for phasing out CFC production. For either schedule, all CFCs are to be eliminated from production by the year 2000. In addition, the hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) are likely to face similar restrictions, but probably not for another 25 years. An aggressive tax on CFCs accompanies the phase-out schedule. This tax applies to existing supplier floorstock as well as new production. The results of taxes and regulations are that CFCs users must pay a premium price and may face availability problems. The users of CFC-based air conditioning and refrigeration equipment will have to consider their options and, eventually, will have to install alternative refrigerants or systems

  8. Interocular grouping without awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, San-Yuan; Yeh, Su-Ling

    2016-04-01

    Interocular grouping occurs when different parts of an image presented to each eye bound into a coherent whole. Previous studies anticipated that these parts are visible to both eyes simultaneously (i.e., the images altered back and forth). Although this view is consistent with the general consensus of binocular rivalry (BR) that suppressed stimuli receive no processing beyond rudimentary level (i.e., adaptation), it is actually inconsistent with studies that use continuous flash suppression (CFS). CFS is a form of interocular suppression that is more stable and causes stronger suppression of stimuli than BR. In the present study, we examined whether or not interocular grouping needs to occur at a conscious level as prior studies suggested. The modified double-rectangle paradigm used by Egly, Driver, and Rafal (1994) was adopted, and object-based attention was directed for successful grouping. To induce interocular grouping, we presented complementary parts of two rectangles dichoptically for possible interocular grouping and a dynamic Mondrian in front of one eye (i.e., CFS). Two concurrent targets were presented after one of the visible parts of the rectangles was cued. Participants were asked to judge which target appeared first. We found that the target showed on the cued rectangle after interocular grouping was reported to appear first more frequently than the target on the uncued rectangle. This result was based on the majority of trials where the suppressed parts of the objects remained invisible, which indicates that interocular grouping can occur without all the to-be-grouped parts being visible and without awareness. PMID:26851342

  9. Genomics Research Group Session

    OpenAIRE

    Baldwin, D.; Chittur, S.V.; Raghavachari, N.; N Jafari; Aquino, C.; Perera, A; Reyero, N.G.

    2014-01-01

    The Genomics Research Group (GRG) presentation is intended to describe the current activities of the group in applying the latest tools and technologies for transcriptome analysis to determine the advantages and disadvantages of each of the platforms. We will present three ongoing projects. In the first project, we specifically evaluated microarrays, QPCR and Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) platforms for examining the sensitivity and specificity of microRNA detection using synthetic miRNA st...

  10. Group Factor Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Klami, Arto; Virtanen, Seppo; Leppäaho, Eemeli; Kaski, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Factor analysis provides linear factors that describe relationships between individual variables of a data set. We extend this classical formulation into linear factors that describe relationships between groups of variables, where each group represents either a set of related variables or a data set. The model also naturally extends canonical correlation analysis to more than two sets, in a way that is more flexible than previous extensions. Our solution is formulated as variational inferenc...

  11. Fuzzy Soft Topological Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nazmul

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Notions of Lowen type fuzzy soft topological space are introduced and some of their properties are established in the present paper. Besides this, a combined structure of a fuzzy soft topological space and a fuzzy soft group, which is termed here as fuzzy soft topological group is introduced. Homomorphic images and preimages are also examined. Finally, some definitions and results on fuzzy soft set are studied.

  12. Introduction to group theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canals B.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This chapter is a concise mathematical introduction into the algebra of groups. It is build up in the way that definitions are followed by propositions and proofs. The concepts and the terminology introduced here will serve as a basis for the following chapters that deal with group theory in the stricter sense and its application to problems in physics. The mathematical prerequisites are at the bachelor level.1

  13. Group Capability Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejarski, Michael; Appleton, Amy; Deltorchio, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The Group Capability Model (GCM) is a software tool that allows an organization, from first line management to senior executive, to monitor and track the health (capability) of various groups in performing their contractual obligations. GCM calculates a Group Capability Index (GCI) by comparing actual head counts, certifications, and/or skills within a group. The model can also be used to simulate the effects of employee usage, training, and attrition on the GCI. A universal tool and common method was required due to the high risk of losing skills necessary to complete the Space Shuttle Program and meet the needs of the Constellation Program. During this transition from one space vehicle to another, the uncertainty among the critical skilled workforce is high and attrition has the potential to be unmanageable. GCM allows managers to establish requirements for their group in the form of head counts, certification requirements, or skills requirements. GCM then calculates a Group Capability Index (GCI), where a score of 1 indicates that the group is at the appropriate level; anything less than 1 indicates a potential for improvement. This shows the health of a group, both currently and over time. GCM accepts as input head count, certification needs, critical needs, competency needs, and competency critical needs. In addition, team members are categorized by years of experience, percentage of contribution, ex-members and their skills, availability, function, and in-work requirements. Outputs are several reports, including actual vs. required head count, actual vs. required certificates, CGI change over time (by month), and more. The program stores historical data for summary and historical reporting, which is done via an Excel spreadsheet that is color-coded to show health statistics at a glance. GCM has provided the Shuttle Ground Processing team with a quantifiable, repeatable approach to assessing and managing the skills in their organization. They now have a common

  14. Groups, rings, modules

    CERN Document Server

    Auslander, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    This classic monograph is geared toward advanced undergraduates and graduate students. The treatment presupposes some familiarity with sets, groups, rings, and vector spaces. The four-part approach begins with examinations of sets and maps, monoids and groups, categories, and rings. The second part explores unique factorization domains, general module theory, semisimple rings and modules, and Artinian rings. Part three's topics include localization and tensor products, principal ideal domains, and applications of fundamental theorem. The fourth and final part covers algebraic field extensions

  15. Membership in citizen groups

    OpenAIRE

    Barbieri, Stefano; Mattozzi, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the coordination problem of agents deciding to join a group that uses membership revenues to provide a discrete public good and excludable benefits. The public good and the benefits are jointly produced, so that benefits are valued only if the group succeeds in providing the public good. With asymmetric information about the cost of provision, the static membership game admits a unique equilibrium and we characterize the optimal membership fee. We show that heterogeneity in valuati...

  16. N-ary Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Gal'mak, Alexander M

    2011-01-01

    The book "N-ary Groups" (in Russian) consists of two Parts. It is intended on the one hand as an initial introduction to the theory of n-ary groups, and on the other hand it contains the published results by the author on this subject. At present, the theory of n-ary groups developing but slowly from group theory. Nonetheless, ternary and n-ary structures have recently been applied to modern models of elementary particle physics. One of the author's goals in this book is to draw the attention of mathematicians and theoretical physicists to the theory of n-ary groups, to some of its distinguishing features, and to details relevant to its further development and application. Part I: Theorems of Post and Gluskin-Hosszu. 1.1. Classical definitions of n-ary groups. Examples. 1.2. Analogies of identity and inverse elements. 1.3. Equivalent sequences. 1.4. Post's coset theorem. 1.5. Theorem of Gluskin-Hosszu. 1.6. Connection between the Post's coset theorem and theorem of Gluskin-Hosszu. Addition and comments. Part ...

  17. Recent Results and Future Plans from the A4 Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deconinck, Wouter; A4 Collaboration

    2011-04-01

    In the A4 experiment at the MAMI facility in Mainz, Germany, we use the parity-violating asymmetry present in the scattering of longitudinally polarized electrons from unpolarized protons or deuterons to measure the strangeness contribution to the electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon. The A4 experiment uses a PbF2 calorimeter that can be positioned in the forward or backward direction to measure the electrons scattered in a liquid hydrogen or deuterium target. Recent results for the proton at a momentum transfer Q2 = 0 . 23 GeV2 /c2 and the ongoing analysis of the data at Q2 = 0 . 61 GeV2 /c2 will be discussed. Future plans include the measurement of the strangeness form factor at Q2 = 0 . 1 GeV2 /c2 with the current detector to a twice higher precision than the currently available data, and a high precision measurement at an even lower Q2 with an upgraded polarimeter and detector.

  18. A 4D gravity theory and G2-holonomy manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Herfray, Yannick; Scarinci, Carlos; Shtanov, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Bryant and Salamon gave a construction of metrics of G2 holonomy on the total space of the bundle of anti-self-dual (ASD) 2-forms over a 4-dimensional self-dual Einstein manifold. We generalise it by considering the total space of an SO(3) bundle (with fibers R^3) over a 4-dimensional base, with a connection on this bundle. We make essentially the same ansatz for the calibrating 3-form, but use the curvature 2-forms instead of the ASD ones. We show that the resulting 3-form defines a metric of G2 holonomy if the connection satisfies a certain second-order PDE. This is exactly the same PDE that arises as the field equation of a certain 4-dimensional gravity theory formulated as a diffeomorphism-invariant theory of SO(3) connections. Thus, every solution of this 4-dimensional gravity theory can be lifted to a G2-holonomy metric. Unlike all previously known constructions, the theory that we lift to 7 dimensions is not topological. Thus, our construction should give rise to many new metrics of G2 holonomy. We des...

  19. Incidence and risk factors of running-related injuries during preparation for a 4-mile recreational running event

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist, I.; Bredeweg, S. W.; Bessem, B.; van Mechelen, W.; Lemmink, K. A. P. M.; Diercks, R. L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective In this study, the incidence and the sex-specific predictors of running-related injury (RRI) among a group of recreational runners training for a 4-mile running event were determined and identified, respectively. Design Prospective cohort study. Methods Several potential risk factors were

  20. Group adaptation, formal darwinism and contextual analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okasha, S; Paternotte, C

    2012-06-01

    We consider the question: under what circumstances can the concept of adaptation be applied to groups, rather than individuals? Gardner and Grafen (2009, J. Evol. Biol.22: 659-671) develop a novel approach to this question, building on Grafen's 'formal Darwinism' project, which defines adaptation in terms of links between evolutionary dynamics and optimization. They conclude that only clonal groups, and to a lesser extent groups in which reproductive competition is repressed, can be considered as adaptive units. We re-examine the conditions under which the selection-optimization links hold at the group level. We focus on an important distinction between two ways of understanding the links, which have different implications regarding group adaptationism. We show how the formal Darwinism approach can be reconciled with G.C. Williams' famous analysis of group adaptation, and we consider the relationships between group adaptation, the Price equation approach to multi-level selection, and the alternative approach based on contextual analysis. PMID:22487485

  1. Quark-Lepton Mass Relation in a Realistic A4 Extension of the Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    King, S F; Peinado, E; Valle, J W F

    2013-01-01

    We propose a realistic A4 extension of the Standard Model involving a particular quark-lepton mass relation, namely that the ratio of the third family mass to the geometric mean of the first and second family masses are equal for down-type quarks and charged leptons. This relation, which is approximately renormalization group invariant, is usually regarded as arising from the Georgi-Jarlskog relations, but in the present model there is no unification group or supersymmetry. In the neutrino sector we propose a simple modification of the so called Zee-Wolfenstein mass matrix pattern which allows an acceptable reactor angle along with a deviation of the atmospheric and solar angles from their bi-maximal values. Quark masses, mixing angles and CP violation are well described by a numerical fit.

  2. Display Sharing: An Alternative Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    The current Johnson Space Center (JSC) Mission Control Center (MCC) Video Transport System (VTS) provides flight controllers and management the ability to meld raw video from various sources with telemetry to improve situational awareness. However, maintaining a separate infrastructure for video delivery and integration of video content with data adds significant complexity and cost to the system. When considering alternative architectures for a VTS, the current system's ability to share specific computer displays in their entirety to other locations, such as large projector systems, flight control rooms, and back supporting rooms throughout the facilities and centers must be incorporated into any new architecture. Internet Protocol (IP)-based systems also support video delivery and integration. IP-based systems generally have an advantage in terms of cost and maintainability. Although IP-based systems are versatile, the task of sharing a computer display from one workstation to another can be time consuming for an end-user and inconvenient to administer at a system level. The objective of this paper is to present a prototype display sharing enterprise solution. Display sharing is a system which delivers image sharing across the LAN while simultaneously managing bandwidth, supporting encryption, enabling recovery and resynchronization following a loss of signal, and, minimizing latency. Additional critical elements will include image scaling support, multi -sharing, ease of initial integration and configuration, integration with desktop window managers, collaboration tools, host and recipient controls. This goal of this paper is to summarize the various elements of an IP-based display sharing system that can be used in today's control center environment.

  3. Coordinating Group report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In December 1992, western governors and four federal agencies established a Federal Advisory Committee to Develop On-site Innovative Technologies for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (the DOIT Committee). The purpose of the Committee is to advise the federal government on ways to improve waste cleanup technology development and the cleanup of federal sites in the West. The Committee directed in January 1993 that information be collected from a wide range of potential stakeholders and that innovative technology candidate projects be identified, organized, set in motion, and evaluated to test new partnerships, regulatory approaches, and technologies which will lead to improve site cleanup. Five working groups were organized, one to develop broad project selection and evaluation criteria and four to focus on specific contaminant problems. A Coordinating Group comprised of working group spokesmen and federal and state representatives, was set up to plan and organize the routine functioning of these working groups. The working groups were charged with defining particular contaminant problems; identifying shortcomings in technology development, stakeholder involvement, regulatory review, and commercialization which impede the resolution of these problems; and identifying candidate sites or technologies which could serve as regional innovative demonstration projects to test new approaches to overcome the shortcomings. This report from the Coordinating Group to the DOIT Committee highlights the key findings and opportunities uncovered by these fact-finding working groups. It provides a basis from which recommendations from the DOIT Committee to the federal government can be made. It also includes observations from two public roundtables, one on commercialization and another on regulatory and institutional barriers impeding technology development and cleanup

  4. Facilities removal working group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This working group`s first objective is to identify major economic, technical, and regulatory constraints on operator practices and decisions relevant to offshore facilities removal. Then, the group will try to make recommendations as to regulatory and policy adjustments, additional research, or process improvements and/or technological advances, that may be needed to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the removal process. The working group will focus primarily on issues dealing with Gulf of Mexico platform abandonments. In order to make the working group sessions as productive as possible, the Facilities Removal Working Group will focus on three topics that address a majority of the concerns and/or constraints relevant to facilities removal. The three areas are: (1) Explosive Severing and its Impact on Marine Life, (2) Pile and Conductor Severing, and (3) Deep Water Abandonments This paper will outline the current state of practice in the offshore industry, identifying current regulations and specific issues encountered when addressing each of the three main topics above. The intent of the paper is to highlight potential issues for panel discussion, not to provide a detailed review of all data relevant to the topic. Before each panel discussion, key speakers will review data and information to facilitate development and discussion of the main issues of each topic. Please refer to the attached agenda for the workshop format, key speakers, presentation topics, and panel participants. The goal of the panel discussions is to identify key issues for each of the three topics above. The working group will also make recommendations on how to proceed on these key issues.

  5. Alternating Turing machines for inductive languages

    OpenAIRE

    Leivant, Daniel M

    2013-01-01

    We show that alternating Turing machines, with a novel and natural definition of acceptance, accept precisely the inductive (Pi-1-1) languages. Total alternating machines, that either accept or reject each input, accept precisely the hyper-elementary (Delta-1-1) languages. Moreover, bounding the permissible number of alternations yields a characterization of the levels of the arithmetical hierarchy. Notably, these results use simple finite computing devices, with finitary and discrete operati...

  6. Meeting Report: Alternatives for Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Lein, Pamela; Locke, Paul; Goldberg, Alan

    2007-01-01

    Developmental neurotoxicity testing (DNT) is perceived by many stakeholders to be an area in critical need of alternatives to current animal testing protocols and guidelines. To address this need, the Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the National Toxicology Program are collaborating in a program called TestSmart DNT, the goals of which are to: (a) develop alternative methodologies for identifying and prioritizing che...

  7. Young doctors' views on alternative medicine.

    OpenAIRE

    Reilly, D T

    1983-01-01

    A survey was undertaken to explore attitudes to alternative medicine among 100 general practitioner trainees. A positive attitude emerged from the 86 respondents, with 18 doctors using at least one alternative method themselves and 70 wanting to train in one or more. A total of 31 trainees had referred patients for such treatments; 12 of these doctors made referrals to non-medically qualified practitioners. The most commonly used alternative treatments were hypnosis, manipulation, homoeopathy...

  8. Potential of renewable and alternative energy sources

    OpenAIRE

    Konovalov, Vyacheslav Vasilievich; Pozharnitskaya, Olga Vyacheslavovna; Rostovshchikova, А.; Matveenko, Irina Alekseevna

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with application potential of clean alternative renewable energy sources. By means of system analysis the forecast for consumption of electrical energy in Tomsk Oblast as well as main energy sources of existing energy system have been studied up to 2018. Engineering potential of renewable and alternative energy sources is evaluated. Besides, ranking in the order of their efficiency descending is performed. It is concluded that Tomsk Oblast has high potential of alternative a...

  9. Methods for Characterization of Alternative RNA Splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Samuel E; Cheng, Chonghui

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of alternative splicing to detect the abundance of differentially spliced isoforms of a gene in total RNA can be accomplished via RT-PCR using both quantitative real-time and semi-quantitative PCR methods. These methods require careful PCR primer design to ensure specific detection of particular splice isoforms. We also describe analysis of alternative splicing using a splicing "minigene" in mammalian cell tissue culture to facilitate investigation of the regulation of alternative splicing of a particular exon of interest.

  10. Complementary and Alternative Therapies in ALS

    OpenAIRE

    Bedlack, Richard S.; Joyce, Nanette; Carter, Gregory T.; Pagononi, Sabrina; Karam, Chafic

    2015-01-01

    Given the severity of their illness and lack of effective disease modifying agents, it is not surprising that most patients with ALS consider trying complementary and alternative therapies. Some of the most commonly considered alternative therapies include special diets, nutritional supplements, cannabis, acupuncture, chelation and energy healing. This chapter reviews these in detail. We also describe 3 models by which physicians may frame discussions about alternative therapies: paternalism,...

  11. ASD: a bioinformatics resource on alternative splicing

    OpenAIRE

    Stamm, Stefan; Riethoven, Jean-Jack; Le Texier, Vincent; Gopalakrishnan, Chellappa; Kumanduri, Vasudev; Tang, Yesheng; Barbosa-Morais, Nuno L.; Thanaraj, Thangavel Alphonse

    2005-01-01

    Alternative splicing is an important regulatory mechanism of mammalian gene expression. The alternative splicing database (ASD) consortium is systematically collecting and annotating data on alternative splicing. We present the continuation and upgrade of the ASD [T. A. Thanaraj, S. Stamm, F. Clark, J. J. Riethoven, V. Le Texier, J. Muilu (2004) Nucleic Acids Res. 32, D64–D69] that consists of computationally and manually generated data. Its largest parts are AltSplice, a value-added database...

  12. New Groups Give Teachers Alternative Voice: Organizations Help Educators Cut Policy Teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawchuk, Steven

    2012-01-01

    In times of great uncertainty for U.S. teachers, who speaks for them? The question is almost axiomatic in its simplicity, but the answer is far less clear-cut. The teachers' unions remain the most visible, powerful, and probably the most important advocates for teachers. But over the past few years, a number of new efforts have sprung up…

  13. Using Simulation to Support Novice Teachers' Classroom Management Skills: Comparing Traditional and Alternative Certification Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankowski, Jennifer; Walker, Joan T.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing from research on situated cognition and the development of expertise and simulations in professional education, we designed two simulation tasks that provided novice teachers with repeated opportunities to deliberately practice managing a classroom under no-fault conditions. The simulations immersed novices in two perennial classroom…

  14. Mixed oxide conversion facility alternative conceptual designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allied-General Nuclear Services recently performed studies to evaluate alternative proliferation-resistant flowsheets of the uranium-based LWR fuel cycle. The alternatives evaluated consist of coprocessing schemes with either a gamma or a heat spike added. A literature search and evaluation were performed to select a process technology for mixed oxide coconversion. The COPRECAL process was chosen as the most suitable conversion process technology. Three alternative mixed oxide conversion facility design concepts were prepared based on the COPRECAL technology. These alternative concepts are compared to a pure plutonium conversion facility. Facility designs, relative proliferation resistance, and cost estimates are discussed

  15. Non-Gasoline Alternative Fueling Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Through a nationwide network of local coalitions, Clean Citiesprovides project assistance to help stakeholders in the public and private sectors deploy alternative...

  16. Cyclic Polymer with Alternating Monomer Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wen; Li, Zi; Zhao, Youliang; Zhang, Ke

    2015-11-01

    Cyclic polymers with alternating monomer sequence are synthesized for the first time based on the ring-closure strategy. Well-defined telechelic alternating polymers are synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization by copolymerizing the electron acceptor monomer of N-benzylmaleimide and donor monomer of styrene with a feed ratio of 1 between them. The corresponding cyclic alternating polymers are then produced by the UV-induced Diels-Alder click reaction to ring-close the linear alternating polymer precursors under highly diluted reaction solution.

  17. Linear algebraic groups

    CERN Document Server

    Springer, T A

    1998-01-01

    "[The first] ten chapters...are an efficient, accessible, and self-contained introduction to affine algebraic groups over an algebraically closed field. The author includes exercises and the book is certainly usable by graduate students as a text or for self-study...the author [has a] student-friendly style… [The following] seven chapters... would also be a good introduction to rationality issues for algebraic groups. A number of results from the literature…appear for the first time in a text." –Mathematical Reviews (Review of the Second Edition) "This book is a completely new version of the first edition. The aim of the old book was to present the theory of linear algebraic groups over an algebraically closed field. Reading that book, many people entered the research field of linear algebraic groups. The present book has a wider scope. Its aim is to treat the theory of linear algebraic groups over arbitrary fields. Again, the author keeps the treatment of prerequisites self-contained. The material of t...

  18. SISTEMAS INMUNES ALTERNATIVOS - Alternative Immune Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cadavid Gutierrez Luis Fernando

    2011-12-01

    vertebrates and invertebrates of alternative adaptive immune mechanisms, suggests during evolution different animal groups have found alternative solutions to the problem of immune recognition.

  19. Utilization of alternate chirality enantiomers in microbial communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2010-09-01

    Our previous study of chirality led to interesting findings for some anaerobic extremophiles: the ability to metabolize substrates with alternate chirality enantiomers of amino acids and sugars. We have subsequently found that not just separate microbial species or strains but entire microbial communities have this ability. The functional division within a microbial community on proteo- and sugarlytic links was also reflected in a microbial diet with L-sugars and D-amino acids. Several questions are addressed in this paper. Why and when was this feature developed in a microbial world? Was it a secondary de novo adaptation in a bacterial world? Or is this a piece of genetic information that has been left in modern genomes as an atavism? Is it limited exclusively to prokaryotes, or does this ability also occur in eukaryotes? In this article, we have used a broader approach to study this phenomenon using anaerobic extremophilic strains from our laboratory collection. A series of experiments were performed on physiologically different groups of extremophilic anaerobes (pure and enrichment cultures). The following characteristics were studied: 1) the ability to grow on alternate chirality enantiomers - L-sugars and D- amino acids; 2) Growthinhibitory effect of alternate chirality enantiomers; 3) Stickland reaction with alternate chirality amino acids. The results of this research are presented in this paper.

  20. Is the nuclear power an ethic alternative for the development?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Is the nuclear power an ethical alternative for the development of the energy sector? This is the question the authors try to answer. Nuclear power is subject to constant attacks from different opponent groups. They have managed to make negative public opinion, especially after the Chernobyl accident, which tends to minimise the important of that alternative. Unfortunately, nuclear professionals are also the subjects of that propaganda and even some of us are pessimistic about the future of our sector. The public will accept nuclear power if the producer guarantees that he is able to meet three conditions for the electricity supply: generation without risks for public or the environment, as cost-effective as possible and with high availability. In order to keep the confidence of general public for nuclear power, the authors, with total openness, compared the up-to-date power alternatives. The conclusion is, that for the next future, to avoid the global heating effect and to meet the constrains for a 'cleaner world', the humanity must to rely on nuclear power, besides other cleaner conventional alternatives, as ethical sources of energy. (authors)