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Sample records for alternating cg oligodeoxynucleotides

  1. ShCG 245

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrant M. Tovmassian

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Los grupos compactos de galaxias Shakhbazian son las configuraciones más densas que se conocen. Hace algunos años iniciamos un estudio fotométrico y espectroscópico de estos grupos. En este artículo presentamos los resultados de la investigación en los grupos ShCG 104, ShCG 120, ShCG 243 y ShCG 245. Presentamos los corrimientos al rojo de las galaxias miembro, los resultados de la fotometría R, las curvas de brillo superficial-radio efectivo, las masas estimadas, las luminosidades y las razones masa-luminosidad de los grupos, además de algunos parámetros dinámicos como la dispersión de velocidad radial y el tiempo de cruce. Los ShCGs estudiados consisten principalmente de galaxias elípticas y lenticulares. Se muestra que algunas galaxias en estos grupos están en proceso de interacción.

  2. 125I decay in synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The availability of synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides provides the opportunity to study the effects of 125I in DNA with added precision and detail, compared to an earlier study (Martin and Haseltine, Science 214, 296, 1981). The authors have designed a template/primer system which enables incorporation of 125IdC into a defined location in a 31mer. The main advantage of this approach is that relatively large amounts (a few μCi) of DNA with both 32P and 125I can be produced quite easily. Consequently, when 125I-induced DNA damage is analyzed on DNA sequencing gels, the distribution of 32P-labeled cleavage products can be determined more accurately, following accumulation of decay events under various conditions (e.g. temperature, buffer components, free radical scavengers). The results of preliminary experiments suggest that the yield of DNA strand breaks per decay approaches one, at least for the 125I labeled strand. Extension of this experimental approach will also enable investigation of the nature of the terminii (e.g. phophoryl-versus phophorylglycollate) at either side of 125I decay-induced DNA strand breaks. The question of energy migration is also being investigated in the oligodeoxynucleotide system, by studying the effects of inclusion of BrUdR nucleotides at various distances from the 125IdC

  3. Short hairpin-looped oligodeoxynucleotides reduce hepatitis C virus replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broecker Felix

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Persistent infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV is a leading cause of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Standard therapy consists of a combination of interferon-alpha and ribavirin, but many patients respond poorly, especially those infected with HCV genotypes 1 and 4. Furthermore, standard therapy is associated with severe side-effects. Thus, alternative therapeutic approaches against HCV are needed. Findings Here, we studied the effect of a new class of antiviral agents against HCV, short, partially double-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs, on viral replication. We targeted the 5’ nontranslated region (5’ NTR of the HCV genome that has previously been shown as effective target for small interfering RNAs (siRNAs in vitro. One of the investigated ODNs, ODN 320, significantly and efficiently reduced replication of HCV replicons in a sequence-, time- and dose-dependent manner. ODN 320 targets a genomic region highly conserved among different HCV genotypes and might thus be able to inhibit a broad range of genotypes and subtypes. Conclusions ODNs provide an additional approach for inhibition of HCV, might be superior to siRNAs in terms of stability and cellular delivery, and suitable against HCV resistant to standard therapy. This study underlines the potential of partially double-stranded ODNs as antiviral agents.

  4. Biological functions of hCG and hCG-related molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Cole Laurence A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background hCG is a term referring to 4 independent molecules, each produced by separate cells and each having completely separate functions. These are hCG produced by villous syncytiotrophoblast cells, hyperglycosylated hCG produced by cytotrophoblast cells, free beta-subunit made by multiple primary non-trophoblastic malignancies, and pituitary hCG made by the gonadotrope cells of the anterior pituitary. Results and discussion hCG has numerous functions. hCG promotes progesterone p...

  5. Oligodeoxynucleotide Probes for Detecting Intact Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosson, Reinhardt A.; Maurina-Brunker, Julie; Langley, Kim; Pynnonen, Christine M.

    2004-01-01

    A rapid, sensitive test using chemiluminescent oligodeoxynucleotide probes has been developed for detecting, identifying, and enumerating intact cells. The test is intended especially for use in detecting and enumerating bacteria and yeasts in potable water. As in related tests that have been developed recently for similar purposes, the oligodeoxynucleotide probes used in this test are typically targeted at either singlecopy deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) genes (such as virulence genes) or the multiple copies (10,000 to 50,000 copies per cell) of 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acids (rRNAs). Some of those tests involve radioisotope or fluorescent labeling of the probes for reporting hybridization of probes to target nucleic acids. Others of those tests involve labeling with enzymes plus the use of chemiluminescent or chromogenic substrates to report hybridization via color or the emission of light, respectively. The present test is of the last-mentioned type. The chemiluminescence in the present test can be detected easily with relatively simple instrumentation. In developing the present test, the hybridization approach was chosen because hybridization techniques are very specific. Hybridization detects stable, inheritable genetic targets within microorganisms. These targets are not dependent on products of gene expression that can vary with growth conditions or physiological states of organisms in test samples. Therefore, unique probes can be designed to detect and identify specific genera or species of bacteria or yeast (in terms of rRNA target sequences) or can be designed to detect and identify virulence genes (genomic target sequences). Because of the inherent specificity of this system, there are few problems of cross-reactivity. Hybridization tests are rapid, but hybridization tests now available commercially lack sensitivity; typically, between 10(exp 6) and 10(exp 7) cells of the target organism are needed to ensure a reliable test. Consequently, the numbers of

  6. Determination of hCG in choriocarcinoma using RIA kits for hCG and hCG-beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlachova, J.; Ruzkova, M.; Jakoubkova, J.; Skrivan, J.; Zavadil, M.

    1981-01-01

    The difference between the clinical finding and hCG levels in the serum is shown in two choriocarcinoma patients with widely progressing metastatic processes in the lungs. In the patient showing low hCG levels and poor chemotherapeutic response the presence is presumed of a free hCG-alpha subunit. The opinion is backed that negativity or relapse of a trophoblastic disease in the sensitive and specific hCG*-anti hCG-beta system should be watched because intact hCG is a dominant form of the hormone secerning due to the disease. It is admitted, however, that possible determination of the alpha and beta subunits of the hormone would greatly contribute to assessing the progress of the disease.

  7. Antisense Oligodeoxynucleotide-Mediated Gene Knockdown in Pollen Tubes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bezvoda, Radek; Pleskot, Roman; Žárský, Viktor; Potocký, Martin

    Vol. 1080. New York: Humana Press, 2014 - (Žárský, V.; Cvrčková, F.), s. 231-236. (Methods in Molecular Biology). ISBN 978-1-62703-643-6 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-19073S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide * Pollen tube * AODN Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  8. Prolog+CG: A Maintainer's Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ulrik

    2006-01-01

    2004 turned over maintainership of Prolog+ CG to the present  author. In this paper, Prolog+CG is described in terms of its history, evolution, and maintenance. A special web-enabled version of Prolog+CG is also described. Possible interoperability with CGIF and the CharGer tool are explored. Finally......Prolog+CG is an implementation of Prolog with Conceptual Graphs as first-class datastructures, on a par with terms. As such, it lends itself well to applications in which reasoning with Conceptual Graphs and/or ontologies plays a role. It  as originally developed by Prof. Dr. Adil Kabbaj, who in...

  9. Photometric and Spectroscopic Study of the Shakhbazian Compact Galaxy Groups ShCG 31, ShCG 38, ShCG 43, and ShCG 282

    OpenAIRE

    Tovmassian, H. M.; H. Tiersch; S. G. Navarro; V. H. Chavushyan; Tovmassian, G. H.; A. S. Amirkhanian; Neizvestny, S.

    2003-01-01

    Los grupos compactos de galaxias Shakhbazian son las configuraciones más densas que se conocen. Hace unos pocos años iniciamos un estudio fotométrico y espectroscópico de estos grupos. En este artículo presentamos los resultados de la investigación en los grupos ShCG 31, ShCG 38, ShCG 43 y ShCG 282. Presentamos los corrimientos al rojo de las galaxias miembro, los resultados de la fonometría BV R, las curvas de brillo superficial-radio efectivo, las masas estimadas, luminosidad...

  10. Photometric and spectroscopic study of Shakhbazian compact galaxy groups ShCG 104, ShCG 120, ShCG 223, and ShCG 245

    OpenAIRE

    Tovmassian, Hrant M.; H. Tiersch; Tovmassian, Gaghik H.; V. H. Chavushyan; Neizvestny, S.; Pramskij, A. G.; J. P. Torres-Papaqui; M Rozas

    2007-01-01

    Los grupos compactos de galaxias Shakhbazian son las configuraciones más densas que se conocen. Hace algunos años iniciamos un estudio fotométrico y espectroscópico de estos grupos. En este artículo presentamos los resultados de la investigación en los grupos ShCG 104, ShCG 120, ShCG 243 y ShCG 245. Presentamos los corrimientos al rojo de las galaxias miembro, los resultados de la fotometría R, las curvas de brillo superficial-radio efectivo, las masas estimadas, las luminosida...

  11. Parallel preconditioning techniques for sparse CG solvers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basermann, A.; Reichel, B.; Schelthoff, C. [Central Institute for Applied Mathematics, Juelich (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Conjugate gradient (CG) methods to solve sparse systems of linear equations play an important role in numerical methods for solving discretized partial differential equations. The large size and the condition of many technical or physical applications in this area result in the need for efficient parallelization and preconditioning techniques of the CG method. In particular for very ill-conditioned matrices, sophisticated preconditioner are necessary to obtain both acceptable convergence and accuracy of CG. Here, we investigate variants of polynomial and incomplete Cholesky preconditioners that markedly reduce the iterations of the simply diagonally scaled CG and are shown to be well suited for massively parallel machines.

  12. Transcription factor CgMTF-1 regulates CgZnT1 and CgMT expression in Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) under zinc stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Jie; Zhang, Linlin [Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, Shandong (China); Li, Li, E-mail: lili@qdio.ac.cn [Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, Shandong (China); Li, Chunyan; Wang, Ting [Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, Shandong (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhang, Guofan, E-mail: gfzhang@qdio.ac.cn [Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, Shandong (China)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • CgMTF-1 and CgZnT1 were first identified in oysters. • CgMTF-1 localized in cell nucleus under unstressed conditions. • CgMTF-1 proteins could bind with the typical MRE motif. • CgMTF-1 activated CgZnT1, CgMT1 and CgMT4 promoters and regulated their expressions under zinc exposure. - Abstract: Oysters accumulate zinc at high tissue concentrations, and the metal response element (MRE)-binding transcription factor (MTF) functions as the cellular zinc sensor that coordinates the expression of genes involved in zinc efflux and storage, as well as those that protect against metal toxicity. In this study, we cloned MTF-1 in oysters and examined its regulation mechanism for its classic target genes, including MTs and ZnT1 under zinc exposure conditions. We cloned CgMTF-1 and determined the subcellular locations of its protein product in HEK293 cells. CgMTF-1 has a 2826 bp open reading frame that encodes a predicted polypeptide with 707 amino acid residues, showing six well-conserved zinc finger domains that are required for metal binding. In HEK293 cell lines, CgMTF-1 primarily localizes in the cell nucleus under unstressed conditions and nuclear translocation was not critical for the activation of this gene. We searched for CgMTF-1-regulated genes in oysters using RNA interference. Decreased expression levels of CgMT1, CgMT4, and CgZnT1 were observed after CgMTF-1 interference (>70% inhibition) under zinc exposure, indicating the critical role of CgMTF-1 in the regulation of these genes. We searched for a direct regulation mechanism involving CgMTF-1 for CgMT1, CgMT4, and CgZnT1 in vitro. EMSA experiments indicated that CgMTF-1 can bind with the MREs found in the CgZnT1, CgMT1 and CgMT4 promoter regions. Additionally, luciferase reporter gene experiments indicated that CgMTF-1 could activate the CgMT1, CgMT4, and CgZnT1 promoters. Overall, our results suggest that CgMTF-1 directly coordinates the regulation of CgMTs and CgZnT1 expression and plays

  13. Cathepsin B antisense oligodeoxynucleotide suppresses invasive potential of MG-63 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the biological effects of cathepsin B phosporothioated antisense oligodeoxynucleotide on human osteosarcoma cell line MG-63 after transfection.Methods A 18-mer phosphorothioate antisense oligodeoxynucleotide(ASODN)targeted against the cathepsin B mRNA was transfected into the human osteosarcoma cell line MG-63 by lipofectamine 2000.The sense and nonsense oligodeoxynucleotides to cathepsin B and blank vector were used as controls.The expression of cathepsin B mRNA was examined by RT-PCR an...

  14. Site-specific excision from RNA by RNase H and mixed-phosphate-backbone oligodeoxynucleotides.

    OpenAIRE

    S Agrawal; Mayrand, S H; Zamecnik, P. C.; Pederson, T

    1990-01-01

    Oligodeoxynucleotides containing phosphodiester or modified internucleoside linkages were investigated with respect to their ability to be acted on by ribonuclease H activities present in a HeLa cell nuclear extract after hybridization with complementary sequences in RNA. Oligodeoxynucleotides complementary to nucleotides 2-14 of human U1 small nuclear RNA were investigated. Extensive cleavage of U1 RNA was observed with the unmodified oligodeoxynucleotide and with the phosphorothioate analog...

  15. Decreased levels of genuine large free hCG alpha in men presenting with abnormal semen analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plas Eugen

    2011-08-01

    alternative glycosylation pattern on the free large hCG alpha in seminal plasma might reflect a modified function of this subunit in the male reproductive tract.

  16. Biological functions of hCG and hCG-related molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cole Laurence A

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background hCG is a term referring to 4 independent molecules, each produced by separate cells and each having completely separate functions. These are hCG produced by villous syncytiotrophoblast cells, hyperglycosylated hCG produced by cytotrophoblast cells, free beta-subunit made by multiple primary non-trophoblastic malignancies, and pituitary hCG made by the gonadotrope cells of the anterior pituitary. Results and discussion hCG has numerous functions. hCG promotes progesterone production by corpus luteal cells; promotes angiogenesis in uterine vasculature; promoted the fusion of cytotrophoblast cell and differentiation to make syncytiotrophoblast cells; causes the blockage of any immune or macrophage action by mother on foreign invading placental cells; causes uterine growth parallel to fetal growth; suppresses any myometrial contractions during the course of pregnancy; causes growth and differentiation of the umbilical cord; signals the endometrium about forthcoming implantation; acts on receptor in mother's brain causing hyperemesis gravidarum, and seemingly promotes growth of fetal organs during pregnancy. Hyperglycosylated hCG functions to promote growth of cytotrophoblast cells and invasion by these cells, as occurs in implantation of pregnancy, and growth and invasion by choriocarcinoma cells. hCG free beta-subunit is produced by numerous non-trophoblastic malignancies of different primaries. The detection of free beta-subunit in these malignancies is generally considered a sign of poor prognosis. The free beta-subunit blocks apoptosis in cancer cells and promotes the growth and malignancy of the cancer. Pituitary hCG is a sulfated variant of hCG produced at low levels during the menstrual cycle. Pituitary hCG seems to mimic luteinizing hormone actions during the menstrual cycle.

  17. Photometric and Spectroscopic Study of the Shakhbazian Compact Galaxy Groups ShCG 31, ShCG 38, ShCG 43, and ShCG 282

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Tovmassian

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Los grupos compactos de galaxias Shakhbazian son las configuraciones más densas que se conocen. Hace unos pocos años iniciamos un estudio fotométrico y espectroscópico de estos grupos. En este artículo presentamos los resultados de la investigación en los grupos ShCG 31, ShCG 38, ShCG 43 y ShCG 282. Presentamos los corrimientos al rojo de las galaxias miembro, los resultados de la fonometría BV R, las curvas de brillo superficial-radio efectivo, las masas estimadas, luminosidades y las razones masa-luminosidad de los grupos, además de algunos parámetros dinámicos como la dispersión de velocidades radiales y el tiempo de cruce. Los ShCGs estudiados consisten principalmente de galaxias elípticas y lenticulares. Se muestra que algunas galaxias en estos grupos están en proceso de interacción.

  18. Inhibition of Leukemic Cell Telomerase Activity by Antisense Phosphorothioate Oligodeoxynucleotides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HEDongmei; ZHANGYuan

    2002-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of human telomerase reverse transcriptase(hTERT) gene antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ASON) on telomerase activity in K562 cells.Methods Telomerase activity was detemined by polymerase chain reaction enzyme-linked immunoassay (PCR-ELISA) in K562 cells treated with ASODN and hTERTmRNA expression was detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results The hTERTmRNA level was decreased,and telomerase activity was significantly inhibited when the K562 cells were treated with ASODN for 48 h. Conclusion It is suggested that hTETR ASODN might specifically inhibit telomrase activity of K562 cells at translation level,and it is further proved that hTERT gene has significant correlation with telopmerase activity.

  19. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of mitomycin-tethered phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, N; Rege, A A; Yoo, B; Kogan, T P; Kohn, H

    1996-01-01

    Mitomycin C (1) is the prototypical bioreductive alkylating agent. Studies have shown that mitomycin C and its derivatives selectively alkylate guanine residues within di- and trinucleotide DNA sequences. This investigation sought to improve the selective DNA bonding properties of the mitomycins by coupling them with antisense oligodeoxynucleotides. Two procedures were developed that allowed the attachment of a phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotide containing a hexylamino spacer at the 5' terminus with a C(10)-activated mitomycin. In the first procedure, decarbamoylation of 1 (NaOCH3/ benzene) afforded 10-decarbamoylmitomycin C (10), which was treated with either dimethyl sulfate or methylthiochloroformate and base to yield 10-decarbamoylporfiromycin (11) and N(1a)-[(methylthio)-carbonyl]-10-decarbamoylmitomycin C (12), respectively. Activation of the C(10) site in 11 and 12 with 1,1'-carbonyldiimidazole or with 1,1'-thiocarbonyldiimidazole provided the N(1a)-substituted mitomycin 10-decarbamoyl-10-O-carbonylimidazoles (5, 7) and 10-decarbamoyl-10-O-thiocarbonylimidazoles (6, 8), respectively. Compounds 5-8 were reacted with glycine methyl ester hydrochloride (17) and base in both methylene chloride and aqueous buffered solutions to determine the ease and efficiency in which these C(10)-activated mitomycin derivatives coupled to amines. It was found that 5-8 all reacted with 17 in methylene chloride to give the coupled products 18-21 but that improved amine coupling yields in water were observed for the 10-decarbamoyl-10-O-thiocarbonylimidazoles 6 and 8 as compared with the 10-decarbamoyl-10-O-carbonylimidazoles 5 and 7. This finding led to the coupling of the phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotide, H2N(CH2)6-P(S)(OH)-GGCCCCGTG-GTGGCTCCAT (22) to 8. Compound 22 complemented a 19-base sequence in the translation initiation region of the human A-raf-1 gene. Use of excess 8 (28 equiv) with 22 gave only a 36% yield of the coupled product 23, which proved difficult to

  20. Toroidal geometry subroutines for MORSE-CG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The equations, coding, and procedures that are required to include a torus in the Combinatorial Geometry subroutines of the MORSE-CG code are described. The derivation and solutions of the quartic equation that describes a torus along with additional subroutines and the modifications to existing subroutines required to carry out the transport of neutrons and gamma rays in toroidal geometry are presented. The input requirements and a sample problem are included

  1. Short hairpin-loop-structured oligodeoxynucleotides reduce HSV-1 replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich Jochen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Herpes simplex virus (HSV is known as an infectious agent and widespread in the human population. The symptoms of HSV infections can range from mild to life threatening, especially in immune-compromised individuals. HSV infections are commonly treated with the guanosine analogue Aciclovir, but reports of resistance are increasing. Efforts are made to establish single-stranded antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (as and small interfering ribonucleic acids (siRNAs for antiviral treatment. Recently, another class of short interfering nucleic acids, partially double-stranded hairpin loop-structured 54 mer oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs, was shown to allow hydrolysis of HIV RNA by binding to the viral RNA. This leads to a substrate for the viral RNase H. To assess the potential of such ODNs for inhibition of HSV-1 replication, five partially double-stranded ODNs were designed based on the sequences of known siRNAs against HSV-1 with antiviral activity. Three of them are directed against early and two against leaky late genes. Primary human lung fibroblasts, MRC-5, and African green monkey kidney cells, Vero, were transfected with ODNs and subsequently infected. The effect on HSV-1 replication was determined by analyzing the virus titer in cell culture supernatants by quantitative PCR and plaque assays. An inhibitory effect was observed with all five selected ODNs, with two cases showing statistical significance in both cell types. The observed effect was sequence-specific and dose dependent. In one case the ODN was more efficient than a previously described siRNA directed against the same target site in the mRNA of UL5, a component of the helicase/primase complex. HSV-1 virions and ODNs can be applied simultaneously without transfection reagent, but at a 50-fold higher concentration to Vero cells with similar efficiencies. The results underline the potential of partially double-stranded hairpin loop-structured ODNs as antiviral agents.

  2. Recycling BiCG for Model Reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Ahuja, Kapil; Chang, Eun R; Gugercin, Serkan

    2010-01-01

    Science and engineering problems frequently require solving a sequence of dual linear systems. Two examples are the Iterative Rational Krylov Algorithm (IRKA) for model reduction and Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods in electronic structure calculations. This paper introduces Recycling BiCG, a BiCG method that recycles two Krylov subspaces from one pair of linear systems to the next pair. We develop an augmented bi-Lanczos algorithm and a modified two-term recurrence to include recycling in the iteration. The recycle spaces are approximate left and right invariant subspaces corresponding to the eigenvalues close to the origin. These recycle spaces are found by solving a small generalized eigenvalue problem alongside the dual linear systems being solved in the sequence. We test our algorithm in two application areas. First, we solve a discretized partial differential equation of convection-diffusion type, because these are well-known model problems. Second, we use Recycling BiCG for the linear systems arising ...

  3. PROVISIONAL ADVISORY LEVELS (PALs) FOR PHOSGENE (CG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass-Mattie, Dana F [ORNL; McClanahan, Mark [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; Koller, Loren [Environmental Health and Toxicology, Corvallis, Oregon; Adeshina, Femi [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Ross, Robert Hord [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    The PAL protocol was applied to estimate inhalation exposure limits for phosgene (CG). Data on humans are limited to occupational exposures or accounts from the use of phosgene as a chemical warfare agent in WWI. Animal studies with phosgene show a steep dose-response curve for pulmonary edema and mortality with little species variability in effects. Although immediately upon exposure lacrimation and upper respiratory irritation can occur, the main effect in the target organ, a progressive pulmonary edema, occurs after a latency period of 1-24 hours. PAL estimates were approved by the Expert Consultation Panel for Provisional Advisory Levels in May 2007. Exposure limits for oral exposure to CG are not developed due to insufficient data. PAL estimates for inhalation exposure to CG are presented: The 24-hour PAL values for severity levels 1, 2, and 3 are 0.0017, 0.0033 and 0.022 ppm, respectively. The 30-day PAL values are 0.0006 and 0.0012 ppm for the PAL 1 and 2 values, respectively. These 30-day inhalation values were also accepted as the 90-day and 2-year PAL 1 and 2 values. Data were not available for deriving 30-day, 90-day and 2-year PAL 3 values.

  4. Inhibition of replication of fresh HIV type 1 patient isolates by a polypurine tract-specific self-complementary oligodeoxynucleotide

    OpenAIRE

    Jendis, J; Strack, B; Volkmann, S; Böni, J; Mölling, K.

    1996-01-01

    A previously described self-complementary oligodeoxynucleotide termed triplex-forming oligodeoxynucleotide (TFO A), 54 bases in length, designed against the polypurine tract of HIV-1 RNA, inhibited viral replication at a 1 to 3 microM concentration in acutely infected cells, whereas antisense and scrambled sequence oligodeoxynucleotides were ineffective. Three HIV-1 viral isolates from patients of clinical categories A1, B, and C3 were transmitted to peripheral blood mononuclear cells and tes...

  5. Analysis list: CG8478 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CG8478 Cell line,Embryo,Pupae + dm3 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/...target/CG8478.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/CG8478.5.tsv http://dbarchive.bios...ciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/CG8478.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/CG8478.Cell_line.tsv,http://dba...rchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/CG8478.Embryo.tsv,http://dba...rchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/CG8478.Pupae.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyus

  6. Radioligand receptor assay for urinary and serum hCG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioligand receptor assay system for urinary hCG and serum hCG was developed, using 1100--2000 xg fractions of homogenates of pig testis. This method is specific for hCG and LH, and the limit of detection for hCG was 20 mIU, which could be significantly discriminated from zero at the 95 percent confidence level. A nonspecific inhibition reaction which exerts its influence on the assay system has been found in the urine and serum, and in performing assays for urinary and serum hCG, it was necessary to remove the inhibition reaction by diluting the urine more than eight fold or subject the serum to an extraction procedure. Since the hCG of normal pregnancy and trophoblastic neoplasia showed a dose response curve similar to that of the International Standard hCG, it became clear that these hCG could be assayed with this method. The potency ratio RI measured by RRA and RIA of urinary hCG and serum hCG was different from those of normal pregnancy and trophoblastic neoplasia. (U.S.)

  7. VAM3D-CG configuration management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The VAM3D-CG computer code has been licensed for use at Hanford, from HydroGeologic, Inc., of Herndon, VA. Version 2.4b has been installed on the 3200GWW workstations, and is currently under configuration management. The purpose of this report is to describe the installation and configuration management of VAM3D-CG on the Hanford Computer System. VAM3D-CG is written in standard FORTRAN F77

  8. The observation of serum CG levels in pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors determined the levels of the CG contained in serum by RIA in 83 normal pregnant women and in 53 pregnant patients with ICP. The result showed that CG levels of ICP patients increased significantly as compared with that of normal middle and late pregnancy (P < 0.01). The routine examination of the serum CG levels in pregnant women is of great value of the earlier diagnosis to ICP and treatment as well as health care of perinatal period

  9. Radioimmunoasay of hCG in urine and serum by use of anti-beta-subunit hCG serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using anti-β-subunit hCG sera, radioimmunoassay (RIA) for hCG in urine and serum was developed, and its problems were examined. In the two measuring systems, the cross reaction between hCG and LH, and the non-specific inhibition of urine and serum were observed. For actual measurement, therefore, when a standard curve is prepared using urine or serum, and the measuring sensitivity is adjusted to 16 mIU/ml for urine hCG and to 8 mIU/ml for serum hCG, the effect of LH can be eliminated relatively, and the RIA obtained can be quite specific for hCG. When this method was applied clinically, the results were in agreement with the results from cases of trophoblastic tumors under treatment, those in remission, and menopausal females with high LH. Hardly any LH was detected in the cases in remission, menopausal females, or normal females. This method enables us to judge whether or not hCG-like substances are excreted from malignant tumors. In addition, it gives clearer information on the behavior of low level hCG in patients with trophoblastic tumors than does the pre-existing RIA for hCG. This method can be applied extensively to clinical practice. (Chiba, N.)

  10. Clotrimazole Drug Resistance in Candida glabrata Clinical Isolates Correlates with Increased Expression of the Drug:H+ Antiporters CgAqr1, CgTpo1_1, CgTpo3, and CgQdr2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Catarina; Ribeiro, Jonathan; Miranda, Isabel M.; Silva-Dias, Ana; Cavalheiro, Mafalda; Costa-de-Oliveira, Sofia; Rodrigues, Acácio G.; Teixeira, Miguel C.

    2016-01-01

    For years, antifungal drug resistance in Candida species has been associated to the expression of ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) multidrug transporters. More recently, a few drug efflux pumps from the Drug:H+ Antiporter (DHA) family have also been shown to play a role in this process, although to date only the Candida albicans Mdr1 transporter has been demonstrated to be relevant in the clinical acquisition of antifungal drug resistance. This work provides evidence to suggest the involvement of the C. glabrata DHA transporters CgAqr1, CgQdr2, CgTpo1_1, and CgTpo3 in the clinical acquisition of clotrimazole drug resistance. A screening for azole drug resistance in 138 C. glabrata clinical isolates, from patients attending two major Hospitals in Portugal, was performed. Based on this screening, 10 clotrimazole susceptible and 10 clotrimazole resistant isolates were selected for further analysis. The transcript levels of CgAQR1, CgQDR2, CgTPO1_1, and CgTPO3 were found to be significantly up-regulated in resistant isolates when compared to the susceptible ones, with a level of correlation that was found to be similar to that of CgCDR2, an ABC gene known to be involved in the clinical acquisition of resistance. As a proof-of-concept experiment, the CgTPO3 gene was deleted in an azole resistant C. glabrata isolate, exhibiting high levels of expression of this gene. The deletion of CgTPO3 in this isolate was found to lead to decreased resistance to clotrimazole and fluconazole, and increased accumulation of azole drugs, thus suggesting the involvement of this transporter in the manifestation of azole resistance. PMID:27148215

  11. Cathepsin B antisense oligodeoxynucleotide suppresses invasive potential of MG-63 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Maolin; Xiao Zengming; Li Shide; Chen Anmin

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the biological effects of cathepsin B phosporotbioated antisense oligodeoxynucleotide on human osteosarcoma cell line MG-63 after transfection. Methods A 18-mer phosphorothioate antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ASODN) targeted against the cathepsin B mRNA was transfected into the human osteosarcoma cell line MG-63 by lipofectamine 2000. The sense and nonsense oligodeoxynucleotides to cathepsin B and blank vector were used as controls. The expression of cathepsin B mRNA was examined by RT-PCR and the expression of cathepsin B was examined by Western blot. The invasive capability of MG-63 cells was evaluated by the boydern chamber assay. Results The expression of cathcpsin B was obviously inhibited in antlsense oligodeoxynucleotide treated cells compared with the control cells. The number of invading MG-63 cells was significantly lower in the ASODN-treated groups than that in the control groups. Conclusion The cathepsin B ASODN significantly inhibits the expression of cathepsin B and invasive ability of MG-63 cell in osteosarcoma.

  12. Neonate intestinal immune response to CpG oligodeoxynucleotide stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Lacroix-Lamandé

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The development of mucosal vaccines is crucial to efficiently control infectious agents for which mucosae are the primary site of entry. Major drawbacks of these protective strategies are the lack of effective mucosal adjuvant. Synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides that contain several unmethylated cytosine-guanine dinucleotide (CpG-ODN motifs are now recognized as promising adjuvants displaying mucosal adjuvant activity through direct activation of TLR9-expressing cells. However, little is known about the efficacy of these molecules in stimulating the intestinal immune system in neonates. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: First, newborn mice received CpG-ODN orally, and the intestinal cytokine and chemokine response was measured. We observed that oral administration of CpG-ODN induces CXC and CC chemokine responses and a cellular infiltration in the intestine of neonates as detected by immunohistochemistry. We next compared the efficiency of the oral route to intraperitoneal administration in stimulating the intestinal immune responses of both adults and neonates. Neonates were more responsive to TLR9-stimulation than adults whatever the CpG-ODN administration route. Their intestinal epithelial cells (IECs indirectly responded to TLR9 stimulation and contributed to the CXC chemokine response, whereas other TLR9-bearing cells of the lamina-propria produced CC chemokines and Th1-type cytokines. Moreover, we showed that the intestine of adult exhibited a significantly higher level of IL10 at homeostasis than neonates, which might be responsible for the unresponsiveness to TLR9-stimulation, as confirmed by our findings in IL10-deficient mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first report that deciphers the role played by CpG-ODN in the intestine of neonates. This work clearly demonstrates that an intraperitoneal administration of CpG-ODN is more efficient in neonates than in adults to stimulate an intestinal chemokine response due to their

  13. The Environment and Magnetic Field of Cometary Globule CG30

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickel, Gabriel R.; Vilas-Boas, José W. S.

    2005-09-01

    In this work, we combine observations of optical linear polarization (R band), IRAS far-infrared images and radio molecular lines to investigate the cometary globule CG30 (at IRAS Vela Shell). CG30 shows Herbig-Haro objects, molecular outflows, hosts a very young binary star and has a star formation efficiency of about 6% to 17%. Its magnetic field is important to support the CG structure and shows evidence of torsion and compression of the field lines. The quadrupolar outflow of the binary star affects the temperature of the molecular gas, and changes the degree of polarization of the dust grains in the environment of CG30. This work is based on observations collected at LNA/CNPq, Brazil and SEST/ESO, Chile.

  14. Single-based resolution for oligodeoxynucleotides and their phosphorothioate modifications by replaceable capillary gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong; Luo, Xuefang; Di, Xin; Li, Ying; Sun, Yuqing; Hu, Yuzhu

    2006-11-01

    A replaceable capillary gel electrophoretic (replaceable CGE) method was developed for the separation of two sets of model compounds of single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotide mixtures (18-20 mers), phosphodiester oligodeoxynucleotides (PO-ODNs) and their phosphorothioate modifications (PS-ODNs), with equal sequences differing in a single base. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 35000 was chosen as the sieving matrix. It was confirmed that PEG polymer solution less influenced resolutions of the PS-ODNs compared with those of the PO-ODNs, while acetonitrile used as an additive in the system improved the separation significantly. It was also noticed that the effect of temperature on separation was much larger than that of denaturant urea. PMID:16809077

  15. The Effects of Aerosolized STAT1 Antisense Oligodeoxynucleotides on Rat Pulmonary Fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wenjun; Liao, Bin; Zeng, Ming; Zhu, Chen; Fan, Xianming

    2009-01-01

    Previous study showed that aerosolized signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT1) antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ASON) inhibited the expression of STAT1 and ICAM-1 mRNA and protein in alveolar macrophages (AMs) and decreased the concentrations of TGF-β, PDGF and TNF-α in bronchioalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in bleomycin (BLM)-induced rat pulmonary fibrosis. Administration of STAT1 ASON ameliorated alveolitis in rat pulmonary fibrosis. However, further investigations are neede...

  16. Preparation of oligodeoxynucleotide encapsulated cationic liposomes and release study with models of cellular membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Tamaddon AM.; Hosseini-Shirazi F.; Moghimi HR

    2007-01-01

    Cationic liposomes are used for cellular delivery of antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (AsODN), where release of encapsulated AsODN is mainly controlled by endocytosis and fusion mechanisms. In this investigation, it was tried to model such a release process that is difficult to evaluate in cell culture. For this purpose, an AsODN model (against protein kinase C-α) was encapsulated in a DODAP-containing cationic liposome and evaluated for size, zeta-potential, encapsulation and ODN stab...

  17. Chitosan-coated boron nitride nanospheres enhance delivery of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides and induction of cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang H

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Huijie Zhang,1,2 Song Chen,3 Chunyi Zhi,4 Tomohiko Yamazaki,1,2 Nobutaka Hanagata1,2,5 1Graduate School of Life Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan; 2Biomaterials Unit, International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics, National Institute for Materials Science, Ibaraki, Japan; 3Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo, Japan; 4Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China; 5Nanotechnology Innovation Station, Ibaraki, Japan Background: Cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG oligodeoxynucleotides activate Toll-like receptor 9, leading to induction of proinflammatory cytokines, which play an important role in induction and maintenance of innate and adaptive immune responses. Previously, we have used boron nitride nanospheres (BNNS as a carrier for delivery of unmodified CpG oligodeoxynucleotides to activate Toll-like receptor 9. However, because CpG oligodeoxynucleotides and BNNS are both negatively charged, electrostatic repulsion between them is likely to reduce the loading of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides onto BNNS. Therefore, the efficiency of uptake of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides is also limited and does not result in induction of a robust cytokine response. To ameliorate these problems, we developed a CpG oligodeoxynucleotide delivery system using chitosan-coated BNNS as a carrier. Methods: To facilitate attachment of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides onto the BNNS and improve their loading capacity, we prepared positively charged BNNS by coating them with chitosan preparations of three different molecular weights and used them as carriers for delivery of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides. Results: The zeta potentials of the BNNS-CS complexes were positive, and chitosan coating improved their dispersity and stability in aqueous solution compared with BNNS. The positive charge of the BNNS-CS complexes greatly improved the loading capacity and cellular uptake efficiency of Cp

  18. 77 FR 59408 - Finding of Equivalence; Alternate Pressure Relief Valve Settings on Certain Vessels Carrying...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... Coast Guard announces the availability of CG-ENG Policy Letter 04-12, ``Alternative Pressure Relief... promulgated regulations on allowable stress factors on May 3, 1979. CG-ENG Policy Letter 04-12 establishes... equivalent to the standards in 46 CFR 154.447 and 46 CFR 154.450. DATES: CG-ENG Policy Letter 04-12...

  19. Extending the QUDA Library with the eigCG Solver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strelchenko, Alexei [Fermilab; Stathopoulos, Andreas [William-Mary Coll.

    2014-12-12

    While the incremental eigCG algorithm [ 1 ] is included in many LQCD software packages, its realization on GPU micro-architectures was still missing. In this session we report our experi- ence of the eigCG implementation in the QUDA library. In particular, we will focus on how to employ the mixed precision technique to accelerate solutions of large sparse linear systems with multiple right-hand sides on GPUs. Although application of mixed precision techniques is a well-known optimization approach for linear solvers, its utilization for the eigenvector com- puting within eigCG requires special consideration. We will discuss implementation aspects of the mixed precision deflation and illustrate its numerical behavior on the example of the Wilson twisted mass fermion matrix inversions

  20. [Analysis of the structure and expression of the cluster of Drosophila melanogaster genes DIP1, CG32500, CG32819, and CG14476 in the flamenco gene region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapova, M V; Nefedova, L N; Kim, A I

    2009-10-01

    The flamenco gene controlling transpositions of the gypsy retrovirus is localized in the 20A1-3 region, in which eight open reading frames organized in a cluster were discovered: DIP1, three repeats of CG32500 and CG32819, and CG14476. Analysis of the genes composing the cluster indicates that their transcription in Drosophila melanogaster is a stage-specific process. Comparison of the expression of these genes in the strains OreR, SS, and MS having the flamenco phenotype and in the strain 413 having the flamenco+ phenotype revealed differences only for the DIP1 gene, transcription of this gene being altered only in the OreR strain. Thus, mutant flamenco alleles are differently expressed in different strains. The structural organization of the flamenco gene region was studied in different Drosophila species: D. sechellia, D. simulans, D. mauritiana, D. yakuba, D. erecta, D. virilis, D. ananassae, D. grimshawi, and D. pseudoobscura. The genes of the cluster were found to be highly conserved in genomes of different species, but in none of them, except D. sechellia, the structural organization of the region repeats the structure of the D. melanogaster cluster. PMID:19947543

  1. Synthesis of Oligodeoxynucleotides Using Fully Protected Deoxynucleoside 3′-Phosphoramidite Building Blocks and Base Recognition of Oligodeoxynucleotides Incorporating N3-Cyano-Ethylthymine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuo Sekine

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN synthesis, which avoids the formation of side products, is of great importance to biochemistry-based technology development. One side reaction of ODN synthesis is the cyanoethylation of the nucleobases. We suppressed this reaction by synthesizing ODNs using fully protected deoxynucleoside 3′-phosphoramidite building blocks, where the remaining reactive nucleobase residues were completely protected with acyl-, diacyl-, and acyl-oxyethylene-type groups. The detailed analysis of cyanoethylation at the nucleobase site showed that N3-protection of the thymine base efficiently suppressed the Michael addition of acrylonitrile. An ODN incorporating N3-cyanoethylthymine was synthesized using the phosphoramidite method, and primer extension reactions involving this ODN template were examined. As a result, the modified thymine produced has been proven to serve as a chain terminator.

  2. Using a decline in serum hCG between days 0–4 to predict ectopic pregnancy treatment success after single-dose methotrexate: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skubisz Monika

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current measure of treatment efficacy of single-dose methotrexate for ectopic pregnancy, is a fall in serum hCG of ≥15% between days 4–7 of treatment, which has a positive predictive value of 93% for treatment success. Two small studies have proposed a fall in serum hCG between days 0–4 after treatment confers similar, earlier prognostic information, with positive predictive values of 100% and 88% for treatment success. We sought to validate this in a large, independent cohort because of the potentially significant clinical implications. Methods We conducted a retrospective study of women (n=206 treated with single-dose methotrexate for ectopic pregnancy (pre-treatment serum hCG levels ≤3000 IU/L at Scottish hospitals between 2006–2011. Women were divided into two cohorts based on whether their serum hCG levels rose or fell between days 0–4 after methotrexate. Treatment outcomes of women in each cohort were compared, and the test performance characteristics calculated. This methodology was repeated for the current measure (≥15% fall in serum hCG between days 4–7 of treatment and an alternate early measure ( Results In our cohort, the positive predictive value of the current clinical measure was 89% (95% CI 84-94% (121/136. A falling serum hCG between days 0–4 predicted treatment success in 85% (95% CI 79-92% of cases (94/110 and a Conclusions We have verified that a decline in serum hCG between days 0–4 after methotrexate treatment for ectopic pregnancies, with pre-treatment serum hCG levels ≤3000 IU/L, provides an early indication of likelihood of treatment success, and performs just as well as the existing measure, which only provides prognostic information on day 7.

  3. Characterization of oligodeoxynucleotides by electron detachment dissociation fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiong; Mo, Jingjie; Adamson, Julie T; Håkansson, Kristina

    2005-03-15

    Electron detachment dissociation (EDD), recently introduced by Zubarev and co-workers for the dissociation of multiply charged biomolecular anions via a radical ion intermediate, has been shown to be analogous to electron capture dissociation (ECD) in several respects, including more random peptide fragmentation and retention of labile posttranslational modifications. We have previously demonstrated unique fragmentation behavior in ECD compared to vibrational excitation for oligodeoxynucleotide cations. However, that approach is limited by the poor sensitivity for oligonucleotide ionization in positive ion mode. Here, we show implementation of EDD on a commercial Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer utilizing two different configurations: a heated filament electron source and an indirectly heated hollow dispenser cathode electron source. The dispenser cathode configuration provides higher EDD efficiency and additional fragmentation channels for hexamer oligodeoxynucleotides. As in ECD, even-electron d/w ion series dominate the spectra, but we also detect numerous a/z (both even-electron and radical species), (a/z - B), c/x, (c/x - B), and (d/w - B) ions with minimal nucleobase loss from the precursor ions. In contrast to previous high-energy collision-activated dissociation (CAD) and ion trap CAD of radical oligonucleotide anions, we only observe minimum sugar cross-ring cleavage, possibly due to the short time scale of EDD, which limits secondary fragmentation. Thus, EDD provides fragmentation similar to ECD for oligodeoxynucleotides but at enhanced sensitivity. Finally, we show that noncovalent bonding in a DNA duplex can be preserved following EDD, illustrating another analogy with ECD. We believe the latter finding implies EDD has promise for characterization of nucleic acid structure and folding. PMID:15762599

  4. C5-Azobenzene-substituted 2'-Deoxyuridine-containing Oligodeoxynucleotides for Photo-Switching Hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohei Mori

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A new photoisomeric nucleoside dUAz bearing an azobenzene group at the C5-position of 2'-deoxyuridine was designed and synthesized. Photoisomerization of dUAz in oligodeoxynucleotides can be achieved rapidly and selectively with 365 nm (forward and 450 nm (backward irradiation. Thermal denaturation experiments revealed that dUAz stabilized the duplex in the cis-form and destabilized it in the trans-form with mismatch discrimination ability comparable to thymidine. These results indicate that dUAz could be a powerful material for reversibly manipulating nucleic acid hybridization with spatiotemporal control.

  5. Inhibition of HIV-1 replication by chimeric phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides applied in free solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, O S; Hansen, J E

    1998-01-01

    Oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) containing a variable number of 3' and 5' terminal phosphorothioate linkages were applied in free solution to cells infected by HIV-1. ODNs of 28 nt length were applied at up to 5 microM concentration. The ODNs were found to inhibit HIV-1 infection in a dose dependent...... manner, which correlated with the number of modified linkages (4, 8 and 12, respectively). A target sequence in the HIV-1 rev mRNA, previously reported as sensitive to antisense inhibition by full length phosphorothioate ODNs, only revealed non-sequence dependent inhibition of HIV-1, when tested by these...

  6. Kathon CG y Dermatología Laboral: Actualización Kathon CG and Occupational Dermatology: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rita Rodrigues Barata

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El Kathon CG constituye el nombre comercial de una mezcla de isotiazolinas: Metilcloroisotiazolinona y Metilisotiazolinona. Es un conservante muy utilizado, sobre todo en la industria cosmética, aunque en los últimos años también se ha impuesto su presencia en productos de limpieza de uso doméstico y actualmente a concentraciones más altas en preparados de uso industrial como aceites de corte, emulsiones de látex, pinturas al temple, aceites para motores Diesel, etc. Por su alto poder sensibilizante y amplia utilización, constituye actualmente una de las causas más frecuentes de alergia de contacto por preservativos, tanto en nuestra vida privada, como en el ámbito profesional. Objetivos: Estudiar la capacidad sensibilizante del Kathon CG y su relación con el desarrollo de eczema de contacto alérgico de origen profesional. Métodos: Estudio observacional descriptivo, a través de la revisión de las historias clínicas de los pacientes vistos en el Servicio de Dermatología Laboral del Instituto Nacional de Medicina y Seguridad en el Trabajo durante los años 2008-2012; 1520 pacientes fueron evaluados y estudiados mediante pruebas epicutáneas para descartar una posible dermatosis profesional. Se registraron los casos de sensibilización al Kathon CG y se analizaron las siguientes variables: genero, edad, grupo profesional, localización de las lesiones cutáneas, relevancia y relación profesional. El análisis estadístico se realizó con el programa SPSS 15.0. Resultados: Se observó sensibilización al Kathon CG en 88 pacientes (5,8%, correspondiendo un 42% a sensibilizaciones de origen profesional. Conclusiones: La alergia de contacto profesional por Kathon CG constituye actualmente es un problema de alta prevalencia. Ante un paciente con positividad a este alérgeno hay que interrogar siempre por su profesión.Kathon CG is the tradename for a mixture of isothiazolines: methylchloroisothiazolinone and methylisothiazolinone. It

  7. Sustained Release of Cx43 Antisense Oligodeoxynucleotides from Coated Collagen Scaffolds Promotes Wound Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmartin, Daniel J; Soon, Allyson; Thrasivoulou, Christopher; Phillips, Anthony R J; Jayasinghe, Suwan N; Becker, David L

    2016-07-01

    Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides targeting the mRNA of the gap junction protein Cx43 promote tissue repair in a variety of different wounds. Delivery of the antisense drug has most often been achieved by a thermoreversible hydrogel, Pluronic F-127, which is very effective in the short term but does not allow for sustained delivery over several days. For chronic wounds that take a long time to heal, repeated dosing with the drug may be desirable but is not always compatible with conventional treatments such as the weekly changing of compression bandages on venous leg ulcers. Here the coating of collagen scaffolds with antisense oligonucleotides is investigated and a way to provide protection of the oligodeoxynucleotide drug is found in conjunction with sustained release over a 7 d period. This approach significantly reduces the normal foreign body reaction to the scaffold, which induces an increase of Cx43 protein and an inhibition of healing. As a result of the antisense integration into the scaffold, inflammation is reduced with the rate of wound healing and contracture is significantly improved. This coated scaffold approach may be very useful for treating venous leg ulcers and also for providing a sustained release of any other types of oligonucleotide drugs that are being developed. PMID:27253638

  8. Rapid electron capture dissociation of mass-selectively accumulated oligodeoxynucleotide dications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Kristin N.; Håkansson, Kristina

    2004-05-01

    We have performed extended characterization of the fragmentation patterns of oligodeoxynucleotide dications following electron capture dissociation (ECD) utilizing improved instrumentation. Our current results from a 9.4 T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer equipped with mass-selective external ion accumulation and an indirectly heated dispenser cathode electron source demonstrate much richer fragmentation than from a previous 7 T instrument with a directly heated filament electron source. We propose the previous absence of backbone product ions from purine-containing oligonucleotides is a result of intramolecular hydrogen bonding, preventing product ions from separating. Similar behavior is observed at non-optimized ECD conditions with the current instrumentation. However, infrared laser heating of the resulting charge-reduced radical species results in extensive backbone fragmentation (different from infrared multiphoton dissociation) of the oligonucleotide dA6, demonstrating potential for ECD to characterize nucleic acid secondary structure. Under more optimized conditions, rich fragmentation, mostly in terms of w, (a/z-B), and (c/x-B) products, is observed for dA6, dC6, dG5, and d(GCATGC) following ECD only, allowing complete sequencing in several cases. The current ECD spectra contain some doubly charged products, indicating that populations of gas-phase oligodeoxynucleotide dications are zwitterionic.

  9. Development of an EGS4/PRESTA user code written by the CG description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geometry description of radiation shielding codes, such as QAD-CG and MORSE-CG, is often written by the combinatorial geometry (CG) method. However any EGS4/PRESTA user code with the CG method is not yet reported. Since the macro, called $CALL-HOWNEAR, is necessary to use the PRESTA algorithm on EGS4, it is difficult to write complicated geometries on EGS4/PRESTA. Then we developed an EGS4/PRESTA user code, which can be written by 3 dimensional CG method and it did the way that can evaluate influence of the step size for low energy electrons and influence of a calculative geometry. This paper described an user code using the CG method, named PRESTA-CG. Furthermore we reported comparison of the response of an ionization chamber with the UCSAMPCG which is employed the CG description for original EGS4. (author)

  10. CpG-A and B oligodeoxynucleotides enhance the efficacy of antibody therapy by activating different effector cell populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.H. van Ojik; L. Bevaart; C.E. Dahle; A. Bakker (Annie); M.J.H. Jansen (Marco); M.J. van Vugt; J.G. van de Winkel; G.J. Weiner

    2003-01-01

    textabstractImmunostimulatory CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) can enhance the therapeutic effect of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) by enhancing antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). Distinct classes of CpG ODNs have been found recently to stimulate different effector

  11. Inhibitory effects of unmethylated CpG oligodeoxynucleotides on MHC class I-deficient and -proficient HPV16-associated tumours

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reiniš, Milan; Šímová, Jana; Bubeník, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 7 (2006), s. 1836-1842. ISSN 0020-7136 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA301/04/0492 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : HPV16 * immunotherapy * CpG oligodeoxynucleotides Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 4.693, year: 2006

  12. The systematic regulation of oyster CgIL17-1 and CgIL17-5 in response to air exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Lusheng; Zhang, Huan; Du, Xinyu; Li, Yiqun; Li, Meijia; Wang, Lingling; Wang, Hao; Qiu, Limei; Song, Linsheng

    2016-10-01

    As a proinflammatory cytokine, vertebrate interleukin 17 (IL17) plays a vital role in the balance of inflammation and homeostasis, and is involved in a systemic regulation of glucose homeostasis. In the present study, a remarkable increase of glucose concentration was observed in oyster serum after 2 d air exposure, which was followed by a rapid up-regulation of CgIL17-1 and CgIL17-5. After oysters was received an injection of extra glucose, the mRNA expressions of CgIL17-1 and CgIL17-5 were also significantly up-regulated. The histopathological changes of hepatopancreas were observed after the oysters were treated by the recombinant proteins of CgIL17-1 and CgIL17-5 in vivo or subjected to air exposure. A significant decrease of GSK3β (Glycogen synthase kinase-3β) protein was also observed after the injection of CgIL17-1 and CgIL17-5 recombinant proteins in vivo. When the oysters with CgIL17-1 and CgIL17-5 genes knocked down were subjected to air exposure, the decline of GSK3β concentration was slowed down and it could still be obviously detected after 7 d compared with that in the control. Meanwhile, the expression of CgDefensin and CgDFFA was inhibited, while CgIAP was up-regulated when CgIL17-1 and CgIL17-5 genes were knocked down, and the oysters exhibited higher mortality (p < 0.05) at 3 d, whereas lower at the late stage of air exposure compared with that in the controls. The results collectively suggested that once oysters were exposed to air, the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines CgIL17-1 and CgIL17-5 was induced by the up-regulated glucose concentration in oyster serum, which would be not only a negative feedback to the high glucose concentration through mediating the regulation of GSK3β, but also an inducer on tissue damage and immunocompetence as well as the adaptability to stresses. PMID:27268575

  13. Status of a Unique Vaccine against hCG for Contraception and Advanced Stage Cancers expressing ectopically hCG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talwar GP

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dear Egon!br God bless you on your 95th Birthday! May you complete 100 years.br Being submitted in your honor is a brief article on my continuing work to make available a unique vaccine preventing pregnancy in women without blocking ovulation, her normal production of sex steroid hormones and retaining her regular menstrual cycles and bleeding profiles.br The vaccine is directed at the Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, which emerges following fertilization of the egg [1]. Healthy, non-pregnant women do not make it, the basis on which its detection in serum or urine serves as a reliable test for diagnosis of pregnancy. It plays a critical role in implantation of the embryo & thereby to the onset of pregnancy. The purpose of the vaccine is to generate bioeffective antibodies neutralizing hCG & thereby prevent the onset of pregnancy.br As you can imagine, the making of a workable vaccine, competent to make antibodies against a tolerant molecule to the woman’s immune system (she literally bathes in hCG during pregnancy was not simple. What was also demanded was high immunogenicity of the vaccine to make fairly high titres of antibodies to counteract the large amount of hCG made in early pregnancy. At each stage, it required testing in humans and before that could be done, appropriate toxicology studies & approval of Regulatory and Ethics Committees was needed each taking its time. Eventually the vaccine has to be amenable to industrial production to reach the public, hence a recombinant vaccine had to be developed. Given below is a brief write-up on the evolution of the vaccine against the human chorionic gonadotropin.br Yours, Pran

  14. CpG oligodeoxynucleotides are potent enhancers of radio- and chemoresponses of murine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) containing unmethylated cytosine-guanine (CpG) motifs bind to Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) and stimulate both innate and adaptive immune reactions and possess anti-tumor activity. We recently reported that CpG ODN 1826 strongly enhances radioresponse of both immunogenic [Milas L, Mason K, Ariga H, et al. CpG oligodeoxynucleotide enhances tumor response to radiation. Cancer Res 2004;64:5074-7] and non-immunogenic [Mason KA, Ariga H, Neal R, et al. Targeting toll-like receptor-9 with CpG oligodeoxynucleotides enhances tumor response to fractionated radiotherapy. Clin Cancer Res 2005;11:361-9] murine tumors. Using two immunogenic murine tumors, a fibrosarcoma (FSa) and a mammary carcinoma (MCa-K), the present study explored whether CpG ODN 1826 also improves the response of murine tumors to the chemotherapeutic agent docetaxel (DOC). Materials and methods: CpG ODN 1826 (100 μg) was given sc three times: when leg tumors were 6 mm, when they grew to 8 mm and again 1 week later. DOC (33 mg/kg iv) and local tumor radiation (10 Gy) were given when tumors were 8 mm. Effects of the treatments were assayed by tumor growth delay, defined as days for tumors to grow from 8 to 12 mm in diameter. Results: Treatment with CpG ODN 1826 resulted in strongly enhanced response of FSa tumors to radiation and MCa-K tumors to the chemotherapeutic agent DOC. Enhancement of tumor treatment response was demonstrated by a strong prolongation in the primary tumor treatment endpoint, tumor growth delay. Coincidentally, this treatment also resulted in a higher rate of tumor cure than that observed after tumor radiotherapy or chemotherapy alone. When all three agents were combined the effect was comparable to that of the combination of CpG ODN 1826 with radiation in the case of FSa or of the combination of CpG ODN 1826 with DOC in the case of MCa-K. Conclusion: Overall results show that CpG ODN 1826 can markedly improve tumor response

  15. Clinical effects of CG (Hythiol) tablets on leukopenia resulting from radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A double-blind comparative study of CG(L-cysteine) tablets and approved drugs (CG capsules) was made to assess clinical effects of CG tablets on leukopenia. The subjects were 75 patients with cancer of the uterine cervix in whom the number of WBC was 4,500-7,500/mm before irradiation. The ratios of patients who kept WBC as 3,500/mm or more were 64.7% in the group with CG tablets and 50% in the group with CG capsules with no statistical significance. The ratios of patients who kept WBC as 3,000/mm or more were 82.4% in the group with CG tablets and 79.4% in the group with CG capsules with no statistical significance. The ratios to prevent leukopenia were 70.6% in the group with CG tablets and 58.8% in the group with CG capsules with no significant difference. Other hematological findings, subjective symptoms and the performance of radiotherapeutic protocol were not different between the groups. No marked side effects were observed. These results suggest that CG tablets, as well as CG capsules, are effective for preventing leukopenia resulting from radiotherapy. (Namekawa, K.)

  16. Fundamental Study about the Landscape Estimation and Analysis by CG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Yoshio; Miyagoshi, Takashi; Takamatsu, Mamoru; Sassa, Kazuhiro

    In recent years, the color of advertising signboards or vending machines on the streets should be harmonized with the surrounding landscape. In this study, we investigated how the colors (red and white) of the vending machines virtually installed by CG would affect the traditional landscape. 20 subjects estimated landscape samples in Hida-Furukawa by the SD technique. The result of our experiment shows that the vending machines have great influence on the surrounding landscape. On the other hand, we have confirmed that they can harmonize with the circumference landscape by the color to use.

  17. Modulation of CpG oligodeoxynucleotide-mediated immune stimulation by locked nucleic acid (LNA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollmer, Jörg; Jepsen, Jan Stenvang; Uhlmann, Eugen; Schetter, Christian; Jurk, Marion; Wader, Tanja; Wüllner, Meike; Krieg, Arthur M; Stenvang, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Locked nucleic acid (LNA) is an RNA derivative that when introduced into oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN), mediates high efficacy and stability. CpG ODNs are potent immune stimulators and are recognized by toll-like receptor-9 (TLR9). Some phosphorothioate antisense ODNs bearing CpG dinucleotides have...... been shown to possess immune modulatory capacities. We investigated the effects of LNA substitutions on immune stimulation mediated by antisense ODN G3139 or CpG ODN 2006. LNA ODNs were tested for their ability to stimulate cytokine secretion from human immune cells or TLR9-dependent signaling....... Phosphorothioate chimeric LNA/DNA antisense ODNs with phosphodiester-linked LNA nucleobases at both ends showed a marked decrease of immune modulation with an increasing number of 3' and 5' LNA bases. In addition, guanosine-LNA and cytosine-LNA or simply cytosine-LNA substitutions in the CpG dinucleotides of ODN...

  18. Response of porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells to CpG-containing oligodeoxynucleotide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, Søren; Verthelyi, D.; Klinman, D.M.

    2001-01-01

    Exposure to bacterial DNA generates a "danger signal" that stimulates cellular elements of the mammalian immune system to proliferate and/or secrete cytokines. Stimulation is critically dependent on hexameric motifs that contain an unmethylated CpG dinucleotide: these are commonly found in...... bacterial but not vertebrate DNA. Different motifs are optimally stimulatory in different species. This work examines whether oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) containing CpG motifs stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cells from pigs. Results show that pigs respond to CpG ODN by proliferating and secreting IL......-6, IL-12 and TNF-alpha. By screening a large panel (>100) of ODNs, the palindromic hexamer 'ATCGAT' was identified as being optimally active in all animals examined (N = 10). These findings are the first to establish the immunostimulatory activity of CpG ODN in pigs, and suggest that the therapeutic...

  19. Effects of phosphorothioate anti-sense oligodeoxynucleotides on colorectal cancer cell growth and telomerase activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi-Shan Wang; Kuan Wang; Xue Li; Song-Bin Fu

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the inhibitory effect of phosphorothioate anti-sense oligodeoxynucleotides (PASODN) on colorectal cancer LS-174T cells in vitro and the mechanism of inhibition of telomerase activity in these cells.METHODS: PASODN were used to infect LS-174T cells and block human telomerase RNA (hTR) through anti-sense technology. The inhibitory effect of PASODN was evaluated by colony-forming inhibition assay and growth curve. Changes of telomerase activity in LS-174T cells were detected by polymerase chain reaction-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PCR-ELISA), and the level of apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry (FCM) assay.RESULTS: PASODN showed a dose and time-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation. The optimal dosage of PASODN was 10 μmol/L. The colony-forming efficiency was 10.3% in PASODN group after 10 d, whereas that in phosphorothioate mis-sense oligodeoxynucleotides (PMSODN) group with the same concentration and in PBS group (blank control) was 49.1% and 50.7%, respectively. PCR-ELISA results indicated that telomerase activity in the PASODN group was obviously inhibited in comparison with in the control groups (P<0.01,t = 3.317 and 3.241, t0.01 (20) = 2.845). Meanwhile, before the number of cells was decreased, the morphological changes were observed in the cells of PASODN group. The cells in PASODN group showed the apoptotic peak at 72 h after infection, whereas the control group did not show.CONCLUSION: Specific sequence oligonucleotides can inhibit telomerase activity and lead to cell apoptosis,suggesting a novel treatment strategy for malignant tumors induced by telomerase.

  20. Survivin Antisense Oligodeoxy-Nucleotid Induces Apoptosis in Leukaemia Cell Line K562

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lijun Chen; Qiuyue Jin; Hong Xie; Ruimin Wang; Li Yao

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the effects of survivin antisense oligodeoxynucleotid (ASODN) on proliferation and apoptosis in the chronic myeloid leukemia cell line K562.METHODS Different concentrations of an antisense oligodeoxy-nucleotid and control sequence (scrambled ODN) targeting the survivin gene were transferred into K562 by a lipofectin reagent. The MTT assay was used to measure the growth inhibitory rate, IC50, and to observe the cytotoxicity of survivin ASODN in the K562 cells. The morphologic changes in the nucleus and the apoptotic rate were observed by Hoechst33342/PI staining.Caspase-3 activity was evaluated by a kinase activity assay. The changes of survivin protein expression after transfection were detected by Western blots.RESULTS Eight hours after transfection, fluorescence in the K562 cells was well distributed. Treatment of the cells for 44 h with different concentrations of survivin ASODN produced a IC50 of 800 nmol/L. The growth inhibitory rate with 200, 400, 600 and 1000 nmol/L of survivin ASODN was 15.8±1.6%, 23.8±5.9%, 37.1±5.6% and 77.3±2.5% respectively. After 36 h of of survivin ASODN treatment, distinct morphologic changes characteristic of cell apoptosis such as karyopyknosis and conglomeration were observed by Hoechst33342/PI staining. Caspase-3 activity increased significantly after treatment of the cells with different concentrations of survivin ASODN (P<0.01)and following treatment with 800 nmol/L survivin ASODN, survivin expression decreased significantly.CONCLUSION Survivin ASODN exerts an anti-cancer effect by inducing apoptosis in K562 leukaemia cells. Up-regulated expression of caspase3 may play a role in this process.

  1. Use of reduced doses of eCG applied by different routes in the TAI program in Santa Ines sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Dias Antunes-Melo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to improve the cost-benefit ratio of the application of artificial insemination in fixed time (TAI by the transcervical route in sheep, to test the dosage reduction and the use of the vulvar submucosa (VSM route as an alternative for the application of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG on the efficiency of the synchronization protocol and fertility to artificial insemination (AI and to measure the level of cortisol in ewes as a result the application of this biotechnique. Blood samples were collected before AI, immediately after AI and seven days after AI. Six groups of twenty animals were used, and each group received doses of 200, 300 and 400 IU of eCG by the intramuscular route (IM and VSM. Estrus was detected, and 48 hours later, the inseminations were performed by the transcervical route. Among the 120 treated ewes, 87.5% came in estrus. The percentage of the intrauterine deposition of semen was 88.3%. The pregnancy rate ranged from 20 to 70% between treatments, with an average of 46.66%. The VSM route was viable for the application of eCG in doses of 300 and 400 IU. The reduction in the eCG dose to 200 IU by the IM route reduces costs while maintaining the efficiency of estrus synchronization protocols and TAI with frozen semen in Santa Ines ewes. The average levels of cortisol were significant, at 1.15, 2.86 and 0.52 ?g/dL according to the three collections, being higher after the animal was off the easel at the end of AI. The procedures for performing the transcervical AI technique indicate that stress in the animals produces satisfactory fertility results and a low cost in multiparous ewes of the Santa Ines breed.

  2. Use of reduced doses of eCG applied by different routes in the TAI program in Santa Ines sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Karla Dias Antunes-Melo; Veronaldo Souza de Oliveira; Anselmo Domingos Ferreira Santos; Claudio Alvarenga de Oliveira; Lícia Mendes Mendonça; Julianne Santiago Silva Goveia; Thiago Santos Almeida

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to improve the cost-benefit ratio of the application of artificial insemination in fixed time (TAI) by the transcervical route in sheep, to test the dosage reduction and the use of the vulvar submucosa (VSM) route as an alternative for the application of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) on the efficiency of the synchronization protocol and fertility to artificial insemination (AI) and to measure the level of cortisol in ewes as a result the application of this b...

  3. Effect of decoy-oligodeoxynucleotides on expression of inflammation mediators in pMΦ cells from rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    国华; 梁华平; 吕凤林; 徐祥; 安兵; 郝天智; 王付龙; 杨文军

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of decoy-oligodeoxynucleotides (decoy-ODNs) in dumbbell shape with the oligodeoxynucleotide sequence similar to nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) cis-elements on expression of inflammation mediators in pMΦ cells from rats.Methods: With carriers of cationic liposomes, decoy-ODNs were transfected into pMΦ cells of rats. Then the inhibiting effects of the decoy-ODNs on tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-10 were analyzed.Results: Decoy-ODNs could decrease the expression of TNFα and IL-6 in dose-dependent fashion but had weaker inhibiting effect on IL-10. Conclusions: Decoy-ODNs targeting NF-κB can decrease the expression of inflammatory mediators in pMΦ cells from rats.

  4. Enhancement of bcl-2 antisense oligodeoxynucleotide on γ-ray induced-apoptosis in malignant lymphoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate whether bcl-2 antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ASODN) could enhance 60Co γ-ray induced-apoptosis in malignant lymphoma cells. Methods: Cell apoptosis situation, cellular DNA contents and bcl-2 protein expression were determined by cell stain, TdT-mediated dUTP Nick-end Labeling (TUNEL) and flow cytometry. Results: One to 8 Gy γ-ray and 10-40 μmol/L bcl-2 ASODN could inhibit Raji cell growth and induce cell apoptosis. Assay of flow cytometry showed that the number of Sub-G1 cells was significantly increased and Bcl-2 protein expression in Raji cells was significantly downregulated, which showed time- and dose-dependent manners. The effects were more pronounced when γ-ray and bcl-2 ASODN were used together rather than either alone. Conclusion: Bcl-2 antisense oligodeoxynucleotide could enhance 60Co γ-ray induced-apoptosis in malignant lymphoma cells. (authors)

  5. Lipolysis and apoptosis of adipocytes induced by neuropeptide Y—Y5 receptor antisense oligodeoxynucleotides in obese rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONGHai-Xia; GUOXi-Rong; FEILi; GUOMei; LIUQian-Qi; CHENRong-Hua

    2003-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the influence of central administration of neuropeptide Y-Y5 receptor antisense oligodeoxynucleotides(ODN) on the body weight and fat pads of high-energy diet-induced obese rats, and the effects on white adipocyte lipolysis and apoptosis. METHODS: Y5 receptor antisense, sense, mismatched oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) or vehicle were intracerebroventricularly injected, and average adipocyte area was calculated. DNA ladders were measured to evaluate adipocyte apoptosis, and RT-PCR was used to analyze the expression of bcl-2 and bax gene. RESULTS: (1) Central administration of Y5 receptor antisense ODN significantly decreased body weight, fat pads, and average adipocyte area. (2) DNA fragmentation was presented after electrophoresis at both epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue. (3) The expression of bcl-2 gene was downregulated, while the expression of bax was upregulated. CONCLUSION:Lipolysis and adipocyte apoptosis may be important reasons for Y5 receptor antisense therapy.

  6. Incorporation of 2'-amido-nucleosides in oligodeoxynucleotides and oligoribonucleotides as a model for 2'-linked conjugates.

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrix, C.; Devreese, B.; Rozenski, J; Van Aerschot, A; Bruyn, A.; Van Beeumen, J.; Herdewijn, P

    1995-01-01

    The functionalisation of oligodeoxynucleotides and oligoribonucleotides by incorporation of 2'-amido-2'-deoxyribonucleosides, possibly containing a reporter group via the 2'-amido bond, was examined. Therefore 2'-acetamido-ribonucleosides containing a small methyl group at the 2'-amido bond were synthesized as model compounds. In order to evaluate the influence of this 2'-modification on the hybridization capacities, 2'-acetamido-2'-deoxyuridine was incorporated in both RNA and DNA strands. T...

  7. Detection and kinetic studies of triplex formation by oligodeoxynucleotides using real-time biomolecular interaction analysis (BIA).

    OpenAIRE

    Bates, P. J.; Dosanjh, H. S.; S. Kumar; Jenkins, T. C.; Laughton, C A; Neidle, S

    1995-01-01

    Real-time biomolecular interaction analysis (BIA) has been applied to triplex formation between oligodeoxynucleotides. 5'-Biotinylated oligonucleotides were immobilised on the streptavidin-coated surface of a biosensor chip and subsequently hybridised to their complementary strand. Sequence-specific triplex formation was observed when a suitable third-strand oligopyrimidine was injected over the surface-bound duplex. In addition, a single-stranded oligonucleotide immobilised on the chip surfa...

  8. In vivo treatment of human leukemia in a scid mouse model with c-myb antisense oligodeoxynucleotides.

    OpenAIRE

    Ratajczak, M Z; Kant, J A; Luger, S M; Hijiya, N.; Zhang, J; Zon, G; Gewirtz, A. M.

    1992-01-01

    The c-myb protooncogene encodes proteins that are critical for hematopoietic cell proliferation and development. Disrupting c-myb function might, therefore, prove an effective therapeutic strategy for controlling leukemic cell growth. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides have been utilized for this purpose in vitro, but their in vivo efficacy has not been reported. We therefore established human leukemia-scid mouse chimeras with K562 cells and treated diseased animals with phosphorothioate-modifie...

  9. A new usage of functionalized oligodeoxynucleotide probe for site-specific modification of a guanine base within RNA

    OpenAIRE

    Onizuka, Kazumitsu; Taniguchi, Yosuke; Sasaki, Shigeki

    2010-01-01

    Site-specific modification of RNA is of great significance to investigate RNA structure, function and dynamics. Recently, we reported a new method for sequence- and cytosine-selective chemical modification of RNA based on the functional group transfer reaction of the 1-phenyl-2-methylydene-1,3-diketone unit of the 6-thioguanosine base incorporated in the oligodeoxynucleotide probe. In this study, we describe that the functionality transfer rate is greatly enhanced and the selectivity is shift...

  10. Investigation of the Reactivity of Oligodeoxynucleotides with Glyoxal and KMnO4 Chemical Probes by Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Parr, Carol; Pierce, Sarah E.; Smith, Suncerae I.; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.

    2011-01-01

    The reactions of two well-known chemical probes, glyoxal and potassium permanganate (KMnO4), with oligodeoxynucleotides were monitored by electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry to evaluate the influence of the sequence of DNA, its secondary structure, and interactions with associated ligands on the reactivity of the two probes. Glyoxal, a guanine-reactive probe, incorporated a mass shift of 58 Da, and potassium permanganate (KMnO4) is a thymine-reactive probe that resulted in a mass ...

  11. Characterization of electrodeposited Ni–SiC–Cg nanocomposite coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Ni–SiC–Cg nanocomposite coating was deposited onto the St-37 substrate by electrodeposition method. ► From XRD, all of the coatings show high crystallinity degree. ► All the samples had a typical cluster like structures with the average crystallites size of 60 nm. ► Mechanical properties were improved with increasing of pH values up to 4.8 (593 HV). ► At pH equal to 4.8, Ni–SiC–Cg nanocomposite coating with suitable characteristics has been obtained. - Abstract: Nickel–silicon carbide–graphite (Ni–SiC–Cg) nanocomposite coating was deposited onto the steel (St-37) substrate by electrochemical plating method. The influence of pH parameter on the mechanical properties and morphological features was studied. The coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Elemental mapping analysis system, and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) techniques. Besides, the microhardness of specimens was measured by Micro hardness Tester. Based on XRD results, the dominant phases with high crystallinity degree were nickel, silicon carbide and graphite. Microscopic observations illustrated that all the coatings had a cluster like structures which consisted of some fine sphere particles with an average crystallites size of 60 nm. Among of all coatings, the specimen at pH equal to 4.8 presented an appropriate morphology as well as lower porosity with high grain boundaries. Moreover, elemental mapping spectra exhibited a homogenous distribution of nickel, silicon and carbon particles. However, the distribution of silicon particles into nickel matrix at pH = 4.8 was higher than the other samples. Also, mechanical properties of the attained coatings were improved with increasing of pH values up to 4.8 (593 HV) which is in agreement with microstructural characteristics. Therefore, obtaining of the optimum pH value is the major parameter in

  12. Effects of eCG and FSH on ovarian response, recovery rate and number and quality of oocytes obtained by ovum pick-up in Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendag, Sait; Cetin, Yunus; Alan, Muhammet; Hadeler, Klaus-Gerd; Niemann, Heiner

    2008-06-01

    The goal of the present study was to compare the ovarian response, oocyte yields per animal, and the morphological quality of oocytes collected by ultrasound guided follicular aspiration from Holstein cows treated either with FSH or eCG. Twenty four normal cyclic, German Holstein cows were randomly divided into two groups. Fourteen cows received 3000 IU eCG on day-4 prior to ovum pick-up (OPU) (day 0), 2 days later (day-2), 625 microg cloprostenol was administered. On day-1 GnRH was administered i.m. and 24h later OPU (day 0) was performed. In ten cows a total dose of 500 IU follicle stimulating hormone (Pluset) was administered intramuscularly in a constant dosage for 4 days with intervals of 12h, starting on day-5. Luteolysis was induced by application of 625 microg cloprostenol on day-2. On day-1 (24h after the last FSH treatment) GnRH was administered i.m. and 24h later OPU (day 0) was performed. Ovarian follicles were visualized on the ultrasound monitor, counted and recorded. All visible antral follicles were punctured. Recovered oocytes were graded morphologically based on the cumulus investment. Average follicle number in ovaries was higher in FSH group than eCG group (pgrade A oocytes was higher in the FSH group in the than eCG group (pgrade C oocytes in FSH group were lower than eCG group (povaries and oocyte quality are affected by the type of gonadotropin and FSH is better alternative than eCG for OPU treatment. PMID:18294785

  13. Dengue-1 envelope protein domain III along with PELC and CpG oligodeoxynucleotides synergistically enhances immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yi Chiang

    Full Text Available The major weaknesses of subunit vaccines are their low immunogenicity and poor efficacy. Adjuvants can help to overcome some of these inherent defects with subunit vaccines. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of the newly developed water-in-oil-in-water multiphase emulsion system, termed PELC, in potentiating the protective capacity of dengue-1 envelope protein domain III. Unlike aluminum phosphate, dengue-1 envelope protein domain III formulated with PELC plus CpG oligodeoxynucleotides induced neutralizing antibodies against dengue-1 virus and increased the splenocyte secretion of IFN-γ after in vitro re-stimulation. The induced antibodies contained both the IgG1 and IgG2a subclasses. A rapid anamnestic neutralizing antibody response against a live dengue virus challenge was elicited at week 26 after the first immunization. These results demonstrate that PELC plus CpG oligodeoxynucleotides broaden the dengue-1 envelope protein domain III-specific immune responses. PELC plus CpG oligodeoxynucleotides is a promising adjuvant for recombinant protein based vaccination against dengue virus.

  14. Timing of IUI Treatment after hCG Administration 1-48 h Affecting Pregnancy Rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan YANG; Zu-mei SHI; Hui JIN; Li-ping ZHU; Kun-ming LI; Jian-zhi YANG; Zhi-qin CHEN; Xiao-ming TENG; Hui-fen CHEN; Yu WANG

    2008-01-01

    Objective To compare the different time of administration of hCG affecting pregnancy rate of IUI. Methods A total of 189 infertile couples underwent 331 cycles of IUI with husband’s sperm.They were separated into 3 groups according to the time of hCG administration in IUI:hCG 1-23 h(group A):hCG 24-36 h (group B);hCG 37—48 h(group C). Results There were no statistical differences among 3 groups.None of the other relative factors,such as the female age,the different methods of ovulation and the cause of infertility,showed differences in pregnancy rate among 3 groups. Conclusion IUI can be performed any time after administration of hCG(1—48 h).

  15. [Follicular dynamics after treatment with hCG for ovulation induction in mares].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollwein, H; Braun, J

    1999-02-01

    In this study the use of hCG for induction of ovulation is described. Factors such as follicle diameter at the time of administration of hCG (3000 IE hCG i.v.), follicular growth after hCG and the rate of double ovulations were evaluated. A total of 168 mares presented for artificial insemination were used. In 249 estrous periods hCG was given to mares exhibiting standing estrous when a minimum follicle diameter of 30 mm and a well developed edema of the endometrium could be detected by ultrasonography. In nine estrous periods ovulation occurred within 24 hours after hCG. The majority of mares (216; 86.7%) ovulated 24 to 48 hours after hCG and in 24 cases ovulation was delayed beyond 48 hours. Follicle size at the time of hCG administration (30-34 mm, 35-39 mm, > or = 40 mm) had no influence on the percentage of mares ovulating 24 to 48 hours after hCG (89.2%, 87.9%, and 83.7%, respectively). Double ovulations could be observed in 17.7% of estrous periods. The one cycle pregnancy rate was not influenced by follicle size (small 45.9%; medium 41.6%; large 47.5%). Repeated treatments with hCG during successive estrous cycles within one year did not influence the rate of responding to hCG. Mares in standing estrous respond well to hCG if a minimum follicle size of 30 mm and a well developed endometrial folding is present. PMID:10077815

  16. Effect of C-myc Antisense Oligodeoxynucleotides on Hypoxia-induced Proliferation of Pulmonary Vascular Pericytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    To study the effect of c-myc antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) on proliferation of pulmonary vascular pericytes (PC) induced by hypoxia, cell culture, dot hybridization using probe of digoxigenin-11-dUTP-labeled cDNA,3H-thymidine incorporation, immunocytochemical technique and image analysis methods were used to observe the effect of c-myc antisense ODNs on expression of c-myc gene and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and 3H-thymidine incorporation of PC induced by hypoxia. The results showed that hypoxia could significantly enhance the expression of c-myc and PCNA (P<0.01), and elevate 3H-thymidine incorporation of PC (P<0.01), but antisense ODNs could significantly inhibit the expression of c-myc and PCNA (P<0.05), and 3H-thymidine incorporation of PC (P<0.01). It was suggested that hypoxia could promote the proliferation of PC by up-regulating the expression of c-myc gene, but c-myc antisense ODNs could inhibit hypoxia-induced proliferation of PC by downregulating the expression of c-myc gene.

  17. Combination of cyclophosphamide, rituximab, and intratumoral CpG oligodeoxynucleotide successfully eradicates established B cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betting, David J; Hurvitz, Sara A; Steward, Kristopher K; Yamada, Reiko E; Kafi, Kamran; van Rooijen, Nico; Timmerman, John M

    2012-09-01

    Rituximab plus chemotherapy is standard therapy for patients with non-Hodgkin B cell lymphoma, but often complete response or cure is not achieved. Toll-like receptor 9 agonist CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG) can improve antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and adaptive antitumor immune responses. Using a syngeneic murine B cell lymphoma expressing human CD20 (38C13-huCD20), we previously demonstrated that rituximab plus intratumoral CpG, but not systemic CpG, could eradicate up to half of 7-day established 38C13-huCD20 tumors. However, larger 10-day established tumors could not be cured with this regimen. We thus hypothesized that cytoreduction with cyclophosphamide (Cy) before immunotherapy might permit eradication of these more advanced tumor burdens. Pretreatment with Cy resulted in tumor eradication from 83% of animals treated with rituximab/CpG, whereas Cy/CpG or Cy/rituximab treatments only cured 30% or 17%, respectively (P<0.005). Tumor eradication depended on natural killer cells, but not T cells, macrophages, or complement. Only mice treated with Cy/rituximab/CpG partially resisted rechallenge with tumor cells. Foxp3 Treg and CD11bGr1 myeloid suppressor cells persisted within lymphoid organs after therapy, possibly influencing the ability to establish adaptive tumor immunity. In conclusion, cytoreduction with Cy permitted the cure of large, established lymphomas not otherwise responsive to rituximab plus intratumoral CpG immunotherapy. PMID:22892450

  18. Double-stranded RNA transcribed from vector-based oligodeoxynucleotide acts as transcription factor decoy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A shRNA vector based transcription factor decoy, VB-ODN, was designed. • VB-ODN for NF-κB inhibited cell viability in HEK293 cells. • VB-ODN inhibited expression of downstream genes of target transcription factors. • VB-ODN may enhance nuclear entry ratio for its feasibility of virus production. - Abstract: In this study, we designed a short hairpin RNA vector-based oligodeoxynucleotide (VB-ODN) carrying transcription factor (TF) consensus sequence which could function as a decoy to block TF activity. Specifically, VB-ODN for Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) could inhibit cell viability and decrease downstream gene expression in HEK293 cells without affecting expression of NF-κB itself. The specific binding between VB-ODN produced double-stranded RNA and NF-κB was evidenced by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Moreover, similar VB-ODNs designed for three other TFs also inhibit their downstream gene expression but not that of themselves. Our study provides a new design of decoy for blocking TF activity

  19. Use of oligodeoxynucleotide signature probes for identification of physiological groups of methylotrophic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oligodeoxynucleotide sequences that uniquely complemented 16S rRNAs of each group of methylotrophs were synthesized and used as hybridization probes for the identification of methylotrophic bacteria possessing the serine and ribulose monophosphate (RuMP) pathways for formaldehyde fixation. The specificity of the probes was determined by hybridizing radiolabeled probes with slot-blotted RNAs of methylotrophs and other eubacteria followed by autoradiography. The washing temperature was determined experimentally to be 50 and 52 degrees C for 9-α (serine pathway) and 10-γ (RuMP pathway) probes, respectively. RNAs isolated from serine pathway methylotrophs bound to probe 9-α, and RNAs from RuMP pathway methylotrophs bound to probe 10-γ. Nonmethylotrophic eubacterial RNAs did not bind to either probe. The probes were also labeled with fluorescent dyes. Cells fixed to microscope slides were hybridized with these probes, washed, and examined in a fluorescence microscope equipped with appropriate filter sets. Cells of methylotrophic bacteria possessing the serine or RuMP pathway specifically bind probes designed for each group. Samples with a mixture of cells of type I and II methanotrophs were detected and differentiated with single probes or mixed probes labeled with different fluorescent dyes, which enabled the detection of both types of cells in the same microscopic field

  20. Employment of Oligodeoxynucleotide plus Interleukin-2 Improves Cytogenetic Analysis in Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Bardi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To compare the efficiency of novel mitogenic agents and traditional mitosis inductors, 18 patients with splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL were studied. Three cultures using oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN plus interleukin-2 (IL-2, or TPA, or LPS were setup in each patient. Seventeen/18 cases with ODN+IL2 had moderate/good proliferation (94,4% as compared with 10/18 cases with TPA and LPS (55% (P=.015; 14/18 (77,7% cases with ODN+IL2 had sufficient good quality of banding as compared with 8/18 cases (44,4% with TPA and LPS. The karyotype could be defined from ODN+IL2-stimulated cultures in all 18 patients, 14 of whom (77,7% had a cytogenetic aberration, whereas clonal aberrations could be documented in 9 and in 3 cases by stimulation with LPS and TPA, respectively. Recurrent chromosome aberrations in our series were represented by aberrations of chromosome 14q in 5 patients, by trisomy 12 and 7q deletion in 4 cases each, and by abnormalities involving 11q and 13q in two cases each. These findings show that stimulation with ODN+IL2 offers more mitotic figures of better quality and results in an increased rate of clonal aberrations in SMZL, making this method ideal for prospective studies aiming at the definition of the prognostic impact of cytogenetic aberrations in this disorder.

  1. An Oligodeoxynucleotide with Promising Modulation Activity for the Proliferation and Activation of Osteoblast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua Sun

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper explored the regulatory role of oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs with specific sequences in the proliferation and activation of osteoblast, using human osteoblast-like cell line MG 63 as the model. Through the administration of ODNs to MG 63 cells at a concentration of 1.0 µg/mL, ODN MT01 with positive effects on proliferation and activation of osteoblast was selected from 11 different ODNs by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT assay and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity measurement. To get a deeper insight into the molecular mechanism, effects of ODN MT01 treatment on the expression level of Sp7, runx-2, collagen-I, osteoprotegerin (OPG and RANK ligand (RANKL were determined using quantitative real time PCR and Western blotting. Remarkably, the mRNA and protein expression levels of Sp7, runx-2, collagen-I and OPG were improved after ODN MT01 treatment. Meanwhile, the protein expression level of RANKL was dramatically decreased. These results suggested that ODN MT01 had a significant impact in facilitating osteogenic proliferation and activation, and provided a direct evidence for the notion that single strand ODN could regulate the balance of bone formation and resorption, and thus was of great potential in the rebuilding of alveolar bone.

  2. CpG oligodeoxynucleotides as TLR9 agonists: therapeutic applications in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad, Yanal M; Clay, Timothy M

    2009-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are part of the innate immune system, and they belong to the pattern recognition receptors (PRR) family. The PRR family is designed to recognize and bind conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns, which are not generated by the host and are restricted and essential to micro-organisms. TLR9, which recognizes unmethylated CpG (cytosine guanosine dinucleotide), is a very promising target for therapeutic activation. Stimulation of TLR9 activates human plasmacytoid dendritic cells and B cells, and results in potent T helper-1 (T(h)1)-type immune responses and antitumor responses in mouse tumor models and in patients. Several pharmaceutical companies, such as Pfizer, Idera, and Dynavax, are developing CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) for the treatment of cancer, along with other conditions, such as infections and allergy. CpG ODNs have shown promising results as vaccine adjuvants and in combination with cancer immunotherapy. Several TLR9 agonists are being developed and have entered clinical trials to evaluate their safety and efficacy for the treatment of several hematopoietic and solid tumors. In this review, we discuss the use of CpG ODNs in several phase I and II clinical trials for the treatment of NHL, renal cell carcinoma, melanoma, and non-small cell lung cancer, either alone or in combination with other agents. PMID:19894778

  3. Double-stranded RNA transcribed from vector-based oligodeoxynucleotide acts as transcription factor decoy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Xiao [State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Xijing Hospital of Digestive Diseases, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710032, Shaanxi Province (China); Gang, Yi [State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Xijing Hospital of Digestive Diseases, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710032, Shaanxi Province (China); Department of Infectious Diseases, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710038, Shaanxi Province (China); Wang, Honghong [No. 518 Hospital of Chinese People’s Liberation Army, Xi’an 710043, Shaanxi Province (China); Wang, Jiayin [The Genome Institute, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63108 (United States); Zhao, Lina [Department of Radiation Oncology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710032, Shaanxi Province (China); Xu, Li, E-mail: lxuhelen@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Xijing Hospital of Digestive Diseases, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710032, Shaanxi Province (China); Liu, Zhiguo, E-mail: liuzhiguo@fmmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Xijing Hospital of Digestive Diseases, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710032, Shaanxi Province (China)

    2015-02-06

    Highlights: • A shRNA vector based transcription factor decoy, VB-ODN, was designed. • VB-ODN for NF-κB inhibited cell viability in HEK293 cells. • VB-ODN inhibited expression of downstream genes of target transcription factors. • VB-ODN may enhance nuclear entry ratio for its feasibility of virus production. - Abstract: In this study, we designed a short hairpin RNA vector-based oligodeoxynucleotide (VB-ODN) carrying transcription factor (TF) consensus sequence which could function as a decoy to block TF activity. Specifically, VB-ODN for Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) could inhibit cell viability and decrease downstream gene expression in HEK293 cells without affecting expression of NF-κB itself. The specific binding between VB-ODN produced double-stranded RNA and NF-κB was evidenced by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Moreover, similar VB-ODNs designed for three other TFs also inhibit their downstream gene expression but not that of themselves. Our study provides a new design of decoy for blocking TF activity.

  4. Impact of prophylactic CpG Oligodeoxynucleotide application on implant-associated Staphylococcus aureus bone infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Shneh; Thormann, Ulrich; Sommer, Ursula; Stötzel, Sabine; Mohamed, Walid; Schnettler, Reinhard; Domann, Eugen; Chakraborty, Trinad; Alt, Volker

    2015-09-01

    TLR-9 ligand CpG oligodeoxynucleotide type B (CpG ODN) induces a proinflammatory environment. We evaluated the effects of a preoperative CpG ODN application in an implant-associated Staphylococcus aureus bone infection model by monitoring bacterial loads and cytokine and chemokine levels. A total of 95 rats were used in four different groups: CpG ODN group (group 1; n=25), non-CpG-ODN group (group 2; n=25); saline pretreatment (group 3; n=25), and one uninfected group (group 4; n=20). A single dose of CpG-ODN was administered to the left tibialis anterior muscle 3days prior to surgery and the tibia midshaft was osteotomized, stabilized by an intramedullary implant and subsequently contaminated with 10(3) colony forming units (CFUs) of S. aureus in groups 1-3. The osteotomy gap in animals of group 4 was not contaminated with S. aureus and those animals did not receive any pretreatment. CpG ODN administration resulted in significant reduction of the bacterial load in tibia tissue homogenate and on the implant surface on day 1 post-infection compared to non-CpG-ODN pretreatment (pmodel, prophylactic administration of a single dose of CpG ODN, resulted in marked reduction of S. aureus load in the infected tibia during the initial stage of infection but failed to prevent development of chronic infection over time. PMID:25959416

  5. An oligodeoxynucleotide with CCT repeats restrains CpG ODN-induced TLR9 trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoling; Sun, Wei; Wu, Xiuli; Wang, Hua; Yan, Youyou; Guo, Sheng; Song, Dandan; Li, Hainan; Gao, Shuang; Wang, Luowei; Yu, Yongli; Wang, Liying

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) can sense pathogen DNA and CpG ODN or even self-DNA by trafficking assisted by Unc93B1, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) transmembrane protein, from ER to endolysosomes or cell surface. In previous study, we found that an oligodeoxynucleotide with CCT repeats (SAT05f) could selectively inhibit TLR7/9 activation. However, the mechanism for the inhibitory activity of SAT05f is still unknown. In present research, it was found that SAT05f could inhibit CpG ODN-induced the intracellular trafficking of TLR9 and Unc93B1 with feedback the responses of decreased surface TLR9 and enhanced TLR9 mRNA expression but not influence TLR9 protein level by using human plasmacytoid dendritic cell line CAL-1 cells, suggesting that SAT05f inhibits TLR9 activation by restraining TLR9 trafficking. Since the mitochondrial DNA released from injured tissue can cause systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), this study may provide valuable data for prevention and treatment of SIRS and rescue severe trauma patients. PMID:25374030

  6. VaccineDA: Prediction, design and genome-wide screening of oligodeoxynucleotide-based vaccine adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, Gandharva; Gupta, Sudheer; Chaudhary, Kumardeep; Dhanda, Sandeep Kumar; Prakash, Satya; Raghava, Gajendra P S

    2015-01-01

    Immunomodulatory oligodeoxynucleotides (IMODNs) are the short DNA sequences that activate the innate immune system via toll-like receptor 9. These sequences predominantly contain unmethylated CpG motifs. In this work, we describe VaccineDA (Vaccine DNA adjuvants), a web-based resource developed to design IMODN-based vaccine adjuvants. We collected and analyzed 2193 experimentally validated IMODNs obtained from the literature. Certain types of nucleotides (e.g., T, GT, TC, TT, CGT, TCG, TTT) are dominant in IMODNs. Based on these observations, we developed support vector machine-based models to predict IMODNs using various compositions. The developed models achieved the maximum Matthews Correlation Coefficient (MCC) of 0.75 with an accuracy of 87.57% using the pentanucleotide composition. The integration of motif information further improved the performance of our model from the MCC of 0.75 to 0.77. Similarly, models were developed to predict palindromic IMODNs and attained a maximum MCC of 0.84 with the accuracy of 91.94%. These models were evaluated using a five-fold cross-validation technique as well as validated on an independent dataset. The models developed in this study were integrated into VaccineDA to provide a wide range of services that facilitate the design of DNA-based vaccine adjuvants (http://crdd.osdd.net/raghava/vaccineda/). PMID:26212482

  7. Irradiation of Human Prostate Cancer Cells Increases Uptake of Antisense Oligodeoxynucleotide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate whether irradiation before antisense Bcl-2 oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) administration enhances tissue uptake, and whether periodic dosing enhances cellular uptake of fluorescently labeled ODN relative to constant dosing. Methods and Materials: PC-3-Bcl-2 cells (prostate cancer cell line engineered to overexpress Bcl-2) were subjected to increasing doses of irradiation (0-10 Gy) with or without increasing concentrations of fluorescently labeled antisense Bcl-2 ODN (G4243). The fluorescent signal intensity was quantified as the total grain area with commercial software. In addition, PC-3-Bcl-2 subcutaneous xenograft tumors were treated with or without irradiation in combination with various dosing schemas of G4243. The uptake of fluorescent G4243 in tumors was quantitated. Results: The uptake of G4243 was increased in prostate cancer cells exposed to low doses of irradiation both in vitro and in vivo. Irradiation before G4243 treatment resulted in increased fluorescent signal intensity in xenograft tumors compared with those irradiated after G4243 treatment. A single weekly dose of G4243 produced higher G4243 uptake in xenograft tumors than daily dosing, even when the total dose administered per week was held constant. Conclusions: These findings suggest that ionizing radiation increases the uptake of therapeutic ODN in target tissues and, thus, has potential to increase the efficacy of ODN in clinical applications

  8. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor expression in U937 foam cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGPeng-Yuan; RUIYao-Cheng; JINYou-Xin; LITie-Jun; QIUYan; ZHANGLi; WANGJie-Song

    2003-01-01

    AIM:To study the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induced by oxidized low density liprotein (ox-LDL) and the inhibitory effects of antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (asODN) on the levels of VEGF protein and mRNA in the U937 foam cells. METHODS: U937 cells were incubated with ox-LDL 80 mg/L for 48h, then ,the foam cells were treated with asODN (0,5,10, and 20μmol/L). The VEGF concentration in the media was determined by ELISA. The VEGF protein expression level in cells was measured by immuohistochemistry; the positive ratio detected by a morphometrical analysis system was used as the amount of the VEGF expression level. The VEGF mRNA level was examined by Northern blotting. RESULTS: After U937 cells were incubated with ox-LDL, VEGF expression level increased greatly both in the cells and in the media. asODN markeldy inhibited the increase of VEGF. After treatment with asODN 20μmol/L, the VEGF protein concentration in the media decreased by 45.0%, the VEGF positive ratio detected by immuohistochemistry in cells decreased by 64.9%, and the VEGF mRNA level decreased by 47.1%. CONCLUSION: The expression of VEGF in U937 foam cells was strong. asODN inhibited VEGF expression significantly in U937 foam cells in vitro.

  9. Development of CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides for effective activation of rabbit TLR9 mediated immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Hsien Chuang

    Full Text Available CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN are potent immune stimuli being developed for use as adjuvants in different species. Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9 is the cellular receptor for CpG-ODN in mammalian cells. The CpG-ODN with 18-24 deoxynucleotides that are in current use for human and mouse cells, however, have low activity with rabbit TLR9. Using a cell-based activation assay, we developed a type of CpG-ODN containing a GACGTT or AACGTT motif in 12 phosphorothioate-modified deoxynucleotides with potent stimulatory activity for rabbit TLR9. The developed CpG-ODN have higher activities than other developed CpG-ODN in eliciting antigen-nonspecific immune responses in rabbit splenocytes. When mixed with an NJ85 peptide derived from rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus, they had potent activities to boost an antigen-specific T cell activation and antibody production in rabbits. Compared to Freund's adjuvant, the developed CpG-ODN are capable of boosting a potent and less toxic antibody response. The results of this study suggest that both the choice of CpG-motif and its length are important factors for CpG-ODN to effectively activate rabbit TLR9 mediated immune responses.

  10. The Study on Immunological Response of Long-term Release System hCG Microsphere in C57 Black Mouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜晓岩; 王健; 徐万祥; 朱康杰; 蒋宏亮; 刘世范

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the study of the immunological response of C57 Black mouse to hCG by multiple inoculations with hCG and single injection with a long-term release system of hCG/poly (lactide co-glycolide ) microsphere (hCG/PGLA ). Three parameters including 1) the dynamic variation of hCG antibody titres , 2) the capacity of biological neutralization by hCG antibodies in vitro and in vivo, and 3 ) assay of the binding affinity constants of hCG antibodies, are compared. The results showed that the single injection with hCG/PGLA was capable of producing high titres of anti-hCG antibodies. The analyses of three parameters of antisera from C57 Black mouse shozoed that the properties of the antisera elicited using a single injection with hCG/PGLA were generally similar to those of the antisera raised by the multiple inoculations with hCG, and concentration of the antibodies was directly proportional to hCG bioneutralization capacity. Meanwhile, all of these results suggest us that a further long-term release system of β-hCG/PGLA as a vaccine may substitute for conventional vaccine and it also provides a new convenient inoculative method for widespread clinical application and research of hCG vaccine and other vaccines.

  11. Reference ranges and determinants of total hCG levels during pregnancy: the Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.I.M. Korevaar (Tim); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); Y.B. de Rijke (Yolanda); S. Schalekamp-Timmermans (S.); W. Visser (Willy); A. Hofman (Albert); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); T.J. Visser (Theo); M. Medici (Marco); R.P. Peeters (Robin)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractHuman chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a pregnancy hormone secreted by the placental synctiotrophoblast cell layer that has been linked to fetal growth and various placental, uterine and fetal functions. In order to investigate the effects of hCG on clinical endpoints, knowledge on refere

  12. Association between the ADRA2A 1291 C/G polymorphism and the metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Risselada, Arne; Vehof, Jelle; Bruggeman, Richard; Wilffert, Bob; Cohen, Dan; Al Hadithy, Asmar F.; Arends, Johan; Mulder, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Background: Studies have found an association between the ADRA2A 1291 C/G polymorphism and antipsychoticinduced weight gain. A possible association with the metabolic syndrome has not been studied. Objectives: To investigate the association between the ADRA2A 1291 C/G polymorphism and the metabolic

  13. 33 CFR Appendix A to Part 105 - Facility Vulnerability and Security Measures Summary (Form CG-6025)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Security Measures Summary (Form CG-6025) A Appendix A to Part 105 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES Pt. 105, App. A Appendix A to Part 105—Facility Vulnerability and Security Measures Summary (Form CG-6025)...

  14. Improved pregnancy rate with administration of hCG after intrauterine insemination: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martikainen Hannu

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In natural cycles, women conceive when intercourse takes place during a six-day period ending on the day of ovulation. The current practice in intrauterine insemination (IUI cycles is to perform the IUI 24-36 hours after the hCG administration, when the ovulation is already imminent. In this study hCG was administered after the IUI, which more closely resembles the fertilisation process in natural cycles. Methods All the IUIs performed since the beginning of 2007 were analysed retrospectively. Our standard protocol has been to perform the IUI 24-32 hours after hCG administration. From the end of 2008, we started to inject hCG after the IUI at random. The main outcome measure was the result of a urinary pregnancy test. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE was used to identify independent factors affecting the cycle outcome. Results The analysis included 228 cycles with hCG administered before and 104 cycles hCG administered after the IUI. The pregnancy rates were 10.9% and 19.6% (P = 0.040, respectively. Independent factors (OR, 95% CI affecting the cycle outcome were sperm count (2.65, 1.20-5.81, number of follicles > 16 mm at IUI (2.01, 1.07-3.81 and the time of hCG administration (2.21, 1.16-4.19. Conclusion Improved pregnancy rate was observed with administration of hCG after IUI.

  15. Cg-SoxE and Cg-β-catenin, two new potential actors of the sex-determining pathway in a hermaphrodite lophotrochozoan, the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santerre, Christelle; Sourdaine, Pascal; Adeline, Béatrice; Martinez, Anne-Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Sex determination is poorly known in mollusks, lophotrochozoa and most hermaphrodites. In the oyster Crassostrea gigas, an irregular successive hermaphrodite, sex determination may occur at the end of a gametogenetic cycle to prepare the next cycle. To investigate further into these aspects we have focused on orthologs of SoxE and β-catenin, key players of the male and female gonadic differentiation respectively in mammals. Based on phylogenetic analyses, Cg-SoxE, the oyster's SoxE ortholog, is closely related to vertebrate SoxE genes while Cg-β-catenin, the oyster's β-catenin ortholog, is classified amongst lophotrochozoa. The mRNA expression measured by qPCR in the gonadic area during a gametogenetic cycle is maximal for Cg-SoxE when sex is indiscernible and for Cg-β-catenin in mature females. Both expressions are localized from early germ cells to spermatocytes and pre-vitellogenic oocytes, and potentially in somatic cells. Cg-β-catenin is also expressed in vitellogenic oocytes. These actors may be involved in early oyster gonadic differentiation, which includes sex determination. Our results enhance the understanding of sex determination in C. gigas and in mollusks and they provide additional knowledge in compared genomics of reproduction and in molecular phylogeny. PMID:24120488

  16. Comparison of Transition Metal-Mediated Oxidation Reactions of Guanine in Nucleoside and Single-Stranded Oligodeoxynucleotide Contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Ghude, Pranjali; Schallenberger, Mark A.; Fleming, Aaron M.; Muller, James G.; Burrows, Cynthia J.

    2011-01-01

    As the most readily oxidized of DNA’s four natural bases, guanine is a prime target for attack by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and transition metal-mediated oxidants. The oxidation products of a modified guanosine nucleoside and of a single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotide, 5′-d(TTTTTTTGTTTTTTT)-3′ have been studied using oxidants that include CoII, NiII, and IrIV compounds as well as photochemically generated oxidants such as sulphate radical, electron-transfer agents (riboflavin) and singlet ...

  17. Expression of Toll-like receptor 9 and response to bacterial CpG oligodeoxynucleotides in human intestinal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, G; Andresen, Lars; Matthiessen, M W; Rask-Madsen, J; Brynskov, J

    2005-01-01

    cultures were stimulated with a synthetic CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN), exhibiting strong immunostimulatory effects in B cells. Interleukin (IL)-8 secretion was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kB) activity by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and Ik......-8, apparently in the absence of NF-kB activation. Primary epithelial cells isolated from normal human colon expressed TLR9 mRNA, but were completely unresponsive to CpG-ODN stimulation in vitro. In conclusion, differentiated human colonic epithelial cells are unresponsive to TLR9 ligand stimulation...

  18. CpG Oligodeoxynucleotide and Montanide ISA 51 Adjuvant Combination Enhanced the Protective Efficacy of a Subunit Malaria Vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Sanjai; Jones, Trevor R.; Oakley, Miranda S.; Zheng, Hong; Shanmuga P Kuppusamy; Taye, Alem; Krieg, Arthur M.; Stowers, Anthony W; Kaslow, David C.; Hoffman, Stephen L.

    2004-01-01

    Unmethylated CpG dinucleotide motifs present in bacterial genomes or synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) serve as strong immunostimulatory agents in mice, monkeys and humans. We determined the adjuvant effect of murine CpG ODN 1826 on the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae-expressed 19-kDa C-terminal region of merozoite surface protein 1 (yMSP119) of the murine malaria parasite Plasmodium yoelii. We found that in C57BL/6 mice, following sporozoite challe...

  19. Immunostimulatory oligodeoxynucleotides containing the CpG motif are effective as immune adjuvants in tumor antigen immunization

    OpenAIRE

    Weiner, George J; Liu, Hsin-Ming; Wooldridge, James E.; Dahle, Christopher E.; Krieg, Arthur M.

    1997-01-01

    Recent advances in our understanding of the immune response are allowing for the logical design of new approaches to cancer immunization. One area of interest is the development of new immune adjuvants. Immunostimulatory oligodeoxynucleotides containing the CpG motif (CpG ODN) can induce production of a wide variety of cytokines and activate B cells, monocytes, dendritic cells, and NK cells. Using the 38C13 B cell lymphoma model, we assessed whether CpG ODN can function as immune adjuvants in...

  20. The significance of the serum CG level of 2 hours after meal in hyperthyroid patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To observe the liver condition of hyperthyroid patients with different course of disease, the levels of serum CG over night fasting and of 2 hours after meal in 132 hyperthyroid patients and 50 normal persons were measured by RIA. Hyperthyroid patients were divided into 3 groups by their different course of disease. For normal persons and the group whose course of disease within half year there was no significant difference in CG levels of fasting and 2 hours after meal. For the group whose course of disease in period of 0.5-2 years the CG level of 2 hours after meal were over the normal range (P<0.01), but no difference was found in CG level of fasting. For the group whose course of disease over 2 years, the CG levels of fasting and 2 hours after meal were all over the normal range (P<0.01, P<0.001), CG level of the 2 hours after meal was much higher. The results suggested that CG level measured 2 hours after meal was more sensitive than that after over night fasting in hyperthyroid patients with hepatocellular damage, and the damage degree paralleled to their courses of disease

  1. Therapeutic applications of synthetic CpG oligodeoxynucleotides as TLR9 agonists for immune modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurk, Marion; Vollmer, Jörg

    2007-01-01

    Vertebrate toll-like receptors (TLRs) sense invading pathogens by recognizing bacterial and viral structures and, as a result, activate innate and adaptive immune responses. Ten human functional TLRs have been reported so far; three of these (TLR7, 8, and 9) are expressed in intracellular compartments and respond to single-stranded nucleic acids as natural ligands. The pathogen structure selectively recognized by TLR9 in bacterial or viral DNA was identified to be CpG dinucleotides in specific sequence contexts (CpG motifs). Short phosphorothioate-stabilized oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) containing such motifs are used as synthetic TLR9 agonists, and different classes of ODN TLR9 agonists have been identified with distinct immune modulatory profiles. The TLR9-mediated activation of the vertebrate immune system suggests using such TLR9 agonists as effective vaccine adjuvants for infectious disease, and for the treatment of cancer and asthma/allergy. Immune activation by CpG ODNs has been demonstrated to be beneficial in animal models as a vaccine adjuvant and for the treatment of a variety of viral, bacterial, and parasitic diseases. Antitumor activity of CpG ODNs has also been established in numerous mouse models. In clinical vaccine trials in healthy human volunteers or in immunocompromised HIV-infected patients, CpG ODNs strongly enhanced vaccination efficiency. Most encouraging results in the treatment of cancers have come from human phase I and II clinical trials using CpG ODNs as a tumor vaccine adjuvant, monotherapy, or in combination with chemotherapy. Therefore, CpG ODNs represent targeted immune modulatory drugs with a broad range of potential applications. PMID:18020622

  2. Preparation of oligodeoxynucleotide encapsulated cationic liposomes and release study with models of cellular membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamaddon AM.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Cationic liposomes are used for cellular delivery of antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (AsODN, where release of encapsulated AsODN is mainly controlled by endocytosis and fusion mechanisms. In this investigation, it was tried to model such a release process that is difficult to evaluate in cell culture. For this purpose, an AsODN model (against protein kinase C-α was encapsulated in a DODAP-containing cationic liposome and evaluated for size, zeta-potential, encapsulation and ODN stability. Vesicular models of outer layer and total plasma membranes and early and late endosomal membranes were developed, based on lipid content and pH, using ether injection method. ODN release was determined by the fluorescence dequenching of encapsulated FITC-ODN. Zeta potential, size and ODN encapsulation efficiency of the prepared liposomes were -2.49 ± 7.15 mV, 108.4 nm and 73% respectively. ODN protection was 3-4 times more than that of conventional liposome/ODN complexation method. There was a correlation between model concentration and percent of ODN release. At 7.5 µM, the percent of released ODN was 76% for the cholesterol-free model of the late endosome and 16% for the early endosomal membrane; while the release was less than 11% for the models of plasma membrane. ODN release increased with temperature in the range of 4-37◦C for the late endosomal model, but not for others, possibly due to their high cholesterol contents or acidic pH. The interaction was fast and completed within 5 minutes and didn’t change in the range of 5-60 minutes. Our data are in agreement with published cell culture studies and reveal that cell-liposomes interaction can be modeled by lamellar membranes.

  3. CpG-Oligodeoxynucleotide Treatment Protects against Ionizing Radiation-Induced Intestine Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Zhang

    Full Text Available the bone marrow and the intestine are the major sites of ionizing radiation (IR-induced injury. Our previous study demonstrated that CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN treatment mitigated IR-induced bone marrow injury, but its effect on the intestine is not known. In this study, we sought to determine if CpG-ODN have protective effect on IR-induced intestine injury, and if so, to determine the mechanism of its effect.Mice were treated with CpG-ODN after IR. The body weight and survival were daily monitored for 30 days consecutively after exposure. The number of surviving intestinal crypt was assessed by the microcolony survival assay. The number and the distribution of proliferating cell in crypt were evaluated by TUNEL assay and BrdU assay. The expression of Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3 in crypt were analyzed by Immunohistochemistry assay. The findings showed that the treatment for irradiated mice with CpG-ODN diminished body weight loss, improved 30 days survival, enhanced intestinal crypts survival and maintained proliferating cell population and regeneration in crypt. The reason might involve that CpG-ODN up-regulated the expression of Bcl-2 protein and down-regulated the expression of Bax protein and caspase-3 protein.CpG-ODN was effective in protection of IR-induced intestine injury by enhancing intestinal crypts survival and maintaining proliferating cell population and regeneration in crypt. The mechanism might be that CpG-ODN inhibits proliferating cell apoptosis through regulating the expression of apoptosis-related protein, such as Bax, Bcl-2 and caspase-3.

  4. Synthesis of novel chitosan–silica/CpG oligodeoxynucleotide nanohybrids with enhanced delivery efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitosan–silica/CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) nanohybrids were synthesized to stimulate Toll-like receptor 9-mediated induction of interleukin-6 (IL-6). The chitosan–silica hybrid was first synthesized from a mixture of chitosan and 3-glycidoxypropyl trimethoxysilane under acidic conditions via a sol–gel process, and then used to condense CpG ODN2006x3-PD to yield chitosan–silica/CpG ODN nanohybrids. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy showed that the chitosan–silica/CpG ODN nanohybrids had an elliptic shape with a diameter of 100–200 nm. After soaking in HAc–NaAc buffer solution (pH 5.5), the nanohybrids exhibited sustained release of CpG ODN. When the nanohybrids were separately exposed to 293XL-hTLR9 cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, no significant toxicity was observed. An immunochemical assay for cellular uptake revealed that the nanohybrids were taken up by the cells and located in endolysosomes. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for cytokines indicated that the nanohybrids effectively stimulated the induction of IL-6. Chitosan–silica/CpG ODN nanohybrids underwent cellular uptake and enhanced induction of IL-6 to a greater degree than conventional chitosan/CpG ODN nanocomplexes, indicating that they have an enhanced delivery efficiency. - Highlights: • Chitosan-silica/CpG ODN nanohybrids (100 nm–200 nm) were synthesized. • Nanohybrids exhibited a sustained release behavior for CpG ODN. • Cellular uptake of nanohybrids was enhanced due to presence of silica. • The released CpG ODN stimulated production of cell cytokine

  5. Bifunctional oligodeoxynucleotide/antagomiR constructs: evaluation of a new tool for microRNA silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Saskia; Eberle, Mariel Esther; Wölfle, Sabine J; Heeg, Klaus; Bekeredjian-Ding, Isabelle

    2013-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are fine-tuners in cellular processes, including those of the immune response. To study their functions and effects in immune cells, it is necessary to achieve specific silencing of individual miRNAs. To date, introduction of antisense microRNAs (antagomiRs) into primary cells is based on electroporation, lipofection, and viral vectors. However, these techniques often compromise viability, proliferative capacity, and differentiation. Furthermore, efficiency varies depending on the cell type and some are not suitable for in vivo approaches. To overcome these limitations we exploited the property of phosphorothioate (PTO)-modified DNA oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) to enter cells with high efficacy: we developed and evaluated ODN/antagomiR constructs that consist of a PTO-ODN carrier covalently linked to a fully methylated antagomiR RNA sequence. Using these constructs, we achieved transfection efficiency of approximately 99% in leukocytes-in particular, in B lymphocytes that are hard to transfect with other methods. Our data demonstrate that miRNA silencing by the antagomiR portion of the constructs was specific and efficient, which could be further confirmed by an increase in target protein under silencing conditions. The constructs were successfully tested in human B cells, plasmacytoid dendritic cells, monocytes, and monocyte-derived dendritic cells, thus demonstrating their versatility. Moreover, introduction of stimulatory CpG sequences into the ODN portion conveys immune stimulatory quality when intended. Thus, bifunctional ODN/antagomiR constructs represent a highly efficient, versatile, and easy-to-handle tool to manipulate cellular miRNA expression levels and to allow the subsequent investigation of specific miRNA functions. PMID:24236889

  6. CpG Oligodeoxynucleotide1826 combined with radioresistant cancer cell vaccine confers significant antitumor effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, X B; Xing, N; Zhang, Q; Yuan, S J; Chen, W; Qiao, T K

    2015-01-01

    Immunotherapy is a hot issue in cancer research over the years and tumor cell vaccine is one of the increasing number of studies. Although the whole tumor cell vaccine can provide the best source of immunizing antigens, there is still a limitation that most tumors are not naturally immunogenic. CpG Oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODNs), synthetic oligonucleotides containing a cytosine-phosphate-guanine(CpG) motif, was shown to enhance immune responses to a wide variety of antigens. In this study, we generated the radioresistant Lewis lung cancer cell by repeated X-ray radiation and inactivated it as a whole tumor cell vaccine to enhance the immunogenicity of tumor cell vaccine. Mice were subcutaneously immunized with this inactivated vaccine combined with CpG ODN1826 and then inoculated with autologous Lewis lung cancer (LLC) to estimate the antitumor efficacy. The results showed that the radioresistant tumor cell vaccine combined with CpG ODN1826 could significantly inhibit tumor growth, increased survival of the mice and with 20% of the mice surviving tumor free in vivo compared with the unimmunized mice bearing LLC tumor. A significant increase of apoptosis was also observed in the tumor prophylactically immunized with vaccine of inactivated radioresistant tumor cell plus CpG ODN1826. The potent antitumor effect correlated with higher secretion levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-α) and lower levels of interleukin-10(IL-10) concentration in serum. Furthermore, the results suggested that the antitumor mechanism was probably depended on the decreased level of programmed death ligand-1(PD-L1) which plays an important role in the negative regulation of immune response by the inhibition of tumor antigen-specific T cell activation. These findings clearly demonstrated that the radioresistant tumor cell vaccine combined with CpG ODN1826 as an appropriate adjuvant could induce effective antitumor immunity in vivo. PMID:26458317

  7. Topical CpG Oligodeoxynucleotide Adjuvant Enhances the Adaptive Immune Response against Influenza A Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wing Ki; Plumb, Adam William; Lai, Jacqueline Cheuk-Yan; Abraham, Ninan; Dutz, Jan Peter

    2016-01-01

    Current influenza vaccines generate humoral immunity, targeting highly variable epitopes and thus fail to achieve long-term protection. T cells recognize and respond to several highly conserved epitopes across influenza serotypes. A strategy of raising strong cytotoxic T cell memory responses to epitopes conserved across serotypes would provide cross serotype protection, eliminating the need for annual vaccination. We explored the adjuvant potential of epicutaneous (ec) and subcutaneous (sc) delivery of CpG oligodeoxynucleotide in conjunction with sc protein immunization to improve protection against influenza A virus (IAV) infections using a mouse model. We found enhanced long-term protection with epicutaneous CpG ODN (ecCpG) compared to subcutaneous CpG ODN (scCpG) as demonstrated by reduced viral titers in the lungs. This correlated with increased antigen-specific CD8 T cells in the airways and the lungs. The memory T cell response after immunization with ecCpG adjuvant was comparable to memory response by priming with IAV infection in the lungs. In addition, ecCpG was more efficient than scCpG in inducing the generation of IFN-γ producing CD4 T cells. The adjuvant effect of ecCpG was accompanied with its ability to modulate tissue-homing molecules on T cells that may direct them to the site of infection. Together, this work provides evidence for using ecCpG to induce strong antibody and memory T cell responses to confer protection against IAV infection. PMID:27524984

  8. CG-OoO: Energy-Efficient Coarse-Grain Out-of-Order Execution

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, Milad; Aamodt, Tor M.; Dally, William J.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the Coarse-Grain Out-of-Order (CG- OoO) general purpose processor designed to achieve close to In-Order processor energy while maintaining Out-of-Order (OoO) performance. CG-OoO is an energy-performance proportional general purpose architecture that scales according to the program load. Block-level code processing is at the heart of the this architecture; CG-OoO speculates, fetches, schedules, and commits code at block-level granularity. It eliminates unnecessary accesses to ener...

  9. Complete nucleotide sequence of the genomic RNA of tobacco mosaic virus strain Cg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, T; Komatani, H; Meshi, T; Naito, S; Ishikawa, M; Ohno, T

    1998-01-01

    Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-Cg is a crucifer-infecting tobamovirus that was isolated from field-grown garlic. We determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the genomic RNA of TMV-Cg. The genomic RNA of TMV-Cg consists of 6303 nucleotides and encodes four large open reading frames, organized basically in the same way as that of other tobamoviruses. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences are very similar to those of the other crucifer-infecting tobamoviruses that have been sequenced so far. PMID:9608662

  10. 99mTc-Cysteine-Glucosamine (99mTc-CG) in the evaluation of patients with malignant tumors. Histopathological correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    18F fluorodeoxyglucose with PET(18FDG-PET) imaging is used to image tumors. Due to the high cost and low availability, PET is not accessible to many patients. Labelled 99mTc agents to be used with SPECT could be an alternative to 18FDG-PET. Glucosamine (G), a six-carbon amino sugar, enters the cells by a glucose transporter system and by phosphate and glycolytic pathways forms glucosamine-6-phosphate. Reacting G with cysteine (C) labeled with 99mTc (99mTcCG) could be used to show with SPECT hypermetabolic lesions similar to 18FDG-PET imaging. The aim of this study was to evaluate the imaging with 99mTc-CG in detecting tumors and correlate them with pathology. Material and Methods: Labelling of 99mTc-CG was done by adding (C), (G), N-hydroxysuccinimide, carbodiimide, and stannous chloride to the 99mTc. Patients: 35 patients (23 F, 12 M, range age 7-79 years, mean 52 ) with histopathology diagnosis were referred for scintigraphy with 99mTc-CG. Imaging: Patients fasted for 12 hr, and 1-4 hours after the i.v. injection of 920-1088 MBq of 99mTc-CG, underwent 1) whole body scan, 2) SPECT images (reconstructed with OSEM algorithm) on the field of view of the lesion. To eliminate the intravascular and interstitial activity of the 99mTcC-G imaging, patients were given 737 MBq of 99mTc human serum albumin(99mTc-HSA) and other SPECT was done. We normalized both SPECT images and subsequently the 99mTc-HSA image was subtracted from the 99mTc-CG image. All images were visually analysed. Results: 32 lesions were malignant (breast (5), colon (8), lung (9), Hodgkin's disease(6), thyroid(1), bladder (1), melanoma (1), ependimoma (1), and 3 were benign (brain radiation necrosis, breast inflammations and inespecific granuloma). 99mTc C-G show abnormal focal uptake in all malignant lesions (sensitivity=100%) as well as in two benign lesion (false positive). Accuracy of 99mTcC-G in patients with malign tumors was 94%. SPECT images defined the tumor uptake better than planar imaging

  11. Telomerase activity and cell apoptosis in colon cancer cell by human telomerase reverse transcriptase gene antisense oligodeoxynucleotide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-An Jiang; He-Sheng Luo; You-Yuan Zhang; Li-Fang Fan; Chong-Qing Jiang; Wei-Jin Chen

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene antisense oligodeoxynudeotide (As-ODN) on telomerase activity and cell apoptosis in colon cancer cell line SW480.METHODS: As-ODN was transfected into cells SW480 by liposomal transfection. Cultured cells were divided into three groups: ASODN (5′GGAGCGCGCGGCATCGCGGG-3), sense oligodeoxynucleotide (5′-CCCGCGATGCCGCGCGCTCC-3; SODN) and control. The concentration of oligodeoxynucleotide and lipsome was 10 μmol/L and 16 mg/L, respectively. The activity of telomerase was examined by telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP)-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and cell apoptosis was observed by morphology and flow cytometry in each group.RESULTS: Telomerase activity began to be down-regulated or inhibited when cells SW480 were treated with As-ODN for 72 h, and cell apoptosis was induced.CONCLUSION: It is suggested that hTERT As-ODN might specially inhibit the activity of telomerase in colon cancer cells and it is further proved that the hTERT gene has a significant correlation with telomerase activity. Further evidence is needed to prove whether hTERT As-ODN is a potential tool for the treatment of colon cancer.

  12. Effects of Carbon on the CG HAZ Toughness and Transformation of X80 Pipeline Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaohuai XUE; Luhai WU; Bainian QIAN; Jingli LI; Songnian LOU

    2003-01-01

    X80 pipeline steel produced by TMCP has high strength and high toughness with ultrafine grain microstructure. The microstructure coarsens and the toughness worsens at the coarse grained (CG) HAZ apparently after weld simulation. The experimental results indicated that the bainitic ferrite and the second phases formed at cooling are differently as the variation of carbon in base metal. In low carbon steels, the bainitic ferrite laths are long and narrow, the second phases are complex including residual austenite, martensite, the M-A constituent and the Fe3C carbide. The formation of Fe3C carbide is the main reason of the poor toughness in CG HAZ. The ultralow carbon in base metal, however, can improve the CG HAZ toughness through restraining the formation of carbides, decreasing the M-A constituent, increasing the residual austenite content, which are beneficial to the CG HAZ toughness.

  13. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of cgHle, a homoserine acetyltransferase homologue, from Corynebacterium glutamicum

    OpenAIRE

    Tölzer, Christine; Pal, Sonia; Watzlawick, Hildegard; Altenbuchner, Josef; Niefind, Karsten

    2008-01-01

    The enzyme cgHle from C. glutamicum, which has acetyl ester hydrolase activity, was crystallized in four different crystal forms. X-ray diffraction data have been collected to a resolution of 1.2 Å.

  14. Reducing the overuse of βhCG measurements in the emergency gynaecology clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    Serial βhCG testing can be a helpful tool in deciding how to manage pregnancy of unknown location. Its use in emergency gynaecology clinics can prevent unnecessary admission and intervention. However, despite NICE Guidelines on when it is safe to opt for conservative management, it was identified that there was a problem with over-testing of βhCG when patients could be discharged with instructions to repeat a urinary pregnancy test in two weeks. Two PDSA cycles were undertaken to improve the awareness of NICE guidelines: the first involved formal and informal educational sessions and the second involved the inclusion of a guideline summary on the front of patients' notes when they were having serial βhCG tests for doctors to refer to. Case notes were reviewed for 157 women who had βhCG tests at baseline and 48 hours. Of these, 139 were suitable for serial βhCG testing, and 83 of these were suitable for discharge after 48 hours. Of the 83 patients that were eligible for discharge, there were 31 unnecessary βhCG tests done, 23 of which were prior to intervention. A significant improvement was noted, with between 4-10 unnecessary βhCG tests per fortnight prior to intervention, 0-3 following the first intervention, and 0-2 following the second. Reduction in unnecessary βhCG testing has positive implications for patients, who do not have to take unnecessary time off work, prolong an already very distressing period, and have unnecessary blood tests. There are also cost and time saving implications for the hospital. PMID:26893889

  15. t → cγ and t → cg in Local Gauged Baryon and Lepton Numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we calculate the top quark rare decays t → cγ and t → cg in an extension of the standard model, where baryon number and lepton number are local gauge symmetries. Adopting reasonable assumptions on the parameter space, we find that the branching ratios of t → cγ and t → cg can reach 10−6 and 10−5 respectively, which can be detected in near future. (physics of elementary particles and fields)

  16. Treatment of anestrous Nili-Ravi buffaloes using eCG and CIDR protocols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zahid Naseer; Ejaz Ahmad; Nemat Ullah; Muhammad Yaqoob; Zeeshan Akbar

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and controlled internal drug releasing (CIDR) on estrus response, ovulation and pregnancy rate in Nili-Ravi buffaloes under field condition. Methods: Twenty anestrous buffaloes with more than 150 days postpartum were used in this study. To confirm anestrous condition, ovarian status and serum progesterone concentration were determined before the start of study. Buffaloes were randomly divided into eCG (n=10) and CIDR (n=10) groups. eCG group were treated with eCG (Chronogest 1000 I.U. i.m.), while CIDR group received CIDR devices for 7 days. All buffaloes in CIDR group were injected PGF2α (0.25 ug/mL; 2 mL; i.m.) one day before CIDR removal. Buffaloes were observed for estrus visually and were inseminated with frozen-thawed semen at detected estrus. Ovulation was confirmed by presence of CL 12 day post AI. Pregnancy diagnosis was done 50 days post AI. Results: Estrus response, ovulation rate and pregnancy rate were similar (P>0.05) among eCG and CIDR groups (90% vs. 80%; 78% vs. 75% and 50% vs. 60% respectively). Conclusion: It is concluded that both CIDR and eCG protocols are effective and promising remedies for the anestrous buffaloes under commercial as well as under field conditions.

  17. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of cgHle, a homoserine acetyltransferase homologue, from Corynebacterium glutamicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The enzyme cgHle from C. glutamicum, which has acetyl ester hydrolase activity, was crystallized in four different crystal forms. X-ray diffraction data have been collected to a resolution of 1.2 Å. CgHle is an enzyme that is encoded by gene cg0961 from Corynebacterium glutamicum. The physiological function of cgHle is so far unclear. Bioinformatic annotations based on sequence homology indicated that cgHle may be an acetyl-CoA:homoserine acetyl transferase and as such may be involved in methionine biosynthesis, but recent evidence has shown that it is an esterase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of acetyl esters. Here, the crystallization of cgHle in two orthorhombic crystal forms, a trigonal crystal form and a monoclinic crystal form is described. The trigonal crystals have a solvent content of 83.7%, which is one of the highest solvent contents ever found for protein crystals. One of the orthorhombic crystals diffracted X-rays to at least 1.2 Å resolution

  18. CG的缘起与审美%The Origin and Aesthetic Appreciation of CG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王选遥; 史丽雯

    2014-01-01

    CG(Computer Graphics)作为商品,带有一定的世俗性或曰通俗性。通过商业传播,CG得以在世界各地快速地普及。但是,单纯地从大众传播学角度来看待CG作品,其审美意义未免有些片面。本文对CG的发展、CG的制作流程、色彩心理的接受程度和艺术品的商业生产及其发展前景等进行叙述,让读者对夹杂在商业和纯艺术之间的CG艺术有一个更明确的认识。%As a commodity, CG has certain secularism or popularity. CG was able to quickly spread around the world, which traveled through business. However, purely from the perspective of mass communication to analyze CG work, its aesthetic significance is one-si-ded. Through the description of the development of CG, the essence of its production process,color psychological acceptance, and com-mercial production of art and its developmental prospects etc. , the paper would let the reader have a clear understanding about CG be-tween commodity and pure art.

  19. A glutamic acid decarboxylase (CgGAD) highly expressed in hemocytes of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meijia; Wang, Lingling; Qiu, Limei; Wang, Weilin; Xin, Lusheng; Xu, Jiachao; Wang, Hao; Song, Linsheng

    2016-10-01

    Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), a rate-limiting enzyme to catalyze the reaction converting the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate to inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), not only functions in nervous system, but also plays important roles in immunomodulation in vertebrates. However, GAD has rarely been reported in invertebrates, and never in molluscs. In the present study, one GAD homologue (designed as CgGAD) was identified from Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. The full length cDNA of CgGAD was 1689 bp encoding a polypeptide of 562 amino acids containing a conserved pyridoxal-dependent decarboxylase domain. CgGAD mRNA and protein could be detected in ganglion and hemocytes of oysters, and their abundance in hemocytes was unexpectedly much higher than those in ganglion. More importantly, CgGAD was mostly located in those granulocytes without phagocytic capacity in oysters, and could dynamically respond to LPS stimulation. Further, after being transfected into HEK293 cells, CgGAD could promote the production of GABA. Collectively, these findings suggested that CgGAD, as a GABA synthase and molecular marker of GABAergic system, was mainly distributed in hemocytes and ganglion and involved in neuroendocrine-immune regulation network in oysters, which also provided a novel insight to the co-evolution between nervous system and immune system. PMID:27208883

  20. Development of artificial nucleic acid that recognizes a CG base pair in triplex DNA formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, Yoshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    An oligonucleotide that can form a triplex with double-stranded DNA is called a triplex-forming oligonucleotide (TFO). TFOs have gained considerable attention because of their potential as gene targeting tools. However, triplex DNA formation involves inherent problems for practical use. The most important problem is that natural nucleotides in TFO do not have sufficient affinity and base pair-selectivity to pyrimidine-purine base pair, like a CG or TA base pair, within dsDNA. This suggests that dsDNA region including a CG or TA base pair cannot be targeted. Therefore, artificial nucleotides, especially with non-natural nucleobases, capable of direct recognition of a CG or TA base pair via hydrogen bond formation have been developed; however, nucleotides with better selectivity and stronger affinity are necessary for implementing this dsDNA-targeting technology using TFOs. Under such a background, we considered that facile and efficient synthesis of various nucleobase derivatives in TFOs would be useful for finding an ideal nucleobase for recognition of a CG or TA base pair because detailed and rational exploration of nucleobase structures is facilitated. Recently, to develop a nucleobase recognizing a CG base pair, we have used post-elongation modification, i.e., modification after oligonucleotide synthesis, for the facile synthesis of nucleobase derivatives. This review mainly summarizes our recent findings on the development of artificial nucleobases and nucleotides for recognition of a CG base pair in triplexes formed between dsDNA and TFOs. PMID:24189561

  1. The Dongfanghong CG702 crawler tractor of orchard type%东方红CG702果园型履带拖拉机设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王正全; 李金玲; 纪道松; 李涛

    2013-01-01

    东方红CG702果园型履带拖拉机适应于我国广大农村小面积农田、山坡地、果园以及农田的耕作,以果园工作为主提高其综合利用率。东方红CG702是一种适合国内外果园、坡地作业需求的全新半刚性履带拖拉机,多数性能指标等同或接近国外先进水平。%The Dongfanghong CG702 crawler tractor of orchard type is suit for small field、hillside, orchards farming, It is mainly working for orchard work to improve the comprehensive utilization rate. The Dongfanghong CG702 crawler tractor of orchard type is suitable for domestic and overseas orchards, sloping fields operational requirements and it is the new semi-rigid crawler tractors, most performance equal to or close to the international advanced level.

  2. Immunostimulatory and anti-neoplasm effects of a novel palindrome CpG oligodeoxynucleotide in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-yan DU; Zhong-ming TANG; Hai-feng SONG; Li-hou DONG; Bi-jun ZHAO; Jie FU; Qing-qing WANG; FangCHEN; Lun OU; Na LI; Xiao SUN

    2012-01-01

    Aim:DNAs containing unmethylated CpG motifs can stimulate innate and adaptive immunity.The aim of this study was to investigate the immunostimulatory and anti-neoplasm effects of a novel CpG oligodeoxynucleotide,ODN10,in tumor-bearing mice.Methods:B16 melanoma-bearing C57BL/6 mice were administered ip or sc with ODN10 or conventional CpG ODN1826 on the indicated days post inoculation.The animal survival rate and the inhibitory effect on tumor growth were observed in vivo.B and T lymphocyte proliferation,natural killing cell cytotoxicity and the phagocytic ability of peritoneal macrophages from the animals were determined using [3H]-thymidine incorporation assay,4-h 51Cr release assay and neutral red chromometry method,respectively.The serum levels of IL-12,IL-4,and IgE were quantified using ELISA assays.Histological examination of tumor tissues was performed after HE staining,and the expression of PCNA,CD63,and CD80 in tumor tissues was analyzed with immunohistochemistry.Results:ODN10 (1,5,and 25 mg/kg) significantly inhibited the growth and metastasis of the tumor,and significantly prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice,as compared with ODN1826,The immune status was suppressed in tumor-bearing mice.Both ODN10 and ODN1826 significantly reversed the suppressed immunoactivities in tumor-bearing mice,which included promoting B and T lymphocyte proliferation,enhancing NK cell and peritoneal macrophage activities,inducing IL-12 secretion and inhibiting IL-4 and IgE secretion.Further,CpG ODNs decreased PCNA and CD63 expression while induced expression of CD80.ODN10 presented more potent activity,and displayed the most prominent immunostimulatory potential.Conclusion:ODN10 produces prominent immunomodulatory effects on cellular immunity in tumor-bearing mice,which might help reverse the established Th2-type responses to the Th1-type responses,thus may be used as a potent anti-tumor immunotherapy agent or adjuvant.

  3. Effect of TGF-β1 antisense oligodeoxynucleotide on renal function in chronic renal failure rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Law Chung HIONG; Kiew Lik VOON; Nor Azizan ABDULLAH; Munavvar A SATTAR; Nazarina AbduRAHMAN; Abdul Hye KHAN; Edward James JOHNS

    2008-01-01

    Aim:The aim of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of trans-forming growth factor (TGF)-β1 antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) in ame-liorating deteriorated kidney function in rats with puromycin-induced chronic renal failure (CRF). Methods:Saline, puromycin, puromycin+TGF-β1 antisense ODN or puromycin+scrambled ODN were administered to unilaterally nephrecto-mized rats. Renal hemodynamic and excretory measurements were taken in the anaesthetized rats that had undergone surgical procedure. Results:It was ob-served that in the CRF rats, there was a marked reduction in the renal blood flow (RBF), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), severe proteinuria, and almost 6-fold in-creased fractional excretion of sodium (FE Na+) as compared to that in the control rats (all P<0.05). It was further observed that in the CRF rats, the treatment with TGF-β1 antisense, but not scrambled ODN, markedly attenuated the reduction of RBF, GFR, and proteinuria and markedly prevented the increase of the FE Na+ (all P<0.05). In addition, the renal hypertrophy in the CRF group (P<0.05 vs non-renal failure control) was markedly attenuated after treatment with TGF-1 antisense ODN (P<0.05). Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis was evident only in the un-treated and scrambled ODN-treated CRF groups. An interesting observation of this study was that in the CRF rats, although there was marked attenuating and preventive effects of the TGF-β1 antisense ODN on the deteriorated renal functions, the antisense treatment did not cause any marked change in the renal expression of TGF-β1 at the protein level. Conclusion:Collectively, the data obtained sug-gests that TGF-β1 antisense ODN possesses beneficial effects in puromycin-induced chronic renal failure and that the deterioration in morphology and im-paired renal function in this pathological state is in part dependent upon the action of TGF-β1 within the kidney.

  4. Structure-dependent immunostimulatory effect of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides and their delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanagata N

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Nobutaka HanagataNanotechnology Innovation Station, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, and Graduate School of Life Science, Hokkaido University, Kita-ku, Sapporo, JapanAbstract: Unmethylated cytosine-phosphate-guanosine (CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs are recognized by Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9 found in antigen-presenting cells and B cells and can activate the immune system. Using CpG ODNs as an adjuvant has been found to be effective for treating infectious diseases, cancers, and allergies. Because natural ODNs with only a phosphodiester backbone are easily degraded by nuclease (deoxyribonuclease [DNase] in serum, CpG ODNs with a phosphorothioate backbone have been studied for clinical application. CpG ODNs with a phosphorothioate backbone have raised concern regarding undesirable side effects; however, several CpG ODNs with only a phosphodiester backbone have been reported to be stable in serum and to show an immunostimulatory effect. In recent years, research has been conducted on delivery systems for CpG ODNs using nanoparticles (NPs. The advantages of NP-based delivery of CpG ODN include (1 it can protect CpG ODN from DNase, (2 it can retain CpG ODN inside the body for a long period of time, (3 it can improve the cellular uptake efficiency of CpG ODN, and (4 it can deliver CpG ODN to the target tissues. Because the target cells of CpG ODN are cells of the immune system and TLR9, the receptor of CpG ODN is localized in endolysosomes, CpG ODN delivery systems are required to have qualities different from other nucleic acid drugs such as antisense DNA and small interfering RNA. Studies until now have reported various NPs as carriers for CpG ODN delivery. This review presents DNase-resistant CpG ODNs with various structures and their immunostimulatory effects and also focuses on delivery systems of CpG ODNs that utilize NPs. Because CpG ODNs interact with TLR9 and activate both the innate and the adaptive immune

  5. Conserved hemopoietic transcription factor Cg-SCL delineates hematopoiesis of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaorui; Wang, Hao; Chen, Hao; Sun, Mingzhe; Liang, Zhongxiu; Wang, Lingling; Song, Linsheng

    2016-04-01

    Hemocytes are the effective immunocytes in bivalves, which have been reported to be derived from stem-like cells in gill epithelium of oyster. In the present work, a conserved haematopoietic transcription factor Tal-1/Scl (Stem Cell Leukemia) was identified in Pacific oyster (Cg-SCL), and it was evolutionarily close to the orthologs in deuterostomes. Cg-SCL was highly distributed in the hemocytes as well as gill and mantle. The hemocyte specific genes Integrin, EcSOD and haematopoietic transcription factors GATA3, C-Myb, c-kit, were down-regulated when Cg-SCL was interfered by dsRNA. During the larval developmental stages, the mRNA transcripts of Cg-SCL gradually increased after fertilization and peaked at early trochophore larvae stage (10 hpf, hours post fertilization), then sharply decreased in late trochophore larvae stage (15 hpf) before resuming in umbo larvae (120 hpf). Whole-mount immunofluorescence assay further revealed that the immunoreactivity of Cg-SCL appeared in blastula larvae with two approximate symmetric spots, and this expression pattern lasted in gastrula larvae. By trochophore, the immunoreactivity formed a ring around the dorsal region and then separated into two remarkable spots at the dorsal side in D-veliger larvae. After bacterial challenge, the mRNA expression levels of Cg-SCL were significantly up-regulated in the D-veliger and umbo larvae, indicating the available hematopoietic regulation in oyster larvae. These results demonstrated that Cg-SCL could be used as haematopoietic specific marker to trace potential developmental events of hematopoiesis during ontogenesis of oyster, which occurred early in blastula stage and maintained until D-veliger larvae. PMID:26915307

  6. Human nucleosomes: special role of CG dinucleotides and Alu-nucleosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifonov Edward N

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The periodical occurrence of dinucleotides with a period of 10.4 bases now is undeniably a hallmark of nucleosome positioning. Whereas many eukaryotic genomes contain visible and even strong signals for periodic distribution of dinucleotides, the human genome is rather featureless in this respect. The exact sequence features in the human genome that govern the nucleosome positioning remain largely unknown. Results When analyzing the human genome sequence with the positional autocorrelation method, we found that only the dinucleotide CG shows the 10.4 base periodicity, which is indicative of the presence of nucleosomes. There is a high occurrence of CG dinucleotides that are either 31 (10.4 × 3 or 62 (10.4 × 6 base pairs apart from one another - a sequence bias known to be characteristic of Alu-sequences. In a similar analysis with repetitive sequences removed, peaks of repeating CG motifs can be seen at positions 10, 21 and 31, the nearest integers of multiples of 10.4. Conclusions Although the CG dinucleotides are dominant, other elements of the standard nucleosome positioning pattern are present in the human genome as well. The positional autocorrelation analysis of the human genome demonstrates that the CG dinucleotide is, indeed, one visible element of the human nucleosome positioning pattern, which appears both in Alu sequences and in sequences without repeats. The dominant role that CG dinucleotides play in organizing human chromatin is to indicate the involvement of human nucleosomes in tuning the regulation of gene expression and chromatin structure, which is very likely due to cytosine-methylation/-demethylation in CG dinucleotides contained in the human nucleosomes. This is further confirmed by the positions of CG-periodical nucleosomes on Alu sequences. Alu repeats appear as monomers, dimers and trimers, harboring two to six nucleosomes in a run. Considering the exceptional role CG dinucleotides play in the

  7. Observations of a Naturally-Triggered Upward-Initiated Positive CG Lightning Flash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rison, W.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Stock, M.; Godman, H.; Lu, G.; Cummer, S. A.

    2011-12-01

    Upward-initiated cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning flashes are often triggered by preceding natural IC or CG flashes. Warner (2011) has recently documented (by means of high-speed video) upward-initiated negative CG flashes from tall towers triggered by preceding positive CG flashes. In this paper we discuss VHF lightning mapping images and ULF magnetic measurements of an upward-initiated positive CG flash triggered by a preceding negative CG flash. The VHF lightning mapping data are from a small (10 km diameter) seven-station Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) installed in northeastern Virginia. The ULF magnetic measurements were made at Duke University, 400 km away. The LMA data show a four-stroke negative CG flash is followed immediately by a negative leader which propagates from the ground upward through the lower positive thunderstorm charge (~4 km altitude) and the midlevel negative charge (~6 km altitude) into the upper positive charge (~8 km altitude). This is followed by about 500 ms of horizontal development of negative leaders through the upper positive charge, to the north and west of the upward leader. ULF magnetic data show positive charge moving downward during this time interval. (We cannot tell if the current is between the upper positive charge and the midlevel negative charge, or if the current flows through the negative leader channel to ground.) After this current cuts off, a positive CG stroke (with a 50 ms long continuing current) developed along a different channel, with an NLDN-detected ground strike point about 30 km NNW of the upward leader. The negative CG preceding this flash removed negative charge from the thunderstorm, "uncovering" the upper positive charge, and producing a rapid change in the electric field at the ground. The upward negative leader developed in response to this rapid field change. There are several tall objects near (within 1 km) the first LMA source detected from the upward leader. We cannot determine which of these

  8. Effect of antisense oligodeoxynucleotide of telomerase RNA on telomerase activity and cell apoptosis in human colon cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-An Jiang; He-Sheng Luo; Li-Fang Fan; Chong-Qing Jiang; Wei-Jin Chen

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To explore the effect of antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (As-ODN) of telomerase RNA on telomerase activity and cell apoptosis in human colon cancer.METHODS: As-ODN waS transfected into SW480 cells by liposomal transfection reagent. Telomerase activity of SW480 cells was examined by telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Apoptosis was analyzed by morphology and flow cytometry.RESULTS: The telomerase activity in SW480 cells trandected with 1.0 μmol/L of As-ODN for 2-5 days, was significantly decreased in a time-dependent manner, and the cells underwent apoptosis. The missense ODN (Ms-ODN) and the control group transfected with SW480 cells did not show these changes.CONCLUSION: As-ODN can specifically inhibit the telomerase activity of SW480 cells and induce apoptosis.

  9. Effect of c- erbB2 Antisense Oligodeoxynucleotides on Radiosensitivity of Human Ovarian Cancer Cell Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RENQing-Lan

    2003-01-01

    Object To explore tile effect of lipofectin - c - erbB2 antisense oligodeoxynucleotides on radiosensitivity of human ovarian cancer cell llne. Methods The expression of c - erbB2 was detected by means of RT - PCR, cellular response to irradiation was evaluated by tile colony forming assay. Results Lipofectin- c - erbB2 antisense oligodeoxynucleotides(AS- ODN) could suppress the expression of c - erbB2 , and significantly decreased the colony forming rate of human ovarian cancer cells after ionizing irradiation (P 0.05 ). Condusion c - erbB2 antisense oligodeoxynueleotides sensitized the SKOV3 to ionizing irradiation through decreasing the expression of e - erbB2 , which might be the result of the fact that c - erbB2 antisense oligodeoxynueleotides inhibit the eelluar signal transductionpathway relating to the radiation- resistant phenotype.

  10. DNA strand breakage by 125I-decay in a synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide. Fragment distribution and evaluation of DMSO protection effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A double stranded oligodeoxynucleotide containing a single 125I-dC in a defined location was used to investigate DNA strand breakage resulting from 125I decay. Samples of a 41 bp oligodeoxynucleotide were incubated in 20 mM phosphate buffer (PB), or PB plus 2 M dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO), at 4 C during 18-20 days. The 32P-5'-end labelled DNA fragments produced by 125I decays were separated on denaturing polyacrylamide gels, and the 32P activity in each fragment was determined by scintillation counting after elution of fragments from gel. Most of the breaks, around 90%, occurred within 4-5 nucleotides of the 125I-dC, but DNA breaks were detected up to 16 nucleotides from the decay site. The 125I-dC was located at the 21st nucleotide from the 32P-5'-end label, and since 32P was not detected in fragments longer than 20 nucleotides, it was assumed that all 125I decay events produce at least one break in the 125I-labelled DNA strand. The results show a considerable protection effect of DMSO on DNA breaks at sites >5-6 nucleotides from the 125I location. The probability of breaks in this region was decreased with DMSO by a factor of 2 to 8-fold, suggesting significant role for radical-mediated DNA breaks at the more distant sites. However, the total protection effect of DMSO is rather small: 1.1, because of the small contribution of breakage at distant sites to the total yield. (orig.)

  11. Water-absorbent polymer as a carrier for a discrete deposit of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannai, M; Ichikawa, M; Nishimura, F; Nishihara, M; Takahashi, M

    1998-09-01

    One of the problems of introducing antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) into the central nervous system (CNS) is their rapid disappearance from the target site due to their dispersion and diffusion, which results in poor uptake and/or retention in cells (M. Morris, A.B. Lucion, Antisense oligonucleotides in the study of neuroendocrine systems, J. Neuroendocrinol. 7 (1995) 493-500; S. Ogawa, H.E. Brown, H.J. Okano, D.W. Pfaff, Cellular uptake of intracerebrally administrated oligodeoxynucleotides in mouse brain, Regul. Pept. 59 (1995) 143-149) [2,5]. Recently, we adapted a new method using water-absorbent polymer (WAP; internally cross-linked starch-grafted-polyacrylates) as a carrier for antisense ODN. The polymer forms a hydro-gel after absorbing water which is chemically and biologically inert. In these studies, the polymer (powder-form) is fully swollen by physiological saline containing antisense ODN (0.2 micromol/ml) to make 80-fold volume gel. Hydro-gel (1 microliter) is injected into the target site, and water solutes are assumed to be diffused stoichiometrically into CNS from the surface of the gel. Histological studies indicate that 24 h after the injection, antisense ODN (5'biotinylated-S-oligos of 15 mer) are distributed to within 800 micrometer from the edge of the area where the gel is located and then gradually disappear from this area within days, but still remain within 300-micrometer distance 7 days later. Antisense ODN are effectively incorporated by all the cell types examined, i.e., neurons, astrocytes and microglias, and suppress the synthesis of the target protein. This method can be adapted to slow delivery of antisense ODN and other water soluble substances into the CNS. PMID:9767125

  12. CG3TOOL: an interactive computer program to process Scintrex CG-3/3M gravity data for high-resolution applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabalda, G.; Bonvalot, S.; Hipkin, R.

    2003-03-01

    A newly developed interactive computer program, CG3TOOL, has been dedicated to the processing of the gravity data acquired by the Scintrex CG-3/3M automated gravity meter. The aim of CG3TOOL is two fold: to allow for an objective evaluation of Scintrex data and to provide a higher resolution in data reductions than those computed in real time by the microprocessor-controlled instrument. The program reads the gravity data acquired in either field or cycle mode (field surveys and continuous recordings, respectively) and then downloaded from the meter to a PC computer. The processing tasks are divided into two successive levels. Level 1 is dedicated to the reduction of the daily data files by applying standard or accurate corrections (earth tide, instrumental drift, atmospheric pressure). The precise corrections are performed up to the microGal (μGal) level, in accordance with the specifications of high-resolution surveys. Level 2 contains a series of processing tools (including network adjustment, anomaly computation, and gravity meter calibration) that will precisely compute and adjust the gravity values with error estimates. The interactive procedures and the program output (plot and text files) have been designed to ease data handling and archiving as well as to provide useful information for future purposes of data interpretation or modeling. CG3TOOL was developed in a standard C language for Unix Sun workstations and uses the standard graphical and mathematical Generic Mapping Tools (GMT) free library, available from the web. The objectives and principles of the computer program are presented below along with corresponding examples of the main processing tasks applied to observed data.

  13. Clinical significance of changes of serum TBA, CG, HA levels in neonate with parenteral nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes of serum levels of TBA, CG, HA in neonate with parenteral nutrition. Methods: Serum total bile acid (TBA, with biochemistry) and CG, HA (with RIA) contents were measured in 52 neonates (full-term 32, preterm 20) with parenteral nutrition and 28 neonates (full-term 16, preterm 12) without parenteral nutrition (as controls). Results: Before parenteral nutrition,the serum TBA, CG and HA levels in full-term neonates were not significantly different from those in the controls (P>0.05). After parenteral nutrition,serum levels were significantly higher than those before parenteral nutrition (P<0.01). The levels in pre-term neonates were significantly higher after parenteral nutrition than those in full-term neonates (P<0.05). Conclusion: Long term parenteral nutrition might be harmful to hepatic and gall bladder function in neonates especially in premature ones. (authors)

  14. CgWind: A high-order accurate simulation tool for wind turbines and wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chand, K K; Henshaw, W D; Lundquist, K A; Singer, M A

    2010-02-22

    CgWind is a high-fidelity large eddy simulation (LES) tool designed to meet the modeling needs of wind turbine and wind park engineers. This tool combines several advanced computational technologies in order to model accurately the complex and dynamic nature of wind energy applications. The composite grid approach provides high-quality structured grids for the efficient implementation of high-order accurate discretizations of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Composite grids also provide a natural mechanism for modeling bodies in relative motion and complex geometry. Advanced algorithms such as matrix-free multigrid, compact discretizations and approximate factorization will allow CgWind to perform highly resolved calculations efficiently on a wide class of computing resources. Also in development are nonlinear LES subgrid-scale models required to simulate the many interacting scales present in large wind turbine applications. This paper outlines our approach, the current status of CgWind and future development plans.

  15. Prediction of late failure after medical abortion from serial beta-hCG measurements and ultrasonography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørbye, C; Nørgaard, M; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2004-01-01

    thickness by ultrasonography was performed on day 15 after induction of medical abortion. Failures diagnosed after day 15 and within 15 weeks were identified and classified as late failures. All interventions in this group were due to bleeding problems. The predictive values of different absolute and...... relative beta-hCG levels and different endometrial thickness were analysed. RESULTS: Of all failures in the study period, 65% (32) were diagnosed after the 2 week follow-up, and categorized as late failures. The absolute and the relative beta-hCG values on days 8 and 15 as well as the endometrial thickness......BACKGROUND: Surgical treatment of failed medical abortion may be performed several weeks after initiation of the abortion. There are no recognized methods for early identification of these late failures. We assessed the prognostic values of beta-hCG and ultrasonography in predicting late failure...

  16. Effects of Pronunciation Practice System Based on Personalized CG Animations of Mouth Movement Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Pronunciation practice system based on personalized Computer Graphics: CG animation of mouth movement model is proposed. The system enables a learner to practice pronunciation by looking at personalized CG animations of mouth movement model , and allows him/her to compare them with his/her own mouth movements. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the system by using personalized CG animation of mouth movement model, Japanese vowel and consonant sounds were read by 8 infants before and after practicing with the proposed system, and their pronunciations were examined. Remarkable improvement on their pronunciations is confirmed through a comparison to their pronunciation without the proposed system based on identification test by subjective basis.

  17. Use of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies to study hCG-receptor interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the glycoprotein hormones lutropin (LH), follitropin (FSH), and thyrotropin (TSH) bind to different receptors, each contains an identical alpha subunit. Specificity is somehow endowed by theta subunits which are distinct for each hormone. Human choriogonadotropin (hCG) is a natural LH analog that contains a beta subunit nearly identical to that of LH. The roles of these subunits in the recognition and high affinity binding of hCG to receptor was examined. Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies specific for the individual subunits of hCG were used to probe the hormone-receptor interaction. Conformation-specific and sequence-specific antibodies were examined for their abilities to bind Triton X-100-solubilized 125I-hCG-receptor complex and to inhibit hormone binding to crude rat ovarian membranes containing receptor. Even though the immunoreactive sites are not located on the receptor binding surface of the beta subunit, most, but not all, of these polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies were able to inhibit 125I-hCG binding to receptor. Although the inhibition of binding may be due to steric interference due to the size of the antibody molecules, a two-step model for hCG binding to receptor is presented that also explains these results. In this model, the beta subunit initially binds with the receptor with a highly specific but low affinity interaction. This activates a site for the high affinity binding of the alpha subunit and stabilization of the complex. This is an attractive model as it may be applied to other glycoprotein hormones sharing an alpha subunit

  18. Use of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies to study hCG-receptor interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milius, R.P.

    1985-01-01

    Although the glycoprotein hormones lutropin (LH), follitropin (FSH), and thyrotropin (TSH) bind to different receptors, each contains an identical alpha subunit. Specificity is somehow endowed by theta subunits which are distinct for each hormone. Human choriogonadotropin (hCG) is a natural LH analog that contains a beta subunit nearly identical to that of LH. The roles of these subunits in the recognition and high affinity binding of hCG to receptor was examined. Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies specific for the individual subunits of hCG were used to probe the hormone-receptor interaction. Conformation-specific and sequence-specific antibodies were examined for their abilities to bind Triton X-100-solubilized /sup 125/I-hCG-receptor complex and to inhibit hormone binding to crude rat ovarian membranes containing receptor. Even though the immunoreactive sites are not located on the receptor binding surface of the beta subunit, most, but not all, of these polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies were able to inhibit /sup 125/I-hCG binding to receptor. Although the inhibition of binding may be due to steric interference due to the size of the antibody molecules, a two-step model for hCG binding to receptor is presented that also explains these results. In this model, the beta subunit initially binds with the receptor with a highly specific but low affinity interaction. This activates a site for the high affinity binding of the alpha subunit and stabilization of the complex. This is an attractive model as it may be applied to other glycoprotein hormones sharing an alpha subunit.

  19. Association between altered placental human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) production and the occurrence of cryptorchidism: a retrospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Chedane, Carole; Puissant, Hugues; Weil, Dominique; Rouleau, Stéphanie; Coutant, Régis

    2014-01-01

    Background An increase in cryptorchidism has been reported in many countries. One mechanism could be low fetal testosterone production possibly secondary to altered placental human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) release. Our Objective was to compare hCG values from maternal blood between boys with cryptorchidism and normal boys. Methods Total hCG and α-fetoprotein (AFP) values [12–16 weeks of gestation; from the double test for Down syndrome screening) were compared between cases of cryptorchi...

  20. Low Mass Star Formation in the Gum Nebula: The CG~30/31/38 complex

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jinyoung Serena; Walter, Frederick M.; Wolk, Scott J.

    2005-01-01

    We present photometric and spectroscopic results for the low mass pre-main sequence (PMS) stars with spectral types K - M in the cometary globule (CG) 30/31/38 complex. We obtained multi-object high resolution spectra for the targets selected as possible PMS stars from multi-wavelength photometry. We identified 11 PMS stars brighter than V = 16.5 with ages < 5 Myr at a distance of approximately 200 pc. The spatial distribution of the PMS stars, CG clouds, and ionizing sources (O stars and sup...

  1. Ovary response and embryonic mortality in buffaloes treated with GnRH or hCG

    OpenAIRE

    L. Zicarelli; R. Di Palo; A. Balestrieri; C. Grassi; M. Rendina; Vecchio, D; G. Campanile

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether treatment with a GnRH agonist or hCG in pregnant buffaloes on Day 25 after AI induce ovulation and increased P4 concentrations. The trial was carried out on 98 pluriparous buffaloes (DIM = 163 ± 75 days) diagnosed pregnant by ultrasound on day 25 after AI, and randomly assigned in two treatment groups GnRH (12 μg of Buserelin Acetate i.m) and hCG (1500 I.U. i.m.) after measurements of follicular diameter and evaluated ovulation. Mi...

  2. On the regularity of trust region-cg algorithm: With application to deconvolution problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Yanfei(王彦飞)

    2003-01-01

    Deconvolution problem is a main topic in signal processing. Many practical applications are re-quired to solve deconvolution problems. An important example is image reconstruction. Usually, researcherslike to use regularization method to deal with this problem. But the cost of computation is high due to thefact that direct methods are used. This paper develops a trust region-cg method, a kind of iterative methodsto solve this kind of problem. The regularity of the method is proved. Based on the special structure of thediscrete matrix, FFT can be used for calculation. Hence combining trust region-cg method with FFT is suitablefor solving large scale problems in signal processing.

  3. t-c gamma and t-cg in warped extra dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Tie-Jun; Feng, Tai-Fu; Chen, Jian-Bin

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we calculate the top quark rare decays t-cgamma and t-cg in the framework where the standard model is embedded in a warped extra dimension with the custodial symmetry SU(3)c*SU(2)L*SU(2)R*U(1)x*PLR. Adopting reasonable assumptions on the parameter space,we numerically find the branching ratios of t-cgamma exceeding 10^-6 and that of t-cg exceeding 10^-5 respectively, which can be detected in near future.

  4. Improved pregnancy rate with administration of hCG after intrauterine insemination: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Martikainen Hannu; Tapanainen Juha S; Järvelä Ilkka Y

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background In natural cycles, women conceive when intercourse takes place during a six-day period ending on the day of ovulation. The current practice in intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycles is to perform the IUI 24-36 hours after the hCG administration, when the ovulation is already imminent. In this study hCG was administered after the IUI, which more closely resembles the fertilisation process in natural cycles. Methods All the IUIs performed since the beginning of 2007 were ana...

  5. Automatizacija praćenja rada relativnih gravimetara Scintrex Autograv CG-3M

    OpenAIRE

    Repanić, Marija

    2013-01-01

    U radu je prikazano automatizirano praćenje rada relativnih gravimetara Scintrex Autograv CG-3M primjenom aplikacije Pragra, izrađene u programskom paketu MATLAB. Scintrex Autograv CG-3M je moderni relativni gravimetar. Nakon postavljanja gravimetra na točku, horizontiranja i pokretanja mjerenja, mjerni proces je potpuno automatiziran. Mjerni signal se već u gravimetru, na temelju definirane kalibracijske funkcije, pretvara u očitanja ubrzanja sile teže na koje se primjenjuju instrumentalne k...

  6. DNA duplexes and triplex-forming oligodeoxynucleotides incorporating modified nucleosides forming stable and selective triplexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Takashi; Masaki, Yoshiaki; Mizuta, Masahiro; Tsunoda, Hirosuke; Ohkubo, Akihiro; Sekine, Mitsuo; Seio, Kohji

    2012-02-01

    We have previously reported DNA triplexes containing the unnatural base triad G-PPI·C3, in which PPI is an indole-fused cytosine derivative incorporated into DNA duplexes and C3 is an abasic site in triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) introduced by a propylene linker. In this study, we developed a new unnatural base triad A-ψ·C(R1) where ψ and C(R1) are base moieties 2'-deoxypseudouridine and 5-substituted deoxycytidine, respectively. We examined several electron-withdrawing substituents for R1 and found that 5-bromocytosine (C(Br)) could selectively recognize ψ. In addition, we developed a new PPI derivative, PPI(Me), having a methyl group on the indole ring in order to achieve selective triplex formation between DNA duplexes incorporating various Watson-Crick base pairs, such as T-A, C-G, A-ψ, and G-PPI(Me), and TFOs containing T, C, C(Br), and C3. We studied the selective triplex formation between these duplexes and TFOs using UV-melting and gel mobility shift assays. PMID:22146807

  7. The observation of serum CG level in pregnant women of various nationalities in Xinjiang and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to explore the value of serum cholylglycine (CG) in the diagnosis for intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP), in healthy pregnant and ICP women of Han and minority nationalities in Xinjiang. CG was measured by RIA. ALT was also measured and was analyzed comparatively with CG. The results showed that there was no significant difference between serum CG content of healthy Han women at second trimester pregnancy and that of healthy minority women at same period of pregnancy (P>0.05). However, serum CG content of minority women at third trimester pregnancy was significantly higher than that of Han women at same period of pregnancy (P<0.05). Serum CG content and ALT level of ICP patients from various nationalities were all higher than those of healthy pregnant women at the second and third trimester (P<0.01). Serum CG content and ALT level of minority ICP patients were significantly higher than those of Han ICP patients (P<0.01). Determination of serum CG should be taken as a routine procedure for pregnant women, for it is very important for timely diagnosis and treatment of ICP patients. At the same time, attention should be paid to monitoring serum CG level in minority pregnant women for the sake of strengthening health care work for minority pregnant women at perinatal period

  8. Online monitoring of gas-solid two-phase flow using projected CG method in ECT image reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi wang; Chengyi Yang; Huaxiang Wang; Ziqiang Cui; Zhentao Gao

    2013-01-01

    Electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) is a promising technique for multi-phase flow measurement due to its high speed,low cost and non-intrusive sensing.Image reconstruction for ECT is an inverse problem of finding the permittivity distribution of an object by measuring the electrical capacitances between sets of electrodes placed around its periphery.The conjugate gradient (CG) method is a popular image reconstruction method for ECT,in spite of its low convergence rate.In this paper,an advanced version of the CG method,the projected CG method,is used for image reconstruction of an ECT system.The solution space is projected into the Krylov subspace and the inverse problem is solved by the CG method in a low-dimensional specific subspace.Both static and dynamic experiments were carried out for gas-solid two-phase flows.The flow regimes are identified using the reconstructed images obtained with the projected CG method.The results obtained indicate that the projected CG method improves the quality of reconstructed images and dramatically reduces computation time,as compared to the traditional sensitivity,Landweber,and CG methods.Furthermore,the projected CG method was also used to estimate the important parameters of the pneumatic conveying process,such as the volume concentration,flow velocity and mass flow rate of the solid phase.Therefore,the projected CG method is considered suitable for online gas-solid two-phase flow measurement.

  9. CpG Oligodeoxynucleotides Adsorbed onto Polylactide-Co-Glycolide Microparticles Improve the Immunogenicity and Protective Activity of the Licensed Anthrax Vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Hang; Gursel, Ihsan; Ivins, Bruce E.; Singh, Manmohan; O'Hagan, Derek T.; Ulmer, Jeffrey B.; Klinman, Dennis M.

    2005-01-01

    To reduce the biothreat posed by anthrax, efforts are under way to improve the protection afforded by vaccination. This work examines the ability of immunostimulatory CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) adsorbed onto cationic polylactide-co-glycolide (PLG) microparticles (CpG ODN-PLG) to accelerate and boost the protective immunity elicited by Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed (AVA, the licensed human anthrax vaccine). The results indicate that coadministering CpG ODN-PLG with AVA induces a stronger and f...

  10. The Drosophila gene CG9918 codes for a pyrokinin-1 receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cazzamali, Giuseppe; Torp, Malene; Hauser, Frank;

    2005-01-01

    The database from the Drosophila Genome Project contains a gene, CG9918, annotated to code for a G protein-coupled receptor. We cloned the cDNA of this gene and functionally expressed it in Chinese hamster ovary cells. We tested a library of about 25 Drosophila and other insect neuropeptides, and...

  11. On the influence of eigenvalues on Bi-CG residual norms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duintjer Tebbens, Jurjen; Meurant, G.

    2014. s. 26-26. [IMA International Conference on Numerical Linear Algebra and Optimisation /4./. 03.09.2014-05.09.2014, Birmingham] Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : prescribed convergence * Bi-Lanczos process * Bi-CG method Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  12. Characterising the atypical 5'-CG DNA sequence specificity of 9-aminoacridine carboxamide Pt complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kava, Hieronimus W; Galea, Anne M; Md Jamil, Farhana; Feng, Yue; Murray, Vincent

    2014-08-01

    In this study, the DNA sequence specificity of four DNA-targeted 9-aminoacridine carboxamide Pt complexes was compared with cisplatin, using two specially constructed plasmid templates. One plasmid contained 5'-CG and 5'-GA insert sequences while the other plasmid contained a G-rich transferrin receptor gene promoter insert sequence. The damage profiles of each compound on the different DNA templates were quantified via a polymerase stop assay with fluorescently labelled primers and capillary electrophoresis. With the plasmid that contained 5'-CG and 5'-GA dinucleotides, the four 9-aminoacridine carboxamide Pt complexes produced distinctly different damage profiles as compared with cisplatin. These 9-aminoacridine complexes had greatly increased levels of DNA damage at CG and GA dinucleotides as compared with cisplatin. It was shown that the presence of a CG or GA dinucleotide was sufficient to reveal the altered DNA sequence selectivity of the 9-aminoacridine carboxamide Pt analogues. The DNA sequence specificity of the Pt complexes was also found to be similarly altered utilising the transferrin receptor DNA sequence. PMID:24827388

  13. MscCG from Corynebacterium glutamicum: functional significance of the C-terminal domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Michael; Krämer, Reinhard

    2015-10-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is used in microbial biotechnology for the production of amino acids, e.g., glutamate and lysine. Excretion of glutamate into the surrounding medium under production conditions is mediated by MscCG, an MscS-type mechanosensitive channel. In difference to most other MscS-type channel proteins, MscCG carries, in addition to the N-terminal pore domain, a long C-terminal domain that amounts to about half of the size of the protein and harbors an additional transmembrane segment. Here we study the impact of the C-terminal domain on both functions of MscCG as mechanosensitive channel and as glutamate exporter. Sequential truncations of the C-terminal domain were applied, as well as deletion of particular subdomains, replacement of these segments by other amino acid sequences, and sequence randomization. Several parameters of cell physiology and bioenergetics of the obtained mutants related to both glutamate excretion and response to osmotic stress were quantified. All three subdomains of the C-terminal domain, i.e., the periplasmic loop, the fourth transmembrane segment, and the cytoplasmic loop, proved to be of core significance for MscCG function, in particular for glutamate excretion. PMID:26033538

  14. The relationship between lipoprotein lipase-447C/G genepolymorphism and cerebral infarction in the elderly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓雁

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between the lipoprotein lipase(LPL)-447C/G gene polymorphism and cerebral infarction in the elderly. Methods This was a case-control study,which enrolled 206 cases with cerebral infarction in the elderly and 203 elderly

  15. "hCG priming" effect in controlled ovarian stimulation through a long protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antsaklis Aris

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, it has been demonstrated that, in patients down-regulated by GnRH analogues (GnRHa, a short-term pre-treatment with recombinant LH (rLH, prior to recombinant FSH (rFSH administration, increases the number of small antral follicle prior to FSH stimulation and the yield of normally fertilized embryos. However, no data exist in the literature regarding the potential beneficial effect of "hCG priming" in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH through a long GnRH-a protocol, which binds the same receptor (LH/hCGR, though it is a much more potent compared to LH. The primary aims of this study were to assess the effect of short-term pre-rFSH administration of hCG in women entering an ICSI treatment cycle on follicular development, quality of oocytes and early embryo development. The secondary endpoints were to record the effects on endometrial quality and pregnancy rate. Methods Patients with a history of at least one previous unsuccessful ICSI cycle were randomly assigned into two groups to receive treatment with either a long protocol with rFSH (control group or a long protocol with rFSH and pre-treatment with hCG (hCG group. In particular, in the latter group, a fixed 7 days course of 200 IU/day hCG was administered as soon as pituitary desensitization was confirmed. Results The mean number of oocytes retrieved was not significantly different between the two treatment groups, although the percentage of mature oocytes tended to be higher but not significantly different in hCG-treated patients. The percentage of patients with more than one grade 3 embryos was higher in the pre-treatment group, which also showed a higher pregnancy rate. Conclusion All the above clinical observations, in conjunction with previous data, suggest a point towards a beneficial "hCG priming" effect in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation through a long GnRH-a down-regulation protocol, particularly in patients with previous ART failures.

  16. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide inhibition as a potent diagnostic tool for gene function in plant biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Christer; Sun, Chuanxin; Ghebramedhin, Haile; Hoglund, Anna-Stina; Jansson, Christer

    2008-01-15

    Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) inhibition emerges as an effective means for probing gene function in plant cells. Employing this method we have established the importance of the SUSIBA2 transcription factor for regulation of starch synthesis in barley endosperm, and arrived at a model for the role of the SUSIBAs in sugar signaling and source-sink commutation during cereal endosperm development. In this addendum we provide additional data demonstrating the suitability of the antisense ODN technology in studies on starch branching enzyme activities in barley leaves. We also comment on the mechanism for ODN uptake in plant cells. Antisense ODNs are short (12-25 nt-long) stretches of single-stranded ODNs that hybridize to the cognate mRNA in a sequence-specific manner, thereby inhibiting gene expression. They are naturally occurring in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes where they partake in gene regulation and defense against viral infection. The mechanisms for antisense ODN inhibition are not fully understood but it is generally considered that the ODN either sterically interferes with translation or promotes transcript degradation by RNase H activation. The earliest indication of the usefulness of antisense ODN technology for the purposes of molecular biology and medical therapy was the demonstration in 1978 that synthetic ODNs complementary to Raos sarcoma virus could inhibit virus replication in tissue cultures of chick embryo fibroblasts. Since then the antisense ODN technology has been widely used in animal sciences and as an important emerging therapeutic approach in clinical medicine. However, antisense ODN inhibition has been an under-exploited strategy for plant tissues, although the prospects for plant cells in suspension cultures to take up single-stranded ODNs was reported over a decade ago. In 2001, two reports from Malho and coworker demonstrated the use of cationic-complexed antisense ODNs to suppress expression of genes encoding pollen

  17. 125I-labelled human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) as an elimination marker in the evaluation of hCG decline during chemotherapy in patients with testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, T B; Engbaek, F; Marqversen, J;

    1999-01-01

    days (3.6-6.8 days), whereas four out of five patients not achieving long-term remission had half-lives shorter than 3 days. After the third treatment cycle, eight patients who achieved long-term remission had hCG half-lives longer than 3 days (7.4-17.0 days). In these patients, the plasma...... disappearance of [125I]hCG was equivalent to that of hCG. Thus, the slow decline of hCG represented a slow plasma disappearance rather than a hCG production from vital tumour cells and could, consequently, not be used to select patients for additional or intensified chemotherapy. The concept of a fixed half...

  18. Constraining the progenitor of the Type Ia Supernova SN 2012cg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng-Wei; Stancliffe, Richard J.

    2016-06-01

    The nature of the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is not yet fully understood. In the single-degenerate (SD) scenario, the collision of the SN ejecta with its companion star is expected to produce detectable ultraviolet emission in the first few days after the SN explosion within certain viewing angles. It was recently found that the B - V colour of the nearby SN Ia SN 2012cg at about 16 d before the maximum B-band brightness was about 0.2 mag bluer than those of other normal SNe Ia, which was reported as the first evidence for excess blue light from the interaction of normal SN Ia ejecta with its companion star. In this work, we compare current observations for SN 2012cg from its pre-explosion phase to the late-time nebular phase with theoretical predictions from binary evolution and population synthesis calculations for a variety of popular progenitor scenarios. We find that a main-sequence donor or a carbon-oxygen white dwarf donor binary system is more likely to be the progenitor of SN 2012cg. However, both scenarios also predict properties which are in contradiction to the observed features of this system. Taking both theoretical and observational uncertainties into account, we suggest that it might be too early to conclude that SN 2012cg was produced from an explosion of a Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarf in the SD scenario. Future observations and improved detailed theoretical modelling are still required to place a more stringent constraint on the progenitor of SN 2012cg.

  19. A crucial role in fertility for the oyster angiotensin-converting enzyme orthologue CgACE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riviere, Guillaume; Fellous, Alexandre; Franco, Alban; Bernay, Benoit; Favrel, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is a highly conserved metallopeptidase. In mammals, the somatic isoform governs blood pressure whereas the germinal isoform (tACE) is required for fertility. In Ecdysozoans, ACE-like enzymes are implicated in reproduction. Despite ACE orthologues being present from bacteria to humans, their function(s) remain(s) unknown in distant organisms such as Lophotrochozoans. In silico analysis of an oyster (Crassostrea gigas) EST library suggested the presence of an ACE orthologue in molluscs. Primer walking and 5'-RACE revealed that the 1.9 kb cDNA encodes CgACE, a 632 amino acid protein displaying a conserved single active site and a putative C-terminal transmembrane anchor, thus resembling human tACE, as supported by molecular modelling. FRET activity assays and Maldi-TOF spectrometry indicated that CgACE is a functional dipeptidyl-carboxypeptidase which is active on Angiotensin I and sensitive to ACE inhibitors and chloride ion concentration. Immunocytochemistry revealed that, as its human counterpart, recombinant CgACE is synthesised as a transmembrane enzyme. RT-qPCR, in-situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry shed light on a tissue, and development stage, specific expression pattern for CgACE, which is increased in the gonad during spermatogenesis. The use of ACE inhibitors in vivo indicates that the dipeptidase activity of CgACE is crucial for the oyster fertilization. Our study demonstrates that a transmembrane active ACE is present in the oyster Crassostrea gigas, and for the first time ascribes a functional role for ACE in Lophotrochozoans. Its biological function in reproduction is conserved from molluscs to humans, a finding of particular evolutionary interest especially since oysters represent the most important aquaculture resource worldwide. PMID:22174750

  20. A crucial role in fertility for the oyster angiotensin-converting enzyme orthologue CgACE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Riviere

    Full Text Available Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE is a highly conserved metallopeptidase. In mammals, the somatic isoform governs blood pressure whereas the germinal isoform (tACE is required for fertility. In Ecdysozoans, ACE-like enzymes are implicated in reproduction. Despite ACE orthologues being present from bacteria to humans, their function(s remain(s unknown in distant organisms such as Lophotrochozoans. In silico analysis of an oyster (Crassostrea gigas EST library suggested the presence of an ACE orthologue in molluscs. Primer walking and 5'-RACE revealed that the 1.9 kb cDNA encodes CgACE, a 632 amino acid protein displaying a conserved single active site and a putative C-terminal transmembrane anchor, thus resembling human tACE, as supported by molecular modelling. FRET activity assays and Maldi-TOF spectrometry indicated that CgACE is a functional dipeptidyl-carboxypeptidase which is active on Angiotensin I and sensitive to ACE inhibitors and chloride ion concentration. Immunocytochemistry revealed that, as its human counterpart, recombinant CgACE is synthesised as a transmembrane enzyme. RT-qPCR, in-situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry shed light on a tissue, and development stage, specific expression pattern for CgACE, which is increased in the gonad during spermatogenesis. The use of ACE inhibitors in vivo indicates that the dipeptidase activity of CgACE is crucial for the oyster fertilization. Our study demonstrates that a transmembrane active ACE is present in the oyster Crassostrea gigas, and for the first time ascribes a functional role for ACE in Lophotrochozoans. Its biological function in reproduction is conserved from molluscs to humans, a finding of particular evolutionary interest especially since oysters represent the most important aquaculture resource worldwide.

  1. Development of SCINFUL-CG code to calculate response functions of scintillators in various shapes used for neutron measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, Akira; Kim, Eunjoo; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-10-01

    A Monte Carlo code SCINFUL has been utilized for calculating response functions of organic scintillators for high-energy neutron spectroscopy. However, the applicability of SCINFUL is limited to the calculations for cylindrical NE213 and NE110 scintillators. In the present study, SCINFUL-CG was developed by introducing a geometry specifying function and high-energy neutron cross section data into SCINFUL. The geometry package MARS-CG, the extended version of the CG (Combinatorial Geometry), was programmed into SCINFUL-CG to express various geometries of detectors. Neutron spectra in the regions specified by the CG can be evaluated by the track length estimator. The cross section data of silicon, oxygen and aluminum for neutron transport calculation were incorporated up to 100 MeV using the data of LA150 library. Validity of SCINFUL-CG was examined by comparing calculated results with those by SCINFUL and MCNP and experimental data measured using high-energy neutron fields. SCINFUL-CG can be used for the calculations of the response functions and neutron spectra in the organic scintillators in various shapes. The computer code will be applicable to the designs of high-energy neutron spectrometers and neutron monitors using the organic scintillators. The present report describes the new features of SCINFUL-CG and explains how to use the code. (author)

  2. Polyethyleneimine-functionalized boron nitride nanospheres as efficient carriers for enhancing the immunostimulatory effect of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang HJ

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Huijie Zhang,1 Shini Feng,1 Ting Yan,1 Chunyi Zhi,2 Xiao-Dong Gao,1 Nobutaka Hanagata3,41The Key Laboratory of Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biotechnology, Ministry of Education, School of Biotechnology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Kowlong, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China; 3Biomaterials Unit, International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics, National Institute for Materials Science, Ibaraki, Japan; 4Nanotechnology Innovation Station, National Institute for Materials Science, Ibaraki, JapanAbstract: CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs stimulate innate and adaptive immune responses. Thus, these molecules are promising therapeutic agents and vaccine adjuvants against various diseases. In this study, we developed a novel CpG ODNs delivery system based on polyethyleneimine (PEI-functionalized boron nitride nanospheres (BNNS. PEI was coated on the surface of BNNS via electrostatic interactions. The prepared BNNS–PEI complexes had positive zeta potential and exhibited enhanced dispersity and stability in aqueous solution. In vitro cytotoxicity assays revealed that the BNNS–PEI complexes with concentrations up to 100 µg/mL exhibited no obvious cytotoxicity. Furthermore, the positively charged surface of the BNNS–PEI complexes greatly improved the loading capacity and cellular uptake efficiency of CpG ODNs. Class B CpG ODNs loaded on the BNNS–PEI complexes enhanced the production of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α from peripheral blood mononuclear cells compared with CpG ODNs directly loaded on BNNS. Contrary to the free CpG ODNs or CpG ODNs directly loaded on BNNS, class B CpG ODNs loaded on the BNNS–PEI complexes induced interferon-α simultaneously. PEI coating may have changed the physical form of class B CpG ODNs on BNNS, which further affected their interaction with Toll-like receptor 9 and induced interferon

  3. QUASI-PERMUTATION REPRESENTATIONS OF ALTERNATING AND SYMMETRIC GROUPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The quantities c(G), q(G) and p(G) for finite groups were defined by H.Behravesh. In this article, these quantities for the alternating group An and the symmetric group Sn are calculated. It is shown thatc(G) = q(G) = p(G) = n,when G = An or Sn.

  4. Variation, evolution, and correlation analysis of C+G content and genome or chromosome size in different kingdoms and phyla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiu-Qing; Du, Donglei

    2014-01-01

    C+G content (GC content or G+C content) is known to be correlated with genome/chromosome size in bacteria but the relationship for other kingdoms remains unclear. This study analyzed genome size, chromosome size, and base composition in most of the available sequenced genomes in various kingdoms. Genome size tends to increase during evolution in plants and animals, and the same is likely true for bacteria. The genomic C+G contents were found to vary greatly in microorganisms but were quite similar within each animal or plant subkingdom. In animals and plants, the C+G contents are ranked as follows: monocot plants>mammals>non-mammalian animals>dicot plants. The variation in C+G content between chromosomes within species is greater in animals than in plants. The correlation between average chromosome C+G content and chromosome length was found to be positive in Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria (but not in other analyzed bacterial phyla), Ascomycota fungi, and likely also in some plants; negative in some animals, insignificant in two protist phyla, and likely very weak in Archaea. Clearly, correlations between C+G content and chromosome size can be positive, negative, or not significant depending on the kingdoms/groups or species. Different phyla or species exhibit different patterns of correlation between chromosome-size and C+G content. Most chromosomes within a species have a similar pattern of variation in C+G content but outliers are common. The data presented in this study suggest that the C+G content is under genetic control by both trans- and cis- factors and that the correlation between C+G content and chromosome length can be positive, negative, or not significant in different phyla. PMID:24551092

  5. Altered expression of CG5961, a putative Drosophila melanogaster homologue of FBXO9, provides a new model of Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merzetti, E M; Staveley, B E

    2016-01-01

    F-box proteins act as the protein recognition component of the Skp-Cul-F-box class of ubiquitin ligases. Two members of a gene sub-family encoding these proteins, FBXO7 and FBXO32, have been implicated in the onset and progression of degenerative disease. FBXO7 is responsible for rare genetic forms of Parkinson disease, while FBXO32 has been implicated in muscle wasting. The third gene in this family, FBXO9, is related to growth signaling, but the role of this gene in degenerative disease pathways has not been thoroughly investigated. Characterizing the putative Drosophila melanogaster homologue of this gene, CG5961, enables modeling and analysis of the consequence of targeted alteration of gene function and the effects on the overall health of the organism. Comparison of the protein domains of Homo sapiens FBXO9 and the putative D. melanogaster homologue CG5961 revealed a high degree of conservation between the protein domains. Directed expression of CG5961 (via CG5961(EP)) and inhibition of CG5961 (through a stable RNAi transgene) in the developing D. melanogaster eye caused abnormalities in adult structures (ommatidia and inter-ommatidial bristles). Directed expression of either CG5961 or CG5961-RNAi in the dopaminergic neurons led to a reduced lifespan compared to that in lacZ controls. We showed that protein structures of CG5961 and FBXO9 are highly similar and studied the effects of altered expression of CG5961 in neuron-rich tissues. Our results suggest that CG5961 activity is necessary for the proper formation of neuronal tissue and that targeted alteration of gene expression in dopaminergic neurons leads to a reduced lifespan. PMID:27173356

  6. Alternative security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains the following chapters: The Military and Alternative Security: New Missions for Stable Conventional Security; Technology and Alternative Security: A Cherished Myth Expires; Law and Alternative Security: Toward a Just World Peace; Politics and Alternative Security: Toward a More Democratic, Therefore More Peaceful, World; Economics and Alternative Security: Toward a Peacekeeping International Economy; Psychology and Alternative Security: Needs, Perceptions, and Misperceptions; Religion and Alternative Security: A Prophetic Vision; and Toward Post-Nuclear Global Security: An Overview

  7. The protein DIIIC-2, aggregated with a specific oligodeoxynucleotide and adjuvanted in alum, protects mice and monkeys against DENV-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Lázaro; Marcos, Ernesto; Izquierdo, Alienys; Lazo, Laura; Valdés, Iris; Ambala, Peris; Ochola, Lucy; Hitler, Rikoi; Suzarte, Edith; Álvarez, Mayling; Kimiti, Prisilla; Ndung'u, James; Kariuki, Thomas; Guzmán, María Guadalupe; Guillén, Gerardo; Hermida, Lisset

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we reported the ability of the chimeric protein DIIIC-2 (domain III of the dengue envelope protein fused to the capsid protein of dengue-2 virus), to induce immunity and protection in mice, when it is highly aggregated with a non-defined oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) and adjuvanted in alum. In this work, three different defined ODNs were studied as aggregating agents. Our results suggest that the nature of the ODN influences the capacity of protein DIIIC-2 to activate cell-mediated immunity in mice. Consequently, the ODN 39M was selected to perform further experiments in mice and nonhuman primates. Mice receiving the preparation 39M-DIIIC-2 were solidly protected against dengue virus (DENV) challenge. Moreover, monkeys immunized with the same preparation developed neutralizing antibodies, as measured by four different neutralization tests varying the virus strains and the cell lines used. Two of the immunized monkeys were completely protected against challenge, whereas the third animal had a single day of low-titer viremia. This is the first work describing the induction of short-term protection in monkeys by a formulation that is suitable for human use combining a recombinant protein from DENV with alum. PMID:25178969

  8. Apoptosis induction with polo-like kinase-1 antisense phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotide of colon cancer cell line SW480

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Fan; Shu Zheng; Ze-Feng Xu; Jia-Yi Ding

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of polo-like kinase-1 (PLK1) antisense phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotide (ASODN) on apoptosis and cell cycle of human colon cancer cell line 5W480.METHODS: After SW480 colon cancer cells were transfected with PLK1 ASODN, Northern and Western blot analyses were used to examine PLK1 gene expression in cancer cells. We studied apoptosis using terminal uridine deoxynucleotidyl nick end labeling. Apoptosis and cell cycle of SW480 cells were examined by fluorescence-activated cell sorter scan.RESULTS: The levels of PLK1 mRNA and protein were greatly inhibited by PLK1 ASODN in SW480 cancer cells transfected with PLK1 ASODN. Apoptosis index (AI) induced PLK1 ASODN in a time- and dose-dependent manner.Results from FLM showed that sub-2N DNA content of transfected cancer cells was significantly increased and arrested at G2/M compared with control groups.CONCLUSION: PLK1 ASODN can induce apoptosis of human colon cancer cell line SW480.

  9. Inhibitory effects of antisense phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides on pancreatic cancer cell Bxpc-3 telomerase activity and cell growth in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-Feng Wang; Ke-Jian Guo; Bei-Ting Huang; Yong Liu; Xiao-Yun Tang; Jian-Jun Zhang; Qiang Xia

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of telomerase hTERT gene antisense oligonucleotide (hTERT-ASO) on proliferation and telomerase activity of pancreatic cancer cell line Bxpc-3.METHODS: MTT assay was used to detect the effect of different doses of hTERT-ASO on proliferation of Bxpc-3 cell for different times. To study the anti-tumor activity,the cells were divided into there groups: Control group (pancreatic cancer cell Bxpc-3); antisense oligonucleotide (hTERT-ASO) group; and nosense oligonucleotide group decorated with phosphorothioate. Telomerase activity was detected using TRAP-PCR-ELISA. Cell DNA distribution was examined using flow cytometry assay.Cell apoptosis was observed by transmission electron microscope in each group.RESULTS: After treatment with 6 mmol/L hTERTASO, cell proliferation was inhibited in dose- and timedependent manner. The telomerase activity decreased after treatment with hTERT-ASO for 72 h. Flow cytometry showed the cell number of G0/G1 phase increased from 2.7% to 14.7%, the cell number of S phase decreased from 72.7% to 51.0%, and a sub-G1 stage cell apoptosis peak appeared in front of G1 stage.CONCLUSION: Telomerase antisense oligodeoxynucleotide can inhibit the proliferation of pancreatic cancer cell line Bxpc-3 and decrease the telomerase activity and increase cell apoptosis rate in vitro.

  10. Immunostimulatory Oligodeoxynucleotides Containing the CpG Motif are Effective as Immune Adjuvants in Tumor Antigen Immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, George J.; Liu, Hsin-Ming; Wooldridge, James E.; Dahle, Christopher E.; Krieg, Arthur M.

    1997-09-01

    Recent advances in our understanding of the immune response are allowing for the logical design of new approaches to cancer immunization. One area of interest is the development of new immune adjuvants. Immunostimulatory oligodeoxynucleotides containing the CpG motif (CpG ODN) can induce production of a wide variety of cytokines and activate B cells, monocytes, dendritic cells, and NK cells. Using the 38C13 B cell lymphoma model, we assessed whether CpG ODN can function as immune adjuvants in tumor antigen immunization. The idiotype served as the tumor antigen. Select CpG ODN were as effective as complete Freund's adjuvant at inducing an antigen-specific antibody response but were associated with less toxicity. These CpG ODN induced a higher titer of antigen-specific IgG2a than did complete Freund's adjuvant, suggesting an enhanced TH1 response. Mice immunized with CpG ODN as an adjuvant were protected from tumor challenge to a degree similar to that seen in mice immunized with complete Freund's adjuvant. We conclude that CpG ODN are effective as immune adjuvants and are attractive as part of a tumor immunization strategy.

  11. Systemic Administration of CpG Oligodeoxynucleotide and Levamisole as Adjuvants for Gene-Gun-Delivered Antitumor DNA Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Šmahel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA vaccines showed great promise in preclinical models of infectious and malignant diseases, but their potency was insufficient in clinical trials and is needed to be improved. In this study, we tested systemic administration of two conventional adjuvants, synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide carrying immunostimulatory CpG motifs (CpG-ODN and levamisole (LMS, and evaluated their effect on immune reactions induced by DNA vaccines delivered by a gene gun. DNA vaccination was directed either against the E7 oncoprotein of human papillomavirus type 16 or against the BCR-ABL1 oncoprotein characteristic for chronic myeloid leukemia. High doses of both adjuvants reduced activation of mouse splenic CD8+ T lymphocytes, but the overall antitumor effect was enhanced in both tumor models. High-dose CpG-ODN exhibited a superior adjuvant effect in comparison with any combination of CpG-ODN with LMS. In summary, our results demonstrate the benefit of combined therapy with gene-gun-delivered antitumor DNA vaccines and systemic administration of CpG-ODN or LMS.

  12. Immunogenicity and safety of liposome-vaccine encapsulating hepatitis B surface antigen and phosphodiester CpG oligodeoxynucleotides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHUN YAN HE; QING LIANG LIU

    2006-01-01

    CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODN) as adjuvant have been extensively studied in recent years. Phosphodiester CpG ODN (PO CpG ODN) can perfectly mimic bacterial DNA in enhancing immune response but are vulnerable to nucleases in vivo. This study aimed to evaluate the immunostimu latory potential and safety of phosphodiester CpG ODN encapsulated in nonphospholipid liposomes.BALB/c mice were immunized intramuscularly with different formulations of liposomes, CpG ODN and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). The results demonstrated that the encapsulated PO CpG ODN were protected against rapid degradation in vivo and retained their adjuvant activity. PO CpG ODN encapsulated with HBsAg in liposomes induced strong Th1-biased or Th1/Th2 mixed humoral immune response in mice with the magnitude similar to their phosphothioate equivalent in the same formulation.High IFN-gamma production induced by this formulation confirmed the generation of strong cellular immune response. Additionally, co-delivery of HBsAg and PO CpG ODN improved the immune response over that obtained with separate delivery. Safety experiment showed that liposome-encapsulaed PO CpG ODN and HBsAg caused mild systemic and moderate local adverse reaction. In conclusion, our data shows that PO CpG ODN encapsulated in liposomes fully exhibit their Th1-type adjuvant activity and act as a potential adjuvant for vaccines.

  13. LH and hCG action on the same receptor results in quantitatively and qualitatively different intracellular signalling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livio Casarini

    Full Text Available Human luteinizing hormone (hLH and chorionic gonadotropin (hCG act on the same receptor (LHCGR but it is not known whether they elicit the same cellular and molecular response. This study compares for the first time the activation of cell-signalling pathways and gene expression in response to hLH and hCG. Using recombinant hLH and recombinant hCG we evaluated the kinetics of cAMP production in COS-7 and hGL5 cells permanently expressing LHCGR (COS-7/LHCGR, hGL5/LHCGR, as well as cAMP, ERK1/2, AKT activation and progesterone production in primary human granulosa cells (hGLC. The expression of selected target genes was measured in the presence or absence of ERK- or AKT-pathways inhibitors. In COS-7/LHCGR cells, hCG is 5-fold more potent than hLH (cAMP ED(50: 107.1±14.3 pM and 530.0±51.2 pM, respectively. hLH maximal effect was significantly faster (10 minutes by hLH; 1 hour by hCG. In hGLC continuous exposure to equipotent doses of gonadotropins up to 36 hours revealed that intracellular cAMP production is oscillating and significantly higher by hCG versus hLH. Conversely, phospho-ERK1/2 and -AKT activation was more potent and sustained by hLH versus hCG. ERK1/2 and AKT inhibition removed the inhibitory effect on NRG1 (neuregulin expression by hLH but not by hCG; ERK1/2 inhibition significantly increased hLH- but not hCG-stimulated CYP19A1 (aromatase expression. We conclude that: i hCG is more potent on cAMP production, while hLH is more potent on ERK and AKT activation; ii hGLC respond to equipotent, constant hLH or hCG stimulation with a fluctuating cAMP production and progressive progesterone secretion; and iii the expression of hLH and hCG target genes partly involves the activation of different pathways depending on the ligand. Therefore, the LHCGR is able to differentiate the activity of hLH and hCG.

  14. Abnormal hCG levels in a patient with treated stage I seminoma: a diagnostic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitzpatrick David G

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We report the case of a patient with treated Stage Ia seminoma who was found to have an elevated beta human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG on routine follow – up. This instigated restaging and could have lead to commencement of chemotherapy. Case presentation The patient was a bodybuilder, and following a negative metastatic work – up, admitted to injecting exogenous beta hCG. This was done to reduce withdrawal symptoms from androgen abuse. The patient remains well eight years post diagnosis. Conclusion This case highlights the need for surgical oncologists to conduct vigilant screening of young male patients with a history of testicular germ cell tumours and who may indulge in steroid abuse.

  15. Future Directions in Computer Graphics and Visualization: From CG&A's Editorial Board

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Encarnacao, L. M.; Chuang, Yung-Yu; Stork, Andre; Kasik, David; Rhyne, Theresa-Marie; Avila, Lisa; Kohlhammer, Jorn; LaViola, Joseph; Tory, Melanie; Dill, John; Domik, Gitta; Owen, G. Scott; Wong, Pak C.

    2015-01-01

    With many new members joining the CG&A editorial board over the past year, and with a renewed commitment to not only document the state of the art in computer graphics research and applications but to anticipate and where possible foster future areas of scientific discourse and industrial practice, we asked editorial and advisory council members about where they see their fields of expertise going. The answers compiled here aren’t meant to be all encompassing or deterministic when it comes to the opportunities computer graphics and interactive visualization hold for the future. Instead, we aim to accomplish two things: give a more in-depth introduction of members of the editorial board to the CG&A readership and encourage cross-disciplinary discourse toward approaching, complementing, or disputing the visions laid out in this compilation.

  16. Kinetic Studies on the Total Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) IRMA Assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a two chains glycoprotein hormone normally found in blood and urine, only during pregnancy. It is secreted by placental tissue, beginning with the primitive trophoblast, almost from the time of implantation. The kinetics of the interaction between the hCG antigen and two matched antibodies, one labelled with radioactive isotope 125I (tracer) and the other is unlabelled and attached to a solid support (tube) , are studied using, two-sites (sandwich) Immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) technique. A new method for determining the rate constants, using an advanced computer program (RKY) based on the Nelder-Mead optimisation principle is introduced. The rate constants, at three variable temperatures and three different antigen concentrations as well as the half time of exchange (t) were calculated

  17. A new analytical threshold voltage model of cylindrical gate tunnel FET (CG-TFET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, S.; Mishra, G. P.

    2015-10-01

    The cylindrical gate tunnel FET (CG-TFET) is one of the potential candidates for future nano-technology, as it exhibit greater scaling capability and low subthreshold swing (SS) as compared to conventional MOSFET. In this paper, a new analytical approach is proposed to extract the gate dependent threshold voltage for CG-TFET. The potential distribution and electric field distribution in the cylindrical channel has been obtained using the 2-D Poisson's equation which in turn computes the shortest tunneling distance and tunneling current. The threshold voltage is extracted using peak transconductance change method based on the saturation of tunneling barrier width. The impact of scaling of effective oxide thickness, cylindrical pillar diameter and gate length on the threshold voltage has been investigated. The consistency of the proposed model is validated with the TCAD simulated results. The present model can be a handful for the study of switching behavior of TFET.

  18. Abnormal hCG levels in a patient with treated stage I seminoma: a diagnostic dilemma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Aherne, Noel J

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We report the case of a patient with treated Stage Ia seminoma who was found to have an elevated beta human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) on routine follow - up. This instigated restaging and could have lead to commencement of chemotherapy. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient was a bodybuilder, and following a negative metastatic work - up, admitted to injecting exogenous beta hCG. This was done to reduce withdrawal symptoms from androgen abuse. The patient remains well eight years post diagnosis. CONCLUSION: This case highlights the need for surgical oncologists to conduct vigilant screening of young male patients with a history of testicular germ cell tumours and who may indulge in steroid abuse.

  19. Parallel performance of a preconditioned CG solver for unstructured finite element applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shadid, J.N.; Hutchinson, S.A.; Moffat, H.K. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A parallel unstructured finite element (FE) implementation designed for message passing MIMD machines is described. This implementation employs automated problem partitioning algorithms for load balancing unstructured grids, a distributed sparse matrix representation of the global finite element equations and a parallel conjugate gradient (CG) solver. In this paper a number of issues related to the efficient implementation of parallel unstructured mesh applications are presented. These include the differences between structured and unstructured mesh parallel applications, major communication kernels for unstructured CG solvers, automatic mesh partitioning algorithms, and the influence of mesh partitioning metrics on parallel performance. Initial results are presented for example finite element (FE) heat transfer analysis applications on a 1024 processor nCUBE 2 hypercube. Results indicate over 95% scaled efficiencies are obtained for some large problems despite the required unstructured data communication.

  20. 125I-labelled human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) as an elimination marker in the evaluation of hCG decline during chemotherapy in patients with testicular cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, T. B.; Engbaek, F; Marqversen, J; Nielsen, S I; Kamby, C.; Maase, H von der

    1999-01-01

    The rate of reduction in the concentration of serum human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) following chemotherapy for germ cell tumours may follow a complex pattern, with longer apparent half-life during later stages of chemotherapy, even in patients treated successfully. The commonly used half-life of less than 3 days for hCG to monitor the effect of chemotherapy in patients with germ cell tumours of the testis may represent too simple a model. 125I-labelled hCG was injected intravenously in 27...

  1. The impact of the C-terminal domain on the gating properties of MscCG from Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Yoshitaka; Becker, Michael; Ebrahimian, Haleh; Konishi, Tomoyuki; Kawasaki, Hisashi; Krämer, Reinhard; Martinac, Boris

    2016-01-01

    The mechanosensitive (MS) channel MscCG from the soil bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum functions as a major glutamate exporter. MscCG belongs to a subfamily of the bacterial MscS-like channels, which play an important role in osmoregulation. To understand the structural and functional features of MscCG, we investigated the role of the carboxyl-terminal domain, whose relevance for the channel gating has been unknown. The chimeric channel MscS-(C-MscCG), which is a fusion protein between the carboxyl terminal domain of MscCG and the MscS channel, was examined by the patch clamp technique. We found that the chimeric channel exhibited MS channel activity in Escherichia coli spheroplasts characterized by a lower activation threshold and slow closing compared to MscS. The chimeric channel MscS-(C-MscCG) was successfully reconstituted into azolectin liposomes and exhibited gating hysteresis in a voltage-dependent manner, especially at high pipette voltages. Moreover, the channel remained open after releasing pipette pressure at membrane potentials physiologically relevant for C. glutamicum. This contribution to the gating hysteresis of the C-terminal domain of MscCG confers to the channel gating properties highly suitable for release of intracellular solutes. PMID:26494188

  2. Effect of molecular weight of polyethyleneimine on loading of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides onto flake-shell silica nanoparticles for enhanced TLR9-mediated induction of interferon-α

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoharan Y

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Yuvaraj Manoharan,1,* Qingmin Ji,2,* Tomohiko Yamazaki,2,3 Shanmugavel Chinnathambi,1 Song Chen,2,4 Ganesan Singaravelu,1 Jonathan P Hill,2 Katsuhiko Ariga,2,5 Nobutaka Hanagata3,6 1Department of Medical Physics, Anna University, Chennai, India; 2Research Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibarak, 3Graduate School of Life Science, Hokkaido University, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 4JSPS Research Fellow, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 5JST and CREST, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan; 6Nanotechnology Innovation Station, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Class B CpG oligodeoxynucleotides primarily interact with Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9 in B cells and enhance the immune system through induction of various interleukins including interleukin-6 in these immune cells. Although free class B CpG oligodeoxynucleotides do not induce interferon (IFN-α production, CpG oligodeoxynucleotide molecules have been reported to induce IFN-α when loaded onto nanoparticles. Here, we investigated the in vitro induction of IFN-α by a nanocarrier delivery system for class B CpG oligodeoxynucleotide molecules.Methods: For improving the capacity to load CpG oligodeoxynucleotide molecules, flake-shell SiO2 nanoparticles with a specific surface area approximately 83-fold higher than that of smooth-surfaced SiO2 nanoparticles were prepared by coating SiO2 nanoparticles with polyethyleneimine (PEI of three different number-average molecular weights (Mns 600, 1800, and 10,000 Da.Results: The capacity of the flake-shell SiO2 nanoparticles to load CpG oligodeoxynucleotides was observed to be 5.8-fold to 6.7-fold higher than that of smooth-surfaced SiO2 nanoparticles and was found to increase with an increase in the Mn of the PEI because the Mn contributed to the positive surface charge density of the nanoparticles. Further

  3. Ovary response and embryonic mortality in buffaloes treated with GnRH or hCG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zicarelli

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine whether treatment with a GnRH agonist or hCG in pregnant buffaloes on Day 25 after AI induce ovulation and increased P4 concentrations. The trial was carried out on 98 pluriparous buffaloes (DIM = 163 ± 75 days diagnosed pregnant by ultrasound on day 25 after AI, and randomly assigned in two treatment groups GnRH (12 μg of Buserelin Acetate i.m and hCG (1500 I.U. i.m. after measurements of follicular diameter and evaluated ovulation. Milk samples were collected on Days 30 and 45 after AI, to assess P4 concentrations in whey. Differences between the follicular diameters of ovulation and P4 were tested by ANOVA. The incidences of animals which responded to the two treatments were analysed by Chi square test. The treatments on day 25 after AI induced ovulation respectively in 68.6% (GnRH and 57.4% (hCG of the buffaloes. No differences were found between diameter of follicle ovulated. Ovulation increased milk whey progesterone levels and reduced embryonic mortality in buffalo cows.

  4. Iterative methods for solving Ax=b, GMRES/FOM versus QMR/BiCG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullum, J. [IBM Research Division, Yorktown Heights, NY (United States)

    1996-12-31

    We study the convergence of GMRES/FOM and QMR/BiCG methods for solving nonsymmetric Ax=b. We prove that given the results of a BiCG computation on Ax=b, we can obtain a matrix B with the same eigenvalues as A and a vector c such that the residual norms generated by a FOM computation on Bx=c are identical to those generated by the BiCG computations. Using a unitary equivalence for each of these methods, we obtain test problems where we can easily vary certain spectral properties of the matrices. We use these test problems to study the effects of nonnormality on the convergence of GMRES and QMR, to study the effects of eigenvalue outliers on the convergence of QMR, and to compare the convergence of restarted GMRES, QMR, and BiCGSTAB across a family of normal and nonnormal problems. Our GMRES tests on nonnormal test matrices indicate that nonnormality can have unexpected effects upon the residual norm convergence, giving misleading indications of superior convergence over QMR when the error norms for GMRES are not significantly different from those for QMR. Our QMR tests indicate that the convergence of the QMR residual and error norms is influenced predominantly by small and large eigenvalue outliers and by the character, real, complex, or nearly real, of the outliers and the other eigenvalues. In our comparison tests QMR outperformed GMRES(10) and GMRES(20) on both the normal and nonnormal test matrices.

  5. Constraining the Progenitor of the Type Ia Supernova SN 2012cg

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Zheng-Wei

    2016-01-01

    The nature of the progenitors of SNe Ia is not yet fully understood. In the single-degenerate (SD) scenario, the collision of the SN ejecta with its companion star is expected to produce detectable UV emission in the first few days after the SN explosion within certain viewing angles. It was recently found that the $B-V$ colour of the nearby SN Ia SN 2012cg at about sixteen days before the maximum $B$-band brightness was about 0.2 mag bluer than those of other normal SNe Ia, which was reported as the first evidence for excess blue light from the interaction of normal SN Ia ejecta with its companion star. In this work, we compare current observations for SN 2012cg from its pre-explosion phase to the late-time nebular phase with theoretical predictions from binary evolution and population synthesis calculations for a variety of popular progenitor scenarios. We find that a main-sequence donor or a carbon-oxygen white dwarf donor binary system is more likely to be the progenitor of SN 2012cg. However, both scenar...

  6. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus: expression and characterization of Bm86-CG in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Rodrigo Casquero; Andreotti, Renato; Leite, Fábio Pereira Leivas

    2011-01-01

    The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is responsible for great economic losses. It is mainly controlled chemically, with limitations regarding development of resistance to the chemicals. Vaccines may help control this parasite, thereby reducing tick pesticide use. In this light, we performed subcloning of the gene of the protein Bm86-GC, the homologue protein that currently forms the basis of vaccines (Gavac(TM) and TickGard(PLUS)) that have been developed against cattle ticks. The subcloning was done in the pPIC9 expression vector, for transformation in the yeast Pichia pastoris. This protein was characterized by expression of the recombinant Mut+ strain, which expressed greater quantities of protein. The expressed protein (rBm86-CG) was recognized in the Western-blot assay using anti-Gavac, anti-TickGard, anti-larval extract and anti-rBm86-CG polyclonal sera. The serum produced in cattle vaccinated with the antigen CG rBm86 presented high antibody titers and recognized the native protein. The rBm86-GC has potential relevance as an immunogen for vaccine formulation against cattle ticks. PMID:21722483

  7. T2CG1, a package of preconditioned conjugate gradient solvers for TOUGH2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the computational work in the numerical simulation of fluid and heat flows in permeable media arises in the solution of large systems of linear equations. The simplest technique for solving such equations is by direct methods. However, because of large storage requirements and accumulation of roundoff errors, the application of direct solution techniques is limited, depending on matrix bandwidth, to systems of a few hundred to at most a few thousand simultaneous equations. T2CG1, a package of preconditioned conjugate gradient solvers, has been added to TOUGH2 to complement its direct solver and significantly increase the size of problems tractable on PCs. T2CG1 includes three different solvers: a Bi-Conjugate Gradient (BCG) solver, a Bi-Conjugate Gradient Squared (BCGS) solver, and a Generalized Minimum Residual (GMRES) solver. Results from six test problems with up to 30,000 equations show that T2CG1 (1) is significantly (and invariably) faster and requires far less memory than the MA28 direct solver, (2) it makes possible the solution of very large three-dimensional problems on PCs, and (3) that the BCGS solver is the fastest of the three in the tested problems. Sample problems are presented related to heat and fluid flow at Yucca Mountain and WIPP, environmental remediation by the Thermal Enhanced Vapor Extraction System, and geothermal resources

  8. The expression of CG9940 affects the adaptation of cardiac function, mobility, and lifespan to exercise in aging Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Deng-Tai; Zheng, Lan; Ni, Liu; Wang, Hui; Feng, Yue; Zhang, Min

    2016-10-01

    The CG9940 gene, which encodes the NAD(+) synthase protein in Drosophila, is conserved in human, zebra fish, and mosquito. NAD(+) synthase is a homodimer, which catalyzes the final step in de novo nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) biosynthesis, an amide transfer from either ammonia or glutamine to nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide (NaAD). Both the CG9940 and exercise are closely relative to NAD(+) level, and NAD(+) plays important roles not only in energy metabolism and mitochondrial functions but also in aging. In our study, the expression of CG9940 was changed by UAS/GAL4 system in Drosophila. Flies were trained by a training device. Cardiac function was analyzed by M-mode traces, climbing index was measured through negative geotaxis assay, and lifespan was measured via lifespan assays. The important new findings from our present study included the following: (1) the expression of the CG9940 could affect cardiac function, mobility, and lifespan in Drosophila. Over-expression of the CG9940 gene had positive effects on Drosophila, such as enhanced aging cardiac output, reduced heart failure, delayed age-related mobility decline, and prolonged lifespan, but lower-expression of the CG9940 had negative effects on them. (2) Different expressions of the CG9940 resulted in different influences on the adaptation of cardiac function, mobility, and lifespan to exercise in aging Drosophila. Both normal-expression and over-expression of the CG9940 resulted in positive influences on the adaptation of cardiac functions, mobility, and lifespan to exercise in aging Drosophila such as exercise slowed age-related decline of cardiac function, mobility and extent of lifespan in these flies, while lower-expression of the CG9940 led to negative impacts on the adaptation of mobility and lifespan to exercise in Drosophila. PMID:27448710

  9. CG125顶杆式汽油机噪声的抑制%Noise Suppression of CG125 Push-rod Type Petrol Engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯宗德

    2004-01-01

    CG125摩托车汽油机采用的是顶置式气门,下置凸轮驱动配气机构,这种配气机构的气门与凸轮轴相距较远,需要用顶杆(推杆)及摇臂等传动零部件。高速运行时,配气机构的传动组件会产生较大的惯性力,因而加剧了零部件的振动与磨损,产生较大的敲击和碰撞声。

  10. Antibodies and antisense oligodeoxynucleotides to μ-opioid receptors, selectively block the effects of μ-opioid agonists on intestinal transit and permeability in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Pol, Olga; Valle, Lluís; Sánchez-Blázquez, Pilar; Garzón, Javier; Puig, Margarita M.

    1999-01-01

    We have studied the effects of μ and δ opioids on intestinal function (permeability, PER; gastrointestinal transit, GIT), and their antagonism after the intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of specific antibodies (ABs) or antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) to μ-receptors (OR). Central versus peripheral site/s of action of subcutaneous (s.c.) μ-opioids, were also assessed.Male Swiss CD-1 mice were used. GIT was measured with charcoal and PER by the passage of 51Cr-EDTA from blood...

  11. CpG Oligodeoxynucleotide Inhibits Cockroach-Induced Asthma via Induction of IFN-γ+ Th1 Cells or Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells in the Lung

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Do-Hyun; Sohn, Jung-Ho; Park, Hong-Jai; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Park, Jung-Won; Choi, Je-Min

    2015-01-01

    Purpose CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG-ODN), a TLR9 agonist, activates innate immunity and induces Th1 response. Although the immune modulatory effect of CpG-ODN has been extensively studied, its function in cockroach extract-induced allergic asthma has not been studied. Here, we investigated the inhibitory function of CpG-ODN in cockroach extract-induced asthma in mice with different treatment schemes. Methods Scheme 1: BALB/C mice were intra-nasally co-administered by cockroach extract and C...

  12. Effect of cisplatin and c-myb antisense phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides combination on a human colon carcinoma cell line in vitro and in vivo.

    OpenAIRE

    Del Bufalo, D; Cucco, C.; C. Leonetti; Citro, G.; D'Agnano, I; M. Benassi; Geiser, T; Zon, G; Calabretta, B; Zupi, G.

    1996-01-01

    We investigated the effect of c-myb antisense phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides [(S)ODNs] and cisplatin (CDDP) combination on the human colon carcinoma cell line LoVo Dx both in vitro and in nude mice bearing LoVo Dx solid tumour. We show that antisense (S)ODN treatment decreases c-myb mRNA and protein expression, induces growth arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, and inhibits cell proliferation. In vivo treatment with c-myb antisense (S)ODNs results in a reduction in tumour growth...

  13. Using Surface-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry to Detect ss- and ds-Oligodeoxynucleotides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Tsen; Huang, Ming-Feng; Chang, Huan-Tsung

    2013-06-01

    We applied surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS) with HgTe nanostructures as the matrix for the detection of single- and double-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides (ss-ODNs and ds-ODNs). The concentrations of surfactant and additives (metal ions, an amine) and the pH and ionic strength of the sample matrix played significantly different roles in the detection of ss- and ds-ODNs with various sequences. In the presence of Brij 76 (1.5 %), Hg2+ (7.5 μM), and cadaverine (10 μM) at pH 5.0, this SALDI-MS approach allowed the simultaneous detection of T15, T20, T33, and T40, with limits of detection at the femtomole-to-picomole level and sample-to-sample intensity variation <23 %. In the presence of Ag+ (1 μM) and cadaverine (10 μM) at pH 7.0, this technique allowed the detection of randomly sequenced ss- and ds-ODNs at concentrations down to the femtomole level. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first to report the detection of ss-ODNs (up to 50-mer) and ds-ODNs (up to 30 base pairs) through the combination of SALDI-MS with HgTe nanostructures as matrices. We demonstrated the practicality of this approach through analysis of a single nucleotide polymorphism that determines the fate of the valine residue in the β-globin of sickle cell megaloblasts.

  14. CpG oligodeoxynucleotide-loaded PAMAM dendrimer-coated magnetic nanoparticles promote apoptosis in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavi Pourianazar, Negar; Gunduz, Ufuk

    2016-03-01

    One major application of nanotechnology in cancer treatment involves designing nanoparticles to deliver drugs, oligonucleotides, and genes to cancer cells. Nanoparticles should be engineered so that they could target and destroy tumor cells with minimal damage to healthy tissues. This research aims to develop an appropriate and efficient nanocarrier, having the ability of interacting with and delivering CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODNs) to tumor cells. CpG-ODNs activate Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), which can generate a signal cascade for cell death. In our study, we utilized three-layer magnetic nanoparticles composed of a Fe3O4 magnetic core, an aminosilane (APTS) interlayer and a cationic poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer. This will be a novel targeted delivery system to enhance the accumulation of CpG-ODN molecules in tumor cells. The validation of CpG-ODN binding to DcMNPs was performed using agarose gel electrophoresis, UV-spectrophotometer, XPS analyses. Cytotoxicity of conjugates was assessed in MDA-MB231 and SKBR3 cancer cells based on cell viability by XTT assay and flow cytometric analysis. Our results indicated that the synthesized DcMNPs having high positive charges on their surface could attach to CpG-ODN molecules via electrostatic means. These nanoparticles with the average sizes of 40±10nm bind to CpG-ODN molecules efficiently and induce cell death in MDA-MB231 and SKBR3 tumor cells and could be considered a suitable targeted delivery system for CpG-ODN in biomedical applications. The magnetic core of these nanoparticles represents a promising option for selective drug targeting as they can be concentrated and held in position by means of an external magnetic field. PMID:26898428

  15. Calculation of DNA strand breakage by neutralisation effect after 125I decays in a synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide using charge transfer theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decay of the radioisotope 125I into 125Te is typically followed by the emission of two groups of approximately 10 electrons each via Auger processes. In deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) with 125I incorporated, these electrons produce various types of damage to DNA, e.g. single strand breaks (SSBs) and double strand breaks (DSBs) through direct actions of physical tracks, or indirect actions of radicals produced in water. Among the direct actions one should consider not only the excitation and ionisation of DNA by Auger electrons, but also the neutralisation of highly charged 125mTe ions with electrons from neighbouring molecules. Comparison between experiment and simulation done recently revealed that without including neutralisation effect the simulated yield of SSBs was 50% less than the measured result. In the present work a calculation of DNA strand breakage by the neutralization effect in a 41-mer synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide (oligo-DNA) model was done using the charge transfer theory. Calculation based on transfer rate using the newly evaluated electronic coupling of DNA bases showed that the positive charge (hole) transfer rate is of the order of magnitudes of several 1013s-1, implying that a charge higher than 10 units might not build on a 125mTe atom. The potential energy accumulated on the decay base is transferred to bases along the DNA chain nearby and destroys those bases and ionises the sugar-phosphate group, leading a DNA SSB with a frequency of 0.2% per eV in average. (authors)

  16. EFFECT OF STENT ABSORBED c-myc ANTISENSE OLIGODEOXYNUCLEOTIDE ON SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS APOPTOSIS IN RABBIT CAROTID ARTERY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新霞; 崔长琮; 李江; 崔翰斌; 徐仓宝; 朱参战

    2002-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of gelatin coated Platinium-Iridium stent absorbed c-myc antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ASODN) on smooth muscle cells apoptosis in a normal rabbit carotid arteries. Methods Gelatin coated Platinium-Iridium stents were implanted in the right carotid arteries of 32 rabbits under vision. Animals were randomly divided into control group and treated group receiving c-myc ASODN (n=16, respectively). On 7, 14, 30 and 90 days following the stenting procedure ,morphometry for caculation of neointimal area and mean neointimal thickness were performed.The expression of c-myc protein was detected by immunohistochemical method. Apoptotic smooth muscle cells was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). Results At 7 and 14 days after stenting,there were no detectable apoptotic cells in both groups. The apoptotic cells occurred in the neointima 30 and 90 days after stenting, and the number of apoptotic cells at 30 days were less [4.50±1.29 vs 25.75±1.89 (number/0.1mm2)] than that at 90 days [13.50±1.91 vs 41.50±6.46 (number/0.1mm2)]. Meanwhile c-myc ASODN induced more apoptotic cells than the control group(P<0.0001). c-myc protein expression was weak positive or negative in treated group and positive in control group.Conclusion c-myc ASODN can induce smooth muscle cells apoptosis after stenting in normal rabbit carotid arteries,and it can be used to prevent in-stent restenosis.

  17. Structure-efficacy relationships of immunostimulatory activity of CpG-containing oligodeoxynucleotides on mouse spleen cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-yan DU; Ai-guo JI; Zhong-ming TANG; Shao-you XIA; Hai-feng SONG; Na LI; Ming-mei SHANG; Jia ZOU; Qing-qing WANG; Lun OU; Xiao SUN

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To study the relationship between primary structures of oligodeoxynucleo-tides (ODN) containing unmethylated deoxycytidyl-deoxyguanosine (CpG)dinucleotide motifs and their immunostimulatory activities in mouse spleen cells.Methods: A series of CpG ODN with different primary structures were synthesized.Their capabilities to stimulate mouse spleen cell proliferation were determined by[3H]thymidine incorporation assay. Cytokine (interleukin JILl-6, IL-12, and IFN-α)secretion spectra induced by CpG ODN were assessed by ELISA. The ability ofCpG ODN to activate natural killer cells was evaluated by standard 4 h 51Cr-release assay. Flow cytometry was utilized to examine the expressions of various lymphocyte surface molecules on diverse immunocytes. An effective CpG ODN for routine,ODN1826, was set as the template of modification and the positive control.Results: The immunostimulatory activities of CpG ODN with different sequences and compositions varied markedly, both in character and in extent. It was useless for improving the immunostimulatory activity of ODN1826 by simply increasing the functional hexameric CpG motif number, modifying the site of CpG motifs, or changing the distance between multi-CpG motifs. However, an addition of a selfcomplementary palindrome structure at the 3'-end, but not the 5'-end of CpG ODN,aroused marked improvement in its activity. Several designed ODN had superior comprehensive immunostimulatory properties compared to ODN 1826. Conclusion:The immunostimulatory activity ofa CpG ODN was relevant to its primary structure.It was useless for promoting immunostimulatory activity to simply change CpG motif number, space, or distance. The 3'-end palindrome structure of CpG ODN is associated with enhanced immunostimulatory activity.

  18. A specific CpG oligodeoxynucleotide induces protective antiviral responses against grass carp reovirus in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hang; Yuan, Gailing; Su, Jianguo

    2016-07-01

    CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) show strong immune stimulatory activity in vertebrate, however, they possess specific sequence feature among species. In this study, we screened out an optimal CpG ODN sequence for grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), 1670A 5'-TCGAACGTTTTAACGTTTTAACGTT-3', from six published sequences and three sequences designed by authors based on grass carp head kidney mononuclear cells and CIK (C. idella kidney) cells proliferation. VP4 mRNA expression was strongly inhibited by CpG ODN 1670A in CIK cells with GCRV infection, showing its strong antiviral activity. The mechanism via toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9)-mediated signaling pathway was measured by real-time quantitative RT-PCR, and TLR21 did not play a role in the immune response to CpG ODN. The late up-regulation of CiRIG-I mRNA expression indicated that RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) signaling pathway participated in the immune response to CpG ODN which is the first report on the interaction between CpG and RLRs. We also found that the efficient CpG ODN can activates interferon system. Infected with GCRV, type I interferon expression was reduced and type II interferon was induced by the efficient CpG ODN in CIK cells, especially IFNγ2, suggesting that IFNγ2 played an important role in response to the efficient CpG ODN. These results provide a theoretical basis and new development trend for further research on CpG and the application of CpG vaccine adjuvant in grass carp disease control. PMID:26972738

  19. The Effect of TLR9 Agonist CpG Oligodeoxynucleotides on the Intestinal Immune Response of Cobia (Rachycentron canadum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omkar Byadgi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytosine-guanine oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG ODN motifs of bacterial DNA are recognized through toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9 and are potent activators of innate immunity. However, the interaction between TLR9 and CpG ODN in aquatic species has not been well characterized. Hence, cobia TLR9 isoform B (RCTLR9B was cloned and its expression and induction in intestine were investigated. RCTLR9B cDNA consists of 3113bp encoding 1009 amino acids containing three regions, leucine rich repeats, transmembrane domain, and toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR domain. Intraperitoneal injection of CpG ODN 2395 upregulated RCTLR9 A and B and MyD88 and also induced the expressions of Mx, chemokine CC, and interleukin IL-1β. Cobia intraperitoneally injected with CpG ODN 1668 and 2395 had increased survival rates after challenge with Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida. In addition, formulation of CpG ODN with formalin-killed bacteria (FKB and aluminum hydroxide gel significantly increased expressions of RCTLR9 A (50 folds and B (30 folds isoforms at 10 dpi (CpG ODN 1668 and MyD88 (21 folds at 6 dpv (CpG ODN 2395. Subsequently, IL-1β increased at 6 dpv in 1668 group. No histopathological damage and inflammatory responses were observed in the injected cobia. Altogether, these results facilitate CpG ODNs as an adjuvant to increase bacterial disease resistance and efficacy of vaccines in cobia.

  20. Interferon-α/β receptor-mediated selective induction of a gene cluster by CpG oligodeoxynucleotide 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakiguchi Hiroshi

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oligodeoxynucleotides containing unmethylated CpG motifs (CpG ODN are known to exert a strong adjuvant effect on Th1 immune responses. Although several genes have been reported, no comprehensive study of the gene expression profiles in human cells after stimulation with CpG ODN has been reported. Results This study was designed to identify a CpG-inducible gene cluster that potentially predicts for the molecular mechanisms of clinical efficacy of CpG ODN, by determining mRNA expression in human PBMC after stimulation with CpG ODN. PBMCs were obtained from the peripheral blood of healthy volunteers and cultured in the presence or absence of CpG ODN 2006 for up to 24 hours. The mRNA expression profile was evaluated using a high-density oligonucleotide probe array, GeneChip®. Using hierarchical clustering-analysis, out of a total of 10,000 genes we identified a cluster containing 77 genes as having been up-regulated by CpG ODN. This cluster was further divided into two sub-clusters by means of time-kinetics. (1 Inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and GM-CSF were up-regulated predominantly 3 to 6 hours after stimulation with CpG ODN, presumably through activation of a transcription factor, NF-κB. (2 Interferon (IFN-inducible anti-viral proteins, including IFIT1, OAS1 and Mx1, and Th1 chemoattractant IP-10, were up-regulated predominantly 6 to 24 hours after stimulation. Blocking with mAb against IFN-α/β receptor strongly inhibited the induction of these IFN-inducible genes by CpG ODN. Conclusion This study provides new information regarding the possible immunomodulatory effects of CpG ODN in vivo via an IFN-α/β receptor-mediated paracrine pathway.

  1. Effect of MUC2 Antisense Oligodeoxynucleotide on Cell Proliferation, Adhesion, and Proteolytic Enzyme in Human Gastric Carcinoma in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ya-ying; YI yong-fen; ZHANG Xiao-yan; XIAO Chun-wei; LIN Xiao; ZHOU Wen-wen

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of MUC2 antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ASODN) on cell proliferation, adhesion and proteolytic enzyme in human gastric carcinoma cell line (SGC7901). Methods: Phosphorothioate MUC2 ASODN was synthesized and packaged by lipofectin, and then transfected to SGC7901 cells. The expression of MUC2 mRNA and protein after transfection was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemical method respectively,and the effect of MUC2 ASODN on cell proliferation,adhesion and proteolytic enzyme was determined by flow cytometry(FCM), MTT method, Rose Bengal and immunohistochemical method. Results: Compared with the blank control group, ASODN efficiently downregulated the expression of MUC2 mRNA and protein in SGC7901 cells 48h after transfection(P<0.01). Various concentrations of ASODN could significantly inhibit the growth of SGC7901, and the inhibition peaked at the 48th hour after transfection(P<0.05). The apoptosis rate of the experimental group was about 4.38%, and the percentage of S-phase cells rose while G0/G1-phase cells fell because most of them were blocked at S-phase. In addition, cells treated with MUC2 ASODN showed lower adhesion ability with matrix and endothelial cells than control cells in vitro(P<0.01). By immunohistochemical method, the upregulation of E-cadherin proteins and the downregulation of MMP2 and cathepsinD proteins were also observed(P<0.05). Conclusion: MUC2 ASODN could efficiently inhibit SGC7901 cell proliferation, reduce cell adhesion ability and downregulate the expression levels of proteolytic enzyme in vitro.

  2. Assessment and association of two useful tumour markers: alpha feto protein and human chornionic gonodotropin (beta hCG) hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was designed to determine serum Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and beta-h Chornionic Gonodotropin hormone (beta-hCG) levels among adult Pakistani population, and to observe their correlation. Serum AFP and beta-hCG levels were evaluated, using Micro-particle Enzyme Immuno Assay (MEIA) technology of M/s Abbott Laboratories. Data were compared using students t-test and correlation was computed. In the patients advised serum AFP assessment, 52% had normal AFP levels. comprising 37% male and 63% female subjects. For patients having a non-pathological picture, AFP levels varied non-significantly (p>0.05) between the Genders however, age varied highly significantly (p0.05) and highly significant (p0.05). Comparison of the population in the same age groups of both genders revealed significant (p0.05), due to a large standard error. Although the differences in beta-hCG levels were highly significant (p0.05). Among the studied cases, 67% patients had normal and 33% patients had raised beta-hCG levels. Beta-hCG levels show a decreasing trend with increasing age and beta-hCG levels were statistically significant (p<0.05) when patients under 50 years of age were compared with patients above 50 years. The coefficient of correlation between serum AFP and beta- hCG levels was 0.996454, which indicated a very strong. Significant positive correlation between the two tumour markers. The study showed that both serum AFP and beta-hCG are useful tumour markers and had a very strong positive correlation. (author)

  3. Addition of low dose hCG to rFSh benefits older women during ovarian stimulation for IVF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomaa Hala

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To compare the outcome of IVF cycles in women receiving controlled ovarian stimulation with recFSH or recFSH plus low dose hCG. Methods A retrospective case control study, performed at a private practice affiliated with an academic institute. Patients were infertile women who were treated with IVF/ICSI and controlled ovarian stimulation in a long GnRH agonist protocol using either low dose hCG in addition to recFSH [N = 88] or recFSH alone [N = 99]. Primary outcomes were mean FSH dose, number of mature eggs, number of fertilized eggs, and serum levels of estradiol. Secondary outcomes were endometrial thickness, cycle cancellations and pregnancy rates. Results A significant increase in number of mature and fertilized eggs was observed in women over 40 years of age using low dose hCG in addition to recFSH. The estradiol level was significantly higher on the day of hCG administration and the serum level of FSH on cycle day 7 and on the day of hCG administration were lower. Conclusion Addition of low dose hCG to recFSH compared with recFSH alone significantly modified cycle characteristics in patients >/= 40 years and could be of potential benefit for IVF cycles in older infertile women.

  4. Recovery of uranium from UCF liquid waste by anion exchange resin CG-400: Breakthrough curves, elution behavior and modeling studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Amberlite CG-400 anion exchange resin has been used for the recovery of uranium. ► The breakthrough curves and elution behaviors of CG-400 resin have been studied in detailed. ► The mathematical models have been used to analyze the experimental data. ► The CG-400 resin has been applied successfully for uranium recovery from UCF liquid waste. - Abstract: Continuous fixed-bed column studies were carried out by using Amberlite CG-400 anion exchange resin for the recovery of uranium from aqueous solutions (synthetic solutions and uranium conversion facility (UCF) liquid waste). Effects of operating parameters such as flow rate and bed height were studied. The breakthrough capacity decreases with increasing flow rate, but this dependence was not significant with a long column. The maximum breakthrough capacity of uranium ions were achieved by CG-400 resin at a flow rate of 0.2 mL min−1 and bed height 9.1 cm (4 g resin). The elution behavior of uranium from CG-400 resin by various eluents have been investigated and the results show that 0.5 mol L−1 HNO3 is a good eluent for uranium recovery. The Adams–Bohart, Thomas, Yoon–Nelson and Dose–Response models were applied to the experimental data to determine the characteristic parameters of the column for process design using linear regression. The breakthrough curve calculated from the Dose–Response model was in best agreement with the experimental data

  5. Early hCG addition to rFSH for ovarian stimulation in IVF provides better results and the cDNA copies of the hCG receptor may be an indicator of successful stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraskevis Dimitris

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A simple, safe and cost-effective treatment protocol in ovarian stimulation is of great importance in IVF practice, especially in the case of previous unsuccessful attempts. hCG has been used as a substitute of LH because of the degree of homology between the two hormones. The main aim of this prospective randomized study was to determine, for the first time, whether low dose hCG added to rFSH for ovarian stimulation could produce better results compared to the addition of rLH in women entering IVF-ET, especially in those women that had previous IVF failures. An additional aim was to find an indicator that would allow us to follow-up ovarian stimulation and, possibly, modify it in order to achieve a better IVF outcome; and that indicator may be the cDNA copies of the LH/hCG receptor. Group A patients (n = 58 were administered hCG and Group B rLH (n = 56 in addition to rFSH in the first days of ovarian stimulation. The number of follicles and oocytes and, most importantly, implantation and pregnancy rates were shown to be statistically significantly higher in the hCG group. This study has also determined, for the first time to our best knowledge, m-RNA for LH/hCG receptors in the lymphocytes of peripheral blood 40 h before ovum pick-up. cDNA levels of the hCG receptor after ovarian stimulation were significantly higher among women receiving hCG compared to those receiving LH. In addition, higher levels were encountered among women with pregnancy compared to those without, although this was not statistically significant due to the small number of pregnancies. It seems that hCG permits a highly effective and more stable occupancy of rLH/hCG receptors and gives more follicles and more oocytes. The determination of cDNA copies could be, in the future, a marker during ovulation induction protocols and of course a predictor for the outcome of ART in the special subgroup of patients with previous failures.

  6. A trust region-CG algorithm for deblurring problem inatmospheric image reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彦飞; 袁亚湘; 张洪超

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we solve large scale ill-posed problems, particularly the image restoration problem in atmospheric imaging sciences, by a trust region-CG algorithm. Image restoration involves the removal or minimization of degradation (blur, clutter, noise, etc.) in an image using a priori knowledge about the degradation phenomena. Our basic technique is the so-called trust region method, while the subproblem is solved by the truncated conjugate gradient method, which has been well developed for well-posed problems.The trust region method, due to its robustness in global convergence, seems to be a promising way to deal with ill-posed problems.

  7. Investigating the Application of 3D CG Technologies in Fashion Education

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    The research aims to develop new and innovative learning and teaching methods, through the application of 3D CG technologies in Fashion and Textiles education. The research poster presents a series of investigations and experiments into the use of 3D technologies by BA/BSc & MA/MSc students. Case study methods are used to explore and gather data on practice and teaching and learning in HE fashion/textiles and clothing educational environments. 3D laser scanning technology, high cost and low...

  8. Influences of Different Instrument Standard Fluid hCG Molecular Variant On hCG Detection Results%不同的仪器标准液hCG分子变异体对hCG结果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张忠源; 胡望平; 池细俤; 叶桂云; 胡盈莹; 闫炳龙; 张永平

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the rusults of human chorionicvilli gonadotropin (hCG) in serum (standard solution) with different detection system, different hospitals in Fujian Province and study their possible relationship with hCG relative molecular variants. Methods Beckman Access and Tosh AIA - 1800 immune machine detection system were used respectively to test the different concentrations of quality control things and the hCG of 44 patients. The hCG quality control data were collected from 2007 to 2009 in Fujian Province. And then literature to analysis the hCG molecular variants detection data were collected. Results Even with the same quality control things, the same serum and the same hCG relative molecular variants displayed different test results in different instrument detection system with a significant difference. The linear equation of Beckman ACCESS and Tosh AIA - 1800 was Y = 1. 3336 X - 70.199. The result of clinical serum hCG, quality control things in Tosh AIA - 1800 was 133. 8% , 137. 2% , and in Abbott was 132% . These two results were higher than those of the Beckmen ACCESS which displayed 100% . Conclusion The hCG molecular variants with different quality control things infulence the hCG detection results. Because of the hCG molecular variants, different instruments will display different hCG detection reuslts.%目的 探讨血清(标准物)中人绒毛膜促性腺激素(hCG) 在不同的检测系统、福建省各医院的测定结果,及其与hCG相关分子变异体可能的关系.方法 分别应用贝克曼Access、日本东曹(Tosh AIA-1800),在此两个免疫仪器检测系统检测不同浓度的质控物和44例患者血清的hCG;并收集福建省2007~2009年hCG质控数据、再收集文献hCG相关分子变异体检测数据进行分析.结果 同一质控物、同一血清、同一hCG相关分子变异体对不同的仪器检测系统,显示不同的测定结果,有显著差异.贝克曼Access与Tosh AIA-1800线性方程为Y=1

  9. Statistical Moments Extracted from Eight Bins Formed by CG Partitioning of Histogram Modified using Linear Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. B. Kekre

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the novel idea for feature extraction based on bins approach for CBIR. This work has fulfilled all the criterion of efficient feature extraction method like dimensionality reduction, fast extraction and efficient retrieval. Main idea used in feature extraction is based on the histogram and the linear functions used to modify it. Each BMP image in database is separated in R, G and B planes. We have calculated the histogram for each of them which are modified using linear equations. These modified histograms are partitioned using CG so that mass of intensities of the image pixels will be distributed uniformly in two parts. This CG partitioning of three image planes leads to generate the eight bins. Information extracted from these bins is in the form of statistical first four absolute moments namely MEAN (MEAN, Standard deviation (STD, Skewness (SKEW, and Kurtosis (KURTO. Each of these moments are computed separately for R, G and B colors. This generates four types of feature vectors of dimension eight. Database of 2000 BMP images is used for the experimentation. Multiple feature vector databases are prepared as part of preprocessing work of this CBIR system. Comparison of query and database feature vector is carried out using three similarity measures namely Euclidean distance (ED, Absolute distance (AD and Cosine correlation distance (CD. To evaluate the retrieval efficiency of this system we have used three parameters, Precision Recall Cross over Point (PRCP, Longest String (LS and Length of String to Retrieve all Relevant (LSRR.

  10. Viewing MORSE-CG radiation transport with 3-D color graphics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we present the coupling of MORSE-CG with the SLAC Unified Graphics System (UGS77) through an add-on package called MORSGRAF which allows for real-time display of neutron and photon tracks in the Monte Carlo simulation. In addition to displaying the myriad of complicated geometries that can be created with the MORSE Combinatorial Geometry program, MORSGRAF permits color tagging of neutrons (green) and photons (red) with the variation of track intensity an indicator of the energy of the particle. Particle types can be switched off and on by means of a mouse-icon system, and the perspective can be changed (i.e., rotated, translated, and zoomed). MORSGRAF also allows one to display the propagation of radiation through shields and mazes on an ordinary graphics terminal, as well as in documents printed on a laser printer. Several examples will be given to demonstrate the various capabilities of MORSGRAF coupled to MORSE-CG. 12 refs., 8 figs

  11. Hyperprolactinemia induced by hCG leads to metabolic disturbances in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratner, Laura D; Stevens, Guillermina; Bonaventura, Maria Marta; Lux-Lantos, Victoria A; Poutanen, Matti; Calandra, Ricardo S; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T; Rulli, Susana B

    2016-07-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a growing epidemic; it increases the risk for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, fatty liver, and several cancers. Several reports have indicated a link between hormonal imbalances and insulin resistance or obesity. Transgenic (TG) female mice overexpressing the human chorionic gonadotropin β-subunit (hCGβ+ mice) exhibit constitutively elevated levels of hCG, increased production of testosterone, progesterone and prolactin, and obesity. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of hCG hypersecretion on possible alterations in the glucose and lipid metabolism of adult TG females. We evaluated fasting serum insulin, glucose, and triglyceride levels in adult hCGβ+ females and conducted intraperitoneal glucose and insulin tolerance tests at different ages. TG female mice showed hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and dyslipidemia, as well as glucose intolerance and insulin resistance at 6 months of age. A 1-week treatment with the dopamine agonist cabergoline applied on 5-week-old hCGβ+ mice, which corrected hyperprolactinemia, hyperandrogenism, and hyperprogesteronemia, effectively prevented the metabolic alterations. These data indicate a key role of the hyperprolactinemia-induced gonadal dysfunction in the metabolic disturbances of hCGβ+ female mice. The findings prompt further studies on the involvement of gonadotropins and prolactin on metabolic disorders and might pave the way for the development of new therapeutic strategies. PMID:27154336

  12. Emulsified nanoparticles containing inactivated influenza virus and CpG oligodeoxynucleotides critically influences the host immune responses in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsi Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antigen sparing and cross-protective immunity are regarded as crucial in pandemic influenza vaccine development. Both targets can be achieved by adjuvantation strategy to elicit a robust and broadened immune response. We assessed the immunogenicity of an inactivated H5N1 whole-virion vaccine (A/Vietnam/1194/2004 NIBRG-14, clade 1 formulated with emulsified nanoparticles and investigated whether it can induce cross-clade protecting immunity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: After formulation with PELC, a proprietary water-in-oil-in-water nanoemulsion comprising of bioresorbable polymer/Span(R85/squalene, inactivated virus was intramuscularly administered to mice in either one-dose or two-dose schedule. We found that the antigen-specific serum antibody responses elicited after two doses of non-adjuvanted vaccine were lower than those observed after a single dose of adjuvanted vaccine, PELC and the conventional alum adjuvant as well. Moreover, 5 microg HA of PELC-formulated inactivated virus were capable of inducing higher antibodies than those obtained from alum-adjuvanted vaccine. In single-dose study, we found that encapsulating inactivated virus into emulsified PELC nanoparticles could induce better antibody responses than those formulated with PELC-adsorbed vaccine. However, the potency was rather reduced when the inactivated virus and CpG (an immunostimulatory oligodeoxynucleotide containing unmethylated cytosine-guanosine motifs were co-encapsulated within the emulsion. Finally, the mice who received PELC/CpG(adsorption-vaccine could easily and quickly reach 100% of seroprotection against a homologous virus strain and effective cross-protection against a heterologous virus strain (A/Whooper swan/Mongolia/244/2005, clade 2.2. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Encapsulating inactivated H5N1 influenza virus and CpG into emulsified nanoparticles critically influences the humoral responses against pandemic influenza. These results demonstrated

  13. Persistent low levels of serum hCG due to heterophilic mouse antibodies: an unrecognized pitfall in the diagnosis of trophoblastic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Aguilera, B; Syrios, P; Gadisseur, R; Luyckx, F; Cavalier, E; Beckers, A; Valdes-Socin, H

    2016-06-01

    Phantom hCG refers to persistent mild elevations of hCG, leading physicians to unnecessary treatments whereas neither a true hCG nor a trophoblastic disease is present. We report the case of a 23-year-old woman with persistent low levels of serum hCG detected one month after miscarriage. As choriocarcinoma was suspected, a chemotherapy trial of methotrexate was prescribed, without any hCG reduction. Subsequently, laparoscopy ruled out a trophoblastic residue and the patient was referred to the Endocrine Unit for further investigations. While low levels of hCG were still detected in serum, no hCG was detected in the urine. In addition, when serum was processed in a HBT tube for revealing heterophilic antibodies, hCG was no longer detected. Such finding indicated the presence of phantom hCG due to heterophilic mouse antibodies interaction. This case raises the need of clinico-biological discussion to avoid inappropriate therapeutic decisions. Based on this case experience and after review of the literature, we suggest that current gynecological protocols for the diagnosis and treatment of trophoblastic disease should consider the inclusion of urinary hCG and/or a test for serum heterophilic antibodies when appropriate. PMID:26792068

  14. Induction of ovulation in quarter horse mares through the use of deslorelin acetate and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Figueiredo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim this study was to compare two protocols of induction for ovulation by desloreline acetate and hCG in Quarter Horse mares. The choice of the animals was based on the observations by the estrus, by rectal palpation of the ovaries and by ultrassonography of the follicular dynamics. After estrus detection and follicle control, the measurement of the follicles and the classification of uterus were carried out. The animals that had dominant follicle (diameter more than 35 mm and swollen uterus were used. In these conditions, the mares received hCG or desloreline acetate. Once ovulation occurred, the artificial insemination was carried. Two groups were performed: G1 (20 animals received 1.5 mg desloreline acetate and G2 (20 animals received 1700 IU of hCG. Following 6h intervals, the control follicular was performed by ultrasonography. The follicular average diameter was 42.6 cm for the groups and set up a score of 0 to 3 of uterine edema displayed by the device as well as the time of ovulation. In conclusion, the desloreline acetate showed better performance than hCG, because the ovulation was induced in less time (nine hours than hCG (p<0.05.The pregnancy rate was 80 and 75 %, respectively in G1 and G2.

  15. Extending the eigCG algorithm to nonsymmetric Lanczos for linear systems with multiple right-hand sides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Rehim, A M; Stathopoulos, Andreas; Orginos, Kostas

    2014-08-01

    The technique that was used to build the EigCG algorithm for sparse symmetric linear systems is extended to the nonsymmetric case using the BiCG algorithm. We show that, similarly to the symmetric case, we can build an algorithm that is capable of computing a few smallest magnitude eigenvalues and their corresponding left and right eigenvectors of a nonsymmetric matrix using only a small window of the BiCG residuals while simultaneously solving a linear system with that matrix. For a system with multiple right-hand sides, we give an algorithm that computes incrementally more eigenvalues while solving the first few systems and then uses the computed eigenvectors to deflate BiCGStab for the remaining systems. Our experiments on various test problems, including Lattice QCD, show the remarkable ability of EigBiCG to compute spectral approximations with accuracy comparable to that of the unrestarted, nonsymmetric Lanczos. Furthermore, our incremental EigBiCG followed by appropriately restarted and deflated BiCGStab provides a competitive method for systems with multiple right-hand sides.

  16. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of Cg1458: a novel oxaloacetate decarboxylase from Corynebacterium glutamicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To elucidate the mechanism of oxaloacetate decarboxylation by Cg1458, recombinant Cg1458 has been purified and crystallized. Oxaloacetate decarboxylase catalyses the decarboxylation of oxaloacetate to pyruvate and CO2. Recently, the Corynebacterium glutamicum gene product Cg1458 was determined to be a soluble oxaloacetate decarboxylase. To elucidate the mechanism of oxaloacetate decarboxylation by Cg1458, recombinant Cg1458 was purified and crystallized. The best crystal was grown from 0.2 M MgCl2, 0.1 M Bis-Tris pH 6.0, 25%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 3350 using the hanging-drop method. The crystals belonged to space group P43212, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 124.1, c = 73.6 Å. The crystals are most likely to contain a dimer in the asymmetric unit, with a VM value of 2.27 Å3 Da−1. A full data set was collected at 1.9 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation on beamline BL17U of SSRF, Shanghai, China. Structure-solution attempts by molecular replacement were successful with PDB entries 3qdf or 2dfu as the template

  17. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus: expression and characterization of Bm86-CG in Pichia pastoris Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus: expressão e caracterização da Bm86-CG em Pichia pastoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Casquero Cunha

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus is responsible for great economic losses. It is mainly controlled chemically, with limitations regarding development of resistance to the chemicals. Vaccines may help control this parasite, thereby reducing tick pesticide use. In this light, we performed subcloning of the gene of the protein Bm86-GC, the homologue protein that currently forms the basis of vaccines (GavacTM and TickGardPLUS that have been developed against cattle ticks. The subcloning was done in the pPIC9 expression vector, for transformation in the yeast Pichia pastoris. This protein was characterized by expression of the recombinant Mut+ strain, which expressed greater quantities of protein. The expressed protein (rBm86-CG was recognized in the Western-blot assay using anti-Gavac, anti-TickGard, anti-larval extract and anti-rBm86-CG polyclonal sera. The serum produced in cattle vaccinated with the antigen CG rBm86 presented high antibody titers and recognized the native protein. The rBm86-GC has potential relevance as an immunogen for vaccine formulation against cattle ticks.O carrapato-do-boi Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus é responsável por grandes perdas econômicas. Seu controle é principalmente químico e apresenta limitações quanto ao desenvolvimento de resistência aos princípios ativos. As vacinas podem auxiliar no controle deste parasita diminuindo as aplicações de carrapaticidas. Considerando isso, foi realizada a subclonagem do gene da proteína Bm86-CG, proteína homologa a que atualmente é a base das vacinas desenvolvidas (GavacTM e TickGardPLUS contra o carrapato-do-boi, no vetor de expressão pPIC9, para ser transformado em levedura, Pichia pastoris. Esta proteína foi caracterizada pela expressão da cepa recombinante Mut+ que expressou maior quantidade de proteína. A proteína expressa, rBm86-CG, foi reconhecida no ensaio de Western-blot pelos soros policlonais anti-Gavac, anti-TickGard, anti

  18. 2',4'-BNA bearing a 2-pyridine nucleobase for CG base pair recognition in the parallel motif triplex DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, Yoshiyuki; Matsugu, Sachiko; Inohara, Hiroyasu; Hatanaka, Yuri; Akabane, Masaaki; Imanishi, Takeshi; Obika, Satoshi

    2010-09-21

    We succeeded in the synthesis of triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) that contain a deoxyribonucleotide (Py) bearing a 2-pyridine nucleobase or the 2',4'-BNA congener (Py(B)). By UV melting experiments, it was found that 2-pyridine was a very promising nucleobase for the sequence-selective recognition of a CG base pair within double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) in a parallel motif triplex. Moreover, Py(B) in TFOs showed stronger affinity to a CG base pair than Py with further increase in the selectivity. Using TFO including multiple Py(B) units, triplex formation with dsDNA containing three CG base pairs was observed. PMID:20648389

  19. Analysis and glycosyl composition of the exopolysaccharide isolated from submerged fermentation of Ganoderma lucidum CG144

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosália Rubel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of glycosyl composition is an essential step to guide future research designs applied in bioactivity. In the same way, the unexplored potential bioactivity of exopolysaccharide from Ganoderma lucidum is huge. Therefore, this study investigated the glycosyl composition of the exopolysaccharide isolated from submerged fermentation of G. lucidum to serve as guide for future studies on bioactivity. Glycosyl content and composition were evaluated by combined GC/MS of the TMS derivatives of the monosaccharide methyl glycosides produced from the sample by acidic methanolysis. Glycosyl composition analysis showed that the dominant carbohydrate component in all samples of exopolysaccharide isolated from submerged fermentation of G. lucidum CG 144 was glucose (58.1%, mannose (26.6% and galactose (12.5% which can be referred to as heteroglycan. These results suggest that this Ganoderma exopolysaccharide may be a new immunomodulatory agent.

  20. Universal spectrum for DNA base CG frequency distribution in Takifugu rubripes (Puffer fish) genome

    CERN Document Server

    Selvam, A M

    2007-01-01

    The frequency distribution of DNA bases A, C, G, T exhibit fractal fluctuations, namely a zigzag pattern of an increase followed by a decrease of all orders of magnitude along the length of the DNA molecule. Selfsimilar fractal fluctuations are ubiquitous to space-time fluctuations of dynamical systems in nature. The power spectra of fractal fluctuations exhibit inverse power law form signifying long-range space-time correlations such that there is two-way communication between local (small-scale) and global (large-scale) perturbations. In this paper it is shown that DNA base CG frequency distribution in Takifugu rubripes (Puffer fish) Genome Release 4 exhibit universal inverse power law form of the statistical normal distribution consistent with a general systems theory model prediction of quantumlike chaos governing fractal space-time distributions. The model predictions are (i) quasicrystalline Penrose tiling pattern for the nested coiled structure thereby achieving maximum packing efficiency for the DNA m...

  1. Universal spectrum for DNA base C+G frequency distribution in Human chromosomes 1 to 24

    CERN Document Server

    Selvam, A M

    2007-01-01

    Power spectra of human DNA base C+G frequency distribution in all available contiguous sections exhibit the universal inverse power law form of the statistical normal distribution for the 24 chromosomes. Inverse power law form for power spectra of space-time fluctuations is generic to dynamical systems in nature and indicate long-range space-time correlations. A recently developed general systems theory predicts the observed non-local connections as intrinsic to quantumlike chaos governing space-time fluctuations of dynamical systems. The model predicts the following. (1) The quasiperiodic Penrose tiling pattern for the nested coiled structure of the DNA molecule in the chromosome resulting in maximum packing efficiency. (2) The DNA molecule functions as a unified whole fuzzy logic network with ordered two-way signal transmission between the coding and non-coding regions. Recent studies indicate influence of non-coding regions on functions of coding regions in the DNA molecule.

  2. Polymorphism +17 C/G in Matrix Metalloprotease MMP8 decreases lung cancer risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tardón Adonina

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs constitute a family of enzymes capable of degrading different components of the extracellular matrix and are implicated in the invasion of tumor cells through the basement membrane. Polymorphisms in MMP genes may result in changes in the expression of MMPs being associated with the development and progression of cancer. We have investigated the association between three polymorphisms (-1607 1G/2G, +17 C/G and -77 A/G in the human collagenases MMP1, MMP8 and MMP13 and the risk of development or progression of lung cancer. Methods A hospital-based case-control study was designed including 501 lung cancer patients and 510 controls matched. Genotypes were determined by PCR-RFLP. Results were analyzed using unconditional logistic regression, Cox's proportional hazard regression, and the Kaplan-Meier method. Results The MMP1 and MMP13 promoter polymorphisms were not associated with lung cancer risk, while the C/G polymorphism in MMP8 was associated with a statistically significant decreased risk of developing lung cancer (ORadj = 0.65; 95%CI = 0.45–0.93. The Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the polymorphisms in MMP1, MMP8 and MMP13 not seem to modify the overall survival. Multivariate analysis revealed that MMP1, MMP8 and MMP13 polymorphisms are not independent prognostic factors for overall survival. Conclusion This study suggests that the polymorphism in MMP8 is associated with a decreased lung cancer risk, which can be used as a prognostic marker in lung cancer.

  3. Polymorphism +17 C/G in Matrix Metalloprotease MMP8 decreases lung cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) constitute a family of enzymes capable of degrading different components of the extracellular matrix and are implicated in the invasion of tumor cells through the basement membrane. Polymorphisms in MMP genes may result in changes in the expression of MMPs being associated with the development and progression of cancer. We have investigated the association between three polymorphisms (-1607 1G/2G, +17 C/G and -77 A/G) in the human collagenases MMP1, MMP8 and MMP13 and the risk of development or progression of lung cancer. A hospital-based case-control study was designed including 501 lung cancer patients and 510 controls matched. Genotypes were determined by PCR-RFLP. Results were analyzed using unconditional logistic regression, Cox's proportional hazard regression, and the Kaplan-Meier method. The MMP1 and MMP13 promoter polymorphisms were not associated with lung cancer risk, while the C/G polymorphism in MMP8 was associated with a statistically significant decreased risk of developing lung cancer (ORadj = 0.65; 95%CI = 0.45–0.93). The Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the polymorphisms in MMP1, MMP8 and MMP13 not seem to modify the overall survival. Multivariate analysis revealed that MMP1, MMP8 and MMP13 polymorphisms are not independent prognostic factors for overall survival. This study suggests that the polymorphism in MMP8 is associated with a decreased lung cancer risk, which can be used as a prognostic marker in lung cancer

  4. Involvement of an Alkane Hydroxylase System of Gordonia sp. Strain SoCg in Degradation of Solid n-Alkanes▿

    OpenAIRE

    Lo Piccolo, Luca; De Pasquale, Claudio; Fodale, Roberta; Puglia, Anna Maria; Quatrini, Paola

    2010-01-01

    Enzymes involved in oxidation of long-chain n-alkanes are still not well known, especially those in Gram-positive bacteria. This work describes the alkane degradation system of the n-alkane degrader actinobacterium Gordonia sp. strain SoCg, which is able to grow on n-alkanes from dodecane (C12) to hexatriacontane (C36) as the sole C source. SoCg harbors in its chromosome a single alk locus carrying six open reading frames (ORFs), which shows 78 to 79% identity with the alkane hydroxylase (AH)...

  5. Effect of anti-sense oligodeoxynucleotides homeobox B2 on the proliferation and expression of primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘旭盛; 张晓

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of homeobox B2 (HOXB2) antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (asodn) on the proliferation and expression of primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs).   Methods: Various concentrations of HOXB2 asodn modified by thiophosphate transfected the induction of liposome into HUVECs. MTT and RT-PCR methods were employed to determine the effect of different concentrations of asodn on the endothelial proliferation and the expression level of HOXB2 mRNA.   Results: After the transfection of HOXB2 asodn, the endothelial proliferation was inhibited in a dose-dependent fashion. Simultaneously, the expression of HOXB2 mRNA decreased significantly.   Conclusions: HOXB2 plays an important role in the proliferation of endothelia.

  6. 30. Knockdown of IGF-IR by Antisense Oligodeoxynucleotide auguments the sensitivity of bladder cancer cells to MMC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    play key roles in autocrine mechanisms of bladder cancer cells remain to be definite and their physiological mechanism remain to be fully understood. More are still needed to know about the role of IGF1R signaling in bladder cancers. The following problems remain to be investigated in bladder cancer cells, about which the present studies are concerned: ①Is IGFs/IGF-IR signaling pathway involved in autocrine growth of human bladder cancer cells and how does bladder instillation drugs such as MMC affect the autocrine expression of bladder cancer cells? ②Can targeting against IGF1R gene can significantly enhance drug sensitivity of urinary bladder cancer cells to chemotherapy? ③What potential intracellular signaling mechanisms are involved in IGF1R blockage? ④May IGF1R self-stablized antisense ODN serves as a potential therapeutic approach to bladder cancer? To investigate whether IGF-1R was involved in drug resistance of bladder cancer cells. METHODS: RT-PCR was used to detect the mRNA expression of IGF-I, IGF-Ⅱ, and IGF-IR in T24 cells and normal urothelial cells. Flow cytometry and MTT tests were used to assess the effect of antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) on drug sensitivities and apoptosis of T24 cells to mitomycin (MMC). Western blot was used to analyze the effect of ODN on expression of IGF-IR protein. RESULTS: mRNA of IGF-I, IGF-Ⅱ, and IGF-IR were strongly expressed in serum-free cultured T24 cell line, whereas normal urothelial cells did not express these factors/receptors or only in trace levels; knockdown of IGF1R by antisense ODN significantly inhibited the growth of bladder cancer cells and enhanced sensitivity and apoptosis of T24 cells to MMC. CONCLUSION: These results suggested that blockage of IGF-IR signaling might potentially contribute to the treatment of bladder cancer cells which are insensitive to chemotherapy.

  7. 黒腹果蝇CG42741基因编码蛋白质结构分析及功能预测%Structural analysis and functional prediction of CG42741 protein in Drosophila melanogaster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于波; 辛毅; 赵春江; 吴常信; 邓学梅

    2011-01-01

    In this study,the CG42741 gene expression were found at embryonic,larval and pupal stage by RT-PCR,but such expression was very low at all of the three stages.Comparative to embryonic and larval stages,the expression of the gene was higher at pupal stage.The structural analysis and functional prediction of CG42741 protein also conducted in Drosophila melanogaster.Our data showed that this protein was characterized by three Cys2His2 zinc fingers located at the C-terminus and executed its function in nucleus.The protein belonged to the Kruppel-like family of transcription factors and could bind with GC-rich sites in genomic DNA.And we inferred the CG42741 protein might play an important role in cell proliferation.%为深入了解黑腹果蝇CG42741基因的表达及其编码蛋白质的结构,利用半定量和生物信息学的方法对其进行了详细的研究。RT-PCR结果显示黒腹果蝇CG42741基因在胚胎期、幼虫期和蛹期均有表达,但表达量比较低,只是在蛹期表达量相对升高。此外,通过生物信息学的方法对果蝇中CG42741基因所编码的蛋白质进行了结构与功能的预测。结果显示,CG42741蛋白定位于细胞核内,其羧基末端含有3个串联的C2H2类型的锌指结构;它属于KLF家族蛋白,是一个转录调控因子,能够与富含GC的基因组序列特异结合,其功能可能与细胞

  8. Interactions of the apolipoprotein C-III 3238C>G polymorphism and alcohol consumption on serum triglyceride levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruixing Yin

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both apolipoprotein (Apo C-III gene polymorphism and alcohol consumption have been associated with increased serum triglyceride (TG levels, but their interactions on serum TG levels are not well known. The present study was undertaken to detect the interactions of the ApoC-III 3238C>G (rs5128 polymorphism and alcohol consumption on serum TG levels. Methods A total of 516 unrelated nondrinkers and 514 drinkers aged 15-89 were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the ApoC-III 3238C>G was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Interactions of the ApoC-III 3238C>G genotype and alcohol consumption was assessed by using a cross-product term between genotypes and the aforementioned factor. Results Serum total cholesterol (TC, TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, ApoA-I and ApoB levels were higher in drinkers than in nondrinkers (P P P P P P P P Conclusions This study suggests that the ApoC-III 3238CG heterozygotes benefited more from alcohol consumption than CC and GG homozygotes in increasing serum levels of HDL-C, ApoA-I, and the ratio of ApoA-I to ApoB, and lowering serum levels of TC and TG.

  9. Structural Characterization of Heme Environmental Mutants of CgHmuT that Shuttles Heme Molecules to Heme Transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norifumi Muraki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Corynebacteria contain a heme uptake system encoded in hmuTUV genes, in which HmuT protein acts as a heme binding protein to transport heme to the cognate transporter HmuUV. The crystal structure of HmuT from Corynebacterium glutamicum (CgHmuT reveals that heme is accommodated in the central cleft with His141 and Tyr240 as the axial ligands and that Tyr240 forms a hydrogen bond with Arg242. In this work, the crystal structures of H141A, Y240A, and R242A mutants were determined to understand the role of these residues for the heme binding of CgHmuT. Overall and heme environmental structures of these mutants were similar to those of the wild type, suggesting that there is little conformational change in the heme-binding cleft during heme transport reaction with binding and the dissociation of heme. A loss of one axial ligand or the hydrogen bonding interaction with Tyr240 resulted in an increase in the redox potential of the heme for CgHmuT to be reduced by dithionite, though the wild type was not reduced under physiological conditions. These results suggest that the heme environmental structure stabilizes the ferric heme binding in CgHmuT, which will be responsible for efficient heme uptake under aerobic conditions where Corynebacteria grow.

  10. GnRHa trigger and individualized luteal phase hCG support according to ovarian response to stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al Humaidan, Peter Samir Heskjær; Polyzos, N P; Alsbjerg, B;

    2013-01-01

    risk of OHSS the administration of two boluses of 1.500 IU hCG after GnRHa trigger should be avoided as it may induce OHSS. STUDY FUNDING/POTENTIAL COMPETING INTERESTS: The study was supported by a research grant by MSD, Denmark. No conflict of interest was declared. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Project...

  11. Radioimmunotheapy with [I-131]cG250 in patients with metastasized renal cell cancer : Dosimetric analysis and immunologic response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, AH; Buijs, WCAM; Mulders, PFA; de Mulder, PHM; van den Broek, WJM; Mala, C; Oosterwijk, E; Boerman, OC; Corstens, FHM; Oyen, WJG

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: A study was designed to define the therapeutic efficacy, safety, and toxicity of two sequential high-dose treatments of radioimmunotherapy with [I-131]cG250 in patients with metastasized renal cell carcinoma. Here, we report the dosimetric analysis and the relationship between the developme

  12. Differences in maintenance of CG and CNG hypomethylation suggest a variable epigenetic stability of methylation motifs in tobacco genome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovařík, Aleš

    Gent, 2001. s. 7. [Contextualizing the Genome : the Role of Epigenetics in Genetics, Development and Evolution. 25.11.2001-28.11.2001, Gent] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : CG and CNG hypomethylation * epigenetic stability * tobacco genome Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  13. Dimensional stability and tensile strength of irradiated Nicalon-CG and Hi-Nicalon SiC fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicalon-CG and Hi-Nicalon fibers were characterized by measuring their length, density, and tensile strength in the unirradiated, thermal annealed, and irradiated conditions. The irradiation was conducted in the EBR-II to a dose of 43 dpa-SiC at a nominal irradiation temperature of 1,000 C. The annealed specimens were held at 1,010 C for 165 days to approximately duplicate the thermal exposure of the irradiated specimens. The results indicate the fibers that perform best in an irradiation environment are those that approach stoichiometric and crystalline SiC. Hi-Nicalon exhibited negligible densification, accompanied by an increase in tensile strength after irradiation. Nicalon-CG possessed a higher tensile strength than hi-Nicalon in the unirradiated condition, but was significantly weakened in the annealed and irradiated conditions. In addition, Nicalon-CG exhibited unacceptable irradiation-induced shrinkage. Loss o fiber tensile strength after irradiation is shown to reduce the flexural strength of irradiated composites and Nicalon-CG fiber shrinkage observed in irradiated composites

  14. Intrafollicular Endocrine Milieu After Addition of hCG to Recombinant FSH During Controlled Ovarian Stimulation for In Vitro Fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, L L; Andersen, A Nyboe; Loft, A;

    2014-01-01

    GnRH agonist protocol with recombinant FSH 150 IU/d and randomized from stimulation day 1 to supplementation with hCG: D0, 0 IU/d; D50, 50 IU/d; D100, 100 IU/d; and D150, 150 IU/d. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Intrafollicular hormone concentrations in relation to treatment groups, follicular sizes, and...

  15. Structural Characterization of Heme Environmental Mutants of CgHmuT that Shuttles Heme Molecules to Heme Transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraki, Norifumi; Kitatsuji, Chihiro; Ogura, Mariko; Uchida, Takeshi; Ishimori, Koichiro; Aono, Shigetoshi

    2016-01-01

    Corynebacteria contain a heme uptake system encoded in hmuTUV genes, in which HmuT protein acts as a heme binding protein to transport heme to the cognate transporter HmuUV. The crystal structure of HmuT from Corynebacterium glutamicum (CgHmuT) reveals that heme is accommodated in the central cleft with His141 and Tyr240 as the axial ligands and that Tyr240 forms a hydrogen bond with Arg242. In this work, the crystal structures of H141A, Y240A, and R242A mutants were determined to understand the role of these residues for the heme binding of CgHmuT. Overall and heme environmental structures of these mutants were similar to those of the wild type, suggesting that there is little conformational change in the heme-binding cleft during heme transport reaction with binding and the dissociation of heme. A loss of one axial ligand or the hydrogen bonding interaction with Tyr240 resulted in an increase in the redox potential of the heme for CgHmuT to be reduced by dithionite, though the wild type was not reduced under physiological conditions. These results suggest that the heme environmental structure stabilizes the ferric heme binding in CgHmuT, which will be responsible for efficient heme uptake under aerobic conditions where Corynebacteria grow. PMID:27240352

  16. Alternative Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find your chapter: search by state Home > Alzheimer's Disease > Treatments > Alternative Treatments Overview What Is Dementia? What Is Alzheimer's? Younger/Early Onset Facts and Figures Know the 10 Signs Stages Inside the Brain: ...

  17. Maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A in fetal sex chromosome defects in the first trimester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, K; Tul, N; Nicolaides, K H

    2000-05-01

    We have studied maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A, and fetal nuchal translucency (NT) in a series of 46 cases of fetal Turner's syndrome, 13 cases of other sex chromosomal anomalies and compared these with 947 control pregnancies in the first trimester. In cases of Turner's syndrome (45,X) the median fetal NT was significantly higher than in controls (4.76 MoM), the median PAPP-A was significantly lower (0.49 MoM), whilst the free beta-hCG was not significantly different (1.11 MoM). For NT, 93% (43/46) of cases were equal to or greater than the 95th centile of controls, for PAPP-A 35% (16/46) of cases were less than or equal to the 5th centile of controls and for free beta-hCG 15% (7/46) of cases were equal to or greater than the 95th centile of controls. For other sex chromosomal anomalies (47XXX, XXY, XYY) the median NT was increased (2.07 MoM) whilst PAPP-A was not significantly decreased (0.88 MoM) and free beta-hCG was not significantly different (1.07 MoM) from controls. Using a previously derived multivariate risk algorithm for trisomy 21, incorporating NT, PAPP-A, free beta-hCG and maternal age, 96% of the Turner's cases and 62% of the other sex chromosomal anomalies would have been identified. PMID:10820406

  18. AtPP2CG1, a protein phosphatase 2C, positively regulates salt tolerance of Arabidopsis in abscisic acid-dependent manner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xin, E-mail: fangfei6073@126.com [Plant Bioengineering Laboratory, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Zhu, Yanming, E-mail: ymzhu2001@neau.edu.cn [Plant Bioengineering Laboratory, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Zhai, Hong, E-mail: Zhai.h@neigaehrb.ac.cn [Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Harbin 150040 (China); Cai, Hua, E-mail: small-big@sohu.com [Plant Bioengineering Laboratory, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Ji, Wei, E-mail: iwei_j@hotmail.com [Plant Bioengineering Laboratory, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Luo, Xiao, E-mail: luoxiao2010@yahoo.cn [Plant Bioengineering Laboratory, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Li, Jing, E-mail: lijing@neau.edu.cn [Plant Secondary Metabolism Laboratory, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Bai, Xi, E-mail: baixi@neau.edu.cn [Plant Bioengineering Laboratory, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AtPP2CG1 positively regulates salt tolerance in ABA-dependent manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AtPP2CG1 up-regulates the expression of marker genes in different pathways. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AtPP2CG1 expresses in the vascular system and trichomes of Arabidopsis. -- Abstract: AtPP2CG1 (Arabidopsis thaliana protein phosphatase 2C G Group 1) was predicted as an abiotic stress candidate gene by bioinformatic analysis in our previous study. The gene encodes a putative protein phosphatase 2C that belongs to Group G of PP2C. There is no report of Group G genes involved in abiotic stress so far. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that AtPP2CG1 expression was induced by salt, drought, and abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. The expression levels of AtPP2CG1 in the ABA synthesis-deficient mutant abi2-3 were much lower than that in WT plants under salt stress suggesting that the expression of AtPP2CG1 acts in an ABA-dependent manner. Over-expression of AtPP2CG1 led to enhanced salt tolerance, whereas its loss of function caused decreased salt tolerance. These results indicate that AtPP2CG1 positively regulates salt stress in an ABA-dependent manner. Under salt treatment, AtPP2CG1 up-regulated the expression levels of stress-responsive genes, including RD29A, RD29B, DREB2A and KIN1. GUS activity was detected in roots, leaves, stems, flower, and trichomes of AtPP2CG1 promoter-GUS transgenic plants. AtPP2CG1 protein was localized in nucleus and cytoplasm via AtPP2CG1:eGFP and YFP:AtPP2CG1 fusion approaches.

  19. The significance of the levels of serum HA, C-IV and CG in hyperthyroid patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To observe the liver condition of hyperthyroid patients with different course of disease, the levels of serum HA, C-IV and CG in 124 hyperthyroid patients and 60 normal persons were measured with RIA. Hyperthyroid patients were divided into 3 groups by their different course of disease and the results were managed statistically. For normal persons and the group whose course of disease were within half year, the levels of all 3 objects are in normal range. For the group whose course of disease were in period of 0.5-2 years, the levels of HA and C-IV are over the normal range. For the group whose course of disease were over 2 years, the levels of all 3 objects are over the normal range and the levels of HA and C-IV are much higher than the second group. The results suggested that hyperthyroid patients whose course of disease are over half year would suffer from hepatocellular damage and fibrosis and the damage degree is parallel to their courses of disease

  20. Cosmic alternatives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Ruth

    2009-04-01

    "Cosmologists are often in error but never in doubt." This pithy characterization by the Soviet physicist Lev Landau sums up the raison d'être of Facts and Speculations in Cosmology. Authors Jayant Narlikar and Geoffrey Burbidge are proponents of a "steady state" theory of cosmology, and they argue that the cosmological community has become fixated on a "Big Bang" dogma, suppressing alternative viewpoints. This book very much does what it says on the tin: it sets out what is known in cosmology, and puts forward the authors' point of view on an alternative to the Big Bang.

  1. Growing Alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Petersen, Mai Corlin

    2014-01-01

    From 2014, Anhui Province will pilot a reform of the residential land market in China, thus integrating rural Anhui in the national housing market. In contrast, artist and activist Ou Ning has proposed the Bishan time money currency, intending to establish an alternative economic circuit in Bishan...

  2. Multi-Sensory Approach to Search for Young Stellar Objects in CG4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoette, Vivian L.; Rebull, L. M.; McCarron, K.; Johnson, C. H.; Gartner, C.; VanDerMolen, J.; Gamble, L.; Matche, L.; McCartney, A.; Doering, M.; Crump, R.; Laorr, A.; Mork, K.; Steinbergs, E.; Wigley, E.; Caruso, S.; Killingstad, N.; McCanna, T.

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with disabilities - specifically individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH) and/or blind and visually-impaired (BVI) - have traditionally been underrepresented in the fields of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM). The low incidence rate of these populations, coupled with geographic isolation, creates limited opportunities for students to work with and receive mentoring by professionals who not only have specialty knowledge in disability areas but also work in STEM fields. Yerkes Observatory scientists, along with educators from the Wisconsin School for the Deaf, the Wisconsin Center for the Blind and Visually Impaired, Breck School, and Oak Park and River Forest High School, are engaged in active research with a Spitzer Science Center (SSC) scientist. Our ultimate goals are threefold; to engage DHH and BVI students with equal success as their sighted and hearing peers, to share our techniques to make astronomy more accessible to DHH and BVI youth, and to generate a life-long interest which will lead our students to STEM careers. This poster tracks our work with an SSC scientist during the spring, summer, and fall of 2010. The group coauthored another AAS poster on finding Young Stellar Objects (YSO) in the CG4 Nebula in Puppis. During the project, the students, scientists and teachers developed a number of techniques for learning the necessary science as well as doing the required data acquisition and analysis. Collaborations were formed between students with disabilities and their non-disabled peers to create multi-media projects. Ultimately, the projects created for our work with NITARP will be disseminated through our professional connections in order to ignite a passion for astronomy in all students - with and without disabilities. This research was made possible through the NASA/IPAC Teacher Archive Research Project (NITARP) and was funded by NASA Astrophysics Data Program and Archive Outreach funds.

  3. Pharmacokinetic Profile and Acute Toxicological Properties of a Novel Radiosensitizer Cytosine-Phosphate-Guanosine Oligodeoxynucleotide 107 in Mice Following Intravenous and Orthotopic Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Yanyan; Li, Xiaoli; Yin, Zhiwei; Yan, Zifei; Liu, Dan; Peng, Wei; Pan, Feng; Zhou, Hong

    2015-10-01

    The synthetic cytosine-phosphate-guanosine oligodeoxynucleotide 107 (CpG ODN107) is a novel radiosensitizer for glioma treatment. However, the information related to its pharmacokinetics and toxicity remains unclear. Therefore, the plasma pharmacokinetics, distribution, elimination, and acute toxicity of CpG ODN107 in mice were investigated in the present experiments. The results from the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay showed that the plasma elimination half-life (t1/2β) of CpG ODN107 in BALB/c mice varied slightly with the dose, and it was 0.65, 0.49, and 0.50 h at the intravenous doses of 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg, respectively. CpG ODN107 rapidly and widely distributed in organs/tissues, except the brain and testes. The highest concentrations were found in the liver (28.6% of the administered dose after 0.5 h) and the kidneys (5.7% of the administered dose after 1 h). CpG ODN107 (0.3, 3, and 30 μg/mL) could highly bind to human and mouse plasma proteins in vitro. CpG ODN107 in the forms of prototype was excreted in urine (1.79%) and feces (0.91%), and its shortened metabolites were excreted in urine (2.1%) and feces (2.2%) within the first 24 h. The mice in vivo optical image showed CpG ODN107 labeled with Alexa Fluor 680 fluorochrome (AF680) accumulated in the brain after orthotopic injection, eliminated very slowly, and excreted in urine compared with poly T labeled with AF680. The median lethal dose (LD50) of CpG ODN107 was 75.7 mg/kg for mice; this dose only could produce apparent spleen and liver damage, in line with the distribution features of CpG ODN. In conclusion, our present pharmacokinetic and toxicity investigation will provide helpful information to further pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic research of CpG ODN107 and other oligodeoxynucleotide drugs in the future. PMID:26213852

  4. Inhibition of choriocarcinoma by Fe3O4-dextran-anti-ß-human chorionic gonadotropin nanoparticles containing antisense oligodeoxynucleotide of heparanase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huining L

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Liu Huining,1 Zhang Yi,1 Tang Dihong,2 Pan Yifeng,3 Xia Man,2 Yang Ting,2 Cai Jingting1,2 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Xiangya Hospital, 2Department of Gynecological Oncology, Hunan Provincial Tumor Hospital, 3National Hepatobiliary and Enteric Surgery Research Center, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, People's Republic of China Objective: To observe the influence of Fe3O4-dextran-anti-ß-human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG carrying heparanase (Hpa antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ASODN, via the invasion, proliferation, and Hpa expression of JEG-3 cell lines and inhibitory effect of transplanted choriocarcinoma tumor growth. Methods: The different abilities of invasion and proliferation between transfected JEG-3 and untransfected JEG-3 were measured by Matrigel invasion assay and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay in vitro. The effect of Hpa ASODN transfection on the expression of Hpa mRNA and protein was measured by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. The transplanted choriocarcinoma tumors were taken out to calculate the inhibitory effect on tumor growth of Hpa ASODN. Results: In this study, we found that: (1 the invasive ability of JEG-3 cells was inhibited sufficiently (P < 0.05 after JEG-3 cells were transfected by Fe3O4-dextran-anti-βHCG carrying Hpa ASODN; (2 after JEG-3 cells were transfected by Fe3O4-dextran-anti-βHCG carrying Hpa ASODN at 48 and 72 hours, the proliferative ability of JEG-3 cells was inhibited sufficiently (P < 0.05; (3 the expression of Hpa mRNA and protein in JEG-3 cells was inhibited efficiently after JEG-3 cells were transfected by Fe3O4-dextran-anti-βHCG carrying Hpa ASODN (P < 0.05; and (4 Fe3O4-dextran-anti-βHCG carrying Hpa ASODN had an inhibitory effect on the transplanted choriocarcinoma tumor growth (P < 0.05 and was harmless on nude mice. Conclusion: Fe3O4-dextran-anti-βHCG carrying Hpa ASODN weakened the invasive and

  5. Practice of the Education for the Principle of Otto Cycle by the E-Learning CG-Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tomoaki; Nagaoka, Keizo; Oguchi, Kosei

    A CG-animation content which supports the learning of the Otto cycle was developed. This content has a piston assembly and the diagrams of PV, VS, TP and TS. The each diagram has a pointer which moves along the line of the graph and they are synchronized with the movement of the piston. The learners can operate this content directly on the e-learning system. While watching the movements of the piston assembly, the learners can confirm the state of the engine about temperature, pressure, volume, and entropy by the synchronized pointer on the diagrams. This content was used for the class of the machining practice exercise. The learning effect of the content was examined by the score of the short test. As the result of this examination, the CG-animation content was effective in the learning of the Otto cycle.

  6. Antistaphylococcal Activity of CG400549, a New Experimental FabI Inhibitor, Compared with That of Other Agents▿

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdanovich, Tatiana; Clark, Catherine; Kosowska-Shick, Klaudia; Dewasse, Bonifacio; McGhee, Pamela; Appelbaum, Peter C.

    2007-01-01

    Among 203 strains of Staphylococcus aureus, the MICs of CG400549 were 0.06 to 1.0 μg/ml, with MIC50 and MIC90 values of 0.25 μg/ml each. All strains were susceptible to linezolid and quinupristin-dalfopristin (MICs, 0.25 to 2.0 μg/ml). The daptomycin MICs were 0.25 to 2.0 μg/ml for methicillin-susceptible and 0.25 to 4.0 μg/ml against methicillin-resistant strains (including vancomycin-intermediate strains). Single-passage selection testing showed low resistance frequencies with CG400549, but...

  7. Association between the 1291-C/G polymorphism in the adrenergic α-2a receptor and the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risselada, Arne J; Vehof, Jelle; Bruggeman, Richard; Wilffert, Bob; Cohen, Dan; Al Hadithy, Asmar F; Arends, Johan; Mulder, Hans

    2010-12-01

    The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is increased in patients with schizophrenia compared with the general population. The strong interindividual differences in susceptibility to developing the metabolic syndrome suggests that the genetic makeup is a modulating factor. Part of the genetic puzzle can possibly be explained by variations in the gene coding for the adrenergic α-2a receptor (ADRA2A) because this receptor plays an important role in lipolysis. Three studies have found an association between the α-2a 1291-C/G polymorphism and antipsychotic induced weight gain, with conflicting results between whites and Asians. No studies have been published investigating the association between the 1291-C/G polymorphism and the metabolic syndrome. The primary objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between the ADRA2A 1291-C/G polymorphism and the metabolic syndrome in 470 patients using antipsychotic drugs. There was no significant association between carriership of the variant 1291-G allele and prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (odds ratio, 0.73; 95% confidence interval, 0.49-1.15). Exploratory analysis showed an association between carriership of the variant 1291-G allele and a reduced prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in patients not currently using antipsychotics (odds ratio, 0.05; 95% confidence interval, 0.003-0.97; P = 0.048). In conclusion, this study shows that the ADRA2A 1291-C/G polymorphism does not seem to be a strong predictor for long-term occurrence of the metabolic syndrome in antipsychotic using patients. Studies investigating this association using a prospective, or retrospective, design, as well as studies investigating this association in a nonpsychiatric population, are warranted. PMID:21105277

  8. Induction of ovulation in quarter horse mares through the use of deslorelin acetate and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG)

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Figueiredo; Roman Paiva; Luiz Ernandes Kozicki; Fernanda Kaercher; Romildo Romualdo Weiss; Ivo Walter dos Santos; Priscilla Ricabone Muradas

    2011-01-01

    The aim this study was to compare two protocols of induction for ovulation by desloreline acetate and hCG in Quarter Horse mares. The choice of the animals was based on the observations by the estrus, by rectal palpation of the ovaries and by ultrassonography of the follicular dynamics. After estrus detection and follicle control, the measurement of the follicles and the classification of uterus were carried out. The animals that had dominant follicle (diameter more than 35 mm) and swollen ut...

  9. Short-Term Pharmacological Suppression of the Hyperprolactinemia of Infertile hCG-Overproducing Female Mice Persistently Restores Their Fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Ratner, Laura D.; Gonzalez, Betina; Ahtiainen, Petteri; Di Giorgio, Noelia P.; Poutanen, Matti; Calandra, Ricardo S.; Ilpo T Huhtaniemi; Rulli, Susana B.

    2012-01-01

    Female infertility is often associated with deregulation of hormonal networks, and hyperprolactinemia is one of the most common endocrine disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis affecting the reproductive functions. We have shown previously that transgenic female mice overexpressing human chorionic gonadotropin β-subunit (hCGβ+ mice), and producing elevated levels of bioactive LH/hCG, exhibit increased production of testosterone and progesterone, are overweight and infertile, and develop...

  10. Discontinuation of rLH two days before hCG may increase the number of oocytes retrieved in IVF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Session Donna R

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Administration of recombinant luteinizing hormone (rLH in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation may benefit a subpopulation of patients. However, late follicular phase administration of high doses of rLH may also reduce the size of the follicular cohort and promote monofollicular development. Methods To determine if rLH in late follicular development had a negative impact on follicular growth and oocyte yield, IVF patients in our practice who received rFSH and rLH for the entire stimulation were retrospectively compared with those that had the rLH discontinued at least two days prior to hCG trigger. Results The two groups had similar baseline characteristics before stimulation with respect to age, FSH level and antral follicle count. However, the group which had the rLH discontinued at least two days prior to their hCG shot, had a significantly higher number of oocytes retrieved, including a higher number of MII oocytes and number of 2PN embryos. Conclusions When using rLH for controlled ovarian hyperstimulation, administering it from the start of stimulation and stopping it in the late follicular phase, at least two days prior to hCG trigger, may increase oocyte and embryo yield.

  11. Transformation pathways in high-pressure solid nitrogen: from molecular N$_2$ to polymeric cg-N

    CERN Document Server

    Plašienka, Dusan

    2014-01-01

    The transition pathway in high-pressure solid nitrogen from N$_2$ molecular state to polymeric cg-N phase was investigated by means of \\textit{ab initio} molecular dynamics and metadynamics simulations. In our study, we observed a transformation mechanism from molecular $Immm$ phase initiated by formation of $trans$-$cis$ chains. These chains further connected within layers and formed a chain-planar state, which we describe as a mixture of crystalline $trans$-$cis$ chain phase and $planar$ phase (both with $Pnma$ symmetry). This form appeared in molecular dynamics performed at 120 GPa and 1500 K and also in metadynamics run at 110 GPa and 1500 K, in which the chains continued to reorganize further and finally formed cg-N. During various other metadynamics runs, two different phases emerged - molecular $P2_1/c$ and two-three-coordinated chain-like $Cm$. The transformation mechanism leading to cg-N may be characterized as a progressive polymerization process passing throughout several intermediate states of var...

  12. A novel junctional adhesion molecule A (CgJAM-A-L) from oyster (Crassostrea gigas) functions as pattern recognition receptor and opsonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Conghui; Wang, Mengqiang; Jiang, Shuai; Wang, Lingling; Chen, Hao; Liu, Zhaoqun; Qiu, Limei; Song, Linsheng

    2016-02-01

    Junctional adhesion molecule (JAM), a subfamily of immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) with a couple of immunoglobulin domains, can act as regulator in homeostasis and inflammation of vertebrates. In the present study, a structural homolog of JAM-A (designated CgJAM-A-L) was screened out from oyster, Crassostrea gigas, through a search of JAM-A D1 domain (N-terminal Ig domain in JAM-A). The cDNA of CgJAM-A-L was of 1188 bp encoding a predicted polypeptide of 395 amino acids. The immunoreactive area of CgJAM-A-L mainly distributed over the plasma membrane of hemocytes. After Vibro splendidus or tumor necrosis factor (CgTNF-1) stimulation, the mRNA transcripts of CgJAM-A-L in hemocytes increased significantly by 4.46-fold and 9.00-fold (p Yarrowia lipolytica. The phagocytic rates of oyster hemocytes towards Gram-negative bacteria V. anguillarum and yeast P. pastoris were significantly enhanced after the incubation of rCgJAM-A-L, and even increased more significantly after the pre-incubation of rCgJAM-A-L with microbes (p < 0.01). The results collectively indicated that CgJAM-A-L functioned as an important pattern recognition receptor (PRR) and opsonin in the immune defense against invading pathogen in oyster. Moreover, as the most primitive specie with homolog of JAMs, the information of CgJAM-A-L in oyster would provide useful clues for the evolutionary study of JAMs and immunoglobulins. PMID:26434620

  13. Alternative 23

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Alternative 23 is a curated exhibition of works by Steve Aylett, David Blandy & Daniel Locke, Let Me Feel Your Finger First, Laura Oldfield Ford, Plastique Fantastique and Henrik Schrat, including the first screening of Let Me Feel Your Finger First’s Postcolonial Capers. In 1985 DC Comics in the US had taken the commercial decision to unify the complex and contradictory character story arcs from its various strips such as Superman, Batman and Green Lantern. The resultant crossover series...

  14. The Effects of Short or Long Term FGA Treatment with or without eCG on Reproductive Performance of Ewes Bred Out-of-season

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Q. Husein; Mohammed M. Ababneh; Dia S. Abu-Ruman

    2007-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effects of intravaginal FGA sponges inserted for 4 or 12 days with or without eCG on reproductive performance of ewes out-of-season. Forty-eight anestrous ewes were assigned in equal numbers to four treatments in a 2x2 factorial design. Ewes were administered with FGA sponges on May 17 for 12 days (12-day-FGA-eCG and 12-day-FGA groups, n= 12 each) and on May 25 for 4 days (4-day-FGA-eCG and 4-day-FGA groups, n= 12 each). All treatments were timed to end toget...

  15. Control de la actividad reproductiva en ovejas de raza Churra Galega Bragançana - efecto del momento de la administración de eCG

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, Teresa Montenegro; Venâncio, David; Azevedo, Jorge; Maurício, Raimundo; Valentim, Ramiro

    2013-01-01

    This work aimed to compare two different protocols - FGA + eCG and melatonin + FGA + eCG - commonly used to control the breeding activity in Churra Galega Bragançana ewes. The effect of time at eCG administration - 24 hours before or at sponge withdraw - was also assessed. ln March, 94 adult ewes were randomly divided in two groups: 25 received a subcutaneous implant of melatonin (18 mg) as the others 69 got no treatment (Control). Forty-live days afterward a vaginal sponge (20 mg 01 FGA) was...

  16. hCG-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress triggers apoptosis and reduces steroidogenic enzyme expression through activating transcription factor 6 in Leydig cells of the testis

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sun-Ji; Kim, Tae-Shin; Park, Choon-Keun; Lee, Sang-Hee; Kim, Jin-Man; Lee, Kyu-Sun; Lee, In-Kyu; Park, Jeen-Woo; Mark A. Lawson; Lee, Dong-Seok

    2013-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress generally occurs in secretory cell types. It has been reported that Leydig cells, which produce testosterone in response to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), express key steroidogenic enzymes for the regulation of testosterone synthesis. In this study, we analyzed whether hCG induces ER stress via three unfolded protein response (UPR) pathways in mouse Leydig tumor (mLTC-1) cells and the testis. Treatment with hCG induced ER stress in mLTC-1 cells via the A...

  17. A randomized controlled dose-response pilot study of addition of hCG to recombinant FSH during controlled ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, A; Egeberg, Anne Noes; Smitz, J;

    2012-01-01

    has been previously reported. We suggest a large clinical trial to be proceeded with a group given 100 IU hCG daily versus a control group. WHAT IS KNOWN AND WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS: Prospective multicentre studies have indicated increased live birth rates and increased number of top-quality embryos when...... of hCG up to 150 IU are compatible with good live birth rates. A ceiling level of estradiol (E(2)) was reached with hCG doses above 100 IU/day. A positive dose-response was seen for pre-ovulatory progesterone, but concentrations remained below values for which an impairment of endometrial receptivity...

  18. Large-scale genomic 2D visualization reveals extensive CG-AT skew correlation in bird genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Xuemei

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bird genomes have very different compositional structure compared with other warm-blooded animals. The variation in the base skew rules in the vertebrate genomes remains puzzling, but it must relate somehow to large-scale genome evolution. Current research is inclined to relate base skew with mutations and their fixation. Here we wish to explore base skew correlations in bird genomes, to develop methods for displaying and quantifying such correlations at different scales, and to discuss possible explanations for the peculiarities of the bird genomes in skew correlation. Results We have developed a method called Base Skew Double Triangle (BSDT for exhibiting the genome-scale change of AT/CG skew as a two-dimensional square picture, showing base skews at many scales simultaneously in a single image. By this method we found that most chicken chromosomes have high AT/CG skew correlation (symmetry in 2D picture, except for some microchromosomes. No other organisms studied (18 species show such high skew correlations. This visualized high correlation was validated by three kinds of quantitative calculations with overlapping and non-overlapping windows, all indicating that chicken and birds in general have a special genome structure. Similar features were also found in some of the mammal genomes, but clearly much weaker than in chickens. We presume that the skew correlation feature evolved near the time that birds separated from other vertebrate lineages. When we eliminated the repeat sequences from the genomes, the AT and CG skews correlation increased for some mammal genomes, but were still clearly lower than in chickens. Conclusion Our results suggest that BSDT is an expressive visualization method for AT and CG skew and enabled the discovery of the very high skew correlation in bird genomes; this peculiarity is worth further study. Computational analysis indicated that this correlation might be a compositional characteristic

  19. Inhibitory action of antisense oligodeoxynucleotide on radiotherapy-induced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in a liver cancer cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the mechanism of serum VEGF increase in tumor patients during radiotherapy and the inhibitory action of its antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (AS-ODN) on expression of VEGF protein induced by radiotherapy in a liver cancer cell line. Methods: To detect the change of the serum VEGF in tumor patients during radiotherapy dynamically and the inhibitory action of the (AS-ODN) on expression of VEGF induced by radiotherapy in a liver cancer cell line. Results: The changes of the serum VEGF in four patients receiving radiotherapy rised continuously. Their levels of serum VEGF began to increase during radiotherapy with the peak value appeared in the first two weeks, and then declined to the pre-radiotherapy range. Irradiating the liver cancer cells with X-rays significantly increased the VEGF expression and secretion. The level of VEGF protein in the patient group treated with AS-ODN and X irradiation was significantly reduced than that of the group treated with X irradiation only. Conclusion: The induction of VEGF protein expression by X irradiation in tumor cells may result in increase of the serum VEGF in the tumor patients during radiotherapy and the induction can be blocked by VEGF AS-ODN

  20. Local Delivery of C-myc Antisense Oligodeoxynucleotide by Gelatin Coated Platinium-Iridium Stent to Prevent Restenosis in a Normal Rabbit Carotid Artery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xinxia; Wei Wenbin; Duan Wen; Xu Xiangguang; Hu Xuesong

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the feasibility and effect of local deliveryof c-myc antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ASODN) by gelatin coated Platinium-Iridium stent to prevent restenosis in a normal rabbit carotid artery. Methods Gelatin coated Platinium-Iridium stent were implanted in the right carotid arteries of 32 rabbits under vision. Animals were randomized to the control group and the treated group receiving c-myc ASODN (n=16 respectively).7,14,30,90 days following the stenting procedure,morphometry for caculation of neointimal area and mean neointimal thickness were performed.The expression of c-myc protein was detected by immunohistochemical methods. Results 32 stents were successfully implanted into the right carotid arteries in 32 animals. Morphometric analysis showed that neointimal area and mean neointimal thickness siginificantly increased continuously up to 12 weeks after stent implantation,and at each time point ,neointimal area and mean neointimal thickness were siginificantly smaller in the treated group than control group. (P<0.001 ,respectively).c-myc protein expression was weak positive or negative in treated group and positive in control group. Conclusions Gelatin coated Platinium-Iridium stent mediated local delivery of c-myc ASODN is feasibility , and it can inhibit neointimal hyperplasia to prevent restenosis in a normal rabbit carotid artery.

  1. Changes of Tc-99m sestamibi uptake in P-glycoprotein expressing leukaemia cells treated in vivo with antisense oligodeoxynucleotide complementary to mdr1 mRNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined the feasibility of Tc-99m sestamibi to monitor changes of mRNA expression of MDRl/P-glycoprotein (Pgp) following antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (AS-ODN) treatment in vivo. Three days after the intraperitoneal inoculation of murine leukaemia P388/R cells expressing MDR1/P-gp in CDFI mice, 15-mer phosphorothioate ASODN to the initiation codon of mouse mdr1 mRNA was administered intraperitoneally at 10 mg/kg daily for 3 or 4 days. Cells collected from ascites were suspended in medium for Tc-99m sestamibi uptake studies. To know the duration of antisense effects, cells were harvested 2 days later after the 3-day treatment. AS-ODN treatment increased Tc-99m sestamibi uptake. Effects of 3-day treatment and 4-day treatment were the same. Treatment effects were not detected when uptake was observed 2 days after 3-day treatment. Based on the results it was concluded that in vivo treatment with AS-ODN specific to the coding portion of mdr1 mRNA increased Tc-99m sestamibi uptake in leukaemia cells possessing MDR function. (author)

  2. Transcriptomic Insights into the Response of Placenta and Decidua Basalis to the CpG Oligodeoxynucleotide Stimulation in Non-Obese Diabetic Mice and Wild-Type Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Rui Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine infection is one of the most frequent causes of miscarriage. CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG ODN can mimic intrauterine infection. CpG ODN-induced embryo-resorption was observed consistently in the NK-cell deficient non-obese diabetic (NOD mice but not in the wild-type (WT mice. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of differential pregnancy outcomes, differentially expressed genes (DEGs in the placenta and decidua basalis was revealed by RNA-Seq with CpG ODN or control ODN treatment. Common DEGs in the WT and NOD mice were enriched in antimicrobial/antibacterial humoral responses that may be activated as a primary response to bacterial infection. The susceptibility to CpG ODN-induced embryo-resorption in the NOD mice might mainly be attributed to M1 macrophage polarization and the immunodeficient status, such as the down-regulation in antigen processing and presentation, allograft rejection, and natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity. In contrast, the WT mice with normal immune systems could activate multiple immune responses and be resistant to CpG ODN-induced embryo-resorption, such as M2 macrophage differentiation and activation regulated by complement component C1q and peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor (PPAR signaling pathways. Collectively, this study suggests that the immunodeficient status of NOD mice and the macrophage polarization regulated by C1q and PPAR signaling might be the basis for differential pregnancy outcomes between the NOD and WT mice.

  3. Response of immune response genes to adjuvants poly [di(sodium carboxylatoethylphenoxy)phosphazene] (PCEP), CpG oligodeoxynucleotide and emulsigen at intradermal injection site in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magiri, R B; Lai, K; Chaffey, A M; Wilson, H L; Berry, W E; Szafron, M L; Mutwiri, G K

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the mechanisms by which adjuvants mediate their effects provide critical information on how innate immunity influences the development of adaptive immunity. Despite being a critical vaccine component, the mechanisms by which adjuvants mediate their effects are not fully understood and this is especially true when they are used in large animals. This lack of understanding limits our ability to design effective vaccines. In the present study, we administered polyphosphazene (PCEP), CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG), emulsigen or saline via an intradermal injection into pigs and assessed the impact on the expression of reported 'adjuvant response genes' over time. CpG induced a strong upregulation of the chemokine CXL10 several 'Interferon Response Genes', as well as TNFα, and IL-10, and a down-regulation of IL-17 genes. Emulsigen upregulated expression of chemokines CCL2 and CCL5, proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNFα, as well as TLR9, and several IFN response genes. PCEP induced the expression of chemokine CCL2 and proinflammatory cytokine IL-6. These results suggest that emulsigen and CpG may promote recruitment of innate immune cells and Th1 type cytokine production but that PCEP may promote a Th-2 type immune response through the induction of IL-6, an inducer of B cell activity and differentiation. PMID:27269793

  4. Combining Single Strand Oligodeoxynucleotides and CRISPR/Cas9 to Correct Gene Mutations in β-Thalassemia-induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiaohua; He, Wenyin; Song, Bing; Ou, Zhanhui; Fan, Di; Chen, Yuchang; Fan, Yong; Sun, Xiaofang

    2016-08-01

    β-Thalassemia (β-Thal) is one of the most common genetic diseases in the world. The generation of patient-specific β-Thal-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), correction of the disease-causing mutations in those cells, and then differentiation into hematopoietic stem cells offers a new therapeutic strategy for this disease. Here, we designed a CRISPR/Cas9 to specifically target the Homo sapiens hemoglobin β (HBB) gene CD41/42(-CTTT) mutation. We demonstrated that the combination of single strand oligodeoxynucleotides with CRISPR/Cas9 was capable of correcting the HBB gene CD41/42 mutation in β-Thal iPSCs. After applying a correction-specific PCR assay to purify the corrected clones followed by sequencing to confirm mutation correction, we verified that the purified clones retained full pluripotency and exhibited normal karyotyping. Additionally, whole-exome sequencing showed that the mutation load to the exomes was minimal after CRISPR/Cas9 targeting. Furthermore, the corrected iPSCs were selected for erythroblast differentiation and restored the expression of HBB protein compared with the parental iPSCs. This method provides an efficient and safe strategy to correct the HBB gene mutation in β-Thal iPSCs. PMID:27288406

  5. Energy alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to sharp rise in oil proces after the 1973 Arab-Israeli War, world attention has been focussed on the energy problem. At present the energy problem is limited to the cost and reliability of supply, even though there are enough supplies to go round. However, in the future the problem will be of availability, because in spite of the full exploitation of currently available conventional energy sources, the supply will fall short of demand which will always be increasing. Hence, there is need to develop alternate energy sources, including fast breeder reactors, fusion reactors and MHD. Economic and technical aspects of these energy are discussed. (M.G.B.)

  6. Alternative detente

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of the Chernobyl accident on the disarmament and anti-nuclear movements is discussed. The accident directed attention towards the areas in common rather than the areas of disagreement. It also demonstrated the environmental impact of radioactivity, strengthening the ecological case of the anti-nuclear movement. The issues are discussed for the Western and Eastern bloc countries and the relationship between the two. Sections focus on the Eco-protest, Green politics and economics and on the politics of minority protest and the Green alternative. (U.K.)

  7. An isocytidine derivative with a 2-amino-6-methylpyridine unit for selective recognition of the CG interrupting site in an antiparallel triplex DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Hidenori; Taniguchi, Yosuke; Sasaki, Shigeki

    2014-11-01

    Sequence-specific recognition of duplex DNA mediated by triple helix formation offers a potential basis for oligonucleotide therapy and biotechnology. However, triplex formation is limited mostly to homopurine strands, due to poor stabilization at CG or TA base pairs in the target duplex DNA sequences. Several non-natural nucleosides have been designed for the recognition of CG or TA base pairs within an antiparallel triplex DNA. Nevertheless, problems including low selectivity and high dependence on the neighboring bases remain unsolved. We thus synthesized N(2)-arylmethyl isodC derivatives and incorporated them into triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) for the selective recognition of the CG base pair within antiparallel triplex DNA. It was shown that an isodC derivative bearing a 2-amino-6-methylpyridine moiety (AP-isodC) recognizes the CG base pair with high selectivity in antiparallel triplex DNA irrespective of the flanking base pairs. PMID:25186222

  8. Alternative crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surplus cereal production in the EEC and decreasing product prices, mainly for cereals, has prompted considerable interest for new earnings in arable farming. The objective was to examine whether suggested new crops (fibre, oil, medicinal and alternative grains crops) could be considered as real alternatives. Whether a specific crop can compete economically with cereals and whether there is a market demand for the crop is analyzed. The described possibilities will result in ca. 50,000 hectares of new crops. It is expected that they would not immediately provide increased earnings, but in the long run expected price developments are more positive than for cereals. The area for new crops will not solve the current surplus cereal problem as the area used for new crops is only 3% of that used for cereals. Preconditions for many new crops is further research activities and development work as well as the establishment of processing units and organizational initiatives. Presumably, it is stated, there will then be a basis for a profitable production of new crops for some farmers. (AB) (47 refs.)

  9. Sequencing and annotation of the Wolbachia endosymbiont of Diaphorina citri by the CG-HLB Genome Resources group reveals candidate sources of interaction with the insect host

    OpenAIRE

    Saha, Surya; Hunter, Wayne; Lindeberg, Magdalen

    2014-01-01

    The Citrus Greening – Huanglongbing (CG-HLB) Genome Resources group serves as a bioinformatics resource for diverse projects related to the biology of CG-HLB.  A major recent project concerns the generation and annotation of a draft genome sequence for the Wolbachia endosymbiont (wDi) of the Asian citrus psyllid, of particular interest given the potential for control of psyllid behavior through manipulation of its bacterial endosymbionts.   The Wolbachia draft genome was assembled and contigs...

  10. Endocrine effects of hCG supplementation to recombinant FSH throughout controlled ovarian stimulation for IVF: a dose–response study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Leif; Smitz, J; Loft, A; Andersen, Anders Nyboe

    2013-01-01

    To analyse the endocrine response in relation to the Δ-4 and Δ-5 pathways of ovarian steroidogenesis after different doses of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) supplementation to recombinant FSH from Day 1 of controlled ovarian stimulation for IVF.......To analyse the endocrine response in relation to the Δ-4 and Δ-5 pathways of ovarian steroidogenesis after different doses of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) supplementation to recombinant FSH from Day 1 of controlled ovarian stimulation for IVF....

  11. CgOpt1, a putative oligopeptide transporter from Colletotrichum gloeosporioides that is involved in responses to auxin and pathogenicity

    OpenAIRE

    Maor Rudy; Chagué Véronique; Sharon Amir

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene produces high levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in axenic cultures and during plant infection. We generated a suppression subtractive hybridization library enriched for IAA-induced genes and identified a clone, which was highly expressed in IAA-containing medium. Results The corresponding gene showed similarity to oligopeptide transporters of the OPT family and was therefore named CgOPT1. Expression of CgOPT1...

  12. Effect of an isolated active compound (Cg-1 of Cassia glauca leaf on blood glucose, lipid profile, and atherogenic index in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazumder Papiya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of present study was to evaluate the effect of active principle (Cg-1 from Cassia glauca leaf on serum glucose and lipid profile in normal and diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin in neonates. Oral administration of petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone, and methanol of C. glauca leaf (100 mg/kg, p.o. for 21 days caused a decrease in fasting blood glucose (FBG in diabetic rats. Among all the extracts, acetone extract was found to lower the FBG level significantly in diabetic rats. Glibenclamide was used as standard antidiabetic drug (5 mg/kg, p.o. Acetone extract was subjected to column chromatography that led to isolation of an active principle, which was given trivial name Cg-1. Cg-1 (50 mg/kg, p.o. was studied for its hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic potential. The unpaired t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by post hoc test was used for statistical analysis. Results: Cg-1 caused a significant reduction in FBG level. It also caused reduction in cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL levels and improvement in the atherogenic index and HDL level in diabetic rats. Conclusion: Improvement in the FBG and the atherogenic index by Cg-1 indicates that Cg-1 has cardioprotective potential along with antidiabetic activity and provides a scientific rationale for the use as an antidiabetic agent.

  13. Energy alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English. A special committe of the Canadian House of Commons was established on 23 May 1980 to investigate the use of alternative energy sources such as 'gasohol', liquified coal, solar energy, methanol, wind and tidal power, biomass, and propane. In its final report, the committee envisions an energy system for Canada based on hydrogen and electricity, using solar and geothermal energy for low-grade heat. The committe was not able to say which method of generating electricty would dominate in the next century, although it recommends that fossil fuels should not be used. The fission process is not specifically discussed, but the outlook for fusion was investigated, and continued governmental support of fusion research is recommended. The report proposes some improvements in governmental energy organizations and programs

  14. Structural Characterization of Heme Environmental Mutants of CgHmuT that Shuttles Heme Molecules to Heme Transporters

    OpenAIRE

    Norifumi Muraki; Chihiro Kitatsuji; Mariko Ogura; Takeshi Uchida; Koichiro Ishimori; Shigetoshi Aono

    2016-01-01

    Corynebacteria contain a heme uptake system encoded in hmuTUV genes, in which HmuT protein acts as a heme binding protein to transport heme to the cognate transporter HmuUV. The crystal structure of HmuT from Corynebacterium glutamicum (CgHmuT) reveals that heme is accommodated in the central cleft with His141 and Tyr240 as the axial ligands and that Tyr240 forms a hydrogen bond with Arg242. In this work, the crystal structures of H141A, Y240A, and R242A mutants were determined to understand ...

  15. A 2D analytical cylindrical gate tunnel FET (CG-TFET) model: impact of shortest tunneling distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, S.; Mishra, G. P.

    2015-09-01

    A 2D analytical tunnel field-effect transistor (FET) potential model with cylindrical gate (CG-TFET) based on the solution of Laplace’s equation is proposed. The band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) current is derived by the help of lateral electric field and the shortest tunneling distance. However, the analysis is extended to obtain the subthreshold swing (SS) and transfer characteristics of the device. The dependency of drain current, SS and transconductance on gate voltage and shortest tunneling distance is discussed. Also, the effect of scaling the gate oxide thickness and the cylindrical body diameter on the electrical parameters of the device is analyzed.

  16. Induction of ovulation in Xenopus without hCG injection: the effect of adding steroids into the aquatic environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwashina Yu-ki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, is widely used in studies of oogenesis, meiotic cell cycle and early embryonic development. However, in order to perform such studies, eggs are normally collected after the injection of hCG into the dorsal lymph sac of fully-grown female frogs following pre-injection of PMSF. Although this protocol is established and used as standard laboratory approach, there are some concerns over whether the injections could cause the transmission of deleterious microorganisms. Moreover, these injection protocols require a competent skilled worker to carry out the procedure efficiently. Methods Recently, we established a novel method to induce fish ovulation by simply adding the natural maturation-inducing hormone of teleosts, 17 alpha, 20 beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20 beta-DHP, into the surrounding water. In the present study, we demonstrate how we can induce ovulation in frogs using the same methodology. Results In frogs, progesterone was effective in the induction of oocyte maturation in vitro. We then examined the ability of progesterone to induce ovulation in frogs. However treatment of frogs with progesterone alone only occasionally induced ovulation in vivo. The number of oocytes and the frequency of ovulation were significantly lower than that induced by hCG-injection. Thus, conditions were improved by using a combination of progesterone with estradiol and by pre-treating frogs with low concentrations of progesterone or estradiol. Finally, we established an efficient means of inducing ovulation in frogs which involved pre-treatment of frogs with salt solution followed by a mixture of estradiol and progesterone at high concentration. The frequency and numbers of oocytes obtained were identical to those resulting from PMSG-hCG induction. Fertilization rate of eggs ovulated by the new treatment method was comparable to eggs obtained by hCG-injection and juveniles developed normally

  17. The immunostimulatory effect of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides on peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy dogs and dogs with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassies-van der Lee, Annette; Rutten, Victor; Spiering, Rachel; van Kooten, Peter; Willemse, Ton; Broere, Femke

    2014-04-01

    Synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides containing cytosine phosphatidyl guanine-rich DNA sequences (CpG ODN) can promote T-helper type 1 (Th1) responses, reduce T-helper type 2 (Th2) responses and/or favour regulatory T cell (Treg) responses in vitro and in vivo in humans and animals, by acting via Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). Since CpG ODN can be used as immune-modulators for canine atopic dermatitis (AD), the aim of the current study was to investigate their immunostimulatory potential on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and their subsets, from AD and healthy dogs. Expression of TLR9 and cytokine mRNA in CpG ODN-stimulated and unstimulated cells was assessed by real-time quantitative PCR. Stimulation of PBMC with CpG class C ODN upregulated mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-6, interferon (IFN)-γ and IL-12p40 in AD dogs (PPBMC of atopic and healthy dogs as measured by ELISA. In healthy dogs only, CpG class C ODN stimulated IFN-α mRNA production by CD21(+) cells, and IL-10, IL-13 and IFN-γ mRNA production by CD3(+) cells. Increased expression of TLR9 mRNA was only observed in CD3(+) cells from AD dogs. No significantly increased gene expression was found in the CD11c(+) subset upon stimulation, for those genes evaluated. The results indicate that PBMC of healthy and atopic dogs are sensitive to stimulation with CpG ODN class C, with a resulting Th1 cytokine response in AD dogs and a mixed Th1/Th2/Treg cytokine response in healthy dogs. From this study, little evidence was found to support the use of CpG ODN class C for therapeutic purposes in dogs affected with AD. PMID:24461202

  18. Effects of Antisense Oligodeoxynucleotide to Follicle-stimulating Hormone Receptor on the Cell Proliferation and Apoptosis in Cells Derived from Human Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma in Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shuang; MA Ding; ZHU Changhong

    2007-01-01

    The human ovarian mucinous cystadenocarcinoma (hOMC) cells were co-cultured with antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (antisense ODN), nonsense ODN, and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) at different concentrations for the purpose of observing the effects of antisense ODN to FSH receptor (FSHR) on the proliferation and apoptosis of cultured hOMC cells in vitro. The inhibitory rates of growth were measured by using MTT method on the 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th and 10th days after the interference of antisense ODN, nonsense ODN, and FSH, respectively. The apoptotic rates and the cell cycles were determined by means of flow cytometry, the apoptosis indexes were detected by using TUNEL, and the expression of caspase-3 was measured by using SP immunohistochemistry. Compared with that in the control group, the proliferative activity of hOMC cells was increased obviously in FSH groups (P<0.05 or P<0.01), decreased distinctly in antisense ODN groups (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and unchanged in nonsense ODN groups, respectively. Meanwhile, antisense ODN could significantly antagonize the FSH-promoted cell proliferative activity (P<0.01). Compared with those in the control group, the apoptotic rates and the expression of caspase-3 were dramatically increased in the mid- and high-dose antisense ODN groups (P<0.05 or P<0.01), while the number of cells in G1/G0 phase was significantly decreased and that in S phase distinctly increased (P<0.01). There was no change in nonsense ODN groups (P>0.05). It was suggested that FSH may improve the development of hOMC cells. However, antisense ODN could inhibit proliferative activity and the FSH-promoted proliferative activity in hOMC cells, at the same time, antisense ODN could inhibit hOMC cell growth by inducing apoptosis.

  19. Intratumoral but not systemic delivery of CpG oligodeoxynucleotide augments the efficacy of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody therapy against B cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betting, David J; Yamada, Reiko E; Kafi, Kamran; Said, Jonathan; van Rooijen, Nico; Timmerman, John M

    2009-01-01

    The anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab (Rituxan) has become a mainstay in the treatment of B cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas. The mechanisms of action for rituximab include antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), complement-dependent cytotoxicity, and apoptosis induction. Combination of anti-CD20 antibodies with immunostimulatory agents may improve their efficacy via enhancement of one or more of these mechanisms. Toll-like receptor 9 agonist CpG oligodeoxynucleotides administered systemically have been studied in clinical trials with and without rituximab. However, recent data suggest that intratumoral (IT) delivery of CpG has advantages in the treatment of tumors. Using a syngeneic murine B cell lymphoma line expressing human CD20, we found that IT, but not systemically administered CpG significantly improved the efficacy of rituximab against 7-day established tumors. Rituximab plus IT CpG could eradicate tumors from 42% of mice, whereas systemically administered CpG, with or without rituximab, did not achieve tumor eradication. Both natural killer cells and complement participated in the cure of tumors by rituximab plus IT CpG, apparently by increasing tumor cell sensitivity to complement and ADCC lysis, and by augmenting the cytotoxicity of ADCC effectors. No role for T cells in mediating tumor eradication was demonstrated in this model. These results suggest that previous clinical trials in B cell lymphoma combining systemic administration of CpG with rituximab may have employed suboptimal routes of CpG delivery. Future trials combining IT CpG with anti-CD20 antibodies or the antibody-mediated targeting of CpG directly to the sites of B cell lymphoma may thus be warranted. PMID:19483647

  20. Expression of c-Fos and c-Jun in the cornea, lens, and retina after ultraviolet irradiation of the rat eye and effect of topical antisense oligodeoxynucleotides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aims - Immunohistochemical techniques were used to investigate c-Fos and c-Jun proto-oncogene expression in the cornea, lens, and retina after ultraviolet irradiation of the rat eye. Methods -Eyes of anaesthetised rats were exposed to 1.5 J/cm2 of ultraviolet radiation (280-380 nm). Animals were perfused 1, 6, or 24 hours after irradiation and tissue sections were incubated with specific antiserum to c-Fos and c-Jun, respectively. Non-irradiated contralateral eyes displayed no c-Fos and c-Jun immunoreactivity. One and 6 hours after ultraviolet exposure numerous c-Fos and c-Jun immunopositive nuclei were observed mainly in the epithelial cell layers of the cornea and the lens epithelium. Scattered labelled nuclei were detectable in the retinal ganglion cell layer and the inner nuclear layer. Twenty four hours after irradiation c-Fos and c-Jun protein expression returned to near control levels. Histological signs of ultraviolet damage (for example, chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation) were first recognisable in the corneal epithelium 6 hours after irradiation and became more apparent at later times. The rapid and sustained activation of c-Fos and c-Jun expression in the eye after single ultraviolet exposure may represent the molecular mechanism underlying ultraviolet induced photodamage and initiation of cell death. Furthermore, topical application of a c-fos antisense oligode-oxynucleotide to the ultraviolet exposed rat eye inhibited the increase in c-Fos expression in the cornea, suggesting therapeutic activity of antisense drugs in corneal malignant and infectious diseases. (author)

  1. 99mTc-sestamibi to monitor treatment with antisense oligodeoxynucleotide complementary to MRP mRNA in human breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technetium-99m sestamibi (MIBI) has been utilized to evaluate multi-drug resistance (MDR) phenomenon of malignant tumors and to predict chemotherapeutic effects on them. The current investigation examined the possibility of monitoring changes with respect to mRNA expression of multi-drug resistance associated protein (MRP) following antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (AS-ODN) treatment involving 99mTc-MIBI. The human breast cancer MCF-7 cell line and its MDR-induced MCF-7/VP cell line were employed. Cell suspensions of the two cell lines at 1 x 104 cells/ml were inoculated in 24-well plates (0.2 ml/well) and incubated for one day. Antisense (AS) 20-mer phosphorothioate ODN complementary to the coding region of MRP mRNA and its sense (S) ODN were administered at final concentrations up to 25 μM, followed by a 5-day incubation. 99mTc-MIBI solution was added to each well and incubated for 30 min. Cellular 99mTc-MIBI uptake was corrected for protein concentration. MRP mRNA expression levels were analyzed via the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Cellular uptake of 99mTc-MIBI in MCF-7/VP cells was only 15% of that of MCF-7 cells. Following AS-ODN treatment at 25 μM for five days, 99mTc-MIBI uptake in MCF-7/VP cells increased 2.4-fold in comparison with non-treated control cells. 99mTc-MIBI uptake in MCF-7 cells was unaffected by AS-ODN administration. Sense ODN did not alter uptake in either cell line. RT-PCR confirmed reduction of MRP mRNA in MCF-7/VP cells following AS-ODN treatment. Effects of AS-ODN administration on MRP function can be monitored via assessment of cellular uptake of 99mTc-MIBI. (author)

  2. A palindromic CpG-containing phosphodiester oligodeoxynucleotide as a mucosal adjuvant stimulates plasmacytoid dendritic cell-mediated T(H1 immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-ichi Maeyama

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs, resembling bacterial DNA, are currently tested in clinical trials as vaccine adjuvants. They have the nuclease-resistant phosphorothioate bond; the immune responses elicited differ according to the CpG ODN sequence and vaccination method. To develop a CpG ODN that can induce plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC-mediated T(H1 immunity through the mucosa, we constructed phosphodiester G9.1 comprising one palindromic CpG motif with unique polyguanosine-runs that allows degradation similar to naturally occurring bacterial DNA. METHODS: T(H1 and T(H2 immunity activation was evaluated by cytokine production pattern and T-bet/GATA-3 ratio in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and mouse bone marrow cells. Adjuvanticity was evaluated in mice administered G9.1 with diphtheria toxoid (DT through nasal vaccination. RESULTS: G9.1 exhibited stronger IFN-α-inducing activity than A-class CpG ODN2216 and increased T-bet/GATA-3 ratio by enhancing T-bet expression. Nasally administered G9.1 plus DT induced DT-specific mucosal IgA and serum IgG, but not IgE, responses with antitoxin activity in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice, possibly due to IFN/BAFF production. Induction of T(H1, but not T(H2-type Abs depended completely on pDCs, the first in vivo demonstration by CpG ODNs. CONCLUSIONS: G9.1 is a promising mucosal adjuvant for induction of pDC-mediated T(H1 immunity.

  3. Cross-talk between cAMP and MAPK pathways in HSD11B2 induction by hCG in placental trophoblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Shu

    Full Text Available Overexposure of the fetus to glucocorticoids in gestation is detrimental to fetal development. The passage of maternal glucocorticoids into the fetal circulation is governed by 11beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2 (HSD11B2 in the placental syncytiotrophoblasts. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG plays an important role in maintaining placental HSD11B2 expression via activation of the cAMP pathway. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the activation of the cAMP pathway by hCG and subsequent phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2 or p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways in the regulation of placental HSD11B2 expression in human placental syncytiotrophoblasts. We found that treatment of the placental syncytiotrophoblasts with either hCG or dibutyl cAMP (dbcAMP could promote the phosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2. Inhibition of p38 MAPK with SB203580 not only reduced the basal HSD11B2 mRNA and protein levels but also attenuated HSD11B2 levels induced by either hCG or dbcAMP. By contrast, inhibition of ERK1/2 with PD98059 increased the basal mRNA and protein levels of HSD11B2 and had no effect on HSD11B2 mRNA and protein levels induced by either hCG or dbcAMP. These data suggest that p38 MAPK is involved in both basal and hCG/cAMP-induced expression of HSD11B2, and ERK1/2 may play a role opposite to p38 MAPK at least in the basal expression of HSD11B2 in human placental syncytiotrophoblasts and that there is complicated cross-talk between hCG/cAMP and MAPK cascades in the regulation of placental HSD11B2 expression.

  4. cgMolluscidin, a novel dibasic residue repeat rich antimicrobial peptide, purified from the gill of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jung-Kil; Lee, Min Jeong; Nam, Bo-Hye; Park, Nam Gyu

    2013-08-01

    A 5.5 kDa antimicrobial peptide consisting of 55 amino acids, cgMolluscidin, was purified from the acidified gill extract of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, by ion-exchange and C18 reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. By comparing the N-terminal amino acid sequences and the molecular weight of this peptide with those of other known antimicrobial peptides, it has been revealed that this peptide had no homology with any known peptides. cgMolluscidin showed potent antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive bacteria, including Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, and Staphylococcus aureus (minimal effective concentrations [MECs]; 1.3-31.3 μg/mL), and Gram-negative bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus ([MECs]; 0.4-2.3 μg/mL), without hemolytic activity. However, cgMolluscidin did not show any significant activity against Candida albicans. The deduced amino acid sequence of the cgMolluscidin showed no hit in public protein databases, while the nucleotide sequence had a 99% homology (E value = 0) with only the unknown ESTs sequenced by C. gigas EST project. Tissue distribution of the cgMolluscidin mRNA suggests that it is constitutively expressed as a mature form in a non-tissue-specific manner. The cgMolluscidin mRNA expression level was significantly up-regulated at 12 h (2.8-fold) post injection with Vibrio sp. This peptide is highly basic and contains several dibasic residue repeats including Lysine-Lysine or Lysine-Arginine in the sequence, but may not form an ordered structure. These results suggest that cgMolluscidin might be an oyster-specific novel antimicrobial peptide. PMID:23711469

  5. The NPC1L1 Polymorphism 1679C>G Is Associated with Gallstone Disease in Chinese Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Jian; Zhang, Sheng-Dao; Han, Tian-Quan; Hu, Hai; Jiang, Zhao-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Niemann Pick Type C1 Like 1 (NPC1L1) protein plays a key role in intestinal and hepatic cholesterol metabolism in humans. Genetic variation in NPC1L1 has been widely studied in recent years. We analyzed NPC1L1 single nucleotide polymorphisms in Chinese gallstone disease patients to investigate their association with gallstone disease. NPC1L1 mRNA expression was also measured in liver biopsies from patients with cholesterol gallstone disease and compared between genotypes. The G allele of the g1679C>G (rs2072183) polymorphism was significantly more prevalent in patients with gallstones compared with gallstone-free subjects. Moreover, patients carrying the G allele had lower hepatic NPC1L1 mRNA expression and higher biliary cholesterol (molar percentages) and cholesterol saturation index. Our study suggests that the G allele of the NPC1L1 polymorphism g1679C>G may be a positive marker of gallstone formation risk. PMID:26800364

  6. The NPC1L1 Polymorphism 1679C>G Is Associated with Gallstone Disease in Chinese Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wu

    Full Text Available Niemann Pick Type C1 Like 1 (NPC1L1 protein plays a key role in intestinal and hepatic cholesterol metabolism in humans. Genetic variation in NPC1L1 has been widely studied in recent years. We analyzed NPC1L1 single nucleotide polymorphisms in Chinese gallstone disease patients to investigate their association with gallstone disease. NPC1L1 mRNA expression was also measured in liver biopsies from patients with cholesterol gallstone disease and compared between genotypes. The G allele of the g1679C>G (rs2072183 polymorphism was significantly more prevalent in patients with gallstones compared with gallstone-free subjects. Moreover, patients carrying the G allele had lower hepatic NPC1L1 mRNA expression and higher biliary cholesterol (molar percentages and cholesterol saturation index. Our study suggests that the G allele of the NPC1L1 polymorphism g1679C>G may be a positive marker of gallstone formation risk.

  7. The global surface composition of 67P/CG nucleus by Rosetta/VIRTIS. I) Prelanding mission phase

    CERN Document Server

    Filacchione, Gianrico; Ciarniello, Mauro; Raponi, Andrea; Tosi, Federico; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Erard, Stephane; Morvan, Dominique Bockelee; Leyrat, Cedric; Arnold, Gabriele; Schmitt, Bernard; Quirico, Eric; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Migliorini, Alessandra; Capria, Maria Teresa; Palomba, Ernesto; Cerroni, Priscilla; Longobardo, Andrea; Barucci, Antonella; Fornasier, Sonia; Carlson, Robert W; Jaumann, Ralf; Stephan, Katrin; Moroz, Lyuba V; Kappel, David; Rousseau, Batiste; Fonti, Sergio; Mancarella, Francesca; Despan, Daniela; Faure, Mathilde

    2016-01-01

    From August to November 2014 the Rosetta orbiter has performed an extensive observation campaign aimed at the characterization of 67P/CG nucleus properties and to the selection of the Philae landing site. The campaign led to the production of a global map of the illuminated portion of 67P/CG nucleus. During this prelanding phase the comet's heliocentric distance decreased from 3.62 to 2.93 AU while Rosetta was orbiting around the nucleus at distances between 100 to 10 km. VIRTIS-M, the Visible and InfraRed Thermal Imaging Spectrometer - Mapping channel (Coradini et al. 2007) onboard the orbiter, has acquired 0.25-5.1 micron hyperspectral data of the entire illuminated surface, e.g. the north hemisphere and the equatorial regions, with spatial resolution between 2.5 and 25 m/pixel. I/F spectra have been corrected for thermal emission removal in the 3.5-5.1 micron range and for surface's photometric response. The resulting reflectance spectra have been used to compute several Cometary Spectral Indicators (CSI):...

  8. Short-term pharmacological suppression of the hyperprolactinemia of infertile hCG-overproducing female mice persistently restores their fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratner, Laura D; Gonzalez, Betina; Ahtiainen, Petteri; Di Giorgio, Noelia P; Poutanen, Matti; Calandra, Ricardo S; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T; Rulli, Susana B

    2012-12-01

    Female infertility is often associated with deregulation of hormonal networks, and hyperprolactinemia is one of the most common endocrine disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis affecting the reproductive functions. We have shown previously that transgenic female mice overexpressing human chorionic gonadotropin β-subunit (hCGβ+ mice), and producing elevated levels of bioactive LH/hCG, exhibit increased production of testosterone and progesterone, are overweight and infertile, and develop hyperprolactinemia associated with pituitary lactotrope adenomas in adult age. In the present study, we analyzed the influence of the hyperprolactinemia of hCGβ+ females on their reproductive phenotype by treating them with the dopamine agonists, bromocriptine and cabergoline. Long-term bromocriptine treatment of adult mice was effective in the control of obesity, pituitary growth, and disturbances in the hormone profile, demonstrating that hyperprolactinemia was the main cause of the hCGβ+ female phenotype. Interestingly, short-term treatment (1 wk) with cabergoline applied on 5-wk-old mice corrected hyperprolactinemia, hyperandrogenism, and hyperprogesteronemia, prevented pituitary overgrowth, normalized gonadal function, and recovered fertility of adult hCGβ+ females after hormone-induced and natural ovulation. The same cabergoline treatment in the short term applied on 3-month-old hCGβ+ females failed to recover their reproductive function. Hence, we demonstrated that the short-term cabergoline treatment applied at a critical early stage of the phenotype progression effectively prevented the hyperprolactinemia-associated reproductive dysfunction of hCG-overproducing females. PMID:23117930

  9. SN~2012cg: Evidence for Interaction Between a Normal Type Ia Supernova and a Non-Degenerate Binary Companion

    CERN Document Server

    Marion, G H; Vinkó, Jozsef; Silverman, Jeffrey M; Sand, David J; Challis, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P; Wheeler, J Craig; Berlind, Perry; Brown, Warren R; Calkins, Michael L; Dhungana, Govinda; Foley, Ryan J; Friedman, Andrew S; Graham, Melissa L; Howell, D Andrew; Hsiao, Eric Y; Irwin, Jonathan M; Kehoe, Robert; Macri, Lucas M; Mandel, Kaisey; McCully, Curtis; Rines, Kenneth J; Wilhelmy, Steven; Zheng, Weikang

    2015-01-01

    We report evidence for excess blue light from the Type Ia supernova SN~2012cg at fifteen and sixteen days before maximum B-band brightness. The emission is consistent with predictions for the impact of the supernova on a non-degenerate binary companion. This is the first evidence for emission from a companion to a normal SN~Ia. Sixteen days before maximum light, the B-V color of SN~2012cg is 0.2 mag bluer than for other normal SN~Ia. At later times, this supernova has a typical SN~Ia light curve, with extinction-corrected M_B = -19.62 \\pm 0.02 mag and Delta m_{15}(B) = 0.86 \\pm 0.02. Our data set is extensive, with photometry in 7 filters from 5 independent sources. Early spectra also show the effects of blue light, and high-velocity features are observed at early times. Near maximum, the spectra are normal with a silicon velocity v_{Si} = -10,500 km/s. Comparing the early data with models by Kasen (2010) favors a main-sequence companion of about 6 solar masses. It is possible that many other SN Ia have main-...

  10. SN~2012cg: Evidence for Interaction Between a Normal Type Ia Supernova and a Non-degenerate Binary Companion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, G. H.; Brown, Peter J.; Vinkó, Jozsef; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Sand, David J.; Challis, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P.; Wheeler, J. Craig; Berlind, Perry; Brown, Warren R.; Calkins, Michael L.; Camacho, Yssavo; Dhungana, Govinda; Foley, Ryan J.; Friedman, Andrew S.; Graham, Melissa L.; Howell, D. Andrew; Hsiao, Eric Y.; Irwin, Jonathan M.; Jha, Saurabh W.; Kehoe, Robert; Macri, Lucas M.; Maeda, Keiichi; Mandel, Kaisey; McCully, Curtis; Pandya, Viraj; Rines, Kenneth J.; Wilhelmy, Steven; Zheng, Weikang

    2016-04-01

    We report evidence for excess blue light from the Type Ia supernova (Sn Ia) SN 2012cg at 15 and 16 days before maximum B-band brightness. The emission is consistent with predictions for the impact of the supernova on a non-degenerate binary companion. This is the first evidence for emission from a companion to a normal SN Ia. Sixteen days before maximum light, the B-V color of SN 2012cg is 0.2 mag bluer than for other normal SN Ia. At later times, this supernova has a typical SN Ia light curve, with extinction-corrected {M}B=-19.62+/- 0.02 mag and {{Δ }}{m}15(B)=0.86+/- 0.02. Our data set is extensive, with photometry in seven filters from five independent sources. Early spectra also show the effects of blue light, and high-velocity features are observed at early times. Near maximum, the spectra are normal with a silicon velocity vSi = -10,500 km s-1. Comparing the early data with models by Kasen favors a main-sequence companion of about six solar masses. It is possible that many other SN Ia have main-sequence companions that have eluded detection because the emission from the impact is fleeting and faint.

  11. RosR (Cg1324), a Hydrogen Peroxide-sensitive MarR-type Transcriptional Regulator of Corynebacterium glutamicum*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann, Michael; Baumgart, Meike; Bott, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The cg1324 gene (rosR) of Corynebacterium glutamicum encodes a MarR-type transcriptional regulator. By a comparative transcriptome analysis with DNA microarrays of a ΔrosR mutant and the wild type and subsequent EMSAs with purified RosR protein, direct target genes of RosR were identified. The narKGHJI operon, which encodes a nitrate/nitrite transporter and the dissimilatory nitrate reductase complex, was activated by RosR. All other target genes were repressed by RosR. They encode four putative monooxygenases, two putative FMN reductases, a protein of the glutathione S-transferase family, a putative polyisoprenoid-binding protein, and RosR itself. The DNA binding site of RosR was characterized as an 18-bp inverted repeat with the consensus sequence TTGTTGAYRYRTCAACWA. The in vitro DNA binding activity of RosR was reversibly inhibited by the oxidant H2O2. Mutational analysis of the three cysteine residues present in RosR (Cys-64, Cys-92, and Cys-151) showed that these are responsible for the inhibition of DNA binding by H2O2. A deletion mutant (Δcg1322) lacking the putative polyisoprenoid-binding protein showed an increased sensitivity to H2O2, supporting the role of RosR in the oxidative stress response of C. glutamicum. PMID:20643656

  12. The Microcephaly-Associated Protein Wdr62/CG7337 Is Required to Maintain Centrosome Asymmetry in Drosophila Neuroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjana Ramdas Nair

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Centrosome asymmetry has been implicated in stem cell fate maintenance in both flies and vertebrates, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here, we report that loss of CG7337, the fly ortholog of WDR62, compromises interphase centrosome asymmetry in fly neural stem cells (neuroblasts. Wdr62 maintains an active interphase microtubule-organizing center (MTOC by stabilizing microtubules (MTs, which are necessary for sustained recruitment of Polo/Plk1 to the pericentriolar matrix (PCM and downregulation of Pericentrin-like protein (Plp. The loss of an active MTOC in wdr62 mutants compromises centrosome positioning, spindle orientation, and biased centrosome segregation. wdr62 mutant flies also have an ∼40% reduction in brain size as a result of cell-cycle delays. We propose that CG7337/Wdr62, a microtubule-associated protein, is required for the maintenance of interphase microtubules, thereby regulating centrosomal Polo and Plp levels. Independent of this function, Wdr62 is also required for the timely mitotic entry of neural stem cells.

  13. Alternative Splice in Alternative Lice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar-Corona, Jaime M; Castillo-Morales, Atahualpa; Chen, Lu; Olds, Brett P; Clark, John M; Reynolds, Stuart E; Pittendrigh, Barry R; Feil, Edward J; Urrutia, Araxi O

    2015-10-01

    Genomic and transcriptomics analyses have revealed human head and body lice to be almost genetically identical; although con-specific, they nevertheless occupy distinct ecological niches and have differing feeding patterns. Most importantly, while head lice are not known to be vector competent, body lice can transmit three serious bacterial diseases; epidemictyphus, trench fever, and relapsing fever. In order to gain insights into the molecular bases for these differences, we analyzed alternative splicing (AS) using next-generation sequencing data for one strain of head lice and one strain of body lice. We identified a total of 3,598 AS events which were head or body lice specific. Exon skipping AS events were overrepresented among both head and body lice, whereas intron retention events were underrepresented in both. However, both the enrichment of exon skipping and the underrepresentation of intron retention are significantly stronger in body lice compared with head lice. Genes containing body louse-specific AS events were found to be significantly enriched for functions associated with development of the nervous system, salivary gland, trachea, and ovarian follicle cells, as well as regulation of transcription. In contrast, no functional categories were overrepresented among genes with head louse-specific AS events. Together, our results constitute the first evidence for transcript pool differences in head and body lice, providing insights into molecular adaptations that enabled human lice to adapt to clothing, and representing a powerful illustration of the pivotal role AS can play in functional adaptation. PMID:26169943

  14. Looking for an Alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Jack

    1999-01-01

    Argues that high school newspapers might do well to create stronger ties with alternative weeklies. Discusses issues of niche marketing, alternative content, and alternative presentation. Notes that high school papers could learn a lot from alternative newspapers. (SR)

  15. The human leukocyte antigen G promotes trophoblast fusion and β-hCG production through the Erk1/2 pathway in human choriocarcinoma cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ji-meng [School of Medicine, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Zhao, Hong-xi [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710038 (China); Wang, Li [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, General Hospital of Chinese People’s Liberation Army, Beijing 100853 (China); Gao, Zhi-ying, E-mail: gaozy301@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, General Hospital of Chinese People’s Liberation Army, Beijing 100853 (China); Yao, Yuan-qing, E-mail: yqyao@126.com [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, General Hospital of Chinese People’s Liberation Army, Beijing 100853 (China)

    2013-05-10

    Highlights: •HLA-G expression promotes BeWo cells fusion and fusogenic gene expression. •HLA-G is capable of inducing β-hCG production in human choriocarcinoma cell lines. •Up-regulation of β-hCG production by HLA-G is mediated via the Erk1/2 pathway. -- Abstract: The human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G) is expressed on the fetal–maternal interface and plays a role in protecting fetal-derived trophoblasts from the maternal immune response, allowing trophoblasts to invade the uterus. However, HLA-G also possesses immune suppressing-independent functions. We found that HLA-G expressing BeWo choriocarcinoma cells increased cell–cell fusion compared to control BeWo cells under forskolin treatment. Regardless of forskolin treatment, the expression of fusogenic gene mRNAs, including syncytin-1, the transcription factor glial cell missing 1 (Gcm1), and beta human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) were elevated. HLA-G up-regulates β-hCG production in human choriocarcinoma cells because HLA-G knockdown in JEG-3 cells induces a dramatic decrease in β-hCG compared with control cells. The defect in β-hCG production in HLA-G knocked-down cells could not be completely overcome by stimulating hCG production through increasing intracellular cAMP levels. HLA-G expressing cells have increased phosphorylation levels for extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (Erk1/2) in BeWo cells. The Erk1/2 pathway is inactivated after the inhibition of HLA-G expression in JEG-3 cells. Finally, Erk1/2 inhibition was able to suppress the increased hCG production induced by HLA-G expression. Together, these data suggest novel roles for HLA-G in regulating β-hCG production via the modulation of the Erk1/2 pathway and by inducing trophoblast cell fusion.

  16. The human leukocyte antigen G promotes trophoblast fusion and β-hCG production through the Erk1/2 pathway in human choriocarcinoma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •HLA-G expression promotes BeWo cells fusion and fusogenic gene expression. •HLA-G is capable of inducing β-hCG production in human choriocarcinoma cell lines. •Up-regulation of β-hCG production by HLA-G is mediated via the Erk1/2 pathway. -- Abstract: The human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G) is expressed on the fetal–maternal interface and plays a role in protecting fetal-derived trophoblasts from the maternal immune response, allowing trophoblasts to invade the uterus. However, HLA-G also possesses immune suppressing-independent functions. We found that HLA-G expressing BeWo choriocarcinoma cells increased cell–cell fusion compared to control BeWo cells under forskolin treatment. Regardless of forskolin treatment, the expression of fusogenic gene mRNAs, including syncytin-1, the transcription factor glial cell missing 1 (Gcm1), and beta human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) were elevated. HLA-G up-regulates β-hCG production in human choriocarcinoma cells because HLA-G knockdown in JEG-3 cells induces a dramatic decrease in β-hCG compared with control cells. The defect in β-hCG production in HLA-G knocked-down cells could not be completely overcome by stimulating hCG production through increasing intracellular cAMP levels. HLA-G expressing cells have increased phosphorylation levels for extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (Erk1/2) in BeWo cells. The Erk1/2 pathway is inactivated after the inhibition of HLA-G expression in JEG-3 cells. Finally, Erk1/2 inhibition was able to suppress the increased hCG production induced by HLA-G expression. Together, these data suggest novel roles for HLA-G in regulating β-hCG production via the modulation of the Erk1/2 pathway and by inducing trophoblast cell fusion

  17. Development and clinical application of a highly sensitive hCG-β radioimmuno assay with a critical view to cross-reaction with LH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A highly sensitive hCG-β-RIA with a lower detection limit of 1 mIU/ml was developed with an hCG-β-antiserum. Despite the crossreaction with LH-concentrations of 30 mIU/ml - 150mIU/ml ocurring between 1 mIU/ml and 5 mIU/ml, also in this region a definite statement on the hCG-concentration could be made, by comparison with the values developed in LH-RIA. The assay for the hCG-determination was applied in carcinomas of the uterine cervix (47%), ovaries (25%), body of the uterus (25%), mamma (17,6B), and prostate (5,8%). Another assay with a sensitivity of 5 mIU/ml was arranged for clinical routine examinations of chorionepithelioma and testis-carcinoma. In contrast to the first two systems which had a reaction time of appr. 100 hrs, we obtained safe results with another hCG-β-RIA with low antibodytiters after 110 min. The sensitivity was 15 mIU/ml. The procedure was found to be valuable for the exclusion of EU-gravidities. (orig.)

  18. A comparison of synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides, DNA fragments and AAV-1 for targeted episomal and chromosomal gene repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leclerc Xavier

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current strategies for gene therapy of inherited diseases consist in adding functional copies of the gene that is defective. An attractive alternative to these approaches would be to correct the endogenous mutated gene in the affected individual. This study presents a quantitative comparison of the repair efficiency using different forms of donor nucleic acids, including synthetic DNA oligonucleotides, double stranded DNA fragments with sizes ranging from 200 to 2200 bp and sequences carried by a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV-1. Evaluation of each gene repair strategy was carried out using two different reporter systems, a mutated eGFP gene or a dual construct with a functional eGFP and an inactive luciferase gene, in several different cell systems. Gene targeting events were scored either following transient co-transfection of reporter plasmids and donor DNAs, or in a system where a reporter construct was stably integrated into the chromosome. Results In both episomal and chromosomal assays, DNA fragments were more efficient at gene repair than oligonucleotides or rAAV-1. Furthermore, the gene targeting frequency could be significantly increased by using DNA repair stimulating drugs such as doxorubicin and phleomycin. Conclusion Our results show that it is possible to obtain repair frequencies of 1% of the transfected cell population under optimized transfection protocols when cells were pretreated with phleomycin using rAAV-1 and dsDNA fragments.

  19. CG-220/100M3型低温过热器失效分析及对策%Failure Analysis on Furnace Tube of CG-220/100M3 Type Low Temperature Superheater and its Countermeasure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈峰; 丛培振; 徐国良; 严飞

    2004-01-01

    分析了CG-220/100M3型低温过热器失效的原因,在进行材料的成分、力学性能、材料组织、电镜分析的同时,结合运行寿命分析,认为失效的主要原因是烟气通道堵灰严重,形成烟气短路,导致部分炉管超温,发生高温蠕变损伤,在应力的作用下,形成蠕变孔洞,进而形成裂纹,从而导致最终的爆裂失效.根据分析的结果,提出了预防措施.

  20. Validación clínica del inmunoensayo rápido BioLine-hCG para el diagnóstico precoz del embarazo BioLine-hCG

    OpenAIRE

    Edel Torres Gómez; Milvia Muñoz Valdivia; María Delia Rocha Ramos; Jorge Luis López Cabello; Milagros Romero Fernández; Ana Lidia Medina Betancourt; Agueda Clara García

    1998-01-01

    Se realizó la validación clínica del inmunoensayo rápido y simple BioLine-hCG para el diagnóstico precoz del embarazo, en el Hospital Ginecoobstétrico de la Provincia de Sancti Spíritus. Se analizaron 397 muestras de orina, 150 de las cuales correspondían a pacientes que asistían a la Consulta de Regulación Menstrual. Se compararon los resultados obtenidos con el diagnóstico cromatográfico de referencia ABBOTT TestPack+Plus, el examen físico inferido por el ginecólogo y el análisis histopatol...

  1. Do high progesterone concentrations decrease pregnancy rates in embryo recipients synchronized with PGF2alpha and eCG?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Marcelo F Gouveia; Melo, Danilas S; Carvalho, Luciano M; Fuck, Egon J; Trinca, Luzia A; Barros, Ciro Moraes

    2004-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) treatment on the number of induced accessory corpora lutea (CL), plasma progesterone concentrations and pregnancy rate in cross-bred heifers after transfer of frozen-thawed (1.5M ethylene glycol) embryos. All recipients received 500 microg PGF2alpha (dl-cloprostenol, i.m.) at random stages of the estrous cycle (Day 0) and were observed for estrus for 7 days. On Day 14, heifers detected in estrus between 2 and 7 days after PGF2alpha treatment were randomly allocated to four groups ( n=83 per group) and given 0 (control), 200, 400, or 600 IU of eCG. Two days later (Day 16), these recipients were given PGF2alpha and observed for estrus. Six to eight days after detection of estrus, plasma samples were collected to determine progesterone concentration and ultrasonography was performed to observe ovarian structures. Heifers with multiple CL or a single CL >15 mm in diameter received an embryo by direct transfer. Embryos of excellent and good quality were thawed and transferred to the recipients by the same veterinarian. Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography and confirmed by transrectal palpation 21 and 83 days after embryo transfer (ET), respectively. Plasma progesterone concentrations on the day of transfer (Day 7 of the estrous cycle) were 3.9+/-0.7, 4.2+/-0.4,6.0+/-0.4 and 7.8+/-0.6 ng/ml for groups Control, 200, 400, and 600, respectively (Control versus treated groups P=0.009; 200 versus 400 and 600 groups P=0.0001; and 400 versus 600 P=0.012 ). Conception rates 83 days after ET were 41.9, 50.0, 25.0, and 20.9% for groups Control, 200, 400, and 600, respectively (200 versus 400 and 600 groups P=0.0036 ). In conclusion, an increase in progesterone concentration, induced by eCG treatment, did not improve pregnancy rates in ET recipients. Conversely, there was a decline in conception rates in the animals with the highest plasma progesterone concentrations. PMID:15036962

  2. CgIL17-5, an ancient inflammatory cytokine in Crassostrea gigas exhibiting the heterogeneity functions compared with vertebrate interleukin17 molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Lusheng; Zhang, Huan; Zhang, Ran; Li, Hui; Wang, Weilin; Wang, Lingling; Wang, Hao; Qiu, Limei; Song, Linsheng

    2015-12-01

    Interleukin 17 (IL17) is a proinflammatory cytokine that plays an important role in immune response. Recently, five novel IL17 homologs have been identified by screening and analyzing the genome of pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. In the present study, the functions of CgIL17-5 were investigated by examining the distribution of its mRNA and protein, ligands binding and modulation in immune response. The mRNA expression levels of CgIL17-5 in hemocytes of oysters post twice challenges of Vibrio splendidus were all significantly up-regulated (P Micrococcus luteus and Escherichia coli. All the results collectively suggested that CgIL17-5, as an ancient inflammatory cytokine, could not only activate signal transduction for the release of other cytokines, but also mediate the clearance of extracellular bacteria in oysters. PMID:26257382

  3. The assay of thyrotropin receptor antibodies with human TSH/LH-CG chimeric receptor expressed on chinese hamster ovary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TSH/LH-CG chimera cDNA is transfected to CHO-K1 cell to obtain the chimeric receptor expressed on the cell surface. The optimal conditions for TSAb and TSBAb measurements are determined using chimeric receptors and under these conditions activity of TSAb and TSBAb in the sera of the Graves' patients. The results obtained are compared to those of TSAb assays using FRTL5 cells CHO-TSHR cells which have wild type human TSH receptor. The transfection procedure of chimeric receptor gene to CHO-K1 cells are on going. The optimal conditions for TSAb and TSBAb measurement using chimeric receptor will be determined after success of transfection procedure. If this study is successfully completed, not only the heterogeneity of Graves. IgG but also pathogenesis of Graves' disease will be elucidated. (author). 25 refs

  4. The assay of thyrotropin receptor antibodies with human TSH/LH-CG chimeric receptor expressed on chinese hamster ovary cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Ka Hee; Kim, Chang Min [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    TSH/LH-CG chimera cDNA is transfected to CHO-K1 cell to obtain the chimeric receptor expressed on the cell surface. The optimal conditions for TSAb and TSBAb measurements are determined using chimeric receptors and under these conditions activity of TSAb and TSBAb in the sera of the Graves` patients. The results obtained are compared to those of TSAb assays using FRTL5 cells CHO-TSHR cells which have wild type human TSH receptor. The transfection procedure of chimeric receptor gene to CHO-K1 cells are on going. The optimal conditions for TSAb and TSBAb measurement using chimeric receptor will be determined after success of transfection procedure. If this study is successfully completed, not only the heterogeneity of Graves. IgG but also pathogenesis of Graves` disease will be elucidated. (author). 25 refs.

  5. Microvesicle-mediated release of soluble LH/hCG receptor (LHCGR from transfected cells and placenta explants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randeva Harpal

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Placental hCG and pitutary LH transduce signals in target tissues through a common receptor (LHCGR. We demonstrate that recombinant LHCGR proteins which include the hormone-binding domain are secreted from transfected cells and that natural LHCGR is also secreted from human placental explants. LHCGR recombinant proteins representing varying lengths of the N-terminal extracellular domain were expressed in Chinese Hamster Ovary cells in suspension culture. Secretion was minimal up to 72h but by 96h 24-37% of the LHCGR had been released into the culture medium. The secreted proteins were folded and sensitive to glycosidases suggesting N-linked glycosylation. Secretion was independent of recombinant size and was mediated via structurally defined membrane vesicles (50-150nm. Similarly cultured human early pregnancy placental explants also released LHCGR via microvesicles. These studies provide the first experimental evidence of the possible mechanistic basis of the secretion of LHCGR.

  6. Apert Syndrome: Molecularly Confirmed C.758C>G (P.Pro253Arg) in FGFR2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 5-day-old girl was referred to our clinic for evaluation of congenital malformations. She was identified with a pathogenic mutation c.758C>G (p.Pro253Arg) in FGFR2 gene using targeted exome sequencing. The de novo mutation was confirmed with Sanger sequencing in the patient and her parents. She showed occipital plagiocephaly with frontal bossing (Figure A and B). Skull frontal and lateral radiography revealed fusion of most of the sutures except coronal suture, with convolutional markings (Figure D and E). She had complete cleft palate (Figure C). Her fused bilateral hands showed type II syndactyly with complete syndactyly between the ring and the little fingers (Figure F1-F3). Both toes were simple syndactyly with side-to-side fusion of skin (Figure G1-)

  7. A Comparative Study of CG CryoDerm and AlloDerm in Direct-to-Implant Immediate Breast Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ho Lee

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background  To date, various types of acellular dermal matrix (ADM have been developedfor clinical use. AlloDerm is the most familiar type of ADM to most surgeons in breastreconstruction. It is prepared by freeze-drying. CG CryoDerm is the first form of ADM thatrequires no drying process. Therefore,theoretically, it has a higher degree of preservation ofthedermalstructuresthan AlloDerm. We conducted thisstudy to compare the clinical course andpostoperative outcomes of patientswho underwent direct-to-implant breastreconstructionsusing AlloDermand thosewho did using CGCryoDerm.Methods  We performed a retrospective analysis ofthemedicalrecordsin a consecutive seriesof 50 patientswho underwent direct-to-implant breastreconstruction usingAlloDerm(n= 31or CryoDerm (n= 19. We then compared the clinical course and postoperative outcomes ofthe two groups based on the overall incidence of complications

  8. Apert Syndrome: Molecularly Confirmed C.758C>G (P.Pro253Arg) in FGFR2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha Gon, Lee, E-mail: leechagon@eulji.ac.kr [Department of Pediatrics, Eulji General Hospital, College of Medicine, Eulji University, 68 Hangeulbiseok-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul 139-711 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-21

    A 5-day-old girl was referred to our clinic for evaluation of congenital malformations. She was identified with a pathogenic mutation c.758C>G (p.Pro253Arg) in FGFR2 gene using targeted exome sequencing. The de novo mutation was confirmed with Sanger sequencing in the patient and her parents. She showed occipital plagiocephaly with frontal bossing (Figure A and B). Skull frontal and lateral radiography revealed fusion of most of the sutures except coronal suture, with convolutional markings (Figure D and E). She had complete cleft palate (Figure C). Her fused bilateral hands showed type II syndactyly with complete syndactyly between the ring and the little fingers (Figure F1-F3). Both toes were simple syndactyly with side-to-side fusion of skin (Figure G1-)

  9. Comparative study between uses of GnRH- agonist versus hCG as an ovulation trigger in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome in antagonist protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poornima Nadkarni

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome is one of the major causes of infertility. Almost 75% of ovulatory women have PCOS. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and multiple pregnancies are known complications of PCOS in ART. Many studies are available now, to reduce the incidence and severity of OHSS in these patients, at the same time achieving acceptable pregnancy rate .In our study, we used Antagonist protocol in PCOS patients and compared the results using GnRH-Agonist versus hCG as ovulation trigger. Methods: This is double blinded comparative study between uses of GnRH- Agonist versus hCG as an ovulation trigger in 100 patients with polycystic ovary syndrome in antagonist protocol, done in private ART setting. In the study, 100 patients randomly allotted in two groups (A and B, each 50 patients, given ovulation trigger (When leading three follicles were >18 mm as group A-GnRH-Agonist (Inj. Triptoreline 0.1 mg, 12 hours apart two doses subcutaneously and group B hCG as (Inj. Recombinant hCG, 250 mcg single dose subcutaneously. Results: In our study, In 50 patients of group A, total 31 patients were pregnant. In group B of 50 cases, 29 patients were pregnant. There was no significant difference between two groups (P>0.05. Incidence of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome is significantly less in PCOS patients, when GnRH agonist is used as ovulation trigger in Antagonist protocol, as compared to hCG (P 0.05. None patient of two groups developed severe OHSS. Conclusions: Incidence of the ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome is significantly less in patients with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome when GnRH agonist is used as an ovulation trigger, as compared to hCG, in Antagonist protocol. In our study, there was no significant difference in pregnancy rates between two groups. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(4.000: 1161-1164

  10. Association between serum estradiol level on the hCG administration day and IVF-ICSI outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayfun Kutlu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Estradiol (E2 is required for follicular development and play an important role in embryo implantation. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of serum E2 levels on the day of hCG administration in IVF-ICSI patients who are performed controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH.Materials and Methods: A total of 203 women who were undergone one time IVF cyclus were evaluated in this cross sectional study. All the patients were treated either with long protocol or with microdose flare protocol. The patients were categorized into five groups according to the serum E2 levels on the day of hCG administration.Results: The mean number of the retrieved oocytes was (NRO 10.6±6.7, mean fertilization rate was 55.7±24.8, and implantation rate was 9.0±19.2. Of 203 patients, 43 (21% patients were pregnant. When the overall results are examined, the number of the retrieved oocytes and the number of transferred embryos were better in patients with serum E2 levels >4000 pg/ml and these values were statistically significant. There were no statistical difference in patients 37 years or older. In women ≤36 years old, the IVF-ICSI outcomes were better in patients with serum E2 levels >4000 pg/ml.Conclusion: In spite of the lack of high quality evidence to support a positive association between serum E2 levels and IVF-ICSI outcomes, this study shows that high E2 levels during COH might be associated with an increased potential of pregnancy depending on better ovarian response. When the overall results are examined, the best scores were in patients with serum E2 levels >4000 pg/ml.

  11. Factors affecting age of puberty and the response of Syrian female Awassi sheep to FGA and eCG treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two experiments were conducted on Syrian female Awassi sheep to characterise certain parameters during various reproductive stages. In experiment 1, 18 ewe lambs were tested at 5 months of age to assess pubertal parameters and affecting factors. The overall average age at puberty was 18.0 months, occurring between May and August (during the normal breeding season). There were no significant differences in time to reach puberty between ewe lambs in terms of the month of birth, type of birth (single or twin) or weaning weight. The average live weight (LWt) and serum progesterone concentration of ewe lambs at puberty were 53.7 kg and 6.32 nmol/L, respectively. A positive and significant correlation (r = 0.72, P < 0.001) was found between progesterone concentration and LWt of lambs. In experiment 2, 16 nulliparous cyclic Awassi ewes, 21 months of age, were treated with intravaginal sponges containing 40 mg of flugestone acetate (FGA) for a period of 14 d during the breeding season. Eight animals (Group P) were then injected intramuscularly at sponge withdrawal with 500 IU of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG), the remainder (Group C) acting as controls. All females exhibited oestrus and were mated within 3 d of sponge withdrawal. Twinning rates were 37.5% and 12.5% respectively for the animals in Groups P and C (P < 0.05). It is concluded that it is possible to improve the twinning rate of nulliparous Syrian Awassi ewes in their first pregnancy using eCG with no adverse effects on either the ewes or the lambs born. (author)

  12. Focal adhesion kinase antisense oligodeoxynucleotides inhibit human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells proliferation and promote human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Chun-long; ZHANG Zhen-xiang; XU Yong-jian; NI Wang; CHEN Shi-xin

    2005-01-01

    Background Pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) proliferation plays an important role in pulmonary vessel structural remodelling. At present, the mechanisms related to proliferation of PASMCs are not clear. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a widely expressed nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinase. Recent research indicates that FAK is implicated in signalling pathways which regulate cytoskeletal organization, adhesion, migration, survival and proliferation of cells. Furthermore, there are no reports about the role of FAK in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (HPASMCs). We investigated whether FAK takes part in the intracellular signalling pathway involved in HPASMCs proliferation and apoptosis, by using antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) to selectively suppress the expression of FAK protein.Methods Cultured HPASMCs stimulated by fibronectin (40 μg/ml) were passively transfected with ODNs, sense FAK, mismatch sense and antisense-FAK respectively. Expression of FAK, Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK 2) and caspase-3 proteins were detected by immunoprecipitation and Western blots. Cell cycle and cell apoptosis were analysed by flow cytometry. In addition, cytoplasmic FAK expression was detected by immunocytochemical staining.Results When compared with mismatch sense group, the protein expressions of FAK, JNK and CDK 2 in HPASMCs decreased in antisense-FAK ODNs group and increased in sense-FAK ODNs group significantly. Caspase-3 expression upregulated in HPASMCs when treated with antisense ODNs and downregulated when treated with sense ODNs. When compared with mismatch sense ODNs group, the proportion of cells at G1 phase decreased significantly in sense ODNs group, while the proportion of cells at S phase increased significantly. In contrast, compared with mismatch sense ODNs group, the proportion of cells at G1 phase was increased significantly in antisense-FAK ODNs group. The level of cell apoptosis in antisense-FAK group

  13. The Application of Cytidyl Guanosyl Oligodeoxynucleotide Can Affect the Antitumor Immune Response Induced by a Combined Protocol of Cryoablation and Dendritic Cells in Lewis Lung Cancer Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mi; Yin, Tianquan; Lu, Yuan; Feng, Huasong

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Recently, several combined therapeutic strategies and targeted agents have been under investigation for their potential role in lung cancer. The combined administration of dendritic cells (DCs) and immune-adjuvant cytidyl guanosyl oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG-ODN) after cryosurgery has proven to be an effective strategy for treating lung cancer. However, whether the application of CpG-ODN could affect the therapeutic results remained to be further explored. MATERIAL AND METHODS The Lewis lung cancer (LLC)-bearing mice received cryoablation and injection of ex vivo-cultured DCs into the peritumoral zone. Subsequently, CpG-ODN was administered to experimental animals 6 hours, 12 hours, and 24 hours after DC injection. The mice in the control group received coadministration of DCs and CpG-ODN simultaneously. Therapeutic effects were evaluated by survival rates. The resistance to rechallenge of LLC cell was assessed by lung metastasis and in vitro cytotoxicity of splenocytes. Furthermore, T-cell subsets and multiple cytokines (interleukin [IL]-4, -10, and-12; interferon [IFN]-γ; tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α) in the blood were assessed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. RESULTS Higher ratios of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and higher levels of IL-12, IFN-γ, and TNF-α were found in the blood of the mice that received CpG-ODN therapy 12 h after DC injection. The cytotoxicity potency of the splenocytes of these mice was significantly higher compared with the mice in other groups. Moreover, the mice receiving CpG-ODN therapy 12 h after DC injection showed significantly better resistance to rechallenge. Compared with the mice in other groups, the mice receiving CpG-ODN therapy 12 h after DC injection were superior in survival rates and antimetastatic effects. CONCLUSIONS Our study suggested that the therapeutic efficacy was closely associated with CpG-ODN administration in the combined therapeutic protocol of cryoablation, DCs, and immune adjuvant. In situ

  14. Using a decline in serum hCG between days 0–4 to predict ectopic pregnancy treatment success after single-dose methotrexate: a retrospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Skubisz Monika; Dutton Philip; Duncan William Colin; Horne Andrew W; Tong Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The current measure of treatment efficacy of single-dose methotrexate for ectopic pregnancy, is a fall in serum hCG of ≥15% between days 4–7 of treatment, which has a positive predictive value of 93% for treatment success. Two small studies have proposed a fall in serum hCG between days 0–4 after treatment confers similar, earlier prognostic information, with positive predictive values of 100% and 88% for treatment success. We sought to validate this in a large, independen...

  15. Ovulation and conception rates according intravaginal progesterone device and hCG or GnRH to induce ovulation in buffalo during the off breeding season

    OpenAIRE

    P.S. Baruselli; L.M. Toledo; F.S. Vannucci; E.M. Nagasaku; N.A.T. Carvalho

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of intravaginal progesterone device (P4; first or second use) of different ovulatory inductors on ovulation and conception rates in buffaloes during the off breeding season. Two hundred and forty two buffaloes were allocated in four groups and received P4 device of first or second use plus estradiol benzoate on Day 0 (D0). The P4 device was removed and a dose of PGF2α and eCG was administered on D9. On D11, buffaloes received hCG or...

  16. USO DA eCG PARA FORMAÇÃO DO CORPO LÚTEO EQÜINO E PRODUÇÃO DE PROGESTERONA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Gomes RODRIGUES

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi conduzido com a finalidade de avaliar o uso da gonadotrofina coriônica eqüina (eCG logo após a ovulação de éguas com o objetivo avaliar a formação do corpo lúteo e produção de progesterona. Utilizou-se 50 éguas durante 2 estações de monta 2011/2012 e 2012/2013. Com auxílio da ultrassonografia as éguas foram monitoradas as características dos órgãos genitais durante o estro até o dia da ovulação (D0 e no diestro em D2, D4 e D8. O experimento foi dividido em 2 tratamentos: Tratamento I (n=25 – éguas com ovulação natural e tratamento II (n=25  – éguas com ovulação induzida. Verificada a ovulação, os tratamentos foram sub divididas em 5 grupos de 5 animais, obedecendo a administração do fármaco estudado (eCG, sendo GI: controle; GII: 250 UI eCG no DO; GIII: 250 UI eCG no DO + 250 UI eCG no D2; GIV: 500 UI no Do; e GV: 500 UI eCG no D0 + 500 UI no D2. Para a avaliação do efeito dose resposta do fármaco e influência do eCG sob a glândula luteínica, foram coletados os dados: tônus uterino, ecogenicidade e tamanho do corpo lúteo (CL e concentração de progesterona. Na análise estatística somente quando comparando o GV entre os dois tratamentos há diferença estatística para o D8 na concentração de progesterona. Portanto o uso da eCG no momento da ovulação, não produziu efeito significativo esperado, mas este trabalho inicial abre portas para novas investigações a respeito desta biomolécula, e que venha contribuir na biotecnologia reprodutiva equina.

  17. 60Co gamma-rays induce predominantly C/G to G/C transversions in double-stranded M13 DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoebee, B.; J. Brouwer; van de Putte, P; Loman, H; Retèl, J

    1988-01-01

    Upon irradiation with gamma rays of an oxygenated aqueous solution of double-stranded M13 DNA, a very specific mutation spectrum was found with respect to both the type and the positions in the DNA sequence. Of the 23 mutations, which were sequenced, 16 represent a C/G to G/C transversion. A C/G to T/A transition was found once and a G/C to T/A transversion twice. The remaining 4 mutations are frameshifts, 2 are identical and formed by the insertion of a G/C basepair; the other 2 mutations ar...

  18. Effect of repeated eCG treatments and ovum pick-up on ovarian response and oocyte recovery during early pregnancy in suckling beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aller, J F; Mucci, N C; Kaiser, G G; Callejas, S S; Alberio, R H

    2012-07-01

    This study was designed to evaluate in suckling early pregnant beef cows with and without eCG-pre-stimulation: (i) the influence of day gestation (from 40 to 101 days) and the consecutive eCG treatments on the follicular growth induced by means of ultrasound-guided transvaginal follicle ablation (FA; all follicles ≥ 5 mm) and the number and quality oocytes recovered by ovum pick-up (OPU) and (ii) the possible effects of repeated hormonal stimulation and FA/OPU on pregnancy outcome. Twelve suckling early pregnant Angus cows (40 days post fixed-time artificial insemination) were randomly assigned to each of two groups (n=6 group(-1)). Group 1 treatments included: FA (Day 0), eCG (1600 IU; Day 1) and OPU (Day 5). Group 2: as cited Group 1 with no eCG treatment. In both groups, OPU was repeated five times (Days 45, 59, 73, 87 and 101 of gestation). The numbers (mean ± SEM) of class II (5-9 mm; 4.3 ± 0.9) and class III (≥10 mm; 2.5 ± 0.4) follicles visualized per cow per OPU session in eCG-treated cows were greater (P<0.05) than for non-treated cows (0.9 ± 0.1 and 0.9 ± 0.1, respectively). In contrast, the number (mean ± SEM) of class I (<5mm) follicles per cow per OPU session was lower for cows with eCG treatment (2.8 ± 0.4) than for non-treated cows (5.7 ± 0.5). The mean number of aspirated follicles was not significantly different (P<0.05) between eCG-treated cows and non-treated cows at 45 and 59 days of pregnancy. However, the mean number of aspirated follicles was greater (P=0.03) in eCG-treated cows than non-treated cows from 73 day of pregnancy onwards. The numbers (mean ± SEM) of recovered oocytes and viable oocytes/cow/session were greater (P<0.05) for eCG-treated cows (2.2 ± 0.2 and 1.6 ± 0.4, respectively) than for non-treated cows (1.0 ± 0.2 and 0.9 ± 0.2, respectively). No donor pregnancies were lost either during or following OPU procedure. We can conclude that (1) eCG-treated pregnant suckled cows can be a source of oocytes for IVF at

  19. Daily low-dose hCG stimulation during the luteal phase combined with GnRHa triggered IVF cycles without exogenous progesterone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Yding; Elbaek, Helle Olesen; Alsbjerg, Birgit;

    2015-01-01

    exogenous progesterone. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: A bolus of hCG for final maturation of follicles in connection with COS may induce the risk of OHSS and the luteal phase progesterone levels rise very abruptly in the early luteal phase. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This is a proof-of-concept study conducted...... standard antagonist protocol. Two study arms were included both having 125 IU hCG daily for luteal phase support without exogenous progesterone after using a GnRHa trigger for ovulation induction. In both study arms exogenous FSH was stopped on stimulation day 6 and replaced by exogenous hCG that was...... initiated on either stimulation day 2 or day 6. Blood samples were obtained on the day of ovulation induction, on the day of oocyte pickup (OPU) and day OPU + 7. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: The mean serum levels of hCG did not exceeded the normal physiological range of LH activity in any samples...

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus licheniformis CG-B52, a Highly Virulent Bacterium of Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), Isolated from a Colombian Caribbean Aquaculture Outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez, Eric J C; Carrillo-Castro, Katerine; Zárate, Lina; Güiza, Linda; Pieper, Dietmar H; García-Bonilla, Erika; Salazar, Marcela; Junca, Howard

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus licheniformis strain CG-B52 was isolated as the etiological agent producing a self-limited outbreak of high mortalities in commercial Litopenaeus vannamei culture ponds on the Colombian Caribbean coast in 2005. Here, we report its draft genome and three novel extrachromosomal elements that it harbors. PMID:27174263

  1. The impact of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) on growth and food conversion efficiency in Royal Danio, Barilius bakeri Day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Jomol; Natarajan, P

    2016-03-01

    In aquaculture, growth hormones attract many researchers as they play a key role in the regulation of body weight and metabolism. In this study, we observed the influence of hCG on growth in Barilius bakeri, a common ornamental fish endemic to the Western Ghats, Kerala, India. Juveniles of B. bakeri 2.19 ± 0.92 g were selected and stocked in the experimental tanks of size 90 x 45 x 45 cm. Water quality parameters were examined periodically and were maintained under tolerable limits. The feeds were formulated at 40% protein level. Different levels of hCG i.e. @ 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5 and 15 ppm were tested for both short term and long term. Fishes were fed with experimental diets twice daily at the rate of 5% body weight. Fishes were examined fortnightly and their length and weight documented. Their gross body compositions were also analyzed. The results of the study were subjected to ANOVA using statistical package SPSS version 10.1. Feed incorporated with 12.5 ppm hCG showed the best result in providing percentage gain in length, weight and SGR. The FCE, FAE, PER and protein digestibility values were highest in fishes given feed incorporated with 12.5 ppm hCG. PMID:27145636

  2. Expression of the Gene Encoding the Tetraploid of Carboxyl-terminal Peptide of β-hCG Containing Thirty-seven Amino Acid Residues in E. coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王健; 沈卫英; 周清平; 申庆祥

    2000-01-01

    Objective This study was carried out to investigate the possible enhancement of immunogenicity of the carboxyl-terminal peptide of β-hCG which is made up of 37 amino acid residues (109~145) and contains the specific epitope (antigenic determinant) of hCG.Materials & Methods hCGβ-CTP37 tetraploid cDNA was constructed by linking four hCGβ-CTP37 cDNAs together. The product was then subcloned into the E. coli expression vector pQE60 to construct the expression vector pQE60/ (hCGβ-CTP37)4. Recombinant (hCGβ-CTP37 ) 4 was expressed in E. coil-X-blue.Results Western blot analysis showed that the tetraploid of hCGβ-CTP37 had an apparent molecular weight of 20 kD and had relatively stronger anti-hCG antibody-binding activity compared with the diploid from.Conclusion The tetraploid of hCGβ-CTP37 may be a more potent immunogen for raising anti-hCG vaccines for fertility regulation or suppression of tumor.

  3. Androgen priming using aromatase inhibitor and hCG during early-follicular-phase GnRH antagonist down-regulation in modified antagonist protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løssl, Kristine; Andersen, A N; Loft, A; Freiesleben, N L C; Bangsbøll, S; Andersen, C Yding

    2006-01-01

    Temporary exposure of follicles to increased levels of androgens may enhance their sensitivity to FSH. The aim of this study was to increase the intraovarian androgen level using aromatase inhibitors and hCG before controlled ovarian stimulation (COH) and to test this concept clinically....

  4. Short-term androgen priming by use of aromatase inhibitor and hCG before controlled ovarian stimulation for IVF. A randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lossl, K; Andersen, C Yding; Loft, A; Freiesleben, N L C; Bangsbøll, S; Andersen, A Nyboe; Løssl, Kristine

    2008-01-01

    Temporary exposure of follicles to increased levels of androgens may augment follicular responsiveness. The present study tested whether short-term androgen priming by aromatase inhibitor and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) before controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) increases the number of top...

  5. Ovulation and conception rates according intravaginal progesterone device and hCG or GnRH to induce ovulation in buffalo during the off breeding season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Baruselli

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of intravaginal progesterone device (P4; first or second use of different ovulatory inductors on ovulation and conception rates in buffaloes during the off breeding season. Two hundred and forty two buffaloes were allocated in four groups and received P4 device of first or second use plus estradiol benzoate on Day 0 (D0. The P4 device was removed and a dose of PGF2α and eCG was administered on D9. On D11, buffaloes received hCG or GnRH and 16hs after the animals were inseminated. The ultrasound examination was performed on D0 to verify the ovarian status, from D9 to D14 to establish the moment of ovulation and on D40 for pregnancy diagnosis. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Chi-square test. There was no effect of interaction. The ovulation and conception rate were similar for P4 device of first and second use, for hCG and GnRH. Results indicate that the use of P4 device for two times and the use of GnRH instead of hCG provide satisfactory ovulation and conception rate in buffalo during the off breeding season and might reduce the cost of the protocol for artificial insemination.

  6. A pilot cross-over study to evaluate human oral bioavailability of BCM-95 ® CG (BiocurcumaxTM, a novel bioenhanced preparation of curcumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony B

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin, the bioactive component of turmeric, Curcuma longa has an exceptionally wide spectrum of activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties, and is currently under different phases of clinical trials for various types of soft tissue cancers. However, although in vitro and animal studies have shown anticancer activities of curcumin for virtually all types of human cancers, its poor bioavailability in the human body has severely limited its application to these diseases. Methods to increase its oral bioavailability are a subject of intense current research. Reconstituting curcumin with the non-curcuminoid components of turmeric has been found to increase the bioavailability substantially. In the present clinical study to determine the bioavailability of curcuminoids, a patented formulation, BCM-95 ® CG was tested on human volunteer group. Normal curcumin was used in the control group. Curcumin content in blood was estimated at periodical intervals. After a washout period of two weeks the control group and drug group were crossed over BCM-95 ® CG and curcumin, respectively. It was also compared with a combination of curcumin-lecithin-piperine which was earlier shown to provide enhanced bioavailability. The results of the study indicate that the relative bioavailability of BCM-95 ® CG (Biocurcumax TM was about 6.93-fold compared to normal curcumin and about 6.3-fold compared to curcumin-lecithin-piperine formula. BCM-95 ® CG thus, has potential for widespread application for various chronic diseases.

  7. Development of a potential stationary-phase specific gene expression system by engineering of SigB-dependent cg3141 promoter in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jeong; Yim, Sung Sun; Choi, Jae Woong; Jeong, Ki Jun

    2016-05-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is a non-pathogenic, non-sporulating Gram-positive soil bacterium that has been used for the industrial production of various proteins and chemicals. To achieve enhanced and economical production of target molecules, the development of strong auto-inducible promoters is desired, which can be activated without expensive inducers and has significant advantages for industrial-scale use. Here, we developed a stationary-phase gene expression system by engineering a sigma factor B (SigB)-dependent promoter that can be activated during the transition phase between exponential and stationary growth phases in C. glutamicum. First, the inducibilities of three well-known SigB-dependent promoters were examined using super-folder green fluorescent protein as a reporter protein, and we found that promoter of cg3141 (P cg3141 ) exhibited the highest inducibility. Next, a synthetic promoter library was constructed by randomizing the flanking and space regions of P cg3141 , and the stationary-phase promoters exhibiting high strengths were isolated via FACS-based high-throughput screening. The isolated synthetic promoter (P4-N14) showed a 3.5-fold inducibility and up to 20-fold higher strength compared to those of the original cg3141 promoter. Finally, the use of the isolated P4-N14 for fed-batch cultivation was verified with the production of glutathione S-transferase as a model protein in a lab-scale (5-L) bioreactor. PMID:26782746

  8. Temporal effects of maternal and pregnancy characteristics on serum PAPP-A and free β-hCG at 7-14 weeks' gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ball, Susan; Ekelund, Charlotte; Wright, Dave;

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Investigate gestational age dependent effects of racial origin, smoking status and mode of conception on maternal serum levels of free ß-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) and pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) at 7-14 weeks' gestation. Methods: Data arise from prospective...

  9. Alternating Anderson-Richardson method: An efficient alternative to preconditioned Krylov methods for large, sparse linear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Suryanarayana, Phanish; Pask, John E

    2016-01-01

    We generalize the recently proposed Alternating Anderson-Jacobi (AAJ) method (Pratapa et al., J. Comput. Phys. (2016), 306, 43--54) to include preconditioning, and demonstrate its efficiency and scaling in the solution of large, sparse linear systems on parallel computers. The resulting preconditioned Alternating Anderson-Richardson (AAR) method reduces to the AAJ method for a particular choice of preconditioner. The AAR method employs Anderson extrapolation at periodic intervals within a preconditioned Richardson iteration to accelerate convergence. In this work, we develop a version of the method that is particularly well suited for scalable high-performance computing. In applications to Helmholtz and Poisson equations, we show that the strong and weak parallel scaling of AAR is superior to both Generalized Minimal Residual (GMRES) and Conjugate Gradient (CG) methods, using the same preconditioning, in large-scale parallel calculations employing up to 110,592 computational cores. Moreover, we find that the ...

  10. The dual role of Candida glabrata Drug:H+ Antiporter CgAqr1 (ORF CAGL0J09944g in antifungal drug and acetic acid resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MiguelCachoTeixeira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic Candida species often have to cope with inhibitory concentrations of acetic acid, in the acidic environment of the vaginal mucosa. Given that the ability of these yeast species to tolerate stress induced by weak acids and antifungal drugs appears to be a key factor in their persistence and virulence, it is crucial to understand the underlying mechanisms. In this study, the Drug:H+ Antiporter CgAqr1 (ORF CAGL0J09944g, from Candida glabrata, was identified as a determinant of resistance to acetic acid, and also to the antifungal agents flucytosine and, less significantly, clotrimazole. These antifungals were found to act synergistically with acetic acid against this pathogen. The action of CgAqr1 in this phenomenon was analyzed. Using a GFP fusion, CgAqr1 was found to localize to the plasma membrane and to membrane vesicles when expressed in C. glabrata or, heterologously, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Given its ability to complement the susceptibility phenotype of its S. cerevisiae homolog, ScAqr1, CgAqr1 was proposed to play a similar role in mediating the extrusion of chemical compounds. Significantly, the expression of this gene was found to reduce the intracellular accumulation of 3H-flucytosine and, to a moderate extent, of 3H-clotrimazole, consistent with a direct role in antifungal drug efflux. Interestingly, no effect of CgAQR1 deletion could be found on the intracellular accumulation of 14C-acetic acid, suggesting that its role in acetic acid resistance may be indirect, presumably through the transport of a still unidentified physiological substrate. Although neither of the tested chemicals induces changes in CgAQR1 expression, pre-exposure to flucytosine or clotrimazole was found to make C. glabrata cells more sensitive to acetic acid stress. Results from this study show that CgAqr1 is an antifungal drug resistance determinant and raise the hypothesis that it may play a role in C. glabrata persistent colonization and

  11. The global surface composition of 67P/CG nucleus by Rosetta/VIRTIS. (I) Prelanding mission phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filacchione, Gianrico; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Ciarniello, Mauro; Raponi, Andrea; Tosi, Federico; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Erard, Stéphane; Morvan, Dominique Bockelée; Leyrat, Cedric; Arnold, Gabriele; Schmitt, Bernard; Quirico, Eric; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Migliorini, Alessandra; Capria, Maria Teresa; Palomba, Ernesto; Cerroni, Priscilla; Longobardo, Andrea; Barucci, Antonella; Fornasier, Sonia; Carlson, Robert W.; Jaumann, Ralf; Stephan, Katrin; Moroz, Lyuba V.; Kappel, David; Rousseau, Batiste; Fonti, Sergio; Mancarella, Francesca; Despan, Daniela; Faure, Mathilde

    2016-08-01

    From August to November 2014 the Rosetta orbiter has performed an extensive observation campaign aimed at the characterization of 67P/CG nucleus properties and to the selection of the Philae landing site. The campaign led to the production of a global map of the illuminated portion of 67P/CG nucleus. During this prelanding phase the comet's heliocentric distance decreased from 3.62 to 2.93 AU while Rosetta was orbiting around the nucleus at distances between 100 to 10 km. VIRTIS-M, the Visible and InfraRed Thermal Imaging Spectrometer - Mapping channel (Coradini et al., [2007] Space Sci. Rev., 128, 529-559) onboard the orbiter, has acquired 0.25-5.1 μm hyperspectral data of the entire illuminated surface, e.g. the north hemisphere and the equatorial regions, with spatial resolution between 2.5 and 25 m/pixel. I/F spectra have been corrected for thermal emission removal in the 3.5-5.1 μm range and for surface's photometric response. The resulting reflectance spectra have been used to compute several Cometary Spectral Indicators (CSI): single scattering albedo at 0.55 μm, 0.5-0.8 μm and 1.0-2.5 μm spectral slopes, 3.2 μm organic material and 2.0 μm water ice band parameters (center, depth) with the aim to map their spatial distribution on the surface and to study their temporal variability as the nucleus moved towards the Sun. Indeed, throughout the investigated period, the nucleus surface shows a significant increase of the single scattering albedo along with a decrease of the 0.5-0.8 and 1.0-2.5 μm spectral slopes, indicating a flattening of the reflectance. We attribute the origin of this effect to the partial removal of the dust layer caused by the increased contribution of water sublimation to the gaseous activity as comet crossed the frost-line. The regions more active at the time of these observations, like Hapi in the neck/north pole area, appear brighter, bluer and richer in organic material than the rest of the large and small lobe of the nucleus

  12. Impact of Buserelin Acetate or hCG Administration on the Day of First Artificial Insemination on Subsequent Luteal Profile and Conception Rate in Murrah Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, A K; Ghuman, Sps; Dhaliwal, G S; Agarwal, S K; Phogat, J B

    2016-08-01

    This study was designed to investigate the impact of buserelin acetate (BA) or human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration on the day of first artificial insemination (AI) on subsequent luteal profile (diameter of corpus luteum (CL) and plasma progesterone) and conception rate in Murrah buffalo. The present experiment was carried out at two locations in 117 buffalo that were oestrus-synchronized using cloprostenol (500 μg) administered (i.m.) 11 days apart followed by AI during standing oestrus. Based on treatment (i.m.) at the time of AI, buffalo were randomly categorized (n = 39 in each group) into control (isotonic saline solution, 5 ml), dAI-BA (buserelin acetate, 20 μg) and dAI-hCG (hCG, 3000 IU) group. Out of these, 14 buffalo of each group were subjected to ovarian ultrasonography on the day of oestrus to monitor the preovulatory follicle and on days 5, 12, 16 and 21 post-ovulation to monitor CL diameter. On the day of each sonography, jugular vein blood samples were collected for the estimation of progesterone concentrations. All the buffalo (n = 117) were confirmed for pregnancy on day 40 post-ovulation. The conception rate was better (p  0.05) to exhibit stimulatory impact of treatment on luteal profile when compared to control group. In brief, buserelin acetate or hCG treatment on the day of first AI leads to an increase in conception rate; however, an appreciable impact on post-ovulation luteal profile was observed only in hCG-treated Murrah buffalo. PMID:27170495

  13. A comprehensive survey of the laminins and collagens type IV expressed in mouse Leydig cells and their regulation by LH/hCG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaud Guittot, Séverine; Vérot, Adélie; Odet, Fanny; Chauvin, Marie-Agnès; le Magueresse-Battistoni, Brigitte

    2008-04-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins have been shown to alter Leydig cell steroidogenesis in vitro, substantiating the hypothesis that Leydig cell steroidogenic activity and matrix environment are interdependent events. However, the nature of the ECM components synthesized by Leydig cells and their regulation by LH/human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) remain unknown. Here, we examine the occurrence of the 11 laminin subunits and the 6 alpha chains of collagen IV (COL4A1-6) by RT-PCR in Leydig cells cultured with or without LH/hCG. Leydig cells were a tumor Leydig cell line (mLTC-1) or 8-week-old mice Leydig cells. Based on PCR data, it is suggested that normal Leydig cells may synthesize a maximum of 11 laminin heterotrimers and the 6 alpha chains of collagen IV. They also may synthesize various proteases and inhibitors of the metzincin family. The mLTC-1 cells have a limited repertoire as compared with normal Leydig cells. Interestingly, none of the ten proteases and inhibitors monitored is under LH-hCG regulation whereas every protease and inhibitor of the serine protease family yet identified in Leydig cells is under gonadotropin regulation. In addition, a few laminin and collagen subunit genes are regulated by LH/hCG. These are laminins alpha3 and gamma3 (Lama3 and Lamc3), Col4a3, and Col4a6, which are negatively regulated by LH/hCG in both Leydig cell types, and Col4a4, which was downregulated in primary cultures but not in mLTC-1 cells. Collectively, the present study suggests that Leydig cells modulate in a selective fashion their matrix environment in response to their trophic hormone. This may alter the steroidogenic outcome of Leydig cells. PMID:18367508

  14. Pre-hCG 3D and 3D power Doppler assessment of the follicle for improving pregnancy rates in intrauterine insemination cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonal Panchal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The assessment of follicular maturity at the time of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG is one of the key factors for the success of all assisted reproductive techniques. Aim: To assess follicles by three dimensional (3D and 3D power Doppler (PD before giving hCG to improve pregnancy rates in intrauterine insemination (IUI cycles. Design: Prospective randomized study. Materials and Methods: Ultrasound for pre-hCG follicular assessment was performed over a period of 10 months for all 1000 cycles of IUI. Follicular assessment was performed using a transvaginal multifrequency volume probe. Follicles considered mature by 2D US and color Doppler were assessed by 3D and 3D PD. These values were independently evaluated for the conception and the non-conception groups. Results: Conception rates were 32.3 and 27% respectively and individually when the perifollicular resistance index was 11 cm/s 10-12 h before hCG. Conception rates of 32% were achieved with a follicular volume between 3 and 7 cc. The conception rate was 32.3% in the cumulus group. A perifollicular vascularity index of between six and 20 gave conception rates of 35% and perifollicular flow index of 27-43 gave conception rates of 33%. Conclusions: 3D ultrasound is much more accurate for volume assessment of the follicle. Presence of cumulus increases the surety of the presence of a mature ovum in the follicle. 3D and 3D PD when used with 2D US and color Doppler for pre-hCG follicular assessment would definitely improve pregnancy rates in IUI cycles.

  15. In vivo distribution of c-myc antisense oligodeoxynucleotides local delivered by gelatin-coated platinmn-iridium stents in rabbits and its effect on apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新霞; 崔长琮; 许香广; 胡雪松; 方卫华; 邝碧娟

    2004-01-01

    Background Post-stenting restenosis is a significant clinical problem, involving vascular smooth muscle cells(VSMCs) proliferation and apoptosis. It is reported that c-myc antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ASODNs) local delivered by catheter can inhibit VSMCs proliferation. This study was designed to assess tissue distribution of c-myc ASODN local delivered using gelatin-coated platinum-iridium (Pt-Ir) stents, and its effect on apoptosis of VSMCs. Methods Gelatin-coated Pt-Ir stents that had absorbed caroboxyfluorescein-5-succimidyl ester (FAM) labeled c-myc ASODNs (550 μg per stent) were implanted into the right carotid arteries of 6 rabbits. Tissue samples were obtained at 45 minutes, 2 hours, and 6 hours. Tissue distribution of c- myc ASODNs was assessed by fluorescence microscopy. In addition, 32 rabbits were randomly divided into two groups. Rabbits in the control group (n=16) were implanted with gelatin-coated Pt-Ir stents, and those in the treatment group (n=16) were implanted with gelatin-coated stents that had absorbed c-myc ASODNs. 7, 14, 30, or 90 days (n=4, respectively, for each group) after the stenting procedure, the stented segments were harvested, and histopathological examinations were performed to calculate neointimal area and mean neointimal thickness. The expression of c-myc was assessed using in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemical methods. Apoptotic VSMCs were detected using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Results According to fluorescence microscopic results, FAM-labeled c-myc ASODNs were concentrated in the target vessel media at the 45 minutes time point, and then dispersed to the adventitia. Morphometric analysis showed that neointimal area and mean neointimal thickness increased continuously up to 90 days after stent implantation, but that total neointimal area and mean neointimal thickness were less in the treatment group than in the

  16. JAC, 2-D Finite Element Method Program for Quasi Static Mechanics Problems by Nonlinear Conjugate Gradient (CG) Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: JAC is a two-dimensional finite element program for solving large deformation, temperature dependent, quasi-static mechanics problems with the nonlinear conjugate gradient (CG) technique. Either plane strain or axisymmetric geometry may be used with material descriptions which include temperature dependent elastic-plastic, temperature dependent secondary creep, and isothermal soil models. The nonlinear effects examined include material and geometric nonlinearities due to large rotations, large strains, and surface which slide relative to one another. JAC is vectorized to perform efficiently on the Cray1 computer. A restart capability is included. 2 - Method of solution: The nonlinear conjugate gradient method is employed in a two-dimensional plane strain or axisymmetric setting with various techniques for accelerating convergence. Sliding interface conditions are also implemented. A four-node Lagrangian uniform strain element is used with orthogonal hourglass viscosity to control the zero energy modes. Three sets of continuum equations are needed - kinematic statements, constitutive equations, and equations of equilibrium - to describe the deformed configuration of the body. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - Maxima of: 10 load and solution control functions, 4 materials. The strain rate is assumed constant over a time interval. Current large rotation theory is applicable to a maximum shear strain of 1.0. JAC should be used with caution for large shear strains. Problem size is limited only by available memory

  17. Effect of recombinant-LH and hCG in the absence of FSH on in vitro maturation (IVM) fertilization and early embryonic development of mouse germinal vesicle (GV)-stage oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinopoulou, Vasiliki; Drakakis, Peter; Kefala, Stella; Kiapekou, Erasmia; Bletsa, Ritsa; Anagnostou, Elli; Kallianidis, Konstantinos; Loutradis, Dimitrios

    2016-06-01

    During in vitro maturation (IVM), intrinsic and extrinsic factors must co-operate properly in order to ensure cytoplasmic and nuclear maturation. We examined the possible effect of LH/hCG in the process of oocyte maturation in mice with the addition of recombinant LH (r-LH) and hCG in our IVM cultures of mouse germinal vesicle (GV)-stage oocytes. Moreover, the effects of these hormones on fertilization, early embryonic development and the expression of LH/hCG receptor were examined. Nuclear maturation of GV-stage oocytes was evaluated after culture in the presence of r-LH or hCG. Fertilization rates and embryonic development were assessed after 24h. Total RNA was isolated from oocytes of different stages of maturation and from zygotes and embryos of different stages of development in order to examine the expression of LH/hCG receptor, using RT-PCR. The in vitro nuclear maturation rate of GV-stage oocytes that received hCG was significantly higher compared to the control group. Early embryonic development was increased in the hCG and LH cultures of GV oocytes when LH was further added. The LH/hCG receptor was expressed in all stages of in vitro matured mouse oocytes and in every stage of early embryonic development. Addition of hCG in IVM cultures of mouse GV oocytes increased maturation rates significantly. LH, however, was more beneficial to early embryonic development than hCG. This suggests a promising new technique in basic science research or in clinical reproductive medicine. PMID:27288338

  18. Biometri Organ Reproduksi Bagian Luar dan Karakteristik Ejakulat Anoa (Bubalus sp. yang Dikoleksi Menggunakan Elektroejakulator Setelah Diinjeksi hCG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aimed to investigate characteristics of reproductive organ (external parts of the anoa (Bubalus sp. and semen characteristics that collected by using electroejaculator after hCG injection, as an initial step on implementation of assisted reproductive techniques. Anoa is Indonesian endemic fauna that included into Appendix I by CITES. Anoa breeding efforts have not succeeded, due to their agressivity, soliter, wildness and monogamous. This experiment was carried out in Ragunan Zoo (Jakarta, Taman Safari Indonesia (Bogor, and Divison of Reproduction, Obstetrics and Gynaecology Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB. Biometry of reproductive organ were measured by microcaliper and nylon tape. Semen was collected by electroejaculator, under anesthetized condition. Ejaculate was evaluated macro- and microscopically. The results showed that the reproductive organ was larger as it is getting older. But, it was generally smaller compared to the buffalo’s. The characteristics of fresh semen were: volume 1.02±0.28 ml, pH 6.93±0.19, mass movement 0, progressive motility 52.50±18.91%, live-death ratio 67.48±8.24%, concentration 263.33±105.06 billion/mL and total abnormality 31.86±3.72% (primary abnormality 9.52±3.85%, secondary abnormality 22.33±1.46%. The semen qualities were fairly good, even though some parameters showed lower number compared to buffalo’s. It is important to improve the collection technique, animal handling and appropriate extender development for semen cryopreservation.

  19. The RpfCG two-component system negatively regulates the colonization of sugar cane stalks by Xanthomonas albilineans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rott, Philippe; Fleites, Laura A; Mensi, Imène; Sheppard, Lauren; Daugrois, Jean-Heinrich; Dow, J Maxwell; Gabriel, Dean W

    2013-06-01

    The genome of Xanthomonas albilineans, the causal agent of sugar cane leaf scald, carries a gene cluster encoding a predicted quorum sensing system that is highly related to the diffusible signalling factor (DSF) systems of the plant pathogens Xylella fastidiosa and Xanthomonas campestris. In these latter pathogens, a cluster of regulation of pathogenicity factors (rpf) genes encodes the DSF system and is involved in control of various cellular processes. Mutation of Xanthomonas albilineans rpfF, encoding a predicted DSF synthase, in Florida strain XaFL07-1 resulted in a small reduction of disease severity (DS). Single-knockout mutations of rpfC and rpfG (encoding a predicted DSF sensor and regulator, respectively) had no effect on DS or swimming motility of the pathogen. However, capacity of the pathogen to cause disease was slightly reduced and swimming motility was severely affected when rpfG and rpfC were both deleted. Similar results were obtained when the entire rpfGCF region was deleted. Surprisingly, when the pathogen was mutated in rpfG or rpfC (single or double mutations) it was able to colonize sugar cane spatially more efficiently than the wild-type. Mutation in rpfF alone did not affect the degree of spatial invasion. We conclude that the DSF signal contributes to symptom expression but not to invasion of sugar cane stalks by Xanthomonas albilineans strain XaFL07-1, which is mainly controlled by the RpfCG two-component system. PMID:23538716

  20. Design criteria -- Reactor plant modifications for increased production and 100-C Area Alterations (Sections A and B) CG-558. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russ, M.H.

    1954-08-10

    This document defines the basic criteria to be used in the preparation of detailed design for Project CG-558, Reactor Plant Modification for Increased Production and for Project CG-600, 100-C Area Alterations. It has been determined that the most economical method of increasing plutonium production within the next five years is by the modernization and improvement of the 100-B, 100-C, 100-D, 100-DR, 100-F, and 100-H reactor plants. These reactors are currently incapable of operating at their maximum potential power levels because of a limited availability of process cooling water. As a result of this programs, it is estimated that 1650-2350 megawatts of total additional production will be achieved. The purpose of this document is to set forth the design for certain modifications and additions to Hanford reactors and their supporting facilities as required to obtain higher power levels and improve the safety of reactor operation.

  1. Basal follicle stimulating hormone and leptin on the day of hCG administration predict successful fertilization in in vitro fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Andon Hestiantoro; Budi Wiweko; Robert H. Purwaka

    2016-01-01

    Background: Successful pregnancy in in vitro fertilization (IVF) program depends on multiple factors. This study aimed to determine whether age, body mass index (BMI), basal follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol, and leptin on the day of trigger ovulation with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) might be used as predictor for successful oocyte fertilization in in vitro fertilization (IVF) program.Methods: This is a cross sectional study conducted in Yasmin Fertility Clinic, Cipto Mangu...

  2. Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help a Friend Who Cuts? Complementary and Alternative Medicine KidsHealth > For Teens > Complementary and Alternative Medicine Print ... replacement. continue How Is CAM Different From Conventional Medicine? Conventional medicine is based on scientific knowledge of ...

  3. The Non–Symmetric s–Step Lanczos Algorithm: Derivation of Efficient Recurrences and Synchronization–Reducing Variants of BiCG and QMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feuerriegel Stefan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Lanczos algorithm is among the most frequently used iterative techniques for computing a few dominant eigenvalues of a large sparse non-symmetric matrix. At the same time, it serves as a building block within biconjugate gradient (BiCG and quasi-minimal residual (QMR methods for solving large sparse non-symmetric systems of linear equations. It is well known that, when implemented on distributed-memory computers with a huge number of processes, the synchronization time spent on computing dot products increasingly limits the parallel scalability. Therefore, we propose synchronization-reducing variants of the Lanczos, as well as BiCG and QMR methods, in an attempt to mitigate these negative performance effects. These so-called s-step algorithms are based on grouping dot products for joint execution and replacing time-consuming matrix operations by efficient vector recurrences. The purpose of this paper is to provide a rigorous derivation of the recurrences for the s-step Lanczos algorithm, introduce s-step BiCG and QMR variants, and compare the parallel performance of these new s-step versions with previous algorithms.

  4. First Trimester Maternal Serum Screening Using Biochemical Markers PAPP-A and Free β-hCG for Down Syndrome, Patau Syndrome and Edward Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiefa, S; Amargandhi, M; Bhupendra, J; Moulali, S; Kristine, T

    2013-01-01

    The first trimester screening programme offers a noninvasive option for the early detection of aneuploidy pregnancies. This screening is done by a combination of two biochemical markers i.e. serum free β-human chorionic gonadotrophin (free β-hCG) and pregnancy associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A), maternal age and fetal nuchal translucency (NT) thickness at 11 + 0-13 + 6 weeks of gestation. A beneficial consequence of screening is the early diagnosis or trisomies 21, 18 and 13. At 11 + 0-13 + 6 weeks, the relative prevalence of trisomies 18 and 13 to trisomy 21 are found to be one to three and one to seven, respectively. All three trisomies are associated with increased maternal age, increased fetal NT and decreased PAPP-A, but in trisomy 21 serum free β-hCG is increased whereas in trisomies 18 and 13 free β-hCG is decreased. PMID:24381414

  5. CgNa, a type I toxin from the giant Caribbean sea anemone Condylactis gigantea shows structural similarities to both type I and II toxins, as well as distinctive structural and functional properties

    OpenAIRE

    Salceda, Emilio; Pérez-Castells, Javier; López-Méndez, Blanca; Garateix, Anoland; Salazar, Hector; López, Omar; Aneiros, Abel; Ständker, Ludger; Béress, Lászlo; Forssmann, Wolf Georg; Soto, Enrique; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Giménez-Gallego, Guillermo

    2007-01-01

    Abstract CgNa is a toxin from the sea anemone Condylactis gigantea that is comprised of 47-residues. The structure of CgNa, solved by 1}H NMR spectroscopy, is somewhat atypical, displaying significant homologies to both type I and II anemonae toxins, as well as a considerable number of exceptions to what are considered as canonical structural elements of this group of toxins, and that are thought to be essential for their activity. Furthermore, unique residues in CgNa define a cha...

  6. Depleted uranium management alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report evaluates two management alternatives for Department of Energy depleted uranium: continued storage as uranium hexafluoride, and conversion to uranium metal and fabrication to shielding for spent nuclear fuel containers. The results will be used to compare the costs with other alternatives, such as disposal. Cost estimates for the continued storage alternative are based on a life-cycle of 27 years through the year 2020. Cost estimates for the recycle alternative are based on existing conversion process costs and Capital costs for fabricating the containers. Additionally, the recycle alternative accounts for costs associated with intermediate product resale and secondary waste disposal for materials generated during the conversion process

  7. Relationship of metabolic syndrome and its components with -844 G/A and HindIII C/G PAI-1 gene polymorphisms in Mexican children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De la Cruz-Mosso Ulises

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several association studies have shown that -844 G/A and HindIII C/G PAI-1 polymorphisms are related with increase of PAI-1 levels, obesity, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, hypertension and dyslipidemia, which are components of metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to analyze the allele and genotype frequencies of these polymorphisms in PAI-1 gene and its association with metabolic syndrome and its components in a sample of Mexican mestizo children. Methods This study included 100 children with an age range between 6-11 years divided in two groups: a 48 children diagnosed with metabolic syndrome and b 52 children metabolically healthy without any clinical and biochemical alteration. Metabolic syndrome was defined as the presence of three or more of the following criteria: fasting glucose levels ≥ 100 mg/dL, triglycerides ≥ 150 mg/dL, HDL-cholesterol th percentile, systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP ≥ 95th percentile and insulin resistance HOMA-IR ≥ 2.4. The -844 G/A and HindIII C/G PAI-1 polymorphisms were analyzed by PCR-RFLP. Results For the -844 G/A polymorphism, the G/A genotype (OR = 2.79; 95% CI, 1.11-7.08; p = 0.015 and the A allele (OR = 2.2; 95% CI, 1.10-4.43; p = 0.015 were associated with metabolic syndrome. The -844 G/A and A/A genotypes were associated with increase in plasma triglycerides levels (OR = 2.6; 95% CI, 1.16 to 6.04; p = 0.02, decrease in plasma HDL-cholesterol levels (OR = 2.4; 95% CI, 1.06 to 5.42; p = 0.03 and obesity (OR = 2.6; 95% CI, 1.17-5.92; p = 0.01. The C/G and G/G genotypes of the HindIII C/G polymorphism contributed to a significant increase in plasma total cholesterol levels (179 vs. 165 mg/dL; p = 0.02 in comparison with C/C genotype. Conclusions The -844 G/A PAI-1 polymorphism is related with the risk of developing metabolic syndrome, obesity and atherogenic dyslipidemia, and the HindIII C/G PAI-1 polymorphism was associated with the

  8. Interaction of Polymorphisms of Resistin Gene Promoter -420C/G, Glutathione Peroxidase -1 Gene Pro198Leu and Cigarette Smoking in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Xian Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many studies have suggested that cigarette smoking and polymorphisms of resistin and glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1 genes are closely correlated with the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. However, few reports have investigated these associations with respect to NAFLD susceptibility. We, therefore, examined the distribution of polymorphisms in GPx-1 and resistin genes in NAFLD patients and healthy controls and analyzed the relationship between these polymorphisms and smoking status. Methods: Nine hundred NAFLD patients and 900 healthy controls were selected, and the genetic polymorphisms of resistin gene promoter-420C/G and GPx-1 gene Pro198Leu were analyzed by polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (PCR in DNA extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes. Interactions between the two mutants and the gene-environment interaction with cigarette smoking were also analyzed. Results: Genotype frequencies of −420C/G (GG and Pro198Leu (LL were significantly higher in NAFLD cases (49.56% and 50.11%, respectively compared with healthy controls (23.67% and 24.22%, respectively (P = 0.0069; P = 0.0072. Moreover, the risk of NAFLD with −420C/G (GG was significantly higher than in controls (odds ratio [OR] =3.1685, 95% confidence interval (CI =1.9366-5.2073. Individuals carrying Pro198Leu (LL had a high risk of NAFLD (OR = 3.1424, 95% CI = 1.7951-5.2367. Combined analysis of the polymorphisms showed that the −420C/G (GG/Pro198Leu (LL genotype was significantly more common in the NAFLD group than in the control group (39.44% vs. 12.78%, respectively, P = 0.0054, while individuals with −420C/G (GG/Pro198Leu (LL had a high risk of NAFLD (OR = 5.0357, 95% CI = 3.1852-7.8106. Moreover, the cigarette smoking rate in the NAFLD group was significantly higher than in the control group (OR = 1.8990, P = 0.0083 in the smoking index (SI ≤400 subgroup; OR = 5.0937, P = 0.0051 in the SI >400 subgroup, and statistical analysis

  9. Studies of turbulence and wave coupling based on self organization process at SK/CG-1 machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the SK/CG-1 Machine, using the He gas pressures between 30 and 50 mTorr, a complex turbulence regime has been determined. During the on-set phase of 0.35 μs, besides the anomalous plasma resistivity, the ion acoustic instability is also observed. At the C-gun the plasma belt which contains the hot electrons at the energy range of 60-80 eV, breaks from the gun electrodes, the translation into plasmoid case occurs and then high electric fields about 5 kV/cm in the poloidal frame of the gun are produced. Thus, the electron-ion two stream instability and just after 0.1 μs, the ion acoustic instability is started. On the other hand, in the second phase, the beam plasma instability and the ion acoustic instability are parallelly sustained. The beam plasma instability includes also the W3 ion cyclotron instability. In addition, due to the toroidal magnetic field of poloidal frame and the electric field perpendicular to it, the density and temperature gradients come into existence. Probably at the end of the resonance of the drift wave and the ion acoustic wave, the drift wave turbulence commences. The time constant of the octagonal flux conserver is about 28-30 ms. After the turbulence, the electric field on the poloidal frame drops down to 900 V/cm and it is kept for 300 ms (E/e). Thus a wave coupling mechanism depending on the self organization process is sustained. Nevertheless, it has not yet been understood exactly if the propagation at the flux conserver is realized due to the reflections or the helicity transfer from the wave to the plasma. The frequency of the closed wave packet changes in the range of 25-5 kHz depending on the electron temperatures in the range of 30-5 eV. The average electron density is about 1014cm-3 and the global energy confinement times are found in the range of 65-250 μs. (author). 7 refs, 6 figs

  10. Human fibroblast growth factor 20 (FGF-20; CG53135-05): a novel cytoprotectant with radioprotective potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclachlan, T; Narayanan, B; Gerlach, V L; Smithson, G; Gerwien, R W; Folkerts, O; Fey, E G; Watkins, B; Seed, T; Alvarez, E

    2005-08-01

    The aim was to evaluate the radioprotective properties of recombinant human fibroblast growth factor 20 (FGF-20; CG53135-05) in vitro and in vivo and to examine its effects on known cellular pathways of radioprotection. Relative transcript levels of the cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), Mn-super oxide dismutase (SOD), CuZn-SOD, extracellular (EC)-SOD, nuclear respiratory factor 2 (Nrf2), glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) and intestinal trefoil factor 3 (ITF3) genes, which are involved in radiation response pathways, were assessed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in NIH/3T3, IEC18, CCD-18Co, CCD-1070sk and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) cells exposed to FGF-20. Activation of the radioprotective signal transduction pathways initiating with the serine/threonine Akt kinase and the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) were analysed. Levels of intracellular hydrogen peroxide and cytosolic redox potential were also measured in irradiated and unirradiated cells in the presence or absence of FGF-20. The effects of FGF-20 on cell survival in vitro following ionizing radiation were evaluated using clonogenic assays. To test the potential activity of FGF-20 as a radioprotectant in vivo, mice were administered a single dose of FGF-20 (4 mg kg(-1), intraperitoneally (i.p.) 1 day before lethal total-body irradiation and evaluated for survival. In vitro exposure to FGF-20 increased expression of the Nrf2 transcription factor and oxygen radical scavenging enzymes such as MnSOD, activated signal transduction pathways (ERK and Akt) and resulted in increased survival of irradiated cells in vitro. FGF-20 treatment also resulted in a concomitant reduction in intracellular levels of injurious reactive oxygen species (ROS) following acute ionizing irradiation. Finally, prophylactic administration of FGF-20 to mice before potentially lethal, whole-body X-irradiation led to significant increases in overall survival. FGF-20 reduced the lethal effects of acute

  11. Contribution à l’étude de l’utilisation répétée de la gonadotrophine chorionique équine (eCG) dans le contrôle de la reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Drion, Pierre

    2001-01-01

    Various molecules including steroids, prostaglandins, peptides and glycoproteins are largely used in reproduction programs in domestic mammals. Treatments including pituitary gonadotrophins (Follitropin —FSH-, Lutropin —LH-, human menopausal Gonadotrophin —hMG-) and placental gonadotrophins (human Chorionic Gonadotrophin —hCG-, equine Chorionic Gonadotrophin —eCG- also called Pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin —PMSG-) are used for a long time to treat infertility or as a way to better control ...

  12. Polyphase alternating codes

    CERN Document Server

    Markkanen, Markku

    2007-01-01

    This work introduces a method for constructing polyphase alternating codes in which the length of a code transmission cycle can be $p^m$ or $p-1$, where $p$ is a prime number and $m$ is a positive integer. The relevant properties leading to the construction alternating codes and the algorithm for generating alternating codes is described. Examples of all practical and some not that practical polyphase code lengths are given.

  13. Alternative Solar Indices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, L.J.

    1980-07-01

    Possible alternative Solar Indices which could either be a perturbation from the currently defined Solar Index or possible indices based on current technologies for other media markets are discussed. An overview is given of the current project, including the logic that was utilized in defining its current structure and then alternative indices and definitions are presented and finally, recommendations are made for adopting alternative indices.

  14. On an Alternative Cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Vankov, A.

    1998-01-01

    The suggested alternative cosmology is based on the idea of barion symmetric universe, in which our home universe is a representative of multitude of typical matter and antimatter universes. This alternative concept gives a physically reasonable explanation of all major problems of the Standard Cosmological Model. Classification Code MSC: Cosmology 524.8 Key words: standard cosmological model, alternative cosmology, barionic symmetry, typical universe, quasars, cosmic rays.

  15. Complex Alternative Splicing

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jung Woo; Graveley, Brenton R.

    2007-01-01

    Alternative splicing is a powerful means of controlling gene expression and increasing protein diversity. Most genes express a limited number of mRNA isoforms, but there are several examples of genes that use alternative splicing to generate hundreds, thousands, and even tens of thousands of isoforms. Collectively such genes are considered to undergo complex alternative splicing. The best example is the Drosophila Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam) gene, which can generate 38,016 is...

  16. Alternators. Experience feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study of the technical aspects of various accidents having occured on nuclear alternators operating in the French 900 MW nuclear plant unit, and the respective solutions and possibilities for application to alternators of the 1000 and 1500 MW power plants. Analysis of the accidents on CP 1 program alternators: accidents caused by vibratory fatigue (cracking of the hydraulic connection pipes of the stator winding, cracking of the hydraulic-electric connection between the stator coiling and the output terminals, cracking of the hydrogen cooler finned tubes), pollution by copper oxide of the stator winding cooling water circuit. Accidents on CP 2 alternators: accident on the shaft sealing joint, striking inside the terminal box

  17. Effects of Antisense Oligodeoxynucleotide to Follicle-stimulating Hormone Receptor on the Expression of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Primary Culture Cells Derived from Human Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcino

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The effects of antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (antisense ODN) to follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) on the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were studied in primary culture cells derived from human ovarian mucinous cystadenocarcinoma (OMC). The prlmary OMC cells were cultured with the enzyme digestion method, and the expression of pan Keratin protein and FSHR mRNA was detected for identification of the cells. OMC cells were co-cultured with antisense ODN, nonsense ODN and FSH with different concentrations for 48 h and 72 h. The expression of PCNA and VEGF was detected by using SP immunohistochemistry. Compared with that in the control group, the PCNA and VEGF expression was increased obviously in FSH groups (P<0.05 or P< 0.01), while decreased significantly in antisense ODN groups (P<0. 05 or P<0.01) and unchanged in nonsense ODN groups, respectively. Meanwhile, antisense ODN could antagonize the increased expression of PCNA and VEGF caused by FSH significantly (P<0.01). It was suggested that FSH might promotethe development of OMC to some extent. Antisense ODN could inhibit the proliferative activity of OMC cells and the promoting proliferative activity enhanced by FSH.

  18. Basal follicle stimulating hormone and leptin on the day of hCG administration predict successful fertilization in in vitro fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andon Hestiantoro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Successful pregnancy in in vitro fertilization (IVF program depends on multiple factors. This study aimed to determine whether age, body mass index (BMI, basal follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, estradiol, and leptin on the day of trigger ovulation with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG might be used as predictor for successful oocyte fertilization in in vitro fertilization (IVF program.Methods: This is a cross sectional study conducted in Yasmin Fertility Clinic, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia. Forty participating patients underwent IVF program, excluding smokers, patients with diabetic, morbid obesity, and severe oligospermia or azoospermia. Age, BMI, basal FSH, estradiol, leptin on the day of hCG administration, oocyte count on oocyte retrieval, the number of mature oocyte, and fertility rate were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate analysis to determine which eligible factors play role in predicting the successful of fertilization.Results: Significant correlation was found between basal FSH level and serum leptin/oocyte ratio on the day of hCG administration with successful fertilization. We found probability formula as follows: 1/(1+exp –(6.2 - 0.4(leptin serum/oocyte ratio - 0.8(basal FSH, with 77.8% sensitivity, 77.8% specificity, and AUC levels of 85.6% indicating strong predictability. Probability of successful fertilization related to basal FSH level of 5.90 mIU/mL and leptin serum/oocyte ratio of 3.98.Conclusion: The formula consisting of basal FSH and leptin serum/oocyte ratio on the day of trigger ovulation was capable in predicting the probability of successful fertilization in IVF procedure.

  19. Association between regulated upon activation, normal T cells expressed and secreted (RANTES -28C/G polymorphism and asthma risk - A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaoqiao Fang, Furu Wang, Deyu Zhao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES is one of the most extensively studied C-C chemokines in allergic inflammation. A growing body of evidence suggests that many cell types present in asthmatic airways have the capacity to generate RANTES, which directly supported the potential role of RANTES in asthma. A number of studies have evaluated the functional polymorphism -28C/G in the RANTES promoter region, which had been found to affect the transcription of the RANTES gene, in relation to asthma susceptibility. However, the results remain conflicting rather than conclusive. This meta-analysis on 1894 asthma cases and 1766 controls for -28C/G from 9 published case-control studies showed that the variant allele -28G was associated with significantly increased risk of asthma (GG+CG vs CC: OR=1.24, 95%CI=1.08-1.41 without any between-study heterogeneity. In the stratified analysis by asthma type, age and ethnicity, we found that the increased asthma risk associated with -28G/C polymorphism was more evident in children (OR=1.24, 95%CI=1.06-1.45, Asian group (OR=1.27, 95%CI=1.04-1.56 and African group (OR=1.72, 95%CI=1.07-2.78. These results suggest that RANTES -28G/C polymorphism may contribute to asthma development, especially in children and in Asian population. Additional well-designed large studies were required for the validation of this association.

  20. Alternative Devices for Taking Insulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... KB). Alternate Language URL Alternative Devices for Taking Insulin Page Content On this page: What alternative devices ... the skin. [ Top ] What alternative devices for taking insulin are available? Insulin pens provide a convenient, easy- ...

  1. Brandmodstandsbidrag for alternative isoleringsmaterialer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2001-01-01

    Resume af rapport om alternative isoleringsmaterialers brandmodstandsbidrag, udarbejdet af Dansk Brandteknisk Institut under Energistyrelsens udviklingsprogram "Miljø- og arbejdsmiljøvenlig isolering"......Resume af rapport om alternative isoleringsmaterialers brandmodstandsbidrag, udarbejdet af Dansk Brandteknisk Institut under Energistyrelsens udviklingsprogram "Miljø- og arbejdsmiljøvenlig isolering"...

  2. Anvendelse af alternative isoleringsmaterialer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2003-01-01

    Resume af By og Byg Anvisning 207 om anvendelse af alternative isoleringsmaterialer, udarbejdet af Statens Byggeforskningsinstitut under udviklingsprogrammet "Miljø- og arbejdsmiljøvenlig isolering"......Resume af By og Byg Anvisning 207 om anvendelse af alternative isoleringsmaterialer, udarbejdet af Statens Byggeforskningsinstitut under udviklingsprogrammet "Miljø- og arbejdsmiljøvenlig isolering"...

  3. Involvement of 5-HT2 receptors in the behaviours produced by intrathecal administration of selected 5-HT agonists and the TRH analogue (CG 3509) to rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Fone, K. C.; Johnson, J. V.; Bennett, G. W.; Marsden, C. A.

    1989-01-01

    1. The behavioural effects of the intrathecal injection of a thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH) analogue L-orotyl-L-histidyl-prolineamide (CG 3509, 0.5 micrograms), the non-selective 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 receptor agonist 5-methoxy-N,N'-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeODMT, 2-100 micrograms) and the selective 5-HT2 receptor agonist 2,5-dimethoxy-alpha,4-dimethyl-benzene ethamine hydrochloride (DOM, 2-25 micrograms) were compared with the response of systemically administered 5-MeODMT (2 mg kg-1, i.p.) in...

  4. Quinone-dependent D-lactate dehydrogenase Dld (Cg1027) is essential for growth of Corynebacterium glutamicum on D-lactate

    OpenAIRE

    Oikawa Tadao; Matsui Daisuke; Stansen K Corinna; Youn Jung-Won; Kato Osamu; Wendisch Volker F

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Corynebacterium glutamicum is able to grow with lactate as sole or combined carbon and energy source. Quinone-dependent L-lactate dehydrogenase LldD is known to be essential for utilization of L-lactate by C. glutamicum. D-lactate also serves as sole carbon source for C. glutamicum ATCC 13032. Results Here, the gene cg1027 was shown to encode the quinone-dependent D-lactate dehydrogenase (Dld) by enzymatic analysis of the protein purified from recombinant E. coli. The abso...

  5. First Trimester Maternal Serum Screening Using Biochemical Markers PAPP-A and Free β-hCG for Down Syndrome, Patau Syndrome and Edward Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Shiefa, S.; Amargandhi, M.; Bhupendra, J.; Moulali, S.; Kristine, T.

    2012-01-01

    The first trimester screening programme offers a noninvasive option for the early detection of aneuploidy pregnancies. This screening is done by a combination of two biochemical markers i.e. serum free β-human chorionic gonadotrophin (free β-hCG) and pregnancy associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A), maternal age and fetal nuchal translucency (NT) thickness at 11 + 0–13 + 6 weeks of gestation. A beneficial consequence of screening is the early diagnosis or trisomies 21, 18 and 13. At 11 + 0–13 +...

  6. Site-directed mutagenesis around the CuA site of a polyphenol oxidase from Coreopsis grandiflora (cgAUS1)

    OpenAIRE

    Kaintz, Cornelia; Mayer, Rupert L.; Jirsa, Franz; Halbwirth, Heidi; Rompel, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Aurone synthase from Coreopsis grandiflora (cgAUS1), catalyzing conversion of butein to sulfuretin in a type-3 copper center, is a rare example of a polyphenol oxidase involved in anabolism. Site-directed mutagenesis around the CuA site of AUS1 was performed, and recombinant enzymes were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Replacement of the coordinating CuA histidines with alanine resulted in the presence of a single copper and loss of diphenolase activity. The thioether bridge-building cysteine ...

  7. Quantitative ELISAs for serum soluble LHCGR and hCG-LHCGR complex: potential diagnostics in first trimester pregnancy screening for stillbirth, Down’s syndrome, preterm delivery and preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chambers Anne E

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soluble LH/hCG receptor (sLHCGR released from placental explants and transfected cells can be detected in sera from pregnant women. To determine whether sLHCGR has diagnostic potential, quantitative ELISAs were developed and tested to examine the correlation between pregnancy outcome and levels of serum sLHCGR and hCG-sLHCGR complex. Methods Anti-LHCGR poly- and monoclonal antibodies recognizing defined LHCGR epitopes, commerical anti-hCGbeta antibody, together with recombinant LHCGR and yoked hCGbeta-LHCGR standard calibrators were used to develop two ELISAs. These assays were employed to quantify serum sLHCGR and hCG-sLHCGR at first trimester human pregnancy. Results Two ELISAs were developed and validated. Unlike any known biomarker, sLHCGR and hCG-sLHCGR are unique because Down’s syndrome (DS, preeclampsia and preterm delivery are linked to both low (less than or equal to 5 pmol/mL, and high (equal to or greater than 170 pmol/mL concentrations. At these cut-off values, serum hCG-sLHCGR together with PAPP-A detected additional DS pregnancies (21% which were negative by free hCGbeta plus PAPP-A screening procedure. Therefore, sLHCGR/hCG-sLHCGR has an additive effect on the current primary biochemical screening of aneuploid pregnancies. More than 88% of pregnancies destined to end in fetal demise (stillbirth exhibited very low serum hCG-sLHCGR(less than or equal to 5 pmol/mL compared to controls (median 16.15 pmol/mL, n = 390. The frequency of high hCG-sLHCGR concentrations (equal to or greater than 170 pmol/mL in pathological pregnancies was at least 3-6-fold higher than that of the control, suggesting possible modulation of the thyrotropic effect of hCG by sLHCGR. Conclusions Serum sLHCGR/hCG-sLHCGR together with PAPP-A, have significant potential as first trimester screening markers for predicting pathological outcomes in pregnancy.

  8. Alternative loop rings

    CERN Document Server

    Goodaire, EG; Polcino Milies, C

    1996-01-01

    For the past ten years, alternative loop rings have intrigued mathematicians from a wide cross-section of modern algebra. As a consequence, the theory of alternative loop rings has grown tremendously. One of the main developments is the complete characterization of loops which have an alternative but not associative, loop ring. Furthermore, there is a very close relationship between the algebraic structures of loop rings and of group rings over 2-groups. Another major topic of research is the study of the unit loop of the integral loop ring. Here the interaction between loop rings and group ri

  9. c.G2114A MYH9 mutation (DFNA17) causes non-syndromic autosomal dominant hearing loss in a Brazilian family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Vitor G.L.; Lezirovitz, Karina; Yamamoto, Guilherme L.; Moura de Souza, Carolina Fischinger; Ferreira, Simone Gomes; Mingroni-Netto, Regina C.

    2014-01-01

    We studied a family presenting 10 individuals affected by autosomal dominant deafness in all frequencies and three individuals affected by high frequency hearing loss. Genomic scanning using the 50k Affymetrix microarray technology yielded a Lod Score of 2.1 in chromosome 14 and a Lod Score of 1.9 in chromosome 22. Mapping refinement using microsatellites placed the chromosome 14 candidate region between markers D14S288 and D14S276 (8.85 cM) and the chromosome 22 near marker D22S283. Exome sequencing identified two candidate variants to explain hearing loss in chromosome 14 [PTGDR – c.G894A:p.R298R and PTGER2 – c.T247G:p.C83G], and one in chromosome 22 [MYH9, c.G2114A:p.R705H]. Pedigree segregation analysis allowed exclusion of the PTGDR and PTGER2 variants as the cause of deafness. However, the MYH9 variant segregated with the phenotype in all affected members, except the three individuals with different phenotype. This gene has been previously described as mutated in autosomal dominant hereditary hearing loss and corresponds to DFNA17. The mutation identified in our study is the same described in the prior report. Thus, although linkage studies suggested a candidate gene in chromosome 14, we concluded that the mutation in chromosome 22 better explains the hearing loss phenotype in the Brazilian family. PMID:25505834

  10. Bisphenol A Alters β-hCG and MIF Release by Human Placenta: An In Vitro Study to Understand the Role of Endometrial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mannelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A proper fetomaternal immune-endocrine cross-talk in pregnancy is fundamental for reproductive success. This might be unbalanced by exposure to environmental chemicals, such as bisphenol A (BPA. As fetoplacental contamination with BPA originates from the maternal compartment, this study investigated the role of the endometrium in BPA effects on the placenta. To this end, in vitro decidualized stromal cells were exposed to BPA 1 nM, and their conditioned medium (diluted 1 : 2 was used on chorionic villous explants from human placenta. Parallel cultures of placental explants were directly exposed to 0.5 nM BPA while, control cultures were exposed to the vehicle (EtOH 0.1%. After 24–48 h, culture medium from BPA-treated and control cultures was assayed for concentration of hormone human Chorionic Gonadotropin (β-hCG and cytokine Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF. The results showed that direct exposure to BPA stimulated the release of both MIF and β-hCG. These effects were abolished/diminished in placental cultures exposed to endometrial cell-conditioned medium. GM-MS analysis revealed that endometrial cells retain BPA, thus reducing the availability of this chemical for the placenta. The data obtained highlight the importance of in vitro models including the maternal component in reproducing the effects of environmental chemicals on human fetus/placenta.

  11. Recognition of CG interrupting site by W-shaped nucleoside analogs (WNA) having the pyrazole ring in an anti-parallel triplex DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Yosuke; Uchida, Yuko; Takaki, Tomoko; Aoki, Eriko; Sasaki, Shigeki

    2009-10-01

    We have previously developed W-shaped nucleoside analogs (WNA) for recognition of TA and CG interrupting sites, which are the intrinsic limitation for the formation of a stable triplex DNA by the natural triplex-forming oligonucleotide (TFO). However, the stabilization effect of WNA is dependent on the neighboring nucleobases at both sides of the WNA analogs within the TFO. Considering that the base is located at the hindered site constructed of three bases of the target duplex and the TFO, it was expected that replacement of the pyrimidine base of the WNA analog with a smaller pyrazole ring might avoid steric repulsion to produce a greater stability for the triplex. In this study, the new WNA analogs bearing the pyrazole ring, 3-aminopyrazole (AP), and 4-methyl-3-pyrazole-5-on (MP) were synthesized, incorporated into the TFOs, then their stabilizing effects on the triplexes were evaluated. A remarkable success was illustrated by the fact that the TFO containing WNA-betaAP in the 3'G-WNA-G-5' sequence formed a stable triplex with selectivity to the CG interrupting site where the previous WNA-betaC did not induce the triplex formation. PMID:19736014

  12. Formation of a stable triplex incorporating a CG interrupting site by a new WNA derivative containing 3-aminopyrazole as a nucleobase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Yuko; Taniguchi, Yosuke; Aoki, Eriko; Togo, Mieko; Sasaki, Shigeki

    2008-01-01

    Triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) bind within the major groove of duplex DNA in a sequence-specific manner, and have attracted much interest as genomic tools. However, as the triplex DNA is formed by the interaction between the TFOs and homopurine/homopyrimidine sequences of the target duplex DNA, the stable triplex formation is prevented by one pyrimidine base in the homopurine strand. Previously, we developed the nucleoside analogues (WNA: W-shaped nucleoside analogues) that furnish an aromatic ring as a stacking part and a nucleobase as a recognition part onto the bicyclic skeleton. Selective recognition of a TA and a CG interrupting site has been achieved by WNA-beta T and WNA-beta C, respectively. In the subsequent study, it was found that the triplex formation by the WNA analogues depend on its neighbouring bases within the TFO. In this paper, we describe the synthesis and the evaluation of the triplex forming ability of WNA-beta 3AP, having 3-aminopyrazole (3AP) as a nucleobase. It is remarkable that the TFO containing the WNA-beta 3AP recognizes the CG interrupting site with high selectivity in the TFO sequence of 3'-GZG-5', in which the previous WNA-beta C did not show the stabilizing effect. PMID:18776291

  13. Bisphenol A alters β-hCG and MIF release by human placenta: an in vitro study to understand the role of endometrial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannelli, C; Ietta, F; Carotenuto, C; Romagnoli, R; Szostek, A Z; Wasniewski, T; Skarzynski, D J; Paulesu, Luana

    2014-01-01

    A proper fetomaternal immune-endocrine cross-talk in pregnancy is fundamental for reproductive success. This might be unbalanced by exposure to environmental chemicals, such as bisphenol A (BPA). As fetoplacental contamination with BPA originates from the maternal compartment, this study investigated the role of the endometrium in BPA effects on the placenta. To this end, in vitro decidualized stromal cells were exposed to BPA 1 nM, and their conditioned medium (diluted 1 : 2) was used on chorionic villous explants from human placenta. Parallel cultures of placental explants were directly exposed to 0.5 nM BPA while, control cultures were exposed to the vehicle (EtOH 0.1%). After 24-48 h, culture medium from BPA-treated and control cultures was assayed for concentration of hormone human Chorionic Gonadotropin ( β -hCG) and cytokine Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF). The results showed that direct exposure to BPA stimulated the release of both MIF and β -hCG. These effects were abolished/diminished in placental cultures exposed to endometrial cell-conditioned medium. GM-MS analysis revealed that endometrial cells retain BPA, thus reducing the availability of this chemical for the placenta. The data obtained highlight the importance of in vitro models including the maternal component in reproducing the effects of environmental chemicals on human fetus/placenta. PMID:24737926

  14. Ovarian response to repeated administration of alternating exogenous gonadotropin regimens in the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) and tigrinus (Leopardus tigrinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Paz, Regina Celia Rodrigues; Dias, Eduardo Antunes; Adania, Cristina Harumi; Barnabe, Valquíria Hippólito; Barnabe, Renato Campanarut

    2006-10-01

    Exogenous gonadotropins are used to stimulate ovarian follicular growth and ovulation in mammalian species, including wild cats. However, successes in application of assisted reproduction techniques in nondomestic felids have been sparse. Our objectives were to assess the effectiveness of alternating gonadotropin regimens on ovarian responses. Five adult female ocelots and four adult female tigrinus were treated four to six times, using alternating eCG/hCG and pFSH/pLH at 4-month intervals. Laparoscopies were done to assess follicular development and to collect oocytes from matures follicles. The average number of follicles and corpus luteum (CL) per stimulation was higher in ocelots (7.0 +/- 0.8; mean +/- S.E.M.) than in tigrinus (2.5 +/- 0.4; P < 0.05), but the percentage of mature oocytes did not differ between the two species (mean range, 54-55%). Within species, both gonadotropin regimens were equally effective in inducing follicular growth and oocyte maturation. The total number of ovarian structures and oocyte maturation percentages did not decrease in either species with sequential stimulations. In summary, female ocelots and tigrinus continued to respond to repeated alternating ovarian stimulation protocols. In conclusion, the use of alternating gonadotropin regimens may permit more intensive reproductive management in these endangered cats. PMID:16472853

  15. Seal design alternatives study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results from a study of various sealing alternatives for the WIPP sealing system. Overall, the sealing system has the purpose of reducing to the extent possible the potential for fluids (either gas or liquid) from entering or leaving the repository. The sealing system is divided into three subsystems: drift and panel seals within the repository horizon, shaft seals in each of the four shafts, and borehole seals. Alternatives to the baseline configuration for the WIPP seal system design included evaluating different geometries and schedules for seal component installations and the use of different materials for seal components. Order-of-magnitude costs for the various alternatives were prepared as part of the study. Firm recommendations are not presented, but the advantages and disadvantages of the alternatives are discussed. Technical information deficiencies are identified and studies are outlined which can provide required information

  16. Seal design alternatives study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Sambeek, L.L. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (US); Luo, D.D.; Lin, M.S.; Ostrowski, W.; Oyenuga, D. [Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, Inc., San Francisco, CA (US)

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results from a study of various sealing alternatives for the WIPP sealing system. Overall, the sealing system has the purpose of reducing to the extent possible the potential for fluids (either gas or liquid) from entering or leaving the repository. The sealing system is divided into three subsystems: drift and panel seals within the repository horizon, shaft seals in each of the four shafts, and borehole seals. Alternatives to the baseline configuration for the WIPP seal system design included evaluating different geometries and schedules for seal component installations and the use of different materials for seal components. Order-of-magnitude costs for the various alternatives were prepared as part of the study. Firm recommendations are not presented, but the advantages and disadvantages of the alternatives are discussed. Technical information deficiencies are identified and studies are outlined which can provide required information.

  17. An alternative currency

    OpenAIRE

    Frendo, Mario; Duca, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Malta- a tiny island, a minute social reality, a precursory canovaccio of European unification- has a unique asset it ought to be prouder of: culture. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/an-alternative-currency/

  18. Alternatives to Nursing Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this website may not be available. Alternatives to nursing homes Before you make any decisions about long ... live and what help you may need. A nursing home may not be your only choice. Discharge ...

  19. Vaginal dryness alternative treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a day. Soybeans contain plant-based substances called isoflavones. These substances have an effect on the body ... soy for vasomotor symptoms: the Herbal Alternatives for Menopause (HALT) Study. Menopause . 2008;15(1):51-58. ...

  20. Alternative fuel information sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This short document contains a list of more than 200 US sources of information (Name, address, phone number, and sometimes contact) related to the use of alternative fuels in automobiles and trucks. Electric-powered cars are also included.

  1. The alternative library

    OpenAIRE

    Collinson, Timothy; A. Williams

    2004-01-01

    Much time and effort has been devoted to designing and developing library Web sites that are easy to navigate by both new students and experienced researchers. In a review of the Southampton Institute Library it was decided that in addition to updating the existing homepage an alternative would be offered. Drawing on theory relating to user interface design, learning styles and creative thinking, an Alternative Library navigation system was added to the more traditional library homepage. The ...

  2. Alternative fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium resource utilization and economic considerations provide incentives to study alternative fuel cycles as future options to the PHWR natural uranium cycle. Preliminary studies to define the most favourable alternatives and their possible introduction dates are discussed. The important and uncertain components which influence option selection are reviewed, including nuclear capacity growth, uranium availability and demand, economic potential, and required technological developments. Finally, a summary of Ontario Hydro's program to further assess cycle selection and define development needs is given. (auth)

  3. Ultimacy and alternative possibilities

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, John Martin

    2009-01-01

    I explore a key feature of Robert Kane’s libertarianism (about which I have been puzzled for some time). Kane claims that we should separate issues of alternative possibilities from issues of ultimacy, but he further argues that they are connected in a certain way. I call into question this connection, and I continue to argue for a strict separation of considerations pertaining to alternative possibilities and “actual-sequence” considerations.

  4. Des divisions aux alternances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Clemens

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available - From the divisions to the alternations - Society, action and common good give sense to democracy. Society is in fact a set of unmitigated divisions (horizontal and vertical, material and symbolic. Democratic action, since the discourse’s conflicts, doesn’t change the human beings, but things between they, in the alternation of power’s institutions for our only good in common: the body. With this aim, the Basic Income Earth Network is necessary.

  5. Triplex formation at physiological pH by 5-Me-dC-N4-(spermine) [X] oligodeoxynucleotides: non protonation of N3 in X of X*G:C triad and effect of base mismatch/ionic strength on triplex stabilities.

    OpenAIRE

    Barawkar, D A; Rajeev, K. G.; Kumar, V A; Ganesh, K N

    1996-01-01

    Oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) directed triplex formation has therapeutic importance and depends on Hoogsteen hydrogen bonds between a duplex DNA and a third DNA strand. T*A:T triplets are formed at neutral pH and C+*G:C are favoured at acidic pH. It is demonstrated that spermine conjugation at N4 of 5-Me-dC in ODNs 1-5 (sp-ODNs) imparts zwitterionic character, thus reducing the net negative charge of ODNs 1-5. sp-ODNs form triplexes with complementary 24mer duplex 8:9 show foremost stability at ...

  6. Alternative fuels for vehicles; Alternative drivmidler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-02-15

    Up until 2020 and onwards the analysis indicates that especially electricity, biogas and natural gas as propellants is economically attractive compared to conventional gasoline and diesel while other fuels have the same or higher costs for petrol and diesel. Especially biogas and electricity will also offer significant reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions, but also hydrogen, methanol, DME and to a lesser extent the second generation bioethanol and most of the other alternative fuels reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Use of the traditional food-based first generation biofuels involves, at best, only modest climate benefits if land use changes are counted, and at worst, significant negative climate effects. Natural gas as a propellant involves a moderate climate gain, but may play a role for building infrastructure and market for gaseous fuels in large fleets, thereby contributing to the phasing in of biogas for transport. The electric-based automotive fuels are the most effective due to a high efficiency of the engine and an increasing proportion of wind energy in the electricity supply. The methanol track also has a relatively high efficiency. Among the others, the track based on diesel engines (biodiesel) is more effective than the track based on gasoline/Otto engines (gas and ethanol) as a result of the diesel engine's better efficiency. For the heavy vehicles all the selected alternative fuels to varying degrees reduce emissions of CO{sub 2}, particularly DME based on wood. The only exception to this is - as for passenger cars - the propellant synthetic diesel based on coal. (LN).

  7. Single and combination herpes simplex virus type 2 glycoprotein vaccines adjuvanted with CpG oligodeoxynucleotides or monophosphoryl lipid A exhibit differential immunity that is not correlated to protection in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodai, Tansi; Chappell, Debbie; Christy, Clare; Cockle, Paul; Eyles, Jim; Hammond, Daisy; Gore, Katrina; McCluskie, Michael J; Evans, Dana M; Lang, Susanne; Loudon, Peter T; Townend, Tim; Wright, Paul; West, Kate; Bright, Helen

    2011-10-01

    Despite several attempts to develop an effective prophylactic vaccine for HSV-2, all have failed to show efficacy in the clinic. The most recent of these failures was the GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) subunit vaccine based on the glycoprotein gD with the adjuvant monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL). In a phase 3 clinical trial, this vaccine failed to protect from HSV-2 disease, even though good neutralizing antibody responses were elicited. We aimed to develop a superior, novel HSV-2 vaccine containing either gD or gB alone or in combination, together with the potent adjuvant CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CPG). The immunogenic properties of these vaccines were compared in mice. We show that gB/CPG/alum elicited a neutralizing antibody response similar to that elicited by gD/CPG/alum vaccine but a significantly greater gamma interferon (IFN-γ) T cell response. Furthermore, the combined gB-gD/CPG/alum vaccine elicited significantly greater neutralizing antibody and T cell responses than gD/MPL/alum. The efficacies of these candidate vaccines were compared in the mouse and guinea pig disease models, including a novel male guinea pig genital disease model. These studies demonstrated that increased immune response did not correlate to improved protection. First, despite a lower IFN-γ T cell response, the gD/CPG/alum vaccine was more effective than gB/CPG/alum in mice. Furthermore, the gB-gD/CPG/alum vaccine was no more effective than gD/MPL/alum in mice or male guinea pigs. We conclude that difficulties in correlating immune responses to efficacy in animal models will act as a deterrent to researchers attempting to develop effective HSV vaccines. PMID:21852545

  8. Toll-like receptor 9 ligand D-type oligodeoxynucleotide D35 as a broad inhibitor for influenza A virus replication that is associated with suppression of neuraminidase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hiroshi; Nagase, Satoshi; Takahashi, Kazuo; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Kida, Hiroshi; Okamoto, Shigefumi

    2016-05-01

    The most effective drugs available to treat influenza are neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors, which provide important additional measures for the control of influenza virus infections. However, since the emergence of NA inhibitor-resistant viruses may compromise the clinical utility of this class of anti-influenza agents, it is very important to develop new anti-influenza agents which target a different region in NA responsible for its sensitivity from that for NA inhibitors and could be used to treat NA inhibitors-resistant isolates. The oligodeoxynucleotide D35, multimerized and aggregated, suppressed replication of influenza A viruses except A/WSN/33 (WSN). The suppressive viral replication by D35 depended on G-terad and multimer formation. The range of the suppressive viral replication at the late stage, including virus assembly and release from infected cells, was much larger than that at the initial stage, viral attachment and entry. D35 suppressed NA activity of influenza A viruses. Furthermore, replacing the NA gene of A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8), in which viral replication was inhibited by D35 at the late stage, with the NA gene from WSN, in which viral replication was not inhibited, eliminated the D35-dependent suppression. D35 showed an additive anti-influenza effect with oseltamivir. It was also effective in vivo. These results suggest that the influenza virus NA mainly contributes to the D35-suppressible virus release from infected cells at the late stage. In addition, because administration of D35 into the virus-infected mice suppressed viral replication and weight loss, clinical application of D35 could be considered. PMID:26923882

  9. Effect of Antisense Oligodeoxynucleotide Directed to NF-κB-RelA on Bcl-xL mRNA in Extended Drug Resistance Leukemia Cell Line HL-60/E6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹文静; 张瑶珍; 张东华; 邹萍

    2001-01-01

    To explore the effect of NF-κB on bcl-x gene transcription in extended drug resistance leukemia cell line HL-60/E6, drug-resistant subline HL-60/E6 was derived by intermittently exposing HL-60 cells to 6 ng/ml epirubicin. Indirect immunofluorescence was used to demonstrate the location of NF-κB-RelA in HL-60/E6 cells. FCM analysis and RT-PCR were used to detect the efficiency of liposome-mediated ODN transfection and the change of bcl-xL mRNA levels after 5 μmol/L phosphorothioate (PS)-derivatized antisense (AS) oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) directed to RelA was transferred into HL-60/E6 cells. The results showed that RelA remained persistently active and located at the nuclei of HL-60/E6 cells,but in the cytoplasm of HL-60 cells, the efficiency of liposome-mediated ODN transfection was significantly higher than that of null ODN (P<0.01 in 4 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h). Exposure of HL-60/E6 cells to 5 μmol/L AS-PS-ODN directed to RelA led to a maximal 40 % decline of bcl-xL mRNA levels within 8 h. The inhibition rate of bcl-xL mRNA was (15±1.79) %, (28±2.34) %, (40±3.47) %, (20±1.54) % in 4 h, 6 h, 8 h, 15 h, respectively, but it was less than 15 % in control group. It was concluded that NF-κB was involved in regulating bcl-x transcription. It was suggested that NF-κB was an important factor for drug resistance in leukemia cells.

  10. Catalysis for alternative energy generation

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Summarizes recent problems in using catalysts in alternative energy generation and proposes novel solutions  Reconsiders the role of catalysis in alternative energy generation  Contributors include catalysis and alternative energy experts from across the globe

  11. Alternative Green Solvents Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Phillip R.

    2012-01-01

    Necessary for safe and proper functioning of equipment. Mainly halogenated solvents. Tetrachloride, Trichloroethylene (TCE), CFC-113. No longer used due to regulatory/safety concerns. Precision Cleaning at KSC: Small % of total parts. Used for liquid oxygen (LOX) systems. Dual solvent process. Vertrel MCA (decafluoropentane (DFP) and trons-dichloroethylene) HFE-7100. DFP has long term environmental concerns. Project Goals: a) Identify potential replacements. b) 22 wet chemical processes. c) 3 alternative processes. d) Develop test procedures. e) Contamination and cleaning. f) Analysis. g) Use results to recommend alternative processes. Conclusions: a) No alternative matched Vertrel in this study. b) No clear second place solvent. c) Hydrocarbons- easy; Fluorinated greases- difficult. d) Fluorinated component may be needed in replacement solvent. e) Process may need to make up for shortcoming of the solvent. f) Plasma and SCC02 warrant further testing.

  12. Alternatives for pseudofinite groups

    CERN Document Server

    Houcine, Abderezak Ould

    2012-01-01

    The famous Tits' alternative states that a linear group either contains a nonabelian free group or is soluble-by-(locally finite). We study in this paper similar alternatives in pseudofinite groups. We show for instance that an $\\aleph_{0}$-saturated pseudofinite group either contains a subsemigroup of rank $2$ or is nilpotent-by-(uniformly locally finite). We call a class of finite groups $G$ weakly of bounded rank if the radical $rad(G)$ has a bounded Pr\\"ufer rank and the index of the sockel of $G/rad(G)$ is bounded. We show that an $\\aleph_{0}$-saturated pseudo-(finite weakly of bounded rank) group either contains a nonabelian free group or is nilpotent-by-abelian-by-(uniformly locally finite). We also obtain some relations between this kind of alternatives and amenability.

  13. Bouncing alternatives to inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Lilley, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Although the inflationary paradigm is the most widely accepted explanation for the current cosmological observations, it does not necessarily correspond to what actually happened in the early stages of our Universe. To decide on this issue, two paths can be followed: first, all the possible predictions it makes must be derived thoroughly and compared with available data, and second, all imaginable alternatives must be ruled out. Leaving the first task to all other contributors of this volume, we concentrate here on the second option, focusing on the bouncing alternatives and their consequences.

  14. Renewable and alternative energy

    CERN Document Server

    Curley, Robert

    2011-01-01

    With growing populations across the world consuming Earth's limited oil and natural gas reserves, the environmental and economic toll of energy dependence becomes an increasingly global concern. The development of renewable forms of energy-solar, wind, water, and geothermal, to name a few-offers alternatives to fossil fuels. Consumers are embracing these new modes of energy delivery and use. This extensive volume examines the possibility of a cleaner and more energy efficient future by detailing the historic and emerging technologies behind some the most promising alternative resources.

  15. Domestic energy alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These alternatives include biomass, clean coal, geothermal, hydropower, natural gas, nuclear, solar and photovoltaic, and wind. With the current, volatile situation in the Middle East, this nation's political leaders appear to be left scratching their heads in their attempts to come up with new, sound, energy policies to reduce our dependence on foreign oil. Therefore, the FORTNIGHTLY's editorial staff thought that this might be an opportune time to briefly examine some home-grown and environmentally responsible fuel alternatives to black gold. While some of these electricity-producing technologies are still on the horizon, others are available now

  16. GnRH agonist ovulation trigger and hCG-based, progesterone-free luteal support: a proof of concept study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kol, Shahar; Humaidan, Peter; Itskovitz-Eldor, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    -based ovarian stimulation protocol was used in combination with a GnRHa trigger (Triptorelin 0.2 mg). The luteal phase was supported with a total of two boluses of 1500 IU hCG: on the day of oocyte retrieval and 4 days later. Neither progesterone nor estradiol was administered for luteal support. RESULTS The...... mean age was 33.8 years. The mean (±SD) numbers of oocytes and fertilized oocytes were 6.7 (±2.5) and 3.6 (±1.7), respectively. All 15 patients had embryo transfers and 11 patients conceived. On the day of pregnancy test (14 days after retrieval), the mean serum E(2) and progesterone levels were 6607...... support is needed. The novel concept combines the potential advantages of a physiological dual trigger (LH and FSH) with a simple, patient friendly, luteal support....

  17. A revolution of the mind: some implications of George Hogenson's 'The Baldwin Effect: a neglected influence on C.G. Jung's evolutionary thinking' (2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Warren

    2015-09-01

    George Hogenson's 2001 paper 'The Baldwin Effect: a neglected influence on C.G. Jung's evolutionary thinking' developed the radical argument that, if archetypes are emergent, they 'do not exist in the sense that there is no place that the archetypes can be said to be'. In this paper, I show how Hogenson's thinking has been seminal to my own: it is not just archetypes but the mind itself that has no 'place'. The mind is a dynamic system, emergent from the cultural environment of symbolic meanings to which humans are evolutionarily adapted. Drawing on the work of philosopher John Searle, I argue that symbols constitute the realities that they bring forth, including the imaginal realities of the psyche. The implications for clinical work include a rejection of structural models of the psyche in favour of the emergence of symbolic realities in the context of psychoanalysis as a distributed system of cognition. PMID:26274851

  18. A germline-competent embryonic stem cell line from NOD.Cg-Prkdc ( scid ) Il2rg ( tm1Wjl )/SzJ (NSG) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landel, Carlisle P; Dunlap, Jennifer; Patton, John B; Manser, Tim

    2013-02-01

    The NOD.Cg-Prkdc ( scid ) Il2rg ( tm1Wjl )/SzJ mouse strain, commonly known as NSG (for NOD SCID Gamma) is severely immunodeficient and thus is an excellent recipient for xenografts, and in particular for engrafting human tumor cells and human hematopoietic stem cells. In the latter case, these cells give rise to many human hematopoetic lineages in their NSG hosts, resulting in recapitulation of many of the features of a human immune system. However, the immune system of these "humanized mice" (huMice) is not completely functional, in part because of a lack of expression of necessary human cytokines and HLA molecules by NSG host tissues. In order to facilitate the genetic modification of this strain in order to improve the huMouse model, we have created germline competent ES cells of this strain in which such modifications can be carried out. PMID:22767020

  19. Lower positive charge region (LPCR) and its influence on initiation of Thunderstorm ground enhancements (TGEs) and cloud-to-ground (CG-) and intracloud (IC-) lightning occurrences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss role of the LPCR model in the initiation of intracloud and cloud-to-ground lightning as well as in accelerated electrons in positive field within the cloud. Our analysis is based on the thunderstorm data from the Aragats Mountain in Armenia, 3200 m a.s.l. The electrical mill and lightning detectors are monitoring the near surface electrical field, distance and type of lightning occurrences, particle detectors register fluxes of neutral and charged particles associated with thunderstorms. The relations of particle fluxes to electrical structure of thunderclouds and – to lightning occurrences of different types were established and discussed. Our analysis supports the transient character of emerging LPCR and confirms blocking of CG- lightning occurrences by the mature LPCR. High particle fluxes, associated with thunderstorms, so called Thunderstorm ground enhancements (TGEs) prove the existence of the LCPR and its transient character.

  20. Prospective evaluation of first trimester combined screening for trisomy 21 using a double set of the maternal serum markers PAPP-A and free β-hCG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Charlotte Kvist; Wright, Dave; Ball, Susan; Kirkegaard, Ida; Nørgaard, Pernille; Sørensen, Steen; Jørgensen, Finn Stener; Friis-Hansen, Lennart; Uldbjerg, Niels; Tørring, Niels; Petersen, Olav Bjørn; Tabor, Ann

    Objective: To prospectively evaluate the screening performance of first trimester combined screening for trisomy 21 using a double set of biochemical markers Methods: Three fetal medicine departments in Denmark participated in the study. Screening for trisomy 21 was set up as a two-step approach...... with an early blood sample taken prior to the NT scan, and another blood sample taken at the time of the NT scan. PAPP-A and free β-hCG were measured on both the early and the late samples, and Multiples of the Median (MoM) values were calculated in addition to the corresponding trisomy 21 risk....... Using statistical modelling we estimated detection rates (DR) and false positive rates (FPR) when using early sampling, late sampling or combinations of early and late sampling. Results: We collected two blood samples in 25 pregnancies affected by trisomy 21 and in 3942 control pregnancies. The early...

  1. The effect of endometrial thickness on the day of hCG administration on pregnancy outcome in the first fresh IVF/ICSI cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Rui; Cai, Liyi; Xiong, Fang; Chen, Jie; Yang, Weimin; Zhao, Xin

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of endometrial thickness (EMT) on human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) day on in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) outcome. A retrospective study was conducted on the clinical data of 756 patients in their first fresh IVF/ICSI cycle at the Wuxi Maternity and Child Health Hospital. Compared with the pregnancy failure group, the clinical pregnancy group had more transferable embryos and good-quality embryos and had a thicker endometrium (p  14 mm). Group1 had significantly lower clinical pregnancy, embryo implantation and live birth rates compared with group 2 and 3 (p IVF/ICSI cycle. A higher clinical pregnancy rate could be achieved when EMT ≥ 8 mm, and no adverse pregnancy outcome was observed when EMT > 14 mm. PMID:26743235

  2. A 3D Finite-Difference BiCG Iterative Solver with the Fourier-Jacobi Preconditioner for the Anisotropic EIT/EEG Forward Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Turovets

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT and electroencephalography (EEG forward problems in anisotropic inhomogeneous media like the human head belongs to the class of the three-dimensional boundary value problems for elliptic equations with mixed derivatives. We introduce and explore the performance of several new promising numerical techniques, which seem to be more suitable for solving these problems. The proposed numerical schemes combine the fictitious domain approach together with the finite-difference method and the optimally preconditioned Conjugate Gradient- (CG- type iterative method for treatment of the discrete model. The numerical scheme includes the standard operations of summation and multiplication of sparse matrices and vector, as well as FFT, making it easy to implement and eligible for the effective parallel implementation. Some typical use cases for the EIT/EEG problems are considered demonstrating high efficiency of the proposed numerical technique.

  3. A 3D finite-difference BiCG iterative solver with the Fourier-Jacobi preconditioner for the anisotropic EIT/EEG forward problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turovets, Sergei; Volkov, Vasily; Zherdetsky, Aleksej; Prakonina, Alena; Malony, Allen D

    2014-01-01

    The Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) and electroencephalography (EEG) forward problems in anisotropic inhomogeneous media like the human head belongs to the class of the three-dimensional boundary value problems for elliptic equations with mixed derivatives. We introduce and explore the performance of several new promising numerical techniques, which seem to be more suitable for solving these problems. The proposed numerical schemes combine the fictitious domain approach together with the finite-difference method and the optimally preconditioned Conjugate Gradient- (CG-) type iterative method for treatment of the discrete model. The numerical scheme includes the standard operations of summation and multiplication of sparse matrices and vector, as well as FFT, making it easy to implement and eligible for the effective parallel implementation. Some typical use cases for the EIT/EEG problems are considered demonstrating high efficiency of the proposed numerical technique. PMID:24527060

  4. CEA Level, Radical Surgery, CD56 and CgA Expression Are Prognostic Factors for Patients With Locoregional Gastrin-Independent GNET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Bi, Xinyu; Zhao, Jianjun; Huang, Zhen; Zhou, Jianguo; Li, Zhiyu; Zhang, Yefan; Li, Muxing; Chen, Xiao; Hu, Xuhui; Chi, Yihebali; Zhao, Dongbing; Zhao, Hong; Cai, Jianqiang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Gastrin-independent gastric neuroendocrine tumors (GNETs) are highly malignant. Radical resections and lymphadenectomy are considered to be the only possible curative treatment for these tumors. However, the prognosis of gastrin-independent GNETs is not well defined. In this study, we identified prognostic factors of locoregional gastrin-independent GNETs. All patients diagnosed with locoregional gastrin-independent GNETs between 2000 and 2014 were included in this retrospective study. Clinical characteristics, blood tests, pathological characteristics, treatments, and follow-up data of the patients were collected and analyzed. Of the 66 patients diagnosed with locoregional gastrin-independent GNETs, 57 (86.4%) received radical resections, 7 (10.6%) with palliative resection, 1 (1.5%) with gastrojejunostomy, and 1 (1.5%) with exploration surgeries. The median survival time for these patients was 19.0 months (interquartile range, 11.0–38.0). The 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates were 72%, 34%, and 28%, respectively. Multivariate analysis indicated that carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level (P = 0.04), radical resection (P = 0.04), and positive Cluster of Differentiation 56 (CD56) expression (P = 0.016) were significant prognostic factors on overall survival rate. Further univariate and multivariate analysis of 57 patients who received radical resections found that CgA expression (P = 0.35) and CEA level (P = 0.33) are independent prognostic factors. Gastrin-independent GNETs had poor prognosis. Serum CEA level, radical surgery, CD56 and CgA expression are markers to evaluate the survival of patients with locoregional gastrin-independent GNETs. PMID:27149478

  5. Mutations in CG8878, a novel putative protein kinase, enhance P element dependent silencing (PDS and position effect variegation (PEV in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen McCracken

    Full Text Available Genes in multicellular organisms are expressed as part of a developmental program that is largely dependent on self-perpetuating higher-order chromatin states. The mechanism of establishing and maintaining these epigenetic events is well studied in Drosophila. The first known example of an epigenetic effect was that of (PEV in Drosophila, which has been shown to be due to gene silencing via heterochromatin formation. We are investigating a process similar to Position Effect Variegation (PEV using a mini-w transgene, called Pci, inserted in the upstream regulatory region of ci. The mini-white+ transgene in Pci is expressed throughout the adult eye; however, when other P or KP elements are present, a variegated eye phenotype results indicating random w+ silencing during development. This P element dependent silencing (PDS can be modified by the haplo-suppressors/triplo-enhancers, Su(var205 and Su(var3-7, indicating that these heterochromatic modifiers also act dose dependently in PDS. Here we use a spontaneous derivative mutation of Pci called PciE1 (E1 that variegates like PDS in the absence of P elements, presumably due to an adjacent gypsy element insertion, to screen for second-site modifier mutations that enhance variable silencing of white+ in E1. We isolated 7 mutations in CG8878, an essential gene, that enhance the E1 variegated phenotype. CG8878, a previously uncharacterized gene, potentially encodes a serine/threonine kinase whose closest Drosophila paralogue, ballchen (nhk-1, phosphorylates histones. These mutant alleles enhance both PDS at E1 and Position Effect Variegation (PEV at w(m4, indicating a previously unknown common silencing mechanism between the two.

  6. SU-E-T-64: CG-Based Radiation Therapy Simulator with Physical Modeling for Avoidance of Collisions Between Gantry and Couch Or Patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanouchi, M; Arimura, H; Yuda, I [Kokura Memorial Hospital, Kitakyushu-shi, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: It is time-consuming and might cause re-planning to check couch-gantry and patient-gantry collisions on a radiotherapy machine when using couch rotations for non-coplanar beam angles. The aim of this study was to develop a computer-graphics (CG)-based radiation therapy simulator with physical modeling for avoidance of collisions between gantry and couch or patient on a radiotherapy machine. Methods: The radiation therapy simulator was three-dimensionally constructed including a radiotherapy machine (Clinac iX, Varian Medical Systems), couch, and radiation treatment room according to their designs by using a physical-modeling-based computer graphics software (Blender, free and open-source). Each patient was modeled by applying a surface rendering technique to their planning computed tomography (CT) images acquired from 16-slice CT scanner (BrightSpeed, GE Healthcare). Immobilization devices for patients were scanned by the CT equipment, and were rendered as the patient planning CT images. The errors in the collision angle of the gantry with the couch or patient between gold standards and the estimated values were obtained by fixing the gantry angle for the evaluation of the proposed simulator. Results: The average error of estimated collision angles to the couch head side was -8.5% for gantry angles of 60 to 135 degree, and -5.5% for gantry angles of 225 to 300 degree. Moreover, the average error of estimated collision angles to the couch foot side was -1.1% for gantry angles of 60 to 135 degree, and 1.4% for gantry angles of 225 to 300 degree. Conclusion: The CG-based radiation therapy simulator could make it possible to estimate the collision angle between gantry and couch or patient on the radiotherapy machine without verifying the collision angles in the radiation treatment room.

  7. Quinone-dependent D-lactate dehydrogenase Dld (Cg1027 is essential for growth of Corynebacterium glutamicum on D-lactate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oikawa Tadao

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corynebacterium glutamicum is able to grow with lactate as sole or combined carbon and energy source. Quinone-dependent L-lactate dehydrogenase LldD is known to be essential for utilization of L-lactate by C. glutamicum. D-lactate also serves as sole carbon source for C. glutamicum ATCC 13032. Results Here, the gene cg1027 was shown to encode the quinone-dependent D-lactate dehydrogenase (Dld by enzymatic analysis of the protein purified from recombinant E. coli. The absorption spectrum of purified Dld indicated the presence of FAD as bound cofactor. Inactivation of dld resulted in the loss of the ability to grow with D-lactate, which could be restored by plasmid-borne expression of dld. Heterologous expression of dld from C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 in C. efficiens enabled this species to grow with D-lactate as sole carbon source. Homologs of dld of C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 are not encoded in the sequenced genomes of other corynebacteria and mycobacteria. However, the dld locus of C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 shares 2367 bp of 2372 bp identical nucleotides with the dld locus of Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii, a bacterium used in Swiss-type cheese making. Both loci are flanked by insertion sequences of the same family suggesting a possible event of horizontal gene transfer. Conclusions Cg1067 encodes quinone-dependent D-lactate dehydrogenase Dld of Corynebacterium glutamicum. Dld is essential for growth with D-lactate as sole carbon source. The genomic region of dld likely has been acquired by horizontal gene transfer.

  8. Circulating LH/hCG receptor (LHCGR may identify pre-treatment IVF patients at risk of OHSS and poor implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chambers Anne E

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful pregnancy via in vitro fertilization (IVF depends on the recovery of an adequate number of healthy oocytes and on blastocyst implantation following uterine transfer. Two hormones, LH and hCG, utilize a common LH/hCG receptor (LHCGR, variations in which have profound implications in human reproduction. Soluble LHCGR (sLHCGR is released from experimental cell lines and placental explants and it can be detected in the follicular fluid and serum. Methods To evaluate the impact of circulating soluble LHCGR (sLHCGR in fertility treatment, we measured sLHCGR and LH-sLHCGR complex in serum from women seeking IVF using specifically developed quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA. Following an IVF cycle of treatment, patients were grouped according to oocyte yield into low (lower than or equal to 7 oocytes, intermediate (8-14 oocytes and high (greater than or equal to 15 oocytes responders and pregnancy outcome noted. Results Pre-treatment sLHCGR identified many women at risk of ovarian hyperstimulation. Low levels of sLHCGR were associated with pregnancy in both high and low responders but sLHCGR did not significantly affect the treatment outcome of intermediate responders. Low responders who failed to become pregnant had high levels of circulating sLHCGR bound to LH (LH-sLHCGR. Conclusions Pre-treatment measurement of sLHCGR could be used to tailor individual fertility treatment programs and improve outcomes by avoiding ovarian hyperstimulation and poor embryo implantation.

  9. SU-E-T-64: CG-Based Radiation Therapy Simulator with Physical Modeling for Avoidance of Collisions Between Gantry and Couch Or Patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: It is time-consuming and might cause re-planning to check couch-gantry and patient-gantry collisions on a radiotherapy machine when using couch rotations for non-coplanar beam angles. The aim of this study was to develop a computer-graphics (CG)-based radiation therapy simulator with physical modeling for avoidance of collisions between gantry and couch or patient on a radiotherapy machine. Methods: The radiation therapy simulator was three-dimensionally constructed including a radiotherapy machine (Clinac iX, Varian Medical Systems), couch, and radiation treatment room according to their designs by using a physical-modeling-based computer graphics software (Blender, free and open-source). Each patient was modeled by applying a surface rendering technique to their planning computed tomography (CT) images acquired from 16-slice CT scanner (BrightSpeed, GE Healthcare). Immobilization devices for patients were scanned by the CT equipment, and were rendered as the patient planning CT images. The errors in the collision angle of the gantry with the couch or patient between gold standards and the estimated values were obtained by fixing the gantry angle for the evaluation of the proposed simulator. Results: The average error of estimated collision angles to the couch head side was -8.5% for gantry angles of 60 to 135 degree, and -5.5% for gantry angles of 225 to 300 degree. Moreover, the average error of estimated collision angles to the couch foot side was -1.1% for gantry angles of 60 to 135 degree, and 1.4% for gantry angles of 225 to 300 degree. Conclusion: The CG-based radiation therapy simulator could make it possible to estimate the collision angle between gantry and couch or patient on the radiotherapy machine without verifying the collision angles in the radiation treatment room

  10. High-level expression of biologically active glycoprotein hormones in Pichia pastoris strains—selection of strain GS115, and not X-33, for the production of biologically active N-glycosylated 15N-labeled phCG

    OpenAIRE

    Blanchard, Véronique; Gadkari, R.P; George, A.V.E.; Roy, R; Gerwig, G J; Leeflang, B.R.; Dighe, R R; Boelens, R.; Kamerling, J P

    2008-01-01

    The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris is widely used for the production of recombinant glycoproteins. With the aim to generate biologically active 15N-labeled glycohormones for conformational studies focused on the unravelling of the NMR structures in solution, the P. pastoris strains GS115 and X-33 were explored for the expression of human chorionic gonadotropin (phCG) and human follicle-stimulating hormone (phFSH). In agreement with recent investigations on the N-glycosylation of phCG, p...

  11. Elucidation of the sequence-specific third-strand recognition of four Watson-Crick base pairs in a pyrimidine triple-helix motif: T.AT, C.GC, T.CG, and G.TA.

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, K; Hobbs, C. A.; Koch, J.; Sardaro, M; Kutny, R; Weis, A L

    1992-01-01

    We report a specific pattern of recognition by third-strand bases for each of the four Watson-Crick base pairs within a pyrimidine triple-helix motif as determined by PAGE: T.AT, C.GC, T.CG, and G.TA. Our recognition scheme for base triplets is in agreement with previous studies. In addition, we identified another triplet, T.CG, under physiological conditions, in which formation of triple helix was observed at equimolar ratios of the third strand and duplex target. Although different nearest-...

  12. Compensated pulsed alternator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention relates to an electromechanical energy converter with inertial energy storage. The device, a single phase, two or multi-pole alternator with stationary field coils, and a rotating armature is provided. The rotor itself may be of laminated steel for slower pulses or for faster pulses should be nonmagnetic and electrically nonconductive in order to allow rapid penetration of the field as the armature coil rotates. The armature coil comprises a plurality of power generating conductors mounted on the rotor. The alternator may also include a stationary or counterrotating compensating coil to increase the output voltage thereof and to reduce the internal impedance of the alternator at the moment of peak output. As the machine voltage rises sinusoidally, an external trigger switch is adapted to be closed at the appropriate time to create the desired output current from said alternator to an external load circuit, and as the output current passes through zero a self-commutating effect is provided to allow the switch to disconnect the generator from the external circuit

  13. Alternatives to Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children Today, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Notes that our capacity to diffuse conflict rests in our ability to recognize and verbalize feelings, develop empathy, and think of alternatives to violence. Explores the influence of role models and culture on violence and how the media can use violent images effectively in helping us confront a culture of violence. (HTH)

  14. Tracking alternative energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the third and last article dealing with global energy topics analyzed at the 13th World Energy Congress. The varied particality or applicability of the following alternative energy sources is briefly discussed at a popular level: fusion, solar, ocean thermal energy conversion, waves, winds, tidal, and geothermal

  15. Alternatives to Blood Transfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Blood Transfusion and Donation + - Text Size Download Printable Version [PDF] » TOPICS Document ... Possible risks of blood transfusions Alternatives to blood transfusions Donating blood Blood donation by cancer survivors To learn more References Previous ...

  16. Alternative health insurance schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Hansen, Bodil O.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we present a simple model of health insurance with asymmetric information, where we compare two alternative ways of organizing the insurance market. Either as a competitive insurance market, where some risks remain uninsured, or as a compulsory scheme, where however, the level...

  17. TWTF design alternates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Transuranic Waste Treatment Facility (TWTF) will process transuranic (TRU) waste in retrievable storage at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The costs for a TWTF concept using a slagging pyrolysis incinerator were excessive. Alternate concepts using a slow speed shredder, a rotary kiln incinerator, and concrete immobilization should result in significant cost reductions. These will be included in future TWTF considerations

  18. Alternative and Integrative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are the healthcare rituals practiced by a given culture (eg, Asian, Indian, African). Homeopathic Medicine: This alternative medicine system is based on the principle that “like cures like.” In other words, the same substance ... American Brain Tumor Association 8550 W. Bryn Mawr Ave. ...

  19. Efeito da aplicação de hCG ou GnRH sobre a concentração sérica de progesterona e eficiência reprodutiva em porcas Effect of injection of hCG or GnRH on progesterone serum concentration and reproductive efficiency of sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F.R. Carvalho

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da aplicação de diferentes hormônios no quinto dia após a primeira inseminação sobre a concentração sérica de progesterona e sobre as características reprodutivas, em 103 porcas entre o terceirro e sexto parto. As matrizes foram divididas em: grupo-controle (n=35, não tratado, grupo GnRH (n=34, animais submetidos à aplicação intramuscular (IM de 50mcg de um análogo-GnRH no quinto dia após a primeira inseminação, e grupo hCG (n=34, animais submetidos à aplicação IM de 500UI de hCG no quinto dia após a primeira inseminação. A aplicação dos hormônios não influenciou as características reprodutivas taxa de parto, número total de nascidos, número de nascidos vivos e peso da leitegada (P>0,05. Cinco animais de cada grupo foram submetidos a coletas de sangue da veia cava nos dias 3, 5, 8, 12, 21 e 28 após a primeira inseminação para avaliação da concentração sérica de progesterona (ng/ml, utilizando a técnica de radioimunoensaio. Não houve diferença significativa quanto à concentração sérica de progesterona entre os grupos.Two different hormones were administered on the fifth day after the first insemination to evaluate their influence on serum progesterone concentrations and on reproductive efficiency, in multiparous sows between the third and the sixth parturition. The reproductive performance was evaluated in 103 sows distributed into three groups: 1-Control (n=35; 2-GnRH, 50m g of GnRH-analogue, administered IM on the fifth day after the first insemination (n=34; and 3-hCG, 500 IU of hCG administered IM in the fifth day after the first insemination (n=34. No effect (P>0.05 of hormone treatments on farrowing rate, litter size, live born and litter weight was observed. Five sows of each group were blood sampled on days 3, 5, 8, 12, 21, 28, after the first insemination, to evaluate serum progesterone concentrations (ng/ml. Serum progesterone concentrations were not affected (P>0.05 by

  20. Identification of proteases produced by entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana (Bals) Vuill. strain CG432 previously activated in coffee berry borer alive (Hypothenemus hampei)
    Identificação de proteases produzidas pelo fungo entomopatogênico Beauveria bassiana (Bals) Vuill. Cepa CG432 previamente ativada em insetos vivos de broca do café ((Hypothenemus hampei))

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Filipe Protásio Pereira; Diogo Maciel de Magalhães; Humberto Josué de Oliveira Ramos; Dalva Trevisan; Eliana Tiemi Ito; Jurandir Pereira Pinto; Vanessa Hitomi Sugahara; Geni Silva Varéa; Jakeliny Akemi Yamamoto Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Conídios de fungos entomopatogênicos atravessam o exoesqueleto do inseto pela ação mecânica do tubo germinativo e produção de múltiplas isoformas de proteases, quitinases e lipases em resposta à composição da cutícula do inseto. Desta forma o objetivo deste trabalho foi extrair, purificar e caracterizar a estrutura de proteases produzidas em cultivo submerso por Beauveria bassiana CG432 previamente ativada em adultos vivos de broca-do-café (Hypothenemus hampei). Uma suspensão contendo 106 con...

  1. [Alternatives to animal testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Isabelle

    2009-11-01

    The use of alternative methods to animal testing are an integral part of the 3Rs concept (refine, reduce, replace) defined by Russel & Burch in 1959. These approaches include in silico methods (databases and computer models), in vitro physicochemical analysis, biological methods using bacteria or isolated cells, reconstructed enzyme systems, and reconstructed tissues. Emerging "omic" methods used in integrated approaches further help to reduce animal use, while stem cells offer promising approaches to toxicologic and pathophysiologic studies, along with organotypic cultures and bio-artificial organs. Only a few alternative methods can so far be used in stand-alone tests as substitutes for animal testing. The best way to use these methods is to integrate them in tiered testing strategies (ITS), in which animals are only used as a last resort. PMID:20669543

  2. Outlook for alternative transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gushee, D.E. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This presentation provides a brief review of regulatory issues and Federal programs regarding alternative fuel use in automobiles. A number of U.S. DOE initiatives and studies aimed at increasing alternative fuels are outlined, and tax incentives in effect at the state and Federal levels are discussed. Data on alternative fuel consumption and alternative fuel vehicle use are also presented. Despite mandates, tax incentives, and programs, it is concluded alternative fuels will have minimal market penetration. 7 refs., 5 tabs.

  3. ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Irina IONESCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Alternative dispute resolution (ADR includes dispute resolution processes and techniques that act as a means for disagreeing parties to come to an agreement short of litigation. It is a collective term for the ways that parties can settle disputes, with (or without the help of a third party.Despite historic resistance to ADR by many popular parties and their advocates, ADR has gained widespread acceptance among both the general public and the legal profession in recent years. In fact, some courts now require some parties to resort to ADR of some type, before permitting the parties' cases to be tried. The rising popularity of ADR can be explained by the increasing caseload of traditional courts, the perception that ADR imposes fewer costs than litigation, a preference for confidentiality, and the desire of some parties to have greater control over the selection of the individual or individuals who will decide their dispute.Directive 2013/11/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council on alternative dispute resolution for consumer disputes and amending Regulation (EC No 2006/2004 and Directive 2009/22/EC (hereinafter „Directive 2013/11/EU” aims to ensure a high level of consumer protection and the proper functioning of the internal market by ensuring that complaints against traders can be submitted by consumers on a voluntary basis, to entities of alternative disputes which are independent, impartial, transparent, effective, simple,quick and fair.Directive 2013/11/EU establishes harmonized quality requirements for entities applying alternative dispute resolution procedure (hereinafter "ADR entity" to provide the same protection and the same rights of consumers in all Member States.Besides this, the present study is trying to present broadly how are all this trasposed in the romanian legislation.

  4. Alternatives to ECMO.

    OpenAIRE

    Donn, S M

    1994-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed technological advancements which are unparalleled in neonatology. ECMO has been demonstrated to be a powerful rescue treatment, but has perhaps been overutilised and is not universally available. Alternative treatments have been shown to be both safe and efficacious in the management of infants with respiratory failure. Direct head to head clinical trials will probably be necessary to establish appropriate criteria and indications for use, given the wide diversit...

  5. Alternative approaches in IVF

    OpenAIRE

    Fauser, Bart; Bouchard, P.; Coelingh Bennink, H.J.; Collins, John; Devroey, P.; Evers, Johannes; Van Steirteghem, A

    2002-01-01

    textabstractVarious new developments in clinical and basic science which may impact on IVF in the near or distant future will be discussed in this review. These key areas include the regulation of early follicle development and the extended in-vitro culture of oocytes and embryos. Moreover, alternative compounds and ovarian stimulation protocols will be discussed, along with highlights in the development of the cryopreservation of excess oocytes or embryos. Finally, the health economics of IV...

  6. Alternative Dispute Resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela Irina IONESCU

    2004-01-01

    Alternative dispute resolution (ADR) includes dispute resolution processes and techniques that act as a means for disagreeing parties to come to an agreement short of litigation. It is a collective term for the ways that parties can settle disputes, with (or without) the help of a third party.Despite historic resistance to ADR by many popular parties and their advocates, ADR has gained widespread acceptance among both the general public and the legal profession in recent years. In fact, some ...

  7. Metamaterials critique and alternatives

    CERN Document Server

    Munk, Ben A

    2009-01-01

    A Convincing and Controversial Alternative Explanation of Metamaterials with a Negative Index of Refraction In a book that will generate both support and controversy, one of the world's foremost authorities on periodic structures addresses several of the current fashions in antenna design-most specifically, the popular subject of double negative metamaterials. Professor Munk provides a comprehensive theoretical electromagnetic investigation of the issues and concludes that many of the phenomena claimed by researchers may be impossible. While denying the existence of negative refractio

  8. Alternatives to Higgs scalars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss alternatives to the Higgs Scalar doublet Φ of the minimal standard model. In particular we review technicolor (TC) and extended technicolor (ETC), and show that the threat of flavour changing neutral currents (FCNC's) is avoided by walking TC and/or strongly coupled ETC. The phenomenology of minimal TC and the techni-family is discussed. Finally we consider the possibility that the Higgs doublet Φ is a composite bound state of quarks from the third (or fourth) family

  9. Fixed field alternating gradient

    OpenAIRE

    Machida, Shinji

    2013-01-01

    The concept of a fixed field alternating gradient (FFAG) accelerator was invented in the 1950s. Although many studies were carried out up to the late 1960s, there has been relatively little progress until recently, when it received widespread attention as a type of accelerator suitable for very fast acceleration and for generating high-power beams. In this paper, we describe the principles and design procedure of a FFAG accelerator.

  10. Alternative Fuels: Research Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chapter 1: Pollutant Emissions and Combustion Characteristics of Biofuels and Biofuel/Diesel Blends in Laminar and Turbulent Gas Jet Flames. R. N. Parthasarathy, S. R. Gollahalli Chapter 2: Sustainable Routes for The Production of Oxygenated High-Energy Density Biofuels from Lignocellulosic Biomass. Juan A. Melero, Jose Iglesias, Gabriel Morales, Marta Paniagua Chapter 3: Optical Investigations of Alternative-Fuel Combustion in an HSDI Diesel Engine. T. Huelser, M. Jakob, G. Gruenefeld, P. Adomeit, S. Pischinger Chapter 4: An Insight into Biodiesel Physico-Chemical Properties and Exhaust Emissions Based on Statistical Elaboration of Experimental Data. Evangelos G. Giakoumis Chapter 5: Biodiesel: A Promising Alternative Energy Resource. A.E. Atabani Chapter 6: Alternative Fuels for Internal Combustion Engines: An Overview of the Current Research. Ahmed A. Taha, Tarek M. Abdel-Salam, Madhu Vellakal Chapter 7: Investigating the Hydrogen-Natural Gas Blends as a Fuel in Internal Combustion Engine. ?lker YILMAZ Chapter 8: Conversion of Bus Diesel Engine into LPG Gaseous Engine; Method and Experiments Validation. M. A. Jemni , G. Kantchev , Z. Driss , R. Saaidia , M. S. Abid Chapter 9: Predicting the Combustion Performance of Different Vegetable Oils-Derived Biodiesel Fuels. Qing Shu, ChangLin Yu Chapter 10: Production of Gasoline, Naphtha, Kerosene, Diesel, and Fuel Oil Range Fuels from Polypropylene and Polystyrene Waste Plastics Mixture by Two-Stage Catalytic Degradation using ZnO. Moinuddin Sarker, Mohammad Mamunor Rashid

  11. State alternative route designations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a ``state routing agency,`` defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective.

  12. State alternative route designations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a state routing agency,'' defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective.

  13. Is garlic alternative medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivlin, Richard S

    2006-03-01

    Garlic has been used medicinally since antiquity. In virtually every early civilization known, such as ancient India, Egypt, Rome, China, and Japan, garlic was part of the therapeutic regimen for a variety of maladies. Therefore, the ancient medicinal tradition of garlic use would qualify it as a folk medicine or as an alternative or complementary medicine. But is garlic an alternative to established methods of disease prevention or treatment? Scientists from around the world have identified a number of bioactive substances in garlic that are water soluble (e.g., S-allyl methylcysteine), and fat soluble (e.g., diallyldisulfide). Mechanisms of action are being elucidated by modern technology. The validity of ancient medicine is now being evaluated critically in cell-free systems, animal models, and human populations. Preventive and therapeutic trials of garlic are still in early stages. There are many promising lines of research suggesting the potential effects of garlic. The current state of knowledge does not recognize garlic as a true alternative, but it will likely find a place for garlic as a complement to established methods of disease prevention and treatment. Our goal should be to examine garlic together with other agents to evaluate its possible efficacy and toxicity under conditions of actual use in humans. PMID:16484549

  14. Alternative Energy Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Michaelides, Efstathios E (Stathis)

    2012-01-01

    Alternative Energy Sources is designed to give the reader, a clear view of the role each form of alternative energy may play in supplying the energy needs of the human society in the near and intermediate future (20-50 years).   The two first chapters on energy demand and supply and environmental effects, set the tone as to why the widespread use of alternative energy is essential for the future of human society. The third chapter exposes the reader to the laws of energy conversion processes, as well as the limitations of converting one energy form to another. The sections on exergy give a succinct, quantitative background on the capability/potential of each energy source to produce power on a global scale. The fourth, fifth and sixth chapters are expositions of fission and fusion nuclear energy. The following five chapters (seventh to eleventh) include detailed descriptions of the most common renewable energy sources – wind, solar, geothermal, biomass, hydroelectric – and some of the less common sources...

  15. Molecular cloning of a novel, putative G protein-coupled receptor from sea anemones structurally related to members of the FSH, TSH, LH/CG receptor family from mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nothacker, H P; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1993-01-01

    hormone (FSH, TSH, LH/CG) receptor family from mammals, including a very large, extracellular N terminus (18-25% sequence identity) and a 7 transmembrane region (44-48% sequence identity). As with the mammalian glycoprotein hormone receptor genes, the sea anemone receptor gene yields transcripts which can...

  16. A prospective study evaluating the performance of first trimester combined screening for trisomy 21 using repeated sampling of the maternal serum markers PAPP-A and free β-hCG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Charlotte Kvist; Wright, Dave; Ball, Susan;

    2012-01-01

    To prospectively evaluate the performance of first-trimester combined screening for trisomy 21 using the biochemical markers pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (free β-hCG) obtained before and at the time of the nuchal translucency (NT) scan....

  17. Longer time-to-pregnancy in spontaneously conceived pregnancies is associated with lower PAPP-A and free β-hCG in first trimester screening for Down syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, I.; Uldbjerg, N.; Tabor, Ann;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether subfertility, measured as longer time-to-pregnancy (TTP) in spontaneously conceived pregnancies, affects the first trimester levels of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (β-hCG) and...

  18. Polymorphism rs4919510:C>G in mature sequence of human microRNA-608 contributes to the risk of HER2-positive breast cancer but not other subtypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A-Ji Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A few polymorphisms are located in the mature microRNA sequences. Such polymorphisms could directly affect the binding of microRNA to hundreds of target mRNAs. It remains unknown whether rs4919510:C>G located in the mature miR-608 alters breast cancer susceptibility. METHODS: The association of rs4919510:C>G with risk and pathologic features of breast cancer were investigated in two independent case-control studies, the first set including 1,138 sporadic breast cancer patients (including 927 invasive ductal carcinoma patients, 777 of them with known subtypes: 496 luminal-like, 133 HER2-positive, and 148 triple-negative and 1,434 community-based controls, and the second set including 294 familial/early-onset breast cancer patients and 500 hospital-based cancer-free controls. Odds ratios (ORs were estimated by logistic regression. Predicted targets of miR-608 and complementary sequences containing rs4919510:C>G were surveyed to reveal potential pathological mechanism. RESULTS: In the first set, although rs4919510:C>G was unrelated to breast cancer in general patients, variant genotypes (CG/GG were specifically associated with increased risk of HER2-positive subtype (Adjusted OR = 1.97, 95% CI, 1.34-2.90 in the recessive model. Variant G-allele was the risk allele with OR of 1.62 (95% CI, 1.23-2.15. Patients carrying GG-genotype also had larger HER2-positive tumors (P for Kruskal-Wallis test = 0.006. The relationship between rs4919510:C>G and risk of HER2-positive subgroup was validated in the second set (Bonferroni corrected P = 0.06. The adjusted combined OR (total 164 HER2-positive cases in the recessive model was 1.97 (95% CI, 1.43-2.72 for GG genotype (corrected P = 1.1 × 10(-4. Bioinformatic analysis indicated that, HSF1, which is required for HER2-induced tumorigenesis, might be a target of miR-608. The minimum free-energy of ancestral-miR-608 (C-allele binding to HSF1 is -35.9 kcal/mol, while that of variant-form (G-allele is

  19. Influence of FSH and hCG on the resumption of meiosis of bovine oocytes surrounded by cumulus cells connected to membrana granulosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tol, H T; van Eijk, M J; Mummery, C L; van den Hurk, R; Bevers, M M

    1996-10-01

    Cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) and cumulus oocyte complexes connected to a piece of the membrane granulosa (COCGs) were isolated from bovine antral follicles with a diameter of 2 to 8 mm. After culture of COCGs without gonadotrophic hormones for 22 hr approximately 50% of the oocytes were still in the germinal vesicle (GV) stage. Histology of the COCGs showed that the pieces of the membrana granulosa were free of thecal cells and parts of the basal membrane. This indicates that the membrana granulosa solely inhibits the progression of meiosis. To investigate the effect of gonadotropins on the resumption of meiosis of oocytes from small and medium sized antral follicles, COCs and COCGs were cultured with or without rec-hFSH or hCG. Addition of 0.05 IU rec-hFSH to the culture medium of COCGs resulted in germinal vesicle breakdown in 97.8% of the oocytes compared to 46% in the control group, and an increase of the diameter of the COCs (479 microns vs. 240 microns in the control group). Addition of 0.05 IU hCG to the culture medium had no effect on nuclear maturation (47.2% GV vs. 48.5% GV in the control group) nor on cumulus expansion (246 microns vs. 240 microns in the control group). RT-PCR on cDNA of the follicular wall, cumulus cells, granulosa cells, COCs, and oocytes revealed that mRNA for FSH receptor was present in all cell types except oocytes. mRNA of the LH receptor was detected exclusively in thecal cells. Nucleotide sequence analysis and alignment of the cloned PCR products showed the presence of two isoforms of the FSH receptor mRNA and two isoforms of the LH receptor mRNA. It is concluded that, in vitro, resumption of meiosis of oocytes, originating from small and medium sized antral follicles and meiotically arrested by the membrana granulosa, is triggered by FSH and not by LH. This is supported by the fact that receptors for FSH, but not for LH, are transcribed in the cumulus and granulosa cells of these follicles. PMID:8914080

  20. Human endometrial milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 (MFGE8) is up regulated by estradiol at the transcriptional level, and its secretion via microvesicles is stimulated by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)

    KAUST Repository

    Sarhan, Abbaa

    2013-10-17

    Objective: We have recently showed that MFGE8, a novel epithelial cell protein in the human endometrium, upregulated during the window of implantation. We hypothesized that MFGE8 may act as a key modulator of endometrial remodeling and trophoblast invasion. The aims of this study were (i) to investigate the in vitro regulation of human endometrial epithelial cells MFGE8 transcription, translation, and secretion by sex steroids and hCG; and (ii) to examine the possibility of MFGE8 secretion via microvesicles. Design: Experimental in vitro study using Ishikawa cells. Setting: University center. Interventions: Treatment with estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), and human chorionic gonatropin (hCG). Main outcome measures: MFGE8 mRNA and protein expression, and identification of secreted microvesicles by mass spectrometry (MS) and immunoblotting. Results: E2, but not P4 or hCG, significantly upregulated MFGE8 mRNA expression. hCG significantly increased MFGE8 secretion. Microvesicels obtained after ultracentrifugation were visualized with atomic force microscopy ranging from ~100 to 200 nm. In addition to the expected 46 kD protein, the microvesicles contained a second form of secreted MFGE8 measuring ~30 kD which was confirmed by MS. Conclusions: We demonstrated (i) dual effects of E2 and hCG on the regulation of MFGE8, and (ii) MFGE8 protein secretion in association with microvesicles. MFGE8 has the potential to modulate endometrial function and implantation via exocrine and/ or paracrine-autocrine effects. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of microvesicular secretion of any regulatory protein by endometrial epithelial cells, providing initial evidence suggestive of microvesicular participation in cellular trafficking information in the non-pregnant and pregnant endometrium.

  1. Alternatives to nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discusses several possibilities as alternatives to nuclear energy and their relevance to the Philippine case. The major present and future fuel alternatives to petroleum and nuclear energy are coal, geothermal heat, solar energy and hydrogen, the first two of which are being used. Different conversion technologies are also discussed for large scale electricity production namely solar thermal electric conversion (STC), photovoltaic electric power system (PEPS) and ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). Major environmental considerations affect the choice of energy sources and technologies. We have the problem of long term accumulation of radioactive waste in the case of nuclear energy; in geothermal and fossil-fuels carbon dioxide uranium and accumulation may cause disastrous consequences. With regard to Philippine option, the greatest considerations in selecting alternative energy options would be resources availability - both energy and financial and technology status. For the country's energy plan, coal and geothermal energy are expected to play a significant role. The country's coal resources are 1.4 billion metric tons. For geothermal energy, 25 volcanic centers were identified and has a potential equivalent to 2.5 x 106 million barrels of oil. Solar energy if harnessed, being in the sunbelt, averaging some 2000 hours a year could be an energy source. The present dilemma of the policy maker is whether national resources are better spent on large scale urban-based energy projects or whether those should be focused on small scale, rural oriented installations which produced benefits to the more numerous and poorer members of the population. (RTD)

  2. Alternate fusion concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review summarizes the status of alternate fusion concepts and plans for their future. The concepts selected for review are those employing electromagnetic confinement for which there have been reasonable predictions of net energy gain from pure fusion and which have shown significant recent development or are the subjects of ongoing international activity. They include advanced tokamaks, stellarators, the spherical torus, reversed-field pinch and dense z-field pinch devices, field reversed configuration, and spheromaks. In addition, an overall view of the status of each concept with respect to achieving ignition and to reactor designs is presented

  3. Alternate fuels; Combustibles alternos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Paredes R, Hernando; Ambriz G, Juan Jose [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana. Iztapalapa (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    In the definition and description of alternate fuels we must center ourselves in those technological alternatives that allow to obtain compounds that differ from the traditional ones, in their forms to be obtained. In this article it is tried to give an overview of alternate fuels to the conventional derivatives of petroleum and that allow to have a clear idea on the tendencies of modern investigation and the technological developments that can be implemented in the short term. It is not pretended to include all the tendencies and developments of the present world, but those that can hit in a relatively short term, in accordance with agreed with the average life of conventional fuels. Nevertheless, most of the conversion principles are applicable to the spectrum of carbonaceous or cellulosic materials which are in nature, are cultivated or wastes of organic origin. Thus one will approach them in a successive way, the physical, chemical and biological conversions that can take place in a production process of an alternate fuel or the same direct use of the fuel such as burning the sweepings derived from the forests. [Spanish] En la definicion y descripcion de combustibles alternos nos debemos centrar en aquellas alternativas tecnologicas que permitan obtener compuestos que difieren de los tradicionales, al menos en sus formas de ser obtenidos. En este articulo se pretende dar un panorama de los combustibles alternos a los convencionales derivados del petroleo y que permita tener una idea clara sobre las tendencias de la investigacion moderna y los desarrollos tecnologicos que puedan ser implementados en el corto plazo. No se pretende abarcar todas las tendencias y desarrollos del mundo actual, sino aquellas que pueden impactar en un plazo relativamente corto, acordes con la vida media de los combustibles convencionales. Sin embargo, la mayor parte de los principios de conversion son aplicables al espectro de materiales carbonaceos o celulosicos los cuales se

  4. Polyphase alternating codes

    OpenAIRE

    M. Markkanen; Vierinen, J.; Markkanen, J.

    2007-01-01

    We present a new class of alternating codes. Instead of the customary binary phase codes, the new codes utilize either p or p–1 phases, where p is a prime number. The first class of codes has code length pm, where m is a positive integer, the second class has code length p–1. We give an actual construction algorithm, and explain the principles behind it. We ...

  5. Polyphase alternating codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Markkanen

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a new class of alternating codes. Instead of the customary binary phase codes, the new codes utilize either p or p–1 phases, where p is a prime number. The first class of codes has code length pm, where m is a positive integer, the second class has code length p–1. We give an actual construction algorithm, and explain the principles behind it. We handle a few specific examples in detail. The new codes offer an enlarged collection of code lengths for radar experiments.

  6. Alternate transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zertuche, Tony; Mckinnie, James

    1988-01-01

    Three missions have been identified by NASA for a Space Shuttle-supplementing Alternate Transportation System (ATS) encompassing combinations of booster vehicles, crew modules, and service modules: (1) to achieve manned access to orbit for Space Station crew rotation every 90 days, (2) the lofting of a logistics module resupplying the Space Station every 180 days, and (3) the simultaneous launch of both crews and logistics to the Space Station. A reentry glider is considered, in conjunction with the Space Shuttle's unmanned cargo version and the Apollo manned capsule, as an important ATS element. The Titan IV/NUS is used as a booster.

  7. Alternatives to fundholding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennerster, H; Cohen, A; Bovell, V

    1998-01-01

    The new Labour government in the United Kingdom is proposing to adapt the reforms begun by the last Thatcher government. In particular, it is proposing to abolish the most controversial element--general practitioner (GP) fundholding. It is looking for alternatives. The study reported here followed and evaluated several such schemes. While fundholders use their purchasing power directly to force change by threatening "exit" to another provider, other GPs have evolved ways of influencing decisions--enhancing their "voice." The authors develop a theory to predict the conditions favoring the relative success of exit and voice strategies in health purchasing, and describe alternative GP-based purchasing schemes and the reasons they evolved in six sample districts. In four of these districts and eight practices in each, fundholding and non-fundholding GPs were then asked to describe their intentions and the outcomes of the purchasing process in which they had participated. Four specialties were taken as examples. The authors compare the relative success of fundholders and non-fundholders in achieving their objectives. PMID:9493753

  8. Alternative Medicine and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Complementary and Alternative Medicine KidsHealth > For Parents > Complementary and Alternative Medicine Print ... works. previous continue How CAM Differs From Traditional Medicine CAM is frequently distinguished by its holistic methods, ...

  9. Pea Island Alternatives Development Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this Alternatives Development Report is to outline,in broad scope, the options, tools and alternatives available to the US Fish and Wildlife Service...

  10. Differential susceptibility of C57BL/6NCr and B6.Cg-Ptprca mice to commensal bacteria after whole body irradiation in translational bone marrow transplant studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toubai Tomomi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mouse is an important and widely utilized animal model for bone marrow transplant (BMT translational studies. Here, we document the course of an unexpected increase in mortality of congenic mice that underwent BMT. Methods Thirty five BMTs were analyzed for survival differences utilizing the Log Rank test. Affected animals were evaluated by physical examination, necropsy, histopathology, serology for antibodies to infectious disease, and bacterial cultures. Results Severe bacteremia was identified as the main cause of death. Gastrointestinal (GI damage was observed in histopathology. The bacteremia was most likely caused by the translocation of bacteria from the GI tract and immunosuppression caused by the myeloablative irradiation. Variability in groups of animals affected was caused by increased levels of gamma and X-ray radiation and the differing sensitivity of the two nearly genetically identical mouse strains used in the studies. Conclusion Our retrospective analysis of thirty five murine BMTs performed in three different laboratories, identified C57BL/6NCr (Ly5.1 as being more radiation sensitive than B6.Cg-Ptprca/NCr (Ly5.2. This is the first report documenting a measurable difference in radiation sensitivity and its effects between an inbred strain of mice and its congenic counterpart eventually succumbing to sepsis after BMT.

  11. Bion and C.G. Jung. How did the container-contained model find its thinker? The fate of a cryptomnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Christian

    2016-04-01

    This paper investigates the possible impact of C.G. Jung's Tavistock Lectures on Bion's concept of the living container. In the first part of the paper, the author offers clues pointing to such an essential impact, which can be found in text passages as well as in the facts of the Bion-Beckett case, up to and including Bion's first publication of 'The imaginary twin'. The author suggests that cryptomnesia is the result of repression targeting a highly cathected author's communication which functions like a deep interpretation for the recipient, whose new theory then is a return of the repressed content as well as a transformation of it. The second part of the paper investigates the fate of the assumed cryptomnesia. From this point of view Bion's concept of the container in itself appears to be the result of growth in the container-contained mode. Finally the author deals with the question whether cryptomnesia in psychoanalytical literature can frequently be seen as the result of psychic growth. PMID:27000691

  12. Differential mRNA Accumulation upon Early Arabidopsis thaliana Infection with ORMV and TMV-Cg Is Associated with Distinct Endogenous Small RNAs Level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Zavallo

    Full Text Available Small RNAs (sRNAs play important roles in plant development and host-pathogen interactions. Several studies have highlighted the relationship between viral infections, endogenous sRNA accumulation and transcriptional changes associated with symptoms. However, few studies have described a global analysis of endogenous sRNAs by comparing related viruses at early stages of infection, especially before viral accumulation reaches systemic tissues. An sRNA high-throughput sequencing of Arabidopsis thaliana leaf samples infected either with Oilseed rape mosaic virus (ORMV or crucifer-infecting Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV-Cg with slightly different symptomatology at two early stages of infection (2 and 4 dpi was performed. At early stages, both viral infections strongly alter the patterns of several types of endogenous sRNA species in distal tissues with no virus accumulation suggesting a systemic signaling process foregoing to virus spread. A correlation between sRNAs derived from protein coding genes and the associated mRNA transcripts was also detected, indicating that an unknown recursive mechanism is involved in a regulatory circuit encompassing this sRNA/mRNA equilibrium. This work represents the initial step in uncovering how differential accumulation of endogenous sRNAs contributes to explain the massive alteration of the transcriptome associated with plant-virus interactions.

  13. Association of interleukin 18-607A/C and -137C/G polymorphisms with oxidative stress in renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davran, Fatih; Yilmaz, Vural Taner; Erdem, Bilge Karatoy; Gultekin, Meral; Suleymanlar, Gultekin; Akbas, Halide

    2016-06-01

    Objectives IL-18 mediates various inflammatory and oxidative responses including renal injury, fibrosis, and graft rejection. It has been reported that the promoter -607 and -137 polymorphisms of IL-18 influence the level of IL-18. This prospective observational study investigated the association between oxidative stress with IL-18-607 and -137 polymorphisms in renal transplant recipients. Patients and methods This study included 75 renal transplant recipients (28 female, 47 male) from living-related donors. Blood samples were collected immediately before and after transplantation at day 7 and month 1. Serum IL-18, creatinine, cystatin C, CRP, and oxidative stress markers (TOS, TAC) were measured. The Oxidative Stress Index (OSI) was calculated. Polymorphisms of the promoter region of the IL-18 gene, IL18-607A/C, and -137C/G were determined by analysis of a "real-time PCR/Melting curve". Results Serum creatinine, cystatin C, CRP, IL-18, TOS, and OSI levels significantly decreased after transplantation. Post-transplant levels of serum TAC and estimated GFR demonstrated consistent significant increases. Serum IL-18 levels were significantly higher in patients with IL-18-137 GG and IL-18-607 CC genotypes before transplantation. Conclusion Our results indicate that the IL-18-137 GG and -607 CC genotypes contribute to higher IL-18 levels; however, the influence of these polymorphisms on oxidative stress has not been observed. PMID:26983036

  14. Sharp switches between regular and swinger mitochondrial replication: 16S rDNA systematically exchanging nucleotides AT+CG in the mitogenome of Kamimuria wangi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligmann, Hervé

    2016-07-01

    Swinger DNAs are sequences whose homology with known sequences is detected only by assuming systematic exchanges between nucleotides. Nine symmetric (XY, i.e. AC) and fourteen asymmetric (X->Y->Z, i.e. A->C->G) exchanges exist. All swinger DNA previously detected in GenBank follow the AT+CG exchange, while mitochondrial swinger RNAs distribute among different swinger types. Here different alignment criteria detect 87 additional swinger mitochondrial DNAs (86 from insects), including the first swinger gene embedded within a complete genome, corresponding to the mitochondrial 16S rDNA of the stonefly Kamimuria wangi. Other Kamimuria mt genome regions are "regular", stressing unanswered questions on (a) swinger polymerization regulation; (b) swinger 16S rDNA functions; and (c) specificity to rDNA, in particular 16S rDNA. Sharp switches between regular and swinger replication, together with previous observations on swinger transcription, suggest that swinger replication might be due to a switch in polymerization mode of regular polymerases and the possibility of swinger-encoded information, predicted in primordial genes such as rDNA. PMID:25865623

  15. Gatifloxacin (AM-1155, CG 5501) susceptibility testing interpretive criteria and quality control guidelines for dilution and disk (5-microgram) diffusion methods. The Quality Control Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R N; Kugler, K C; Erwin, M E; Biedenbach, D J; Beach, M L; Pfaller, M A

    1999-04-01

    Gatifloxacin (formerly AM-1155 and CG5501), a new 8-methoxy fluoroquinolone, has an expanded spectrum of activity against Gram-positive cocci and some anaerobic bacteria. This compound was tested against 600 recent clinical strains of rapidly growing aerobic species to establish susceptibility testing interpretive criteria for the reference broth microdilution and standardized disk (5-microgram) diffusion methods of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). These strains included 285 Enterobacteriaceae (17 species), 165 staphylococci, 49 enterococci, and 101 nonfermentative Gram-negative bacilli. Based on achievable serum levels with projected gatifloxacin dosing regimens, MIC break points of or = 18 mm) for susceptibility and > or = 8 micrograms/mL (< or = 14 mm) for resistance were selected. The absolute agreement between tests was 94.3% with no very major false-resistant errors. The quality control ranges (MIC and zone diameters) for the NCCLS recommended strains were determined in a nine-laboratory NCCLS protocol as follows: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 = 0.008-0.03 microgram/mL and 31-37 mm; Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 = 0.12-1 microgram/mL; Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 = 0.5-2 micrograms/ml and 21-27 mm; Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 = 27-33 mm and S. aureus ATCC 29213 = 0.03-0.12 microgram/mL. Gatifloxacin appears to be a promising new fluoroquinolone with acceptable susceptibility testing methods for routine clinical laboratory use. PMID:10212751

  16. MicroRNA array and microarray evaluation of endometrial receptivity in patients with high serum progesterone levels on the day of hCG administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Ping

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the effect of higher progesterone (P level on endometrial receptivity. Methods This was a prospective analysis conducted in the Reproductive Medical Center of Peking University Third Hospital. All patients received IVF treatment and canceled embryo transfer in the same cycle and were divided into group 1 (normal P; 7 patients and group 2 (elevated P; 12 patients. Endometrial biopsies were performed 6 days after oocyte retrieval. The global miRNA and mRNA gene expressions in endometrial biopsies were investigated with a V4.0 miRNA probe and 22 K Human Genome Array. Fold ratios were derived to compare gene regulation between the groups. Spp1 and Ang gene expression was selected to verify the array results by RT-PCR and the protein expression of osteopontin and VEGF was determined using an immunohistochemical method. Results There were 4 miRNA (all down-regulated and 22 mRNA (13 up-regulated and 9 down-regulated exhibiting differential expression between the groups on the microRNA and microarray chips. miRNA-451, Spp1, and Ang expression in RT-PCR verified the array results. Osteopontin and VEGF were also shown to have positive expression in the endometrium. Conclusions Data from microRNA and microarray analysis suggests dissimilar endometrial receptivity in patients with high P levels on the day of hCG, and elevated osteopontin and decreased VEGF had poor pregnancy rates.

  17. Effects of Oestrus Synchronisation by Double FGA-Sponge or Split eCG Administrations upon the Reproductive Traits in Angora Goats During the Breeding Season

    OpenAIRE

    KULAKSIZ, Recai; UÇAR, Ömer; DAŞKIN, Ali

    2013-01-01

      In   this   study,   the   effects   of   post-­‐mating   FGA/P   and   of   split   eCG/PMSG   injections   at   different   doses   were  evaluated  for  the  induction  of  oestrus  in  Angora  goats  during  the  breeding  season.  In  total,  thirty-­‐six  multiparous  does  were  assigned  into  two  separate  synchronisation  trials.  In  Experiment  1  (double  FGA),  22  does  were  administered  all  firstly  an  intravaginal   sponge   containing   20   mg   FGA   for   11   days...

  18. Omega-3 Fatty Acids Protect Renal Functions by Increasing Docosahexaenoic Acid-Derived Metabolite Levels in SHR.Cg-Leprcp/NDmcr Rats, a Metabolic Syndrome Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Katakura

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and/or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA protect against diabetic nephropathy by inhibiting inflammation. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of highly purified DHA and EPA or EPA only administration on renal function and renal eicosanoid and docosanoid levels in an animal model of metabolic syndrome, SHR.Cg-Leprcp/NDmcr (SHRcp rats. Male SHRcp rats were divided into 3 groups. Control (5% arabic gum, TAK-085 (300 mg/kg/day, containing 467 mg/g EPA and 365 mg/g DHA, or EPA (300 mg/kg/day was orally administered for 20 weeks. The urinary albumin to creatinine ratio in the TAK-085-administered group was significantly lower than that in other groups. The glomerular sclerosis score in the TAK-085-administered group was significantly lower than that in the other groups. Although DHA levels were increased in total kidney fatty acids, the levels of nonesterified DHA were not significantly different among the 3 groups, whereas the levels of protectin D1, resolvin D1, and resolvin D2 were significantly increased in the TAK-085-administered group. The results show that the use of combination therapy with DHA and EPA in SHRcp rats improved or prevented renal failure associate with metabolic syndrome with decreasing triglyceride levels and increasing ω-3 PUFA lipid mediators.

  19. Kadin plasenta hormonu (hCG) ve GnRH kullanimi ile süt ineklerinde döl veriminin iyileştirilmesi olanaklari

    OpenAIRE

    SHAHMORADI, Majid

    2010-01-01

           Bu çalışmanın amacı yüksek verimli süt ineklerinde Heatsynch ve Selectsynch yöntemleri ile yapay tohumlamadan 5 gün sonra GnRH ve hCG uygulamalarının plazma progesteron düzeyi, gebelik, gebe kalma oranına, kayıplarına etkilenirinin değerlendirilmesi ve karşılaştırılması amaçlanmıştır. Çalışmada doğum yapmalarından 35±2 gün geçmiş 186 baş sağmal Siyah Alaca ineği rast gele seçilmiştir. İnekler ilk gün GnRH enjeksiyonu, 7 gün...

  20. Alternative splicing and muscular dystrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Pistoni, Mariaelena; Ghigna, Claudia; Gabellini, Davide

    2010-01-01

    Alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs is a major contributor to proteomic diversity and to the control of gene expression in higher eukaryotic cells. For this reasons, alternative splicing is tightly regulated in different tissues and developmental stages and its disruption can lead to a wide range of human disorders. The aim of this review is to focus on the relevance of alternative splicing for muscle function and muscle disease. We begin by giving a brief overview of alternative splicing, musc...

  1. ALTERNATIVE FUELS FOR DIESEL ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Caban

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development and genesis of the use of alternative fuels in internal combustion ignition engines. Based on the analysis of the literature, this article shows various alternative fuels used in Poland and all over the world. Furthermore, this article describes the research directions for alternative fuels use in road transport powered by diesel engines.

  2. ALTERNATIVE FUELS FOR DIESEL ENGINES

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek Caban; Agata Gniecka; Lukáš Holeša

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the development and genesis of the use of alternative fuels in internal combustion ignition engines. Based on the analysis of the literature, this article shows various alternative fuels used in Poland and all over the world. Furthermore, this article describes the research directions for alternative fuels use in road transport powered by diesel engines.

  3. Alternative energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaelides, Efstathios E. (Stathis) [Texas Christian Univ., Forth Worth, TX (United States). Dept. of Engineering

    2012-07-01

    Alternative Energy Sources is designed to give the reader, a clear view of the role each form of alternative energy may play in supplying the energy needs of the human society in the near and intermediate future (20-50 years). The two first chapters on energy demand and supply and environmental effects, set the tone as to why the widespread use of alternative energy is essential for the future of human society. The third chapter exposes the reader to the laws of energy conversion processes, as well as the limitations of converting one energy form to another. The sections on exergy give a succinct, quantitative background on the capability/potential of each energy source to produce power on a global scale. The fourth, fifth and sixth chapters are expositions of fission and fusion nuclear energy. The following five chapters (seventh to eleventh) include detailed descriptions of the most common renewable energy sources - wind, solar, geothermal, biomass, hydroelectric - and some of the less common sources, such as tidal and wave energy. The emphasis of these chapters is on the global potential of each source; the engineering/technical systems that are currently used in harnessing the potential of each one of these energy sources; the technological developments that will contribute to wider utilization of the sources; and the environmental effects associated with their current and their wider use. The last three chapters are: energy storage, which is the main limitation of the wider use of solar and wind power and will become an important issue if renewable energy sources are to be used widely; energy conservation, which appears to be everyone's favorite issue, but by itself is not a solution to our energy challenge; and energy economics, a necessary consideration in market-driven economies. The fourteen chapters in the book have been chosen so that one may fit a semester University course around this book. At the end of every chapter, there are 12-20 problems

  4. Alternative tsunami models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, A; Lyatskaya, I [Department of Physics, Alabama A and M University, Normal, AL 35762 (United States)], E-mail: arjun.tan@aamu.edu

    2009-01-15

    The interesting papers by Margaritondo (2005 Eur. J. Phys. 26 401) and by Helene and Yamashita (2006 Eur. J. Phys. 27 855) analysed the great Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004 using a simple one-dimensional canal wave model, which was appropriate for undergraduate students in physics and related fields of discipline. In this paper, two additional, easily understandable models, suitable for the same level of readership, are proposed: one, a two-dimensional model in flat space, and two, the same on a spherical surface. The models are used to study the tsunami produced by the central Kuril earthquake of November 2006. It is shown that the two alternative models, especially the latter one, give better representations of the wave amplitude, especially at far-flung locations. The latter model further demonstrates the enhancing effect on the amplitude due to the curvature of the Earth for far-reaching tsunami propagation.

  5. LIU: exploring alternative ideas

    CERN Document Server

    Damerau, H; Garoby, R; Gilardoni, S; Hancock, S; Mikulec, B; Papaphilippou, Y; Rumolo, G; Shaposhnikova, E; Tomas, R

    2014-01-01

    The baseline upgrade scenarios for the injector complex cover the connection of Linac4 to the PSB, the increase of the PSB-PS transfer energy from 1 . 4 GeV to 2 GeV and the major SPS RF upgrade during LS2. The achievable beam characteristics will nonetheless remain below the expectation of the HL-LHC project. Therefore, alternative or additional options like, e.g., special bunch distributions, the use of injection optics optimized for high space charge or extra RF systems will be discussed. The expected beam parameters, possible implementation and impact on beam availability for these more exotic options will be analysed and compared to the LIU baseline plan. Moreover, the potential interest of further batch compression schemes will be evaluated.

  6. Altern als Widerstand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Maierhofer

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Gullettes kulturwissenschaftliche Untersuchung Aged by Culture ist wie bereits ihre zwei vorangehenden Werke, die sich mit Altern beschäftigen – Safe at Last in the Middle Years: The Invention of the Midlife Progress Novel (1988 und Declining to Decline. Cultural Combat and the Politics of the Middle (1997 –, von großem persönlichen Engagement und durch ein politisches Anliegen motiviert. Sowohl die Dringlichkeit als auch der Widerstand, den Gullette, die sich als „age critic“ definiert, als moralische und politische Notwendigkeit postuliert, werden in der Zweiteilung der Abhandlung angesprochen: „Cultural Urgencies“ und „Theorizing Age Resistantly“. Während Gullette den Begriff „aged by culture“ bereits in Declining to Decline einführt, stellt sie ihn nun in den Mittelpunkt ihrer Untersuchung. Das Buch ist einerseits einer gesellschaftspolitischen Analyse der USA gewidmet, andererseits wird eine Theorie des Widerstands gegenüber Altersdiskriminierung entwickelt.

  7. Alternate laser fusion drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One objective of research on inertial confinement fusion is the development of a power generating system based on this concept. Realization of this goal will depend on the availability of a suitable laser or other system to drive the power plant. The primary laser systems used for laser fusion research, Nd3+: Glass and CO2, have characteristics which may preclude their use for this application. Glass lasers are presently perceived to be incapable of sufficiently high average power operation and the CO2 laser may be limited by and issues associated with target coupling. These general perceptions have encouraged a search for alternatives to the present systems. The search for new lasers has been directed generally towards shorter wavelengths; most of the new lasers discovered in the past few years have been in the visible and ultraviolet region of the spectrum. Virtually all of them have been advocated as the most promising candidate for a fusion driver at one time or another

  8. An Alternative to Tensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Eric

    2008-10-01

    Some of the most beautiful and complex theories in physics are formulated in the language of tensors. While powerful, these methods are sometimes daunting to the uninitiated. I will introduce the use of Clifford Algebra as a practical alternative to the use of tensors. Many physical quantities can be represented in an indexless form. The boundary between the classical and the quantum worlds becomes a little more transparent. I will review some key concepts, and then talk about some of the things that I am doing with this interesting and powerful tool. Of note to some will be the development of rigid body dynamics for a game engine. Others may be interested in expressing the connection on a spin bundle. My intent is to prove to the audience that there exists an accessible mathematical tool that can be employed to probe the most difficult of topics in physics.

  9. Alternatives to neoliberalism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warring, Niels; Ahrenkiel, Annegrethe; Nielsen, Birger Steen;

    This paper will discuss the consequences of neoliberal governance in Danish day care centres, the social educators’ response, and the possible development of alternatives based on collective participation of social educators and union representatives. We will show how important and unnoticed...... professional competencies come under pressure, and how collective interest representation is challenged. We will discuss how concepts of “gestural knowledge”, “coherence” and “rhythm” open for a new understanding of professional competence. And we will conclude that the social educators and their unions have...... the possibility to contribute to the development of a new welfare paradigm. The paper is based on material from two research projects (Ahrenkiel et al. 2009, 2011) involving social educators and union representatives in day care institutions. We have observed everyday work activities in day care...

  10. BIODIESEL – ALTERNATIVE FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Kiš

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A limited quantity of oil, the purchase of which also involves major expenses has become an important factor for intensive search and use of alternative fuels. Biodiesel is used in diesel engines, and is manufactured from vegetable oils, animal fats and recycled edible oils. The production and use of biodiesel are very important not only because of its economic and strategic connotations but also because of its environmental advantages. Favourable conditions in Croatia give good opportunities for a self-sufficient oil rape production, possibility for its intensification and employment of a number of people in both the agricultural production and biodiesel production plants. This paper presents a survey of the biodiesel fuel production, the characteristics and impacts it has on the biodiesel engine features as well as its impact on the environment.

  11. Continuous Spontaneous Alternation and Turn Alternation in Artemia sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Çarkoğlu, Can; Yılmaz, Meltem; Balcı, Fuat

    2015-01-01

    Free-running spontaneous alternation refers to the animal’s tendency to prefer the least recently visited locations in successive spatial choices, which is attributed to the animals’ choice between stimuli based on prior experience.  Turn alternation, which is observed in directional choices preceded by a forced turn in one direction, also reflects the animals’ tendency to alternate between directional choices but this tendency has been assumed to rely on other cues (e.g., proprioceptive cues...

  12. HCV 5′NCR调控抑制活性的反义寡核苷酸的筛选%Specific regulatory inhibition of transfected HepG2 with HCV 5'NCR by antisense phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王升启; 管伟; 王小红; 李梦东

    2000-01-01

    目的:寻找高效特异的新型抗HCV药物, 探讨针对HCV基因的硫代修饰反义寡核甘酸(S-ASODNs)最佳作用靶序列。 方法:参考HCV 5′NCR计算机预测的二级结构图,设计合成了15条S-ASODN、3条正义寡核苷酸及1条随机序列,采用HCV 5′NCR调控荧光素酶基因的瞬时表达系统,将S-ASODN与pHCV-neo4共转染,通过荧光素酶活性表达高低,反映S-ASODN对HCV调控基因的抑制活性。结果:5条S-ASODN即HCV65、HCV279、HCV363、HCV349及HCV352在25~100nmol/L浓度范围内,对HCV调控基因具有特异性的剂量依赖性抑制活性。当浓度为100nmol/L时,这些ASODN的抑制率可达80%以上,IC50值提示HCV363的抑制活性最强。通过阴性对照实验包括正义寡核苷酸、随机序列及不含HCV序列的靶载体pGL3提示ASODN仅存在轻度非特异性作用。此外,实验结果还提示不同作用靶位的ASODN之间具有一定的协同作用。 结论:HCV 5′NCR第二茎环结构Ⅱa、第三茎环结构Ⅲd和翻译起始区可能是ASODN作用的重要靶序列。%Objective: To screen efficient and specific new drugs against hepatitis C virus (HCV) and find the best target sequence of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ASODNs) targeting at HCV gene. Methods: Fifteen S-ASODNs targeting at the 5'NCR and start AUG of HCV RNA were designed and synthesized according to the predicted RNA secondary structure of the HCV 5'NCR and the adjacent AUG region. HepG2 cells were co-transfected with pHCV-neo4 and S-ASODN. The inhibitory effects of S-ASODNs on gene expression controlled by HCV 5'NCR were determined by the assay of luciferase activity. Results: Five S-ASODNs, i.e. HCV65, HCV279, HCV363, HCV349 and HCV352, showed sequence-specific and dose-dependent inhibitory activities with an inhibition rate of more than 80% at a concentration of 100 nmol/L. According to 50% inhibitory concentrations, the inhibitory activity of HCV363 was the best. On the

  13. The effect of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated kinase-dependent hyperphosphorylation of checkpoint kinase-2 on oligodeoxynucleotide 7909 containing CpG motifs-enhanced sensitivity to X-rays in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu XQ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoqun Liu,1,* Xiangdong Liu,2,* Tiankui Qiao,1 Wei Chen,1 Sujuan Yuan1 1Department of Oncology, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Affiliated Jinshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: The aim of the study reported here was to further investigate the potential effect of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM kinase-dependent hyperphosphorylation of checkpoint kinase-2 (Chk2 on radiosensitivity enhanced by oligodeoxynucleotide 7909 containing CpG motifs (CpG ODN7909 in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. Methods: In vitro A549 cells were randomly separated into control, CpG, X-ray, CpG+X-ray, ATM kinase-small interfering RNA (siRNA+CpG+X-ray (ATM-siRNA, and Chk2-siRNA+CpG+X-ray (Chk2-siRNA groups. siRNAs were adopted to silence the ATM and Chk2 genes. Expression and phosphorylation of ATM kinase and Chk2 were detected by Western blot assay. Cell colonies were observed under inverted phase-contrast microscopy. Cellular survival curves were fitted using a multi-target single-hitting model. Cell cycle and apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. Results: Expression of ATM kinase and Chk2 was similar among the control, CpG, X-ray, and CpG+X-ray groups. Phosphorylated ATM kinase and Chk2 were significantly increased in the CpG+X-ray group compared with in the X-ray group (t=6.00, P<0.01 and t=3.13, P<0.05, respectively, though these were hardly detected in the control and CpG groups. However, expression of ATM kinase and Chk2 was clearly downregulated in the ATM-siRNA and Chk2-siRNA groups, respectively. Similarly, their phosphorylation levels were also significantly decreased in the ATM-siRNA group (t=14.35, P<0.01 and t=8.46, P<0.01, respectively and a significant decrease in phosphorylated Chk2 was observed in the Chk2-siRNA group (t=7.28, P<0.01 when compared with the CpG+X-ray group. Further, the number of A549 cells at Gap 2/mitotic phase and the apoptosis

  14. The Visual-Psychological Communication Advantage of Images in CG Era%论CG时代图形的视觉心理传达优势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦方方

    2012-01-01

    图形是CG时代不可缺少的视觉元素,具有明显的视觉心理传达优势。从视知觉心理传达过程来看,根据现有最新视知觉研究成果可知,就大范围性质来说,图形具有更大的传达优势;从信息论的角度来看,图形具有信息传达数量的优势;从图形视觉语言传播的角度来看,图形语言更直接、更广泛、更易懂;从视觉信息传达的强度来看,图形具有更为强烈的视觉张力传达优势。在以数字媒体为主的时代,认识图形所具备的这些方面的优势,对充分发挥图形语言和开拓视觉新空间与审美领域具有积极的现实意义。%In CG era, images are indispensable visual entities with visual-psychological communication advantage. In view of the psychological process of visual-cognitive communication process, images enjoy greater advantage in the broad sense. From the perspective of information theory, images enjoy quantitative advantage of communicating information. From the perspective of visual lingual communication, images are more straightforward, more widespread and easier to comprehend. From the perspective of communicative intensity, images have stronger visual impact. In times when digital media is dominating, recognition of the advantages of images is realistically important for exploiting, visual language , expanding visual dimension and aesthetic scope.

  15. Overexpression of hyaluronan synthase 2 and gonadotropin receptors in cumulus cells of goats subjected to one-shot eCG/FSH hormonal treatment for ovarian stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Juliana D R; Batista, Ribrio I T P; Magalhães, Livia C; Paula, Alexandre R; Souza, Samara S; Salamone, Daniel F; Bhat, Maajid H; Teixeira, Dárcio I A; Freitas, Vicente J F; Melo, Luciana M

    2016-07-01

    Hormonal ovarian stimulation may affect transcripts in somatic cells of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) and affect the resulting oocyte quality. Here, in parallel with morphological classification and in vitro maturation (IVM) rate analysis, we investigated the expression of hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2), gonadotropic receptors (FSHR and LHR) and connexin 43 (GJA1) in cumulus cells (CCs) from goat COCs after multi-dose FSH (MD) or one-shot FSH/eCG (OS) treatments, using bovine COCs as control groups. The MD treatment produced more large follicles, and the resulting COCs had a better morphology and IVM rate than were obtained with OS. The OS treatment produced COCs with increased HAS2, FSHR, LHR and GJA1 expression. This gene expression pattern was also observed in the CCs of COCs that showed poor morphological characteristics. On the other hand, the mRNA levels were more similar between groups after IVM; FSHR and LHR were the main genes that showed decreased expression. Some events that occurred in bovine CCs during IVM, such as cell expansion, increased HAS2 expression and decreased GJA1 expression, were less evident or did not occur in goat COCs. In conclusion, increasing HAS2, FSHR, LHR and GJA1 expression in goat COCs does not confer greater meiotic competence to oocytes. Instead, it may result from poor regulation of gene expression in CCs by lower quality oocytes. Finally, cumulus expansion, together with HAS2 upregulation and GJA1 downregulation, seems to be more important for bovine COCs than for goat COCs. Additional studies are needed to investigate the importance of other HAS isoforms and connexins in goat COCs. PMID:27072623

  16. Effects of hydrogen-rich water on abnormalities in a SHR.Cg-Leprcp/NDmcr rat - a metabolic syndrome rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashimoto Michio

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hydrogen (H2, a potent free radical scavenger, selectively reduces the hydroxyl radical, which is the most cytotoxic of the reactive oxygen species (ROS. An increase in oxygen free radicals induces oxidative stress, which is known to be involved in the development of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, we investigated whether hydrogen-rich water (HRW affects metabolic abnormalities in the metabolic syndrome rat model, SHR.Cg-Leprcp/NDmcr (SHR-cp. Methods Male SHR-cp rats (5 weeks old were divided into 2 groups: an HRW group was given oral HRW for 16 weeks, and a control group was given distilled water. At the end of the experiment, each rat was placed in a metabolic cage for 24 h, fasted for 12 h, and anesthetized; the blood and kidneys were then collected. Results Sixteen weeks after HRW administration, the water intake and urine flow measured in the metabolic cages were significantly higher in the HRW group than in the control group. The urinary ratio of albumin to creatinine was significantly lower and creatinine clearance was higher in the HRW group than in the control group. After the 12-h fast, plasma urea nitrogen and creatinine in the HRW group were significantly lower than in the control group. The plasma total antioxidant capacity was significantly higher in the HRW group than in the control group. The glomerulosclerosis score for the HRW group was significantly lower than in the control group, and a significantly positive correlation was observed between this score and plasma urea nitrogen levels. Conclusion The present findings suggest that HRW conferred significant benefits against abnormalities in the metabolic syndrome model rats, at least by preventing and ameliorating glomerulosclerosis and creatinine clearance.

  17. The nuclear power alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Director General of the IAEA stressed the need for energy policies and other measures which would help to slow and eventually halt the present build-up of carbon dioxide, methane and other so-called greenhouse gases, which are held to cause global warming. He urged that nuclear power and various other sources of energy, none of which contribute to global warming, should not be seen as alternatives, but should all be used to counteract the greenhouse effect. He pointed out that the commercially used renewable energies, apart from hydropower, currently represent only 0.3% of the world's energy consumption and, by contrast, the 5% of the world's energy consumption coming from nuclear power is not insignificant. Dr. Blix noted that opposition for nuclear power stems from fear of accidents and concern about the nuclear wastes. But no generation of electricity, whether by coal, hydro, gas or nuclear power, is without some risk. He emphasized that safety can never be a static concept, and that many new measures are being taken by governments and by the IAEA to further strengthen the safety of nuclear power

  18. Suncor's alternative energy business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This PowerPoint presentation focused on Suncor's investment in alternative renewable energy. By 2005, the company will have invested $100 million in wind power, solar energy, run-of-river hydro and biomass. In 2001, $20 million was launched for the Sunbridge wind farm project in Gull Lake, Saskatchewan. The company is investing into renewables because it is an opportunity to create regional jobs, there are technological advances in renewables and an opportunity for domestic manufacturing and project management. They also offer improved air quality by reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The barriers that must be overcome include the low demand and low supply for renewables. It was noted that Canada is rich in wind, biomass and solar resources, but renewable energy accounts for only 1.2 per cent of electric power generation. In 2001, Canada generated 198 MW wind power. The U.S. capacity is 4,200 MW and the world capacity is more than 20,000 MW. International competition is well ahead in renewable support. The federal government is offering an investment tax incentive and federal funding program for renewable energy. In addition, provinces are taking some action to support renewable energy, as are individual companies such as Suncor, BC Hydro, and Hydro-Quebec. 3 figs

  19. Lack of Association between ABO, PPAP2B, ADAMST7, PIK3CG, and EDNRA and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness, Carotid Plaques, and Cardiovascular Disease in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel López-Mejías; Fernanda Genre; Mercedes García-Bermúdez; Begoña Ubilla; Santos Castañeda; Javier Llorca; Carlos González-Juanatey; Alfonso Corrales; Miranda-Filloy, José A.; Trinitario Pina; Carmen Gómez-Vaquero; Luis Rodríguez-Rodríguez; Benjamín Fernández-Gutiérrez; Alejandro Balsa; Dora Pascual-Salcedo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a polygenic disease associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and increased cardiovascular (CV) mortality. Recent studies have identified the ABO rs579459, PPAP2B rs17114036, and ADAMTS7 rs3825807 polymorphisms as genetic variants associated with coronary artery disease and the PIK3CG rs17398575 and EDNRA rs1878406 polymorphisms as the most significant signals related to the presence of carotid plaque in nonrheumatic Caucasian individuals. Accordin...

  20. Fetuin-A 742 (C/T) and 766 (C/G) polymorphic sites are associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction in older patients (≥ 40 years of age).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker-Gurkan, Ajda; Coskun, Deniz; Arisan, Elif Damla; Obakan, Pinar; Soylu, Özer; Unsal, Narcin Palavan

    2015-07-01

    Inflammation and genetics have key roles in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, and the etiology of myocardial infarction (MI). Recent studies have indicated that lower serum levels of fetuin-A may accelerate the vascular mineralization process, which leads to pathophysiological conditions, such as coronary heart disease and chronic renal failure. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between specific fetuin-A polymorphisms (742 and 766) that are associated with circulating serum levels, and MI cases. The study consisted of 292 participants; 146 healthy control subjects and 146 patients with MI. The patient group was divided into two subgroups: 56 MI ≤ 40 years and 90 MI ≥ 40 years. The genotype distribution of fetuin 742 (C/T) and fetuin 766 (C/G) were determined by restriction enzyme digestion of polymerase chain reaction products. A significant difference was determined between the patients with MI and the control subjects with regards to fetuin-A 742 C/T gene polymorphism (P=0.028), regardless of age. Genotype distributions of fetuin-A 742 (C/G, P=0.004) and 766 (C/T, P=0.017) were statistically different in the older patients with MI (MI ≥ 40 years old), as compared with the healthy controls; however, there were no significant differences between the younger patients with MI and the controls, with regards to fetuin-A 742 C/T (P=0.519) and 766 C/G (P=0.653) gene polymorphisms. In addition, an association was observed between the presence of fetuin-A 742 T and 766 G alleles, and MI cases. The present study demonstrates that fetuin-A 742 (C/T) and 766 (C/G) genotypes may be risk factors for MI in patients older than 40 years of age. PMID:25815703

  1. Alternative Genres of IS Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avital, Michel; Mathiassen, Lars; Crowston, Kevin;

    2012-01-01

    perspectives, research methods, semantic framing, literary styles, and media of expression. Overall, the application of alternative genres is considered to be a generative act that provides an opportunity to take a fresh look and to gain deeper understanding of the subject matter. Nonetheless, paradoxically......The potential value of alternative genres in IS research is the core question that drives this panel discussion. The term “Alternative Genres” refers to unconventional forms of thinking, doing, and communicating scholarship and practice. It relates to innovation with respect to epistemological...... the prevailing genres have much inertia, in spite of the inherent boundary spanning nature of alternative genres. Building on their own recent empirical research, the panelists will debate the potential value of alternative genres as unconventional modality of IS scholarship and how alternative genres...

  2. Role of gonadotropin surge and hCG triggering ovulation%促性腺激素峰的作用与人绒毛膜促性腺激素诱发排卵

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱桂金; 徐蓓; 聂睿

    2012-01-01

    Gonadotrophin surge is a key event to improve oocyte final maturation and induce ovulation. There are a series of complicated physiological changes in follicles and oocytes during luteinizing hormone (LH) surge and ovulation, such as resumption of oocyte meiosis, cumulus cells dispersion, expansion and mucification, and then separation from follicle wall in favour of ovulation, luteinization of granular and theca cells, and upregulation of growth factor such as VEGF-A, FGF2 and the important cytokines related to normal implantation and prophase neovascularization. The surge triggered by hCG or GnRH agonist (GnRH-a) in ovulation induction is different from normal LH surge. The half life of hCG is long, with a strong affinity to LH receptor, so ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) easily happens. In addition, hCG only has LH effect and no FSH effect. The gonadotrophin surge triggered hy GnRH-a includes both FSH and LH effects, but it is easy to result in luteal phase defect, embryonic implantation failure, and reduction in pregnancy rate due to the effect of short duration. Modified luteal phase support could significantly improve the pregnancy rate.

  3. Krypton control alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reprocessing plant for 350 metric tons per year LWR spent fuel cooled for at least 7 years is planned in the FRG. A routine Kr-85 retention for radiation protection reasons is not demanded by the German reactor safety and radiation management technology for larger plants in the future. The licensing authorities also do not require a routine Kr-85 retention at the plant site. Technical and safety characteristics of various Kr-85 removal processes are described and compared, including the precleaning steps in an integrated dissolver off-gas system. The interactions with subsequent conditioning and storage of Kr and with process modifications in the plant headend are also taken into account. A commercial use of the inactive Xe and part of the Kr-85 may have an influence on a cost-benefit analysis and the selection of a removal process. Two alternative processes are being developed on an engineering scale. A cryogenic distillation process using an O2-free off-gas is under investigation on a pilot plant scale since 1976. A selective absorption process using freon-12 at low temperatures and at atmospheric pressure has been investigated at the laboratory scale since 1980. Test operation on an engineering scale started late in 1983. Essential results and operating experiences with both facilities are summarized. Technical as well as safety aspects are in favor of the selective absorption process. A final decision on what process will be used in the future shall be made as soon as comparable technical experiences from both processes are available

  4. Alternative fuelds in urban fleets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this presentation the author addresses four main objectives. They are to: discuss programs that are driving the introduction of alternative fuels into fleet operations in urban areas around the country; define alternative fuels; quantify the present use and future projections on alternative fuel vehicles (AVFs) in the Chicago metropolitan statistical area; and discuss benefits of increased use of alternative fuels in urban areas. Factors which touch on these points include: present domestic dependence on petroleum for autos, with usage exceeding production; the large populations in urban areas which do not meet Clean Air Standards; recent legislative initiatives which give guidance and aid in the adoption of such strategies

  5. Alternative fuelds in urban fleets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, T.

    1994-12-31

    In this presentation the author addresses four main objectives. They are to: discuss programs that are driving the introduction of alternative fuels into fleet operations in urban areas around the country; define alternative fuels; quantify the present use and future projections on alternative fuel vehicles (AVFs) in the Chicago metropolitan statistical area; and discuss benefits of increased use of alternative fuels in urban areas. Factors which touch on these points include: present domestic dependence on petroleum for autos, with usage exceeding production; the large populations in urban areas which do not meet Clean Air Standards; recent legislative initiatives which give guidance and aid in the adoption of such strategies.

  6. Alternative energy in Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, H.B.; Bhandari, K.P.

    2011-05-15

    Renewable energy Technology (RET) becomes the mainstream option for rural Nepal to access modern source of energy. It focuses on the trend of RET applications consisting of biogas technology, solar thermal, micro and Pico hydropower, biomass technology bio fuel technology, wind power technology etc. The RET's which provide both electricity based as well as non electricity based services, have been shown to most immediately meet the needs of a cleaner indoor environment, better quality lightning for education and income generating, activities, alternative cooking fuels and agro processing as well as rural industries. Improved cooking stoves and much more beneficial than other technologies. Wind energy utilization is still not popular. Solar thermal to generate thermal energy to cook, warm and dry, biogas for lighting and cooking services. Micro hydropower for electric as well as mechanical use and solar PV mainly for domestic lighting may become choice. The most important Renewable Energy Technology (RET's) in Nepal are related to Pico hydropower and micro-hydropower, biomass energy (biogas, briquettes, gasifies, improved cooking stoves, bio-fuels etc.) solar photovoltaic energy, solar PV water pumping, solar thermal energy (solar heater, solar dryers, solar cookers etc.) and wind energy (such as wind generators, wind mills etc.). One renowned Non-governmental organization has been established in the Jhapa and Mornag Bhutanese refugee camp. Two families from all the seven camps in Nepal received one solar cooker, one hay box and two cooking posts to each family. Under this programme, a total of 6,850 solar cookers, 12600 hay boxes and 25,200 cooking pots have been distributed 2009. The number of beneficiaries from this program has reached 85,000. Before the distribution of the cookers and the utensils, the instruction and orientation training for the maintenance and repair and operation method was improved. The refugees were divided in 315 groups of 40

  7. Normetex Pump Alternatives Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Elliot A.

    2013-04-25

    A mainstay pump for tritium systems, the Normetex scroll pump, is currently unavailable because the Normetex company went out of business. This pump was an all-metal scroll pump that served tritium processing facilities very well. Current tritium system operators are evaluating replacement pumps for the Normetex pump and for general used in tritium service. An all-metal equivalent alternative to the Normetex pump has not yet been identified. 1. The ideal replacement tritium pump would be hermetically sealed and contain no polymer components or oils. Polymers and oils degrade over time when they contact ionizing radiation. 2. Halogenated polymers (containing fluorine, chlorine, or both) and oils are commonly found in pumps. These materials have many properties that surpass those of hydrocarbon-based polymers and oils, including thermal stability (higher operating temperature) and better chemical resistance. Unfortunately, they are less resistant to degradation from ionizing radiation than hydrocarbon-based materials (in general). 3. Polymers and oils can form gaseous, condensable (HF, TF), liquid, and solid species when exposed to ionizing radiation. For example, halogenated polymers form HF and HCl, which are extremely corrosive upon reaction with water. If a pump containing polymers or oils must be used in a tritium system, the system must be designed to be able to process the unwanted by-products. Design features to mitigate degradation products include filters and chemical or physical traps (eg. cold traps, oil traps). 4. Polymer components can work in tritium systems, but must be replaced regularly. Polymer components performance should be monitored or be regularly tested, and regular replacement of components should be viewed as an expected normal event. A radioactive waste stream must be established to dispose of used polymer components and oil with an approved disposal plan developed based on the facility location and its regulators. Polymers have varying

  8. Alternatives of menopausal hormone therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Kutlešić Ranko M.; Popović Jasmina; Stefanović Milan; Vukomanović Predrag; Lukić Bojan; Lilić Goran

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. It has been generally accepted that the benefits of menopausal hormone therapy outweigh the risks, but there are still some concerns about the administration of menopausal hormone therapy, which has introduced alternative treatments. Pharmacological Alternatives. Central alpha-2 agonist clonidine is only marginally more effective than placebo, and significantly less effective than estrogen. Antiepileptic drug gabapentin reduces hot flashes; ho...

  9. Orion Project: Alternate Attitude Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Hernandez, A.; Miller, Stephen W.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the study done on alternate attitudes for the Orion project's crew exploration vehicle. The analysis focused on the thermal performance of the vehicle with the alternate attitudes. The pressure vessel heater power, other vehicle heaters and radiator sink temperatures were included in the analysis.

  10. Alternative Fuels in Cement Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Boberg

    The substitution of alternative for fossil fuels in cement production has increased significantly in the last decade. Of these new alternative fuels, solid state fuels presently account for the largest part, and in particular, meat and bone meal, plastics and tyre derived fuels (TDF) accounted for...... the most significant alternative fuel energy contributors in the German cement industry. Solid alternative fuels are typically high in volatile content and they may differ significantly in physical and chemical properties compared to traditional solid fossil fuels. From the process point of view......, considering a modern kiln system for cement production, the use of alternative fuels mainly influences 1) kiln process stability (may accelerate build up of blockages preventing gas and/or solids flow), 2) cement clinker quality, 3) emissions, and 4) decreased production capacity. Kiln process stability in...

  11. NASA Alternative Aviation Fuel Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Thornhill, K. L., II; Moore, R.; Shook, M.; Winstead, E.; Ziemba, L. D.; Crumeyrolle, S.

    2015-12-01

    We present an overview of research conducted by NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate to evaluate the performance and emissions of "drop-in" alternative jet fuels, highlighting experiment design and results from the Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiments (AAFEX-I & -II) and Alternative Fuel-Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions flight series (ACCESS-I & II). These projects included almost 100 hours of sampling exhaust emissions from the NASA DC-8 aircraft in both ground and airborne operation and at idle to takeoff thrust settings. Tested fuels included Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthetic kerosenes manufactured from coal and natural-gas feedstocks; Hydro-treated Esters and Fatty-Acids (HEFA) fuels made from beef-tallow and camelina-plant oil; and 50:50 blends of these alternative fuels with Jet A. Experiments were also conducted with FT and Jet A fuels doped with tetrahydrothiophene to examine the effects of fuel sulfur on volatile aerosol and contrail formation and microphysical properties. Results indicate that although the absence of aromatic compounds in the alternative fuels caused DC-8 fuel-system leaks, the fuels did not compromise engine performance or combustion efficiency. And whereas the alternative fuels produced only slightly different gas-phase emissions, dramatic reductions in non-volatile particulate matter (nvPM) emissions were observed when burning the pure alternative fuels, particularly at low thrust settings where particle number and mass emissions were an order of magnitude lower than measured from standard jet fuel combustion; 50:50 blends of Jet A and alternative fuels typically reduced nvPM emissions by ~50% across all thrust settings. Alternative fuels with the highest hydrogen content produced the greatest nvPM reductions. For Jet A and fuel blends, nvPM emissions were positively correlated with fuel aromatic and naphthalene content. Fuel sulfur content regulated nucleation mode aerosol number and mass concentrations within aging

  12. SAGE--SOLVENT ALTERNATIVES GUIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAGE is a comprehensive guide designed to provide pollution prevention information on solvent and process alternatives for parts cleaning and degreasing. SAGE does not recommend any ozone depleting chemicals. SAGE was developed by the Surface Cleaning Program at Research Triang...

  13. Alternate Propellant Thermal Rocket Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Alternate Propellant Thermal Rocket (APTR) is a novel concept for propulsion of space exploration or orbit transfer vehicles. APTR propulsion is provided by...

  14. Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size: A A A Listen En Español Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines It is best to get ... also more likely to use dietary supplements. Using Supplements Safely If you’re one of the many ...

  15. Alternative food safety intervention technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative nonthermal and thermal food safety interventions are gaining acceptance by the food processing industry and consumers. These technologies include high pressure processing, ultraviolet and pulsed light, ionizing radiation, pulsed and radiofrequency electric fields, cold atmospheric plasm...

  16. Alternating Quotients of Fuchsian Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Everitt, Brent

    1999-01-01

    It is shown that any finitely generated non-elementary Fuchsian group has among its homomorphic images all but finitely many of the alternating groups. This settles in the affirmative a conjecture of Graham Higman.

  17. Alternative theories of the firm

    OpenAIRE

    Staněk, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is focusing on alternative theories of the firm and their distinctions to the traditional neoclassical theory of profit maximization. It goes back to perception of the firm in the society and to development of theoretical concepts of the firm, as well as to different points of view of profit or satisfaction principle. You will learn more about the reason which triggered the beginnings of alternative theories of the firm like separation of ownership and control, which was one of th...

  18. Alternative investments: return driving actors

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, K; G. Marcato

    2011-01-01

    In an asset allocation process, correlations are particularly important if one includes 'alternative investments' such as real estate, commodities and hedge funds, which have been proclaimed to provide diversifying benefits within the overall portfolio context. However, by looking at correlations between asset classes alone some diversification benefits may be over or under-stated. More recently, finance literature has focused on alternative asset classes to study their behaviour and to ident...

  19. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed

  20. Autocratic strategies for alternating games

    OpenAIRE

    McAvoy, Alex; Hauert, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Repeated games have a long tradition in behavioral sciences and evolutionary biology. Recently, strategies were discovered that permit an unprecedented level of control over repeated interactions by enabling a player to unilaterally enforce constraints on the payoffs. Here, we extend this theory of autocratic (or zero-determinant) strategies to alternating games, which are often more biologically relevant than synchronous games. More specifically, in a strictly-alternating game with two playe...