WorldWideScience

Sample records for alternately rotating walls

  1. Bioreactor rotating wall vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Cell constructs grown in a rotating bioreactor on Earth (left) eventually become too large to stay suspended in the nutrient media. In the microgravity of orbit, the cells stay suspended. Rotation then is needed for gentle stirring to replenish the media around the cells.

  2. Rotational Vicometry under Apparent Wall Slip

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Večeř, M.; Wein, Ondřej

    Bratislava: Slovak Society of Chemical Engineering, 2011 - (Markoš, J.), s. 90 ISBN 978-80-227-3503-2. [International Conference of Slovak Society of Chemical Engineering /38./. Tatranské Matliare (SK), 23.05.2011-27.05.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/09/0972 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : rotational viscometry * polymer solution * apparent wall slip Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  3. Osteocytes Mechanosensing in NASA Rotating Wall Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatz, Jordan; Sibonga, Jean; Wu, Honglu; Barry, Kevin; Bouxsein, Mary; Pajevic, Paola Divieti

    2010-01-01

    Osteocyte cells are the most abundant (90%) yet least understood bone cell type in the human body. Osteocytes are theorized to be the mechanosensors and transducers of mechanical load for bones, yet the biological mechanism of this action remains elusive. However, recent discoveries in osteocyte cell biology have shed light on their importance as key mechanosensing cells regulating bone remodeling and phosphate homeostasis. The aim of this project was to characterize gene expression patterns and protein levels following exposure of MLO-Y4, a very well characterized murine osteocyte-like cell line, to simulated microgravity using the NASA Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) Bioreactor. To determine mechanistic pathways of the osteocyte's gravity sensing ability, we evaluated in vitro gene and protein expression of osteocytes exposed to simulated microgravity. Improved understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of mechano transduction at the osteocyte cellular level may lead to revolutionary treatment otions to mitigate the effects of bone loss encountered by astronauts on long duration space missions and provide tailored treatment options for maintaining bone strength of immobilized/partially paralyzed patients here on Earth.

  4. RESISTIVE WALL MODES AND PLASMA ROTATION IN DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A271 RESISTIVE WALL MODES AND PLASMA ROTATION IN DIII-D. The stabilization of the resistive wall mode (RWM) by toroidal plasma rotation has been demonstrated in neutral beam heated DIII-D discharges for values of β up to 70% above the no-wall stability limit. The stabilizing effect of plasma rotation is explained by assuming some dissipation, which is caused by the rapid plasma flow through a perturbed magnetic field. Sufficient plasma rotation is predicted to extend the operating regime of tokamaks from the conventional no-wall β limit up to the ideal wall β limit. While plasma rotation has a stabilizing effect on the RWM, a finite amplitude RWM also increases the drag on the plasma, which leads to a non-linear interaction between the RWM and the plasma rotation. A good understanding of the underlying dissipation mechanism is crucial for reliable predictions of the plasma rotation which will be required for wall-stabilization in a burning-plasma experiment. In order to measure the stabilizing effect of plasma rotation on the RWM the technique of active MHD spectroscopy, which was previously applied to MHD modes at frequencies above 10 kHz, is extended to frequencies of a few Hz

  5. On kinetic resistive wall mode theory with sheared rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study toroidal rotation shear effect on Resistive Wall Mode (RWM) stability, kinetic RWM formulation is extended to include general equilibrium rotation. By starting from the guiding-center Lagrangian with sheared rotation, an energy functional of kinetic resonance is generalized. Based on the generalized energy functional, a new dispersion relation is derived in the large aspect ratio limit. Numerical analysis of the new dispersion relation indicates that the rotation shear can reduce the growth rates of the RWMs. (author)

  6. Brownian dipole rotator in alternating electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenbaum, V. M.; Vovchenko, O. Ye.; Korochkova, T. Ye.

    2008-06-01

    The study addresses the azimuthal jumping motion of an adsorbed polar molecule in a periodic n -well potential under the action of an external alternating electric field. Starting from the perturbation theory of the Pauli equation with respect to the weak field intensity, explicit analytical expressions have been derived for the time dependence of the average dipole moment as well as the frequency dependences of polarizability and the average angular velocity, the three quantities exhibiting conspicuous stochastic resonance. As shown, unidirectional rotation can arise only provided simultaneous modulation of the minima and maxima of the potential by an external alternating field. For a symmetric potential of hindered rotation, the average angular velocity, if calculated by the second-order perturbation theory with respect to the field intensity, has a nonzero value only at n=2 , i.e., when two azimuthal wells specify a selected axis in the system. Particular consideration is given to the effect caused by the asymmetry of the two-well potential on the dielectric loss spectrum and other Brownian motion parameters. When the asymmetric potential in a system of dipole rotators arises from the average local fields induced by an orientational phase transition, the characteristics concerned show certain peculiarities which enable detection of the phase transition and determination of its parameters.

  7. Brownian dipole rotator in alternating electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenbaum, V M; Vovchenko, O Ye; Korochkova, T Ye

    2008-06-01

    The study addresses the azimuthal jumping motion of an adsorbed polar molecule in a periodic n -well potential under the action of an external alternating electric field. Starting from the perturbation theory of the Pauli equation with respect to the weak field intensity, explicit analytical expressions have been derived for the time dependence of the average dipole moment as well as the frequency dependences of polarizability and the average angular velocity, the three quantities exhibiting conspicuous stochastic resonance. As shown, unidirectional rotation can arise only provided simultaneous modulation of the minima and maxima of the potential by an external alternating field. For a symmetric potential of hindered rotation, the average angular velocity, if calculated by the second-order perturbation theory with respect to the field intensity, has a nonzero value only at n=2 , i.e., when two azimuthal wells specify a selected axis in the system. Particular consideration is given to the effect caused by the asymmetry of the two-well potential on the dielectric loss spectrum and other Brownian motion parameters. When the asymmetric potential in a system of dipole rotators arises from the average local fields induced by an orientational phase transition, the characteristics concerned show certain peculiarities which enable detection of the phase transition and determination of its parameters. PMID:18643221

  8. Stabilization of the Resistive Wall Mode and Error Field Reduction by a Rotating Conducting Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Soldan, Carlos

    2011-10-01

    The hypothesis that the Resistive Wall Mode (RWM) can be stabilized by high-speed differentially-rotating conducting walls is tested in a linear device. This geometry allows the use of cylindrical solid metal walls, whereas a torus would require a flowing liquid metal. Experiments over the past year have for the first time explored RWM stability with a rotating copper wall capable of achieving speeds (rΩw) of up to 280 km/h, equivalent to a magnetic Reynolds number (Rm) of 5. The main results are: 1) Wall rotation increases the stability window of the RWM, allowing ~ 25% more plasma current (Ip) at Rm = 5 while maintaining MHD stability. 2) Error field reduction below a critical value allows the observation of initial mode rotation, followed by braking, wall-locking, and subsequent faster growth. 3) Locking is found to depend on the direction of wall rotation (Ω̂w) with respect to the intrinsic plasma rotation, with locking to both the static wall (vacuum vessel) and rotating wall observed. Additionally, indirect effects on RWM stability are observed via the effect of wall rotation on device error fields. Wall rotation shields locking error fields, which reduces the braking torque and inhibits mode-locking. The linear superposition of error fields from guide field (Bz) solenoid misalignments and current-carrying leads is also shown to break symmetry in Ω̂w , with one direction causing stronger error fields and earlier locking irrespective of plasma flow. Vacuum field measurements further show that rotation decreases the error field penetration time and advects the field to a different orientation, as predicted by theory. Experiments are conducted on the Rotating Wall Machine, a 1.2 m long and 16 cm diameter screw-pinch with Bz ~ 500 G, where hollow-cathode injectors are biased to source up to 7 kA of Ip, exciting current-driven RWMs. MHD activity is measured through 120 edge Br, Bθ, Bz probes as well as internal Bdot, Langmuir and Mach probes. RWM

  9. Rotational stabilization of resistive wall mode on JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have carried out experiments to clarify the stabilizing effect of a plasma rotation on the resistive wall mode (RWM) that could limit the achievable-βN in high-βN plasmas above the no-wall ideal βN-limit. On JT-60U plasma rotations are controlled using neutral beams with varying combinations of net torque input while keeping βN constant. The RWM is destabilized as the plasma rotation is being reduced. Detailed measurements of the mode structure revealed that the RWM has a global structure that rotates with the order of the resistive wall time. In these experiments, it is found that the critical toroidal rotation speed for the RWM stabilization is less than 1% of the Alfven speed. Moreover, the critical rotation does not strongly depend on βN. The results suggest that high-βN operation up to the ideal wall βN-limit could be possible by suppressing the RWM with a slow plasma rotation in fusion reactors. (author)

  10. Study of a flexible disk rotating close to a rigid rotating wall considering fluid inertia effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gad, Abdelrasoul M. M.; Rhim, Yoon Chul

    2008-11-01

    The present study is a numerical simulation about the dynamics of a flexible disk coupled to thin air film and rotating close to a rigid rotating wall. The idea of a flexible disk rotating in a close proximity of a rigid rotating wall is introduced and studied with two new types of flat stabilizers, co-rotating and counter-rotating flat stabilizers, besides the well-known fixed-stabilizer type which has been studied extensively in earlier works. In the present study, the flexible disk is modeled using linear plate theory and the air flow between the flexible disk and the rigid wall is modeled using Navier-Stokes and continuity equations. The flow equations are discretized using cell centered finite volume method (FVM) and solved numerically with the SIMPLE algorithm, while the spatial terms in the disk model are discretized using finite difference method (FDM) and time integration is performed using fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. The effect of inertia and coriollis forces on the disk displacement and air-film pressure is studied, also the dependence of these forces on the rotation speed, initial gap size and inlet-hole radius is investigated. A transient numerical code is developed to compare the stability boundaries for the different types of flat stabilizer at a wide range of circumferential mode numbers. The numerical results showed an improved stability of the flexible disk when rotating close to a counter-rotating flat stabilizer compared with co-rotating and fixed flat stabilizers.

  11. Particle Trajectories in Rotating Wall Cell Culture Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran N.; Downey, J. P.

    1999-01-01

    Cell cultures are extremely important to the medical community since such cultures provide an opportunity to perform research on human tissue without the concerns inherent in experiments on individual humans. Development of cells in cultures has been found to be greatly influenced by the conditions of the culture. Much work has focused on the effect of the motions of cells in the culture relative to the solution. Recently rotating wall vessels have been used with success in achieving improved cellular cultures. Speculation and limited research have focused on the low shear environment and the ability of rotating vessels to keep cells suspended in solution rather than floating or sedimenting as the primary reasons for the improved cellular cultures using these devices. It is widely believed that the cultures obtained using a rotating wall vessel simulates to some degree the effect of microgravity on cultures. It has also been speculated that the microgravity environment may provide the ideal acceleration environment for culturing of cellular tissues due to the nearly negligible levels of sedimentation and shear possible. This work predicts particle trajectories of cells in rotating wall vessels of cylindrical and annular design consistent with the estimated properties of typical cellular cultures. Estimates of the shear encountered by cells in solution and the interactions with walls are studied. Comparisons of potential experiments in ground and microgravity environments are performed.

  12. Thick-wall effects on the rotational stabilization of resistive wall modes in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is devoted to studying the combined effect of mode rotation and energy dissipation in the resistive wall on plasma stability. The problem is analysed on the basis of the energy approach complementing the standard methods of the traditional MHD theory of plasma stability. The key element that makes our model different from this theory and commonly used thin-wall approaches to the stability analysis of resistive wall modes (RWMs) is the incorporation of the skin effect. In the ideal MHD theory of plasma stability, the skin depth is, formally, zero. In contrast, the conventional thin-wall theory of RWM stability assumes a skin depth much larger than the wall thickness. The presented model considers the intermediate case with a finite skin depth compared with the wall thickness. This covers the modes in between the typical RWMs and the ideal MHD modes when wall resistivity still affects the mode dynamics. It is shown that, in this region, the growth rate of the locked modes must be substantially larger than that calculated in the thin-wall models. On the other hand, the fast RWMs can be completely stabilized by mode rotation above some critical level. Qualitatively, this corresponds to the rotational stabilization observed in the DIII-D tokamak and allowing the plasma operation above the no-wall stability limit (Strait et al 2003 Nucl. Fusion 43 430). This is the main result of this study, which is completely analytical with all dependences explicitly shown. In particular, the dispersion relations for the fast RWMs and the critical frequency of mode rotation necessary for rotational stabilization are expressed through quantities that depend on the plasma parameters or can be experimentally found by magnetic measurements outside the plasma. (paper)

  13. Stability of resistive wall modes with plasma rotation and thick wall in ITER scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, L. J.; Kotschenreuther, M.; Chu, M.; Chance, M.; Turnbull, A.

    2004-11-01

    The rotation effect on resistive wall modes (RWMs) is examined for realistically shaped, high-beta tokamak equilibria, including reactor relevant cases with low mach number M and realistic thick walls. For low M, Stabilization of RWMs arises from unusually thin inertial layers. The investigation employs the newly developed adaptive eigenvalue code (AEGIS: Adaptive EiGenfunction Independent Solution), which describes both low and high n modes and is in good agreement with GATO in the benchmark studies. AEGIS is unique in using adaptive methods to resolve such inertial layers with low mach number rotation. This feature is even more desirable for transport barrier cases. Additionally, ITER and reactors have thick conducting walls ( ˜.5-1 m) which are not well modeled as a thin shell. Such thick walls are considered here, including semi-analytical approximations to account for the toroidally segmented nature of real walls.

  14. Salmonella Typhimurium grown in a rotating wall bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Salmonella typhimurium appears green in on human intestinal tissue (stained red) cultured in a NASA rotating wall bioreactor. Dr. Cheryl Nickerson of Tulane University is studying the effects of simulated low-g on a well-known pathogen, Salmonella typhimurium, a bacterium that causes two to four million cases of gastrointestinal illness in the United States each year. While most healthy people recover readily, S. typhimurium can kill people with weakened immune systems. Thus, a simple case of food poisoning could disrupt a space mission. Using the NASA rotating-wall bioreactor, Nickerson cultured S. typhimurium in modeled microgravity. Mice infected with the bacterium died an average of three days faster than the control mice, indicating that S. typhimurium's virulence was enhanced by the bioreactor. Earlier research showed that 3 percent of the genes were altered by exposure to the bioreactor. Nickerson's work earned her a 2001 Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers.

  15. Numerical Simulations of a Flexible Disk Rotating Close to a Rigid Rotating Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gad, Abdelrasoul M. M.; Rhim, Yoon-Chul

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, we present a numerical study about the dynamics of a flexible disk rotating close to a rigid rotating wall. Two new types of flat stabilizers, co-rotating and counter-rotating flat stabilizers, are introduced besides the well-known fixed-stabilizer type which has been studied extensively. The disk is modeled using linear plate theory and the air flow between the flexible disk and the rigid wall is modeled using Navier-Stokes and continuity equations. The flow equations are discretized using finite volume method (FVM) and solved numerically with semi-implicit method for pressure-linked equations (SIMPLE) algorithm, while the spatial terms in the disk model are discretized using finite difference method (FDM) and time integration is performed using fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. The transient numerical simulation is performed to compare the stability boundaries of the different types of flat-stabilizer at a wide range of circumferential mode numbers. The numerical results showed an improved stability of the flexible disk when rotating close to a counter-rotating flat-stabilizer compared with co-rotating and fixed flat-stabilizers.

  16. Mathematical Modelling of Rotating Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes used in Nanoscale Rotational Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saggam Narendar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a rotating single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT is modelled as an Euler-Bernoulli beam using the non-local/non-classical continuum mechanics. These rotating SWCNTs are used in nanoscale rotational actuators. The mathematical model has been used to study the wave behaviour in rotating SWCNTs. The governingpartial differential equation for a uniform rotating beam is derived incorporating the non-local scale effects. The spatial variation in centrifugal force has been modelled in an average sense. Even though this averaging seems to be a crude approximation, one can use this as a powerful model in analysing the wave dispersion characteristics ofthe rotating CNTs. Spectrum and dispersion curves as a function of rotating speed and non-local scaling parameter were obtained. It has been shown that the dispersive flexural wave tends to behave non-dispersively at very high rotation speeds. The numerical results have been simulated for a rotating SWCNT as a waveguide.Defence Science Journal, 2011, 61(4, pp.317-324, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.61.1091

  17. Alternate Blade Stall and Rotating Stall in a Vaned Diffuser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Takeshi; Nakamura, Yuki; Yoshida, Yoshiki; Tsujimoto, Yoshinobu

    Flow instability in a vaned diffuser with an even number of blades was examined experimentally and analytically. In the experiments, an alternate blade stall, an asymmetric stall, and two types of rotating stalls (backward/forward rotating stall) were observed depending on the impeller/diffuser clearance. For narrow clearance with strong impeller/diffuser interaction, the alternate blade stall and backward rotating stall mainly occurred. With increasing the clearance, the forward rotating stall also occurred, and the onset of rotating stall shifted toward the higher flow rate corresponding to the pressure performance in the vaned diffuser. Simple 2D stability analysis showed that the impeller/diffuser clearance affects the speed and direction of the stall propagation, and the slope of the diffuser pressure performance vs. flow rate curve affects fundamentally the onset of the flow instability within the diffuser.

  18. Rotating solitary wave at the wall of a cylindrical container

    KAUST Repository

    Amaouche, Mustapha

    2013-04-30

    This paper deals with the theoretical modeling of a rotating solitary surface wave that was observed during water drainage from a cylindrical reservoir, when shallow water conditions were reached. It represents an improvement of our previous study, where the radial flow perturbation was neglected. This assumption led to the classical planar Korteweg–de Vries equation for the wall wave profile, which did not account for the rotational character of the base flow. The present formulation is based on a less restricting condition and consequently corrects the last shortcoming. Now the influence of the background flow appears in the wave characteristics. The theory provides a better physical depiction of the unique experiment by predicting fairly well the wave profile at least in the first half of its lifetime and estimating the speed of the observed wave with good accuracy.

  19. Wall-locking of kink modes in a line-tied screw pinch with a rotating wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of rotating conducting walls on mode-locking is studied in a line-tied, linear screw pinch experiment and then compared to a torque balance model which has been extended to include differential wall rotation. Wall rotation is predicted to asymmetrically affect the mode-unlocking threshold, with fast rotation eliminating the locking bifurcation. Static error fields are observed to lock the resistive wall mode (RWM) variant of the current driven kink instability by modifying the electromagnetic torque. Using locked modes, the stabilizing effect of wall rotation on the RWM is experimentally demonstrated by illustrating a reduction of the RWM growth rate and an extension of the RWM-stable operation window.

  20. Wall-locking of kink modes in a line-tied screw pinch with a rotating wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paz-Soldan, C.; Brookhart, M. I.; Hegna, C. C.; Forest, C. B. [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2012-05-15

    The effect of rotating conducting walls on mode-locking is studied in a line-tied, linear screw pinch experiment and then compared to a torque balance model which has been extended to include differential wall rotation. Wall rotation is predicted to asymmetrically affect the mode-unlocking threshold, with fast rotation eliminating the locking bifurcation. Static error fields are observed to lock the resistive wall mode (RWM) variant of the current driven kink instability by modifying the electromagnetic torque. Using locked modes, the stabilizing effect of wall rotation on the RWM is experimentally demonstrated by illustrating a reduction of the RWM growth rate and an extension of the RWM-stable operation window.

  1. Improved feedback control of wall stabilized kink modes with different plasma-wall couplings and mode rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Q.; Levesque, J. P.; Stoafer, C. C.; Bialek, J.; Byrne, P.; Hughes, P. E.; Mauel, M. E.; Navratil, G. A.; Rhodes, D. J.

    2016-04-01

    A new algorithm for feedback control of rotating, wall-stabilized kink modes in the High Beta Tokamak-Extended Pulse (HBT-EP) device maintains an accurate phase shift between the perturbation and the measured rotating mode through current control, with control power emphasizing fast rotation and phase jumps over fast amplitude changes. In HBT-EP, wall-stabilized kink modes become unstable above the ideal wall stability limit, and feedback suppression is aimed at delaying the onset of discharge disruption through reduction of the kink mode amplitude. Performance of the new feedback algorithm is tested under different experimental conditions, including variation of the plasma-wall coupling, insertion of a ferritic wall, changing mode rotation frequency over the range of 4-8 kHz using an internal biased electrode, and adjusting the feedback phase-angle to accelerate, amplify, or suppress the mode. We find the previously reported excitation of the slowly rotating mode at high feedback gain in HBT-EP is mitigated by the current control scheme. We also find good agreement between the observed and predicted changes to the mode rotation frequency and amplitude. When ferritic material is introduced, or the plasma-wall coupling becomes weaker as the walls are retracted from plasma, the feedback gain needs to be increased to achieve the same level of suppression. When mode rotation is slowed by a biased electrode, the feedback system still achieves mode suppression, and demonstrates wide bandwidth effectiveness.

  2. Weed control through crop rotation and alternative management practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Böhm, Herwart

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Economic as well as agricultural and socio-political changes have an impact on crop management and thus also on crop rotation design and the related effects on the weed flora. Likewise other changes in cultivation such as reduced tillage practices, earlier sowing date, etc. cause an increase in weed infestation resp. an increased use of herbicides and if so contribute to herbicide resistance. The positive effects of crop rotation, but also of alternative management practices such as choice of varieties, catch crops, mixed cropping, green chop, and the share of predators, as well as methods of direct non-chemical weed control are presented and discussed for both, conventional and organic farming. If alternative management methods should be more practiced, especially trade-offs need to be broken, or incentives be offered.

  3. Numerical Simulation of Microcarrier Motion in a Rotating Wall Vessel Bioreactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHI-HAO JU; TIAN-QING LIU; XUE-HU MA; ZHAN-FENG CUI

    2006-01-01

    Objective To analyze the forces of rotational wall vessel (RWV) bioreactor on small tissue pieces or microcarrier particles and to determine the tracks of microcarrier particles in RWV bioreactor. Methods The motion of the microcarrier in the rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactor with both the inner and outer cylinders rotating was modeled by numerical simulation. Results The continuous trajectory of microcarrier particles, including the possible collision with the wall was obtained. An expression between the minimum rotational speed difference of the inner and outer cylinders and the microcarrier particle or aggregate radius could avoid collisions with either wall. The range of microcarrier radius or tissue size, which could be safely cultured in the RWV bioreactor, in terms of shear stress level, was determined. Conclusion The model works well in describing the trajectory of a heavier microcarrier particle in rotating wall vessel.

  4. Measurement of Resistive Wall Mode stability in rotating high beta plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toroidal plasma rotation in the order of a few percent of the Alfven velocity can stabilize the resistive wall mode and extend the operating regime of tokamaks from the conventional, ideal MHD no-wall limit up to the ideal MHD ideal wall limit. The stabilizing effect has been measured passively by measuring the critical plasma rotation required for stability and actively by probing the plasma with externally applied resonant magnetic fields. These measurements are compared to predictions of rotational stabilization of the sound wave damping and of the kinetic damping model using the MARS code. (author)

  5. Large eddy simulation of compressible turbulent channel and annular pipe flows with system and wall rotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joon Sang

    The compressible filtered Navier-Stokes equations were solved using a second order accurate finite volume method with low Mach number preconditioning. A dynamic subgrid-scale stress model accounted for the subgrid-scale turbulence. The study focused on the effects of buoyancy and rotation on the structure of turbulence and transport processes including heat transfer. Several different physical arrangements were studied as outlined below. The effects of buoyancy were first studied in a vertical channel using large eddy simulation (LES). The walls were maintained at constant temperatures, one heated and the other cooled. Results showed that aiding and opposing buoyancy forces emerge near the heated and cooled walls, respectively. In the aiding flow, the turbulent intensities and heat transfer were suppressed at large values of Grashof number. In the opposing flow, however, turbulence was enhanced with increased velocity fluctuations. Another buoyancy study considered turbulent flow in a vertically oriented annulus. Isoflux wall boundary conditions with low and high heating were imposed on the inner wall while the outer wall was adiabatic. The results showed that the strong heating and buoyancy force caused distortions of the flow structure resulting in reduction of turbulent intensities, shear stress, and turbulent heat flux, particularly near the heated wall. Flow in an annular pipe with and without an outer wall rotation about its axis was first investigated at moderate Reynolds numbers. When the outer pipe wall was rotated, a significant reduction of turbulent kinetic energy was realized near the rotating wall. Secondly, a large eddy simulation has been performed to investigate the effect of swirl on the heat and momentum transfer in an annular pipe flow with a rotating inner wall. The simulations indicated that the Nusselt number and the wall friction coefficient increased with increasing rotation speed of the wall. It was also observed that the axial velocity

  6. Rotation effect on near-wall turbulence statistics and flow structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Nansheng; LU Xiyun; ZHUANG Lixian

    2005-01-01

    Large eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent flow through an axially rotating pipe, coupled with nonlinear dynamic subgrid-scale (SGS) model, is carried out to investigate rotation effect on the near-wall turbulence characteristics and flow structures. In the rotating turbulent pipe flow, it is found that the tendency towards a relaminarized flow appears and the axial velocity fluctuation is suppressed; however, the azimuthal fluctuation is enhanced due to the presence of the pipe wall rotation. The joint probability density function (joint PDF) of the velocity fluctuations and the probability density function (PDF) of the helicity fluctuation are analyzed in detail. It is revealed that the resolved Reynolds stress and helicity fluctuation in the wall region are closely related to the correlation between the velocity and vorticity fluctuations and affected significantly by the rotation-induced azimuthal mean flow. Further, the budgets of resolved Reynolds stresses indicate that the rotation effect is responsible for the more active turbulent energy redistribution and the production of the azimuthal turbulence fluctuation. The near-wall inclined streaky structures with respect to the axial direction are ascribed to the spiral motion of the fluid induced by the rotating pipe. The turbulence characteristics revealed in this study are of great help for the understanding of physical fundamentals in the rotating turbulent flows and for the development of reliable turbulence model.

  7. Alternating-current relaxation of a rotating metallic particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo-Xi, Nie; Wen-Jia, Tian; Ji-Ping, Huang; Guo-Qing, Gu

    2016-06-01

    Based on a first-principles approach, we establish an alternating-current (AC) relaxation theory for a rotating metallic particle with complex dielectric constant . Here is the real part, the conductivity, ω 0 the angular frequency of an AC electric field, and . Our theory yields an accurate interparticle force, which is in good agreement with the existing experiment. The agreement helps to show that the relaxations of two kinds of charges, namely, surface polarized charges (described by ) and free charges (corresponding to ), contribute to the unusually large reduction in the attracting interparticle force. This theory can be adopted to determine the relaxation time of dynamic particles in various fields. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11222544), the Fok Ying Tung Education Foundation (Grant No. 131008), the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University, China (Grant No. NCET-12-0121), and the National Key Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CB922004).

  8. Wave Instabilities and Unidirectional Light Flow in a Cavity with Rotating Walls

    CERN Document Server

    Lannebère, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the conditions for the emergence of wave instabilities in a vacuum cavity delimited by cylindrical metallic walls in relative rotation. It is shown that for a small vacuum gap and for a rotation velocity exceeding a certain threshold, the interactions between the surface plasmon polaritons supported by each wall give rise to an unstable behavior of the electromagnetic field manifested in an exponential growth with time. The instabilities occur only for certain modes of oscillation and are due to the transformation of kinetic energy into electromagnetic energy. We also study the possibility of having asymmetric light flows and optical isolation relying on the relative motion of the cavity walls.

  9. Compression of positron clouds using rotating wall electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An asymmetric dipolar rotating electric field can be used to compress a trapped cloud of positrons when applied with a frequency close that of their axial bounce, and in the presence of a low pressure molecular gas to provide cooling. Measurements of the compression rate and associated parameters are presented and compared with results of a theory we have developed. The latter treats positron behaviour in a perfect Penning trap potential, in the presence of the rotating field, with the cooling modelled in the Stokes viscous drag approximation. Good agreement between the theory and experiment has been found, which has allowed us to identify the phenomenon as a new form of sideband cooling.

  10. Motion of rotating spherical particles touching a wall

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chára, Zdeněk; Vlasák, Pavel; Keita, Ibrahima

    Prague : ITAM AS CR, v. v. i., 2012 - (Náprstek, J.; Fischer, C.), s. 513-521 ISBN 978-80-86246-40-6. [ Engineering Mechanics 2012 /18./. Svratka (CZ), 14.05.2012-17.05.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/09/1718 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : particle rotation * particle trajectory * Magnus force Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  11. Near-Wall Turbulence Modelling of Rotating and Curved Shear Flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Bjoern Anders

    1997-12-31

    This thesis deals with verification and refinement of turbulence models within the framework of the Reynolds-averaged approach. It pays special attention to modelling the near-wall region, where the turbulence is strongly non-homogeneous and anisotropic. It also studies in detail the effects associated with an imposed rotation of the reference frame or streamline curvature. The objective with near-wall turbulence closure modelling is to formulate a set of equations governing single point turbulence statistics, which can be solved in the region of the flow which extends to the wall. This is in contrast to the commonly adopted wall-function approach in which the wall-boundary conditions are replaced by matching conditions in the logarithmic region. The near-wall models allow more flexibility by not requiring any such universal behaviour. Assessment of the novel elliptic relaxation approach to model the proximity of a solid boundary reveals an encouraging potential used in conjunction with second-moment and eddy-viscosity closures. The most natural level of closure modelling to predict flows affected by streamline curvatures or an imposed rotation of the reference frame is at the second-moment closure (SMC) level. Although SMCs naturally accounts for the effects of system rotation, the usual application of a scalar dissipation rate equation is shown to require ad hoc corrections in some cases in order to give good results. The elliptic relaxation approach is also used in conjunction with non-linear pressure-strain models and very encouraging results are obtained for rotating flows. Rotational induced secondary motions are vital to predicting the effects of system rotation. Some severe weaknesses of non-linear pressure-strain models are also indicated. Finally, a modelling methodology for anisotropic dissipation in nearly homogeneous turbulence are proposed. 84 refs., 56 figs., 16 tabs.

  12. Stabilization of external modes in tokamaks by resistive walls and plasma rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that low-n pressure driven external modes in tokamaks can be fully stabilized by resistive walls in combination with sonic rotation of the plasma. The stabilization depends on the excitation of sound waves by the toroidal coupling to Alfven waves and is affected by ion Landau damping. Two-dimensional stability calculations are presented to show the gains in the beta limit resulting from this wall stabilization. (author) 4 figs., 13 refs

  13. Vibration and Instability of Rotating Composite Thin-Walled Shafts with Internal Damping

    OpenAIRE

    Ren Yongsheng; Zhang Xingqi; Liu Yanghang; Chen Xiulong

    2014-01-01

    The dynamical analysis of a rotating thin-walled composite shaft with internal damping is carried out analytically. The equations of motion are derived using the thin-walled composite beam theory and the principle of virtual work. The internal damping of shafts is introduced by adopting the multiscale damping analysis method. Galerkin’s method is used to discretize and solve the governing equations. Numerical study shows the effect of design parameters on the natural frequencies, critical rot...

  14. Modeling of feedback and rotational stabilization of the resistive wall mode in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the modeling of the feedback control and rotational stabilization of the resistive wall mode (RWM) in tokamaks. A normal mode theory for the feedback stabilization of the RWM has been developed for an ideal plasma with no toroidal rotation. This theory has been numerically implemented for general tokamak geometry and applied to the DIII-D tokamak. It is found that feedback with poloidal field sensors is superior to feedback with radial field sensors. The strength of the RWM that can be stabilized for a series of DIII-D equilibria are quantified. A general formulation is further developed for the feedback stabilization of tokamak with toroidal rotation and plasma dissipation. It has been used to understand the role of the external resonant field in affecting the plasma stability and compared with the resonant field amplification phenomenon observed in DIII-D. The effectiveness of a differentially rotating resistive wall in stabilizing the RWM has also been studied numerically. It is found that the maximum flow speed required is quite modest for a resistive wall with a long resistive wall time constant. It is orders of magnitude smaller than the required speed of plasma rotation. For a noncircular tokamak, a wide range of flow patterns have all found to be effective. The structure of the resistive wall mode predicted from ideal MHD theory has been compared with signals from various diagnostics. Simulation of the stabilization of the RWM in ITER-FEAT has been studied by using the MARS code coupled with the ONETWO transport code. It is also projected that 33 MW of negative neutral beam injection will be able to sustain plasma rotation sufficient to stabilize the RWM without relying on feedback. (author)

  15. Upper bound seismic rotational stability analysis of gravity retaining walls considering embedment depth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘杰; 黄达; 杨超; 孙莎

    2015-01-01

    Stability analysis of gravity retaining wall was currently based on the assumption that the wall had no embedment depth. The effect of earth berm was usually neglected. The present work highlighted the importance of embedment depth when assessing the seismic stability of gravity retaining walls with the pattern of pure rotation. In the framework of upper bound theorem of limit analysis, pseudo-static method was applied into two groups of parallel rigid soil slices methods in order to account for the effect of embedment depth on evaluating the critical acceleration of wall-soil system. The present analytical solution is identical to the results obtained from using limit equilibrium method, and the two methods are based on different theory backgrounds. Parameter analysis indicates that the critical acceleration increases slowly when the ratio of the embedment depth to the total height of the wall is from 0 to 0.15 and increases drastically when the ratio exceeds 0.15.

  16. A Novel Sensor for Rotational Viscometry under Apparent Wall Slip Effect

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wein, Ondřej; Slezák, Jiří; Tovčigrečko, Valentin; Večeř, Marek

    Erlangen: Institute of Polymer Materials Nürnberg, 2002 - (Münstedt, H.; Kaschta, J.; Merten, A.), s. 633-634 [European Conference on Rheology EURHEO 2002 /6./. Erlangen (DE), 01.09.2002-06.09.2002] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/01/0545 Keywords : rotational viscometry * wall slip effect * new sensor Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  17. Stabilization of the resistive wall mode using a fake rotating shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokamak plasma performance can, in theory, be greatly improved if the so called resistive wall mode is stabilized. This can be achieved by spinning the plasma rapidly, but such a scheme is not reactor relevant. A more promising approach is to apply external feedback in order to make a resistive shell placed around the plasma act like a perfect conductor. A scheme is outlined by which a network of feedback controlled conductors surrounding the plasma can be made to act like a rotating shell. This fake rotating shell combined with a stationary conventional shell (e.g. the vacuum vessel) can completely stabilize the resistive wall mode. The gain, bandwidth, current, and power requirements of the feedback amplifiers are extremely modest. A previously proposed stabilization scheme (the intelligent shell) is also investigated, and is compared with the fake rotating shell concept. The main disadvantage of the former scheme is that it requires a high gain

  18. MODELING OF FEEDBACK AND ROTATION STABILIZATION OF THE RESISTIVE WALL MODE IN TOKAMAKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steady-state operation of the advanced tokamak reactor relies on maintaining plasma stability with respect to the resistive wall mode (RWM). Active magnetic feedback and plasma rotation are the two methods proposed and demonstrated for this purpose. A comprehensive modeling effort including both magnetic feedback and plasma rotation is needed for understanding the physical mechanisms of the stabilization and to project to future devices. For plasma with low rotation, a complete solution for the feedback issue is obtained by assuming the plasma obey ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHDs) and utilizing a normal mode approach (NMA) [M.S. Chu, et al., Nucl. Fusion 43, 441 (2003)]. It is found that poloidal sensors are more effective than radial sensors and coils inside of the vacuum vessel more effective than outside. For plasmas with non-negligible rotation, a comprehensive linear non-ideal MHD code, the MARS-F has been found to be suitable. MARS-F [Y.Q. Liu, et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 3681 (2000)] has been benchmarked in the ideal MHD limit against the NMA. Effect of rotation stabilization of the plasma depends on the plasma dissipation model. Broad qualitative features of the experiment are reproduced. Rotation reduces the feedback gain required for RWM stabilization. Reduction is significant when rotation is near the critical rotation speed needed for stabilization. International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) [R. Aymar, et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 44, 519 (2002)] (scenario IV for advanced tokamak operation) may be feedback stabilized with β above the no wall limit and up to an increment of ∼50% towards the ideal limit. Rotation further improves the stability

  19. DIRECT NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF TURBULENT HEAT TRANSFER IN A WALL-NORMAL ROTATING CHANNEL FLOW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Direct Nmerical Simulation (DNS) of turbulent heat transfer in a wall-normal rotating channel flow has been carried out for the rotation number Nτ from 0 to 0.1, the Reynolds number 194 based on the friction velocity of non-rotating case and the half-height of the channel, and the Prandtl number 1. The objective of this study is to reveal the effects of rotation on the characteristics of turbulent flow and heat transfer. Based on the present calculated results, two typical rotation regimes are identified. When 0<Nτ<0.06, turbulence and thermal statistics correlated with the spanwise velocity fluctuation are enhanced since the shear rate of spanwise mean flow induced by Coriolis force increases; however, the other statistics are suppressed. When Nτ>0.06, turbulence and thermal statistics are suppressed significantly because the Coriolis force effect plays as a dominated role in the rotating flow. Remarkable change of the direction of near-wall streak structures based on the velocity and temperature fluctuations is identified.

  20. Stabilization of ideal modes by resistive walls in tokamaks with plasma rotation and its effect on the beta limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that pressure-driven, ideal external modes in tokamaks can be fully stabilized by resistive walls when the plasma rotates at some fraction of the sound speed. For wall stabilized plasmas, there are two types of potentially unstable external modes: those which are nearly locked to the wall and those which rotate with the plasma. For the modes rotating with the plasma, the stabilizing effect of the wall increases when the wall is brought closer to the plasma, while, for the wall-locked modes, the stabilization improves with increasing wall distance. When the plasma rotates at some fraction of the sound speed, there is a window of stability to both the wall-locked and the rotating mode. This window closes when beta exceeds a new limit which can be significantly higher than the wall-at-infinity limit. The stabilization depends principally on the toroidal coupling to sound waves and is affected by ion Landau damping. Two dimensional stability calculations are presented to evaluate the gains in beta limit resulting from this wall stabilization for different equilibria and rotation speeds. In particular, results are shown for advanced tokamak configurations with bootstrap fractions of ≅ 100%. (author) 14 figs., 25 refs

  1. Wall-locking of kink modes in a line-tied screw pinch with a rotating walla)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Soldan, C.; Brookhart, M. I.; Hegna, C. C.; Forest, C. B.

    2012-05-01

    The effect of rotating conducting walls on mode-locking is studied in a line-tied, linear screw pinch experiment and then compared to a torque balance model which has been extended to include differential wall rotation. Wall rotation is predicted to asymmetrically affect the mode-unlocking threshold, with fast rotation eliminating the locking bifurcation. Static error fields are observed to lock the resistive wall mode (RWM) variant of the current driven kink instability by modifying the electromagnetic torque. Using locked modes, the stabilizing effect of wall rotation on the RWM is experimentally demonstrated by illustrating a reduction of the RWM growth rate and an extension of the RWM-stable operation window.

  2. Calculation of Ground State Rotational Populations for Kinetic Gas Homonuclear Diatomic Molecules including Electron-Impact Excitation and Wall Collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David R. Farley

    2010-08-19

    A model has been developed to calculate the ground-state rotational populations of homonuclear diatomic molecules in kinetic gases, including the effects of electron-impact excitation, wall collisions, and gas feed rate. The equations are exact within the accuracy of the cross sections used and of the assumed equilibrating effect of wall collisions. It is found that the inflow of feed gas and equilibrating wall collisions can significantly affect the rotational distribution in competition with non-equilibrating electron-impact effects. The resulting steady-state rotational distributions are generally Boltzmann for N≥3, with a rotational temperature between the wall and feed gas temperatures. The N=0,1,2 rotational level populations depend sensitively on the relative rates of electron-impact excitation versus wall collision and gas feed rates.

  3. Calculation of Ground State Rotational Populations for Kinetic Gas Homonuclear Diatomic Molecules including Electron-Impact Excitation and Wall Collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model has been developed to calculate the ground-state rotational populations of homonuclear diatomic molecules in kinetic gases, including the effects of electron-impact excitation, wall collisions, and gas feed rate. The equations are exact within the accuracy of the cross sections used and of the assumed equilibrating effect of wall collisions. It is found that the inflow of feed gas and equilibrating wall collisions can significantly affect the rotational distribution in competition with non-equilibrating electron-impact effects. The resulting steady-state rotational distributions are generally Boltzmann for N (ge) 3, with a rotational temperature between the wall and feed gas temperatures. The N = 0,1,2 rotational level populations depend sensitively on the relative rates of electron-impact excitation versus wall collision and gas feed rates.

  4. Analysis of rotating collectors from the private region of JET with carbon wall and metallic ITER-like wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beal, J., E-mail: James.Beal@ccfe.ac.uk [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); York Plasma Institute, Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Widdowson, A. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Heinola, K. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); University of Helsinki, PO Box 43, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Baron-Wiechec, A. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Gibson, K.J. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); York Plasma Institute, Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Coad, J.P. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, PO Box 1000, 02044 VTT Espoo (Finland); Alves, E. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Avenue Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Lipschultz, B. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); York Plasma Institute, Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Kirschner, A. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Forschungszentrum Jülich, Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung Plasmaphysik, 52425 Jülich (Germany); and others

    2015-08-15

    Rotating collectors are used in JET to provide time-resolved measurements of erosion and redeposition of vessel materials. The silicon collecting discs rotate behind an aperture, driven by pulsing of the toroidal magnetic field, with the deposits analysed ex-situ by nuclear reaction analysis. The angular dependence of deposition is mapped to discharge number using the B-field history, allowing the influence of different plasma configurations and parameters to be investigated. A simple geometrical model using sputtering and reflection from the strike point has qualitatively reproduced the deposition found on collectors located under the central divertor tile and facing towards the inner strike point. The beryllium deposition on the ITER-like wall (ILW) collector showed an order of magnitude reduction in deposition compared to carbon deposition on the JET-C collector. This decreased deposition is attributed to low long range divertor transport due to reduced chemical sputtering/erosion and codeposition of beryllium relative to carbon.

  5. Analysis of rotating collectors from the private region of JET with carbon wall and metallic ITER-like wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotating collectors are used in JET to provide time-resolved measurements of erosion and redeposition of vessel materials. The silicon collecting discs rotate behind an aperture, driven by pulsing of the toroidal magnetic field, with the deposits analysed ex-situ by nuclear reaction analysis. The angular dependence of deposition is mapped to discharge number using the B-field history, allowing the influence of different plasma configurations and parameters to be investigated. A simple geometrical model using sputtering and reflection from the strike point has qualitatively reproduced the deposition found on collectors located under the central divertor tile and facing towards the inner strike point. The beryllium deposition on the ITER-like wall (ILW) collector showed an order of magnitude reduction in deposition compared to carbon deposition on the JET-C collector. This decreased deposition is attributed to low long range divertor transport due to reduced chemical sputtering/erosion and codeposition of beryllium relative to carbon

  6. Rotation and kinetic modifications of the tokamak ideal-wall pressure limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, J E; Wang, Z; Liu, Y; Bell, R E; Kaye, S M; Park, J-K; Tritz, K

    2014-12-19

    The impact of toroidal rotation, energetic ions, and drift-kinetic effects on the tokamak ideal wall mode stability limit is considered theoretically and compared to experiment for the first time. It is shown that high toroidal rotation can be an important destabilizing mechanism primarily through the angular velocity shear; non-Maxwellian fast ions can also be destabilizing, and drift-kinetic damping can potentially offset these destabilization mechanisms. These results are obtained using the unique parameter regime accessible in the spherical torus NSTX of high toroidal rotation speed relative to the thermal and Alfvén speeds and high kinetic pressure relative to the magnetic pressure. Inclusion of rotation and kinetic effects significantly improves agreement between measured and predicted ideal stability characteristics and may provide new insight into tearing mode triggering. PMID:25554890

  7. Impact of scaffold micro and macro architecture on Schwann cell proliferation under dynamic conditions in a rotating wall vessel bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valmikinathan, Chandra M.; Hoffman, John [Department of Chemistry, Chemical Biology and Biomedical Engineering, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ, 07030 (United States); Yu, Xiaojun, E-mail: xyu@stevens.edu [Department of Chemistry, Chemical Biology and Biomedical Engineering, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ, 07030 (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade tissue engineering has emerged as a powerful alternative to regenerate lost tissues owing to trauma or tumor. Evidence shows that Schwann cell containing scaffolds have improved performance in vivo as compared to scaffolds that depend on cellularization post implantation. However, owing to limited supply of cells from the patients themselves, several approaches have been taken to enhance cell proliferation rates to produce complete and uniform cellularization of scaffolds. The most common approach is the application of a bioreactor to enhance cell proliferation rate and therefore reduce the time needed to obtain sufficiently significant number of glial cells, prior to implantation. In this study, we show the application of a rotating wall bioreactor system for studying Schwann cell proliferation on nanofibrous spiral shaped scaffolds, prepared by solvent casting and salt leaching techniques. The scaffolds were fabricated from polycaprolactone (PCL), which has ideal mechanical properties and upon degradation does not produce acidic byproducts. The spiral scaffolds were coated with aligned or random nanofibers, produced by electrospinning, to provide a substrate that mimics the native extracellular matrix and the essential contact guidance cues. At the 4 day time point, an enhanced rate of cell proliferation was observed on the open structured nanofibrous spiral scaffolds in a rotating wall bioreactor, as compared to static culture conditions. However, the cell proliferation rate on the other contemporary scaffolds architectures such as the tubular and cylindrical scaffolds show reduced cell proliferation in the bioreactor as compared to static conditions, at the same time point. Moreover, the rotating wall bioreactor does not alter the orientation or the phenotype of the Schwann cells on the aligned nanofiber containing scaffolds, wherein, the cells remain aligned along the length of the scaffolds. Therefore, these open structured spiral

  8. Impact of scaffold micro and macro architecture on Schwann cell proliferation under dynamic conditions in a rotating wall vessel bioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last decade tissue engineering has emerged as a powerful alternative to regenerate lost tissues owing to trauma or tumor. Evidence shows that Schwann cell containing scaffolds have improved performance in vivo as compared to scaffolds that depend on cellularization post implantation. However, owing to limited supply of cells from the patients themselves, several approaches have been taken to enhance cell proliferation rates to produce complete and uniform cellularization of scaffolds. The most common approach is the application of a bioreactor to enhance cell proliferation rate and therefore reduce the time needed to obtain sufficiently significant number of glial cells, prior to implantation. In this study, we show the application of a rotating wall bioreactor system for studying Schwann cell proliferation on nanofibrous spiral shaped scaffolds, prepared by solvent casting and salt leaching techniques. The scaffolds were fabricated from polycaprolactone (PCL), which has ideal mechanical properties and upon degradation does not produce acidic byproducts. The spiral scaffolds were coated with aligned or random nanofibers, produced by electrospinning, to provide a substrate that mimics the native extracellular matrix and the essential contact guidance cues. At the 4 day time point, an enhanced rate of cell proliferation was observed on the open structured nanofibrous spiral scaffolds in a rotating wall bioreactor, as compared to static culture conditions. However, the cell proliferation rate on the other contemporary scaffolds architectures such as the tubular and cylindrical scaffolds show reduced cell proliferation in the bioreactor as compared to static conditions, at the same time point. Moreover, the rotating wall bioreactor does not alter the orientation or the phenotype of the Schwann cells on the aligned nanofiber containing scaffolds, wherein, the cells remain aligned along the length of the scaffolds. Therefore, these open structured spiral

  9. Intrinsic rotation due to MHD activity in a tokamak with a resistive wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MHD activity in a tokamak, in the form of waves and instabilities, generally has a preferred direction for propagation in a two-fluid plasma. When the radial component of magnetic field associated with this activity interacts with a resistive wall, momentum or angular momentum will be given to the wall. The equal and opposite reaction will be on the plasma, in particular, for ideal and resistive modes, at the singular or resonant surfaces for the various modes. In this case the torque exerted is electromagnetic. This is in contrast to other mechanisms for intrinsic or spontaneous rotation which may arise at the plasma boundary. The resistive wall is considered generally, and the thin and thick wall limits found, the latter being relevant to ITER parameters. Remarkably small radial perturbing fields of order 0.1 G could produce a torque comparable in effect to the apparent anomalous toroidal viscosity. (paper)

  10. Lateral Earth Pressure behind Walls Rotating about Base considering Arching Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In field, the earth pressure on a retaining wall is the common effect of kinds of factors. To figure out how key factors act, it has taken into account the arching effects together with the contribution from the mode of displacement of a wall to calculate earth pressure in the proposed method. Based on Mohr circle, a conversion factor is introduced to determine the shear stresses between artificial slices in soil mass. In the light of this basis, a modified differential slices solution is presented for calculation of active earth pressure on a retaining wall. Comparisons show that the result of proposed method is identical to observations from model tests in prediction of lateral pressures for walls rotating about the base.

  11. Hall Effect in the Viscous Incompressible Flow Through a Rotating Channel Between Two Porous Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Ramana Rao

    1990-07-01

    Full Text Available Exact solutions for the velocity and induced magnetic field distributions, accounting for Hall currents have been obtained for the flow of a conducting porous walls under the action of a constant pressure gradient and in the presence of a uniform magnetic field transversely applied to the flow. Further, the channel is rotated with constant angular velocity about an axis perpendicular to the walls. For the purpose of mathematical simplicity, the magnetic prandtl number is assumed to be negligible. An expression for the boundary layer thickness dependent on Taylor, Hartmann, suction Reynolds numbers and Hall parameter has been obtained.

  12. A new alternative in vertical barrier wall construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawl, G.F. [Horizontal Technologies Inc., Matlacha, FL (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A new proprietary vertical barrier wall system has been developed to revolutionize the construction process by eliminating many of the concerns of conventional installation method`s with respect to performance, installation constraints and costs. Vertical barrier walls have been used in the environmental and construction industries for a variety of purposes, usually for cut-off or containment. The typical scenario involves a groundwater contamination problem, in which a vertical barrier wall is utilized to contain or confine the spread of contaminants below the ground surface. Conventional construction techniques have been adequate in many applications, but often fall short of their intended purposes due to physical constraints. In many instances, the economics of these conventional methods have limited the utilization of physical barrier walls. Polywall, the trade name for this new barrier wall technology, was subsequently developed to meet these needs and offer a number of distinct advantages in a variety of scenarios by maximizing confinement and minimizing installation costs. Polywall is constructed from chemically resistant high density polyethylene (HDPE) plastic. It has proven in a half-dozen projects to date to be the most cost-effective and technically sound approach to many containment situations. This paper will cover the development of the technology and will provide a brief synopsis of several installations.

  13. Method for Improving Transverse Wall Thickness Precision of Seamless Steel Tube Based on Tube Rotation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-zheng JIANG; Hua-ping TANG

    2015-01-01

    The tube rotation method (TRM) refers to the rotational movement of steel tube about its axis as well as translation in rolling direction in stretch reducing rolling process. The inlfuence of the TRM on transverse wall thickness precision of seamless steel tube was studied. Thickness distribution of the TRM was obtained by superimposing the thickened amount of single pass roll-ing. Results show that the TRM can effectively improve the evenness of thickness distribution. In order to analyze the inlfuence mechanism of the TRM, the ifnite element method was adopted to simulate the thickness distribution in stretch reduction process. Results show that the TRM changes the roundtrip lfow between two ifx places of conventional stretch reducing and inhibits the directional accumulation of metal. In addition, the TRM has a correction effect on thickness cusp. All these advantages of the TRM help to improve the transverse wall thickness precision of seamless steel tube.

  14. Cell carrier function of hollow-fiber membrane in rotating wall vessel bioreactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kedong SONG; Tianqing LIU; Hu ZHAO; Xiangqin LI; Zhanfeng CUI; Xuehu MA

    2008-01-01

    Large-scale expansion of the osteoblasts of a Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat was studied in a rotating wall hollow-fiber membrane bioreactor (RWHMB) by using hollow-fiber membrane as the carrier. For the sake of contrast, cells were also expanded in a T-flask using a hollow-fiber membrane as carrier and in a rotating wall vessel bioreactor (RWVB) using a microcarrier. During the culture period, the cells were sampled every 12 h, and after 5 days, the cells were harvested and evaluated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining. Moreover, von-Kossa staining and Alizarin Red S stain-ing were carried out for mineralized nodules formation. The results show that in RWHMB, the cells present better morphology and vitality and secrete much more extracel-lular matrix. It is concluded that the RWHMB combines the advantages of the rotating wall vessel and hollow-fiber membrane bioreactors. The hydrodynamic stimulation within it accelerates the metabolism of the osteoblast and mass transfer, which is propitious to cell differenti-ation and proliferation.

  15. Heat transfer in rotating serpentine passages with selected model orientation for smooth or skewed trip walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B. V.; Wagner, J. H.; Steuber, G. D.; Yeh, F. C.

    1993-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of model orientation as well as buoyancy and Coriolis forces on heat transfer in turbine blade internal coolant passages. Turbine blades have internal coolant passage surfaces at the leading and trailing edges of the airfoil with surfaces at angles which are as large as +/- 50 to 60 degrees to the axis of rotation. Most of the previously-presented, multiple-passage, rotating heat transfer experiments have focused on radial passages aligned with the axis of rotation. Results from serpentine passages with orientations 0 and 45 degrees to the axis of rotation which simulate the coolant passages for the mid chord and trailing edge regions of the rotating airfoil are compared. The experiments were conducted with rotation in both directions to simulate serpentine coolant passages with the rearward flow of coolant or with the forward flow of coolant. The experiments were conducted for passages with smooth surfaces and with 45 degree trips adjacent to airfoil surfaces for the radial portion of the serpentine passages. At a typical flow condition, the heat transfer on the leading surfaces for flow outward in the first passage with smooth walls was twice as much for the model at 45 degrees compared to the model at 0 degrees. However, the differences for the other passages and with trips were less. In addition, the effects of buoyancy and Coriolis forces on heat transfer in the rotating passage were decreased with the model at 45 degrees, compared to the results at 0 degrees. The heat transfer in the turn regions and immediately downstream of the turns in the second passage with flow inward and in the third passage with flow outward was also a function of model orientation with differences as large as 40 to 50 percent occurring between the model orientations with forward flow and rearward flow of coolant.

  16. Rotating wall vessel exposure alters protein secretion and global gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, Helena; O'Neill, Alex J.; Blake, Katy L.; Walther, Meik; Long, Paul F.; Hinds, Jason; Taylor, Peter W.

    2012-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is routinely recovered from air and surface samples taken aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and poses a health threat to crew. As bacteria respond to the low shear forces engendered by continuous rotation conditions in a Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) and the reduced gravitational field of near-Earth flight by altering gene expression, we examined the effect of low-shear RWV growth on protein secretion and gene expression by three S. aureus isolates. When cultured under 1 g, the total amount of protein secreted by these strains varied up to fourfold; under continuous rotation conditions, protein secretion by all three strains was significantly reduced. Concentrations of individual proteins were differentially reduced and no evidence was found for increased lysis. These data suggest that growth under continuous rotation conditions reduces synthesis or secretion of proteins. A limited number of changes in gene expression under continuous rotation conditions were noted: in all isolates vraX, a gene encoding a polypeptide associated with cell wall stress, was down-regulated. A vraX deletion mutant of S. aureus SH1000 was constructed: no differences were found between SH1000 and ΔvraX with respect to colony phenotype, viability, protein export, antibiotic susceptibility, vancomycin kill kinetics, susceptibility to cold or heat and gene modulation. An ab initio protein-ligand docking simulation suggests a major binding site for β-lactam drugs such as imipenem. If such changes to the bacterial phenotype occur during spaceflight, they will compromise the capacity of staphylococci to cause systemic infection and to circumvent antibacterial chemotherapy.

  17. A thin-walled Taylor column surrounding a bathtub vortex in rotating tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chin-Chou; Lai, Kuan-Ruei; Chen, Yin-Chung; Chang, Chien-Cheng; Vortex Dynamics Team

    2015-11-01

    Numerical simulations and laboratory experiments were jointly conducted to investigate a bathtub vortex under the influence of a protruding cylinder in a rotating tank. The flow pattern depends on Rossby number (Ro = U /fR), Ekman number (Ek = ν /fR2) , and height ratio, h/ H, where R is the radius of the cylinder, f the Coriolis parameter, ν the kinematic viscosity of the fluid, h the vertical length of the cylinder and H the height of the tank. Steady-state solutions obtained by numerically solving the Navier-Stokes equations in the rotating frame are shown to have good agreements with flow visualizations measurements. The bathtub vortex exhibits an interesting two-celled structure with an inner Ekman pumping and an outer up-drafting motion. The two regions of up-drafting motion are separated by a notable finite-thickness structure, identified as thin-walled Taylor column. The Taylor column sets a barrier to the fluid flow that flows into the inner region only through the narrow gaps, one above the Taylor column and one beneath it. Moreover, the dependence of thickness and height of the thin-walled Taylor column on angular velocity ratio of cylinder to background rotation (ω/ Ω) , ranging from -8/3 to 8/3 are also discussed. Supported by Ministry of Science and Technology, TAIWAN ROC, under contract no's 102-2221-E-002-068-MY3 & 103C-4514-1.

  18. Active control of resistive wall modes in high beta, low rotation DIII-D plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent high-β DIII-D [Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42 (2002) 64] experiments with the new capability of balanced neutral beam injection show that the resistive wall mode (RWM) remains stable when the plasma rotation is lowered to a fraction of a percent of the Alfven frequency by reducing the injection of angular momentum in discharges with minimized magnetic field errors. Previous DIII-D experiments yielded a high plasma rotation threshold (of order a few percent of the Alfven frequency) for RWM stabilization when resonant magnetic braking was applied to lower the plasma rotation. We propose that the previously observed rotation threshold can be explained as the entrance into a forbidden band of rotation that results from torque balance including the resonant field amplification by the stable RWM. Resonant braking can also occur naturally in a plasma subject to magnetic instabilities with a zero frequency component, such as edge localized modes (ELMs). In DIII-D, robust RWM stabilization can be achieved using simultaneous feedback control of the two sets of non-axisymmetric coils. Slow feedback control of the external coils is used for dynamic error field correction; fast feedback control of the internal non-axisymmetric coils provides RWM stabilization during transient periods of low rotation. This method of active control of the n =1 RWM has opened access to new regimes of high performance in DIII-D. Very high plasma pressure combined with elevated qmin for high bootstrap current fraction, and internal transport barriers (ITBs), for high energy confinement, are sustained for almost 2 s, or 10 energy confinement times, suggesting a possible path to high fusion performance, steady-state tokamak scenarios. (author)

  19. Stability and control of resistive wall modes in high beta, low rotation DIII-D plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent high-β DIII-D (Luxon J.L. 2002 Nucl. Fusion 42 64) experiments with the new capability of balanced neutral beam injection show that the resistive wall mode (RWM) remains stable when the plasma rotation is lowered to a fraction of a per cent of the Alfven frequency by reducing the injection of angular momentum in discharges with minimized magnetic field errors. Previous DIII-D experiments yielded a high plasma rotation threshold (of order a few per cent of the Alfven frequency) for RWM stabilization when resonant magnetic braking was applied to lower the plasma rotation. We propose that the previously observed rotation threshold can be explained as the entrance into a forbidden band of rotation that results from torque balance including the resonant field amplification by the stable RWM. Resonant braking can also occur naturally in a plasma subject to magnetic instabilities with a zero frequency component, such as edge localized modes. In DIII-D, robust RWM stabilization can be achieved using simultaneous feedback control of the two sets of non-axisymmetric coils. Slow feedback control of the external coils is used for dynamic error field correction; fast feedback control of the internal non-axisymmetric coils provides RWM stabilization during transient periods of low rotation. This method of active control of the n = 1 RWM has opened access to new regimes of high performance in DIII-D. Very high plasma pressure combined with elevated qmin for high bootstrap current fraction, and internal transport barriers for high energy confinement, are sustained for almost 2 s, or 10 energy confinement times, suggesting a possible path to high fusion performance, steady-state tokamak scenarios

  20. Pressure Measurement on Casing Wall and Blade Rows Interaction of Contra-Rotating Axial Flow Pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toru SHIGEMITSU; Tomoya TAKANO; Akinori FURUKAWA; Kusuo OKUMA; Satoshi WATANABE

    2005-01-01

    @@ An application of contra-rotating rotors has been proposed against a demand for developing higher specific speed axial flow pump. The blade rows interaction between front and rear rotors should be clarified for its stable operation and reduction of unsteady losses. In this paper, the static pressure distributions on casing wall are provided by measuring with the phase locked sampling method. The measurements are carried out for two types of the rear rotors with different blade number and chord length, and it is found that, for both types of rotors, the unsteady pressure fluctuations are more remarkable in the front rotor than in the rear rotor and they are caused by the rear rotor pressure field. The effects of pressure fluctuations will be discussed in more details toward understanding the blade rows interaction in the contra-rotating axial flow pump.

  1. Translational and rotational near-wall diffusion of spherical colloids studied by evanescent wave scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisicki, Maciej; Cichocki, Bogdan; Rogers, Simon A; Dhont, Jan K G; Lang, Peter R

    2014-06-28

    In this article we extend recent experimental developments [Rogers et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 2012, 109, 098305] by providing a suitable theoretical framework for the derivation of exact expressions for the first cumulant (initial decay rate) of the correlation function measured in Evanescent Wave Dynamic Light Scattering (EWDLS) experiments. We focus on a dilute suspension of optically anisotropic spherical Brownian particles diffusing near a planar hard wall. In such a system, translational and rotational diffusion are hindered by hydrodynamic interactions with the boundary which reflects the flow incident upon it, affecting the motion of colloids. The validity of the approximation by the first cumulant for moderate times is assessed by juxtaposition to Brownian dynamics simulations, and compared with experimental results. The presented method for the analysis of experimental data allows the determination of penetration-depth-averaged rotational diffusion coefficients of spherical colloids at low density. PMID:24788942

  2. Control of linear modes in cylindrical resistive magnetohydrodynamics with a resistive wall, plasma rotation, and complex gain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feedback stabilization of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes in a tokamak is studied in a cylindrical model with a resistive wall, plasma resistivity, viscosity, and toroidal rotation. The control is based on a linear combination of the normal and tangential components of the magnetic field just inside the resistive wall. The feedback includes complex gain, for both the normal and for the tangential components, and it is known that the imaginary part of the feedback for the former is equivalent to plasma rotation [J. M. Finn and L. Chacon, Phys. Plasmas 11, 1866 (2004)]. The work includes (1) analysis with a reduced resistive MHD model for a tokamak with finite β and with stepfunction current density and pressure profiles, and (2) computations with a full compressible visco-resistive MHD model with smooth decreasing profiles of current density and pressure. The equilibria are stable for β = 0 and the marginal stability values βrp,rw rp,iw ip,rw ip,iw (resistive plasma, resistive wall; resistive plasma, ideal wall; ideal plasma, resistive wall; and ideal plasma, ideal wall) are computed for both models. The main results are: (a) imaginary gain with normal sensors or plasma rotation stabilizes below βrp,iw because rotation suppresses the diffusion of flux from the plasma out through the wall and, more surprisingly, (b) rotation or imaginary gain with normal sensors destabilizes above βrp,iw because it prevents the feedback flux from entering the plasma through the resistive wall to form a virtual wall. A method of using complex gain Gi to optimize in the presence of rotation in this regime with β > βrp,iw is presented. The effect of imaginary gain with tangential sensors is more complicated but essentially destabilizes above and below βrp,iw

  3. Small Diameter Few- Walled Carbon Nanotubes: An Alternative for Single Walled nanotubes in Bulk Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Liu

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction Although Single walled carbon nanotubes have shown tremendous potential in many applications due to their unique electrical and mechanical properties, the lack of a large scale synthesis method at low cost is still the main limiting factor for the realization of the full potential of this unique materials. On the other hand, multiwalled carbon nanotubes are being made in tons per year quantity and found their application in conducting plastic and other bulk applications.

  4. Long term organ culture of human prostate tissue in a NASA-designed rotating wall bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, L.; Hatfill, S.; Chuaqui, R.; Vocke, C.; Emmert-Buck, M.; Linehan, W. M.; Duray, P. H.

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: To maintain ex vivo integral prostatic tissue including intact stromal and ductal elements using the NASA-designed Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) which maintains colocalized cells in an environment that promotes both three-dimensional cellular interactions together with the uniform mass transfer of nutrients and metabolic wastes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Samples of normal prostate were obtained as a byproduct of transurethral prostatectomy or needle biopsy. Prostatic tissue dissected into small 1 x 1 mm. blocks was cultured in the Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) Bioreactor for various time periods and analyzed using histological, immunochemical, and total cell RNA assays. RESULTS: We report the long term maintenance of benign explanted human prostate tissue grown in simple culture medium, under the simulated microgravity conditions afforded by the RWV bioreactor. Mesenchymal stromal elements including blood vessels and architecturally preserved tubuloglandular acini were maintained for a minimum of 28 days. Cytokeratins, vimentin and TGF-beta2 receptor and ligand were preserved through the entire culture period as revealed by immunocytochemistry. Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) was continuously expressed during the culture period, although somewhat decreased. Prostatic specific antigen (PSA) and its transcript were down regulated over time of culture. Prostatic carcinoma cells from the TSU cell line were able to invade RWV-cultured benign prostate tissue explants. CONCLUSIONS: The RWV bioreactor represents an additional new technology for culturing prostate tissue for further investigations concerning the basic physiology and pathobiology of this clinically important tissue.

  5. The Rolling Transition in a Granular Flow along a Rotating Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Le Quiniou

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The flow of a dry granular material composed of spherical particles along a rotating boundary has been studied by the discrete element method (DEM. This type of flow is used, among others, as a process to spread particles. The flow consists of several phases. A compression phase along the rotating wall is followed by an elongation of the flow along the same boundary. Eventually, the particles slide or roll independently along the boundary. We show that the main motion of the flow can be characterized by a complex deformation rate of traction/compression and shear. We define numerically an effective friction coefficient of the flow on the scale of the continuum and show a strong decrease of this effective friction beyond a certain critical friction coefficient μ*. We correlate this phenomenon with the apparition of a new transition from a sliding regime to a rolling without sliding regime that we called the rolling transition; this dynamic transition is controlled by the value of the friction coefficient between the particle and the wall. We show that the spherical shape for the particles may represent an optimum for the flow in terms of energetic.

  6. Gradientless temperature-driven rotating motor from a double-walled carbon nanotube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotation of the inner tube in a double-walled carbon nanotube (DWCNT) system with a fixed outer tube is investigated and found to be inducible by a relatively high uniform temperature (say, 300 K). We also found the mechanism of a gradientless temperature-driven rotating motor lies in the inner tube losing its geometric symmetry in a high-temperature field. This mechanism can be taken as a guide for designing a motor from such a bi-tube system. Using a computational molecular dynamics (CMD) approach and the adaptive intermolecular reactive empirical bond order (AIREBO) potential, the dynamic behavior of a bi-tube system subjected to uniformly distributed temperature is studied. In particular, the effects of environmental temperature, boundary conditions of the outer tube, and intertube gap on the dynamic behavior of the bi-tube system are investigated. Numerical examples show that a bi-tube system with the inner tube having 0.335 nm of interlayer gap produces the highest rotational speed. (paper)

  7. The rotating wall machine: a device to study ideal and resistive magnetohydrodynamic stability under variable boundary conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Soldan, C; Bergerson, W F; Brookhart, M I; Hannum, D A; Kendrick, R; Fiksel, G; Forest, C B

    2010-12-01

    The rotating wall machine, a basic plasma physics experimental facility, has been constructed to study the role of electromagnetic boundary conditions on current-driven ideal and resistive magnetohydrodynamic instabilities, including differentially rotating conducting walls. The device, a screw pinch magnetic geometry with line-tied ends, is described. The plasma is generated by an array of 19 plasma guns that not only produce high density plasmas but can also be independently biased to allow spatial and temporal control of the current profile. The design and mechanical performance of the rotating wall as well as diagnostic capabilities and internal probes are discussed. Measurements from typical quiescent discharges show the plasma to be high β (≤p>2μ(0)/B(z)(2)), flowing, and well collimated. Internal probe measurements show that the plasma current profile can be controlled by the plasma gun array. PMID:21198019

  8. The rotating wall machine: A device to study ideal and resistive magnetohydrodynamic stability under variable boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rotating wall machine, a basic plasma physics experimental facility, has been constructed to study the role of electromagnetic boundary conditions on current-driven ideal and resistive magnetohydrodynamic instabilities, including differentially rotating conducting walls. The device, a screw pinch magnetic geometry with line-tied ends, is described. The plasma is generated by an array of 19 plasma guns that not only produce high density plasmas but can also be independently biased to allow spatial and temporal control of the current profile. The design and mechanical performance of the rotating wall as well as diagnostic capabilities and internal probes are discussed. Measurements from typical quiescent discharges show the plasma to be high β (≤p>2μ0/Bz2), flowing, and well collimated. Internal probe measurements show that the plasma current profile can be controlled by the plasma gun array.

  9. Tetrahedral collapse: a rotational toy model of simultaneous dark-matter halo, filament and wall formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyrinck, Mark C.

    2016-07-01

    We discuss an idealized model of halo formation, in which a collapsing halo node is tetrahedral, with a filament extruding from each of its four faces, and with a wall connecting each pair of filaments. In the model, filaments generally spin when they form, and the halo spins if and only if there is some rotation in filaments. This is the simplest possible fully three-dimensional halo collapse in the `origami approximation', in which voids are irrotational, and the dark-matter sheet out of which dark-matter structures form is allowed to fold in position-velocity phase space, but not stretch (i.e. it cannot vary in density along a stream). Up to an overall scaling, the four filament directions, and only three other quantities, such as filament spins, suffice to determine all of the collapse's properties: the shape, mass, and spin of the halo; the densities per unit length and spins of all filaments; and masses per unit area of the walls. If the filaments are arranged regular-tetrahedrally, filament properties obey simple laws, reminiscent of angular-momentum conservation. The model may be most useful in understanding spin correlations between neighbouring galaxies joined by filaments; these correlations would give intrinsic alignments between galaxies, essential to understand for accurate cosmological weak-lensing measurements.

  10. Tetrahedral collapse: a rotational toy model of simultaneous dark-matter halo, filament and wall formation

    CERN Document Server

    Neyrinck, Mark C

    2015-01-01

    We discuss an idealized model of halo formation, in which a collapsing halo node is tetrahedral, with a filament extruding from each of its four faces, and with a wall connecting each pair of filaments. In the model, filaments generally spin when they form, and the halo spins if and only if there is some rotation in filaments. This is the simplest-possible fully three-dimensional halo collapse in the 'origami approximation,' in which voids are irrotational, and the dark-matter sheet out of which dark-matter structures form is allowed to fold in position-velocity phase space, but not stretch (i.e., it cannot vary in density along a stream). Up to an overall scaling, the four filament directions, and only three other quantities, such as filament spins, suffice to determine all of the collapse's properties: the shape, mass, and spin of the halo; the densities per unit length and spins of all filaments; and masses per unit area of the walls. If the filaments are arranged regular-tetrahedrally, filament properties...

  11. Confined rotating convection with large Prandtl number: centrifugal effects on wall modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curbelo, Jezabel; Lopez, Juan M; Mancho, Ana M; Marques, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Thermal convection in a rotating cylinder with a radius-to-height aspect ratio of Γ=4 for fluids with large Prandtl number is studied numerically. Centrifugal buoyancy effects are investigated in a regime where the Coriolis force is relatively large and the onset of thermal convection is in the so-called wall modes regime, where pairs of hot and cold thermal plumes ascend and descend in the cylinder sidewall boundary layer, forming an essentially one-dimensional pattern characterized by the number of hot and cold plume pairs. In our numerical study, we use the physical parameters corresponding to aqueous mixtures of glycerine with mass concentration in the range of 60%-90% glycerine and a Rayleigh number range that extends from the threshold for wall modes up to values where the bulk fluid region is also convecting. The study shows that for the range of Rayleigh numbers considered, the local variations in viscosity due to temperature variation in the flow are negligible. However, the mean viscosity, which varies faster than exponentially with variations in the percentage of glycerine, leads to a faster than exponential increase in the Froude number for a fixed Coriolis force, and hence an enhancement of the centrifugal buoyancy effects with significant dynamical consequences, which are detailed. PMID:24580332

  12. Effect of rotation speed on the temperature of starter alternator machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Hamdy; Harmand, Souad

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a study on the effect of rotation speed on the temperature distribution of starter alternator machine. The effect of the outer conditions of the machine on its temperature is also studied. The numerical solution of the thermal model of the machine is solved by using a nodal approach during a numerical code (SAME). This code is established at our laboratory and is written by MATLAB. The results show that when the rotation speed of the machine increases, the temperature of the machine increases. They also show that increasing the rotation speed of the machine more than five times increases the power loss from the machine three times and the maximum temperature difference of the machine about 40 %.

  13. Contributions of the wall boundary layer to the formation of the counter-rotating vortex pair in transverse jets

    KAUST Repository

    SCHLEGEL, FABRICE

    2011-04-08

    Using high-resolution 3-D vortex simulations, this study seeks a mechanistic understanding of vorticity dynamics in transverse jets at a finite Reynolds number. A full no-slip boundary condition, rigorously formulated in terms of vorticity generation along the channel wall, captures unsteady interactions between the wall boundary layer and the jet - in particular, the separation of the wall boundary layer and its transport into the interior. For comparison, we also implement a reduced boundary condition that suppresses the separation of the wall boundary layer away from the jet nozzle. By contrasting results obtained with these two boundary conditions, we characterize near-field vortical structures formed as the wall boundary layer separates on the backside of the jet. Using various Eulerian and Lagrangian diagnostics, it is demonstrated that several near-wall vortical structures are formed as the wall boundary layer separates. The counter-rotating vortex pair, manifested by the presence of vortices aligned with the jet trajectory, is initiated closer to the jet exit. Moreover tornado-like wall-normal vortices originate from the separation of spanwise vorticity in the wall boundary layer at the side of the jet and from the entrainment of streamwise wall vortices in the recirculation zone on the lee side. These tornado-like vortices are absent in the case where separation is suppressed. Tornado-like vortices merge with counter-rotating vorticity originating in the jet shear layer, significantly increasing wall-normal circulation and causing deeper jet penetration into the crossflow stream. © 2011 Cambridge University Press.

  14. The influence of the tangential velocity of inner rotating wall on axial velocity profile of flow through vertical annular pipe with rotating inner surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharf Abdusalam M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the oil and gas industries, understanding the behaviour of a flow through an annulus gap in a vertical position, whose outer wall is stationary whilst the inner wall rotates, is a significantly important issue in drilling wells. The main emphasis is placed on experimental (using an available rig and computational (employing CFD software investigations into the effects of the rotation speed of the inner pipe on the axial velocity profiles. The measured axial velocity profiles, in the cases of low axial flow, show that the axial velocity is influenced by the rotation speed of the inner pipe in the region of almost 33% of the annulus near the inner pipe, and influenced inversely in the rest of the annulus. The position of the maximum axial velocity is shifted from the centre to be nearer the inner pipe, by increasing the rotation speed. However, in the case of higher flow, as the rotation speed increases, the axial velocity is reduced and the position of the maximum axial velocity is skewed towards the centre of the annulus. There is a reduction of the swirl velocity corresponding to the rise of the volumetric flow rate.

  15. Magnetohydrodynamic instability excited by interplay between a resistive wall mode and stable ideal magnetohydrodynamic modes in rotating tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a rotating toroidal plasma surrounded by a resistive wall, it is shown that linear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities can be excited by interplay between the resistive wall mode (RWM) and stable ideal MHD modes, where the RWM can couple with not only a stable external kink mode but also various stable Alfvén eigenmodes that abound in a toroidal plasma. The RWM growth rate is shown to peak repeatedly as the rotation frequency reaches specific values for which the frequencies of the ideal MHD modes are Doppler-shifted to the small RWM frequency. Such destabilization can be observed even when the RWM in a static plasma is stable. A dispersion relation clarifies that the unstable mode changes from the RWM to the ideal MHD mode destabilized by wall resistivity when the rotation frequency passes through these specific values. The unstable mode is excited at these rotation frequencies even though plasma rotation also tends to stabilize the RWM from the combination of the continuum damping and the ion Landau damping

  16. Magnetohydrodynamic instability excited by interplay between a resistive wall mode and stable ideal magnetohydrodynamic modes in rotating tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiba, N. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Hirota, M. [Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan)

    2015-08-15

    In a rotating toroidal plasma surrounded by a resistive wall, it is shown that linear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities can be excited by interplay between the resistive wall mode (RWM) and stable ideal MHD modes, where the RWM can couple with not only a stable external kink mode but also various stable Alfvén eigenmodes that abound in a toroidal plasma. The RWM growth rate is shown to peak repeatedly as the rotation frequency reaches specific values for which the frequencies of the ideal MHD modes are Doppler-shifted to the small RWM frequency. Such destabilization can be observed even when the RWM in a static plasma is stable. A dispersion relation clarifies that the unstable mode changes from the RWM to the ideal MHD mode destabilized by wall resistivity when the rotation frequency passes through these specific values. The unstable mode is excited at these rotation frequencies even though plasma rotation also tends to stabilize the RWM from the combination of the continuum damping and the ion Landau damping.

  17. Three-dimensional growth of endothelial cells in the microgravity-based rotating wall vessel bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Gary L; Ellerson, Debra; Melhado-Gardner, Caroline; Sroufe, Angrla E; Harris-Hooker, Sandra

    2002-10-01

    We characterized bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) continuously cultured in the rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactor for up to 30 d. Cultures grew as large tissue-like aggregates (containing 20 or more beads) after 30 d. These cultures appeared to be growing in multilayers around the aggregates, where single beads were covered with confluent BAEC, which displayed the typical endothelial cell (EC) morphology. The 30-d multibead aggregate cultures have a different and smoother surface when viewed under a higher-magnification scanning electron microscope. Transmission electron microscopy of these large BAEC aggregates showed that the cells were viable and formed multilayered sheets that were separated by an extracellular space containing matrix-like material. These three-dimensional cultures also were found to have a basal production of nitric oxide (NO) that was 10-fold higher for the RWV than for the Spinner flask bioreactor (SFB). The BAEC in the RWV showed increased basal NO production, which was dependent on the RWV rotation rate: 73% increase at 8 rpm, 262% increase at 15 rpm, and 500% increase at 20 rpm as compared with control SFB cultures. The addition of l-arginine to the RWV cultures resulted in a fourfold increase in NO production over untreated RWV cultures, which was completely blocked by L-NAME [N(G)-nitro-L-arginine-methylester]. Cells in the SFB responded similarly. The RWV cultures showed an increase in barrier properties with an up-regulation of tight junction protein expression. We believe that this study is the first report of a unique growth pattern for ECs, resulting in enhanced NO production and barrier properties, and it suggests that RWV provides a unique model for investigating EC biology and differentiated function. PMID:12703976

  18. Resistive wall mode stabilization by slow plasma rotation in DIII-D tokamak discharges with balanced neutral beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent experiments in the DIII-D tokamak [J. L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)] show that the resistive wall mode (RWM) can be stabilized by smaller values of plasma rotation than previously reported. Stable discharges have been observed with beta up to 1.4 times the no-wall kink stability limit and ion rotation velocity (measured from CVI emission) less than 0.3% of the Alfven speed at all integer rational surfaces, in contrast with previous DIII-D experiments that indicated critical values of 0.7%-2.5% of the local Alfven speed. Preliminary stability calculations for these discharges, using ideal magnetohydrodynamics with a drift-kinetic dissipation model, are consistent with the new experimental results. A key feature of these experiments is that slow plasma rotation was achieved by reducing the neutral beam torque. Earlier experiments with strong neutral beam torque used ''magnetic braking'' by applied magnetic perturbations to slow the rotation, and resonant effects of these perturbations may have led to a larger effective rotation threshold. In addition, the edge rotation profile may have a critical role in determining the RWM stability of these low-torque plasmas

  19. Effects of simulated weightlessness on fish otolith growth: Clinostat versus Rotating-Wall Vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brungs, Sonja; Hauslage, Jens; Hilbig, Reinhard; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Anken, Ralf

    2011-09-01

    Stimulus dependence is a general feature of developing sensory systems. It has been shown earlier that the growth of inner ear heavy stones (otoliths) of late-stage Cichlid fish ( Oreochromis mossambicus) and Zebrafish ( Danio rerio) is slowed down by hypergravity, whereas microgravity during space flight yields an opposite effect, i.e. larger than 1 g otoliths, in Swordtail ( Xiphophorus helleri) and in Cichlid fish late-stage embryos. These and related studies proposed that otolith growth is actively adjusted via a feedback mechanism to produce a test mass of the appropriate physical capacity. Using ground-based techniques to apply simulated weightlessness, long-term clinorotation (CR; exposure on a fast-rotating Clinostat with one axis of rotation) led to larger than 1 g otoliths in late-stage Cichlid fish. Larger than normal otoliths were also found in early-staged Zebrafish embryos after short-term Wall Vessel Rotation (WVR; also regarded as a method to simulate weightlessness). These results are basically in line with the results obtained on Swordtails from space flight. Thus, the growth of fish inner ear otoliths seems to be an appropriate parameter to assess the quality of "simulated weightlessness" provided by a particular simulation device. Since CR and WVR are in worldwide use to simulate weightlessness conditions on ground using small-sized specimens, we were prompted to directly compare the effects of CR and WVR on otolith growth using developing Cichlids as model organism. Animals were simultaneously subjected to CR and WVR from a point of time when otolith primordia had begun to calcify both within the utricle (gravity perception) and the saccule (hearing); the respective otoliths are the lapilli and the sagittae. Three such runs were subsequently carried out, using three different batches of fish. The runs were discontinued when the animals began to hatch. In the course of all three runs performed, CR led to larger than normal lapilli, whereas WVR

  20. Morphological Differentiation of Colon Carcinoma Cell Lines in Rotating Wall Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessup, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The objectives of this project were to determine whether (1) microgravity permits unique, three-dimensional cultures of neoplastic human colon tissues and (2) this culture interaction produces novel intestinal growth and differentiation factors. The initial phase of this project tested the efficacy of simulated microgravity for the cultivation and differentiation of human colon carcinoma in rotating wall vessels (RWV's) on microcarrier beads. The RWV's simulate microgravity by randomizing the gravity vector in an aqueous medium under a low shear stress environment in unit gravity. This simulation achieves approximately a one-fifth g environment that allows cells to 'float' and form three-dimensional relationships with less shear stress than in other stirred aqueous medium bioreactors. In the second phase of this project we assessed the ability of human colon carcinoma lines to adhere to various substrates because adhesion is the first event that must occur to create three-dimensional masses. Finally, we tested growth factor production in the last phase of this project.

  1. Cell culture for three-dimensional modeling in rotating-wall vessels: an application of simulated microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, R. P.; Goodwin, T. J.; Wolf, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    High-density, three-dimensional cell cultures are difficult to grow in vitro. The rotating-wall vessel (RWV) described here has cultured BHK-21 cells to a density of 1.1 X 10(7) cells/ml. Cells on microcarriers were observed to grow with enhanced bridging in this batch culture system. The RWV is a horizontally rotated tissue culture vessel with silicon membrane oxygenation. This design results in a low-turbulence, low-shear cell culture environment with abundant oxygenation. The RWV has the potential to culture a wide variety of normal and neoplastic cells.

  2. Lymphocyte trafficking and HIV infection of human lymphoid tissue in a rotating wall vessel bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, L. B.; Fitzgerald, W.; Glushakova, S.; Hatfill, S.; Amichay, N.; Baibakov, B.; Zimmerberg, J.

    1997-01-01

    The pathogenesis of HIV infection involves a complex interplay between both the infected and noninfected cells of human lymphoid tissue, the release of free viral particles, the de novo infection of cells, and the recirculatory trafficking of peripheral blood lymphocytes. To develop an in vitro model for studying these various aspects of HIV pathogenesis we have utilized blocks of surgically excised human tonsils and a rotating wall vessel (RWV) cell culture system. Here we show that (1) fragments of the surgically excised human lymphoid tissue remain viable and retain their gross cytoarchitecture for at least 3 weeks when cultured in the RWV system; (2) such lymphoid tissue gradually shows a loss of both T and B cells to the surrounding growth medium; however, this cellular migration is reversible as demonstrated by repopulation of the tissue by labeled cells from the growth medium; (3) this cellular migration may be partially or completely inhibited by embedding the blocks of lymphoid tissue in either a collagen or agarose gel matrix; these embedded tissue blocks retain most of the basic elements of a normal lymphoid cytoarchitecture; and (4) both embedded and nonembedded RWV-cultured blocks of human lymphoid tissue are capable of productive infection by HIV-1 of at least three various strains of different tropism and phenotype, as shown by an increase in both p24 antigen levels and free virus in the culture medium, and by the demonstration of HIV-1 RNA-positive cells inside the tissue identified by in situ hybridization. It is therefore reasonable to suggest that gel-embedded and nonembedded blocks of human lymphoid tissue, cocultured with a suspension of tonsillar lymphocytes in an RWV culture system, constitute a useful model for simulating normal lymphocyte recirculatory traffic and provide a new tool for testing the various aspects of HIV pathogenesis.

  3. Steady-State Confinement of Non-Neutral Plasmas Using Trivelpiece-Gould Modes Excited by a ''Rotating Wall''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Anderegg; E.M. Hollmann; C.F. Driscoll

    1999-12-31

    A ''rotating wall'' voltage varying as exp(im{sub {theta}}{theta}+ ik{sub z}z - i2{pi}ft) can give steady-state confinement of more than 10{sup 9} charges in a Penning-Malmberg trap at 4 Tesla. For both pure ion plasmas and pure electron plasmas, the torque exerted on the plasma by the rotating wall exhibits peaks at the frequencies of k{sub z} {ne} 0 Trivelpiece-Gould modes. As expected, modes with f > m{sub {theta}}fr (i.e. propagating faster than the plasma rotation) give positive torque and cause plasma compression; and modes with f < m{sub {theta}}fr give adverse torque and cause plasma expansion. The rotating wall drive also causes plasma heating, but cyclotron radiation (in the electron case) and collisions with background residual neutral gas (in the ion case) keep the temperature low enough that background ionization is negligible. The rotating wall ''slip'' is typically greater for electrons than for ions, because f - m{sub {theta}}fr is proportional to the plasma frequency {omega}{sub p}. This contrasts with the k{sub z} = 0 rotating wall perturbation which couples to crystallized ion plasmas with no slip. By increasing the frequency of the rotating wall, we observed a plasma central density compression of about a factor of 20. These techniques may be useful for a variety of trapping experiments.

  4. Reversible electrically-driven magnetic domain wall rotation in multiferroic heterostructures to manipulate suspended on-chip magnetic particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Mark; Sohn, Hyunmin; Liang, Cheng-Yen; Hockel, Joshua; Wetzlar, Kyle; Keller, Scott; McLellan, Brenda; Marcus, Matthew; Doran, Andrew; Young, Anthony; Kläui, Mathias; Carman, Gregory; Bokor, Jeffrey; Candler, Robert

    2015-03-01

    We experimentally demonstrate reversible electrically-driven, strain-mediated domain wall (DW) rotation in Ni rings fabricated on piezoelectric [Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3) O3]0.66-[PbTiO3]0.34 (PMN-PT) substrates. An electric field applied across the PMN-PT substrate induces a strain in the Ni rings producing DW rotation around the ring toward the dominant PMN-PT strain axis by inverse magnetostriction. We observe DWs reversibly cycled between their initial and rotated state as a function of the applied electric field with x-ray magnetic circular dichroism photo-emission electron microscopy. The DW rotation is analytically predicted using a fully coupled micromagnetic/elastodyanmic multi-physics simulation to verify that the experimental behavior is caused by the electrically-generated strain in this multiferroic system. Finally, this DW rotation is used to capture and manipulate magnetic particles in a fluidic environment to demonstrate a proof-of-concept energy-efficient pathway for multiferroic-based lab-on-a-chip applications. Supported by TANMS (NSF 11-537), E3S, US Dept of Energy (DE-AC02-05CH11231), EU, and DFG.

  5. 'Backscratching' alternative to PRSI pattern recognition. [position, rotation, and scale-independent image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Stanley E., Jr.; Juday, Richard D.

    1990-01-01

    The Backscratching optical correlation algorithm has been proposed for four degree of freedom tracking. In an alternating Cartesian and log-polar implementation, the tracked parameters are scale, rotation, and two-dimenisonal translation. The algorithm has a finite capture radius in the four-dimensional tracking space. The capture radius is dependent on the tracked object, the correlator architecture, and the method of filter computation. Some methods of extending the capture radius are discussed. One is a modification of matched filters, another is a careful consideration of log-polar transform center, and another is an operational method. Some simulations of the filter construction method, in which a larger capture radius is gained at the expense of precision in determining the four parameters are presented.

  6. Short-rotation forestry as an alternative land use in Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The traditional mainstays of Hawaii's economy: sugarcane and pineapple crops, have declined such that as much as 80,000 hectares of agricultural land are now available for alternative land uses. Concurrently, imports of fossil fuels continue to accelerate and now provide over 90% of the total energy supply at a cost exceeding 1 billion dollars annually exported from the local economy. The feasibility of short-rotation forestry on these former sugarcane and pineapple plantation lands to produce a variety of wood products, including biofuels, is being evaluated using a species- and site-specific empirical model to predict yields of Eucalyptus saligna, a system model to estimate delivered costs of wood chips to a bioconversion facility, and a geographic information system to extend the analysis to areas where no field trials exist and to present results in map form. The island of Hawaii is showcased as an application of the methodology. Modelling results are presented for using tropical hardwoods as dedicated feedstocks from biomass energy plantations to produce methanol, ethanol and electricity. A hypothetical, integrated, high-value hardwood, veneer, utility lumber and wood-chip operation is featured in contrast to the biomass energy plantation scenario. Short-rotation forestry may hold some promise for the greening of Hawaii's energy system and even greater promise for the industrial production of value-added wood products for the benefit of the state's citizens and visitors. The methodology is readily transferable to other regions of the United States and the rest of the world. (author)

  7. Multidomain Extension of a Pseudospectral Algorithm for the Direct Simulation of Wall-Confined Rotating Flows

    OpenAIRE

    Fontaine , Guillaume; Poncet, Sébastien; Serre, Eric

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we improve an existing pseudospectral algorithm, in order to extend its properties to a multidomain patching of a rotating cavity. Viscous rotating flows have been widely studied over the last decades, either on industrial or aca-demic approaches. Nevertheless, the range of Reynolds numbers reached in indus-trial devices implies very high resolutions of the spatial problem, which are clearly unreachable using a monodomain approach. Hence, we worked on the multido-main extension ...

  8. Electrically driven magnetic domain wall rotation in multiferroic heterostructures to manipulate suspended on-chip magnetic particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Hyunmin; Nowakowski, Mark E; Liang, Cheng-yen; Hockel, Joshua L; Wetzlar, Kyle; Keller, Scott; McLellan, Brenda M; Marcus, Matthew A; Doran, Andrew; Young, Anthony; Kläui, Mathias; Carman, Gregory P; Bokor, Jeffrey; Candler, Robert N

    2015-05-26

    In this work, we experimentally demonstrate deterministic electrically driven, strain-mediated domain wall (DW) rotation in ferromagnetic Ni rings fabricated on piezoelectric [Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3]0.66-[PbTiO3]0.34 (PMN-PT) substrates. While simultaneously imaging the Ni rings with X-ray magnetic circular dichroism photoemission electron microscopy, an electric field is applied across the PMN-PT substrate that induces strain in the ring structures, driving DW rotation around the ring toward the dominant PMN-PT strain axis by the inverse magnetostriction effect. The DW rotation we observe is analytically predicted using a fully coupled micromagnetic/elastodynamic multiphysics simulation, which verifies that the experimental behavior is caused by the electrically generated strain in this multiferroic system. Finally, this DW rotation is used to capture and manipulate micrometer-scale magnetic beads in a fluidic environment to demonstrate a proof-of-concept energy-efficient pathway for multiferroic-based lab-on-a-chip applications. PMID:25906195

  9. Characteristic dynamic modes and domain-wall motion in magnetic nanotubes excited by resonant rotating magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jaehak; Kim, Junhoe; Kim, Bosung; Cho, Young-Jun; Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Kim, Sang-Koog

    2016-07-01

    We performed micromagnetic numerical calculations to explore a cylindrical nanotube's magnetization dynamics and domain-wall (DW) motions driven by eigen-circular-rotating magnetic fields of different frequencies. We discovered the presence of two different localized DW oscillations as well as asymmetric ferromagnetic resonance precession and azimuthal spin-wave modes at the corresponding resonant frequencies of the circular-rotating fields. Associated with these intrinsic modes, there exist very contrasting DW motions of different speed and propagation direction for a given DW chirality. The direction and speed of the DW propagation were found to be controllable according to the rotation sense and frequency of noncontact circular-rotating fields. Furthermore, spin-wave emissions from the moving DW were observed at a specific field frequency along with their Doppler effect. This work furthers the fundamental understanding of soft magnetic nanotubes' intrinsic dynamic modes and spin-wave emissions and offers an efficient means of manipulating the speed and direction of their DW propagations.

  10. Interlocked chiral/polar domain walls and large optical rotation in Ni3TeO6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirality, i.e., handedness, pervades much of modern science from elementary particles, DNA-based biology to molecular chemistry; however, most of the chirality-relevant materials have been based on complex molecules. Here, we report inorganic single-crystalline Ni3TeO6, forming in a corundum-related R3 structure with both chirality and polarity. These chiral Ni3TeO6 single crystals exhibit a large optical specific rotation (α)—1355° dm−1 cm3 g−1. We demonstrate, for the first time, that in Ni3TeO6, chiral and polar domains form an intriguing domain pattern, resembling a radiation warning sign, which stems from interlocked chiral and polar domain walls through lowering of the wall energy

  11. Interlocked chiral/polar domain walls and large optical rotation in Ni3TeO6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueyun Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Chirality, i.e., handedness, pervades much of modern science from elementary particles, DNA-based biology to molecular chemistry; however, most of the chirality-relevant materials have been based on complex molecules. Here, we report inorganic single-crystalline Ni3TeO6, forming in a corundum-related R3 structure with both chirality and polarity. These chiral Ni3TeO6 single crystals exhibit a large optical specific rotation (α—1355° dm−1 cm3 g−1. We demonstrate, for the first time, that in Ni3TeO6, chiral and polar domains form an intriguing domain pattern, resembling a radiation warning sign, which stems from interlocked chiral and polar domain walls through lowering of the wall energy.

  12. Interlocked chiral/polar domain walls and large optical rotation in Ni{sub 3}TeO{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xueyun; Huang, Fei-Ting [Rutgers Center for Emergent Materials and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Yang, Junjie [Laboratory for Pohang Emergent Materials and Max Plank POSTECH Center for Complex Phase Materials, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Yoon Seok [Rutgers Center for Emergent Materials and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Department of Physics, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Cheong, Sang-Wook, E-mail: sangc@physics.rutgers.edu [Rutgers Center for Emergent Materials and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Laboratory for Pohang Emergent Materials and Max Plank POSTECH Center for Complex Phase Materials, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-01

    Chirality, i.e., handedness, pervades much of modern science from elementary particles, DNA-based biology to molecular chemistry; however, most of the chirality-relevant materials have been based on complex molecules. Here, we report inorganic single-crystalline Ni{sub 3}TeO{sub 6}, forming in a corundum-related R3 structure with both chirality and polarity. These chiral Ni{sub 3}TeO{sub 6} single crystals exhibit a large optical specific rotation (α)—1355° dm{sup −1} cm{sup 3} g{sup −1}. We demonstrate, for the first time, that in Ni{sub 3}TeO{sub 6}, chiral and polar domains form an intriguing domain pattern, resembling a radiation warning sign, which stems from interlocked chiral and polar domain walls through lowering of the wall energy.

  13. Challenging the wall of fast rotating asteroids - constraining internal cohesive strength for MBAs and NEAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polishook, David; Moskovitz, Nicholas; Binzel, Richard P.; DeMeo, Francesca E.; Aharonson, Oded; Thomas, Cristina; Lockhart, Matthew; Thirouin, Audrey; Mommert, Michael; Trilling, David; Burt, Brian

    2015-11-01

    We report an observation of a 2 km size main belt asteroid (MBA), (60716) 2000 GD65, with a lightcurve indicating a rotation period of 1.9529±0.0002 hours, i.e. challenging the ‘rubble pile spin barrier’. This adds to a handful of MBAs, recently observed by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) survey (Chang et al. 2014, 2015), with diameters between 0.5-1.5 km and lightcurves indicating rotation periods of 1.2-1.9 hours. These asteroids are relatively large compared to the population of small near-Earth asteroids (NEAs; Dteam).We apply the Holsapple (2007) model to these two distinct populations in order to constrain the cohesion within these objects and to search for monolithic asteroids. We use the lightcurve’s amplitude as indication of the triaxial shape ratio a/b, and assume b/c=1 (i.e. a>b=c). While the density is a free parameter, the given cohesion is the average of values for density ranges between 1.5 to 2.5 gr cm^-3, which are measured density values for asteroids (Carry 2012).We find that the fast rotating MBAs must have internal cohesive strength of at least ~25 to ~250 Pa in order to prevent disruption against centrifugal acceleration. Similar cohesion values have been found within lunar soils (100-1000 Pa; Mitchell et al. 1974). However, since only a few MBAs rotate so quickly, such internal cohesive strength might be rare within the population of km-size MBAs. Among NEAs, about 25% have minimal constrained cohesion values similar to those found for the fast rotating MBAs. Approximately 65% have no need for substantial cohesion values >25 Pa. Only ~10% of NEAs must have substantial internal cohesion of over 1000 Pa to prevent disruption, however none of them are rotating fast enough to require a fully monolithic body, i.e. cohesion >10 kPa.

  14. Simulating and Examination of the Separation Nozzle stage performance with rotating wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barough, Mehdi S.; Rahgoshay, M.; Abaspour, A.; Hogabri, A.; Ghorannevis, M.

    2007-04-01

    In design of the separation Nozzle stage, picked one stage and formulated physical and bulk properties input gas. Then, separation factor (α) is calculated and optimized. Optimum UF6 cut (θ) is 0.25. Two type light auxiliary gas (Hydrogen & Helium) used for acceleration input gas (Hydrogen gas more suitable than Helium gas). Incidentally, weight percent of light auxiliary gas (1-f) is optimized at 5%. Then, the separation Nozzle process with Gambit2.2 and Fluent6.2 is simulated. For an idea, the separation Nozzle stage is rotated (with centrifuge rotation velocity) and compared with prior cases. In this case, separation factor increased by 0.005.

  15. Hydrodynamic flow between rotating eccentric cylinders with suction at the porous walls

    OpenAIRE

    Lokenath Debnath; Kandaswamy, P.; S. Meena

    2001-01-01

    The flow of a viscous, incompressible fluid between two eccentric rotating porous cylinders with suction/injection at both the cylinders, for very small clearance ratio is studied. The expressions for various flow characteristics are obtained using perturbation analysis. Streamlines and pressure plots are shown graphically for various values of flow parameters and discussed.

  16. Collision of a rotating spherical particle with flat wall in liquid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukerchenko, Nikolay; Kvurt, Y.; Chára, Zdeněk; Vlasák, Pavel

    Prague : ITAM AS CR, v. v. i., 2012 - (Náprstek, J.; Fischer, C.), s. 835-841 ISBN 978-80-86246-40-6. [Engineering Mechanics 2012 /18./. Svratka (CZ), 14.05.2012-17.05.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP105/10/1574 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : restitution coefficient * spherical particle * particle rotation * liquid viscosity Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  17. Braking of tearing mode rotation by ferromagnetic conducting walls in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An in-depth investigation of the braking of tearing mode rotation in tokamak plasmas via eddy currents induced in external ferromagnetic conducting structures is performed. In general, there is a “forbidden band” of tearing mode rotation frequencies that separates a branch of high-frequency solutions from a branch of low-frequency solutions. When a high-frequency solution crosses the upper boundary of the forbidden band, there is a bifurcation to a low-frequency solution, and vice versa. The bifurcation thresholds predicted by simple torque-balance theory (which takes into account the electromagnetic braking torque acting on the plasma, as well as the plasma viscous restoring torque, but neglects plasma inertia) are found to be essentially the same as those predicted by more complicated time-dependent mode braking theory (which takes inertia into account). Significant ferromagnetism causes otherwise electromagnetically thin conducting structures to become electromagnetically thick and also markedly decreases the critical tearing mode amplitude above which the mode “locks” to the conducting structures (i.e., the high-frequency to low-frequency bifurcation is triggered). On the other hand, if the ferromagnetism becomes too large, then the forbidden band of mode rotation frequencies is suppressed, and the mode frequency consequently varies smoothly and reversibly with the mode amplitude

  18. Effect of Aspect Ratio, Channel Orientation, Rib Pitch-to-Height Ratio, and Number of Ribbed Walls on Pressure Drop Characteristics in a Rotating Channel with Detached Ribs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Arun

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work involves experimental investigation of the effects of aspect ratio, channel orientation angle, rib pitch-to-height ratio (P/e, and number of ribbed walls on friction factor in orthogonally rotating channel with detached ribs. The ribs are separated from the base wall to provide a small region of flow between the base wall and the ribs. Experiments have been conducted at Reynolds number ranging from 10000–17000 with rotation numbers varying from 0–0.38. Pitch-to-rib height ratios (P/e of 5 and 10 at constant rib height-to-hydraulic diameter ratio (e/D of 0.1 and a clearance ratio (C/e of 0.38 are considered. The rib angle of attack with respect to mainstream flow is 90∘. The channel orientation at which the ribbed wall becomes trailing surface (pressure side on which the Coriolis force acts is considered as the 0∘ orientation angle. For one-wall ribbed case, channel is oriented from 0∘ to 180∘ about its axis in steps of 30∘ to change the orientation angle. For two-wall ribbed case, the orientation angle is changed from 0∘ to 90∘ in steps of 30∘. Friction factors for the detached ribbed channels are compared with the corresponding attached ribbed channel. It is found that in one-wall detached ribbed channel, increase in the friction factor ratio with the orientation angle is lower for rectangular channel compared to that of square channel for both the pitch-to-rib height ratios of 5 and 10 at a given Reynolds number and rotation number. Friction factor ratios of two-wall detached ribbed rectangular channel are comparable with corresponding two-wall detached ribbed square channel both under stationary and rotating conditions.

  19. Influences of rotation and thermophoresis on MHD peristaltic transport of Jeffrey fluid with convective conditions and wall properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, T.; Rafiq, M.; Ahmad, B.

    2016-07-01

    This article aims to predict the effects of convective condition and particle deposition on peristaltic transport of Jeffrey fluid in a channel. The whole system is in a rotating frame of reference. The walls of channel are taken flexible. The fluid is electrically conducting in the presence of uniform magnetic field. Non-uniform heat source/sink parameter is also considered. Mass transfer with chemical reaction is considered. Relevant equations for the problems under consideration are first modeled and then simplified using lubrication approach. Resulting equations for stream function and temperature are solved exactly whereas mass transfer equation is solved numerically. Impacts of various involved parameters appearing in the solutions are carefully analyzed.

  20. Braking of Tearing Mode Rotation by Ferromagnetic Conducting Walls in Tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Richard

    2015-11-01

    An in-depth investigation of the braking of tearing mode rotation in tokamak plasmas via eddy currents induced in external ferromagnetic conducting structures is performed. In general, there is a ``forbidden band'' of tearing mode rotation frequencies that separates a branch of high-frequency solutions from a branch of low-frequency solutions. When a high-frequency solution crosses the upper boundary of the forbidden band there is a bifurcation to a low-frequency solution, and vice versa. The bifurcation thresholds predicted by simple torque-balance theory (which takes into account the electromagnetic braking torque acting on the plasma, as well as the plasma viscous restoring torque, but neglects plasma inertia) are found to be essentially the same as those predicted by more complicated time-dependent mode braking theory (which takes inertia into account). Significant ferromagnetism causes otherwise electromagnetically thin conducting structures to become electromagnetically thick, and also markedly decreases the critical tearing mode amplitude above which the mode ``locks'' to the conducting structures (i.e., the high-frequency to low-frequency bifurcation is triggered). This research was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-FG02-04ER-54742.

  1. The negatively buoyant turbulent wall jet: performance of alternative options in RANS modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the application of different levels of turbulence closure and near-wall treatment to the computation of a 2D downward-directed wall jet that encounters a slow, upward-moving flow. The working fluid is water and the two streams may be at the same temperature or the wall-jet fluid may be hotter, leading to significant buoyant effects. The distance of penetration of the wall jet is found to be highly dependent on the turbulence model employed. It is established first that the new analytical wall function (AWF) developed by the authors [Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow 23 (2002) 148] leads to flow predictions in close agreement with a so-called 'low-Reynolds-number' treatment where computations extend all the way to the wall. However, for some test cases, both sets of calculations (employing an eddy-viscosity model) indicate too great a penetration of the wall-jet into the opposing stream. The use of the AWF in conjunction with a second-moment closure, particularly one which satisfies the two-component-limit, gives generally closer agreement

  2. wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irshad Kashif

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining indoor climatic conditions of buildings compatible with the occupant comfort by consuming minimum energy, especially in a tropical climate becomes a challenging problem for researchers. This paper aims to investigate this problem by evaluating the effect of different kind of Photovoltaic Trombe wall system (PV-TW on thermal comfort, energy consumption and CO2 emission. A detailed simulation model of a single room building integrated with PV-TW was modelled using TRNSYS software. Results show that 14-35% PMV index and 26-38% PPD index reduces as system shifted from SPV-TW to DGPV-TW as compared to normal buildings. Thermal comfort indexes (PMV and PPD lie in the recommended range of ASHARE for both DPV-TW and DGPV-TW except for the few months when RH%, solar radiation intensity and ambient temperature were high. Moreover PVTW system significantly reduces energy consumption and CO2 emission of the building and also 2-4.8 °C of temperature differences between indoor and outdoor climate of building was examined.

  3. Application of Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) Cell Culture for Pancreas Islet Cell Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutzky, Lynne P.

    1998-01-01

    Type I insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in both pediatric and adult populations, despite significant advances in medical management. While insulin therapy treats symptoms of acute diabetes, it fails to prevent chronic complications such as microvascular disease, blindness, neuropathy, and chronic renal failure. Strict control of blood glucose concentrations delays but does not prevent the onset and progression of secondary complications. Although, whole pancreas transplantation restores physiological blood glucose levels, a continuous process of allograft rejection causes vascular and exocrine-related complications. Recent advances in methods for isolation and purification of pancreatic islets make transplantation of islet allografts an attractive alternative to whole pancreas transplantation. However, immunosuppressive drugs are necessary to prevent rejection of islet allografts and many of these drugs are known to be toxic to the islets. Since auto-transplants of isolated islets following total pancreatectomy survive and function in vivo, it is apparent that a major obstacle to successful clinical islet transplantation is the immunogenicity of the islet allografts.

  4. Estimating adipose tissue in the chest wall using ultrasonic and alternate 40K and biometric measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The percentage of adipose (fat) tissue in the chest wall must be known to accurately measure Pu in the human lung. Correction factors of 100% or more in x-ray detection efficiency are common. Methods using simple 40K and biometric measurement techniques were investigated to determine the adipose content in the human chest wall. These methods predict adipose content to within 15% of the absolute ultrasonic value. These new methods are discussed and compared with conventional ultrasonic measurement techniques

  5. Architecture and data processing alternatives for the tse computer. Volume 4: Image rotation using tse operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, M. H.; Bodenheimer, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    The tse computer's capability of achieving image congruence between temporal and multiple images with misregistration due to rotational differences is reported. The coordinate transformations are obtained and a general algorithms is devised to perform image rotation using tse operations very efficiently. The details of this algorithm as well as its theoretical implications are presented. Step by step procedures of image registration are described in detail. Numerous examples are also employed to demonstrate the correctness and the effectiveness of the algorithms and conclusions and recommendations are made.

  6. Low-Cost Alternative External Rotation Shoulder Brace and Review of Treatment in Acute Shoulder Dislocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacy, Kyle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic dislocations of the shoulder commonly present to emergency departments (EDs. Immediate closed reduction of both anterior and posterior glenohumeral dislocations is recommended and is frequently performed in the ED. Recurrence of dislocation is common, as anteroinferior labral tears (Bankart lesions are present in many anterior shoulder dislocations.14,15,18,23 Immobilization of the shoulder following closed reduction is therefore recommended; previous studies support the use of immobilization with the shoulder in a position of external rotation, for both anterior and posterior shoulder dislocations.7-11,19 In this study, we present a technique for assembling a low-cost external rotation shoulder brace using materials found in most hospitals: cotton roll, stockinette, and shoulder immobilizers. This brace is particularly suited for the uninsured patient, who lacks the financial resources to pay for a pre-fabricated brace out of pocket. We also performed a cost analysis for our low-cost external rotation shoulder brace, and a cost comparison with pre-fabricated brand name braces. At our institution, the total materials cost for our brace was $19.15. The cost of a pre-fabricated shoulder brace at our institution is $150 with markup, which is reimbursed on average at $50.40 according to our hospital billing data. The low-cost external rotation shoulder brace is therefore a more affordable option for the uninsured patient presenting with acute shoulder dislocation. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(1:114–120.

  7. Interposition Porcine Acellular Dermal Matrix Xenograft Successful Alternative in Treatment for Massive Rotator Cuff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Julie; Zgonis, Miltiadis H.; Reay, Kathleen Dolores; Mayer, Stephanie W.; Boggess, Blake; Toth, Alison P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Despite advances in the surgical techniques of rotator cuff repair (RCR), the management of massive rotator cuff tears in shoulders without glenohumeral arthritis poses a difficult problem for surgeons. Failure of massive rotator cuff repairs range from 20-90% at one to two years postoperatively using arthrography, ultrasound, or magnetic resonance imaging. Additionally, there are inconsistent outcomes reported with debridement alone of massive rotator cuff tears as well as limitations seen with other current methods of operative intervention including arthroplasty and tendon transfers. The purpose of this prospective, comparative study was to determine if the repair of massive rotator cuff tears using an interposition porcine acellular dermal matrix xenograft improves subjective function, pain, range of motion, and strength at greater than two years follow-up. To our knowledge, this is the largest prospective series reporting outcomes of using porcine acellular dermal matrix xenograft as an interposition graft. Methods: Thirty-seven patients (37 shoulders) with an average age of 66 years (range 51-80 years) were prospectively followed for 33 months (range 23-48) following massive RCR using porcine acellular dermal matrix interposition xenograft. Subjective outcomes were measured using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) pain score (0-10, 0 = no pain), Modified American Shoulder and Elbow Score (M-ASES), and Short-Form12 (SF-12) scores. Preoperative and postoperative objective outcome measures included active range of motion and supraspinatus and infraspinatus manual muscle strength. Postoperative outcome measures included quantitative muscle strength using a dynamometer and static and dynamic ultrasonography to assess the integrity of the repair. Results: Average VAS pain score decreased from 4.5 to 1.1 (Pacellular dermal matrix xenografts, patients had significant improvement in pain, range of motion, strength and reported good subjective function based on

  8. Morphologic differentiation of colon carcinoma cell lines HT-29 and HT-29KM in rotating-wall vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, T. J.; Jessup, J. M.; Wolf, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    A new low shear stress microcarrier culture system has been developed at NASA's Johnson Space Center that permits three-dimensional tissue culture. Two established human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines, HT-29, an undifferentiated, and HT-29KM, a stable, moderately differentiated subline of HT-29, were grown in new tissue culture bioreactors called Rotating-Wall Vessels (RWVs). RWVs are used in conjunction with multicellular cocultivation to develop a unique in vitro tissue modeling system. Cells were cultivated on Cytodex-3 microcarrier beads, with and without mixed normal human colonic fibroblasts, which served as the mesenchymal layer. Culture of the tumor lines in the absence of fibroblasts produced spheroidlike growth and minimal differentiation. In contrast, when tumor lines were co-cultivated with normal colonic fibroblasts, initial growth was confined to the fibroblast population until the microcarriers were covered. The tumor cells then commenced proliferation at an accelerated rate, organizing themselves into three-dimensional tissue masses that achieved 1.0- to 1.5-cm diameters. The masses displayed glandular structures, apical and internal glandular microvilli, tight intercellular junctions, desmosomes, cellular polarity, sinusoid development, internalized mucin, and structural organization akin to normal colon crypt development. Differentiated samples were subjected to transmission and scanning electron microscopy and histologic analysis, revealing embryoniclike mesenchymal cells lining the areas around the growth matrices. Necrosis was minimal throughout the tissue masses. These data suggest that the RWV affords a new model for investigation and isolation of growth, regulatory, and structural processes within neoplastic and normal tissue.

  9. Erythroid cell growth and differentiation in vitro in the simulated microgravity environment of the NASA rotating wall vessel bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytkowski, A. J.; Davis, K. L.

    2001-01-01

    Prolonged exposure of humans and experimental animals to the altered gravitational conditions of space flight has adverse effects on the lymphoid and erythroid hematopoietic systems. Although some information is available regarding the cellular and molecular changes in lymphocytes exposed to microgravity, little is known about the erythroid cellular changes that may underlie the reduction in erythropoiesis and resultant anemia. We now report a reduction in erythroid growth and a profound inhibition of erythropoietin (Epo)-induced differentiation in a ground-based simulated microgravity model system. Rauscher murine erythroleukemia cells were grown either in tissue culture vessels at 1 x g or in the simulated microgravity environment of the NASA-designed rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactor. Logarithmic growth was observed under both conditions; however, the doubling time in simulated microgravity was only one-half of that seen at 1 x g. No difference in apoptosis was detected. Induction with Epo at the initiation of the culture resulted in differentiation of approximately 25% of the cells at 1 x g, consistent with our previous observations. In contrast, induction with Epo at the initiation of simulated microgravity resulted in only one-half of this degree of differentiation. Significantly, the growth of cells in simulated microgravity for 24 h prior to Epo induction inhibited the differentiation almost completely. The results suggest that the NASA RWV bioreactor may serve as a suitable ground-based microgravity simulator to model the cellular and molecular changes in erythroid cells observed in true microgravity.

  10. ESTIMATION OF ENERGY COSTS OF EXTERNAL WALL SYSTEM ALTERNATIVES FOR DIFFERENT FUEL TYPES

    OpenAIRE

    Gülten, Ayça Aytaç

    2007-01-01

    In Turkey, most of the produced energy is used for heating. This situation emphasizes the need for insulation on buildings in Turkey because of the high cost of fuel. On the other hand it must be considered to select the appropriate materials for different building envelopes. In this study, payback periods were calculated on different 4 wall types, for the same insulation thickness and for the optimum insulation thickness of walls and for five different fuels. As a result, it was seen that wh...

  11. An Alternative HSS Preconditioner for the Unsteady Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations in Rotation Form

    OpenAIRE

    Jia Liu

    2012-01-01

    We study the preconditioned iterative method for the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations. The rotation form of the Oseen system is considered. We apply an efficient preconditioner which is derived from the Hermitian/Skew-Hermitian preconditioner to the Krylov subspace-iterative method. Numerical experiments show the robustness of the preconditioned iterative methods with respect to the mesh size, Reynolds numbers, time step, and algorithm parameters. The preconditioner is efficient and easy to a...

  12. Effectiveness of shock wave therapy as an alternative to the rotator cuff injury treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Joaquín Del Gordo-D´Amato

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Rotator cuff injuries are reason for consultation frequent in elderly patients. Most of the time there are no background traumatic acute generating progressive limitations in activities of daily living (ADLS. The objective of this study is to show results in tendonitis of the rotator cuff, in patients treated with extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT. It is a prospective descriptive observational study which presents clinical and functional outcomes in patients with described lesion, treated with ESWT with poor response to conventional treatments and clinical pictures of longstanding through implementing visual analog scale (VAS of pain and evaluation of range of motion. The greater presence of lesion is present in women 63.6%. Mostly affected shoulder was right in a 63.6%. Found significant changes in VAS pre and post treatment with averages of 7.9 and 0.5 respectively and different statistical p < 0.001. We were conclude that the ESWT is an effective method in the treatment of the tendonitis of the rotator cuff with relief from pain and return to functional levels.

  13. On the Rotating Effects and the Landau-Aharonov-Casher System Subject to a Hard-Wall Confining Potential in the Cosmic String Spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakke, K.

    2015-07-01

    The behaviour of the Landau-Aharonov-Casher system is discussed by showing a case where the external electric field cannot yield the Landau-Aharonov-Casher quantization under the influence of rotating effects in the cosmic string spacetime, but it can yield bound states solutions to the Schrödinger-Pauli equation analogous to having the Landau-Aharonov-Casher system confined to a hard-wall confining potential under the influence of rotating effects and the topology of the cosmic string spacetime (by assuming ω ρ≪1 and neglecting the effects of a gravitational self-force on the particle).

  14. Experimental Q-dependence of the rotational J = 0-to-1 transition of molecular hydrogen adsorbed in single-wall carbon nanotube bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inelastic neutron scattering spectra of para-Hydrogen adsorbed in single-wall carbon nanotubes have been measured at 20 K, at different surface loadings, and at a set of kinematic trajectories. These show the presence of at least two different adsorption sites in the nanotube bundle. Only a weak hindrance to rotation is observed on the more adsorptive site which is preferentially occupied at low H2 concentrations while a completely free rotation was found at the second and weaker site where the determined centre-of-mass dynamics suggests H2-H2 distances similar to those on the graphite surface and in the bulk solid

  15. Estimating adipose tissue in the chest wall using ultrasonic and alternate 40K and biometric measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The percentage of adipose (fat) tissue in the chest wall must be known to accurately measure Pu in the human lung. Correction factors of 100% or more in X-ray detection efficiency are common in a normal population of individuals of differing body composition and have been determined in the past by means of elaborate and costly ultrasonic measurements of the subject's chest. Methods using simple 40K and biometric measurement techniques have been investigated to determine the adipose content in the human chest wall. These methods compare favorably with ultrasonic measurements and allow laboratories not possessing ultrasonic equipment to make appropriate corrections for x-ray detection efficiency. These methods predict adipose content to within 15% of the absolute ultrasonic value. (author)

  16. Experimental and Numerical Study on the Dynamic Behavior of a Spinning Flexible Disk Close to a Rotating Rigid Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gad, Abdelrasoul M. M.; Rhim, Yoon Chul

    2009-03-01

    In the present work, the behavior of a flexible disk rotating close to a fixed, a co-rotating, and a counter rotating flat-stabilizers in open air is investigated both experimentally and numerically. The Navier-Stokes equations along with the continuity equation representing the flow in the air-film are discretized using the finite volume method and solved numerically with the simple algorithm. An experimental test-rig is designed to investigate the effects of the rotation speed, the initial gap height and the inlet-hole size on the flexible disk displacement and its vibration amplitude. Finally, a comparison between the experimental and the numerical results is made.

  17. An integral perturbation model of flow and momentum transport in rotating microchannels with smooth or microstructured wall surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanin, Vince D.; Carey, Van P.

    2011-08-01

    This paper summarizes the development of an integral perturbation solution of the equations governing flow momentum transport and energy conversion in microchannels between disks of multiple-disk drag turbines such as Tesla turbines. Analysis of this type of flow problem is a key element in optimal design of Tesla drag-type turbines for geothermal or solar alternative energy technologies. In multiple-disk turbines, high speed flow enters tangentially at the outer radius of cylindrical microchannels formed by closely spaced parallel disks, spiraling through the channel to an exhaust at a small radius, or at the center of the disk. Previous investigations have generally developed models based on simplifying idealizations of the flow in these circumstances. Here, beginning with the momentum and continuity equations for incompressible and steady flow in cylindrical coordinates, an integral solution scheme is developed that leads to a dimensionless perturbation series solution that retains the full complement of momentum and viscous effects to consistent levels of approximation in the series solution. This more rigorous approach indicates all dimensionless parameters that affect flow and transport and allows a direct assessment of the relative importance of viscous, pressure, and momentum effects in different directions in the flow. The resulting lowest-order equations are solved explicitly and higher order terms in the series solutions are determined numerically. Enhancement of rotor drag in this type of turbine enhances energy conversion efficiency. We also developed a modified version of the integral perturbation analysis that incorporates the effects of enhanced drag due to surface microstructuring. Results of the model analysis for smooth disk walls are shown to agree well with experimental performance data for a prototype Tesla turbine and predictions of performance models developed in earlier investigations. Model predictions indicate that enhancement of disk

  18. Distinctive translational and self-rotational motion of lymphoma cells in an optically induced non-rotational alternating current electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wenfeng; Zhang, Ke; Yang, Xieliu; Liu, Lianqing; Yu, Haibo; Zhang, Weijing

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the translational motion and self-rotational behaviors of the Raji cells, a type of B-cell lymphoma cell, in an optically induced, non-rotational, electric field have been characterized by utilizing a digitally programmable and optically activated microfluidics chip with the assistance of an externally applied AC bias potential. The crossover frequency spectrum of the Raji cells was studied by observing the different linear translation responses of these cells to the positive and negative optically induced dielectrophoresis force generated by a projected light pattern. This digitally projected spot served as the virtual electrode to generate an axisymmetric and non-uniform electric field. Then, the membrane capacitance of the Raji cells could be directly measured. Furthermore, Raji cells under this condition also exhibited a self-rotation behavior. The repeatable and controlled self-rotation speeds of the Raji cells to the externally applied frequency and voltage were systematically investigated and characterized via computer-vision algorithms. The self-rotational speed of the Raji cells reached a maximum value at 60 kHz and demonstrated a quadratic relationship with respect to the applied voltage. Furthermore, optically projected patterns of four orthogonal electrodes were also employed as the virtual electrodes to manipulate the Raji cells. These results demonstrated that Raji cells located at the center of the four electrode pattern could not be self-rotated. Instead any Raji cells that deviated from this center area would also self-rotate. Most importantly, the Raji cells did not exhibit the self-rotational behavior after translating and rotating with respect to the center of any two adjacent electrodes. The spatial distributions of the electric field generated by the optically projected spot and the pattern of four electrodes were also modeled using a finite element numerical simulation. These simulations validated that the electric field

  19. Analytical solutions for wall slip effects on magnetohydrodynamic oscillatory rotating plate and channel flows in porous media using a fractional Burgers viscoelastic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, Khadija; Anwar Bég, O.; Sohail, Ayesha; Idreesa, Shafaq

    2016-05-01

    The theoretical analysis of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) incompressible flows of a Burgers fluid through a porous medium in a rotating frame of reference is presented. The constitutive model of a Burgers fluid is used based on a fractional calculus formulation. Hydrodynamic slip at the wall (plate) is incorporated and the fractional generalized Darcy model deployed to simulate porous medium drag force effects. Three different cases are considered: namely, the flow induced by a general periodic oscillation at a rigid plate, the periodic flow in a parallel plate channel and, finally, the Poiseuille flow. In all cases the plate(s) boundary(ies) are electrically non-conducting and a small magnetic Reynolds number is assumed, negating magnetic induction effects. The well-posed boundary value problems associated with each case are solved via Fourier transforms. Comparisons are made between the results derived with and without slip conditions. Four special cases are retrieved from the general fractional Burgers model, viz. Newtonian fluid, general Maxwell viscoelastic fluid, generalized Oldroyd-B fluid and the conventional Burgers viscoelastic model. Extensive interpretation of graphical plots is included. We study explicitly the influence of the wall slip on primary and secondary velocity evolution. The model is relevant to MHD rotating energy generators employing rheological working fluids.

  20. Low-cost Negative-pressure Wound Therapy Using Wall Vacuum: A 15 Dollars by Day Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Ignacio; Eburdery, Harold; Grolleau, Jean Louis; Chavoin, Jean Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Background: Negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) has been marketed for about 20 years and remains popular. The only real obstacle to NPWT is the cost; therefore, we designed an inexpensive NPWT connected to a wall vacuum. Here, we report the feasibility and safety of this product, which we call PROVACUUM (Z-Biotech, Saint-Avertin, France). Methods: As a first step, the constraints imposed on the manufacturer were equipment quality similar to that of commercial NPWT systems, with an average treatment cost of $15/d. Then, we conducted a prospective study of patients with indications for NPWT from September 2013 to January 2015. Data collected included ease of use, quality of materials, and occurrence of complications during treatment. Results: We enrolled 23 patients with a mean age of 50.8 years. The average duration of treatment was 8.5 days (range, 3–21 days). The dressings were changed every 3.3 days (range, 2–4 days). Two hematomas occurred that required surgical revision and the transfusion of 2 units after large debridement of pressure ulcer. No other adverse events or infections occurred. The surgeons found that our device was similar to commercial NPWT devices. Conclusions: We developed an inexpensive NPWT that costs an average of $15/d. Our process is not intended to replace portable or stand-alone devices with batteries, but rather offers a less expensive alternative for hospitalized patients and makes NPWT accessible to the most precarious countries and institutions. PMID:26180719

  1. Static and dynamic finite rotation FE-analysis of thin-walled structures with piezoelectric sensor and actuator patches or layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with static and dynamic analysis of thin-walled structures with integrated piezoelectric layers as sensors and actuators in the geometrically nonlinear range of deformations. A variational formulation is derived by using the Reissner–Mindlin first-order shear deformation (FOSD) hypothesis and full geometrically nonlinear strain-displacement relations accounting for finite rotations. The finite rotations are treated by Rodriguez parameterization. In order to enhance the accuracy of a four-node shell element, a combination of an assumed natural strain (ANS) method for the shear strains, an enhanced assumed strain (EAS) method for the membrane strains and an enhanced assumed gradient (EAG) method for the electric field are employed. The present shell element has five mechanical degrees of freedom (DOFs) and three electrical DOFs per node. The Newton–Raphson method for static analysis and the Newmark method for dynamic analysis are used to perform linear and nonlinear simulations. In comparison to the results obtained by simplified nonlinear models reported in the existing literature, the finite-element simulations performed in this paper show the importance of the present model, precisely for structures undergoing finite deformations and rotations. (paper)

  2. Formation of three-dimensional cell/polymer constructs for bone tissue engineering in a spinner flask and a rotating wall vessel bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikavitsas, Vassilios I.; Bancroft, Gregory N.; Mikos, Antonios G.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the cell culture conditions of three-dimensional polymer scaffolds seeded with rat marrow stromal cells (MSCs) cultured in different bioreactors concerning the ability of these cells to proliferate, differentiate towards the osteoblastic lineage, and generate mineralized extracellular matrix. MSCs harvested from male Sprague-Dawley rats were culture expanded, seeded on three-dimensional porous 75:25 poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) biodegradable scaffolds, and cultured for 21 days under static conditions or in two model bioreactors (a spinner flask and a rotating wall vessel) that enhance mixing of the media and provide better nutrient transport to the seeded cells. The spinner flask culture demonstrated a 60% enhanced proliferation at the end of the first week when compared to static culture. On day 14, all cell/polymer constructs exhibited their maximum alkaline phosphatase activity (AP). Cell/polymer constructs cultured in the spinner flask had 2.4 times higher AP activity than constructs cultured under static conditions on day 14. The total osteocalcin (OC) secretion in the spinner flask culture was 3.5 times higher than the static culture, with a peak OC secretion occurring on day 18. No considerable AP activity and OC secretion were detected in the rotating wall vessel culture throughout the 21-day culture period. The spinner flask culture had the highest calcium content at day 14. On day 21, the calcium deposition in the spinner flask culture was 6.6 times higher than the static cultured constructs and over 30 times higher than the rotating wall vessel culture. Histological sections showed concentration of cells and mineralization at the exterior of the foams at day 21. This phenomenon may arise from the potential existence of nutrient concentration gradients at the interior of the scaffolds. The better mixing provided in the spinner flask, external to the outer surface of the scaffolds, may explain the

  3. Potential flow through a cascade of alternately displaced circular bodies: The rod-wall wind tunnel boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everhart, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    The classic slotted-wall boundary-condition coefficient for rod-wall wind tunnels is derived by approximating the potential flow solution through a cascade of two staggered rows of rods. A comparison with the corrected Chen and Mears solution for flow through an unstaggered cascade is made.

  4. Formation and differentiation of three-dimensional rat marrow stromal cell culture on microcarriers in a rotating-wall vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Q.; Ducheyne, P.; Gao, H.; Ayyaswamy, P.

    1998-01-01

    Using a high aspect ratio vessel (HARV), this study investigated the formation of 3-D rat marrow stromal cell culture on microcarriers and the expression of bone-related biochemical markers under conditions of simulated microgravity. In addition, it calculated the shear stresses imparted on the surface of microcarriers of different densities by the medium fluid in an HARV. Secondary rat marrow stromal cells were cultured on two types of microcarriers, Cytodex-3 beads and modified bioactive glass particles. Examination of cellular morphology by scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of three-dimensional multicellular aggregates consisting of multiple cell-covered Cytodex-3 microcarriers bridged together. Mineralization was observed in the aggregates. Spherical cell-bead aggregates were observed in an HARV, while cell-bead assemblies were mostly loosely packed in a chain-like or branched structure in a cell bag. The expressions of alkaline phosphatase activity, collagen type I, and osteopontin were shown via the use of histochemical staining, immunolabeling, and confocal scanning electron microscopy. Using a numerical approach, it was found that at a given rotational speed and for a given culture medium, a larger density difference between the microcarrier and the culture medium (e.g., a modified bioactive glass particle) imparted a higher maximum shear stress on the microcarrier.

  5. Alternate Science Investigations for the Kepler Spacecraft: Precision Rotation Periods and Shapes of Near-Earth Asteroids

    CERN Document Server

    Elvis, Martin; Williams, Gareth V

    2013-01-01

    We propose to use a modest fraction of the re-purposed Kepler mission time and apertures to greatly increase the quantity and quality of our knowledge of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) rotation and shape. NEAs are important for understanding the origins of the Solar System, for selecting targets for robotic and human visits, and for hazardous object deflection. While NEAs are being discovered at a rate of 1000/year, only a ~75/year have well-measured rotation periods and shapes. Not only can the Kepler mission greatly increase the numbers of well-determined NEA rotation periods (to >1000 in 5 years), but may do so with order-of-magnitude greater precision than is routinely achieved from the ground. This will enable 3-D tomographic maps to be produced for the ~250 of the brighter NEAs. A multi-year science program would enable improved data quality checks, larger samples and additional types of science. All these numbers are preliminary. We list a number of issues to be resolved before this program can be properl...

  6. Low-cost Negative-pressure Wound Therapy Using Wall Vacuum: A 15 Dollars by Day Alternative

    OpenAIRE

    Chaput, Benoit; Garrido, Ignacio; Eburdery, Harold; Grolleau, Jean Louis; Chavoin, Jean Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Background: Negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) has been marketed for about 20 years and remains popular. The only real obstacle to NPWT is the cost; therefore, we designed an inexpensive NPWT connected to a wall vacuum. Here, we report the feasibility and safety of this product, which we call PROVACUUM (Z-Biotech, Saint-Avertin, France). Methods: As a first step, the constraints imposed on the manufacturer were equipment quality similar to that of commercial NPWT systems, with an average ...

  7. Review of Alternative Management Options of Vegetable Crop Residues to Reduce Nitrate Leaching in Intensive Vegetable Rotations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Agneessens

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable crop residues take a particular position relative to arable crops due to often large amounts of biomass with a N content up to 200 kg N ha−1 left behind on the field. An important amount of vegetable crops are harvested during late autumn and despite decreasing soil temperatures during autumn, high rates of N mineralization and nitrification still occur. Vegetable crop residues may lead to considerable N losses through leaching during winter and pose a threat to meeting water quality objectives. However, at the same time vegetable crop residues are a vital link in closing the nutrient and organic matter cycle of soils. Appropriate and sustainable management is needed to harness the full potential of vegetable crop residues. Two fundamentally different crop residue management strategies to reduce N losses during winter in intensive vegetable rotations are reviewed, namely (i on-field management options and modifications to crop rotations and (ii removal of crop residues, followed by a useful and profitable application.

  8. Simulated Microgravity Regulates Gene Transcript Profiles of 2T3 Preosteoblasts: Comparison of the Random Positioning Machine and the Rotating Wall Vessel Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mamta J.; Liu, Wenbin; Sykes, Michelle C.; Ward, Nancy E.; Risin, Semyon A.; Risin, Diana; Hanjoong, Jo

    2007-01-01

    Microgravity of spaceflight induces bone loss due in part to decreased bone formation by osteoblasts. We have previously examined the microgravity-induced changes in gene expression profiles in 2T3 preosteoblasts using the Random Positioning Machine (RPM) to simulate microgravity conditions. Here, we hypothesized that exposure of preosteoblasts to an independent microgravity simulator, the Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV), induces similar changes in differentiation and gene transcript profiles, resulting in a more confined list of gravi-sensitive genes that may play a role in bone formation. In comparison to static 1g controls, exposure of 2T3 cells to RWV for 3 days inhibited alkaline phosphatase activity, a marker of differentiation, and downregulated 61 genes and upregulated 45 genes by more than two-fold as shown by microarray analysis. The microarray results were confirmed with real time PCR for downregulated genes osteomodulin, bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4), runx2, and parathyroid hormone receptor 1. Western blot analysis validated the expression of three downregulated genes, BMP4, peroxiredoxin IV, and osteoglycin, and one upregulated gene peroxiredoxin I. Comparison of the microarrays from the RPM and the RWV studies identified 14 gravi-sensitive genes that changed in the same direction in both systems. Further comparison of our results to a published database showing gene transcript profiles of mechanically loaded mouse tibiae revealed 16 genes upregulated by the loading that were shown to be downregulated by RWV and RPM. These mechanosensitive genes identified by the comparative studies may provide novel insights into understanding the mechanisms regulating bone formation and potential targets of countermeasure against decreased bone formation both in astronauts and in general patients with musculoskeletal disorders.

  9. Blood Vessel Matrix Seeded with Cells: A Better Alternative for Abdominal Wall Reconstruction—A Long-Term Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Nowacki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study was to present abdominal wall reconstruction using a porcine vascular graft seeded with MSC (mesenchymal stem cells on rat model. Material and Methods. Abdominal wall defect was prepared in 21 Wistar rats. Acellular porcine-vascular grafts taken from aorta and prepared with Triton X were used. 14 aortic grafts were implanted in place, of which 7 grafts were seeded with rat MSC cells (Group I, and 7 were acellular grafts (Group II. As a control, 7 standard polypropylene meshes were used for defect augmentation (Group III. The assessment method was performed by HE and CD31 staining after 6 months. The mechanical properties have been investigated by Zwick&Roell Z0.5. Results. The strongest angiogenesis and lowest inflammatory response were observed in Group I. Average capillaries density was 2.75, 0.75, and 1.53 and inflammatory effect was 0.29, 1.39, and 2.72 for Groups I, II, and III, respectively. The means of mechanical properties were 12.74±1.48, 7.27±1.56, and 14.4±3.7 N/cm in Groups I and II and control, respectively. Conclusions. Cell-seeded grafts have better mechanical properties than acellular grafts but worse than polypropylene mesh. Cells improved mechanical and physiological properties of decellularized natural scaffolds.

  10. Alternate blade stall and rotating stall in vaned diffuser. 1st Report. Effects of impeller/diffuser clearance; Vaned diffuser ni hasseisuru sogo yoku shissoku to senkai shissoku. 1. Haneguruma to diffuser no kankaku no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sano, T.; Yoshida, Y.; Tsujimoto, Y. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Nakamura, Y. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-10-25

    Flow instability in a vaned diffuser with even number of blades was examined experimentally and analytically. In experiments, alternate blade stall, asymmetric stall, and two types of rotating stall (backward/forward) were observed depending on the impeller/diffuser clearance. For narrow clearance with strong impeller/diffuser interaction, the alternate blade stall and backward rotating stall mainly occurred. As increasing the clearance, the forward rotating stall also occurred, and the onset shifted toward the high flow rate corresponding to the pressure performance in the vaned diffuser. Simple 2 D stability analysis showed that the clearance between the impeller and diffuser affects the speed and direction of stall propagation, and the gradient of the pressure performance in the vaned diffuser affects the onset of the rotating stall. (author)

  11. Broadband excitation and indirect detection of nitrogen-14 in rotating solids using Delays Alternating with Nutation (DANTE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitzthum, Veronika; Caporini, Marc A.; Ulzega, Simone; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey

    2011-09-01

    A train of short rotor-synchronized pulses in the manner of Delays Alternating with Nutations for Tailored Excitation (DANTE) applied to nitrogen-14 nuclei ( I = 1) in samples spinning at the magic angle at high frequencies (typically νrot = 62.5 kHz so that τrot = 16 μs) allows one to achieve uniform excitation of a great number of spinning sidebands that arise from large first-order quadrupole interactions, as occur for aromatic nitrogen-14 nuclei in histidine. With routine rf amplitudes ω1( 14N)/(2 π) = 60 kHz and very short pulses of a typical duration 0.5 DANTE sequences using 2, 4, or 8 pulses per rotor period one can achieve efficient broadband excitation in fewer rotor periods, typically 2-4 τrot. These principles can be combined with the indirect detection of 14N nuclei via spy nuclei with S = ½ such as 1H or 13C in the manner of Dipolar Heteronuclear Multiple-Quantum Correlation (D-HMQC).

  12. Solidification Coal Fly Ash on A Textile Factory as Allelochemi to Alternative Portland Cement Wall House Anti-Moss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabang Setyono

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This research for the application of coal waste as fly ash for mixture cement the stonewall anti moss which hypothesis upon which Allelochemi. Using the coal waste  represent one of program of environment conservation which is in the form of 3R ( Reuse, Recycle And Reduce, so this research can be made pilot project in development and substance invention of anti moss and make friends with the environment. The research target is identifying moss type in region Surakarta, knowing mixture concentration having technical eligibility of construction and TCLP test ( Toxicity Characteristic Leachate Procedure and justification of  LC50 and LD50. Research was carried out in laboratory by in phases following: casting of Mixture cement and fly ash: test of mechanic strength, test of resilience to moss growth, test of ability adhesive to wall paint, making solid Matrix. Continued by a test Depress to use the Technotest Modena Italy then Test the assimilated: Chemical Ekstraksi in step by step. Fraction 1 until Faction 5, TCLP (Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure Standard, TCLP ( Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure Progressive and TCLP (Toxycity Characteristic Leaching Procedure Modification. The Allelochemi form be observed by means of  Microscopic observation. The results revealed that moss type found in region of Surakarta:  Dicranella heteromalla, Funaria hygrometrica  ( Hedwig., Rhodobryum giganteum ( Schwaegr. Par., Pogonatum contortum ( Brid.. Mixture prosentase of  fly ash which still fulfill the technical standard of concrete building construction is 20 - 40 %. Value LC 50 to animal test the goldfish 8950 ppm and  the LD 50 value to animal test the mencit 30,35 mg / kg BB so that near no toxic. The resistance process  of  moss growing at coat cement also got concentration 20 - 40 % through allelochemi mechanism. Ever greater of  fly ash prosentase at growth media the moss hence assess the heavy metal accumulation of  Pb, Cr

  13. Rotating shielded crane system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commander, John C.

    1988-01-01

    A rotating, radiation shielded crane system for use in a high radiation test cell, comprises a radiation shielding wall, a cylindrical ceiling made of radiation shielding material and a rotatable crane disposed above the ceiling. The ceiling rests on an annular ledge intergrally attached to the inner surface of the shielding wall. Removable plugs in the ceiling provide access for the crane from the top of the ceiling into the test cell. A seal is provided at the interface between the inner surface of the shielding wall and the ceiling.

  14. Arthropathic group A streptococcal cell walls require specific antibody for activation of human complement by both the classical and alternative pathways.

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenberg, R A; Schwab, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    The induction of acute arthritis in rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of group A streptococcal cell wall is associated with the activation of complement. We have therefore investigated the interaction of arthropathic peptidoglycan-polysaccharide complex of streptococcal cell walls and human complement. The incubation of cell wall in normal human serum results in the formation of complexes of cell wall and the C3 and C4 components of complement. Using agammaglobulinemic serum, we have...

  15. Process and device for the determination of the shape of the internal wall of a tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A measuring device placed in the tube gives the distance between the axis and the internal wall. The device has an alternative motion along the axis with a constant amplitude and at the same time has a slow rotation motion. Measurement ends when a complete revolution is achieved. Application is made for weld inspection of a steam generator

  16. Rotating shielded crane system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rotating, radiation-shielded crane system is described comprising: a generally cylindrical, radiation-shielding wall, the top of the wall forming a first annular ledge; a second annular ledge integrally attached to the inner surface of the shielding wall; a generally cylindrical ceiling made of radiation shielding material, the ceiling including a flange portion on the top thereof and a body portion, the flange portion associated with the second annular ledge such that the ceiling is supported thereby, the volume inside the wall and the ceiling forming a test cell; a rotatable crane disposed above the ceiling such that the crane is outside of the test cell; removable access means in the ceiling for allowing the crane to access the inside of the test cell from the top of the ceiling; means for sealing the interface between the inner surface of the shielding wall and the ceiling

  17. Modeling impacts of alternative practices on net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity from rice-wheat annual rotation in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyang Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evaluating the net exchange of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions in conjunction with soil carbon sequestration may give a comprehensive insight on the role of agricultural production in global warming. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Measured data of methane (CH(4 and nitrous oxide (N(2O were utilized to test the applicability of the Denitrification and Decomposition (DNDC model to a winter wheat - single rice rotation system in southern China. Six alternative scenarios were simulated against the baseline scenario to evaluate their long-term (45-year impacts on net global warming potential (GWP and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI. PRINCIPAL RESULTS: The simulated cumulative CH(4 emissions fell within the statistical deviation ranges of the field data, with the exception of N(2O emissions during rice-growing season and both gases from the control treatment. Sensitivity tests showed that both CH(4 and N(2O emissions were significantly affected by changes in both environmental factors and management practices. Compared with the baseline scenario, the long-term simulation had the following results: (1 high straw return and manure amendment scenarios greatly increased CH(4 emissions, while other scenarios had similar CH(4 emissions, (2 high inorganic N fertilizer increased N(2O emissions while manure amendment and reduced inorganic N fertilizer scenarios decreased N(2O emissions, (3 the mean annual soil organic carbon sequestration rates (SOCSR under manure amendment, high straw return, and no-tillage scenarios averaged 0.20 t C ha(-1 yr(-1, being greater than other scenarios, and (4 the reduced inorganic N fertilizer scenario produced the least N loss from the system, while all the scenarios produced comparable grain yields. CONCLUSIONS: In terms of net GWP and GHGI for the comprehensive assessment of climate change and crop production, reduced inorganic N fertilizer scenario followed by no-tillage scenario would be advocated for this specified

  18. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes as alternative reversed-dispersive solid phase extraction materials in pesticide multi-residue analysis with QuEChERS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Pengyue; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Li; Zhang, Fengzu; Kang, Shu; Pan, Canping

    2012-02-17

    A multi-residue method based on modified QuEChERS sample preparation with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as reversed-dispersive solid phase extraction (r-DSPE) material and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination by selected ion monitoring (GC/MS-SIM) mode was validated on 30 representative pesticides residues in vegetables and fruits. The acetonitrile-based QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) sample preparation technique was used to obtain the extracts, and the further cleanup was carried out by applying r-DSPE. It was found that the amount of MWCNTs influenced the cleanup performance and the recoveries. The optimal amount of 10mg MWCNTs was suitable for cleaning up all selected matrices, as a suitable alternative r-DSPE material to primary secondary amine (PSA). This method was validated on cabbage, spinach, grape and orange spiked at concentration levels of 0.02 and 0.2 mg/kg. The recoveries of 30 pesticides were in the range of 71-110%, with relative standard deviations (RSDs, n=5) lower than 15%. Matrix effects were observed by comparing the slope of matrix-matched standard calibration with that of solvent. Good linearity was achieved at the concentration levels of 0.02-0.5 mg/L. The limits of quantification (LOQs) and the limits of detection (LODs) for 30 pesticides ranged from 0.003 to 0.05 mg/kg and 0.001 to 0.02 mg/kg at the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 10 and 3, respectively. The method was successfully applied to analysis real samples in Beijing. In conclusion, the modified QuEChERS method with MWCNTs cleanup step showed reliable method validation performances and good cleanup effects in this study. PMID:22227363

  19. Timber frame walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Brandt, Erik

    2010-01-01

    A ventilated cavity is usually considered good practice for removing moisture behind the cladding of timber framed walls. Timber frame walls with no cavity are a logical alternative as they are slimmer and less expensive to produce and besides the risk of a two-sided fire behind the cladding is...

  20. Cylindrical rotating triboelectric nanogenerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Peng; Zhu, Guang; Liu, Ying; Chen, Jun; Jing, Qingshen; Yang, Weiqing; Ma, Jusheng; Zhang, Gong; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2013-07-23

    We demonstrate a cylindrical rotating triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) based on sliding electrification for harvesting mechanical energy from rotational motion. The rotating TENG is based on a core-shell structure that is made of distinctly different triboelectric materials with alternative strip structures on the surface. The charge transfer is strengthened with the formation of polymer nanoparticles on surfaces. During coaxial rotation, a contact-induced electrification and the relative sliding between the contact surfaces of the core and the shell result in an "in-plane" lateral polarization, which drives the flow of electrons in the external load. A power density of 36.9 W/m(2) (short-circuit current of 90 μA and open-circuit voltage of 410 V) has been achieved by a rotating TENG with 8 strip units at a linear rotational velocity of 1.33 m/s (a rotation rate of 1000 r/min). The output can be further enhanced by integrating more strip units and/or applying larger linear rotational velocity. This rotating TENG can be used as a direct power source to drive small electronics, such as LED bulbs. This study proves the possibility to harvest mechanical energy by TENGs from rotational motion, demonstrating its potential for harvesting the flow energy of air or water for applications such as self-powered environmental sensors and wildlife tracking devices. PMID:23799926

  1. On Job Rotation

    OpenAIRE

    Metin M. Cosgel; Thomas J. Miceli

    1998-01-01

    A fundamental principle of economics with which Adam Smith begins The Wealth of Nations is the division of labor. Some firms, however, have been pursuing a practice called job rotation, which assigns each worker not to a single and specific task but to a set of several tasks among which he or she rotates with some frequency. We examine the practice of job rotation as a serious alternative to specialization, with three objectives. The first is to consider current and historical examples of job...

  2. Efeito do pastejo rotacionado e alternado com bovinos adultos no controle da verminose em ovelhas Effect of rotational and alternate grazing with adult cattle on the control of nematode parasites in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.H. Fernandes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se os efeitos do pastejo alternado de ovinos e bovinos e do pastejo rotacionado sobre o controle da verminose em ovelhas. Utilizou-se uma área experimental composta por três módulos de 1,67ha cada. Os módulos foram subdivididos em oito piquetes. Vinte ovelhas foram colocadas no módulo 1 e quatro bovinos adultos no módulo 2. Os animais permaneceram em cada piquete do módulo por cinco dias, totalizando 40 dias de permanência em cada módulo. Ao final desse período, as ovelhas foram transferidas para o módulo onde estavam os bovinos e estes para o módulo onde estavam os ovinos, mantendo esse esquema até o final do experimento. Um grupo-controle de 20 ovelhas foi mantido, também em sistema rotacionado, em um terceiro módulo, sem compartilhar a pastagem. As ovelhas submetidas ao manejo com bovinos apresentaram o menor grau de infecção por nematódeos gastrintestinais e os maiores valores de volume globular. O pastejo rotacionado de ovinos, sem a utilização de bovinos, não foi eficiente no controle da verminose das ovelhas. A utilização do pastejo rotacionado e alternado de ovinos e bovinos adultos exerceu efeito benéfico significativo no controle da verminose ovina.The effects of rotational and alternate grazing involving cattle and sheep on the control of nematode parasites in sheep were evaluated. Three areas with 1.67ha were subdivided into eight paddocks each. Twenty ewes and four cattle were allotted to areas 1 and 2, respectively. They grazed during five days in each of eight paddocks of each area. The sheep and cattle rotated in each area for 40 days. At the end of this period, ewes were transferred to the area where cattle were previously kept and these animals were transferred to the area where sheep had previously grazed. This arrangement was kept until the end of the experiment. A control group with 20 ewes rotated in the third area, also with eight paddocks. Ewes that alternately grazed with cattle showed

  3. Cell Wall

    OpenAIRE

    Jamet, Elisabeth; Canut, Hervé; Boudart, Georges; Albenne, Cécile; Pont-Lezica, Rafael F

    2008-01-01

    This chapter covers our present knowledge of cell wall proteomics highlighting the distinctive features of cell walls and cell wall proteins in relation to problems encountered for protein extraction, separation and identification. It provides clues to design strategies for efficient cell wall proteomic studies. It gives an overview of the kinds of proteins that have yet been identified: the expected proteins vs the identified proteins. Finally, the new vision of the cell wall proteome, and t...

  4. Rotational moulding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, R J; Kearns, M P

    2003-10-01

    Rotational moulding promises designers attractive economics and a low-pressure process. The benefits of rotational moulding are compared here with other manufacturing methods such as injection and blow moulding. PMID:14603714

  5. The rotator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Eva B. Vedel; Gundersen, Hans Jørgen Gottlieb

    1993-01-01

    The mean particle volume can be stereologically estimated using the nucleator principle. In the present paper, we discuss another principle for estimating mean particle volume, namely the rotator. The vertical rotator has already been previously described and is supplemented in the present paper by...... the isotropic rotator. For a collection of particle profiles, simulations show that the variance of the rotator is smaller than that of the nucleator....

  6. Estimations of the maximum tangential velocity V θm in the vortex core region and also the mean rotational velocity V oi near the concave wall surface in the returned flow type cyclone dust collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Akira

    2010-12-01

    There are many types of cyclone dust collectors for separating the fine solid and dust particles from gases in the various industries and also in the home used purposes. For estimating the power loss and the collection efficiency, one of the most important factors is the maximum tangential velocity V θm in the vortex core region in the cyclone body. In order to determine V θm by the simple method, it is useful to apply the mechanical balance of the angular momentum fluxes under the assumption of Ogawa combined vortex model which is composed of the quasi-forced vortex in the vortex core region and also the quasi-free vortex surrounded the vortex core region and also under the assumption of the introduction of equivalent length Heq corresponding to the cone spaces of the cyclone body and the dust bunker. On the other hand, the mean rotational velocity V oi near the concave wall surface is also estimated by the mechanical balance of angular momentum fluxes with the moment of viscous friction force. For confirming the general applications of the obtained equations, the returned flow types cyclones changed the throat diameter D3 are designed. The material of the cyclone is the transparent acrylic resin. Therefore the inner surface of the cyclone body can be regarded as smooth surface. The comparisons of the measured velocities V θm and V oi by a cylindrical Pitot tube are shown in good agreement with those of the proposed equations. The above stated results are described in detail.

  7. Fell runners and walking walls: towards a sociology of living landscapes and aesthetic atmospheres as an alternative to a Lakeland picturesque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettleton, Sarah

    2015-12-01

    This article draws on analysis of data generated by way of an ethnography of fell running in the English Lake District and suggests that participants who have lived and run in the area for many years experience a particular mode of aesthetic. The Lake District has long been valued for its outstanding scenery represented in the aesthetic of the picturesque comprising relatively static landscapes that should be conserved. Established fell runners who have run in the area for many decades apprehend and appreciate the landscape in more complex, rooted and situated ways. The anthropologist Ingold, distinguishes between landscape and landsceppan, and this insight is instructive for grasping the way in which the runners do not simply scope scenery but work with the land: they shape it and are shaped by it. Fell runners are elements within the living environment and along with walls, sheep, becks, sun, rain--what Ingold evocatively calls the 'weather-world'--are mobile. Movement is central to their aesthetic, they enjoy not so much the scenic but rather a fellsceppan and do so through their fast eye-gait-footwork and their lively, variable occupation with the terrain. The fells infiltrate and interpenetrate the runners and movement through the fells generates a somatic aesthetic. The pleasure in turn breeds existential capital an embodied gratification that serves as an attractor that binds those who appreciate feelings of being alive with and in the fells. PMID:26399836

  8. Anterior vaginal wall repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... symptoms will go away. This improvement will often last for years. Alternative Names A/P repair; Vaginal wall repair; Anterior and/ ... writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact ... Institutes of Health Page last updated: 23 August 2016

  9. Rotating flow

    CERN Document Server

    Childs, Peter R N

    2010-01-01

    Rotating flow is critically important across a wide range of scientific, engineering and product applications, providing design and modeling capability for diverse products such as jet engines, pumps and vacuum cleaners, as well as geophysical flows. Developed over the course of 20 years' research into rotating fluids and associated heat transfer at the University of Sussex Thermo-Fluid Mechanics Research Centre (TFMRC), Rotating Flow is an indispensable reference and resource for all those working within the gas turbine and rotating machinery industries. Traditional fluid and flow dynamics

  10. Translational and Rotational Velocity Statistics in a Rotating Granular Tumbler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantzi, Jacob; Olafsen, Jeffrey

    2008-11-01

    Several hundred stainless steel cylinders in a rotating tumbler were used to examine translational and rotational velocity statistics within a granular flow of only a few layers. The particles at the boundary are strongly influenced by the shear of the wall and act as a lubrication layer between the boundary and the bulk flow. The particles in the bulk flow do not appear to have any mean rotational velocity about their axes, and instead ``chatter,'' fluctuating back and forth without bias. Inertial effects due to the particle layers were observed as well, with the rotational velocities of the boundary layer dependent on the height of the bulk above it. Both the translational and rotational velocity distributions in the flow were examined for deviations from Gaussian. This analysis was accomplished using a newly developed stereoscopic CCD camera array.

  11. Rotating Wavepackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekner, John

    2008-01-01

    Any free-particle wavepacket solution of Schrodinger's equation can be converted by differentiations to wavepackets rotating about the original direction of motion. The angular momentum component along the motion associated with this rotation is an integral multiple of [h-bar]. It is an "intrinsic" angular momentum: independent of origin and…

  12. Effect of multi-walled carbon nanotubes aspect ratio and temperature on the dielectric behavior of alternating alkene-carbon monoxide polyketone nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Surrah, Adnan S.; Abdul Jawad, Saadi; Al-Ramahi, Esraa; Hallak, Awni B.; Khattari, Z.

    2015-04-01

    New alternating poly(propylene-alt-carbon monoxide/ethylene-alt-carbon monoxide) (PECO)/multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) composites have been prepared. Dielectric permittivity, electric modulus and ac conductivity of the isolated materials were investigated as a function of fiber aspect ratio, frequency and temperature. For aspect ratio of 30 and 200, a transition from insulator to semiconductor was observed at frequency 1×104. However, for high aspect ratio sample (660), no transition was observed and the conductivity is frequency independent in the measured frequency range of 10-106 Hz. The conductivity increases from about 1×10-4 for the sample that contain fibers of aspect ratio 30 and reaches 5×10-2 (Ω m)-1 for aspect ratio was 660. This behavior can be modeled by a circuit that consists of a contact resistance in series with a parallel combination of resistance (R) and capacitance (C). The calculated activation energy for sample filled with fibers having aspect ratio 30 is about 0.26 eV and decreases to about 0.16 eV when the aspect ratio is 660.

  13. A rotating arc plasma invertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A device is described for the inversion of direct current to alternating current. The main feature is the use of a rotating plasma arc in crossed electric and magnetic fields as a switch. This device may provide an economic alternative to other inversion methods in some circumstances

  14. Generalizing the MOND description of rotation curves

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Sandro S. e; Opher, R.

    2001-01-01

    We present new mathematical alternatives for explaining rotation curves of spiral galaxies in the MOND context. For given total masses, it is shown that various mathematical alternatives to MOND, while predicting flat rotation curves for large galactic radii, predict curves with different peculiar features for smaller radii. They are thus testable against observational data.

  15. 太行山山前平原节水替代模式耗水特征分析%Water Consumption Characteristics of Alternative Crop Rotations in the Piedmont of Mt.Taihang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏; 隋鹏; 陈源泉; 孙自广; 马丽

    2011-01-01

    the water consumption characteristics of rotation patterns. Through the determination of soil moisture in a rotation cycle (2006-2009), we analyzed the changes in soil water storage, water consumption, soil volumetric water content at all levels and the balance of soil water storage of different patterns. The results showed that compared with wheat and maize system, soil water storage and use of soil moisture at different levels of three rotation patterns showed more significant stubble effect. These three alternative rotations were better to achieve the annual complementary use of water. The water consumption of wheat/maize system was about 18% more than the patterns of G-C-S and G-P. The increase of water storage of G-C-S and G-P could reach to 20 mm a year which had no significant difference with wheat and maize system,but the invalid evaporation during the 4 years of the G-C-S and G-P was significantly higher than wheat and maize system. The water consumption of G-C-P was 5.4% less than the pattern of wheat/maize, the increase of water storage of G-C-P was about 18 mm which was significantly less than wheat/maize system. There was no significant difference between G-C-P and wheat/maize plantation in the invalid evaporation of moisture. The water-saving effect of G-C-P was better than wheat/maize system, but there was no significant difference between them. Of these three alternative patterns G-C-S and G-P plantation had the better effects to replace wheat/maize plantation. From the perspective of food security, G-P crop rotation was the best.

  16. From Newton's bucket to rotating polygons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, B.; Linnartz, E. C.; Vested, Malene Louise Hovgaard;

    2014-01-01

    We present an experimental study of 'polygons' forming on the free surface of a swirling water flow in a partially filled cylindrical container. In our set-up, we rotate the bottom plate and the cylinder wall with separate motors. We thereby vary rotation rate and shear strength independently and...... move from a rigidly rotating 'Newton's bucket' flow to one where bottom and cylinder wall are rotating oppositely and the surface is strongly turbulent but flat on average. Between those two extremes, we find polygonal states for which the rotational symmetry is spontaneously broken. We investigate the...... phase diagram spanned by the two rotational frequencies at a given water filling height and find polygons in a regime, where the two frequencies are sufficiently different and, predominantly, when they have opposite signs. In addition to the extension of the family of polygons found with the stationary...

  17. Qubit Rotation by STIRAP

    CERN Document Server

    Kis, Z

    2002-01-01

    We introduce a novel procedure for qubit rotation, alternative to the commonly used method of Rabi oscillations of controlled pulse area. It is based on the technique of Stimulated Raman Adiabatic Passage (STIRAP) and therefore it is robust against fluctuations of experimental parameters. Furthermore, our work shows that it is in principle possible to perform quantum logic operations via stimulated Raman adiabatic passage. This opens up the search for a completely new class of schemes to implement logic gates.

  18. Ambiguous walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mody, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) in the built environment has encouraged myriad applications, often embedded in surfaces as an integrated part of the architecture. Thus the wall as responsive luminous skin is becoming, if not common, at least familiar. Taking into account how wall...

  19. Miniature rotating transmissive optical drum scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Robert (Inventor); Parrington, Lawrence (Inventor); Rutberg, Michael (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A miniature rotating transmissive optical scanner system employs a drum of small size having an interior defined by a circumferential wall rotatable on a drum axis, an optical element positioned within the interior of the drum, and a light-transmissive lens aperture provided at an angular position in the circumferential wall of the drum for scanning a light beam to or from the optical element in the drum along a beam azimuth angle as the drum is rotated. The miniature optical drum scanner configuration obtains a wide scanning field-of-view (FOV) and large effective aperture is achieved within a physically small size.

  20. Spontaneous Rotational Inversion in Phycomyces

    KAUST Repository

    Goriely, Alain

    2011-03-01

    The filamentary fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus undergoes a series of remarkable transitions during aerial growth. During what is known as the stagea IV growth phase, the fungus extends while rotating in a counterclockwise manner when viewed from above (stagea IVa) and then, while continuing to grow, spontaneously reverses to a clockwise rotation (stagea IVb). This phase lasts for 24-48Ah and is sometimes followed by yet another reversal (stageAIVc) before the overall growth ends. Here, we propose a continuum mechanical model of this entire process using nonlinear, anisotropic, elasticity and show how helical anisotropy associated with the cell wall structure can induce spontaneous rotation and, under appropriate circumstances, the observed reversal of rotational handedness. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  1. Phase space rotation with solenoids and quadrupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A standard five-quadrupole phase-space rotation system is discussed and compared with a possible alternative - two superconducting solenoids which accomplish the same job in a different way. In some laboratories the solenoid system may be advantageous

  2. Noncontact surface tension measurement by drop rotation

    OpenAIRE

    Rhim, Won-Kyu; Ishikawa, Takehiko

    2001-01-01

    Validity of the surface tension measurement technique that was proposed by Elleman et al. was experimentally verified. The technique was based on Brown and Scriven's work on the shape evolution of rotating drops. Molten tin and aluminum drops were levitated in high vacuum by the electrostatic levitator and rotated by applying a rotating magnetic field. This technique offers an alternative technique for those liquids where the drop oscillation technique cannot be used. As a demonstration, the ...

  3. Forces and Torques on Rotating Spirochete Flagella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Huber, Greg; Wolgemuth, Charles W.

    2011-12-01

    Spirochetes are a unique group of motile bacteria that are distinguished by their helical or flat-wave shapes and the location of their flagella, which reside within the tiny space between the bacterial cell wall and the outer membrane (the periplasm). In Borrelia burgdorferi, rotation of the flagella produces cellular undulations that drive swimming. How these shape changes arise due to the forces and torques that act between the flagella and the cell body is unknown. It is possible that resistive forces come from friction or from fluid drag, depending on whether or not the flagella are in contact with the cell wall. Here, we consider both of these cases. By analyzing the motion of an elastic flagellum rotating in the periplasmic space, we show that the flagella are most likely separated from the bacterial cell wall by a lubricating layer of fluid. This analysis then provides drag coefficients for rotation and sliding of a flagellum within the periplasm.

  4. Passive levitation in alternating magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Louis; Christenson, Todd; Aronson, Eugene A.

    2010-09-14

    Stable levitation of an object in an alternating magnetic field can be achieved by eliminating coupling between the rotational and translational forces acting on the object. Stable levitation can also be achieved by varying the coupling between the rotational and translational forces acting on the object, while maintaining one or more of the rotational and translational forces steady in time.

  5. Passive levitation in alternating magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Louis; Christenson, Todd; Aronson, Eugene A.

    2009-06-16

    Stable levitation of an object in an alternating magnetic field can be achieved by eliminating coupling between the rotational and translational forces acting on the object. Stable levitation can also be achieved by varying the coupling between the rotational and translational forces acting on the object, while maintaining one or more of the rotational and translational forces steady in time.

  6. Hybrid helical snakes and rotators for RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courant, E.D.

    1995-06-13

    The spin rotators and Siberian snakes presently envisaged for RHIC utilize helical dipole magnets. The snakes and the rotators each consist of four helices, each with a full twist (360{degrees}) of the field. Here we investigate an alternate layout, namely combinations of helical and pure bending magnet, and show that this may have advantages.

  7. Rotator Cuff Tears

    Science.gov (United States)

    .org Rotator Cuff Tears Page ( 1 ) A rotator cuff tear is a common cause of pain and disability among adults. In ... went to their doctors because of a rotator cuff problem. A torn rotator cuff will weaken your ...

  8. Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics in Rotating Two-pass Channels Cooled by Superheated Steam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; GAO Jianmin; XU Liang; SHI Xiaojun

    2012-01-01

    In a modern gas turbine,using superheated steam to cool the vane and blade for internal convection cooling is a promising alternative to traditional compressor air.However,further investigations of steam cooling need to be performed.In this paper,the three-dimensional flow and heat transfer characteristics of steam are numerically investigated in two-pass square channels with 45° ribbed walls under stationary and rotating conditions.The investigated rotation numbers are 0 and 0.24.The simulation is carried out by solving the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations employing the Reynolds stress turbulence model,cspccially considering two additional terms for Coriolis and rotational buoyancy forces caused by the rotating effect.For comparison,calculations for the air-cooled channels are done first at a Reynolds number of 25 000 and inlet coolant-to-wall density ratio of 0.13.The results are compared with the experiment data.Then the flow and heat transfer in steam-cooled channels are analyzed under the same operating conditions.The results indicate that the superheated steam has better heat transfer performance than air.Due to the combined effect of rotation,skewed ribs and 180° sharp turn,the secondary flow pattern in steam-cooled rotating two-pass channels is quite complex.This complex secondary flow pattern leads to strong anisotropic turbulence and high level of anisotropy of Reynolds stresses,which have a significant impact on the local heat transfer coefficient distributions.

  9. Alternative security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains the following chapters: The Military and Alternative Security: New Missions for Stable Conventional Security; Technology and Alternative Security: A Cherished Myth Expires; Law and Alternative Security: Toward a Just World Peace; Politics and Alternative Security: Toward a More Democratic, Therefore More Peaceful, World; Economics and Alternative Security: Toward a Peacekeeping International Economy; Psychology and Alternative Security: Needs, Perceptions, and Misperceptions; Religion and Alternative Security: A Prophetic Vision; and Toward Post-Nuclear Global Security: An Overview

  10. Numerical analysis of rotating stall instabilities of a pump- turbine in pump mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotating stall may occur at part load flow of a pump-turbine in pump mode. Unstable flow structures developing under stall condition can lead to a sudden drop of efficiency, high dynamic load and even cavitation. CFD simulations on a pump-turbine model in pump mode were carried out to reveal the onset and developed mechanisms of these unstable flow phenomena at part load. The simulation results of energy-discharge and efficiency characteristics are in good agreement with those obtained by experiments. The more deviate from design conditions with decreasing flow rate, the more flow separations within the vanes. Under specific conditions, four stationary separation zones begin to progress on the circumference, rotating at a fraction of the impeller rotation rate. Rotating stalls lead to the flow in the vane diffuser channels alternating between outward jet flow and blockage. Strong jets impact the spiral casing wall causing high pressure pulsations. Severe separations of the stall cells disturb the flow inducing periodical large amplitude pressure fluctuations, of which the intensity at different span wise of the guide vanes is different. The enforced rotating nonuniform pressure distributions on the circumference lead to dynamic uniform forces on the impeller and guide vanes. The results show that the CFD simulations are capable to gain the complicated flow structure information for analysing the unstable characteristics of the pump mode at part load

  11. Rotation Effect on Jet Impingement Heat Transfer in Smooth Rectangular Channels with Film Coolant Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Parsons

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of channel rotation on jet impingement cooling by arrays of circular jets in twin channels was studied. Impinging jet flows were in the direction of rotation in one channel and opposite to the direction of rotation in the other channel. The jets impinged normally on the smooth, heated target wall in each channel. The spent air exited the channels through extraction holes in each target wall, which eliminates cross flow on other jets. Jet rotation numbers and jet Reynolds numbers varied from 0.0 to 0.0028 and 5000 to 10,000, respectively. For the target walls with jet flow in the direction of rotation (or opposite to the direction of rotation, as rotation number increases heat transfer decreases up to 25% (or 15% as compared to corresponding results for non-rotating conditions. This is due to the changes in flow distribution and rotation induced Coriolis and centrifugal forces.

  12. Rotational hysteresis in SmCo5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torque curves of SmCo5 sintered magnets with regularily lowered coercivity up to a maximum field H = 28 x 105 Am-1 have been registered automatically. From the observed rotational hysteresis the values of the rotational integral could be estimated in dependence on the degree of lowering of the coercivity. By comparison with theoretically calculated values for a simple nucleation model for a single crystal it follows that the mechanism of the magnetization reversal for SmCo5 magnets with lowered coercivity should be pinning of Bloch walls in the multidomain state. The absolute value of the maximum rotational hysteresis work is comparable with the maximum linear hysteresis work. (author)

  13. Rotating attractors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We prove that, in a general higher derivative theory of gravity coupled to abelian gauge fields and neutral scalar fields, the entropy and the near horizon background of a rotating extremal black hole is obtained by extremizing an entropy function which depends only on the parameters labeling the near horizon background and the electric and magnetic charges and angular momentum carried by the black hole. If the entropy function has a unique extremum then this extremum must be independent of the asymptotic values of the moduli scalar fields and the solution exhibits attractor behaviour. If the entropy function has flat directions then the near horizon background is not uniquely determined by the extremization equations and could depend on the asymptotic data on the moduli fields, but the value of the entropy is still independent of this asymptotic data. We illustrate these results in the context of two derivative theories of gravity in several examples. These include Kerr black hole, Kerr-Newman black hole, black holes in Kaluza-Klein theory, and black holes in toroidally compactified heterotic string theory

  14. Turbulent heat transfer studies in annulus with inner cylinder rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental investigations of turbulent heat transfer are made in a large-gap annulus with both rotating and nonrotating inner cylinder. The vertical annular channel has an electrically heated outer wall; the inner wall i thermally and electrically insulated. The axial air flow is allowed to develop before rotation and heating are imparted. The resulting temperature fields are investigated using thermocouple probes located near the channel exit. The wall heat flux, wall axial temperature development, and radial temperature profiles are measured. For each axial Reynolds number, three heat flux rates are used. Excellent correlation is established between rotational and nonrotational Nusselt number. The proper correlation parameter is a physical quantity characterizing the flow helix. This parameter is the inverse of the ratio of axial travel of the flow helix in terms of hydraulic diameter, per half revolution of the spinning wall

  15. On the influence of rotation on thermal convection in a rotating cavity for solar receiver applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to address the world's high-energy demand, a novel particle receiver concept for concentrating solar power (CSP) plants has been developed. A key feature of the concept is to exploit a receiver rotation being able to adjust the receiver outlet temperature to different load states. Within the scope of identifying the thermal receiver efficiency investigations regarding convection losses of a rotating cavity are conducted. Special attention is paid to the effect of rotation on convective flow in a cylindrical cavity with heated side walls for solar applications. Experiments with a rotating cavity in laboratory scale have clearly revealed a negligible effect of rotation on convective losses in the considered rotation speed range. Compared to the influence of receiver inclination, where the convective losses can be decreased up to 90% for downward-facing receivers, rotation affects them only by at most ±10%. Considering overall thermal losses in the receiver (including conduction and radiation losses), the effect of rotation might be even less than 1% of the incoming solar power. - Highlights: • New receiver concept for high-temperature solar applications is developed. • Effect of rotation on convection losses in cylindrical cavity was examined. • Influence of receiver rotation on convection losses is about ±10%. • In terms of overall thermal losses, effect of rotation is <1% of input power

  16. Rotating Cavitation Supression Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — FTT proposes development of a rotating cavitation (RC) suppressor for liquid rocket engine turbopump inducers. Cavitation instabilities, such as rotating...

  17. Falling walls

    CERN Multimedia

    It was 20 years ago this week that the Berlin wall was opened for the first time since its construction began in 1961. Although the signs of a thaw had been in the air for some time, few predicted the speed of the change that would ensue. As members of the scientific community, we can take a moment to reflect on the role our field played in bringing East and West together. CERN’s collaboration with the East, primarily through links with the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, JINR, in Dubna, Russia, is well documented. Less well known, however, is the role CERN played in bringing the scientists of East and West Germany together. As the Iron curtain was going up, particle physicists on both sides were already creating the conditions that would allow it to be torn down. Cold war historian Thomas Stange tells the story in his 2002 CERN Courier article. It was my privilege to be in Berlin on Monday, the anniversary of the wall’s opening, to take part in a conference entitled &lsquo...

  18. Current Sharing between Plasma and Walls in Tokamak Disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Plasma disruptions in tokamaks represent a significant obstacle in enhancing performance of the plasma regime, especially in the next step machines, such as ITER. Although, for the global forces due to disruptions on the vacuum vessel there is sufficient certainty because of explicit scalings, e.g., from JET to ITER, many important aspects of plasma interaction with the plasma facing components (localization of forces, their impulse, rotation, etc) require additional consideration. Here, the new aspects of electric current sharing between plasma and the wall during vertical disruption events (VDE) will be presented. Recently it was understood that theory predicted currents play the major role in VDEs. Called the 'Hiro' currents, they are excited in the wall by the plasma motion into the wall. Regarding them, the instability, which acts as a 'current' generator, provides large currents independent of resistivity of the plasma-wall contact. The Hiro currents can flow along the tiles surface while the plasma itself shorts out the electric circuit between tiles. The effect of the Hiro currents might be significant for the ITER plasma facing beryllium tiles. As a result, significant forces (both vertical and sideways) can be applied to the tiles themselves. Also, the edges of the tiles can be potentially damaged by significant Hiro currents flowing between tiles. Realistic numerical simulations of this effect with a presently being developed Disruption Simulation Code (DSC) will be presented. Also, the role of the counterpart of the Hiro currents (edge currents flowing in the same direction as the plasma current) during VDEs will be clarified by simulating VDE. The ESC code is appropriately modified for this purposes. These currents may suggest an alternative interpretation of the tile current measurements during VDE in contrast to the presently adopted 'halo' current concept. (author)

  19. Rotational effects on turbine blade cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govatzidakis, G.J.; Guenette, G.R.; Kerrebrock, J.L. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    An experimental investigation of the influence of rotation on the heat transfer in a smooth, rectangular passage rotating in the orthogonal mode is presented. The passage simulates one of the cooling channels found in gas turbine blades. A constant heat flux is imposed on the model with either inward or outward flow. The effects of rotation and buoyancy on the Nusselt number were quantified by systematically varying the Rotation number, Density Ratio, Reynolds number, and Buoyancy parameter. The experiment utilizes a high resolution infrared temperature measurement technique in order to measure the wall temperature distribution. The experimental results show that the rotational effects on the Nusselt number are significant and proper turbine blade design must take into account the effects of rotation, buoyancy, and flow direction. The behavior of the Nusselt number distribution depends strongly on the particular side, axial position, flow direction, and the specific range of the scaling parameters. The results show a strong coupling between buoyancy and Corollas effects throughout the passage. For outward flow, the trailing side Nusselt numbers increase with Rotation number relative to stationary values. On the leading side, the Nusselt numbers tended to decrease with rotation near the inlet and subsequently increased farther downstream in the passage. The Nusselt numbers on the side walls generally increased with rotation. For inward flow, the Nusselt numbers generally improved relative to stationary results, but increases in the Nusselt number were relatively smaller than in the case of outward flow. For outward and inward flows, increasing the density ratio generally tended to decrease Nusselt numbers on the leading and trailing sides, but the exact behavior and magnitude depended on the local axial position and specific range of Buoyancy parameters.

  20. Near-wall diffusion tensor of an axisymmetric colloidal particle

    CERN Document Server

    Lisicki, Maciej; Wajnryb, Eligiusz

    2016-01-01

    Hydrodynamic interactions with confining boundaries often lead to drastic changes in the diffusive behaviour of microparticles in suspensions. For axially symmetric particles, earlier numerical studies have suggested a simple form of the near-wall diffusion matrix which depends on the distance and orientation of the particle with respect to the wall, which is usually calculated numerically. In this work, we derive explicit analytical formulae for the dominant correction to the bulk diffusion tensor of an axially symmetric colloidal particle due to the presence of a nearby no-slip wall. The relative correction scales as powers of inverse wall-particle distance and its angular structure is represented by simple polynomials in sines and cosines of the particle's inclination angle to the wall. We analyse the correction for translational and rotational motion, as well as the translation-rotation coupling. Our findings provide a simple approximation to the anisotropic diffusion tensor near a wall, which completes a...

  1. Compensated pulsed alternator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention relates to an electromechanical energy converter with inertial energy storage. The device, a single phase, two or multi-pole alternator with stationary field coils, and a rotating armature is provided. The rotor itself may be of laminated steel for slower pulses or for faster pulses should be nonmagnetic and electrically nonconductive in order to allow rapid penetration of the field as the armature coil rotates. The armature coil comprises a plurality of power generating conductors mounted on the rotor. The alternator may also include a stationary or counterrotating compensating coil to increase the output voltage thereof and to reduce the internal impedance of the alternator at the moment of peak output. As the machine voltage rises sinusoidally, an external trigger switch is adapted to be closed at the appropriate time to create the desired output current from said alternator to an external load circuit, and as the output current passes through zero a self-commutating effect is provided to allow the switch to disconnect the generator from the external circuit

  2. Quaternions and Rotation Sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Kuipers, Jack B.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we introduce and define the quaternion; we give a brief introduction to its properties and algebra, and we show (what appears to be) its primary application—the quaternion rotation operator. The quaternion rotation operator competes with the conventional matrix rotation operator in a variety of rotation sequences.

  3. Rotational motion in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear structure theories are reviewed concerned with nuclei rotational motion. The development of the deformed nucleus model facilitated a discovery of rotational spectra of nuclei. Comprehensive verification of the rotational scheme and a successful classification of corresponding spectra stimulated investigations of the rotational movement dynamics. Values of nuclear moments of inertia proved to fall between two marginal values corresponding to rotation of a solid and hydrodynamic pattern of an unrotating flow, respectively. The discovery of governing role of the deformation and a degree of a symmetry violence for determining rotational degrees of freedon is pointed out to pave the way for generalization of the rotational spectra

  4. Dynamics of domain wall networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Networks or webs of domain walls are admitted in Abelian or non-Abelian gauge theory coupled to fundamental Higgs fields with complex masses. We examine the dynamics of the domain wall loops by using the moduli approximation and find a phase rotation induces a repulsive force which can be understood as a Noether charge of Q-solitons. Non-Abelian gauge theory allows different types of loops which can be deformed to each other by changing a modulus. This admits the moduli geometry like a sandglass made by gluing the tips of the two cigar-(cone-)like metrics of a single triangle loop. We conclude that the sizes of all loops tend to grow for a late time in general models with complex Higgs masses, while the sizes are stabilized at some values once triplet masses are introduced for the Higgs fields. We also show that the stationary motion on the moduli space of the domain wall webs represents 1/4 Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield Q-webs of walls

  5. Turbulent rotating plane Couette flow: Reynolds and rotation number dependency of flow structure and momentum transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawata, Takuya; Alfredsson, P. Henrik

    2016-07-01

    Plane Couette flow under spanwise, anticyclonic system rotation [rotating plane Couette flow (RPCF)] is studied experimentally using stereoscopic particle image velocimetry for different Reynolds and rotation numbers in the fully turbulent regime. Similar to the laminar regime, the turbulent flow in RPCF is characterized by roll cells, however both instantaneous snapshots of the velocity field and space correlations show that the roll cell structure varies with the rotation number. All three velocity components are measured and both the mean flow and all four nonzero Reynolds stresses are obtained across the central parts of the channel. This also allows us to determine the wall shear stress from the viscous stress and the Reynolds stress in the center of the channel, and for low rotation rates the wall shear stress increases with increasing rotation rate as expected. The results show that zero absolute vorticity is established in the central parts of the channel of turbulent RPCF for high enough rotation rates, but also that the mean velocity profile for certain parameter ranges shows an S shape giving rise to a negative velocity gradient in the center of the channel. We find that from an analysis of the Reynolds stress transport equation using the present data there is a transport of the Reynolds shear stress towards the center of the channel, which may then result in a negative mean velocity gradient there.

  6. Rotation with unit quaternion

    OpenAIRE

    Kregar, Klemen; Lakner, Mitja; Kogoj, Dušan

    2014-01-01

    A quaternion is a hyper-complex number. A rule for quaternion multiplications allows us to use it as a rotation in three-dimensional space. The aim of this article is to present quaternion rotations to the Slovene professional geodetic public. Quaternions are described in the article along with the manner to use them for rotations. Two experiments were performed to compare the rotations using quaternions versus rotations with Euler angles. The experiments revealed that ...

  7. Rotational preference in gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinen, Thomas; Jeraj, Damian; Vinken, Pia M; Velentzas, Konstantinos

    2012-06-01

    In gymnastics, most skills incorporate rotations about one or more body axes. At present, the question remains open if factors such as lateral preference and/or vestibulo-spinal asymmetry are related to gymnast's rotational preference. Therefore, we sought to explore relationships in gymnast's rotation direction between different gymnastic skills. Furthermore, we sought to explore relationships between rotational preference, lateral preference, and vestibulo-spinal asymmetry. In the experiment n = 30 non-experts, n = 30 near-experts and n = 30 experts completed a rotational preference questionnaire, a lateral preference inventory, and the Unterberger-Fukuda Stepping Test. The results revealed, that near-experts and experts more often rotate rightward in the straight jump with a full turn when rotating leftward in the round-off and vice versa. The same relationship was found for experts when relating the rotation preference in the handstand with a full turn to the rotation preference in the straight jump with a full turn. Lateral preference was positively related to rotational preference in non-expert gymnasts, and vestibulo-spinal asymmetry was positively related to rotational preference in experts. We suggest, that gymnasts should explore their individual rotational preference by systematically practicing different skills with a different rotation direction, bearing in mind that a clearly developed structure in rotational preference between different skills may be appropriate to develop more complex skills in gymnastics. PMID:23486362

  8. Low frequency oscillatory flow in a rotating curved pipe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈华军; 章本照; 苏霄燕

    2003-01-01

    The low frequency oscillatory flow in a rotating curved pipe was studied by using the method of bi-parameter perturbation. Perturbation solutions up to the second order were obtained and the effects of rotation on the low frequency oscillatory flow were examined in detail. The results indicated that there exists evident difference between the low frequency oscillatory flow in a rotating curved pipe and in a curved pipe without rotation. During a period, four secondary vortexes may exist on the circular cross-section and the distribution of axial velocity and wall shear stress are related to the ratio of the Coriolis force to centrifugal force and the axial pressure gradient.

  9. Alternative Design of Boat Fenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banke, Lars

    1996-01-01

    On offshore platforms the purpose of fenders is to protect the oil-risers against minor accidental collisions with supply vessels. Normally, the fender is designed by use of thin-walled tubes. However, the tube itself is not capable of resisting the impact load of the boat. Therefore, alternative...

  10. Rotator Cuff Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by hitting the M-Access button on your computer and we'd be happy to answer these ... that it extends down the front. Here's another part of the rotator cuff musculature. The rotator cuff ...

  11. Rotator Cuff Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... symptoms and activity-related, too. A very sedentary person with a small rotator cuff tear, say in ... are instances we use them. For example, this person who's had a couple of failed rotator cuff ...

  12. Power Harvesting from Rotation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicone, Carmen; Feng, Z. C.

    2008-01-01

    We show the impossibility of harvesting power from rotational motions by devices attached to the rotating object. The presentation is suitable for students who have studied Lagrangian mechanics. (Contains 2 figures.)

  13. Rotator cuff exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to these tendons may result in: Rotator cuff tendinitis, which is irritation and swelling of these tendons ... Brien MJ, Leggin BG, Williams GR. Rotator cuff tendinopathies and tears: surgery and therapy. In: Skirven TM, ...

  14. Rotator cuff exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000357.htm Rotator cuff exercises To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The rotator cuff is a group of muscles and tendons that ...

  15. Rotator cuff repair - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100229.htm Rotator cuff repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... slide 4 out of 4 Overview The rotator cuff is a group of muscles and tendons that ...

  16. On Averaging Rotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramkow, Claus

    In this article two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very offten the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belong...... natural approximations to the Riemannian metric, and that the subsequent corrections are inherient in the least squares estimation. Keywords: averaging rotations, Riemannian metric, matrix, quaternion...

  17. On Averaging Rotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramkow, Claus

    1999-01-01

    In this article two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very offten the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belong...... natural approximations to the Riemannian metric, and that the subsequent corrections are inherient in the least squares estimation. Keywords: averaging rotations, Riemannian metric, matrix, quaternion...

  18. Rotational Preference in Gymnastics

    OpenAIRE

    Heinen, Thomas; Jeraj, Damian; Pia M. Vinken; Velentzas, Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    In gymnastics, most skills incorporate rotations about one or more body axes. At present, the question remains open if factors such as lateral preference and/or vestibulo-spinal asymmetry are related to gymnast’s rotational preference. Therefore, we sought to explore relationships in gymnast’s rotation direction between different gymnastic skills. Furthermore, we sought to explore relationships between rotational preference, lateral preference, and vestibulo-spinal asymmetry. In the experimen...

  19. Alternate transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zertuche, Tony; Mckinnie, James

    1988-01-01

    Three missions have been identified by NASA for a Space Shuttle-supplementing Alternate Transportation System (ATS) encompassing combinations of booster vehicles, crew modules, and service modules: (1) to achieve manned access to orbit for Space Station crew rotation every 90 days, (2) the lofting of a logistics module resupplying the Space Station every 180 days, and (3) the simultaneous launch of both crews and logistics to the Space Station. A reentry glider is considered, in conjunction with the Space Shuttle's unmanned cargo version and the Apollo manned capsule, as an important ATS element. The Titan IV/NUS is used as a booster.

  20. Rotations with Rodrigues' Vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina, E.

    2011-01-01

    The rotational dynamics was studied from the point of view of Rodrigues' vector. This vector is defined here by its connection with other forms of parametrization of the rotation matrix. The rotation matrix was expressed in terms of this vector. The angular velocity was computed using the components of Rodrigues' vector as coordinates. It appears…

  1. Rotator Cuff Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... here. The other problem is that it extends down the front. Here's another part of the rotator cuff musculature. The rotator cuff is essentially four tendons, two that turn the arm to the outside, the external rotators, one on top, the superspinatus, which is the most commonly torn. ...

  2. On Averaging Rotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramkow, Claus

    2001-01-01

    In this paper two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very often the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belong to...

  3. Axial Thermal Rotation of Slender Rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dichuan; Fakhri, Nikta; Pasquali, Matteo; Biswal, Sibani Lisa

    2011-05-01

    Axial rotational diffusion of rodlike polymers is important in processes such as microtubule filament sliding and flagella beating. By imaging the motion of small kinks along the backbone of chains of DNA-linked colloids, we produce a direct and systematic measurement of axial rotational diffusivity of rods both in bulk solution and near a wall. The measured diffusivities decrease linearly with the chain length, irrespective of the distance from a wall, in agreement with slender-body hydrodynamics theory. Moreover, the presence of small kinks does not affect the chain’s axial diffusivity. Our system and measurements provide insights into fundamental axial diffusion processes of slender objects, which encompass a wide range of entities including biological filaments and linear polymer chains.

  4. Local Domain-Wall Velocity Engineering via Tailored Potential Landscapes in Ferromagnetic Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Kornel; Krone, Andrea; Mawass, Mohamad-Assaad; Krüger, Benjamin; Weigand, Markus; Stoll, Hermann; Schütz, Gisela; Kläui, Mathias

    2016-02-01

    We report the local control of the domain-wall velocity by tailoring the domain-wall potential landscape via local variations of a curved ring geometry. Employing time-resolved scanning-transmission x-ray microscopy, we dynamically image the motion of domain walls in rotating magnetic fields and quantify the contribution of the spatially varying potential to the domain-wall dynamics. We explain our experimentally obtained angular dependences of domain-wall velocities by the interplay between long-range forces arising from the Zeeman interaction of domain walls with the external magnetic field with local forces arising from variations of domain-wall energy due to a varying ring width. The interplay of these forces leads to distortion-free wall motion, and we use the engineered domain-wall potential landscape for spatial synchronization of domain-wall velocities in ferromagnetic rings, which are both a key prerequisite for the implementation of domain-wall-based devices.

  5. Edge Effects in Rotational Viscometry under Apparent Wall Slip.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wein, Ondřej; Večeř, Marek; Havlica, Jaromír; Tihon, Jaroslav

    Hersonisos: University of Crete, 2006. s. 140. [Annual European Rheology Conference AERC 2006 /3./. 27.04.2006-29.04.2006, Hersonisos, Crete] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA104/04/0826; GA ČR GP104/06/P287; GA ČR GP104/05/P554 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : viscometry * non-Newtonian fluids * end effects Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  6. ROTATING BIOLOGICAL CONTRACTORS - HYDRAULIC VERSUS ORGANIC LOADING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conventional and alternative flow configurations of rotating biological contractors were compared for soluble organic carbon and ammonia-nitrogen removal. Each treatment train contained eight shafts with a cumulative surface area of 800,000 ft sq. The hydraulic bay used the conve...

  7. Plasma stability theory including the resistive wall effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustovitov, V. D.

    2015-12-01

    > Plasma stabilization due to a nearby conducting wall can provide access to better performance in some scenarios in tokamaks. This was proved by experiments with an essential gain in and demonstrated as a long-lasting effect at sufficiently fast plasma rotation in the DIII-D tokamak (see, for example, Strait et al., Nucl. Fusion, vol. 43, 2003, pp. 430-440). The rotational stabilization is the central topic of this review, though eventually the mode rotation gains significance. The analysis is based on the first-principle equations describing the energy balance with dissipation in the resistive wall. The method emphasizes derivation of the dispersion relations for the modes which are faster than the conventional resistive wall modes, but slower than the ideal magnetohydrodynamics modes. Both the standard thin wall and ideal-wall approximations are not valid in this range. Here, these are replaced by an approach incorporating the skin effect in the wall. This new element in the stability theory makes the energy sink a nonlinear function of the complex growth rate. An important consequence is that a mode rotating above a critical level can provide a damping effect sufficient for instability suppression. Estimates are given and applications are discussed.

  8. Rotating Stars in Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stergioulas Nikolaos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotating relativistic stars have been studied extensively in recent years, both theoretically and observationally, because of the information they might yield about the equation of state of matter at extremely high densities and because they are considered to be promising sources of gravitational waves. The latest theoretical understanding of rotating stars in relativity is reviewed in this updated article. The sections on the equilibrium properties and on the nonaxisymmetric instabilities in f-modes and r-modes have been updated and several new sections have been added on analytic solutions for the exterior spacetime, rotating stars in LMXBs, rotating strange stars, and on rotating stars in numerical relativity.

  9. The spatial rotator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmusson, Allan; Hahn, Ute; Larsen, Jytte Overgaard;

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new local volume estimator, the spatial rotator, which is based on measurements on a virtual 3D probe, using computer assisted microscopy. The basic design of the probe builds upon the rotator principle which requires only a few manual intersection markings, thus making the...... spatial rotator fast to use. Since a 3D probe is involved, it is expected that the spatial rotator will be more efficient than the the nucleator and the planar rotator, which are based on measurements in a single plane. An extensive simulation study shows that the spatial rotator may be more efficient...... than the traditional local volume estimators. Furthermore, the spatial rotator can be seen as a further development of the Cavalieri estimator, which does not require randomization of sectioning or viewing direction. The tissue may thus be sectioned in any arbitrary direction, making it easy to...

  10. Halo current and resistive wall simulations of ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of ITER relevant problems in resistive MHD concern the effects of a resistive wall: vertical displacement events (VDE), halo currents caused by disruptions, and resistive wall modes. Simulations of these events have been carried out using the M3D code. We have verified the growth rate scaling of VDEs, which is proportional to the wall resistivity. Simulations have been done of disruptions caused by large inversion radius internal kink modes, as well as by nonlinear growth of resistive wall modes. Halo current flowing during the disruption has asymmetries with toroidal peaking factor up to about 3. VDEs have larger growth rates during disruption simulations, which may account for the loss of vertical feedback control during disruptions in experiments. Further simulations have been made of disruptions caused by resistive wall modes in ITER equilibria. For these modes the toroidal peaking factor is close to 1. Resistive wall modes in ITER and reactors have also been investigated utilizing the newly developed AEGIS (Adaptive EiGenfunction Independent Solution) linear full MHD code, for realistically shaped, fully toroidal equilibria. The AEGIS code uses an adaptive mesh in the radial direction which allows thin inertial layers to be accurately resolved, such as those responsible for the stabilization of resistive wall modes (RWM) by plasma rotation. Stabilization of resistive wall modes by rotation and wall thickness effects are examined. (author)

  11. Effect of rotating electric field on 3D complex (dusty) plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of rotating electric field on 3D particle clusters suspended in rf plasma was studied experimentally. Spheroidal clusters were suspended inside a glass box mounted on the lower horizontal rf electrode, with gravity partially balanced by thermophoretic force. Clusters rotated in the horizontal plane, in response to rotating electric field that was created inside the box using conducting coating on its inner surfaces (''rotating wall'' technique). Cluster rotation was always in the direction of applied field and had a shear in the vertical direction. The angular speed of rotation was 104-107 times lower than applied frequency. The experiment is compared to a recent theory.

  12. Alternative Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find your chapter: search by state Home > Alzheimer's Disease > Treatments > Alternative Treatments Overview What Is Dementia? What Is Alzheimer's? Younger/Early Onset Facts and Figures Know the 10 Signs Stages Inside the Brain: ...

  13. Spatial geometry of charged rotating and non-rotating rings in rotating and non-rotating frames

    CERN Document Server

    Romannikov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Spatial geometry of charged thin rotating and non-rotating rings in a rotating frame is investigated. It is shown, on an example of interaction between a charged probe and two positive charged non-rotating and negative charged rotating rings that the spatial geometry of the rotating ring in the rotating frame has to be different to the spatial geometry of the rotating frame. In the absent of direct relation between the spatial geometry rotating frame and the spatial geometry of the rotating ring in that frame the possibility of a non-flat spatial geometry of rotating electron rings in tokamak plasma is discussed.

  14. Physical and numerical modelling of earth pressure on anchored sheet pile walls in sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsbøll, Anette Susanne; Fuglsang, Leif D

    The influence of wall flexibility on earth pressure, bending moments and failure modes is studied. Numerical models are compared to results from model tests carried out in a geotechnical centrifuge. The back-fill is dry sand and failure is introduced by allowing the wall to rotate around the anchor......-model showed the right behaviour in pre-failure as well as failure for both flexible and stiff walls, whereas the MC-model showed some shortcomings when stiff walls were modelled....

  15. Domain Walls on Singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Halyo, Edi

    2009-01-01

    We describe domain walls that live on $A_2$ and $A_3$ singularities. The walls are BPS if the singularity is resolved and non--BPS if it is deformed and fibered. We show that these domain walls may interpolate between vacua that support monopoles and/or vortices.

  16. Galaxy cluster's rotation

    CERN Document Server

    Manolopoulou, Maria

    2016-01-01

    We study the possible rotation of cluster galaxies, developing, testing and applying a novel algorithm which identifies rotation, if such does exits, as well as its rotational centre, its axis orientation, rotational velocity amplitude and, finally, the clockwise or counterclockwise direction of rotation on the plane of the sky. To validate our algorithms we construct realistic Monte-Carlo mock rotating clusters and confirm that our method provides robust indications of rotation. We then apply our methodology on a sample of Abell clusters with z<~0.1 with member galaxies selected from the SDSS DR10 spectroscopic database. We find that ~35% of our clusters are rotating when using a set of strict criteria, while loosening the criteria we find this fraction increasing to ~48%. We correlate our rotation indicators with the cluster dynamical state, provided either by their Bautz-Morgan type or by their X-ray isophotal shape and find for those clusters showing rotation that the significance and strength of their...

  17. Reflections on a flat wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes an investigation into whether estimates of attenuation in the flat sidewalls of the tunnel for the MC main ring can be based on a simple point-source/line-of-sight model. Having seen the limitations of such a model, an alternative is proposed where the main radiation source is not the initial object struck by the beam but the plane source provided by the first interactions of secondaries from the target in the shield-wall. This is shown to have a closer relation to reality than the point-source/line-of-sight model. (author)

  18. Analysis of centrifugal convection in rotating pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtern, Vladimir; Zimin, Valery; Hussain, Fazle

    2001-08-01

    New exact solutions, obtained for centrifugal convection of a compressible fluid in pipes and annular pipes, explain axially elongated counterflow and energy separation—poorly understood phenomena occurring in vortex devices, e.g., hydrocyclones and Ranque tubes. Centrifugal acceleration (which can be up to 106 times gravity in practical vortex tubes), combined with an axial gradient of temperature (even small), induces an intense flow from the cold end to the hot end along the pipe wall and a backflow near the axis. To account for large density variations in vortex devices, we use the axial temperature gradient as a small parameter instead of the Boussinesq approximation. For weak pipe rotation, the swirl is of solid-body type and solutions are compact: vz/vza=1-4y2+3y4 and (T-Tw)/(Ta-Tw)=(1-y2)3; where y=r/rw, the subscripts w and a denote values of axial velocity vz, temperature T, and radial distance r, at the wall and on the axis. The axial gradient of pressure, being proportional to 3y2-1, has opposite directions near the wall, y=1, and near the axis, y=0; this explains the counterflow. With increasing pipe rotation, the flow starts to converge to the axis. This causes important new effects: (i) the density and swirl velocity maxima occur away from the wall (vortex core formation), (ii) the temperature near the axis becomes lower than near the wall (the Ranque effect), (iii) the axial gradient of temperature drops from the wall to the axis, and (iv) the total axial heat flux (Nu) reaches its maximum Numax≈4000 and then decreases as swirl increases. These features can be exploited for the development of a micro-heat-exchanger, e.g., for cooling computer chips.

  19. Scalable dielectrophoresis of single walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzhugh, William A.

    Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWNTs) have attracted much attention as a candidate material for future nano-scale 'beyond silicon' devices. However industrial scale operations have been impeded by difficulties in separating the metallic and semiconducting species. This paper addresses the use of highly inhomogeneous alternating electric fields, dielectrophoresis, to isolate SWNT species in scaled systems. Both numerical and experimental methods will be discussed.

  20. Quantum fluctuations in planar domain wall space-times: A possible origin of primordial preferred direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the gravitational effects of a planar domain wall on quantum fluctuations of a massless scalar field during inflation. By obtaining an exact solution of the scalar field equation in de-Sitter space, we show that the gravitational effects of the domain wall break the rotational invariance of the primordial power spectrum without affecting the translational invariance. The strength of rotational violation is determined by one dimensionless parameter β, which is a function of two physical parameters, the domain wall surface tension σ and cosmological constant Λ. In the limit of small β, the leading effect of rotational violation of the primordial power spectrum is scale-invariant.

  1. Turbulent flow in rib-roughened channel under the effect of Coriolis and rotational buoyancy forces

    OpenAIRE

    Coletti, Filippo; Lo Jacono, David; Cresci, Irene; Arts, Tony

    2014-01-01

    The turbulent flow inside a rotating channel provided with transverse ribs along one wall is studied by means of two-dimensional time-resolved particle image ve- locimetry. The measurement set-up is mounted on the same rotating disk with the test section, allowing to obtain the same accuracy and resolution as in a non-rotating rig. The Reynolds number is 15 000, and the rotation number is 0.38. As the ribbed wall is heated, both the Coriolis force and the centrifugal force play a role in the ...

  2. The state of cell wall pectin monitored by wall associated kinases: A model

    OpenAIRE

    Kohorn, Bruce D

    2015-01-01

    The Wall Associated Kinases (WAKs) bind to both cross-linked polymers of pectin in the plant cell wall, but have a higher affinity for smaller fragmented pectins that are generated upon pathogen attack or wounding. WAKs are required for cell expansion during normal seedling development and this involves pectin binding and a signal transduction pathway involving MPK3 and invertase induction. Alternatively WAKs bind pathogen generated pectin fragments to activate a distinct MPK6 dependent stres...

  3. Unbalanced instabilities of rapidly rotating stratified shear flows

    OpenAIRE

    Vanneste, J.; Yavneh, I

    2006-01-01

    The linear stability of a rotating, stratified, inviscid horizontal plane Couette flow in a channel is studied in the limit of strong rotation and stratification. An energy argument is used to show that unstable perturbations must have large wavenumbers. This motivates the use of a WKB-approach which, in the first instance, provides an approximation for the dispersion relation of the various waves that can propagate in the flow. These are Kelvin waves, trapped near the channel walls, and iner...

  4. Multivariate Rotated ARCH models

    OpenAIRE

    Shephard, Neil; Sheppard, Kevin; Noureldin, Diaa

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a new class of multivariate volatility models which is easy to estimate using covariance targeting, even with rich dynamics. We call them rotated ARCH (RARCH) models. The basic structure is to rotate the returns and then to fit them using a BEKK-type parameterization of the time-varying covariance whose long-run covariance is the identity matrix. The extension to DCC-type parameterizations is given, introducing the rotated conditional correlation (RCC) model. Inference f...

  5. Interferometry for rotating sources

    OpenAIRE

    Velle, S.; Pari, S. Mehrabi; Csernai, L. P.

    2015-01-01

    The two particle interferometry method to determine the size of the emitting source after a heavy ion collision is extended. Following the extension of the method to spherical expansion dynamics, here we extend the method to rotating systems. It is shown that rotation of a cylindrically symmetric system leads to modifications, which can be perceived as spatial asymmetry by the "azimuthal HBT" method. We study an exact rotating and expanding solution of the fluid dynamical model of heavy ion r...

  6. Rotational Quantum Friction

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Rongkuo; Manjavacas, Alejandro; de Abajo, F. Javier García; Pendry, J. B.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the frictional forces due to quantum fluctuations acting on a small sphere rotating near a surface. At zero temperature, we find the frictional force near a surface to be several orders of magnitude larger than that for the sphere rotating in vacuum. For metallic materials with typical conductivity, quantum friction is maximized by matching the frequency of rotation with the conductivity. Materials with poor conductivity are favored to obtain large quantum frictions. For semico...

  7. Relativistic Rotating Vector Model

    CERN Document Server

    Lyutikov, Maxim

    2016-01-01

    The direction of polarization produced by a moving source rotates with the respect to the rest frame. We show that this effect, induced by pulsar rotation, leads to an important correction to polarization swings within the framework of rotating vector model (RVM); this effect has been missed by previous works. We construct relativistic RVM taking into account finite heights of the emission region that lead to aberration, time-of-travel effects and relativistic rotation of polarization. Polarizations swings at different frequencies can be used, within the assumption of the radius-to-frequency mapping, to infer emission radii and geometry of pulsars.

  8. Interferometry for rotating sources

    CERN Document Server

    Velle, S; Csernai, L P

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that rotational of a cylindrically symmetric system can be perceived as asymmetric by the azimuthal HBT method. We study an exact rotating and expanding solution of the fluid dynamical model of heavy ion reactions, that take into account the rate of slowing down of the rotation due to the longitudinal and transverse expansion of the system. The parameters of the model are set on the basis of realistic 3+1D fluid dynamical calculation at TeV energies, where the rotation is enhanced by the build up of the Kelvin Helmholtz Instability in the flow.

  9. Spatial geometry of charged rotating and non-rotating rings in rotating and non-rotating frames

    OpenAIRE

    Romannikov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Spatial geometry of charged thin rotating and non-rotating rings in a rotating frame is investigated. It is shown, on an example of interaction between a charged probe and two positive charged non-rotating and negative charged rotating rings that the spatial geometry of the rotating ring in the rotating frame has to be different to the spatial geometry of the rotating frame. In the absent of direct relation between the spatial geometry rotating frame and the spatial geometry of the rotating r...

  10. Cosmic alternatives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Ruth

    2009-04-01

    "Cosmologists are often in error but never in doubt." This pithy characterization by the Soviet physicist Lev Landau sums up the raison d'être of Facts and Speculations in Cosmology. Authors Jayant Narlikar and Geoffrey Burbidge are proponents of a "steady state" theory of cosmology, and they argue that the cosmological community has become fixated on a "Big Bang" dogma, suppressing alternative viewpoints. This book very much does what it says on the tin: it sets out what is known in cosmology, and puts forward the authors' point of view on an alternative to the Big Bang.

  11. Abordaje transconjuntival más transcaruncular: amplia exposición de la pared medial orbitaria. Una alternativa al abordaje coronal Transconjunctival, transcaruncular approach: enlarged orbital medial wall exposure. An alternative to the coronal approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rodríguez

    2008-06-01

    mount which has been dissected off the dermis. The other hand turns over the cheek flap for alternating internal and external control of the sculpturing effect, and for external tactile guidance.

  12. Growing Alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Petersen, Mai Corlin

    2014-01-01

    From 2014, Anhui Province will pilot a reform of the residential land market in China, thus integrating rural Anhui in the national housing market. In contrast, artist and activist Ou Ning has proposed the Bishan time money currency, intending to establish an alternative economic circuit in Bishan...

  13. Relativistic Landau Levels in the Rotating Cosmic String Spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Cunha, M S; Christiansen, H R; Bezerra, V B

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the energy levels of a spinless massive and charged particle interacting with a stationary rotating cosmic string in a region with a static homogeneous magnetic field parallel to the string. First, we completely solve the Klein-Gordon equation in that particular spacetime, checking consistency in the non-relativistic limit and comparing with the static string case. We also solve the problem for a magnetized rotating cosmic string in order to find the Landau levels using rigid-wall boundary conditions, and discuss the possibility of these levels to be purely induced by spacetime rotation.

  14. Rotator Cuff Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... do you use to diagnose a rotator cuff tear? What types of tests do you use?" 00:46:23 JOHN URIBE, M.D.: Can we put him back up? 00:46:26 JOHN ZVIJAC, M.D.: Do you have any ... a rotator cuff tear just from the symptoms of the patient. Pain ...

  15. Numerical predictions of turbulent heat transfer for air flow in rotating pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ould-Rouiss, M., E-mail: ould@univ-mlv.f [Universite Paris-Est, MSME, UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 bd Descartes, 77454 Marne-la-Vallee (France); Dries, A. [Universite Paris-Est, MSME, UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 bd Descartes, 77454 Marne-la-Vallee (France); Mazouz, A. [Universite de Valenciennes, LMF, 59326 Valenciennes (France)

    2010-08-15

    Heat transfer in fully developed turbulent pipe flow with isoflux condition imposed at the wall is investigated numerically by use of direct numerical simulation (DNS) and large eddy simulation (LES) for various rotation rates (0{<=}N{<=}7) at a Reynolds number equal to 5500. To validate the present computations, predictions are compared to the results reported in the archival literature, and found to agree fairly well with them. With increasing rotation number, the temperature fluctuations decrease near the wall and are enhanced in the core region. The pipe rotation induces a reduction of the streamwise turbulent heat flux and an obvious augmentation of the azimuthal one, especially near the wall. Thus, heat transfer between fluid and wall is reduced. For higher rotation numbers (N>3), the flow and the scalar transport become nearly insensitive to N. Joint probability density functions sketch the correlation between flow and thermal fields. Visualization of the temperature field exhibits the stabilizing effects of the centrifugal forces.

  16. Double-walled carbon nanocones: stability and electronic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Elias; Freitas, Aliliane; Silva, Thiago; Guerra, Thiago; Azevedo, Sergio

    2015-06-01

    We have applied first-principles calculations, based on the density functional theory, to investigate the stability and electronic properties of double-walled carbon nanocones, 60°60°, 120°120° and 60°120° with different rotation angles between the walls. We have shown that the most favorable double-walled nanocone studied here is that of angles of 60°60°, with rotation angle of 36° and distance between apexes of 4.22 Å. We have found that, the interaction between the walls of rotated double-walled nanocones introduce geometric distortion in gap states, such as in Fermi level. These results should have consequences on the field emission properties of double-walled carbon nanocones. Additionally, we also investigated the spin polarization of such structures, and we have found unpaired electrons, which induces a total spin from 1 and 1/2 for 60°60° and 60°120° double cones, respectively.

  17. Uniformly rotating neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Boshkayev, Kuantay

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter we review the recent results on the equilibrium configurations of static and uniformly rotating neutron stars within the Hartle formalism. We start from the Einstein-Maxwell-Thomas-Fermi equations formulated and extended by Belvedere et al. (2012, 2014). We demonstrate how to conduct numerical integration of these equations for different central densities ${\\it \\rho}_c$ and angular velocities $\\Omega$ and compute the static $M^{stat}$ and rotating $M^{rot}$ masses, polar $R_p$ and equatorial $R_{\\rm eq}$ radii, eccentricity $\\epsilon$, moment of inertia $I$, angular momentum $J$, as well as the quadrupole moment $Q$ of the rotating configurations. In order to fulfill the stability criteria of rotating neutron stars we take into considerations the Keplerian mass-shedding limit and the axisymmetric secular instability. Furthermore, we construct the novel mass-radius relations, calculate the maximum mass and minimum rotation periods (maximum frequencies) of neutron stars. Eventually, we compare a...

  18. A Rotating Quantum Vacuum

    CERN Document Server

    De Lorenci, V A

    1996-01-01

    We investigate which mapping we have to use to compare measurements made in a rotating frame to those made in an inertial frame. Using a "Lorentz-like" coordinate transformation we obtain that creation-anihilation operators of a massless scalar field in the rotating frame are not the same as those of an inertial observer. This leads to a new vacuum state (a rotating vacuum) which is a superposition of positive and negative frequency Minkowski particles. After this, introducing an apparatus device coupled linearly with the field we obtain that there is a strong correlation between number of rotating particles (in a given state) obtained via canonical quantization and via response function of the rotating detector. Finally, we analyse polarization effects in circular accelerators in the proper frame of the electron making a connection with the inertial frame point of view.

  19. Interferometry for rotating sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velle, S.; Mehrabi Pari, S.; Csernai, L. P.

    2016-06-01

    The two particle interferometry method to determine the size of the emitting source after a heavy ion collision is extended. Following the extension of the method to spherical expansion dynamics, here we extend the method to rotating systems. It is shown that rotation of a cylindrically symmetric system leads to modifications, which can be perceived as spatial asymmetry by the "azimuthal HBT" method. We study an exact rotating and expanding solution of the fluid dynamical model of heavy ion reactions. We consider a source that is azimuthally symmetric in space around the axis of rotation, and discuss the features of the resulting two particle correlation function. This shows the azimuthal asymmetry arising from the rotation. We show that this asymmetry leads to results similar to those given by spatially asymmetric sources.

  20. ESTIMATING A ROTATION'S SELECTION PRESSURE FOR WEEDS, BASED ON JOINTED GOATGRASS DEMOGRAPHICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotations are rapidly changing in the Great Plains because of no-till systems. In place of winter wheat-fallow, producers are seeking rotations comprised of a diversity of crops. To help producers plan alternative rotations, we developed an empirical simulation model that estimated the impact of v...

  1. Tokamak MHD Stability at High Beta and Low Plasma Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, A. M.; Reimerdes, H.; Lanctot, M. J.; Albrecht, J. T.; Okabayashi, M.; Solomon, W. M.; Jackson, G. L.; La Haye, R. J.; Strait, E. J.

    2006-10-01

    Recent high-beta DIII-D experiments with the new capability of balanced neutral beam injection show that the resistive wall mode (RWM) remains stable even with significant reductions in the neutral beam torque relative to pure co-injection. Previous DIII-D experiments showed a higher plasma rotation threshold (˜1-3%,A) for RWM stabilization when resonant magnetic braking was used to lower the plasma rotation. We speculate that the previously observed rotation threshold corresponds to the entrance into a forbidden band of rotation that results from torque balance including the resonant field amplification by the stable RWM. Previous and recent experimental data show a bifurcation taking place when the plasma rotation is reduced to half its unperturbed value, consistent with theory [1]. This hypothesis may have implications for both RWM stability and error field tolerances in ITER. 4pt[1] R. Fitzpatrick, Nucl. Fusion 33, 1049 (1993).

  2. Rotational Deformation of Neutron Stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN De-Hua; CHEN Wei; LIU Liang-Gang

    2005-01-01

    @@ The rotational deformations of two kinds of neutron stars are calculated by using Hartle's slow-rotation formulism.The results show that only the faster rotating neutron star gives an obvious deformation. For the slow rotating neutron star with a period larger than hundreds of millisecond, the rotating deformation is very weak.

  3. Wall stabilized operation in high beta NSTX plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment, NSTX, has demonstrated the advantages of low aspect ratio geometry in accessing high βt ≡ 2μ0/B02 and βN ≡ 108t>aB0/Ip. Experiments have reached βt = 39% through boundary and profile optimization and βN = 6.8 utilizing moderate current profile modification. High βN plasmas can exceed the ideal no-wall stability limit, βNno-wall, for periods much greater than the wall eddy current decay time. Resistive wall mode (RWM) physics is studied to understand mode stabilization in these plasmas. The toroidal mode spectrum of unstable RWMs has been measured with mode number n up to 3. The critical rotation frequency of Bondeson-Chu, Ωcrit = ωA/(4q2) describes well the RWM stability of NSTX plasmas when applied over the entire rotation profile and in conjunction with the ideal stability criterion. Rotation damping and global rotation collapse observed in plasmas exceeding βNno-wall contrasts the damping observed during tearing mode activity and can be described by drag due to neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV) in the helically perturbed field of an ideal displacement. Resonant field amplification of an applied n = 1 field perturbation has been measured and increases with increasing βN. Equilibria are reconstructed including measured ion and electron pressure, toroidal rotation, and flux iso-surface constraint in plasmas with core rotation ωφ/ωA up to 0.48. Peak pressure shifts of 11% of the minor radius from the magnetic axis have been reconstructed. (author)

  4. Alternative 23

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Alternative 23 is a curated exhibition of works by Steve Aylett, David Blandy & Daniel Locke, Let Me Feel Your Finger First, Laura Oldfield Ford, Plastique Fantastique and Henrik Schrat, including the first screening of Let Me Feel Your Finger First’s Postcolonial Capers. In 1985 DC Comics in the US had taken the commercial decision to unify the complex and contradictory character story arcs from its various strips such as Superman, Batman and Green Lantern. The resultant crossover series...

  5. Did GW150914 produce a rotating gravastar?

    CERN Document Server

    Chirenti, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    The interferometric LIGO detectors have recently measured the first direct gravitational-wave signal from what has been interpreted as the inspiral, merger and ringdown of a binary system of black holes. The signal-to-noise ratio of the measured signal is large enough to leave little doubt that it does refer to the inspiral of two massive and ultracompact objects, whose merger yields a rotating black hole. Yet, room is left for alternative interpretations that do not involve black holes, but other objects that, within classical general relativity, can be equally massive and compact, namely, gravastars. We here consider the hypothesis that the merging objects were indeed gravastars and explore whether the merged object could therefore be not a black hole but a rotating gravastar. After comparing the real and imaginary parts of the ringdown signal of GW150914 with the corresponding quantities for a variety of gravastars, and notwithstanding the very limited knowledge of the perturbative response of rotating gra...

  6. A rotating quantum vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenci, V.A. de; Svaiter, N.F. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1996-11-01

    It was investigated which mapping has to be used to compare measurements made in a rotating frame to those made in an inertial frame. Using a non-Galilean coordinate transformation, the creation-annihilation operators of a massive scalar field in the rotating frame are not the same as those of an inertial observer. This leads to a new vacuum state(a rotating vacuum) which is a superposition of positive and negative frequency Minkowski particles. Polarization effects in circular accelerators in the proper frame of the electron making a connection with the inertial frame point of view were analysed. 65 refs.

  7. International Divider Walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruis, A.; Sneller, A.C.W.(L.)

    2013-01-01

    The subject of this teaching case is the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system implementation at International Divider Walls, the world market leader in design, production, and sales of divider walls. The implementation in one of the divisions of this multinational company had been successful, a

  8. Thin Wall Iron Castings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.F. Cuttino; D.M. Stefanescu; T.S. Piwonka

    2001-10-31

    Results of an investigation made to develop methods of making iron castings having wall thicknesses as small as 2.5 mm in green sand molds are presented. It was found that thin wall ductile and compacted graphite iron castings can be made and have properties consistent with heavier castings. Green sand molding variables that affect casting dimensions were also identified.

  9. The Humming Wall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Ann Judith; Manresa-Yee, Cristina; Jensen, Brian Walther Skovgaard; Eshraghi, Neda

    2016-01-01

    We observed interactions with The Humming Wall, a vibrotactile and vibroacoustic interactive artifact placed in an urban park. Prior studies have focused on interactivity with primarily vision based systems (or with this system, the interaction between the wall and a wearable vibrotactile vest...

  10. Skyrmions and domain walls

    OpenAIRE

    Piette, B.; Zakrzewski, W. J.

    1997-01-01

    We study the 3+1 dimensional Skyrme model with a mass term different from the usual one. We show that this new model possesses domain walls solutions. We describe how, in the equivalent 2+1 dimensional model, the Skyrmion is absorbed by the wall.

  11. Photons in polychromatic rotating modes

    OpenAIRE

    van Enk, S. J.; Nienhuis, G.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a quantum theory of rotating light beams and study some of its properties. Such beams are polychromatic and have either a slowly rotating polarization or a slowly rotating transverse mode pattern. We show that there are, for both cases, three different natural types of modes that qualify as rotating, one of which is a type not previously considered. We discuss differences between these three types of rotating modes on the one hand and nonrotating modes as viewed from a rotating fra...

  12. A mechanical simulator of cardiac wall kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutrì, Elena; Bagnoli, Paola; Marcelli, Emanuela; Biondi, Federico; Cercenelli, Laura; Costantino, Maria Laura; Plicchi, Gianni; Fumero, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Aim of this study is to develop a mechanical simulator (MS) reproducing cardiac wall kinematics [i.e., radial (R), longitudinal (L) and rotational (RT) motions] to test piezoelectric gyroscopic sensors (GS) that are able to measure cardiac torsion that has proved to be a sensitive index of cardiac performance. The MS consists of three brushless motors controlled by a dedicated software either separately or simultaneously reproducing the three main cardiac wall movements (R, L, RT) obtained by implementing different physiologic or pathologic velocity profiles derived from in vivo data. GS accuracy (max % error) was experimentally tested by connecting it to the MS driven in velocity in different working conditions [i.e., cardiac period (515-1030 ms), RT angle (4-16 degrees), GS axis inclination (0-90 degrees) with respect to the cardiac rotation axis]. The MS reproduced the tested velocity profiles well. The GS showed high accuracy in measuring both physiologic and pathologic RT velocity profiles, whereas they proved insensitive to R and L motions. GS axis inclination influenced measurements; however, it was possible to correct this taking the inclination angle cosine into account. The MS proved to be a useful tool to study cardiac wall kinematics and test GS reliability with a view to in vivo application. PMID:20404720

  13. Denitrification in anoxic rotating biological contactors

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, P; Oliveira, Rosário; Mota, M.

    2009-01-01

    Rotating Biological Contactors (RBCs) constitute a very unique and superior alternative for biodegradable matter and nitrogen removal on account of their feasibility, simplicity of design and operation, short start-up, low land area requirement, low energy consumption, low operating and maintenance cost and treatment efficiency, as well as easy scalability. It is well known that the performance of this type of reactors is controlled by a high number of design parameters. In thi...

  14. Rotator Cuff Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be moderating today's events. In just a moment, we'll be meeting my colleague, internationally-renowned orthopedic ... be performing arthroscopic rotator cuff repair and before we get to him I would like you to ...

  15. Rotator Cuff Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... unable to get to all of your questions, rest assured that we will give you email answers ... rotator cuff tear that does not respond to rest and physical therapy, perhaps even an injection, then ...

  16. Rotator Cuff Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ARTHROSCOPIC ROTATOR CUFF REPAIR DOCTORS HOSPITAL CENTER FOR ORTHOPEDICS AND SPORTS MEDICINE CORAL GABLES, FLORIDA June 18, ... we'll be meeting my colleague, internationally-renowned orthopedic surgeon and director of the Musculoskeletal Institute here ...

  17. Rotator Cuff Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... welcome you. [Speaks in Spanish.] We're in this patient's right shoulder. He's a 67-year old ... was sliding and stretched his arm out, sustained this pretty significant rotator cuff tear. So this is ...

  18. Solar rotation gravitational moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ajabshirizadeh

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available   Gravitational multipole moments of the Sun are still poorly known. Theoretically, the difficulty is mainly due to the differential rotation for which the velocity rate varies both on the surface and with the depth. From an observational point of view, the multipole moments cannot be directly measured. However, recent progresses have been made proving the existence of a strong radial differential rotation in a thin layer near the solar surface (the leptocline. Applying the theory of rotating stars, we will first compute values of J2 and J4 taking into account the radial gradient of rotation, then we will compare these values with the existing ones, giving a more complete review. We will explain some astrophysical outcomes, mainly on the relativistic Post Newtonian parameters. Finally we will conclude by indicating how space experiments (balloon SDS flights, Golf NG, Beppi-Colombo, Gaia... will be essential to unambiguously determine these parameters.

  19. Rotator Cuff Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... function, the amount of pain, and certainly the quality of the tissues. So there are a lot ... the rotator cuff tear, as well as the quality of the tissue and also the quality of ...

  20. Rotator Cuff Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... gives you a great picture. So all those methods are very useful. X-rays for the massive ... mean, we've seen rotator cuff tears in children. You can -- so we've seen them at ...

  1. Rotator Cuff Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the arm and to be a little more cosmetic, we'll incorporate that tear, the biceps that ... that's one of the common complications of arthroscopic surgery or open rotator cuff surgery is you remove ...

  2. Rotator Cuff Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... qualified therapist, which is also key that they stress the repair enough that it strengthens the repair ... fail, and particularly in rotator cuff surgery. The literature is all over the board. What are you ...

  3. The Spatiale Rotator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmusson, Allan

    2009-01-01

    The inherent demand for unbiasedness for some stereological estimators imposes a demand of not only positional uniform randomness but also isotropic randomness, i.e. directional uniform randomness. In order to comply with isotropy, one must perform a random rotation of the object of interest before...... region and on the correct subset of cells. This paper introduces a newly developed 3D stereological probe, the Spatial Rotator, which utilizes the computational and graphical powers of modern stereological workstations to eliminate the need for initial rotation of the specimen. Instead, the requirement...... for isotropy is obeyed by randomizing the orientation of the virtual probe itself within the thick section. Overall, the benefit is that positional information is kept for any block and section of the specimen. As the Spatial Rotator is a 3D probe, data must be gathered from sections thicker than 25...

  4. Rotator Cuff Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Speaks in Spanish.] We're in this patient's right shoulder. He's a 67-year old male. He's ... significant rotator cuff tear. So this is a right shoulder. This is a biceps tendon right here. ...

  5. Rotator Cuff Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... causes a little Popeye deformity of the biceps muscle. The good thing is -- stop. The good thing ... it's like a rubber band. This is the muscle back here of the rotator cuff. This is ...

  6. Rotator Cuff Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in the past, there's a variety of different choices to utilize. There's a question here regarding bone ... mean, we've seen rotator cuff tears in children. You can -- so we've seen them at ...

  7. Fractal Aggregation Under Rotation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUFeng-Min; WULi-Li; LUHang-Jun; LIQiao-Wen; YEGao-Xiang

    2004-01-01

    By means of the Monte Carlo simulation, a fractal growth model is introduced to describe diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) under rotation. Patterns which are different from the classical DLA model are observed and the fractal dimension of such clusters is calculated. It is found that the pattern of the clusters and their fractal dimension depend strongly on the rotation velocity of the diffusing particle. Our results indicate the transition from fractal to non-fractal behavior of growing cluster with increasing rotation velocity, i.e. for small enough angular velocity ω; thefractal dimension decreases with increasing ω;, but then, with increasing rotation velocity, the fractal dimension increases and the cluster becomes compact and tends to non-fractal.

  8. Fractal Aggregation Under Rotation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Feng-Min; WU Li-Li; LU Hang-Jun; LI Qiao-Wen; YE Gao-Xiang

    2004-01-01

    By means of the Monte Carlo simulation, a fractal growth model is introduced to describe diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) under rotation. Patterns which are different from the classical DLA model are observed and the fractal dimension of such clusters is calculated. It is found that the pattern of the clusters and their fractal dimension depend strongly on the rotation velocity of the diffusing particle. Our results indicate the transition from fractal to non-fractal behavior of growing cluster with increasing rotation velocity, i.e. for small enough angular velocity ω the fractal dimension decreases with increasing ω, but then, with increasing rotation velocity, the fractal dimension increases and the cluster becomes compact and tends to non-fractal.

  9. Energy alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to sharp rise in oil proces after the 1973 Arab-Israeli War, world attention has been focussed on the energy problem. At present the energy problem is limited to the cost and reliability of supply, even though there are enough supplies to go round. However, in the future the problem will be of availability, because in spite of the full exploitation of currently available conventional energy sources, the supply will fall short of demand which will always be increasing. Hence, there is need to develop alternate energy sources, including fast breeder reactors, fusion reactors and MHD. Economic and technical aspects of these energy are discussed. (M.G.B.)

  10. Alternative detente

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of the Chernobyl accident on the disarmament and anti-nuclear movements is discussed. The accident directed attention towards the areas in common rather than the areas of disagreement. It also demonstrated the environmental impact of radioactivity, strengthening the ecological case of the anti-nuclear movement. The issues are discussed for the Western and Eastern bloc countries and the relationship between the two. Sections focus on the Eco-protest, Green politics and economics and on the politics of minority protest and the Green alternative. (U.K.)

  11. Periplasmal Physics: The Rotational Dynamics of Spirochetal Flagella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Greg

    2012-02-01

    Spirochetes are distinguished by the location of their flagella, which reside within the periplasm: the tiny space between the bacterial cell wall and the outer membrane. In Borrelia burgdorferi/ (the causative agent of Lyme Disease), rotation of the flagella leads to cellular undulations that drive swimming. Exactly how these shape changes arise due to the forces and torques acting between the flagella and the cell body is unknown. By applying low-Reynolds number hydrodynamic theory to the motion of an elastic flagellum rotating in the periplasm, we show that the flagella are most likely separated from the bacterial cell wall by a lubricating layer of fluid. We obtain analytical solutions for the force and torque on the rotating flagellum through lubrication analysis, as well as through scaling analysis, and find results are in close agreement numerical simulations. (Joint work with J. Yang and C.W. Wolgemuth.)

  12. Rotating universe models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is made of some properties of the rotating Universe models. Godel's model is identified as a generalized filted model. Some properties of new solutions of the Einstein's equations, which are rotating non-stationary Universe models, are presented and analyzed. These models have the Godel's model as a particular case. Non-stationary cosmological models are found which are a generalization of the Godel's metrics in an analogous way in which Friedmann is to the Einstein's model. (L.C.)

  13. Rotating arc spark plug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whealton, John H.; Tsai, Chin-Chi

    2003-05-27

    A spark plug device includes a structure for modification of an arc, the modification including arc rotation. The spark plug can be used in a combustion engine to reduce emissions and/or improve fuel economy. A method for operating a spark plug and a combustion engine having the spark plug device includes the step of modifying an arc, the modifying including rotating the arc.

  14. Nuclear rotation. Part 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quasiclassical treatment of the model 'rotator+particle' is suggested. The classical equations of motion for this model are obtained. General solution of these equations is given. The actual for nuclear physics stationary rotations are studied in detail. The applications of model to the phenomenon of alignment of the 'odd nucleons' angular momentum along the vector of angular velocity is discussed. The comparison with the experiment shows a good agreement with the theoretical results. 17 refs.; 4 figs

  15. Rotational Doppler Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Halder, Amit

    2002-01-01

    A monochromatic linear source of light is rotated with certain angular frequency and when such light is analysed after reflection then a change of frequency or wavelength may be observed depending on the location of the observer. This change of frequency or wavelength is different from the classical Doppler effect [1] or relativistic Doppler effect [2]. The reason behind this shift in wavelength is that a certain time interval observed by an observer in the rotating frame is different from th...

  16. Solar Walls in tsbi3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    tsbi3 is a user-friendly and flexible computer program, which provides support to the design team in the analysis of the indoor climate and the energy performance of buildings. The solar wall module gives tsbi3 the capability of simulating solar walls and their interaction with the building. This...... version, C, of tsbi3 is capable of simulating five types of solar walls say: mass-walls, Trombe-walls, double Trombe-walls, internally ventilated walls and solar walls for preheating ventilation air. The user's guide gives a description of the capabilities and how to simulate solar walls in tsbi3....

  17. Alternative crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surplus cereal production in the EEC and decreasing product prices, mainly for cereals, has prompted considerable interest for new earnings in arable farming. The objective was to examine whether suggested new crops (fibre, oil, medicinal and alternative grains crops) could be considered as real alternatives. Whether a specific crop can compete economically with cereals and whether there is a market demand for the crop is analyzed. The described possibilities will result in ca. 50,000 hectares of new crops. It is expected that they would not immediately provide increased earnings, but in the long run expected price developments are more positive than for cereals. The area for new crops will not solve the current surplus cereal problem as the area used for new crops is only 3% of that used for cereals. Preconditions for many new crops is further research activities and development work as well as the establishment of processing units and organizational initiatives. Presumably, it is stated, there will then be a basis for a profitable production of new crops for some farmers. (AB) (47 refs.)

  18. Innovative Sensors for Pipeline Crawlers: Rotating Permanent Magnet Inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Bruce Nestleroth; Richard J. Davis; Stephanie Flamberg

    2006-09-30

    Internal inspection of pipelines is an important tool for ensuring safe and reliable delivery of fossil energy products. Current inspection systems that are propelled through the pipeline by the product flow cannot be used to inspect all pipelines because of the various physical barriers they may encounter. To facilitate inspection of these ''unpiggable'' pipelines, recent inspection development efforts have focused on a new generation of powered inspection platforms that are able to crawl slowly inside a pipeline and can maneuver past the physical barriers that limit internal inspection applicability, such as bore restrictions, low product flow rate, and low pressure. The first step in this research was to review existing inspection technologies for applicability and compatibility with crawler systems. Most existing inspection technologies, including magnetic flux leakage and ultrasonic methods, had significant implementation limitations including mass, physical size, inspection energy coupling requirements and technology maturity. The remote field technique was the most promising but power consumption was high and anomaly signals were low requiring sensitive detectors and electronics. After reviewing each inspection technology, it was decided to investigate the potential for a new inspection method. The new inspection method takes advantage of advances in permanent magnet strength, along with their wide availability and low cost. Called rotating permanent magnet inspection (RPMI), this patent pending technology employs pairs of permanent magnets rotating around the central axis of a cylinder to induce high current densities in the material under inspection. Anomalies and wall thickness variations are detected with an array of sensors that measure local changes in the magnetic field produced by the induced current flowing in the material. This inspection method is an alternative to the common concentric coil remote field technique that induces

  19. First wall for NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In collaboration with ANSALDO and within the frame of the European Fusion Tecnology Task N1 (Plasma Facing Components Design Studies), ENEA has performed a design an manufacturing feasibility study for the first wall of the Next European Torus (NET) during its ''physics'' operation phase. The main design specifications are average neutron wall load=1 MW/m2, peak surface heat flux=0.4 MW/m2, total number of burn pulses=1*104, average burn pulse duration=100 s, average neutron fluence=0.03 MWy/m2, structure material=AISI 316L SA, coolant=H2O at 50/100 centigrates (in/out). The reference ENEA-ANSALDO design is based on the use of flat plates coupled by microbrazing to poloidal cooling tubes. The technological development work has led to the design and manufacturing of a representative NET first wall box segment (0.65x 0.25x0.15 m) mockup which will be tested in the 190 kW Thermal Fatique Test Facility at JRC-Ispra. In this paper, we report on the various aspects of the basic experimental and theoretical investigations on the plasma-wall interactions for adequate protection of the first wall against erosion, global stress analysis of the first wall box, thecnological tests on brazed joints, and disign and manufacturing of the first wall mockup

  20. Rotating superconductor magnet for producing rotating lobed magnetic field lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rotating superconductor magnet is described for producing a rotating lobed magnetic field, comprising a cryostat; a superconducting magnet in the cryostat having a collar for producing a lobed magnetic field having oppositely directed adjacent field lines; rotatable support means for selectively rotating the superconductor magnet; and means for energizing the superconductor magnet

  1. RESISTIVE WALL STABILIZATION OF HIGH BETA PLASMAS IN DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STRAIT,EJ; BIALEK,J; BOGATU,N; CHANCE,M; CHU,MS; EDGELL,D; GAROFALO,AM; JACKSON,GL; JENSEN,TH; JOHNSON,LC; KIM,JS; LAHAYE,RJ; NAVRATIL,G; OKABAYASHI,M; REIMERDES,H; SCOVILLE,JT; TURNBULL,AD; WALKER,ML

    2002-09-01

    OAK A271 RESISTIVE WALL STABILIZATION OF HIGH BETA PLASMAS IN DIII-D. Recent DIII-D experiments show that ideal kink modes can be stabilized at high beta by a resistive wall, with sufficient plasma rotation. However, the resonant response by a marginally stable resistive wall mode to static magnetic field asymmetries can lead to strong damping of the rotation. Careful reduction of such asymmetries has allowed plasmas with beta well above the ideal MHD no-wall limit, and approaching the ideal-wall limit, to be sustained for durations exceeding one second. Feedback control can improve plasma stability by direct stabilization of the resistive wall mode or by reducing magnetic field asymmetry. Assisted by plasma rotation, direct feedback control of resistive wall modes with growth rates more than 5 times faster than the characteristic wall time has been observed. These results open a new regime of tokamak operation above the free-boundary stability limit, accessible by a combination of plasma rotation and feedback control.

  2. Physical and numerical modelling of earth pressure on anchored sheet pile walls in sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsbøll, Anette Susanne; Fuglsang, Leif D

    The influence of wall flexibility on earth pressure, bending moments and failure modes is studied. Numerical models are compared to results from model tests carried out in a geotechnical centrifuge. The back-fill is dry sand and failure is introduced by allowing the wall to rotate around the anch...

  3. Physical and numerical modelling of earth pressure on anchored sheet pile walls in sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsbøll, Anette Susanne; Fuglsang, Leif D

    2006-01-01

    The influence of wall flexibility on earth pressure, bending moments and failure modes is studied. Numerical models are compared to results from model tests carried out in a geotechnical centrifuge. The back-fill is dry sand and failure is introduced by allowing the wall to rotate around the anch...

  4. Plasma-wall interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plasma wall interactions for two extreme cases, the 'vacuum model' and the 'cold gas blanket' are outlined. As a first step for understanding the plasma wall interactions the elementary interaction processes at the first wall are identified. These are energetic ion and neutral particle trapping and release, ion and neutral backscattering, ion sputtering, desorption by ions, photons and electrons and evaporation. These processes have only recently been started to be investigated in the parameter range of interest for fusion research. The few measured data and their extrapolation into regions not yet investigated are reviewed

  5. Toroidal rotation and halo current produced by disruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Henry; Sugiyama, Linda; Paccagnella, Roberto; Breslau, Joshua; Jardin, Stephen

    2013-10-01

    In several experiments including JET, it was observed that disruptions were accompanied by toroidal rotation. There is a concern that there may be a resonance between rotating toroidal perturbations and the resonant frequencies of the ITER vacuum vessel, causing enhanced damage. MHD simulations with M3D demonstrate that disruptions produce toroidal rotation. The toroidal velocity can produce several rotations of the sideways force during a disruption. Edge localized modes (ELMs) also produce poloidal and toroidal rotation. A theory of rotation produced by MHD activity will be presented. In the case of ELMs, the theory gives toroidal rotation Alfven Mach number, Mϕ ~10-2βN . This is consistent with a scaling for intrinsic toroidal rotation in H mode tokamaks. It was also discovered on JET that disruptions were accompanied by toroidal variation of the plasma current Iϕ. From ∇ . j = 0 , the toroidal current variation ΔIϕ is proportional to the 3D halo current, ∮Jn Rdl , where Jn is the normal current density at the wall. The 3D halo current is calculated analytically and computationally. A bound on ΔIϕ /Iϕ is found, proportional to the halo current fraction and toroidal peaking factor. Supported by USDOE and ITER.

  6. Energy alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English. A special committe of the Canadian House of Commons was established on 23 May 1980 to investigate the use of alternative energy sources such as 'gasohol', liquified coal, solar energy, methanol, wind and tidal power, biomass, and propane. In its final report, the committee envisions an energy system for Canada based on hydrogen and electricity, using solar and geothermal energy for low-grade heat. The committe was not able to say which method of generating electricty would dominate in the next century, although it recommends that fossil fuels should not be used. The fission process is not specifically discussed, but the outlook for fusion was investigated, and continued governmental support of fusion research is recommended. The report proposes some improvements in governmental energy organizations and programs

  7. Blade rows interaction in contra-rotating axial flow pump designed with different rotational speed concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contra-rotating axial flow pump consisiting of counter-rotating tandem rotors has been expermentally confirmed with better performances than the conventional axial flow pump, but it is known to suffer from the significant potential interaction between the counter-rotating blade rows, which is responsible for the repetitive stresses and unfavourable to the reliable operation. Consequently, to improve the realiability of contra-rotating axial flow pump including the reduction of the blade rows interaction, a new type of rear rotor was designed in the previous study by the rotational speed optimization methodology with some additional considerations. In the present study, to understand the effectiveness of the new design method, instantaneous static pressure fluctuations on the casing wall under the design and off design conditions are investigated by means of experimental and numerical simulation methods. The Fourier analysis is employed to process the data obtained from experiments and numerical simulations, and the axial distribution of the Blade Passing Frequency (BPF) amplitude is obtained. The new rear rotor shows weakened BPF amplitude both upstream and downstream especially at the positions between the two blade rows in both CFD and EFD analyses, implying the reduced blade rows interaction with the new rear rotor

  8. Sensitivity to full-field visual movement compatible with head rotation: variations among axes of rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, L R; Lott, L A

    1995-01-01

    Movement detection thresholds for full-field visual motion about various axes were measured in three subjects using a two-alternative forced-choice staircase method. Thresholds for 1-s exposures to rotation about different rotation axes varied significantly over the range 0.139 +/- 0.05 deg/s to 0.463 +/- 0.166 deg/s. The highest thresholds were found in response to rotation about axes closely aligned to the line of sight. Variations among the thresholds for different axes could not be explained by different movement patterns in the fovea or variations in motion sensitivity with eccentricity. The variations can be well simulated by a three-channel model for coding the axis and velocity of full-field visual motion. A three-channel visual coding system would be well suited for extracting information about self-rotation from a complex pattern of retinal image motion containing components due to both rotation and translation. A three-channel visual motion system would also be readily compatible with vestibular information concerning self-rotation arising from the semicircular canals. PMID:8527373

  9. Automatic Wall Painting Robot

    OpenAIRE

    P.KEERTHANAA, K.JEEVITHA, V.NAVINA, G.INDIRA, S.JAYAMANI

    2013-01-01

    The Primary Aim Of The Project Is To Design, Develop And Implement Automatic Wall Painting Robot Which Helps To Achieve Low Cost Painting Equipment. Despite The Advances In Robotics And Its Wide Spreading Applications, Interior Wall Painting Has Shared Little In Research Activities. The Painting Chemicals Can Cause Hazards To The Human Painters Such As Eye And Respiratory System Problems. Also The Nature Of Painting Procedure That Requires Repeated Work And Hand Rising Makes It Boring, Time A...

  10. Plasma-wall interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document gathers the 43 slides presented in the framework of the week long lecture 'hot plasmas 2004' and dedicated to plasma-wall interaction in a tokamak. This document is divided into 4 parts: 1) thermal load on the wall, power extraction and particle recovery, 2) basic edge plasma physics, 3) processes that drive the plasma-solid interaction, and 4) material conditioning (surface treatment...) for ITER

  11. How good a clock is rotation? The stellar rotation-mass-age relationship for old field stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rotation-mass-age relationship offers a promising avenue for measuring the ages of field stars, assuming the attendant uncertainties to this technique can be well characterized. We model stellar angular momentum evolution starting with a rotation distribution from open cluster M37. Our predicted rotation-mass-age relationship shows significant zero-point offsets compared to an alternative angular momentum loss law and published gyrochronology relations. Systematic errors at the 30% level are permitted by current data, highlighting the need for empirical guidance. We identify two fundamental sources of uncertainty that limit the precision of rotation-based ages and quantify their impact. Stars are born with a range of rotation rates, which leads to an age range at fixed rotation period. We find that the inherent ambiguity from the initial conditions is important for all young stars, and remains large for old stars below 0.6 M ☉. Latitudinal surface differential rotation also introduces a minimum uncertainty into rotation period measurements and, by extension, rotation-based ages. Both models and the data from binary star systems 61 Cyg and α Cen demonstrate that latitudinal differential rotation is the limiting factor for rotation-based age precision among old field stars, inducing uncertainties at the ∼2 Gyr level. We also examine the relationship between variability amplitude, rotation period, and age. Existing ground-based surveys can detect field populations with ages as old as 1-2 Gyr, while space missions can detect stars as old as the Galactic disk. In comparison with other techniques for measuring the ages of lower main sequence stars, including geometric parallax and asteroseismology, rotation-based ages have the potential to be the most precise chronometer for 0.6-1.0 M ☉ stars.

  12. The empirical Earth rotation model from VLBI observations

    OpenAIRE

    Petrov, L.

    2006-01-01

    AIMS: An alternative to the traditional method for modeling kinematics of the Earth's rotation is proposed. The purpose of developing the new approach is to provide a self-consistent and simple description of the Earth's rotation in a way that can be estimated directly from observations without using intermediate quantities. METHODS: Instead of estimating the time series of pole coordinates, the UT1--TAI angles, their rates, and the daily offsets of nutation, it is proposed to estimate coeffi...

  13. Near-wall diffusion tensor of an axisymmetric colloidal particle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisicki, Maciej; Cichocki, Bogdan; Wajnryb, Eligiusz

    2016-07-21

    Hydrodynamic interactions with confining boundaries often lead to drastic changes in the diffusive behaviour of microparticles in suspensions. For axially symmetric particles, earlier numerical studies have suggested a simple form of the near-wall diffusion matrix which depends on the distance and orientation of the particle with respect to the wall, which is usually calculated numerically. In this work, we derive explicit analytical formulae for the dominant correction to the bulk diffusion tensor of an axially symmetric colloidal particle due to the presence of a nearby no-slip wall. The relative correction scales as powers of inverse wall-particle distance and its angular structure is represented by simple functions in sines and cosines of the particle's inclination angle to the wall. We analyse the correction for translational and rotational motion, as well as the translation-rotation coupling. Our findings provide a simple approximation to the anisotropic diffusion tensor near a wall, which completes and corrects relations known from earlier numerical and theoretical findings. PMID:27448903

  14. Conducting Wall Hall Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Dan M.; Hofer, Richard R.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Polk, James E.; Dotson, Brandon

    2013-01-01

    A unique configuration of the magnetic field near the wall of Hall thrusters, called Magnetic Shielding, has recently demonstrated the ability to significantly reduce the erosion of the boron nitride (BN) walls and extend the life of Hall thrusters by orders of magnitude. The ability of magnetic shielding to minimize interactions between the plasma and the discharge chamber walls has for the first time enabled the replacement of insulating walls with conducting materials without loss in thruster performance. The boron nitride rings in the 6 kW H6 Hall thruster were replaced with graphite that self-biased to near the anode potential. The thruster efficiency remained over 60% (within two percent of the baseline BN configuration) with a small decrease in thrust and increase in Isp typical of magnetically shielded Hall thrusters. The graphite wall temperatures decreased significantly compared to both shielded and unshielded BN configurations, leading to the potential for higher power operation. Eliminating ceramic walls makes it simpler and less expensive to fabricate a thruster to survive launch loads, and the graphite discharge chamber radiates more efficiently which increases the power capability of the thruster compared to conventional Hall thruster designs.

  15. Analysis of buoyancy effect on fully developed laminar heat transfer in a rotating tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, R.

    1985-01-01

    Laminar heat transfer is analyzed in a tube rotating about an axis perpendicular to the tube axis. The solution applies for flow that is either radially outward from the axis of rotation, or radially inward toward the axis of rotation. The conditions are fully developed, and there is uniform heat addition at the tube wall. The analysis is performed by expanding velocities and temperature in power series using the Taylor number as a perturbation parameter. Coriolis and buoyancy forces caused by tube rotation are included, and the solution is calculated through second-order terms. The secondary flow induced by the Coriolis terms always tends to increase the heat transfer coefficient; this effect can dominate for small wall heating. For radial inflow, buoyancy also tends to improve heat transfer. For radial outflow, however, buoyancy tends to reduce heat transfer; for large wall heating this effect can dominate, and there is a net reduction in heat transfer coefficient.

  16. Chiral Rotational Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, Robert P; Barnett, Stephen M

    2015-01-01

    We introduce chiral rotational spectroscopy: a new technique that enables the determination of the individual optical activity polarisability components $G_{XX}'$, $G_{YY}'$, $G_{ZZ}'$, $A_{X,YZ}$, $A_{Y,ZX}$ and $A_{Z,XY}$ of chiral molecules, in a manner that reveals the enantiomeric constitution of a sample whilst yielding an incisive signal even for a racemate. Chiral rotational spectroscopy could find particular use in the analysis of molecules that are chiral by virtue of their isotopic constitution and molecules with multiple chiral centres. The principles that underpin chiral rotational spectroscopy can also be exploited in the search for molecular chirality in space, which, if found, may add weight to hypotheses that biological homochirality and indeed life itself are of cosmic origin.

  17. Rotating Aperture System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusnak, Brian; Hall, James M.; Shen, Stewart; Wood, Richard L.

    2005-01-18

    A rotating aperture system includes a low-pressure vacuum pumping stage with apertures for passage of a deuterium beam. A stator assembly includes holes for passage of the beam. The rotor assembly includes a shaft connected to a deuterium gas cell or a crossflow venturi that has a single aperture on each side that together align with holes every rotation. The rotating apertures are synchronized with the firing of the deuterium beam such that the beam fires through a clear aperture and passes into the Xe gas beam stop. Portions of the rotor are lapped into the stator to improve the sealing surfaces, to prevent rapid escape of the deuterium gas from the gas cell.

  18. The optical rotator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tandrup, T; Gundersen, Hans Jørgen Gottlieb; Jensen, Eva B. Vedel

    1997-01-01

    The optical rotator is an unbiased, local stereological principle for estimation of cell volume and cell surface area in thick, transparent slabs, The underlying principle was first described in 1993 by Kieu Jensen (T. Microsc. 170, 45-51) who also derived an estimator of length, In this study we...... further discuss the methods derived from this principle and present two new local volume estimators. The optical rotator benefits from information obtained in all three dimensions in thick sections but avoids over-/ underprojection problems at the extremes of the cell. Using computer-assisted microscopes...... the extra measurements demand minimal extra effort and make this estimator even more efficient when it comes to estimation of individual cell size than many of the previous local estimators, We demonstrate the principle of the optical rotator in an example (the cells in the dorsal root ganglion of the...

  19. Natures of Rotating Stall Cell in a Diagonal Flow Fan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N. SHIOMI; K. KANEKO; T. SETOGUCHI

    2005-01-01

    In order to clarify the natures of a rotating stall cell, the experimental investigation was carried out in a high specific-speed diagonal flow fan. The pressure field on the casing wall and the velocity fields at the rotor inlet and outlet were measured under rotating stall condition with a fast response pressure transducer and a single slant hot-wire probe, respectively. The data were processed using the "Double Phase-Locked Averaging (DPLA)"technique, which enabled to obtain the unsteady flow field with a rotating stall cell in the relative co-ordinate system fixed to the rotor. As a result, the structure and behavior of the rotating stall cell in a high specific-speed diagonal flow fan were shown.

  20. Time-dependent resonant magneto-optical rotation

    CERN Document Server

    Dziczek, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    Results of a fairly straightforward experiment on resonant magneto-optical rotation by rubidium-87 atoms revealed strong time-dependence of the polarization plane of light emerging from atomic vapors following a sudden irradiation with a laser beam. The rotation of the plane appears as a not direct consequence of the influence of the magnetic field on atoms. Reported measurements conducted using a vapor cell without any buffer gas or an anti-relaxation wall coating show that transmitted light has initially the same (linear) polarization as the incident one. Rotation of the polarization plane caused by an axial magnetic field develops in time scales similar to the pace of establishing the optical pumping/relaxation equilibrium in the atomic ensemble. The traditional passive Faraday rotation picture providing working description for the resonant magneto-optical effects in steady-state conditions does not explain the observed sequence of evolution of the polarization. The picture has to be augmented with analysi...

  1. Integrating rotation from angular velocity

    OpenAIRE

    Zupan, Eva; Saje, Miran

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The integration of the rotation from a given angular velocity is often required in practice. The present paper explores how the choice of the parametrization of rotation, when employed in conjuction with different numerical time-integration schemes, effects the accuracy and the computational efficiency. Three rotation parametrizations – the rotational vector, the Argyris tangential vector and the rotational quaternion – are combined with three different numerical time-integration ...

  2. Rotating bubble membrane radiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Brent J.; Coomes, Edmund P.

    1988-12-06

    A heat radiator useful for expelling waste heat from a power generating system aboard a space vehicle is disclosed. Liquid to be cooled is passed to the interior of a rotating bubble membrane radiator, where it is sprayed into the interior of the bubble. Liquid impacting upon the interior surface of the bubble is cooled and the heat radiated from the outer surface of the membrane. Cooled liquid is collected by the action of centrifical force about the equator of the rotating membrane and returned to the power system. Details regarding a complete space power system employing the radiator are given.

  3. Rotating flexible drag mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, W.B.

    1984-05-09

    A rotating parachute for decelerating objects travelling through atmosphere at subsonic or supersonic deployment speeds includes a circular canopy having a plurality of circumferentially arranged flexible panels projecting radially from a solid central disk. A slot extends radially between adjacent panels to the outer periphery of the canopy. Upon deployment, the solid disk diverts air radially to rapidly inflate the panels into a position of maximum diameter. Air impinging on the panels adjacent the panel slots rotates the parachute during its descent. Centrifugal force flattens the canopy into a constant maximum diameter during terminal descent for maximum drag and deceleration.

  4. Electromechanical systems generating constant frequency alternating current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т.А. Мазур

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available  In the article we consider the usage of electromechanical drivers of constant speed rotation, which is based on many stepped electrodynamic reduction unit, in onboard main systems of electric supply of alternative current with constant frequency.

  5. Prediction of windage power loss in alternators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrancik, J. E.

    1971-01-01

    Simplified equations and constants, based on laminar and turbulent flow theory between parallel plates, estimate windage loss in rotating electrical machinery. Comparison of calculated results and experimental data for smooth cylindrical rotor and slotted alternator yields 7 percent maximum variation between calculated and experimental data.

  6. SHEAR WAVES IN PERIODIC WAVEGUIDE WITH ALTERNATING BOUNDARY CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Piliposyan D.G.; Ghazaryan R.A.; Ghazaryan K.B.

    2014-01-01

    The propagation of shear waves in elastic waveguide of periodic structure consisting of three different materials with alternating along the guide walls boundary conditions is investigated. Using the transfer matrix approach the problem is reduced to the solution of a block transfer matrix eigenvalue problem. Bloth the dispersion and the band gap structure analysis have been carried out numerically. It is shown that for alternating boundary conditions along the waveguide walls, by modulating ...

  7. Investigation of the interaction of a turbulent impinging jet and a heated, rotating disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manceau, R.; Perrin, R.; Hadžiabdić, M.; Benhamadouche, S.

    2014-03-01

    The case of a turbulent round jet impinging perpendicularly onto a rotating, heated disc is investigated, in order to understand the mechanisms at the origin of the influence of rotation on the radial wall jet and associated heat transfer. The present study is based on the complementary use of an analysis of the orders of magnitude of the terms of the mean momentum and Reynolds stress transport equations, available experiments, and dedicated Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes computations with refined turbulence models. The Reynolds number Rej = 14 500, the orifice-to-plate distance H = 5D, where D is the jet-orifice diameter, and the four rotation rates were chosen to match the experiments of Minagawa and Obi ["Development of turbulent impinging jet on a rotating disk," Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow 25, 759-766 (2004)] and comparisons are made with the Nusselt number distribution measured by Popiel and Boguslawski ["Local heat transfer from a rotating disk in an impinging round jet," J. Heat Transfer 108, 357-364 (1986)], at a higher Reynolds number. The overestimation of turbulent mixing in the free-jet before the impact on the disk is detrimental to the prediction of the impingement region, in particular of the Nusselt number close to the symmetry axis, but the self-similar wall jet developing along the disk is correctly reproduced by the models. The analysis, experiments, and computations show that the rotational effect do not directly affect the outer layer, but only the inner layer of the wall jet. A noteworthy consequence is that entrainment at the outer edge of the wall jet is insensitive to rotation, which explains the dependence of the wall-jet thickness on the inverse of the non-dimensional rotation rate, observed in the experiments and the Reynolds stress model computations, but not reproduced by the eddy-viscosity models, due to the algebraic dependence to the mean flow. The analysis makes moreover possible the identification of a scenario for the appearance of

  8. Rotator Cuff Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... nice and round and smooth it is. Okay, let's go up on top. 00:07:06 JOHN ZVIJAC, ... you're looking down on the rotator cuff -- let me have a debrider and I'll clean it up a little bit. Then I can go back inside and we can maybe take a ...

  9. Rotator Cuff Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... JOHN ZVIJAC, M.D.: There's a question about "What type of suture do you use? Is it absorbable ... you use to diagnose a rotator cuff tear? What types of tests do you use?" 00:46:23 ...

  10. Rotator Cuff Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dr. Uribe's going to go up into this space. It's called the subacromial space, and that is where the rotator cuff repair ... flap of tissue, gets caught in that subacromial space Dr. Zvijac was talking about and that produces ...

  11. Rotator Cuff Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ARTHROSCOPIC ROTATOR CUFF REPAIR DOCTORS HOSPITAL CENTER FOR ORTHOPEDICS AND SPORTS MEDICINE CORAL GABLES, FLORIDA June 18, 2008 00:00:00 JOHN ZVIJAC, M.D.: Good afternoon and welcome to Doctors Hospital in Coral Gables, Florida. I'm Dr. ...

  12. Rotator Cuff Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... JOHN URIBE, M.D.: I think certainly a physical exam is key. I think symptoms, you can almost diagnose a rotator cuff tear just from the symptoms of the patient. Pain at night, pain with overhead activities, when there are very large errors, there is ...

  13. Rotational Dynamics with Tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eadkhong, T.; Rajsadorn, R.; Jannual, P.; Danworaphong, S.

    2012-01-01

    We propose the use of Tracker, freeware for video analysis, to analyse the moment of inertia ("I") of a cylindrical plate. Three experiments are performed to validate the proposed method. The first experiment is dedicated to find the linear coefficient of rotational friction ("b") for our system. By omitting the effect of such friction, we derive…

  14. Rotator Cuff Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the tissues. So there are a lot of factors. It's not just age. I've repaired rotator cuffs in people well into their 80s and also treated people in their 50s conservatively, so it's fairly variable. But again, it's symptoms and activity-related, too. A very sedentary person with a small ...

  15. Rotations and angular momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is devoted to the analysis of rotational invariance and the properties of angular momentum in quantum mechanics. In particular, the problem of addition of angular momenta is treated in detail, and tables of Clebsch-Gordan coefficients are included

  16. Anisotropy in rotating drums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povall, Timothy; McBride, Andrew; Govender, Indresan

    2015-11-01

    An anisotropic relationship between the stress and the strain rate has been observed in two-dimensional simulations of rotating drums. The objective of this work is to investigate the structure of the constitutive relation using three-dimensional discrete-element-method simulations of a rotating drum containing identical rigid spheres for a range of rotational speeds. Anisotropy is quantified from the alignment of the stress and strain rate tensors, with the strain rate computed using a least-squares fit. It is shown that in certain regions there is a strong anisotropic relationship, regardless of the speed of rotation. The effective friction coefficient is examined in order to determine the phase space in which the μ (I) rheology is valid. Lastly, a depth-averaged approach through the flowing layer is employed to determine the relationship between the velocity tangential to the equilibrium surface and the height of the flowing layer. A power-law relationship that approaches linear at high speeds is observed. Supported by NRF/DST Scarce Skills (South Africa).

  17. Rotator Cuff Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, G. Patrick

    Many baseball players suffer from shoulder injuries related to the rotator cuff muscles. These injuries may be classified as muscular strain, tendonitis or tenosynovitis, and impingement syndrome. Treatment varies from simple rest to surgery, so it is important to be seen by a physician as soon as possible. In order to prevent these injuries, the…

  18. Rigidly rotating perfect fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A class of stationary rigidly rotating perfect fluids in General Relativity is investigated. This class which is characterized by zero Simon tensor contains only the Wahlquist solution and its limits. It is shown how a recently given solution follows from the Wahlquist solution by a limiting procedure. (author)

  19. The Chlamydomonas cell wall: characterization of the wall framework

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    The cell wall of the biflagellate alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a multilayered, extracellular matrix composed of carbohydrates and 20-25 polypeptides. To learn more about the forces responsible for the integrity of this cellulose-deficient cell wall, we have begun studies to identify and characterize the framework of the wall and to determine the effects of the cell wall-degrading enzyme, lysin, on framework structure and protein composition. In these studies we used walls released into t...

  20. Direct numerical simulation of turbulent flow in a rotating square duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Yi-Jun; Huang, Wei-Xi, E-mail: hwx@tsinghua.edu.cn; Xu, Chun-Xiao; Cui, Gui-Xiang [AML, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-06-15

    A fully developed turbulent flow in a rotating straight square duct is simulated by direct numerical simulations at Re{sub τ} = 300 and 0 ≤ Ro{sub τ} ≤ 40. The rotating axis is parallel to two opposite walls of the duct and normal to the main flow. Variations of the turbulence statistics with the rotation rate are presented, and a comparison with the rotating turbulent channel flow is discussed. Rich secondary flow patterns in the cross section are observed by varying the rotation rate. The appearance of a pair of additional vortices above the pressure wall is carefully examined, and the underlying mechanism is explained according to the budget analysis of the mean momentum equations.

  1. Alternative Splice in Alternative Lice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar-Corona, Jaime M; Castillo-Morales, Atahualpa; Chen, Lu; Olds, Brett P; Clark, John M; Reynolds, Stuart E; Pittendrigh, Barry R; Feil, Edward J; Urrutia, Araxi O

    2015-10-01

    Genomic and transcriptomics analyses have revealed human head and body lice to be almost genetically identical; although con-specific, they nevertheless occupy distinct ecological niches and have differing feeding patterns. Most importantly, while head lice are not known to be vector competent, body lice can transmit three serious bacterial diseases; epidemictyphus, trench fever, and relapsing fever. In order to gain insights into the molecular bases for these differences, we analyzed alternative splicing (AS) using next-generation sequencing data for one strain of head lice and one strain of body lice. We identified a total of 3,598 AS events which were head or body lice specific. Exon skipping AS events were overrepresented among both head and body lice, whereas intron retention events were underrepresented in both. However, both the enrichment of exon skipping and the underrepresentation of intron retention are significantly stronger in body lice compared with head lice. Genes containing body louse-specific AS events were found to be significantly enriched for functions associated with development of the nervous system, salivary gland, trachea, and ovarian follicle cells, as well as regulation of transcription. In contrast, no functional categories were overrepresented among genes with head louse-specific AS events. Together, our results constitute the first evidence for transcript pool differences in head and body lice, providing insights into molecular adaptations that enabled human lice to adapt to clothing, and representing a powerful illustration of the pivotal role AS can play in functional adaptation. PMID:26169943

  2. Novel rotating field probe for inspection of tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, J.; Tarkleson, E.; Lei, N.; Udpa, L.; Udpa, S. S.

    2012-05-01

    Inspection of steam generator tubes in nuclear power plants is extremely critical for safe operation of the power plant. In the nuclear industry, steam generator tube inspection using eddy current techniques has evolved over the years from a single bobbin coil, to rotating probe coil (RPC) and array probe, in an attempt to improve the speed and reliability of inspection. The RPC probe offers the accurate spatial resolution but involves complex mechanical rotation. This paper presents a novel design of eddy current probes based on rotating fields produced by three identical coils excited by a balanced three-phase supply. The sensor thereby achieves rotating probe functionality by electronic means and eliminates the need for mechanical rotation. The field generated by the probe is largely radial that result in induced currents that flow circularly around the radial axis and rotating around the tube at a synchronous speed effectively producing induced eddy currents that are multidirectional. The probe will consequently be sensitive to cracks of all orientations in the tube wall. The finite element model (FEM) results of the rotating fields and induced currents are presented. A prototype probe is being built to validate simulation results.

  3. Fluctuation Pressure of a Membrane Between Walls Through Five Loops

    OpenAIRE

    Kastening, Boris

    2002-01-01

    An earlier four-loop calculation of the fluctuation pressure of a fluid membrane between two infinite walls is extended to five loops. Variational perturbation theory is used to extract the hard-wall limit from perturbative results obtained with a smooth potential. Comparison with a structurally similar quantum mechanics problem of a particle in a box is used for an alternative way of extracting the membrane pressure and also to estimate the quality of the results. Our values lie above the be...

  4. Looking for an Alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Jack

    1999-01-01

    Argues that high school newspapers might do well to create stronger ties with alternative weeklies. Discusses issues of niche marketing, alternative content, and alternative presentation. Notes that high school papers could learn a lot from alternative newspapers. (SR)

  5. Hydrological consequences of short rotation forestry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willow stands on a short rotation basis are introduced in Sweden as an alternative crop for energy purposes. The changes in water balance when growing these stands have been studied by simulations with a mathematical model and by an hydrological object-reference study on a peat bog. The short rotation forests are geographically spread, grown on different soils and with varying management. This gives a spread in water balance results. The studies show that the total evaporation from short rotation forest is higher than from virgin peat land. The total evaporation from a fertilized irrigated stand exceeds the Penman estimate while from an extensively managed stand the total evaporation is less than or equal to the Penman estimate. To reach high production figures a good supply of water is needed. The irrigation should be carefully performed as to avoid production losses or leakage of fertilizers. The changes in runoff is highly dependent on management factors such as drainage and irrigation. When growing short rotation forests the ground water level and the soil water storage decreases during the growth season but is recharged during the winter. The snow storage increases while the frost depth decreases. 11 refs, 12 figs, 2 tabs

  6. On the flow separation in the wake of a fixed and a rotating cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miron, Philippe; Vétel, Jérôme; Garon, André

    2015-08-01

    The flow past a circular cylinder under diverse conditions is investigated to examine the nature of the different separation mechanisms that can develop. For a fixed cylinder in a uniform, steady, and horizontal stream, the alternating sheddings of vortices, characterizing the Kármán vortex street, occur from two separation points located in the rear cylinder wall. The prediction of the separation positions and profiles is examined in the light of the most recent theory of unsteady separation in two-dimensional flows. It is found that the separation points are fixed in space and located symmetrically about the horizontal axis passing through the center of the cylinder. The unsteady separation profiles are also well-predicted by the theory. If the cylinder rotates on its axis in the anti-clockwise direction, the upper and lower separation points are shifted in the upstream and the downstream direction, respectively, but are no longer attached to the wall and cannot be predicted by the theory. Instead, they are captured as saddle points in the interior of the flow without any connection to on-wall quantities, as suggested by the Moore-Rott-Sears (MRS) principle. The saddle points are detected through a Lagrangian approach as the location of maximum tangential rate of strain on Lagrangian coherent structures identified as the most attracting lines in the vicinity of the cylinder. If, in addition, the uniform stream is unsteady, the Eulerian saddle points, i.e., detected by streamlines, change position in time, but have no direct relation to the true separation points that are defined by Lagrangian saddle points, thus invalidating the MRS principle that is Eulerian by nature. Other separation mechanisms are also described and understood in view of Lagrangian identification tools.

  7. The Dependence of Differential Rotation on Temperature and Rotation

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, J R; Donati, J F; James, D J; Marsden, S C; Petit, P

    2004-01-01

    We use Doppler imaging techniques to determine the dependence of starspot rotation rates on latitude in an homogeneous sample of young, rapidly-rotating solar analogues. A solar-like differential rotation law is used, where the rotation depends on sin$^2$($\\theta$), where $\\theta$ is the stellar latitude. By including this term in the image reconstruction process, using starspots as tracers, we are able to determine the magnitude of the shear over more than one rotation cycle. We also consider results from matched filter starspot tracking techniques, where individual starspot rotation rates are determined. In addition we have re-analysed published results and present a new measurement for the K3 dwarf, Speedy Mic. A total of 10 stars of spectral type G2 - M2 are considered. We find a trend towards decreasing surface differential rotation with decreasing effective temperature. The implied approach to solid body rotation with increasing relative convection zone depth implies that the dynamo mechanism operating ...

  8. Axion domain wall baryogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daido, Ryuji; Kitajima, Naoya [Department of Physics, Tohoku University,Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Takahashi, Fuminobu [Department of Physics, Tohoku University,Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Kavli IPMU, TODIAS, University of Tokyo,Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan)

    2015-07-28

    We propose a new scenario of baryogenesis, in which annihilation of axion domain walls generates a sizable baryon asymmetry. Successful baryogenesis is possible for a wide range of the axion mass and decay constant, m≃10{sup 8}–10{sup 13} GeV and f≃10{sup 13}–10{sup 16} GeV. Baryonic isocurvature perturbations are significantly suppressed in our model, in contrast to various spontaneous baryogenesis scenarios in the slow-roll regime. In particular, the axion domain wall baryogenesis is consistent with high-scale inflation which generates a large tensor-to-scalar ratio within the reach of future CMB B-mode experiments. We also discuss the gravitational waves produced by the domain wall annihilation and its implications for the future gravitational wave experiments.

  9. Double wall underground storage tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canaan, E.B. Jr.; Wiegand, J.R.; Bartlow, D.H.

    1993-07-06

    A double wall underground storage tank is described comprising: (a) a cylindrical inner wall, (b) a cylindrical outer wall comprising plastic resin and reinforcement fibers, and (c) a layer of spacer filaments wound around the inner wall, the spacer filaments separating the inner and outer walls, and the spacer filaments being at least partially surrounded by voids to enable liquids to flow along the filaments.

  10. Wave-driven Rotation in Supersonically Rotating Mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Fetterman and N.J. Fisch

    2010-02-15

    Supersonic rotation in mirrors may be produced by radio frequency waves. The waves produce coupled diffusion in ion kinetic and potential energy. A population inversion along the diffusion path then produces rotation. Waves may be designed to exploit a natural kinetic energy source or may provide the rotation energy on their own. Centrifugal traps for fusion and isotope separation may benefit from this wave-driven rotation.

  11. Back Reaction from Walls

    CERN Document Server

    Di Dio, Enea; Durrer, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    We study the distance-redshift relation in a universe filled with 'walls' of pressure-less dust separated by under dense regions. We show that as long as the density contrast of the walls is small, or the diameter of the under dense regions is much smaller than the Hubble scale, the distance-redshift relation remains close to what is obtained in a Friedmann universe. However, when arbitrary density contrasts are allowed, every prescribed distance-redshift relation can be reproduced with such models.

  12. Occupy Wall Street

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael J.; Bang, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the political form of Occupy Wall Street on Twitter. Drawing on evidence contained within the profiles of over 50,000 Twitter users, political identities of participants are characterized using natural language processing. The results find evidence of a traditional oppositio......This article analyzes the political form of Occupy Wall Street on Twitter. Drawing on evidence contained within the profiles of over 50,000 Twitter users, political identities of participants are characterized using natural language processing. The results find evidence of a traditional...

  13. UWB Propagation through Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hajek

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The propagation of ultra wide band (UWB signals through walls is analyzed. For this propagation studies, it is necessary to consider not only propagation at a single frequency but in the whole band. The UWB radar output signal is formed by both transmitter and antenna. The effects of antenna receiving and transmitting responses for various antenna types (such as small and aperture antennas are studied in the frequency as well as time domain. Moreover, UWB radar output signals can be substantially affected due to electromagnetic wave propagation through walls and multipath effects.

  14. Side-wall sampler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, B.

    1969-11-01

    A side-wall sampler which is capable of taking samples from the walls of test holes to a depth of 1,000 ft or more is described. Samples have been extracted from till, clay, silt, and fine- to coarse-grained sands in drift and nonindurated bedrock from more than 1,000 test holes in S. Saskatchewan. Side-hole sampling is faster and cheaper than conventional sampling methods and is ideally suited for geological investigations. Mineralogical paleonto- locical and radiocarbon analyses have been determined on side-hole cores.

  15. Antiferromagnetic spin and twin domain walls govern hysteretic expressions of exchange anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Jason N.; Sullivan, Matthew R.; Chopra, Harsh Deep

    2009-09-01

    The present study shows that antiferromagnetic spin and twin domain walls govern the hysteretic expressions of exchange anisotropy at low and high fields, respectively, using annealed NiO single crystals and Co. In the presence of twin walls, spin walls are shown to be a geometrical necessity in the antiferromagnetic NiO. A threshold field (˜10000Oe) exists below which twin walls are frozen, and rotational hysteresis is dominated by losses due to spin walls. Above the threshold field, twin walls become mobile, resulting in a sharp increase in rotational hysteresis. Remarkably, rotational hysteresis associated with spin walls is similar to that of an ordinary ferromagnet—as the field strength increases, rotational hysteresis tends toward zero. However, unlike an ordinary ferromagnet where rotational hysteresis becomes zero above its saturation field, rotational hysteresis in antiferromagnet drops but then sharply increases once the threshold field for twin wall motion is exceeded. In crystals without spin walls, low-field rotational hysteresis is zero or negligible. Domain imaging of twin walls in antiferromagnet and Weiss walls in ferromagnet reveals a one-to-one spatial correlation even though twin walls are considered to have no net dipoles. This surprising result is explained by the fact that crystallographic interfaces in real crystals are not atomically sharp or ideal, and the defective interface invariably results in net moment across the finite width of the twin wall. The field dependence of domain walls in Co film exchange coupled to NiO shows global similarities to previously reported behavior of Co films deposited on nanocrystalline NiO [H. D. Chopra, D. X. Yang, P. J. Chen, H. J. Brown, L. J. Swartzendruber, and W. F. Egelhoff, Jr., Phys. Rev. B 61, 15312 (2000)]. In both cases, domain wall motion is not the dominant mode of magnetization reversal (wall motion is entirely absent in the present study while wall motion was only occasionally observed in

  16. Rotational Brownian Motion on Sphere Surface and Rotational Relaxation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ekrem Aydner

    2006-01-01

    The spatial components of the autocorrelation function of noninteracting dipoles are analytically obtained in terms of rotational Brownian motion on the surface of a unit sphere using multi-level jumping formalism based on Debye's rotational relaxation model, and the rotational relaxation functions are evaluated.

  17. Effects of rotating magnetic islands driven by external perturbation fields in the TU-Heliac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method for rotating magnetic islands by external perturbation fields is proposed. In the experiments, perturbation fields were produced using four pairs of cusp field coil, in which alternating currents having a π/2 phase shift flowed. A phase shifter for the coil currents was designed and constructed. The phase difference in the floating potential signals measured using two Langmuir probes confirmed that the magnetic islands rotated in the counterclockwise direction (c/cw). The clockwise (cw) rotation was also observed in the plasma biased by the hot cathode electrode. These experimental results suggest the ability of producing plasma poloidal rotation driven by rotating islands. (author)

  18. Precession Relaxation of Viscoelastic Oblate Rotators

    CERN Document Server

    Frouard, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Various perturbations (collisions, close encounters, YORP) destabilise the rotation of a small body, leaving it in a non-principal spin state. Then the body experiences alternating stresses generated by the inertial forces. The ensuing inelastic dissipation reduces the kinetic energy, without influencing the angular momentum. This yields nutation relaxation, i.e., evolution of the spin towards rotation about the maximal-inertia axis. Knowledge of the timescales needed to damp the nutation is crucial in studies of small bodies' dynamics. In the past, nutation relaxation has been described by an empirical quality factor introduced to parameterise the dissipation rate and to evade the discussion of the actual rheological parameters and their role in dissipation. This approach is unable to describe the dependence of the relaxation rate upon the nutation angle, because we do not know the quality factor's dependence on the frequency (which is a function of the nutation angle). This leaves open the question of relax...

  19. Polar octahedral rotations: A path to new multifunctional materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perovskite ABO3 oxides display an amazing variety of phenomena that can be altered by subtle changes in the chemistry and internal structure, making them a favorite class of materials to explore the rational design of novel properties. Here we highlight a recent advance in which rotations of the BO6 octahedra give rise to a novel form of ferroelectricity – hybrid improper ferroelectricity. Octahedral rotations also strongly influence other structural, magnetic, orbital, and electronic degrees of freedom in perovskites and related materials. Octahedral rotation-driven ferroelectricity consequently has the potential to robustly control emergent phenomena with an applied electric field. The concept of ‘functional’ octahedral rotations is introduced and the challenges for materials chemistry and the possibilities for new rotation-driven phenomena in multifunctional materials are explored. - Graphical abstract: A3B2O7 and (A/A′)B2O6 are two types of layered perovskites in which octahedral rotations induce ferroelectricity. Highlights: ► Recent progress on achieving ferroelectricity from rotations of the BO6 octahedra in ABO3 perovskite oxides is reviewed. ► The atomic scale layering of Pnma perovskites in two different ways leads to alternative structure realizations. ► The concept of ‘functional’ octahedral rotations is introduced as a path to electric-field control of emergent phenomena.

  20. Rotating Brane World Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Modgil, Moninder Singh; Panda, Sukanta; Sengupta, Gautam

    2001-01-01

    A five dimensional rotating black string in a Randall-Sundrum brane world is considered. The black string intercepts the three brane in a four dimensional rotating black hole. The geodesic equations and the asymptotics in this background are discussed.

  1. Rotator cuff - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000358.htm Rotator cuff - self-care To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The rotator cuff is a group of muscles and tendons that ...

  2. Solar Internal Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schou, J.; SOE Internal Rotation Team

    With the flood of high quality helioseismic data from the instruments on the SOHO spacecraft (MDI/VIRGO/GOLF) and ground based instruments (eg. GONG and LOWL) we have been able to get increasingly detailed information on the rotation and other large scale flows in the solar interior. In this talk I will discuss some of the highlights of what we have learned so far and what we may expect to learn in the near future. Among the recent advances have been tighter constraints on the tachocline at the bottom of the convection zone, detection of details in the surface rotation rate similar to the torsional oscillations found in the surface Doppler shift and helioseismic evidence for meridional flows. The MDI project is supported by NASA contract NAG5-3077 at Stanford University.

  3. A call for rotators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountain, Gregory

    “Needed: highly motivated geoscientists willing to slow the pace of their research for 1-2 years while managing federal government support of their discipline. Assured: change of perspective; no change in pay. Contact your National Science Foundation Program Director for details.—No, this isn't an NSF job announcement; this is an open letter to members of the Earth science community from a recently “retired” NSF rotator concerned by the small number of researchers interested in a Washington tour. I learned firsthand the extent to which an individual in this position is entrusted with decision-making powers, and as a result, I believe that each of us in the research community should feel responsible for ensuring that highly qualified people serve as rotators.

  4. Twin mode rotation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.G. 1.92 modal combination rules for the response spectrum method design of multiple degrees of freedom (MDOF) piping systems are known to yield highly overestimated results for correlated close modes, so-called ''twin modes.'' These modes occur either when two independent sub-structures of a system possess identical natural frequencies, or when a large mass ratio exists between two coupled sub-structures at tuned natural frequencies. The Twin Mode Rotation (TMR) method aims at removing this unwanted degree of conservatism by performing a rotation of the twin mode pair in the modal space before combining them following R.G. 1.92. The theoretical basis and validation of the method and its practical implementation are presented. Academic problems and real cases in large-scale piping systems are discussed

  5. Revealing Cosmic Rotation

    CERN Document Server

    Yadav, Amit P S; Keating, Brian G

    2012-01-01

    Cosmological Birefringence (CB), a rotation of the polarization plane of radiation coming to us from distant astrophysical sources, may reveal parity violation in either the electromagnetic or gravitational sectors of the fundamental interactions in nature. Until only recently this phenomenon could be probed with only radio observations or observations at UV wavelengths. Recently, there is a substantial effort to constrain such non-standard models using observations of the rotation of the polarization plane of cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. This can be done via measurements of the $B$-modes of the CMB or by measuring its TB and EB correlations which vanish in the standard model. In this paper we show that $EB$ correlations-based estimator is the best for upcoming polarization experiments. The $EB$ based estimator surpasses other estimators because it has the smallest noise and of all the estimators is least affected by systematics. Current polarimeters are optimized for the detection of $B$-mode...

  6. Rotational spectrum of tryptophan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz, M. Eugenia, E-mail: maria.sanz@kcl.ac.uk; Cabezas, Carlos, E-mail: ccabezas@qf.uva.es; Mata, Santiago, E-mail: santiago.mata@uva.es; Alonso, Josè L., E-mail: jlalonso@qf.uva.es [Grupo de Espectroscopia Molecular (GEM), Edificio Quifima, Laboratorios de Espectroscopia y Bioespectroscopia, Unidad Asociada CSIC, Parque Científico Uva, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2014-05-28

    The rotational spectrum of the natural amino acid tryptophan has been observed for the first time using a combination of laser ablation, molecular beams, and Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. Independent analysis of the rotational spectra of individual conformers has conducted to a definitive identification of two different conformers of tryptophan, with one of the observed conformers never reported before. The analysis of the {sup 14}N nuclear quadrupole coupling constants is of particular significance since it allows discrimination between structures, thus providing structural information on the orientation of the amino group. Both observed conformers are stabilized by an O–H···N hydrogen bond in the side chain and a N–H···π interaction forming a chain that reinforce the strength of hydrogen bonds through cooperative effects.

  7. Broadband Rotational Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Brooks

    2014-06-01

    The past decade has seen several major technology advances in electronics operating at microwave frequencies making it possible to develop a new generation of spectrometers for molecular rotational spectroscopy. High-speed digital electronics, both arbitrary waveform generators and digitizers, continue on a Moore's Law-like development cycle that started around 1993 with device bandwidth doubling about every 36 months. These enabling technologies were the key to designing chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave (CP-FTMW) spectrometers which offer significant sensitivity enhancements for broadband spectrum acquisition in molecular rotational spectroscopy. A special feature of the chirped-pulse spectrometer design is that it is easily implemented at low frequency (below 8 GHz) where Balle-Flygare type spectrometers with Fabry-Perot cavity designs become technologically challenging due to the mirror size requirements. The capabilities of CP-FTMW spectrometers for studies of molecular structure will be illustrated by the collaborative research effort we have been a part of to determine the structures of water clusters - a project which has identified clusters up to the pentadecamer. A second technology trend that impacts molecular rotational spectroscopy is the development of high power, solid state sources in the mm-wave/THz regions. Results from the field of mm-wave chirped-pulse Fourier transform spectroscopy will be described with an emphasis on new problems in chemical dynamics and analytical chemistry that these methods can tackle. The third (and potentially most important) technological trend is the reduction of microwave components to chip level using monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC) - a technology driven by an enormous mass market in communications. Some recent advances in rotational spectrometer designs that incorporate low-cost components will be highlighted. The challenge to the high-resolution spectroscopy community - as posed by Frank De

  8. Behaviour of neutrons passing through the Bloch wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In part I of the present paper the pertinent knowledge about Bloch walls is presented and developed insofar as it appears necessary for the experiments with neutrons, that is to say the direction of magnetization within the domains, the calculation of the variation of magnetization in the wall, the wall thickness, and the zigzag structure of the Bloch wall. In part II it is first clarified why the Bloch wall can be treated as a continuum problem. It shows that this is possible far away from Laue reflexes. For angles far away from Laure-reflex angles the interaction of the periodic structure of the magnetization can be described with the aid of an averaged magnetic flux density. The consequence of it is the possibility of treating the problem by means of a Schroedinger equation with continous interaction. This leads to a law of refraction. The question of the possibilities for explaining the intensity behavior is treated in part III. This part, from different aspects, describes the fact, which already was pointed out in Schaerpf, O., Vehoff, H., Schwink, Ch. 1973, that the spin of the neutrons in passing through the wall is partly taken along by the magnetization gradually rotating in the wall. (orig./WBU)

  9. Fly on the Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Dave; Korpan, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a peer observation program at the University of Victoria called the Lecture Club. The observers are not interactive during the class--they are the proverbial flies on the wall. The paper identifies the program as self-developmental, discussing the attributes of this learning-to-teach and peer-sharing…

  10. Endometriosis Abdominal wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endometriosis of abdominal wall is a rare entity wi ch frequently appears after gynecological surgery. Case history includes three cases of parietal endometriosis wi ch were treated in Maciel Hospital of Montevideo. The report refers to etiological diagnostic aspects and highlights the importance of total resection in order to achieve definitive healing

  11. The Invisible Wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenger, John H.

    1997-01-01

    The barrier to a company's performance may be a conflict of organizational values and culture with those of the training profession. Elements of this value system that create the invisible wall are egalitarianism, people focus, "guerilla" training tactics, and emphasis on human interaction. (JOW)

  12. Rotational magnetic induction tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In magnetic induction tomography (MIT), an array of excitation coils is typically used to apply time-varying magnetic fields to induce eddy currents in the material to be studied. The magnetic fields from the eddy currents are then detected by an array of sensing coils to form an image of passive electromagnetic properties (i.e. conductivity, permittivity and permeability). Increasing the number of transmitters and receivers can provide a better image quality at the expense of a larger and more expensive MIT system. Instead of increasing the number of coils, this study investigates the possibility of rotating a single transmit–receive coil to image the electrical properties of the sample, by emulating an array of 200 transmit–receive coils by time-division multiplexing. Engineering details on the electromechanical design and development of a rotating MIT system are presented. The experimental results indicate that representative images of conductive samples can be obtained at 5 MHz by rotating a single transmit–receive coil. (paper)

  13. Rotational magnetic induction tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakic, Adnan; Eskandarnia, Neda; Keong Li, Bing; Weber, Ewald; Wang, Hua; Crozier, Stuart

    2012-02-01

    In magnetic induction tomography (MIT), an array of excitation coils is typically used to apply time-varying magnetic fields to induce eddy currents in the material to be studied. The magnetic fields from the eddy currents are then detected by an array of sensing coils to form an image of passive electromagnetic properties (i.e. conductivity, permittivity and permeability). Increasing the number of transmitters and receivers can provide a better image quality at the expense of a larger and more expensive MIT system. Instead of increasing the number of coils, this study investigates the possibility of rotating a single transmit-receive coil to image the electrical properties of the sample, by emulating an array of 200 transmit-receive coils by time-division multiplexing. Engineering details on the electromechanical design and development of a rotating MIT system are presented. The experimental results indicate that representative images of conductive samples can be obtained at 5 MHz by rotating a single transmit-receive coil.

  14. Rotating Brush Seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattime, S. B.; Braun, M. J.; Choy. F. K.; Hendricks, R. C.; Steinetz, B. M.

    2006-01-01

    The proven technology of brush seals has been extended to the mitigation of problems arising from friction and wear at the bristle-rotor interface at high surface speeds. In prototype testing, the brush is mounted on, and free to rotate with the shaft, thus providing a complaint primary seal. A face seal positioned between the backing plate of the brush seal and the housing provides a secondary seal. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the interaction between the brush bristles and the shaft at high surface speeds as well as introduce a numerical model to simulate the bristle behavior. A test facility was constructed to study the effects of centrifugal forces on bristle deflection in a single rotating brush seal. The bristle-rotor interface was observed through a video camera, which utilized a high magnification borescope and a high frequency strobe light source. Rotational speeds of the rotor and the brush seal were measured by a magnetic and optical speed sensor, respectively. Preliminary results with speeds up to 11,000 rpm show no speed differential between the brush seal and rotor, or any instability problems associated with the brush seal. Bristle liftoff from the rotor is successfully captured on video.

  15. An improved dynamic subgrid-scale model and its application to large eddy simulation of rotating channel flows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Nansheng; LU; Xiyun; ZHUANG; Lixian

    2004-01-01

    A new dynamic subgrid-scale (SGS) model, which is proved to satisfy the principle of asymptotic material frame indifference (AMFI) for rotating turbulence, is proposed based on physical and mathematical analysis. Comparison with direct numerical simulation (DNS) results verifies that the new SGS model is effective for large eddy simulation (LES) on rotating turbulent flow. The SGS model is then applied to the LES of the spanwise rotating turbulent channel flow to investigate the rotation effect on turbulence characteristics, budget terms in the transport equations of resolved Reynolds stresses, and flow structures near the wall regions of the rotating channel.

  16. Magnetic rotation in 137Pr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The A=130 mass region is expected to support magnetic rotation phenomenon in many nuclei. However, a confirmed existence of magnetic rotation (MR) is known in only a few cases. In an effort to study the structure properties of magnetic rotation in A=130 mass region, a series of studies was initiated. This is the first result in this series

  17. Rotating plug bearing and seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Elman E.

    1977-01-01

    A bearing and seal structure for nuclear reactors utilizing rotating plugs above the nuclear reactor vessel. The structure permits lubrication of bearings and seals of the rotating plugs without risk of the lubricant draining into the reactor vessel below. The structure permits lubrication by utilizing a rotating outer race bearing.

  18. Coordinate-Free Rotation Operator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leubner, C.

    1979-01-01

    Suggests the use of a coordinate-free rotation operator for the teaching of rotations in Euclidean three space because of its twofold didactic advantage. Illustrates the potentialities of the coordinate-free rotation operator approach by a number of examples. (Author/GA)

  19. Rotating plug bearing and seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disclosed is a bearing and seal structure for nuclear reactors utilizing rotating plugs above the nuclear reactor vessel. The structure permits lubrication of bearings and seals of the rotating plugs without risk of the lubricant draining into the reactor vessel below. The structure permits lubrication by utilizing a rotating outer race bearing. 19 claims, 3 figures

  20. Beregnede fugtforhold i konstruktioner:Del af "Varme- og fugttekniske undersøgelser af alternative isoelringsmaterialer"

    OpenAIRE

    Rode, Carsten; Rasmussen, Niels T.

    1999-01-01

    Calculated Moisture Conditions in Building Constructions. Part of "Hygrothermal Properties of Alternative Insulation Materials".The hygrothermal performance of constructions with alternative insulation products has been analysed with the 1-dimensional computer model MATCH for combined heat and moisture transfer. The analysis concerns both traditional wall and roof constructions with the alternative insulation products, and some alternative designs prescribed by manufacturers of alternative in...

  1. Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, Lois [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Mantha, Pallavi [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2013-05-01

    In this project, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) team evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls. Wall assemblies evaluated included code minimum walls using spray foam insulation and fiberglass batts, high R-value walls at least 12 in. thick (R-40 and R-60 assemblies), and brick walls with interior insulation.

  2. Effect of Wall Friction and Vortex Generation on Radial Void Distribution The Wall - Vortex Effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arguments are presented to prove the existence of rolling vortices in two-phase flow. In liquid phase they will appear in a boundary layer near the walls while in the continuous vapor phase they will occur near the interface with a liquid film. The intensity and size of these vortices are expected to depend on the local velocity gradients normal to the walls. A discussion is given of the interaction between the rotational field associated with such vortices and bubbles in liquid flow or droplets in vapor-flow. This interaction is called the wall-vortex effect. It appears that several, apparently unrelated, phenomena observed in two-phase flow systems may be interpreted in terms of this mechanism. Among these are: Radial void peaking near the walls; Slip ratios less than unity observed even in vertical upward flow; Reduced droplet diffusion near the liquid film; Reduced vapor mixing between subchannels at low steam qualities; and Accelerated flashing process in flow of depressurized liquid. Finally, a comparison with the well-known Magnus effect is also included

  3. Faraday's Rotating Wire--The Homopolar Motor: Time to Update?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auty, Geoff

    2010-01-01

    Answering some of the questions raised in the production of a previous article led to the development of a simple alternative design for the rotating wire demonstration. Significantly, this demonstration avoids the use of mercury as a conducting liquid. The attempt to explain variations in performance of another model and seeking the best…

  4. CISM Course on Rotating Fluids

    CERN Document Server

    1992-01-01

    The volume presents a comprehensive overview of rotation effects on fluid behavior, emphasizing non-linear processes. The subject is introduced by giving a range of examples of rotating fluids encountered in geophysics and engineering. This is then followed by a discussion of the relevant scales and parameters of rotating flow, and an introduction to geostrophic balance and vorticity concepts. There are few books on rotating fluids and this volume is, therefore, a welcome addition. It is the first volume which contains a unified view of turbulence in rotating fluids, instability and vortex dynamics. Some aspects of wave motions covered here are not found elsewhere.

  5. Rising damp in building walls: the wall base ventilation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, A. S.; Delgado, J. M. P. Q.; de Freitas, V. P.

    2012-12-01

    This work intends to validate a new system for treating rising damp in historic buildings walls. The results of laboratory experiments show that an efficient way of treating rising damp is by ventilating the wall base, using the HUMIVENT technique. The analytical model presented describes very well the observed features of rising damp in walls, verified by laboratory tests, who contributed for a simple sizing of the wall base ventilation system that will be implemented in historic buildings.

  6. The effect of foliation orientation on the inferred rotation axes and rotation angles of rotated porphyroblasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, R.L.M.

    1987-01-01

    The rotation axes and rotation angles inferred from the intersection of inclusion fabrics in rotated porphyroblasts and the external foliation are apparent axes and apparent angles whose orientation and magnitude are strongly influenced by the initial orientation of the foliation with respect to the

  7. REVIEW OF CURRENT RBC (ROTATING BIOLOGICAL CONTACTOR) PERFORMANCE AND DESIGN PROCEDURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rapid emergence of rotating biological contactor (RBC) technology as an alternative secondary wastewater treatment process has increased the need to review their performance history to provide information to the design engineer. This study, to review and compare current desig...

  8. Natural convection in a horizontal cylinder with axial rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Odalys; Mercader, Isabel; Batiste, Oriol; Alonso, Arantxa

    2016-06-01

    We study the problem of thermal convection in a laterally heated horizontal cylinder rotating about its axis. A cylinder of aspect ratio Γ =H /2 R =2 containing a small Prandtl number fluid (σ =0.01 ) representative of molten metals and molten semiconductors at high temperature is considered. We focus on a slow rotation regime (Ω effects of rotation and buoyancy forces are comparable. The Navier-Stokes and energy equations with the Boussinesq approximation are solved numerically to calculate the basic states, analyze their linear stability, and compute several secondary flows originated from the instabilities. Due to the confined cylindrical geometry—the presence of lateral walls and lids—all the flows are completely three dimensional, even the basic steady states. Results characterizing the basic states as the rotation rate increases are presented. As it occurred in the nonrotating case for higher values of the Prandtl number, two curves of steady states with the same symmetric character coexist for moderate values of the Rayleigh number. In the range of Ω considered, rotation has a stabilizing effect only for very small values. As the value of the rotation rate approaches Ω =3.5 and Ω =4.5 , the scenario of bifurcations becomes more complex due to the existence in both cases of very close bifurcations of codimension 2, which in the latter case involve both curves of symmetric solutions.

  9. High-R Walls for Remodeling: Wall Cavity Moisture Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehagen, J.; Kochkin, V.

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the study is on the performance of wall systems, and in particular, the moisture characteristics inside the wall cavity and in the wood sheathing. Furthermore, while this research will initially address new home construction, the goal is to address potential moisture issues in wall cavities of existing homes when insulation and air sealing improvements are made.

  10. High-R Walls for Remodeling. Wall Cavity Moisture Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehagen, J. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Kochkin, V. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the study is on the performance of wall systems, and in particular, the moisture characteristics inside the wall cavity and in the wood sheathing. Furthermore, while this research will initially address new home construction, the goal is to address potential moisture issues in wall cavities of existing homes when insulation and air sealing improvements are made.

  11. Experimental Evaluation of the Claimed Coulomb Rotation (Electrostatic Torque)

    CERN Document Server

    Bojiloff, D

    2015-01-01

    In the year 2002 publications of A.V.M. Khachatourian and A.O. Wistrom were released, in which the existence of an electrostatic torque has been claimed. This moment of force should act in a three sphere configuration, where one sphere is held at a constant electric potential. This claim was based on an observed rotation and was supported by a mathematical solution derived by Wistrom and Khachatourian. The theoretical work of Wistrom and Khachatourian as well as the interpretation of the observed rotation were criticized by several scientists who offered alternative explanations for the rotation. We therefore designed an experimental setup which enabled us to investigate the phenomenon. By performing numerous measurements, we showed that the rotation is due to asymmetric mass distribution within the sphere, which is dislocated due to electrostatic forces between the spheres. We were able to clear our measurements from this effect and observed a null result more than two orders of magnitude smaller than predic...

  12. Synthesis and characterization of nanorods for magnetic rotational spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprelev, Pavel; Gu, Yu; Burtovyy, Ruslan; Luzinov, Igor; Kornev, Konstantin G.

    2015-08-01

    Magnetic rotational spectroscopy (MRS) with magnetic nanoprobes is a powerful method for in-situ characterization of minute amounts of complex fluids. In MRS, a uniformly rotating magnetic field rotates magnetic micro- or nano-probes in the liquid and one analyzes the features of the probe rotation to extract rheological parameters of liquids. Magnetic properties of nanoprobes must be well characterized and understood to make results reliable and reproducible. Ni and Co nanorods synthesized by electrochemical template synthesis in alumina membranes are discussed in applications to MRS. We employ alternating gradient field magnetometry, X-ray diffraction, and magnetic force microscopy to evaluate and compare properties of these nanorods and study their performance as the MRS probes. It is shown that nickel nanorods do not seem to violate any assumptions of the MRS rigid dipole theory, while cobalt nanorods do.

  13. Automatic Wall Painting Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.KEERTHANAA, K.JEEVITHA, V.NAVINA, G.INDIRA, S.JAYAMANI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Primary Aim Of The Project Is To Design, Develop And Implement Automatic Wall Painting Robot Which Helps To Achieve Low Cost Painting Equipment. Despite The Advances In Robotics And Its Wide Spreading Applications, Interior Wall Painting Has Shared Little In Research Activities. The Painting Chemicals Can Cause Hazards To The Human Painters Such As Eye And Respiratory System Problems. Also The Nature Of Painting Procedure That Requires Repeated Work And Hand Rising Makes It Boring, Time And Effort Consuming. When Construction Workers And Robots Are Properly Integrated In Building Tasks, The Whole Construction Process Can Be Better Managed And Savings In Human Labour And Timing Are Obtained As A Consequence. In Addition, It Would Offer The Opportunity To Reduce Or Eliminate Human Exposure To Difficult And Hazardous Environments, Which Would Solve Most Of The Problems Connected With Safety When Many Activities Occur At The Same Time. These Factors Motivate The Development Of An Automated Robotic Painting System.

  14. Rotating electrical machines

    CERN Document Server

    Le Doeuff, René

    2013-01-01

    In this book a general matrix-based approach to modeling electrical machines is promulgated. The model uses instantaneous quantities for key variables and enables the user to easily take into account associations between rotating machines and static converters (such as in variable speed drives).   General equations of electromechanical energy conversion are established early in the treatment of the topic and then applied to synchronous, induction and DC machines. The primary characteristics of these machines are established for steady state behavior as well as for variable speed scenarios. I

  15. Rotation of Giant Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Kissin, Yevgeni; Thompson, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The internal rotation of post-main sequence stars is investigated, in response to the convective pumping of angular momentum toward the stellar core, combined with a tight magnetic coupling between core and envelope. The spin evolution is calculated using model stars of initial mass 1, 1.5 and $5\\,M_\\odot$, taking into account mass loss on the giant branches. We also include the deposition of orbital angular momentum from a sub-stellar companion, as influenced by tidal drag along with the exc...

  16. Rotating specimen rack repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1980, an operator at the UCI TRIGA Reactor noticed difficulties with the rotation of the specimen rack. Investigations showed that the drive bearing in the rack had failed and allowed the bearings to enter the rack. After some time of operation in static mode it was decided that installation of a bearing substitute - a graphite sleeve - would be undertaken. Procedures were written and approved for removal of the rack, fabrication and installation of the sleeve, and re-installation of the rack. This paper describes these procedures in some detail. Detailed drawings of the necessary parts may be obtained from the authors

  17. Graphs as rotations

    CERN Document Server

    Zeps, Dainis

    2009-01-01

    Using a notation of corner between edges when graph has a fixed rotation, i.e. cyclical order of edges around vertices, we define combinatorial objects - combinatorial maps as pairs of permutations, one for vertices and one for faces. Further, we define multiplication of these objects, that coincides with the multiplication of permutations. We consider closed under multiplication classes of combinatorial maps that consist of closed classes of combinatorial maps with fixed edges where each such class is defined by a knot. One class among them is special, containing selfconjugate maps.

  18. Optical fiber rotation sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, William K; Kelley, Paul

    1993-01-01

    Optical Fiber Rotation Sensing is the first book devoted to Interferometric Fiber Optic Gyros (IFOG). This book provides a complete overview of IFOGs, beginning with a historical review of IFOG development and including a fundamental exposition of basic principles, a discussion of devices and components, and concluding with industry reports on state-of-the-art activity. With several chapters contributed by principal developers of this solid-state device, the result is an authoritative work which will serve as the resource for researchers, students, and users of IFOGs.* * State-of-t

  19. Cyclic fatigue of NiTi instruments used in complex curvatures with continuous or reciprocating rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Testarelli

    2014-11-01

    Conclusions: In accordance with those findings, the results of the present study showed a significant increase of cyclic fatigue resistance of instruments used with the TFA motion. This can be explained by the alternance of engaging/disengaging movements, since the motion can be defined as a non-continuous rotation, while the traditional continuous rotation movement continuously engages and stresses the instruments.

  20. Scalable Resolution Display Walls

    KAUST Repository

    Leigh, Jason

    2013-01-01

    This article will describe the progress since 2000 on research and development in 2-D and 3-D scalable resolution display walls that are built from tiling individual lower resolution flat panel displays. The article will describe approaches and trends in display hardware construction, middleware architecture, and user-interaction design. The article will also highlight examples of use cases and the benefits the technology has brought to their respective disciplines. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

  1. In a walled garden

    OpenAIRE

    Mullaniff, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Mullaniff exhibited one painting from the series, ‘in a walled garden’. These works are based on a Victorian garden at St Leonards on Sea. An investigation into the history of the house and garden built 1860. This research endeavors to explore the progression of restoring the original Victorian garden, as recorded through the painting and drawing process This involves forming links between the past domestic histories and the current site. The research is based on the botanical paintings of Ma...

  2. Reliability Analysis Of Thin-Walled Cylindrical Shells

    OpenAIRE

    Kala Zdeněk

    2015-01-01

    The subject of the article is the verification of the reliability of thin-walled rotationally symmetric cylindrical shells, using probabilistic approaches. Internal forces and stress of the shell are analysed assuming a membrane action. Material and geometric characteristics of the steel shell are considered as random variables. The reliability index is evaluated using the Latin Hypercube Sampling method. The results of the reliability analysis are derived in a general form, so that they may ...

  3. Instability in temperature modulated rotating Rayleigh–Bénard convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Jitender [Department of Mathematics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India); Singh, S S, E-mail: sonumaths@gmail.com, E-mail: jitender.math@gndu.ac.in, E-mail: saratcha32@yahoo.co.uk [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Mizoram University, Aizawl 796 004 (India)

    2014-02-01

    The problem of instability in an infinite horizontal thin layer of a Boussinesq fluid, uniformly rotated and heated from below with time periodic oscillations of the wall temperatures is investigated theoretically and numerically. In doing so, modest rotation rate is considered such that the Froude number does not exceed 0.05 which allows neglect of centrifugal effects. The Floquet analysis is used to obtain the critical Rayleigh number as a function of the parameters controlling the system. The instability is found to manifest itself in the form of a flow which oscillates either harmonically or subharmonically depending upon the control parameters. Instability regions in an appropriate parametric space of the dimensionless wave number of disturbance imposed over the flow and the dimensionless amplitude of modulation, at the onset of time periodic fluid flows are obtained numerically. The modulation amplitude, the modulation frequency and the rotation rate, are observed to affect the stability of the flow considerably. (paper)

  4. Instability in temperature modulated rotating Rayleigh–Bénard convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of instability in an infinite horizontal thin layer of a Boussinesq fluid, uniformly rotated and heated from below with time periodic oscillations of the wall temperatures is investigated theoretically and numerically. In doing so, modest rotation rate is considered such that the Froude number does not exceed 0.05 which allows neglect of centrifugal effects. The Floquet analysis is used to obtain the critical Rayleigh number as a function of the parameters controlling the system. The instability is found to manifest itself in the form of a flow which oscillates either harmonically or subharmonically depending upon the control parameters. Instability regions in an appropriate parametric space of the dimensionless wave number of disturbance imposed over the flow and the dimensionless amplitude of modulation, at the onset of time periodic fluid flows are obtained numerically. The modulation amplitude, the modulation frequency and the rotation rate, are observed to affect the stability of the flow considerably. (paper)

  5. Light shining through walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo, Javier [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Shining light through walls? At first glance this sounds crazy. However, very feeble gravitational and electroweak effects allow for this exotic possibility. Unfortunately, with present and near future technologies the opportunity to observe light shining through walls via these effects is completely out of question. Nevertheless there are quite a number of experimental collaborations around the globe involved in this quest. Why are they doing it? Are there additional ways of sending photons through opaque matter? Indeed, various extensions of the standard model of particle physics predict the existence of new particles called WISPs - extremely weakly interacting slim particles. Photons can convert into these hypothetical particles, which have no problems to penetrate very dense materials, and these can reconvert into photons after their passage - as if light was effectively traversing walls. We review this exciting field of research, describing the most important WISPs, the present and future experiments, the indirect hints from astrophysics and cosmology pointing to the existence of WISPs, and finally outlining the consequences that the discovery of WISPs would have. (orig.)

  6. Light shining through walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shining light through walls? At first glance this sounds crazy. However, very feeble gravitational and electroweak effects allow for this exotic possibility. Unfortunately, with present and near future technologies the opportunity to observe light shining through walls via these effects is completely out of question. Nevertheless there are quite a number of experimental collaborations around the globe involved in this quest. Why are they doing it? Are there additional ways of sending photons through opaque matter? Indeed, various extensions of the standard model of particle physics predict the existence of new particles called WISPs - extremely weakly interacting slim particles. Photons can convert into these hypothetical particles, which have no problems to penetrate very dense materials, and these can reconvert into photons after their passage - as if light was effectively traversing walls. We review this exciting field of research, describing the most important WISPs, the present and future experiments, the indirect hints from astrophysics and cosmology pointing to the existence of WISPs, and finally outlining the consequences that the discovery of WISPs would have. (orig.)

  7. Helicity fluctuations and turbulent energy production in rotating and non-rotating pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlandi, P.

    1995-01-01

    Finite-difference second-order accurate direct simulation of a turbulent pipe has been used to investigate how the turbulence production and dissipation change when a solid body rotation is applied. It is shown that when the helicity increases, the dissipation is reduced. It is asserted that to have a drag reduction the external action should be such as to disrupt the symmetry of right- and left-handed helical structures. In this study the Navier-Stokes equations in rotational form permit the turbulent energy production to be split into a part related to the energy cascade from large to small scales and into a part related to the convection by large scales. The full simulation data have shown the latter is greater than the former in the wall region and that, on the contrary, these two terms balance each other in the central region. From the pdf of the former, it has been shown how the vortical structures are changed in the wall region by the background radiation and how they are related to the changes in the energy production.

  8. Nanoparticles in dilute solution : A numerical study of rotational diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evensen, Tom Richard

    2008-06-15

    This thesis is dedicated to Brownian dynamics simulations of rotational diffusion. A rotation dynamics engine has been implemented and tested. This engine will in the future be integrated as a part of a complete Brownian dynamics simulation tool. The special case, when translational motion can be ignored, has thoroughly been studied. Two choices of generalized coordinates describing angular orientation of the particles are used. The Euler angles, which constitute the classical choice, and the Cartesian components of the rotation vector, which was recently introduced as an alternative, are being compared with regards to computational efficiency. Results from both equilibrium and non-equilibrium simulations are presented. The consistency of two new algorithms is demonstrated on systems of free rigid particles with arbitrary surface topographies. The algorithms make use of only the principal values of the rotational mobility tensor, assuming the corresponding principal axes coincide with the body-fixed coordinate system. These three scalars contain all information about the particle surface topography relevant for rotational diffusion. The calculation of the mobility tensor can be performed in a pre-calculation step, which makes the algorithm itself highly efficient. Both choices of generalized coordinates correctly reproduce theoretical predictions, but we have found that the algorithm using the Cartesian components of the rotation vector as generalized coordinates outperform its counterpart using the Euler angles by up to a factor 1000 in extreme cases. The reason for this improvement is that the algorithm using the Cartesian components of the rotation vector is free of singularities. (Author). refs. figs

  9. Investigation of the Hygrothermal Performance of Alternative Insulation Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Kristiansen, Finn Harken; Rasmussen, Niels T.

    1999-01-01

    The paper gives an account of hygrothermal investigations carried out on some insulation products which are "alternative" to the ones that are traditionally used in Danish constructions. The alternative products are claimed to be friendly both to the environment and to the labour force. The...... products.The hygrothermal performance of constructions with alternative insulation products is analysed with a computational model for combined heat and moisture transfer. The analysis concerns both traditional wall and roof constructions with the alternative insulation products, and some alternative...

  10. Sample rotating turntable kit for infrared spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckels, Joel Del; Klunder, Gregory L.

    2008-03-04

    An infrared spectrometer sample rotating turntable kit has a rotatable sample cup containing the sample. The infrared spectrometer has an infrared spectrometer probe for analyzing the sample and the rotatable sample cup is adapted to receive the infrared spectrometer probe. A reflectance standard is located in the rotatable sample cup. A sleeve is positioned proximate the sample cup and adapted to receive the probe. A rotator rotates the rotatable sample cup. A battery is connected to the rotator.

  11. Canal Wall Reconstruction Mastoidectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the advantages of canal wall reconstruction (CWR) mastoidectomy, a single-stage technique for cholesteatoma removal and posterior external canal wall reconstruction, over the open and closed procedures in terms of cholesteatoma recurrence. Methods: Between June 2002 and December 2005, 38 patients (40 ears) with cholesteatoma were admited to Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital and received surgical treatments. Of these patients, 25 were male with ages ranging between 11 and 60 years (mean = 31.6 years) and 13 were female with ages ranging between 20 and 65 years (mean = 38.8 years). Canal wall reconstruction (CWR)mastoidectomy was performed in 31 ears and canal wall down (CWD) mastoidectomy in 9 ears. Concha cartilage was used for ear canal wall reconstruction in 22 of the 31 CWR procedures and cortical mastoid bone was used in the remaining 9 cases. Results At 0.5 to 4 years follow up, all but one patients remained free of signs of cholesteatoma recurrence, i.e., no retraction pocket or cholesteatoma matrix. One patient, a smoker, needed revision surgery due to cholesteatoma recurrence 1.5 year after the initial operation. The recurrence rate was therefore 3.2% (1/31). Cholesteatoma recurrence was monitored using postoperative CT scans whenever possible. In the case that needed a revision procedure, a retraction pocket was identified by otoendoscopy in the pars flacida area that eventually evolved into a cholesteatoma. A pocket extending to the epitympanum filled with cholesteatoma matrix was confirmed during the revision operation, A decision to perform a modified mastoidectomy was made as the patient refused to quit smoking. The mean air-bone gap in pure tone threshold was 45 dB before surgery and 25 dB after (p < 0.05). There was no difference between using concha cartilage and cortical mastoid bone for the reconstruction regarding air-bone gap improvement, CT findings and otoendoscopic results. Conclusion CWR mastoidectomy can be used for

  12. Soft initial-rotation and HΦ robust constant rotational speed control for rotational MEMS gyro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Gaoyin; Chen Wenyuan; Cui Feng; Zhang Weiping; Wang Liqi

    2009-01-01

    A novel soft initial-rotation control system and an Hoo robust constant rotational speed controller (RCRSC) for a rotational MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical system) gyro are presented. The soft initial-rotation control system can prevent the possible tumbling down of the suspended rotor and ensure a smooth and fast initial-rotation process. After the initial-rotation process, in order to maintain the rotational speed accurately constant, the RCRSC is acquired through the mixed sensitivity design approach. Simulation results show that the actuation voltage disturbances from the internal carrier waves in the gyro is reduced by more than 15.3 dB, and the speed fluctuations due to typical external vibrations ranging from 10 Hz to 200 Hz can also be restricted to 10-3 rad/s order.

  13. Rotation of Giant Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kissin, Yevgeni

    2015-01-01

    The internal rotation of post-main sequence stars is investigated, in response to the convective pumping of angular momentum toward the stellar core, combined with a tight magnetic coupling between core and envelope. The spin evolution is calculated using model stars of initial mass 1, 1.5 and $5\\,M_\\odot$, taking into account mass loss on the giant branches and the partitioning of angular momentum between the outer and inner envelope. We also include the deposition of orbital angular momentum from a sub-stellar companion, as influenced by tidal drag as well as the excitation of orbital eccentricity by a fluctuating gravitational quadrupole moment. A range of angular velocity profiles $\\Omega(r)$ is considered in the deep convective envelope, ranging from solid rotation to constant specific angular momentum. We focus on the backreaction of the Coriolis force on the inward pumping of angular momentum, and the threshold for dynamo action in the inner envelope. Quantitative agreement with measurements of core ro...

  14. Rotating drum filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anson, Donald

    1990-01-01

    A perforated drum (10) rotates in a coaxial cylindrical housing (18) having three circumferential ports (19,22,23), and an axial outlet (24) at one end. The axis (11) is horizontal. A fibrous filter medium (20) is fed through a port (19) on or near the top of the housing (81) by a distributing mechanism (36) which lays a uniform mat (26) of the desired thickness onto the rotating drum (10). This mat (26) is carried by the drum (10) to a second port (23) through which dirty fluid (13) enters. The fluid (13) passes through the filter (26) and the cleaned stream (16) exits through the open end (15) of the drum (10) and the axial port (24) in the housing (18). The dirty filter material (20) is carried on to a third port (22) near the bottom of the housing (18) and drops into a receiver (31) from which it is continuously removed, cleaned (30), and returned (32) to the charging port (36) at the top. To support the filter mat, the perforated cylinder may carry a series of tines (40), shaped blades (41), or pockets, so that the mat (26) will not fall from the drum (10) prematurely. To minimize risk of mat failure, the fluid inlet port (23) may be located above the horizontal centerline (11).

  15. Cell Wall Biology: Perspectives from Cell Wall Imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kieran J.D.Lee; Susan E.Marcus; J.Paul Knox

    2011-01-01

    Polysaccharide-rich plant cell walls are important biomaterials that underpin plant growth,are major repositories for photosynthetically accumulated carbon,and,in addition,impact greatly on the human use of plants. Land plant cell walls contain in the region of a dozen major polysaccharide structures that are mostly encompassed by cellulose,hemicelluloses,and pectic polysaccharides. During the evolution of land plants,polysaccharide diversification appears to have largely involved structural elaboration and diversification within these polysaccharide groups. Cell wall chemistry is well advanced and a current phase of cell wall science is aimed at placing the complex polysaccharide chemistry in cellular contexts and developing a detailed understanding of cell wall biology. Imaging cell wall glycomes is a challenging area but recent developments in the establishment of cell wall molecular probe panels and their use in high throughput procedures are leading to rapid advances in the molecular understanding of the spatial heterogeneity of individual cell walls and also cell wall differences at taxonomic levels. The challenge now is to integrate this knowledge of cell wall heterogeneity with an understanding of the molecular and physiological mechanisms that underpin cell wall properties and functions.

  16. Topographic instability of flow in a rotating fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. I. Patarashvili

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Here are presented the results of experimental and theoretical studies on a stability of zonal geostrophic flows in the rotating layer of the shallow water. In the experiments, a special apparatus by Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory Georgian Academy of Science was used. This apparatus represents a paraboloid of rotation, which can be set in a regulable rotation around the vertical axis. Maximal diameter of the paraboloid is 1.2 m, radius of curvature in the pole is 0.698 m. In the paraboloid, water spreads on walls as a layer uniform on height under the period of rotation 1.677 s. Against a background of the rotating fluid, the zonal flows are formed by the source-sink system. It consists of two concentric circular perforations on the paraboloid bottom (width is 0.3 cm, radiuses are 8.4 and 57.3 cm, respectively; water can be pumped through them with various velocities and in all directions. It has been established that under constant vertical depth of the rotating fluid the zonal flows are stable. There are given the measurements of the radial profiles for the water level and velocity in the stationary regime. It has been found that zonal flows may lose stability under the presence of the radial gradient of full depth formed by a change of angular velocity of paraboloid rotation. An instability origin results in the loss of flow axial symmetry and in the appearance of self-excited oscillations in the zonal flow. At the given angular velocity of rotation, instability is observed only in the definite range of intensities of the source-sink system. The theoretical estimations are performed in the framework of the equations of the shallow water theory, including the terms describing the bottom friction. It has been shown that the instability of zonal flows found experimentally has a topographical nature and is related with non-monotone dependence of the potential vorticity on radius.

  17. A stable high-speed rotational transmission system based on nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Kun, E-mail: caikun1978@163.com [College of Water Resources and Architectural Engineering, Northwest A and F University, Yangling 712100 (China); State Key Laboratory of Structural Analysis for Industrial Equipment, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Faculty of Vehicle Engineering and Mechanics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Yin, Hang; Wei, Ning [College of Water Resources and Architectural Engineering, Northwest A and F University, Yangling 712100 (China); Chen, Zhen [State Key Laboratory of Structural Analysis for Industrial Equipment, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Faculty of Vehicle Engineering and Mechanics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65211-2200 (United States); Shi, Jiao [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65211-2200 (United States)

    2015-01-12

    A stable rotational transmission system is designed with a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)-based motor and double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs)-based bearing. The system response is investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. It is found that the rotating motor can actuate the rotation of the inner tube in bearing because of the attraction between the two adjacent coaxial ends of motor and rotor (the inner tube in bearing). To have a stable nanostructure, each carbon atom on the adjacent ends of motor and rotor is bonded with a hydrogen atom. To obtain a stable high-speed rotational transmission system, both an armchair and a zigzag model are used in MD simulation. In each model, the motor with different diameters and rotational speeds is employed to examine the rotational transmission of corresponding DWCNTs. It is demonstrated that the long range van der Waals interaction between the adjacent ends of motor and rotor leads to a stable configuration of the adjacent ends, and further leads to a stable rotation of rotor when driven by a high-speed motor. As compared with the armchair model, the rotor in the zigzag model could reach a stable rotation mode much easier.

  18. Large Scale Flutter Data for Design of Rotating Blades Using Navier-Stokes Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guruswamy, Guru P.

    2012-01-01

    A procedure to compute flutter boundaries of rotating blades is presented; a) Navier-Stokes equations. b) Frequency domain method compatible with industry practice. Procedure is initially validated: a) Unsteady loads with flapping wing experiment. b) Flutter boundary with fixed wing experiment. Large scale flutter computation is demonstrated for rotating blade: a) Single job submission script. b) Flutter boundary in 24 hour wall clock time with 100 cores. c) Linearly scalable with number of cores. Tested with 1000 cores that produced data in 25 hrs for 10 flutter boundaries. Further wall-clock speed-up is possible by performing parallel computations within each case.

  19. A compact rotating dilution refrigerator

    CERN Document Server

    Fear, M J; Chorlton, D A; Zmeev, D E; Gillott, S J; Sellers, M C; Richardson, P P; Agrawal, H; Batey, G; Golov, A I

    2013-01-01

    We describe the design and performance of a new rotating dilution refrigerator that will primarily be used for investigating the dynamics of quantized vortices in superfluid 4He. All equipment required to operate the refrigerator and perform experimental measurements is mounted on two synchronously driven, but mechanically decoupled, rotating carousels. The design allows for relative simplicity of operation and maintenance and occupies a minimal amount of space in the laboratory. Only two connections between the laboratory and rotating frames are required for the transmission of electrical power and helium gas recovery. Measurements on the stability of rotation show that rotation is smooth to around 0.001 rad/s up to angular velocities in excess of 2.5 rad/s. The behavior of a high-Q mechanical resonator during rapid changes in rotation has also been investigated.

  20. A compact rotating dilution refrigerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fear, M J; Walmsley, P M; Chorlton, D A; Zmeev, D E; Gillott, S J; Sellers, M C; Richardson, P P; Agrawal, H; Batey, G; Golov, A I

    2013-10-01

    We describe the design and performance of a new rotating dilution refrigerator that will primarily be used for investigating the dynamics of quantized vortices in superfluid (4)He. All equipment required to operate the refrigerator and perform experimental measurements is mounted on two synchronously driven, but mechanically decoupled, rotating carousels. The design allows for relative simplicity of operation and maintenance and occupies a minimal amount of space in the laboratory. Only two connections between the laboratory and rotating frames are required for the transmission of electrical power and helium gas recovery. Measurements on the stability of rotation show that rotation is smooth to around 10(-3) rad s(-1) up to angular velocities in excess of 2.5 rad s(-1). The behavior of a high-Q mechanical resonator during rapid changes in rotation has also been investigated. PMID:24182127

  1. Assessment of alternative disposal concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four alternative repository designs for the disposal of spent nuclear in the Finnish crystalline bedrock were assessed in the study. The alternatives were: (1) the basic KBS-3 design in which copper canisters are emplaced in vertical deposition holes bored in the floors of horizontal tunnels, (2) the KBS-3-2C design with two canisters in a deposition hole, (3) Short Horizontal Holes (SHH) in the side walls of the tunnels, and (4) the Medium Long Holes (MLH) concept in which approximately 25 canisters are emplaced in a horizontal deposition hole about 200 metres in length bored between central and side tunnels. In all the alternatives considered, the thickness of the layer of compacted bentonite between copper canister and bedrock is 35 cm. Two different copper canister designs were also assessed. Technical feasibility and flexibility, post-closure safety and repository cost were assessed for each of the alternative canister and repository designs. On the basis of this assessment it is recommended that further development and studies should focus on the vacuum- or inert gas-filled cast insert type copper canister and the basic KBS-3 type repository design with a single canister in a vertical deposition hole. The KBS-3 design is robust and flexible and provides excellent post-closure safety. The transfer, emplacement and sealing operations are technically uncomplicated. The alternative options assessed do not offer any significant benefits in safety or cost over the basic design, but they are technically more complex and also in some respects more vulnerable to malfunction during the emplacement of canisters and buffer, as well as common mode failures. (60 refs.)

  2. A New High-Resolution Spectral Approach to Noninvasively Evaluate Wall Deformations in Arteries

    OpenAIRE

    Ivonne Bazan; Carlos Negreira; Antonio Ramos; Javier Brum; Alfredo Ramirez

    2014-01-01

    By locally measuring changes on arterial wall thickness as a function of pressure, the related Young modulus can be evaluated. This physical magnitude has shown to be an important predictive factor for cardiovascular diseases. For evaluating those changes, imaging segmentation or time correlations of ultrasonic echoes, coming from wall interfaces, are usually employed. In this paper, an alternative low-cost technique is proposed to locally evaluate variations on arterial walls, which are dyna...

  3. Controlling the number of walls in multi walled carbon nanotubes/alumina hybrid compound via ball milling of precipitate catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nosbi, Norlin [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), 14300 Nibong Tebal, Seberang Perai Selatan, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Akil, Hazizan Md, E-mail: hazizan@usm.my [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), 14300 Nibong Tebal, Seberang Perai Selatan, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Cluster for Polymer Composite (CPC), Science and Engineering Research Centre, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), 14300 Nibong Tebal, Seberang Perai Selatan, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-06-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We report that, to manipulate carbon nanotubes geometry and number of walls are by controlling the precipitate catalyst size. • Number of walls and geometry effects depend on the milling time of the precipitate catalyst. • Increasing milling of time will decrease the carbon nanotubes number of walls. • Increasing milling of time will increase the carbon nanotubes thermal conductivity. - Abstract: This paper reports the influence of milling time on the structure and properties of the precipitate catalyst of multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT)/alumina hybrid compound, produced through the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) process. For this purpose, light green precipitate consisted of aluminium, nickel(II) nitrate hexahydrate and sodium hydroxide mixture was placed in a planetary mill equipped with alumina vials using alumina balls at 300 rpm rotation speed for various milling time (5–15 h) prior to calcinations and CVD process. The compound was characterized using various techniques. Based on high-resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis, increasing the milling time up to 15 h decreased the diameter of MWCNT from 32.3 to 13.1 nm. It was noticed that the milling time had a significant effect on MWCNT wall thickness, whereby increasing the milling time from 0 to 15 h reduced the number of walls from 29 to 12. It was also interesting to note that the carbon content increased from 23.29 wt.% to 36.37 wt.% with increasing milling time.

  4. Controlling the number of walls in multi walled carbon nanotubes/alumina hybrid compound via ball milling of precipitate catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We report that, to manipulate carbon nanotubes geometry and number of walls are by controlling the precipitate catalyst size. • Number of walls and geometry effects depend on the milling time of the precipitate catalyst. • Increasing milling of time will decrease the carbon nanotubes number of walls. • Increasing milling of time will increase the carbon nanotubes thermal conductivity. - Abstract: This paper reports the influence of milling time on the structure and properties of the precipitate catalyst of multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT)/alumina hybrid compound, produced through the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) process. For this purpose, light green precipitate consisted of aluminium, nickel(II) nitrate hexahydrate and sodium hydroxide mixture was placed in a planetary mill equipped with alumina vials using alumina balls at 300 rpm rotation speed for various milling time (5–15 h) prior to calcinations and CVD process. The compound was characterized using various techniques. Based on high-resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis, increasing the milling time up to 15 h decreased the diameter of MWCNT from 32.3 to 13.1 nm. It was noticed that the milling time had a significant effect on MWCNT wall thickness, whereby increasing the milling time from 0 to 15 h reduced the number of walls from 29 to 12. It was also interesting to note that the carbon content increased from 23.29 wt.% to 36.37 wt.% with increasing milling time

  5. Triaxial rotation in atomic nuclei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yong-Shou; GAO Zao-Chun

    2009-01-01

    The Projected Shell Model has been developed to include the spontaneously broken axial symmetry so that the rapidly rotating triaxial nuclei can be described microscopically. The theory provides an useful tool to gain an insight into how a triaxial nucleus rotates, a fundamental question in nuclear structure. We shall address some current interests that are strongly associated with the triaxial rotation. A feasible method to explore the problem has been suggested.

  6. Rotation Curves of Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Sofue, Y; SOFUE, Yoshiaki; RUBIN, Vera

    2000-01-01

    Rotation curves of spiral galaxies are the major tool for determining the distribution of mass in spiral galaxies. They provide fundamental information for understanding the dynamics, evolution and formation of spiral galaxies. We describe various methods to derive rotation curves, and review the results obtained. We discuss the basic characteristics of observed rotation curves in relation to various galaxy properties, such as Hubble type, structure, activity, and environment.

  7. Experimental and numerical investigations of higher mode effects on seismic inelastic response of reinforced concrete shear walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbanirenani, Iman

    This thesis presents two experimental programs together with companion numerical studies that were carried out on reinforced concrete shear walls: static tests and dynamic (shake table) tests. The first series of experiments were monotonic and cyclic quasi-static testing on ductile reinforced concrete shear wall specimens designed and detailed according to the seismic provisions of NBCC 2005 and CSA-A23.3-04 standard. The tests were carried out on full-scale and 1:2.37 reduced scale wall specimens to evaluate the seismic design provisions and similitude law and determine the appropriate scaling factor that could be applied for further studies such as dynamic tests. The second series of experiments were shake table tests conducted on two identical 1:2.33 scaled, 8-storey moderately ductile reinforced concrete shear wall specimens to investigate the effects of higher modes on the inelastic response of slender walls under high frequency ground motions expected in Eastern North America. The walls were designed and detailed according to the seismic provisions of NBCC 2005 and CSA-A23.3-04 standard. The objectives were to validate and understand the inelastic response and interaction of shear, flexure and axial loads in plastic hinge zones of the walls considering the higher mode effects and to investigate the formation of second hinge in upper part of the wall due to higher mode responses. Second mode response significantly affected the response of the walls. This caused inelastic flexural response to develop at the 6th level with approximately the same rotation ductility compared to that observed at the base. Dynamic amplification of the base shear forces was also observed in both walls. Numerical modeling of these two shake table tests was performed to evaluate the test results and validate current modeling approaches. Nonlinear time history analyses were carried out by the reinforced concrete fibre element (OpenSees program) and finite element (VecTor2 program

  8. Multihelix rotating shield brachytherapy for cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To present a novel brachytherapy technique, called multihelix rotating shield brachytherapy (H-RSBT), for the precise angular and linear positioning of a partial shield in a curved applicator. H-RSBT mechanically enables the dose delivery using only linear translational motion of the radiation source/shield combination. The previously proposed approach of serial rotating shield brachytherapy (S-RSBT), in which the partial shield is rotated to several angular positions at each source dwell position [W. Yang et al., “Rotating-shield brachytherapy for cervical cancer,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 3931–3941 (2013)], is mechanically challenging to implement in a curved applicator, and H-RSBT is proposed as a feasible solution. Methods: A Henschke-type applicator, designed for an electronic brachytherapy source (Xoft Axxent™) and a 0.5 mm thick tungsten partial shield with 180° or 45° azimuthal emission angles and 116° asymmetric zenith angle, is proposed. The interior wall of the applicator contains six evenly spaced helical keyways that rigidly define the emission direction of the partial radiation shield as a function of depth in the applicator. The shield contains three uniformly distributed protruding keys on its exterior wall and is attached to the source such that it rotates freely, thus longitudinal translational motion of the source is transferred to rotational motion of the shield. S-RSBT and H-RSBT treatment plans with 180° and 45° azimuthal emission angles were generated for five cervical cancer patients with a diverse range of high-risk target volume (HR-CTV) shapes and applicator positions. For each patient, the total number of emission angles was held nearly constant for S-RSBT and H-RSBT by using dwell positions separated by 5 and 1.7 mm, respectively, and emission directions separated by 22.5° and 60°, respectively. Treatment delivery time and tumor coverage (D90 of HR-CTV) were the two metrics used as the basis for evaluation and

  9. Multihelix rotating shield brachytherapy for cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadkhah, Hossein [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Iowa, 1402 Seamans Center for the Engineering Arts and Sciences, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Kim, Yusung; Flynn, Ryan T., E-mail: ryan-flynn@uiowa.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Wu, Xiaodong [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Iowa, 4016 Seamans Center for the Engineering Arts and Sciences, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To present a novel brachytherapy technique, called multihelix rotating shield brachytherapy (H-RSBT), for the precise angular and linear positioning of a partial shield in a curved applicator. H-RSBT mechanically enables the dose delivery using only linear translational motion of the radiation source/shield combination. The previously proposed approach of serial rotating shield brachytherapy (S-RSBT), in which the partial shield is rotated to several angular positions at each source dwell position [W. Yang et al., “Rotating-shield brachytherapy for cervical cancer,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 3931–3941 (2013)], is mechanically challenging to implement in a curved applicator, and H-RSBT is proposed as a feasible solution. Methods: A Henschke-type applicator, designed for an electronic brachytherapy source (Xoft Axxent™) and a 0.5 mm thick tungsten partial shield with 180° or 45° azimuthal emission angles and 116° asymmetric zenith angle, is proposed. The interior wall of the applicator contains six evenly spaced helical keyways that rigidly define the emission direction of the partial radiation shield as a function of depth in the applicator. The shield contains three uniformly distributed protruding keys on its exterior wall and is attached to the source such that it rotates freely, thus longitudinal translational motion of the source is transferred to rotational motion of the shield. S-RSBT and H-RSBT treatment plans with 180° and 45° azimuthal emission angles were generated for five cervical cancer patients with a diverse range of high-risk target volume (HR-CTV) shapes and applicator positions. For each patient, the total number of emission angles was held nearly constant for S-RSBT and H-RSBT by using dwell positions separated by 5 and 1.7 mm, respectively, and emission directions separated by 22.5° and 60°, respectively. Treatment delivery time and tumor coverage (D{sub 90} of HR-CTV) were the two metrics used as the basis for evaluation and

  10. Effects of centrifugal modification of magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium on resistive wall mode stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toroidal rotation effects are self-consistently taken into account not only in the linear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability analysis but also in the equilibrium calculation. The MHD equilibrium computation is affected by centrifugal force due to the toroidal rotation. To study the toroidal rotation effects on resistive wall modes (RWMs), a new code has been developed. The RWMaC modules, which solve the electromagnetic dynamics in vacuum and the resistive wall, have been implemented in the MINERVA code, which solves the Frieman–Rotenberg equation that describes the linear ideal MHD dynamics in a rotating plasma. It is shown that modification of MHD equilibrium by the centrifugal force significantly reduces growth rates of RWMs with fast rotation in the order of M2 = 0.1 where M is the Mach number. Moreover, it can open a stable window which does not exist under the assumption that the rotation affects only the linear dynamics. The rotation modifies the equilibrium pressure gradient and current density profiles, which results in the change of potential energy including rotational effects. (paper)

  11. Activity and stability studies of platinized multi-walled carbon nanotubes as fuel cell electrocatalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamatin, Serban Nicolae; Borghei, Maryam; Dhiman, Rajnish;

    2015-01-01

    A non-covalent functionalization for multi-walled carbon nanotubes has been used as an alternative to the damaging acid treatment. Platinum nanoparticles with similar particle size distribution have been deposited on the surface modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The interaction between...

  12. Specific labeling of peptidoglycan precursors as a tool for bacterial cell wall studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, V.; Olrichs, N.K.; Breukink, E.J.

    2009-01-01

    Wall chart: The predominant component of the bacterial cell wall, peptidoglycan, consists of long alternating stretches of aminosugar subunits interlinked in a large three-dimensional network and is formed from precursors through several cytosolic and membrane-bound steps. The high tolerance of the

  13. Correlations of coronary plaque wall thickness with wall pressure and wall pressure gradient: a representative case study

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Biyue; Zheng Jie; Bach Richard; Tang Dalin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background There are two major hemodynamic stresses imposed at the blood arterial wall interface by flowing blood: the wall shear stress (WSS) acting tangentially to the wall, and the wall pressure (WP) acting normally to the wall. The role of flow wall shear stress in atherosclerosis progression has been under intensive investigation, while the impact of blood pressure on plaque progression has been under-studied. Method The correlations of wall thickness (WT) with wall pressure (WP...

  14. The CHEER polarization rotator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A major part of the research program with the proposed Canadian High Energy Electron Ring (CHEER) requires that the electron beam, in the interaction region, be polarized either parallel or antiparallel to the beam direction. To accomplish this, use of magnetic solenoid polarization rotators on either end of the interaction region has been suggested. This report is a preliminary design study of a superconducting solenoid to satisfy this requirement. To achieve the required 53 T.m induction-length product a 6 T solenoid with a 10 m overall length is proposed. This would be wound with intrinsically stable NbTi superconductor and cooled with integral cooling tubes carrying supercritical helium. An assembly of three warm bore cryostats would constitute one 53 T.m solenoid. (auth)

  15. Rotating Black Droplet

    CERN Document Server

    Fischetti, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    We construct the gravitational dual, in the Unruh state, of the "jammed" phase of a CFT at strong coupling and infinite N on a fixed five-dimensional rotating Myers-Perry black hole with equal angular momenta. When the angular momenta are all zero, the solution corresponds to the five-dimensional generalization of the solution first studied by Figueras, Lucietti, and Wiseman. In the extremal limit, when the angular momenta of the Myers-Perry black hole are maximum, the Unruh, Boulware and Hartle-Hawking states degenerate. We give a detailed analysis of the corresponding holographic stress energy tensor for all values of the angular momenta, finding it to be regular at the horizon in all cases. We compare our results with existent literature on thermal states of free field theories on black hole backgrounds.

  16. The Rapidly Rotating Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanasoge, Shravan M.; Duvall, Thomas L., Jr.; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.

    2012-01-01

    Convection in the solar interior is thought to comprise structures at a continuum of scales, from large to small. This conclusion emerges from phenomenological studies and numerical simulations though neither covers the proper range of dynamical parameters of solar convection. In the present work, imaging techniques of time-distance helioseismology applied to observational data reveal no long-range order in the convective motion. We conservatively bound the associated velocity magnitudes, as a function of depth and the spherical-harmonic degree l to be 20-100 times weaker than prevailing estimates within the wavenumber band l Sun is seemingly a much faster rotator than previously thought, with advection dominated by Coriolis forces at scales l < 60.

  17. Forward Wall Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Forward Wall Detector is designed to identify projectile like fragments from heavy ion reactions at CELSIUS storage ring in Uppsala, Sweden. The FWD consist of 96 detection modules covering azimuthal angle from 3.9o to 11.7o with efficiency of 81%. The detection module can be either of phoswitch type (10 mm fast plastic + 80 mm CsI(Tl)) or standard ΔE-E telescope (750 μm Si + 88 mm CsI(Tl)). It is expected to have charge identification up to Z=18, mass resolution for H and He isotopes and energy resolution ∼ 8%. (author)

  18. A brief overview on the retrofitting possibilities of masonry infill walls

    OpenAIRE

    Fangueiro, Raúl; Cunha, Fernando Eduardo Macedo; Vasconcelos, Graça; Abreu, S

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a brief review on the seismic behavior on non-loadbearing masonry walls used as masonry infills. O Some examples of inefficient performance are shown based on information available of recent earthquakes. Additionally, a literature overview on the techniques for retrofitting existing masonry infills is provided. Finally, alternative braided reinforced composite materials are briefly described and pointed out as an alternative solution for retrofitting masonry infill walls.

  19. Rotations, quaternions, and double groups

    CERN Document Server

    Altmann, Simon L

    2005-01-01

    This self-contained text presents a consistent description of the geometric and quaternionic treatment of rotation operators, employing methods that lead to a rigorous formulation and offering complete solutions to many illustrative problems.Geared toward upper-level undergraduates and graduate students, the book begins with chapters covering the fundamentals of symmetries, matrices, and groups, and it presents a primer on rotations and rotation matrices. Subsequent chapters explore rotations and angular momentum, tensor bases, the bilinear transformation, projective representations, and the g

  20. Wall of Fame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallister, Sarah; Myers, Shellie

    1994-01-01

    Describes a special activity that offers an alternative for elementary physical educators with limited time, providing visual stimulation to generate student interest and enhance motivation to participate in personal fitness pursuits. The program helps students understand the benefits of fitness participation and increases awareness of physical…

  1. Hybrid RANS/LES of turbulent flow in a rotating rib-roughened channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xun, Qian-Qiu; Wang, Bing-Chen

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effect of the Coriolis force on the flow field in a rib-roughened channel subjected to either clockwise or counter-clockwise system rotation using hybrid RANS/LES based on wall modelling. A simplified dynamic forcing scheme incorporating backscatter is proposed for the hybrid simulation approach. The flow is characterized by a Reynolds number of Re = 1.5 × 104 and a rotation number Ro ranging from -0.6 to 0.6. The mean flow speed and turbulence level near the roughened wall are enhanced under counter-clockwise rotation and suppressed under clockwise rotation. The Coriolis force significantly influences the stability of the wall shear layer and the free shear layers generated by the ribs. Consequently, it is interesting to observe that the classification of the roughness type relies not only on the pitch ratio, but also on the rotation number in the context of rotating rib-roughened flows. In order to validate the present hybrid approach, the first- and second-order statistical moments of the velocity field obtained from the simulations are thoroughly compared with the available laboratory measurement data.

  2. Device to determine the rotational speed of rotating bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention relates to a device to measure the rotational speed of rotating bodies such as rollers or balls carried in a bearing, one of which is labelled with a radioactive substance near its running surface. The radiation emitted by the activated part is registered in a detector in the form of pulses which are processed in an electronic circuit. (orig./RW)

  3. Unidirectional Rotation of Molecules Measured by the Rotational Doppler Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prior Yehiam

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A pair of linearly polarized pump pulses induce field-free unidirectional molecular rotation, which is detected by a delayed circularly polarized probe. The polarization and spectrum of the probe are modified by the interaction with the molecules, in accordance with the Rotational Doppler Effect.

  4. Unidirectional Rotation of Molecules Measured by the Rotational Doppler Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Prior Yehiam; Averbukh Ilya Sh; Gordon Robert; Steinitz Uri; Korech Omer

    2013-01-01

    A pair of linearly polarized pump pulses induce field-free unidirectional molecular rotation, which is detected by a delayed circularly polarized probe. The polarization and spectrum of the probe are modified by the interaction with the molecules, in accordance with the Rotational Doppler Effect.

  5. Seismic behavior and design of wall-EDD-frame systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oren eLavan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Walls and frames have different deflection lines and, depending on the seismic mass they support, may often poses different natural periods. In many cases, wall-frame structures present an advantageous behavior. In these structures the walls and the frames are rigidly connected. Nevertheless, if the walls and the frames were not rigidly connected, an opportunity for an efficient passive control strategy would arise: Connecting the two systems by energy dissipation devices (EDDs to result in wall-EDD-frame systems. This, depending on the parameters of the system, is expected to lead to an efficient energy dissipation mechanism.This paper studies the seismic behavior of wall-EDD-frame systems in the context of retrofitting existing frame structures. The controlling non-dimensional parameters of such systems are first identified. This is followed by a rigorous and extensive parametric study that reveals the pros and cons of the new system versus wall-frame systems. The effect of the controlling parameters on the behavior of the new system are analyzed and discussed. Finally, tools are given for initial design of such retrofitting schemes. These enable both choosing the most appropriate retrofitting alternative and selecting initial values for its parameters.

  6. Turbulent states in plane Couette flow with rotation

    CERN Document Server

    Salewski, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Shearing and rotational forces in fluids can significantly alter the transport of momentum.A numerical investigation was undertaken to study the role of these forces using plane Couette flow subject to rotation about an axis perpendicular to both wall-normal and streamwise directions. Using a set of progressively higher Reynolds numbers up to Re = 5200, we find that the torque for a given Re is a non-monotonic function of rotation number, Ro. For low-to-moderate turbulent Reynolds numbers we find a maximum that is associated with flow fields that are dominated by downstream vortices and calculations of 2-d vortices capture the maximum also quantitatively. For higher shear Reynolds numbers a second stronger maximum emerges at smaller rotation numbers, closer to non-rotating plane Couette flow. It is carried by flows with a markedly 3-d structure and cannot be captured by 2-d vortex studies. As the Reynolds number increases, this maximum becomes stronger and eventually overtakes the one associated with the 2-d ...

  7. Alternative method of generation of Cerenkov radiation or shock wave

    OpenAIRE

    Halder, Amit

    1997-01-01

    An alternative method of generation of Cerenkev radiation is proposed over here with the help of a rotating source and a reflector. The principle is that, if we focus a narrow beam of light on to source of light is rotated with certain angular velocity then the light spot on the surface will move with very high velocity which may exceed the velocity of light. As a consequence of this we shall observe an effect very similar to Cerknov radiation.

  8. Active control of multiple resistive wall modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A two-dimensional array of saddle coils at Mc poloidal and Nc toroidal positions is used on the EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch (Brunsell P R et al 2001 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 43 1457) to study active control of resistive wall modes (RWMs). Spontaneous growth of several RWMs with poloidal mode number m = 1 and different toroidal mode number n is observed experimentally, in agreement with linear MHD modelling. The measured plasma response to a controlled coil field and the plasma response computed using the linear circular cylinder MHD model are in quantitative agreement. Feedback control introduces a linear coupling of modes with toroidal mode numbers n, n' that fulfil the condition |n - n'| = Nc. Pairs of coupled unstable RWMs are present in feedback experiments with an array of Mc x Nc = 4 x 16 coils. Using intelligent shell feedback, the coupled modes are generally not controlled even though the field is suppressed at the active coils. A better suppression of coupled modes may be achieved in the case of rotating modes by using the mode control feedback scheme with individually set complex gains. In feedback with a larger array of Mc x Nc = 4 x 32 coils, the coupling effect largely disappears, and with this array, the main internal RWMs n = -11, -10, +5, +6 are all simultaneously suppressed throughout the discharge (7-8 wall times). With feedback there is a two-fold extension of the pulse length, compared to discharges without feedback

  9. On Quadratric Rotational Curved Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马国强; 朱振兴

    1993-01-01

    In this paper,a deterministic theorem is proposed for quadratic rotational curved surface.The relationship between invariants for quadratic rotational curved xurface is established.In addition we give each type of equitions for rotaional curved surface using the invariant.

  10. Magnetic fields of rotating bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a short historical review of the magnetism of rotating bodies a new model, based on Stochastic Electrodynamics, is briefly presented. It is shown how the theory of cooperative phenomena applies to this model. The outcome of the theory is used to analyse results obtained in a laboratory experiment on the magnetism of rotating bodies

  11. Kepler rapidly rotating giant stars

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, A D; Bravo, J P; Paz-Chinchón, F; Chagas, M L das; Leão, I C; de Oliveira, G Pereira; da Silva, R Rodrigues; Roque, S; de Oliveira, L L A; da Silva, D Freire; De Medeiros, J R

    2015-01-01

    Rapidly rotating giant stars are relatively rare and may represent important stages of stellar evolution, resulting from stellar coalescence of close binary systems or accretion of sub-stellar companions by their hosting stars. In the present letter we report 17 giant stars observed in the scope of the Kepler space mission exhibiting rapid rotation behavior. For the first time the abnormal rotational behavior for this puzzling family of stars is revealed by direct measurements of rotation, namely from photometric rotation period, exhibiting very short rotation period with values ranging from 13 to 55 days. This finding points for remarkable surface rotation rates, up to 18 times the Sun rotation. These giants are combined with 6 other recently listed in the literature for mid-IR diagnostic based on WISE information, from which a trend for an infrared excess is revealed for at least a half of the stars, but at a level far lower than the dust excess emission shown by planet-bearing main-sequence stars.

  12. Turbulent flow in rib-roughened channel under the effect of Coriolis and rotational buoyancy forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coletti, Filippo; Jacono, David Lo; Cresci, Irene; Arts, Tony

    2014-04-01

    The turbulent flow inside a rotating channel provided with transverse ribs along one wall is studied by means of two-dimensional time-resolved particle image velocimetry. The measurement set-up is mounted on the same rotating disk with the test section, allowing to obtain the same accuracy and resolution as in a non-rotating rig. The Reynolds number is 15 000, and the rotation number is 0.38. As the ribbed wall is heated, both the Coriolis force and the centrifugal force play a role in the fluid dynamics. The mean velocity fields highlight the major impact of the rotational buoyancy (characterized by a buoyancy number of 0.31) on the flow along the leading side of the duct. In particular, since the flow is directed radially outward, the near-wall layers experience significant centripetal buoyancy. The recirculation area behind the obstacles is enlarged to the point of spanning the whole inter-rib space. Also the turbulent fluctuations are significantly altered, and overall augmented, with respect to the non-buoyant case, resulting in higher turbulence levels far from the rib. On the other hand the centrifugal force has little or no impact on the flow along the trailing wall. Vortex identification, proper orthogonal decomposition, and two-point correlations are used to highlight rotational effects, and in particular to determine the dominant scales of the turbulent unsteady flow, the time-dependent behavior of the shear layer and of the recirculation bubble behind the wall-mounted obstacles, the lifetime and advection velocity of the coherent structures.

  13. DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF HIGH RISE STRUCTURES UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF DISCRETE STAGGERED SHEAR WALLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. B. KAMESHWARI

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It is well-established fact that shear walls are quite effective in lateral load resistance of low-rise to medium-rise reinforced concrete buildings. Restriction in the architectural design by the presence of the shear walls may contribute to discourage the engineers from adopting the shear walls. Due to this a new concept ofproviding storey deep and bay wide discrete staggered shear wall panels have been introduced. In this study, the effect of various configurations of shear walls on high-rise structure is analysed. The drift and inter-storey drift of the structure in the following configurations of shear wall panels is studied and is compared with that of bare frame: (1 Conventional shear walls. (2 Alternate arrangement of shear walls. (3 Diagonal arrangement of shear walls. (4 Zigzag arrangement of shear walls. (5 Influence of lift core walls. Of the configurations studied, the zigzag shear wall configuration is found to be better than the other systems studied in controlling the response to earthquake loading. The diagonal configuration is found to be having significant role in controlling the response of structures to earthquake.

  14. Rotational superradiance in fluid laboratories

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso, Vitor; Richartz, Mauricio; Weinfurtner, Silke

    2016-01-01

    Rotational superradiance has been predicted theoretically decades ago, and is the chief responsible for a number of important effects and phenomenology in black hole physics. However, rotational superradiance has never been observed experimentally. Here, with the aim of probing superradiance in the lab, we investigate the behaviour of sound and surface waves in fluids resting in a circular basin at the center of which a rotating cylinder is placed. We show that with a suitable choice for the material of the cylinder, surface and sound waves are amplified. By confining the superradiant modes near the rotating cylinder, an instability sets in. Our findings are experimentally testable in existing fluid laboratories and hence offer experimental exploration and comparison of dynamical instabilities arising from rapidly rotating boundary layers in astrophysical as well as in fluid dynamical systems.

  15. Rotational evolution of slow-rotators sequence stars

    CERN Document Server

    Lanzafame, Alessandro C

    2015-01-01

    The observed mass-age-rotation relationship in open clusters shows the progressive development of a slow-rotators sequence at masses lower than 1.2 $M_{\\odot}$. After 0.6 Gyr, almost all stars have settled on this sequence. The observed clustering on this sequence suggests that it corresponds to some equilibrium or asymptotic condition that still lacks a complete theoretical interpretation, crucial to our understanding of the stellar angular momentum evolution. We couple a rotational evolution model that takes into account internal differential rotation with classical and new proposals for the wind braking law, and fit models to the data using a Monte Carlo Markov Chain method tailored to the case at hand. We explore the extent to which these models are able to reproduce the mass and time dependence of the stellar rotational evolution on the slow-rotators sequence. The description of the early evolution (0.1-0.6 Gyr) of the slow-rotators sequence requires taking into account the transfer of angular momentum f...

  16. Walls shielding against ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These specifications are to help the users of lead bricks as under DIN 25407, leaf 1, with the construction of walls shielding against ionizing radiation by examples for the uses of the different types of lead bricks and by recommendations for the construction of shielding walls and for the determination of the wall thickness necessary for shielding against γ-radiation as a function of energy. (orig./AK)

  17. Dynamics of monopole walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maldonado, R., E-mail: rafael.maldonado@durham.ac.uk; Ward, R.S., E-mail: richard.ward@durham.ac.uk

    2014-06-27

    The moduli space of centred Bogomolny–Prasad–Sommerfield 2-monopole fields is a 4-dimensional manifold M with a natural metric, and the geodesics on M correspond to slow-motion monopole dynamics. The best-known case is that of monopoles on R{sup 3}, where M is the Atiyah–Hitchin space. More recently, the case of monopoles periodic in one direction (monopole chains) was studied a few years ago. Our aim in this note is to investigate M for doubly-periodic fields, which may be visualized as monopole walls. We identify some of the geodesics on M as fixed-point sets of discrete symmetries, and interpret these in terms of monopole scattering and bound orbits, concentrating on novel features that arise as a consequence of the periodicity.

  18. Dynamics of monopole walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The moduli space of centred Bogomolny–Prasad–Sommerfield 2-monopole fields is a 4-dimensional manifold M with a natural metric, and the geodesics on M correspond to slow-motion monopole dynamics. The best-known case is that of monopoles on R3, where M is the Atiyah–Hitchin space. More recently, the case of monopoles periodic in one direction (monopole chains) was studied a few years ago. Our aim in this note is to investigate M for doubly-periodic fields, which may be visualized as monopole walls. We identify some of the geodesics on M as fixed-point sets of discrete symmetries, and interpret these in terms of monopole scattering and bound orbits, concentrating on novel features that arise as a consequence of the periodicity

  19. Dynamics of monopole walls

    CERN Document Server

    Maldonado, R

    2014-01-01

    The moduli space of centred Bogomolny-Prasad-Sommmerfield 2-monopole fields is a 4-dimensional manifold M with a natural metric, and the geodesics on M correspond to slow-motion monopole dynamics. The best-known case is that of monopoles on R^3, where M is the Atiyah-Hitchin space. More recently, the case of monopoles periodic in one direction (monopole chains) was studied a few years ago. Our aim in this note is to investigate M for doubly-periodic fields, which may be visualized as monopole walls. We identify some of the geodesics on M as fixed-point sets of discrete symmetries, and interpret these in terms of monopole scattering and bound orbits, concentrating on novel features that arise as a consequence of the periodicity.

  20. Characteristic time for halo current growth and rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boozer, Allen

    2015-11-01

    Halo currents, Ih, flow in part through plasma on open magnetic lines and in part through the walls. A halo current has the same function as the wall current of a resistive wall mode and arises when a kink cannot be wall stabilized. When flowing in the plasma, the halo current can produce no forces, so j->h = (j∥ / B) B-> with B-> . ∇ -> j∥ / B = 0 . To avoid too strong a coupling to stable kinks, the wall interception must be of sufficient toroidal extent, which implies the width of the halo current channel Δh aIh /Ip , where aIh /Ip is the amplitude of the kink, a is the minor radius, and Ip is the plasma current. The equation for the growth of the halo current is dIh / dt =Ip /τg , where τg (μ0 /ηh) (a2 / 4) /seff and seff is a dimensionless stability coefficient. The rocket effect of the plasma flowing out of the two ends of the magnetic field lines in the halo can set the magnetic perturbation into toroidal rotation at a Mach number, Mh, comparable to unity. The rotation period is τr = (2 πR0 /Cs) /Mh , where R0 is the major radius and Cs =√{ (Te +Ti) /mi } is the speed of sound. NSTX results appear consistent for seff 0 . 5 , Mh 1 , and Te , i = 10 eV. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences under Award Number De-FG02-03ER54696.

  1. Alternative approaches to plasma confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    The paper discusses 20 plasma confinement schemes each representing an alternative to the tokamak fusion reactor. Attention is given to: (1) tokamak-like devices (TORMAC, Topolotron, and the Extrap concept), (2) stellarator-like devices (Torsatron and twisted-coil stellarators), (3) mirror machines (Astron and reversed-field devices, the 2XII B experiment, laser-heated solenoids, the LITE experiment, the Kaktus-Surmac concept), (4) bumpy tori (hot electron bumpy torus, toroidal minimum-B configurations), (5) electrostatically assisted confinement (electrostatically stuffed cusps and mirrors, electrostatically assisted toroidal confinement), (6) the Migma concept, and (7) wall-confined plasmas. The plasma parameters of the devices are presented and the advantages and disadvantages of each are listed.

  2. Rotating relativistic neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Models of rotating neutron stars are constructed in the framework of Einstein's theory of general relativity. For this purpose a refined version of Hartle's method is applied. The properties of these objects, e.g. gravitational mass, equatorial and polar radius, eccentricity, red- and blueshift, quadrupole moment, are investigated for Kepler frequencies of 4000 s-1 ≤ ΩK ≤ 9000 s-1. Therefore a self-consistency problem inherent in the determination of ΩK must be solved. The investigation is based on neutron star matter equations of state derived from the relativistic Martin-Schwinger hierarch of coupled Green's functions. By means of introducing the Hartree, Hartree-Fock, and ladder (Λ) approximations, models of the equation of state derived. A special feature of the latter approximation scheme is the inclusion of dynamical two-particle correlations. These have been calculated from the relativistic T-matrix applying both the HEA and Bonn meson-exchange potentials of the nucleon-nucleon force. The nuclear forces of the former two treatments are those of the standard scalar-vector-isovector model of quantum hadron dynamics, with parameters adjusted to the nuclear matter data. An important aspect of this work consists in testing the compatibility of different competing models of the nuclear equation of state with data on pulsar periods. By this the fundamental problem of nuclear physics concerning the behavior of the equation of state at supernuclear densities can be treated

  3. Rotating quantum Gaussian packets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study two-dimensional quantum Gaussian packets with a fixed value of mean angular momentum. This value is the sum of two independent parts: the ‘external’ momentum related to the motion of the packet center and the ‘internal’ momentum due to quantum fluctuations. The packets minimizing the mean energy of an isotropic oscillator with the fixed mean angular momentum are found. They exist for ‘co-rotating’ external and internal motions, and they have nonzero correlation coefficients between coordinates and momenta, together with some (moderate) amount of quadrature squeezing. Variances of angular momentum and energy are calculated, too. Differences in the behavior of ‘co-rotating’ and ‘anti-rotating’ packets are shown. The time evolution of rotating Gaussian packets is analyzed, including the cases of a charge in a homogeneous magnetic field and a free particle. In the latter case, the effect of initial shrinking of packets with big enough coordinate-momentum correlation coefficients (followed by the well known expansion) is discovered. This happens due to a competition of ‘focusing’ and ‘de-focusing’ in the orthogonal directions. (paper)

  4. Rotator cuff pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifteen volunteers and 73 patients with suspected rotator cuff lesions were examined at 0.5 T with T2*-weighted gradient-echo (GE) MR imaging (700/33/30 degrees) (oblique coronal and sagittal 3 mm thick, surface coil). Results were compared with those of arthrography (all cases), T1-weighted GE imaging (400/20/90 degrees) (35 cases), surgery (28 cases), and T2-weighted spin-echo (SE) images (2,000/60-120) (17 cases). GE images demonstrated all tears (complete, 32, partial, 12) and was superior to arthrography in determining site and size and in displaying muscles (critical point in surgical planning). In 20 cases without tears on arthrography, GE imaging demonstrated five cases of tendinitis, five cases of bursitis, and six probable intratendinous or superficial partial tears. T2*-weighted GE imaging was superior to T2-weighted SE and T1-weighted GE imaging, with higher fluid contrast and a low fat signal. Therefore, it might replace arthrography in the diagnosis and surgical approach to this pathology

  5. Combined effects of rotation and rib-roughness - a dns study of turbulent channel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Helge I.; Narasimhamurthy, Vagesh D.

    2014-11-01

    The combined effects of system rotation and rib-roughness on turbulent channel flow have been investigated by means of direct numerical simulations. Square ribs were placed on both walls in a non-staggered arrangement and the channel was subjected to steady rotation about a spanwise axis for a series of rotation numbers up to Ro = 24. A pressure-loss reduction of about 20 per cent resulted from the imposed rotation at Ro = 6. In spite of the 10 per cent blockage due to the wall-mounted ribs, the flow field exhibited statistical streamwise homogeneity in the core region. The mean velocity varied linearly with a slope such that the mean fluid rotation exactly outweighed the imposed system rotation. The flow field in the vicinity of the ribs was affected differently at the two sides of the rotating channel. The separated flow region behind the ribs on the anti-cyclonic pressure side shrinked with increasing Ro due to the enhanced turbulent mixing caused by the Coriolis force. The original d-type roughness was thus turned into a k-type roughness.

  6. Great Wall of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This ASTER sub-image covers a 12 x 12 km area in northern Shanxi Province, China, and was acquired January 9, 2001. The low sun angle, and light snow cover highlight a section of the Great Wall, visible as a black line running diagonally through the image from lower left to upper right. The Great Wall is over 2000 years old and was built over a period of 1000 years. Stretching 4500 miles from Korea to the Gobi Desert it was first built to protect China from marauders from the north.This image is located at 40.2 degrees north latitude and 112.8 degrees east longitude.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats, monitoring potentially active volcanoes, identifying crop stress, determining cloud morphology and physical properties, wetlands Evaluation, thermal pollution monitoring, coral reef degradation, surface temperature mapping of soils and geology, and measuring surface

  7. Rotating Blade Flow Instability as a Source of Noise in Axial Turbomachines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameier, F.; Neise, W.

    1997-06-01

    An experimental study is presented to investigate the aeroacoustic generation mechanism of the tip clearance noise in axial turbomachines. In addition to the increased broadband levels reported in the literature when the tip clearance is enlarged, significant level increases were observed within narrow frequency bands below the blade passing frequency. Measurements of the pressure fluctuations at the casing wall just upstream of the entrance plane of the impeller and on the rotating blades reveal that the tip clearance noise is associated with a rotating blade flow instability at the blade tip which in turn is only present under reversed flow conditions in the tip clearance gap. The rotating instability is interpreted as a rotating source or vortex mechanism which moves relative to the blade row at a fraction of the impeller shaft speed, similar to the cell(s) of rotating stall. A model for the generation of the narrow-band tip clearance noise is presented.

  8. Domain wall networks on solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domain wall networks on the surface of a soliton are studied in a simple theory. It consists of two complex scalar fields, in 3+1 dimensions, with a global U(1)xZn symmetry, where n>2. Solutions are computed numerically in which one of the fields forms a Q ball and the other field forms a network of domain walls localized on the surface of the Q ball. Examples are presented in which the domain walls lie along the edges of a spherical polyhedron, forming junctions at its vertices. It is explained why only a small restricted class of polyhedra can arise as domain wall networks

  9. The effects of the rotation in plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Arteha, S. N.

    2000-01-01

    Electric and magnetic self-fields can exist in the rotating plasma. A self-sustained rotation can be established in the plasma. The disturbed distribution function of rotating plasma is derived from the Vlasov equation. The propagation of waves in rotating plasma differs from that in the usual plasma. New terms for Landau damping appear. The local rotational behaviour may become prevailing.

  10. Domain and wall structures in films with helical magnetization profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubuget, Vincent [Laboratoire d' Electrodynamique des Materiaux Avances, Universite Francois Rabelais, CNRS UMR 6157, Parc de Grandmont, F-37200 Tours (France); CEA, DAM, Le Ripault, F-37260 Monts (France); Thiaville, Andre [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Universite Paris-Sud, CNRS UMR 8502, Bat. 510, F-91405 Orsay (France); Adenot-Engelvin, Anne-Lise, E-mail: anne-lise.adenot-engelvin@cea.f [CEA, DAM, Le Ripault, F-37260 Monts (France); Duverger, Francois; Dubourg, Sebastien [CEA, DAM, Le Ripault, F-37260 Monts (France)

    2011-06-15

    We study soft magnetic bilayers having orthogonal, in-plane easy axes. The layers are thicker than the Bloch wall width linked to the anisotropy, so that a helical magnetization with a large angle exists across the sample thickness. The magnetic domains structure has been investigated at both sample surfaces, using magneto-optical microscopy. The domain structure is found to be similar to that of double films with biquadratic coupling. Two kinds of domain walls are identified, namely with a 90{sup o} and 180{sup o} rotation of the average magnetization. The detailed structure and energy of these walls are studied by micromagnetic calculations. - Research highlights: This paper is devoted to the peculiar domain structure resulting from an anisotropy distribution in the thickness of the sample, realized through specific elaboration conditions. The helical magnetization profile obtained leads to a complex dynamic behaviour described and modelled in Phys.Rev. B 80, 134412 (published in October 2009) which has been already cited three times. This paper sheds light on of the demagnetized state of such samples: a variety of domains structure has been observed by Kerr microscopy, under various saturation fields. The most striking conclusion is driven by the analysis of the magnetization process which implies the co-existence of two types of domain walls in the sample, with four possible directions for the mean magnetization. The magnetization profile of the two walls has been confirmed by numerical simulation.

  11. Study of the Resistive Wall Mode in DIII--D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, A. M.; Mauel, M. E.; Navratil, G. A.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Strait, E. J.; La Haye, R. J.; Turnbull, A. D.; DIII-D Team; Rice, B. W.

    1997-11-01

    Stability analysis of DIII--D discharges showed kink mode stabilization by a resistive wall in D-shaped plasmas with βN exceeding the expected no-wall ideal βN limit by a factor of 1.3.(E.J. Strait, et al.), Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2483 (1995). We will call this factor a wall stability enhancement factor, E_w: Ew = βN (experiment)/ βN (no-wall limit, MHD model). Recent DIII--D experiments were aimed at achieving a value of Ew > 1.3 in lower single null, JET-like plasmas with B_t=2.0--2.1 T and Ip = 1.8 MA. A lower plasma internal inductance of l_i ~ 0.7 (and thus lower no-wall βN limit) was produced using early neutral beam injection and a fast positive current ramp during beam injection in an H--mode plasma. Preliminary analysis shows a slowly rotating (25 Hz) n = 1 mode growing in a 40 ms time scale just before a β collapse, similar to what was observed in Ref. 2. The results of detailed stability studies using ideal (GATO) and resistive (MARS) MHD codes will be presented.

  12. Drop deformation in two-roll mills considering wall effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental, theoretical and numerical results of dynamics of drop deformation in strong flows generated by a co-rotating two-roll mill and considering the influence of near rigid walls are presented. The drop dynamics is altered, with respect to a drop free of wall effects, by the proximity of the rigid boundaries as well as caused by a non-linear and non-uniform flow due to gradients of flow-type parameter and shear rate. Simulations were carried out using the Boundary Element Method (BEM). Since the inclusion of the whole boundaries (drop and rollers surfaces) is not an easy and trivial task, bi-dimensional numerical simulations was performed as a first approach. The experimental and numerical results were obtained for a flow type of α = 0.03 and two values of viscosity ratio λ = 0.012 and 16. In general, numerical results for the stationary deformation parameters, up to intermediate confinements, are in agreement with the experiments, with and without wall effects. Since the case of drops with a high viscosity ratio did not match existing theoretical models, the wall-effect theory of Shapira and Haber was modified, considering Cox's second-order theory as the converging theory without wall effects. From low to intermediate confinements, the new Cox-Shapira-Haber model fitted the observed experimental deformations

  13. Unbounded wall flow with free surface waves and horizontal shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapham, Gary; McHugh, John

    2015-11-01

    Free surface waves in the presence of a non-uniform shear flow are treated. The shear flow of interest varies with both the transverse and vertical coordinates, U (y , z) . Initial results treat a mean flow varying only with the transverse, U (y) . The domain is bounded on one side by a flat rigid vertical wall and is unbounded on the other side. The mean flows considered here are nonzero near the vertical wall and approach zero far from the wall, e.g. U =e-γy . The flowfield is treated as inviscid but rotational. Linear solutions are obtained using a nonuniform coordinate transformation that converts the free surface boundary condition into a modified Bessel equation. Velocity components are expanded in modified Bessel functions of the first kind of purely imaginary order. The dispersion relation for steady waves are found with wavespeeds outside the range of U, matching previous results for a flow bounded on both sides. Corresponding eigenvectors show a sequence of wave profiles of increasing complexity near the wall. The wave amplitude approaches zero far from the wall.

  14. Orbital-abrasion-assisted Electroforming of Non-rotating Parts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xuelei; ZHU Zengwei; ZHU Di; ZHANG Yong

    2011-01-01

    A novel technique of electroforming with orbital moving cathode was carried out for the fabrication of non-rotating thin-walled parts.This technique features a large number of insulating and insoluble hard particles as a real-time polishing to the cathode.When cathode moves,hard particles polish its surface and provide the nickel non-rotating parts with near-mirror finishing.Morphology,microstructure,surface roughness and micro hardness of deposits fabricated by novel method were studied in contrast with the sample produced by traditional electroforming methods.Theoretical analysis and experimental results showed that the novel technique could effectively remove the hydrogen bubbles and nodules,disturb the crystal nucleation,and refine the grains of layer.The mechanical properties were significantly improved over traditional method.The microhardness of the layer was in a uniform distribution ranging from 345 HV to 360 HV.It was confirmed that this technique had practical significance to non-rotating thin-walled parts.

  15. ROTATIONAL VELOCITIES OF INDIVIDUAL COMPONENTS IN VERY LOW MASS BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present rotational velocities for individual components of 11 very low mass (VLM) binaries with spectral types between M7 and L7.5. These results are based on observations taken with the near-infrared spectrograph, NIRSPEC, and the Keck II laser guide star adaptive optics system. We find that the observed sources tend to be rapid rotators (v sin i > 10 km s–1), consistent with previous seeing-limited measurements of VLM objects. The two sources with the largest v sin i, LP 349–25B and HD 130948C, are rotating at ∼30% of their break-up speed, and are among the most rapidly rotating VLM objects known. Furthermore, five binary systems, all with orbital semimajor axes ∼<3.5 AU, have component v sin i values that differ by greater than 3σ. To bring the binary components with discrepant rotational velocities into agreement would require the rotational axes to be inclined with respect to each other, and that at least one component is inclined with respect to the orbital plane. Alternatively, each component could be rotating at a different rate, even though they have similar spectral types. Both differing rotational velocities and inclinations have implications for binary star formation and evolution. We also investigate possible dynamical evolution in the triple system HD 130948A–BC. The close binary brown dwarfs B and C have significantly different v sin i values. We demonstrate that components B and C could have been torqued into misalignment by the primary star, A, via orbital precession. Such a scenario can also be applied to another triple system in our sample, GJ 569A–Bab. Interactions such as these may play an important role in the dynamical evolution of VLM binaries. Finally, we note that two of the binaries with large differences in component v sin i, LP 349–25AB and 2MASS 0746+20AB, are also known radio sources.

  16. Characteristic time for halo current growth and rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A halo current flows for part of its path through the plasma edge and for part through the chamber walls and during tokamak disruptions can be as large as tenths of the plasma current. The primary interest in halo currents is the large force that they can exert on machine components particularly if the toriodal rotation of the halo current resonates with a natural oscillation frequency of the tokamak device. Halo currents arise when required to slow down the growth of a kink that is too unstable to be stabilized by the chamber walls. The width of the current channel in the halo plasma is comparable to the amplitude of the kink, and the halo current grows linearly, not exponentially, in time. The current density in the halo is comparable to that of the main plasma body. The rocket force due to plasma flowing out of the halo and recombining on the chamber walls can cause the non-axisymmetric magnetic structure produced by the kink to rotate toroidally at a speed comparable to the halo speed of sound. Gerhardt's observations of the halo current in NSTX shot 141 687 [Nucl. Fusion 53, 023005 (2013)] illustrate many features of the theory of halo currents and are discussed as a summary of the theory

  17. Characteristic time for halo current growth and rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boozer, Allen H., E-mail: ahb17@columbia.edu [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    A halo current flows for part of its path through the plasma edge and for part through the chamber walls and during tokamak disruptions can be as large as tenths of the plasma current. The primary interest in halo currents is the large force that they can exert on machine components particularly if the toriodal rotation of the halo current resonates with a natural oscillation frequency of the tokamak device. Halo currents arise when required to slow down the growth of a kink that is too unstable to be stabilized by the chamber walls. The width of the current channel in the halo plasma is comparable to the amplitude of the kink, and the halo current grows linearly, not exponentially, in time. The current density in the halo is comparable to that of the main plasma body. The rocket force due to plasma flowing out of the halo and recombining on the chamber walls can cause the non-axisymmetric magnetic structure produced by the kink to rotate toroidally at a speed comparable to the halo speed of sound. Gerhardt's observations of the halo current in NSTX shot 141 687 [Nucl. Fusion 53, 023005 (2013)] illustrate many features of the theory of halo currents and are discussed as a summary of the theory.

  18. Rotation and momentum transport in tokamaks and helical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poloidal and toroidal rotation has been recognized to play an important role in heat transport and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability in tokamaks and helical systems. It is well known that the E × B shear due to poloidal and toroidal flow suppresses turbulence in the plasma and contributes to the improvement of heat and particle transport, while toroidal rotation helps one to stabilize MHD instabilities such as resistive wall modes and neoclassical tearing mode. Therefore, understanding the role of momentum transport in determining plasma rotation is crucial in toroidal discharges, both in tokamaks and helical systems. In this review paper, the driving and damping mechanisms of poloidal and toroidal rotation are outlined. Driving torque due to neutral beam injection and radio-frequency waves, and damping due to parallel viscosity and neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV) are described. Regarding momentum transport, the radial flux of momentum has diffusive and non-diffusive (ND) terms, and experimental investigations of these are discussed. The magnitude of the diffusive term of momentum transport is expressed as a coefficient of viscous diffusivity. The ratio of the viscous diffusivity to the thermal diffusivity (Prandtl number) is one of the interesting parameters in plasma physics. It is typically close to unity, but sometimes can deviate significantly depending on the turbulent state. The ND terms have two categories: one is the so-called momentum pinch, whose magnitude is proportional to (or at least depends on) the velocity itself, and the other is an off-diagonal term in which the magnitude is proportional to (or at least depends on) the temperature or/and pressure gradient, independent of the velocity or its gradient. The former has no sign dependence; rotation due to the momentum pinch does not depend on the sign of the rotation itself, whether it is parallel to the plasma current (co-direction) or anti-parallel to the plasma current (counter

  19. Did Adria rotate relative to Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. J. van Hinsbergen

    2014-03-01

    the Ionian Basin has been significantly underestimated (by as much as 420 km; and/or (iii a major sinistral strike-slip zone has decoupled North and South Adria in Neogene time. Here we present five alternative reconstructions of Adria at 20 Ma that highlight the enigma: they fit the inferred rotation pattern from this study or previously proposed kinematic reconstructions from the surrounding.

  20. Profiles of flow discharged from vertical rotating pipes: A contrast between inviscid liquid and granular jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidman, P. D.; Kubitschek, J. P.; Medina, A.

    2008-11-01

    The stability of viscous rotating liquid columns and their application to rotating viscous liquid jets aligned under gravity is reviewed. Experiments on stable viscous fluid flow discharged from rotating vertical pipes exhibit very weak contraction. We present an elementary liquid jet analysis to understand this phenomenon. Indeed, our inviscid model of a slender rotating inviscid liquid jet shows that rotation suppresses contraction. Next we study the comparable problem for granular flow. Our model for noncohesive granular flow emanating from a vertical pipe rotating about its central axis, valid for sufficiently large rotation rate, shows that the granular profiles blossom rather than contract. The profiles of both the liquid and granular jets depend on the same dimensionless parameters—an exit Froude number Fr0 and an exit swirl parameter χ0. The limitations of both models are discussed. Experimental data for granular jet profiles compare well with the collision-free granular flow model in its range of applicability. A criterion for the rotation rate at which particles adjacent to the inner wall of the rotating pipe cease to flow is also given and compared to experiment.

  1. Considerations on the design of through-wall anchors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connections to existing buildings are often the most difficult planning challenge for the realization of construction measures in case of piping system replacements in nuclear power plants. This is due to restricted space or limited load reserves of the building structure. Usually the realization of support connections to the existing buildings is achieved by anchor bolts. But in critical cases the preferred alternative solution uses through-wall anchors. Up to now uniform assessment thresholds are not available, no technical guidelines or regulations for construction variants exist. Through-wall anchors allow significantly higher load capacities for tensile and shear loads but require enhanced planning and realization efforts.

  2. Rotational-isotopic symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this note we submit a nonlocal (integral) generalization of the rotational-isotopic symmetries O-circumflex(3) introduced in preceding works for nonlinear and nonhamiltonian systems in local approximation. By recalling that the Lie-isotopic theory naturally admits nonlocal terms when all embedded in the isounit, while the conventional symplectic geometry is strictly local-differential, we introduce the notion of symplectic-isotopic two-forms, which are exact symplectic two-forms admitting a factorization into the Kronecker product of a canonical two-form time the isotopic element of an underlying Euclidean-isotopic space. Topological consistency is then achieved by embedding all nonlocal terms in the isounit of the iso-cotangent bundle, while keeping the local topology for the canonical part. In this way, we identify the symplectic-isotopic geometry as being the natural geometrical counterpart of the Lie-isotopic theory. The results are used for the introduction of the notion of Birkhoffian angular momentum, that is, the generalization of the conventional canonical angular momentum which is applicable to Birkhoffian systems with generally nonlinear, nonlocal and nonhamiltonian internal forces. The generators J (and the parameters θ) coincide with the conventional quantities. Nevertheless, the quantity J is defined on the underlying Euclidean-isotopic space, by therefore acquiring a generalized magnitude. The isocommutation rules and isoexponentiation of the Birkhoffian angular momentum are explicitly computed and shown to characterize the most general known nonlinear and nonlocal realization of the isorotational symmetry. The local isomorphisms between the infinitely possible isotopes O-circumflex(3) and the conventional symmetry O(3) is proved. Finally the isosymmetries O-circumflex(3) are used to characterize the conserved, total, Birkhoffian angular momentum of closed nonselfadjoint systems. (author). 4 refs

  3. Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help a Friend Who Cuts? Complementary and Alternative Medicine KidsHealth > For Teens > Complementary and Alternative Medicine Print ... replacement. continue How Is CAM Different From Conventional Medicine? Conventional medicine is based on scientific knowledge of ...

  4. SHEAR WAVES IN PERIODIC WAVEGUIDE WITH ALTERNATING BOUNDARY CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piliposyan D.G.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The propagation of shear waves in elastic waveguide of periodic structure consisting of three different materials with alternating along the guide walls boundary conditions is investigated. Using the transfer matrix approach the problem is reduced to the solution of a block transfer matrix eigenvalue problem. Bloth the dispersion and the band gap structure analysis have been carried out numerically. It is shown that for alternating boundary conditions along the waveguide walls, by modulating the ratio of the length of the unit cell to the width of the waveguide, the minimum widths of the stop bands can be moved to the middle of the Brillouin zone

  5. A computer controlled ultrasonic measurement and testequipment for rotation-symmetrical products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During production of rotation-symmetrical thin wall precision tubes, dimensions must be measured and the tubes have to be inspected for surface defects. Within the production area of the tubes, several measurement points for different applications are located at different places. The paper describes their on-line connection to a process-computer system

  6. Combustion mechanism of flame propagation and extinction in a rotating cylindrical vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorczakowski, A.; Zawadzki, A.; Jarosinski, J.; Veyssiere, B.

    2000-02-01

    The effect of radial acceleration in a rotating vessel on flame propagation has been investigated experimentally. Methane-air mixture compositions between the lean flammability limit and stoichiometric were studied. The behavior of flame propagation and the extinction mechanism were examined in detail. The flame propagating in a rotating vessel is axisymmetric. Initially it propagates axially from the ignition point at one end of the cylindrical vessel to the opposite end. After touching the side wall of the cylindrical vessel the flame starts to propagate radially and is locally quenched at the contact surface with the walls. The axial propagation velocity of the flame under all conditions increases with the rotation rate. When local quenching occurs, the radial flame propagation velocity decreases and the extinction rate increases with increasing rotation rate. The extinction mechanism is a multistep process. The most probable stages in that mechanism are as follows. First, heat loss causes the cylindrical flame to extinguish locally near the walls. Once this happens, the combustion gases, which are in contact with the walls, are cooled and displaced radially under the action of centrifugal forces. They flow towards the region of the fresh mixture, which remains in contact with the previously extinguished flame. Differential buoyancy forces the cool gases to move ahead of the flame, which is then extinguished because it is now propagating into a partially diluted nonflammable mixture. The extinction wave propagates along the cylindrical surface of the flame to complete extinction.

  7. Reversionary rotation of actuated particles for microfluidic near-surface mixing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, R.J.S.; Frijns, A.J.H.; Prins, M.W.J.; Dietzel, A.H.

    2011-01-01

    The off-axis motion of particles actuated by axial magnetic or gravitational forces is studied in fluidic channels. Single actuated superparamagnetic micro-particles starting from channel walls travel towards the channel center and show unforeseen reversionary rotation phenomena. Different stages of

  8. Edge Effects in Rotational Viscometry III. ZZ and KK Sensors, Total Slip Pseudosimilarity

    OpenAIRE

    Wein, Ondřej

    2013-01-01

    This report presents a next step of our effort in developing a system of corrections on edge effects in rotational AWS viscometry. In the previous two reports [4, 5], the edge corrections are given for Newtonian and pseudoplastic liquids with no-slip (adherence) boundary conditions at solid walls (BC).

  9. Relativistic Dynamos in Magnetospheres of Rotating Compact Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Tomimatsu, A

    1999-01-01

    The kinematic evolution of axisymmetric magnetic fields in rotating magnetospheres of relativistic compact objects is analytically studied, based on relativistic Ohm's law in stationary axisymmetric geometry. By neglecting the poloidal flows of plasma in simplified magnetospheric models, we discuss self-excited dynamos due to the frame-dragging effect (originally pointed out by Khanna & Camenzind), and we propose alternative processes to generate axisymmetric magnetic fields against ohmic dissipation. The first process (which may be called induced excitation) is caused by the help of a background uniform magnetic field in addition to the dragging of inertial frames. It is shown that excited multipolar components of poloidal and azimuthal fields are sustained as stationary modes, and outgoing Poynting flux converges toward the rotation axis. The second one is self-excited dynamo through azimuthal convection current, which is found to be effective if plasma rotation becomes highly relativistic with a sharp ...

  10. Rotational order–disorder structure of fluorescent protein FP480

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis of the rotational order–disorder structure of fluorescent protein FP480 is presented. In the last decade, advances in instrumentation and software development have made crystallography a powerful tool in structural biology. Using this method, structural information can now be acquired from pathological crystals that would have been abandoned in earlier times. In this paper, the order–disorder (OD) structure of fluorescent protein FP480 is discussed. The structure is composed of tetramers with 222 symmetry incorporated into the lattice in two different ways, namely rotated 90° with respect to each other around the crystal c axis, with tetramer axes coincident with crystallographic twofold axes. The random distribution of alternatively oriented tetramers in the crystal creates a rotational OD structure with statistically averaged I422 symmetry, although the presence of very weak and diffuse additional reflections suggests that the randomness is only approximate

  11. The rotation of Galaxy Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Tovmassian, Hrant M.

    2015-01-01

    The method for detection of the galaxy cluster rotation based on the study of distribution of member galaxies with velocities lower and higher of the cluster mean velocity over the cluster image is proposed. The search for rotation is made for flat clusters with $a/b>1.8$ and BMI type clusters which are expected to be rotating. For comparison there were studied also round clusters and clusters of NBMI type, the second by brightness galaxy in which does not differ significantly from the cluste...

  12. Rotational spectra and molecular structure

    CERN Document Server

    Wollrab, James E

    1967-01-01

    Physical Chemistry, A Series of Monographs: Rotational Spectra and Molecular Structure covers the energy levels and rotational transitions. This book is divided into nine chapters that evaluate the rigid asymmetric top molecules and the nuclear spin statistics for asymmetric tops. Some of the topics covered in the book are the asymmetric rotor functions; rotational transition intensities; classes of molecules; nuclear spin statistics for linear molecules and symmetric tops; and classical appearance of centrifugal and coriolis forces. Other chapters deal with the energy levels and effects of ce

  13. Rotating fermions inside a cylinder

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrus, Victor E

    2015-01-01

    We study rotating thermal states of a quantum fermion field inside a cylinder in Minkowski space-time. Two possible boundary conditions for the fermion field on the cylinder are considered: the spectral and MIT bag boundary conditions. If the radius of the cylinder is sufficiently small, rotating thermal expectation values are finite everywhere inside the cylinder. We also study the Casimir divergences on the boundary. The rotating thermal expectation values and the Casimir divergences have different properties depending on the boundary conditions applied at the cylinder. This is due to the local nature of the MIT bag boundary condition, while the spectral boundary condition is nonlocal.

  14. Rotating wave approximation and entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Letter studies composite quantum systems, like atom-cavity systems and coupled optical resonators, in the absence of external driving by resorting to methods from quantum field theory. Going beyond the rotating wave approximation, it is shown that the usually neglected counter-rotating part of the Hamiltonian relates to the entropy operator and generates an irreversible time evolution. The vacuum state of the system is shown to evolve into a generalized coherent state exhibiting entanglement of the modes in which the counter-rotating terms are expressed. Possible consequences at observational level in quantum optics experiments are currently under study.

  15. Axial gap rotating electrical machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-02-23

    Direct drive rotating electrical machines with axial air gaps are disclosed. In these machines, a rotor ring and stator ring define an axial air gap between them. Sets of gap-maintaining rolling supports bear between the rotor ring and the stator ring at their peripheries to maintain the axial air gap. Also disclosed are wind turbines using these generators, and structures and methods for mounting direct drive rotating electrical generators to the hubs of wind turbines. In particular, the rotor ring of the generator may be carried directly by the hub of a wind turbine to rotate relative to a shaft without being mounted directly to the shaft.

  16. Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L.; Mantha, P.

    2013-05-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls.

  17. Physics of particles in the rotating tube

    OpenAIRE

    Pardy, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    The classical and the quantum motion of a massive body in the rotating tube is considered. Photon is included. The spin motion described by the Bargmann-Michel-Telegdi equation is considered in the rotation tube and rotating system.

  18. Modified wetted-wall inertial fusion reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limitations on reactor pulse repetition rate and uncertainties with respect to assurance of first wall protection in LASL wetted-wall inertial fusion reactor concepts, in which restoration of cavity conditions to those required for acceptable driver energy pulse transmission following pellet microexplosion is accomplished by exhaust of ablated liquid metal through nozzles and protective films are formed by forcing liquid metal through porous first walls, can be circumvented through alternative methods of cavity clearing and protective film formation. Exploratory analyses indicate that our modified wetted-wall concept, in which protective liquid metal films are injected directly onto cavity walls through slit nozzles to ensure first wall protection and are held there by centrifugal forces and cavity clearing occurs by condensation of vapor on film liquid not ablated as a result of pellet x ray and debris ion energy deposition, can be operated at substantially higher repetition rates. The new mode of operation appears to be attractive for heavy ion fusion, for which constraints on cavity design options may be more severe, as well as laser fusion. Numerical results of the exploratory analyses, plus discussion of aspects of the new concept requiring further work, are presented

  19. Clinostation influence on regeneration of cell wall in Solanum Tuberosum L. protoplasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedukha, Elena M.; Sidorov, V. A.; Samoylov, V. M.

    1994-08-01

    Regeneration of cell walls in protoplasts was investigated using light- and electronmicroscopic methods. The protoplasts were isolated from mesophyll of Solanum tuberosum leaves and were cultivated on the horizontal low rotating clinostat (2 rpm) and in control for 10 days. Using a fluorescent method (with Calcofluor white) it was demonstrated that changes in vector gravity results in an regeneration inhibition of cell wall. With electron-microscopical and electro-cytochemical methods (staining with alcianum blue) dynamics of the regeneration of cell walls in protoplasts was studied; carbohydrate matrix of cell walls is deposited at the earliest stages of this process. The influence of microgravity on the cell wall regeneration is discussed in higher plants.

  20. Towards improved modeling of steel-concrete composite wall elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vecchio, Frank J., E-mail: fjv@civ.utoronto.ca [University of Toronto, Civil Engineering Department, 35 St. George Street, Toronto, M5S 1A4 (Canada); McQuade, Ian [University of Toronto, Civil Engineering Department, 35 St. George Street, Toronto, M5S 1A4 (Canada)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > Improved analysis of double skinned steel concrete composite containment walls. > Smeared rotating crack concept applied in formulation of new analytical model. > Model implemented into finite element program; numerically stable and robust. > Models behavior of shear-critical elements with greater ease and improved accuracy. > Accurate assessments of strength, deformation and failure mode of test specimens. - Abstract: The Disturbed Stress Field Model, a smeared rotating crack model for reinforced concrete based on the Modified Compression Field Theory, is adapted to the analysis of double-skin steel-concrete wall elements. The computational model is then incorporated into a two-dimensional nonlinear finite element analysis algorithm. Verification studies are undertaken by modeling various test specimens, including panel elements subject to uniaxial compression, panel elements subjected to in-plane shear, and wall specimens subjected to reversed cyclic lateral displacements. In all cases, the analysis model is found to provide accurate calculations of structural load capacities, pre- and post-peak displacement responses, post-peak ductility, chronology of damage, and ultimate failure mode. Minor deficiencies are found in regards to the accurate portrayal of faceplate buckling and the effects of interfacial slip between the faceplates and the concrete. Other aspects of the modeling procedure that are in need of further research and development are also identified and discussed.

  1. Towards improved modeling of steel-concrete composite wall elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Improved analysis of double skinned steel concrete composite containment walls. → Smeared rotating crack concept applied in formulation of new analytical model. → Model implemented into finite element program; numerically stable and robust. → Models behavior of shear-critical elements with greater ease and improved accuracy. → Accurate assessments of strength, deformation and failure mode of test specimens. - Abstract: The Disturbed Stress Field Model, a smeared rotating crack model for reinforced concrete based on the Modified Compression Field Theory, is adapted to the analysis of double-skin steel-concrete wall elements. The computational model is then incorporated into a two-dimensional nonlinear finite element analysis algorithm. Verification studies are undertaken by modeling various test specimens, including panel elements subject to uniaxial compression, panel elements subjected to in-plane shear, and wall specimens subjected to reversed cyclic lateral displacements. In all cases, the analysis model is found to provide accurate calculations of structural load capacities, pre- and post-peak displacement responses, post-peak ductility, chronology of damage, and ultimate failure mode. Minor deficiencies are found in regards to the accurate portrayal of faceplate buckling and the effects of interfacial slip between the faceplates and the concrete. Other aspects of the modeling procedure that are in need of further research and development are also identified and discussed.

  2. Dry wall Kras 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domen Zupančič

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the modesty of hiska, they show a simple understanding of corbelling technique. One could say they are all examples of human landscape cultivation. Although there is no evident common line when comparing all types of hiska, the cunning eye may observe one shared feature: the positioning of the entrance. More or less all the documented shelters have south or south-western facing entrances. The burja is a cold northerly wind; from the south (Adriatic Sea the winds are warmer. When resting, the setting sun is taken as a sign of the ending of the working day and a reward for the whole day’s efforts. Entrances are the only openings to these structures, and they should serve as well as possible - to watch over the crops, to wait when hunting, to enjoy the calm of evening light, to breathe the sea wind.The syntax of the architectural language of layering stone and shaping the pattern of the landscape remain an inventive realisation of spatial ideas from the past until today. Not only ideas of shaping space - these ideas are basic interventions in the natural habitat which contribute to survival. Culture and an awareness of its values are the origins of local development and reasonable heritage preservation. The next step are tutorial days with workshops on how to build dry stone structures, walls and other stone architecture, as the DSWA organisation in the UK is doing.

  3. Pharmacy without walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shane, R R

    1996-02-15

    Attributes of excellence in pharmacy management are described: big-picture thinking, the ability to exploit change, and willingness to take risks. Big-picture thinking means understanding trends that are shaping health care in order to determine where pharmacy fits. Health systems look beyond inpatient care and use case managers to maximize resource use; pharmacists might serve as case managers. Managed care has caused physicians to be more receptive to resource-management strategies, such as clinical pathways; pharmacists can collaborate in the development of clinical pathways. Pharmacists can serve as physician extenders; for example, by conducting anticoagulation or hypertension clinics. Pharmacists need flexibility to adapt to changes in the internal organization of acute care institutions; they will need to learn about the clinical, behavioral, operational, and fiscal aspects of managing the total patient. New reporting relationships give pharmacists the opportunity to demonstrate to other members of the health care team their role in preventing, managing, and resolving drug-related problems throughout the continuum of care. Risk-taking can mean setting ambitious goals. By setting and achieving ambitious goals for products and services, pharmacists can raise patients' and other health care providers' expectations for pharmacy services. Pharmacists' success will depend on their willingness to experiment with new services and discard services that do not substantially advance patient care. Pharmacists must monitor changes in the provision of health care, determine the implications for their practice and seek opportunities for participation outside the walls within which they have traditionally practiced. PMID:8673664

  4. Rotating Bullets from A Variable Protostar

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xuepeng; Zhang, Qizhou; Launhardt, Ralf; Henning, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We present SMA CO(2-1) observations toward the protostellar jet driven by SVS13A, a variable protostar in the NGC1333 star-forming region. The SMA CO(2-1) images show an extremely high-velocity jet composed of a series of molecular 'bullets'. Based on the SMA CO observations, we discover clear and large systematic velocity gradients, perpendicular to the jet axis, in the blueshifted and redshifted bullets. After discussing several alternative interpretations, such as twin-jets, jet precession, warped disk, and internal helical shock, we suggest that the systematic velocity gradients observed in the bullets result from the rotation of the SVS13A jet. From the SMA CO images, the measured rotation velocities are 11.7-13.7 km/s for the blueshifted bullet and 4.7+/-0.5 km/s for the redshifted bullet. The estimated specific angular momenta of the two bullets are comparable to those of dense cores, about 10 times larger than those of protostellar envelopes, and about 20 times larger than those of circumstellar disks...

  5. Simple manipulator for rotating spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a simple device for rapidly rotating a small sphere to any orientation for inspection of the surface. The ball is held between two small, flat surfaces and rolls as the surfaces are moved differentially parallel to one another

  6. Interpretation of rapidly rotating pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The minimum possible rotational period of pulsars, which are interpreted as rotating neutron stars, is determined by applying a representative collection of realistic nuclear equations of state. It is found that none of the selected equations of state allows for neutron star rotation at periods below 0.8--0.9 ms. Thus, this work strongly supports the suggestion that if pulsars with shorter rotational periods were found, these are likely to be strange-quark-matter stars. The conclusion that the confined hadronic phase of nucleons and nuclei is only metastable would then be almost inescapable, and the plausible ground-state in that event is the deconfined phase of (3-flavor) strange-quark-matter

  7. Rotating Cylinder Treatment System Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    In August 2008, a rotating cylinder treatment system (RCTSTM) demonstration was conducted near Gladstone, CO. The RCTSTM is a novel technology developed to replace the aeration/oxidation and mixing components of a conventional lime precipitation treatment s...

  8. An Exercise in Rotational Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Brother James

    1980-01-01

    Describes an advanced high school physics experiment demonstrating rotational kinematics and dynamics, using simple equipment such as empty coffee cans, inclined planes, meter sticks, and a large 10-second demonstration timer. (CS)

  9. Rotational evolution of slow-rotator sequence stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzafame, A. C.; Spada, F.

    2015-12-01

    Context. The observed relationship between mass, age and rotation in open clusters shows the progressive development of a slow-rotator sequence among stars possessing a radiative interior and a convective envelope during their pre-main sequence and main-sequence evolution. After 0.6 Gyr, most cluster members of this type have settled on this sequence. Aims: The observed clustering on this sequence suggests that it corresponds to some equilibrium or asymptotic condition that still lacks a complete theoretical interpretation, and which is crucial to our understanding of the stellar angular momentum evolution. Methods: We couple a rotational evolution model, which takes internal differential rotation into account, with classical and new proposals for the wind braking law, and fit models to the data using a Monte Carlo Markov chain (MCMC) method tailored to the problem at hand. We explore to what extent these models are able to reproduce the mass and time dependence of the stellar rotational evolution on the slow-rotator sequence. Results: The description of the evolution of the slow-rotator sequence requires taking the transfer of angular momentum from the radiative core to the convective envelope into account. We find that, in the mass range 0.85-1.10 M⊙, the core-envelope coupling timescale for stars in the slow-rotator sequence scales as M-7.28. Quasi-solid body rotation is achieved only after 1-2 Gyr, depending on stellar mass, which implies that observing small deviations from the Skumanich law (P ∝ √{t}) would require period data of older open clusters than is available to date. The observed evolution in the 0.1-2.5 Gyr age range and in the 0.85-1.10 M⊙ mass range is best reproduced by assuming an empirical mass dependence of the wind angular momentum loss proportional to the convective turnover timescale and to the stellar moment of inertia. Period isochrones based on our MCMC fit provide a tool for inferring stellar ages of solar-like main

  10. Depleted uranium management alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report evaluates two management alternatives for Department of Energy depleted uranium: continued storage as uranium hexafluoride, and conversion to uranium metal and fabrication to shielding for spent nuclear fuel containers. The results will be used to compare the costs with other alternatives, such as disposal. Cost estimates for the continued storage alternative are based on a life-cycle of 27 years through the year 2020. Cost estimates for the recycle alternative are based on existing conversion process costs and Capital costs for fabricating the containers. Additionally, the recycle alternative accounts for costs associated with intermediate product resale and secondary waste disposal for materials generated during the conversion process

  11. MHD fluid flow and heat transfer due to a stretching rotating disk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turkyilmazoglu, Mustafa [Department of Mathematics, Hacettepe University, 06532-Beytepe, Ankara (Turkey)

    2012-01-15

    The steady MHD laminar flow of an electrically conducting fluid on a radially stretchable rotating disk in the presence of a uniform vertical magnetic field is the subject of the present paper. The problem is an extension of the well-known von Karman viscous pump problem to the configuration with a stretchable disk with or without rotation first imposed in [1]. The governing equations of motion are reduced to a set of nonlinear differential equations by means of conventional similarity transformations. Energy equation accounts for the viscous dissipation and Joule heating terms. Employing a highly accurate spectral numerical integration scheme, the effects of a rotation parameter based on the wall stretching and angular velocity are examined. The quantities of particular physical interest, such as the torque, the wall shear stresses, the vertical suction velocity and the rate of heat transfer are calculated and discussed. (author)

  12. Design of rotating mirror for ultra-high speed camera based on dynamic characteristic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systematic design method has been proposed for studying the dynamic design of rotating mirror for ultra-high speed camera. With the finite element software, the numerical analyses of static, modal, harmonic responses and natural frequency sensitivity for the preliminary-designed rotating mirror were done based on the static and dynamic theories. Some experiments were done to verify the results. The physical dimensions of the rotating mirror were modified repeatedly according to the results for designing a new rotating mirror. Then simulation and experiments of fatigue life for the new rotating mirror under alternating force were done. The results show that the maximum static stress is less than the yield stress of the rotating mirror material, which proves the new rotating mirror will not be subjected to static strength failure. However, the results of modal and harmonic response analyses indicate that the dynamic characteristic of the new rotating mirror can not meet the design requirement for the first critical speed is less than the service speed. In all the physical dimensions of the rotating mirror, the circum radius of mirror body and natural frequency are negatively correlated and the degree of correlation is maximal. The first-order natural frequency in- creases from 459.4 Hz to 713.6 Hz, the rate of change is 55.3%, the first critical speed is up to 42 816 r/min, avoiding resonance successfully, and the fatigue strength of the new rotating mirror can meet the design requirement. (authors)

  13. Prevalence and histopathological finding of thin-walled and thick-walled Sarcocysts in slaughtered cattle of Karaj abattoir, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourollahi-Fard, Saeid R; Kheirandish, Reza; Sattari, Saeid

    2015-06-01

    Sarcocystosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Sarcocystis spp. with obligatory two host life cycle generally alternating between an herbivorous intermediate host and a carnivorous definitive host. Some species of this coccidian parasite can cause considerable morbidity and mortality in cattle. The present study was set to investigate the prevalence of Sarcocystis spp. and type of cyst wall in slaughtered cattle of Karaj abattoir, Iran. For this purpose 125 cattle (88 males and 37 females) were investigated for the presence of macroscopic and microscopic Sarcocystis cysts in muscular tissues. No macroscopic Sarcocystis cysts were found in any of the samples. In light microscopy, 121 out of 125 cattle (96.8 %) had thin-walled cysts of Sarcocystis cruzi, while 43 out of them (34.4 %) had thick-walled Sarcocystis cyst. In this survey, the most infected tissue was esophagus and heart and the less was diaphragm. Thin-walled cysts (S. cruzi) mostly found in heart and skeletal muscle showed the less. However, thick-walled cyst (S. hominis or S. hirsuta) mostly were detected in diaphragm, heart muscle showed no thick-walled cyst. No significant relation was observed between age and sex and the rate of infection. The results showed that Sarcocystis cyst is prevalent in cattle in the North part of Iran and the evaluation of infection potential can be useful when considering control programs. PMID:26064016

  14. Rotating Thin-Shell Wormhole

    OpenAIRE

    Ovgun, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we construct rotating thin shell wormhole using a Myers-Perry black hole in five dimensions. The stability of the wormhole is analyzed under perturbations follows from the Darmois-Israel junction conditions. We find that it required exotic matter at the throat to keep throat of wormhole stable. Our analysis shows that the stability of the rotating thin-shell wormhole is available with choosing suitable values of parameters.

  15. Directed Search and Job Rotation

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Fei; Tian, Can

    2012-01-01

    In this note, we consider the impact of job rotation in a directed search model in which firm sizes are endogenously determined, and match quality is initially unknown. A large firm benefits from the opportunity of rotating workers so as to partially overcome mismatch loss. As a result, in the unique symmetric subgame perfect equilibrium, large firms have higher labor productivity and lower separation rate. In contrast to the standard directed search model with multi-vacancy firms, this model...

  16. Dark baryons and rotation curves

    OpenAIRE

    Burkert, A.; Silk, J.

    1997-01-01

    The best measured rotation curve for any galaxy is that of the dwarf spiralXXXX DDO 154, which extends out to about 20 disk scale lengths. It provides an ideal laboratory for testing the universal density profile prediction from high resolution numerical simulations of hierarchical clustering in cold dark matter dominated cosmological models. We find that the observed rotation curve cannot be fit either at small radii, as previously noted, or at large radii. We advocate a resolution of this d...

  17. Rotation rates of giant stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rotation rates and macroturbulence dispersion of 14 G and K giants were measured using Fourier reduction of spectral-line profiles. The high-spectral-resolution, high-signal-to-noise observations were taken with the Coude Echelle Spectrometer of the European Southern Observatory. Good agreement was found between the present results and previous investigations, showing that no large systematic differences are introduced by using different spectrographs and detectors. The results generally confirm the low rotation seen for cool giants. 14 refs

  18. Rotation of the planet mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferys, W H

    1966-04-01

    The equations of motion for the rotation of Mercury are solved for the general case by an asymptotic expansion. The findings of Liu and O'Keefe, obtained by numerical integration of a special case, that it is possible for Mercury's rotation to be locked into a 2:3 resonance with its revolution, are confirmed in detail. The general solution has further applications. PMID:17741632

  19. Heat Transfer Enhancement in Channel Flow by a Streamwise-Periodic Array of Rotating Circular Cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we consider the heat transfer characteristics of channel flow in the presence of an infinite streamwise array of equispaced identical rotating circular cylinders. This flow configuration can be regarded as a model representing a micro channel or an internal heat exchanger with cylindrical vortex generators. A numerical parametric study has been carried out by varying Reynolds number based on the bulk mean velocity and the cylinder diameter, and the gap between the cylinders and the channel wall for some selected angular speeds. The presence of the rotating circular cylinders arranged periodically in the streamwise direction causes a significant topological change of the flow, leading to heat transfer enhancement on the channel walls. More quantitative results as well as qualitative physical explanations are presented to justify the effectiveness of varying the gap to enhance heat transfer from the channel walls

  20. Control of the resistive wall mode with internal coils in the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Internal coils, 'I-Coils', were installed inside the vacuum vessel of the DIII-D device to generate non-axisymmetric magnetic fields to act directly on the plasma. These fields are predicted to stabilize the resistive wall mode (RWM) branch of the long-wavelength external kink mode with plasma beta close to the ideal wall limit. Feedback using these I-Coils was found to be more effective as compared to using external coils located outside the vacuum vessel. Locating the coils inside the vessel allows for a faster response and the coil geometry also allows for better coupling to the helical mode structure. Initial results were reported previously (Strait E.J. et al 2004 Phys. Plasmas 11 2505). This paper reports on results from extended feedback stabilization operations, achieving plasma parameters up to the regime of Cβ ∼ 1.0 and open loop growth rates of γopenτw ∼ 25 where the RWM was predicted to be unstable with only the 'rotational viscous stabilization mechanism'. Here Cβ ∼ (β - βno-wall.limit)/(βideal.wall.limit - βno-wall.limit) is a measure of the beta relative to the stability limits without a wall and with a perfectly conducting wall, and τw is the resistive flux penetration time of the wall. These feedback experimental results clarified the processes of dynamic error field correction and direct RWM stabilization, both of which took place simultaneously during RWM feedback stabilization operation. MARS-F modelling provides a critical rotation velocity in reasonable agreement with the experiment and predicts that the growth rate increases rapidly as rotation decreases below the critical. The MARS-F code also predicted that for successful RWM magnetic feedback, the characteristic time of the power supply should be limited to a fraction of the growth time of the targeted RWM. The possibility of further improvements in the presently achievable range of operation of feedback gain values is also discussed